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Crash Analysis Criteria Description

Version 1.6.2

Crash Analysis Criteria Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup Version 1.6.2

Arbeitskreis Messdatenverarbeitung Fahrzeugsicherheit

April 2005 edition Subject to changes

rt

Measured data processing vehicle safety workgroup, Algorithm workgroup: D. Cichos, bast; D. de Vogel, Ford; M. Otto, TÜV Rheinland; O. Schaar, Delphi; S. Zölsch, National Instruments, in cooperation with the Task Force ISO TS 13499 (ISO-MME) This documentation is available from the following address: Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen, Brüderstraße 53,D-51427 Bergisch Gladbach, Tel.: +49 (0)2204 / 43624, Fax: +49 (0)2204 / 43687 This documentation has been compiled with the greatest care. We are grateful for information about errors, new methods, and new laws. We do not accept liability for incorrect information. © 1995-2005 Workgroup Data Processing Vehicle Safety. All Rights Reserved.

Contents

For a clear presentation of the criteria used to evaluate crash tests, the criteria are briefly summarized below. First, there is a description of the criterion. Then the mathematical calculation is specified. This is followed by a description of how the individual input values are determined (filtered). Then information about the laws and stipulations relating to the algorithm.

Note

All the descriptions are based on SAE J1733-conform signal polarity (sign convention).

The following criteria are described:

Chapter 1 Description of the Head Criteria

HIC.................................................................................................................................1-2 HAC ...............................................................................................................................1-4 HIC(d) ............................................................................................................................1-5 HPC................................................................................................................................1-6 HCD ...............................................................................................................................1-8

Chapter 2 Description of the Neck Criteria

MOC ..............................................................................................................................2-2 MTO...............................................................................................................................2-5 Time At Level ...............................................................................................................2-8 NIC (front impact ECE).................................................................................................2-10 NIC (front impact EuroNCAP)......................................................................................2-12 NIC (front impact FMVSS) ...........................................................................................2-15 Nij ..................................................................................................................................2-16 NIC (rear impact)...........................................................................................................2-19 Nkm ...............................................................................................................................2-21 LNL................................................................................................................................2-23

Chapter 3 Description of the Chest Criteria

VC ..................................................................................................................................3-2 THPC .............................................................................................................................3-5 TTI(d).............................................................................................................................3-6

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Contents

ThAC ............................................................................................................................. 3-8 CTI................................................................................................................................. 3-9 ThCC (or TCC).............................................................................................................. 3-11 RDC............................................................................................................................... 3-12

Chapter 4 Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

APF................................................................................................................................ 4-2 PSPF .............................................................................................................................. 4-3 FFC (ECE)..................................................................................................................... 4-4 FFC (EuroNCAP).......................................................................................................... 4-6 TI ................................................................................................................................... 4-8 TCFC ............................................................................................................................. 4-12

Chapter 5 Description of Additional Criteria

Xms................................................................................................................................ 5-2 Xg .................................................................................................................................. 5-6 Acomp ........................................................................................................................... 5-7 Pulse Test....................................................................................................................... 5-9 Gillis Index .................................................................................................................... 5-13 NCAP ............................................................................................................................ 5-15 EuroNCAP..................................................................................................................... 5-17 SI.................................................................................................................................... 5-18 Integration...................................................................................................................... 5-19 Differentiation ............................................................................................................... 5-20 CFC filters ..................................................................................................................... 5-21 FIR100 filter .................................................................................................................. 5-24

Chapter 6 Legislation and Directives

The legislation and directives are written as follows: ................................................... 6-1 Limits............................................................................................................................. 6-3

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Description of the Head Criteria

The following head criteria are described in this chapter: · · · · · HIC: HAC: HIC(d): HPC: HCD: Head Injury Criterion Head Acceptability Criterion Performance Criterion Head Performance Criterion Head Contact Duration

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Chapter 1

Description of the Head Criteria

HIC

HIC is the abbreviation for Head Injury Criterion.

Description

The HIC value is the standardized maximum integral value of the head acceleration. The length of the corresponding time interval is: · · · unlimited maximum of 36 ms maximum of 15 ms HIC HIC36 HIC15

Mathematical Calculation

The calculation of the HIC value is based on the equation:

t2 1 ------------- a dt t2 t1 t1 2, 5

HIC = sup t

1,

t2

( t2 t1 )

a =

ax + ay + az

2

2

2

a is the resultant acceleration of the center of gravity of the head in units of acceleration of gravity (g = 9,81 m/s²). t1 and t2 are the points in time during the crash, for which the HIC is at a maximum. Measured times are to be specified in seconds.

Determining Input Values

The measured values for head acceleration (ax, ay, az) are filtered in accordance with CFC1000 (cf. CFC filters). To define the input values in accordance with ECE-R80, the measured values for head acceleration (ax, ay, az) are filtered in accordance with CFC600 (cf. CFC filters).

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Relevant Laws and Regulations

FMVSS 208, S6.2 SAE J2052, 2.2.1 SAE J1727,3.6 ISO/TC22/SC12/WG3 N 282 Issued 1990-03-16 ADR69/00, 5.3.1 ECE-R80, Annex 4, 1 ECE-R22, 7.3.2.5 EuroNCAP, Front Impact, 10, 10.1 EuroNCAP, Side Impact, 10, 10.1 EuroNCAP, Pole Side Impact, 10, 10.1 EuroNCAP, Assessment Protocol, 5 EuroNCAP, Pedestrian Testing Protocol, 10.2.3.4

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Chapter 1

Description of the Head Criteria

HAC

HAC is the abbreviation for Head Acceptability Criterion

Caution

This calculation regulation is obsolete. In the current ECE-R80 the HIC is used

instead.

Description

The HAC value is the standardized maximum integral value of the head acceleration.

Mathematical Calculation

The calculation of the HAC value is based on the equation:

t2 1 ------------- a dt t2 t1 t1 2, 5

HAC = sup t

1,

t2

( t2 t1 )

a =

ax + ay + az

2

2

2

a is the resultant acceleration of the center of gravity of the head in units of acceleration of gravity (g = 9,81 m/s²). t1 and t2 are the points in time during the crash, for which the HAC is at a maximum. Measured times are to be specified in seconds.

Determining Input Values

The measured values for head acceleration (ax, ay, az) are filtered in accordance with CFC600 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE-R80, 5.2.2.1.1 ECE-R80, Annex 7, 1.1

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HIC(d)

HIC(d) is the Performance Criterion

Description

The HIC(d) value is the weighted standardized maximum integral value of the head acceleration and is calculated from the HIC36 value.

Mathematical Calculation

The calculation of the HPC(d) value is based on the equation:

HIC ( d ) = 0, 75446 HIC36 + 166, 4

with HIC36: HIC36 value (cf. HIC)

Determining Input Values

The measured values for head acceleration (ax, ay, az) are filtered in accordance with CFC1000 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

FMVSS 201, S7 NHTSA 49 CFR 571[Docket No. 92-28; Notice8],

[RIN No. 2127-AG07]; S7

NHTSA 49 CFR 571,572,589[Docket No. 92-28; Notice7],

[RIN No. 2127-AB85]; S7

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Description of the Head Criteria

HPC

HPC is the abbreviation for Head Performance Criterion (criterion for the head strain).

Description

The HPC value is the standardized maximum integral value of the head acceleration. The corresponding time interval is a maximum of 36 ms (HPC36). The HPC value is identical to the HIC value.

Mathematical Calculation

The calculation of the HPC value is based on the equation:

t2 1 ------------- a dt t2 t1 t1 2, 5

HPC = sup t

1,

t2

( t2 t1 )

a =

ax + ay + az

2

2

2

a is the resultant acceleration a of the center of gravity of the head in units of acceleration of gravity (1 g =9,81 m/s²). If there was no head contact, this criterion is fulfilled. If the beginning of the head contact can be determined satisfactorily, t 1 and t 2 are the two time points, specified in seconds, which define a period between the beginning of the head contact and the end of the recording, at which the HPC36 is at its maximum. If the beginning of the head contact cannot be determined satisfactorily, t1 and t2 are the two time points, expressed in seconds, which define a period between the beginning of the head contact and the end of the recording, at which the HPC36 is at its maximum.

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Determining Input Values

The measured values for head acceleration (ax, ay, az) are filtered in accordance with CFC1000 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, 3.2.1.1 Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, Appendix 2, 1.2 ECE R94, Annex 4, 1.2 ECE R95, 5.2.1.1 ECE R95, Annex 4, Appendix 1, 1.

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Description of the Head Criteria

HCD

HCD is the abbreviation for Head Contact Duration

Description

The HCD value is the standardized maximum integral value of the head acceleration during head contact intervals. The contact intervals are determined using the resultant contact force (calculated from neck force of the upper neck transducer, head acceleration and head mass).

Mathematical Calculation

To determine the contact interval, the resultant contact force F has to be calculated first.

F =

with:

( m ax Fx ) + ( m ay Fy ) + ( m a z Fz )

2

2

2

m ai Fi

Mass of the head head acceleration in i-direction upper neck force in i-direction

Contact intervals are all the intervals in which a lower threshold value (threshold level = 200 N) is constantly exceeded and a lower search level (search level = 500 N) is exceeded at least once (see Figure 1-1 below).

Figure 1-1. Search und Threshold Level

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Description of the Head Criteria

The HIC value HICj is calculated for each contact interval Kj.

Kj = tj

beg end ;t j beg

HIC j = HIC ( t 1, t 2 ) ;t j

with:

t 1 < t 2 t j

end

tjbeg tjend

Start time of the contact interval Kj End time of the contact interval Kj

The HCD value is then the maximum HIC value of all the contact intervals.

HCD = max j { HIC j }

Determining Input Values

The measured values for head acceleration (ax, ay, az) and neck forces (Fx, Fy, Fz) are filtered in accordance with CFC1000 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

SAE J2052, 2.2.2 SAE J2052, 4 ISO/TC22/SC12/WG3 N 282 (Issued 1990-03-16) TRANS/SC1/WP29/GRSP/R.48/Rev.1, page 19, Annex 4, Appendix 1

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Description of the Neck Criteria

2

This chapter describes the following neck criteria for a front impact and a rear impact: Front Impact: · · · · · · · MOC: MTO: Time At Level NIC (front impact ECE): NIC (front impact EuroNCAP): NIC (front impact FMVSS): Nij: Neck Injury Criterion Neck Injury Criterion Neck Injury Criterion Total Moment about Occipital Condyle Total Moment (Lower Neck)

Normalized Neck Injury Criterion

Rear Impact: · · · NIC (rear impact): Neck Injury Criterion Nkm: LNL: Neck Criterion rear impact Lower Neck Load Index

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Description of the Neck Criteria

MOC

MOC is the abbreviation for Total Moment about Occipital Condyle.

Description

The criterion for the Total Moment calculates the total moment in relation to the moment measurement point.

Mathematical Calculation

For the Upper Load Cell, the Total Moment Moc is calculated in accordance with SAE J1727 and SAE J1733 as follows:

M OCy = M y ( D F x ) M OCx = M x + ( D F y )

with

MOCi Fi Mi D

Total moment in i-direction [Nm] Upper neck force in i-direction [N] Neck moment in i-direction [Nm] Distance between the force sensor axis and the condyle axis

Determining Input Values

The measured values for the forces and moments are filtered in accordance with CFC600 (cf. CFC filters). This filtering applies independently of the filter classes for forces, specified in SAE J211 (see FMVSS 208 S6.6(1), for example). In Table 2-8 the lever arms of the Upper Load Cell are specified for the calculation in accordance with SAE J1727, for each dummy type.

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Table 2-1. Lever Arms of the Upper-Load-Cell

Dummy type Hybrid III, male 95% Hybrid III, male 50% Load cell Type Denton;FTSS;MSC 1716; IF-2564, IF-205, IF-207, IF-242; 555B/6UN 1716; IF-2564, IF-205, IF-207, IF-242; 555B/6UN 2062 Hybrid III, female Hybrid III; 10-year Hybrid III; 6-year Hybrid III; 3-year Crabi 12; 18 months; TNO P1,5 Crabi 6 months TNO P 3/4; P3 1716; IF-2564, IF-205, IF-207, IF-242; 555B/6UN 1716; IF-2564, IF-205, IF-207, IF-242; 555B/6UN 1716; IF-2564, IF-205, IF-207, IF-242; 555B/6UN 3303; IF-234; 560G/6ULN 2554; IF-954; 560G/6ULN 2554; IF-954; 560G/6ULN 2331; IF-212, IF-235; 5583G/3ULN 2587; IF-212, IF-235; 558G/6UN ES-2 1485 4085, IF-240; 5552G/6UN TNO Q series SID-IIs BioRID 3715, IF-217; 5563G/6LN 1716; IF-2564, IF-205, IF-207, IF-242; 555B/6UN 4949 2062 4985 WORLDSID W50-1700 Axial directions 6 6 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 3 6 3 6 6 6 6 3 3 6 D[m] 0,01778 0,01778 0,008763 0,01778 0,01778 0,01778 0 0,0058 0,0102 0 0 0 0,02 0 0,01778 0,01778 0,008763 0,01778 0,0195

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Chapter 2

Description of the Neck Criteria

Relevant Laws and Regulations

SAE J1727, 3.3 ( 08/96 ) SAE J1733 ( 12/94 ) Denton Sign Convention for Load Cells (S.A.E. J-211) ( 27AUG02 )

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Description of the Neck Criteria

MTO

MTO is the abbreviation for Total Moment and applies for the lower neck.

Description

The criterion for the Total Moment calculates the total moment in relation to the moment measurement point.

Mathematical Calculation

For the Lower Load Cell, the Total Moment MTO is calculated in accordance with SAE J1733 as follows:

M TOx = M x ( D z F y ) M TOy = M y + ( D z F x ) + ( D x F z ) M TOz = M z ( D x F y )

with

MTOi Fi Mi D

Moment in i-direction [Nm] Upper neck force in i-direction [N] Neck moment in i-direction [Nm] Distance between the force sensor axis and the condyle axis

Determining Input Values

The measured values for the forces and moments are filtered in accordance with CFC600 (cf. CFC filters). This filtering applies independently of the filter classes for forces, specified in SAE J211 (see FMVSS 208 S6.6(1), for example). In the Table 2-2 the lever arms D x and D z in the Lower Load Cell are specified for the calculation in accordance with SAE J1733 for each dummy type.

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Description of the Neck Criteria

Table 2-2. Lever Arms Dx and Dz of the Lower-Load-Cell

Dummy type Hybrid III, male 95% Load cell type Denton; FTSS 1794; IF-210, IF-219 4894 Hybrid III, male 50% 1794; IF-210, IF-219 4894 Hybrid III, female 5% 1794; IF-211, IF-228, IF-238 4541 Hybrid III; 10-year Hybrid III; 6-year Hybrid III; 3-year CRABI 6,12,18,TNO, P1 1/2 TNO Q1, Q3, Q6 SID-IIs 5124 1794; IF-222 3303 2554LN; IF-954 3715 1794; IF-255 3166 SID HIII THOR 50% THOR 5% 5294 2357 2357 4366 EuroSID-1 4365; IF-221 3300 ES-2 BioRID RID2 WORLDSID - ; IF-221 1794 1794 W50-1700 0,04445 0,0508 0,0508 0 0,028575 0,0254 0,0254 0,0145 0 0,22 0 0 0 0,0127 0,0254 0,0191 0 0,03175 0 0 0 0,04445 0,0188 0,0237236 0,0168 0,0127 0 0,0254 0,04445 0,028575 Dx[m] 0,0508 Dz[m] 0,028575

Note

You use special formulas for the adjustable load cells 2992, 3471, and 3717. (See Denton Sign Convention for Load Cells (SAE J211) ( 27AUG02 )) Lower Neck Load Cell of BioRID; 1794, validated in dynamic testing (cf. LNL).

Note

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Description of the Neck Criteria

Relevant Laws and Regulations

SAE J1727,3.3 ( 08/96 ) SAE J1733 ( 12/94 ) Denton Sign Convention for Load Cells (SAE J211) ( 27AUG02 )

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Description of the Neck Criteria

Time At Level

Time-Dependent Loading Criteria

Description

The time-at-level describes the maximum continuous time interval for which the measured value of a signal has exceeded a certain lower threshold. The value is determined either from the continuous time interval (continuous calculation) or from the sum of all time intervals (cumulative calculation).

Mathematical Calculation Continuous Calculation

To determine the relationship between the measured value of the signal (e.g. the force) and its corresponding time-at-level, the time-related "load criterion curve" is determined, as illustrated in Figure 2-1:

Figure 2-1. Load Criterion Curve

1. 2. 3.

The threshold values are plotted on the ordinate, the times-at-level are plotted on the abscissa. The maximum measured value and the time-at-level zero are assigned to the highest threshold value. In a matrix with two columns and 101 rows, all the threshold values are stored in the first column, starting with the maximum value. All the threshold values in this column are equal to the preceding ones minus the quotient, which is the maximum value divided by 100. Zero is assigned to the threshold value in the last line.

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Description of the Neck Criteria

4.

The largest continuous time interval in which the threshold value is exceeded by the measurement signal is determined for every threshold value in the first column. Use linear interpolation to determine the time interval, round it to the nearest millisecond, and enter it in the second column. Every line in this matrix describes a value pair (point) that consists of the threshold value and the time at level the "load criterion curve" which are plotted in a coordinate system (criterion graph) and thus compared to the injury assessment boundary. Times at level are only taken into account if they are less than 60 ms. To compare the "load criterion curve" to the injury assessment boundary, the ratio between the load criterion value and the injury assessment boundary value is determined for each value pair and multiplied by 100. The highest value determined is the "injury assessment reference" value and is entered in the coordinate system.

5.

6.

Cumulative Calculation

If the sampling rates are constant, the accumulated values can be calculated with the following algorithm: 1. 2. Values in descending order Value (sorted) after x ms is the y-value.

Determining Input Values

--

Relevant Laws and Regulations

SAE J1727, 3.9 EuroNCAP, Front Impact, 10.2.2

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Chapter 2

Description of the Neck Criteria

NIC (front impact ECE)

NIC is the abbreviation for Neck Injury Criterion.

Description

The neck injury criteria are determined using the axial compression force Fz(-), the axial tensile force Fz (+), and the shear forces at the head/neck point Fx(+), in kN, as well as the duration of these forces, as illustrated in Figure 2-2.

Figure 2-2. Axial Neck Tensile Force and Neck Shear Force at the Side Note

Annex 3; 2.1.1 applies only for the Hybrid III 50% dummy.

Mathematical Calculation

For all the above-mentioned signals, the time-at-level (cf. Time At Level) is calculated and compared to the corresponding limits.

Determining Input Values

The measured values of the axial force Fz and the side shear force Fx, are filtered according to CFC1000 (cf. CFC filters).

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Description of the Neck Criteria

Relevant Laws and Regulations

Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, 3.2.1.2 Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, Appendix 2, 2 ECE-R94, 5.2.1.2 ECE R94, Annex 4, 2 SAE J1733

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Chapter 2

Description of the Neck Criteria

NIC (front impact EuroNCAP)

NIC is the abbreviation for Neck Injury Criterion.

Description

The neck injury criteria are determined using the axial tensile force Fz(+), the shear forces at the head/neck point, Fx(+) and Fx (-), in kN, and the duration of these forces in milliseconds, as illustrated in Figures 2-3 to 2-5.

Figure 2-3. Shear Forces positive at the Head/Neck Point in X-Direction

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Description of the Neck Criteria

Figure 2-4. Shear Forces negative at the Head/Neck Point in Z-Direction Note

The dotted lines are determined from the Lower and Upper Limits, using linear scaling.

Figure 2-5. Tensile Forces at the Head/Neck Point in Z-Direction

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Description of the Neck Criteria

Mathematical Calculation

For all the above-mentioned signals, the cumulative time-at-level (cf. Time At Level) is calculated and compared to the limits.

Determining Input Values

The measured values of the axial force Fz and the side shear force Fx, are filtered according to CFC1000 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

EuroNCAP, Frontal Impact, 10.2 SAE J1733

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Description of the Neck Criteria

NIC (front impact FMVSS)

NIC is the abbreviation for Neck Injury Criterion.

Description

NIC is the criterion for neck injury. The NIC includes: (a) the criterion of the Normalized Neck Injury Criterion (Nij) and (b) the criterion of the limit value monitoring (peak tension and peak compression).

Mathematical Calculation

a. b. cf. Nij Table 2-3 shows the limits to be adhered to for each dummy type.

Table 2-3. Limits for Various Dummy Types

Position In Position Dummy type Hybrid III, male 50% Hybrid III, female 5% Hybrid III; 6-year Hybrid III; 3-year CRABI; 12 months Out of Position Hybrid III, female 5% Fz [N] Peak Tension 4170 2620 1490 1130 780 2070 Fz [N] Peak Compression -4000 -2520 -1820 -1380 -960 -2520

Determining Input Values

The measured values for limit monitoring are filtered in accordance with CFC1000 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S6.6 (b)(c) (HYIII-50%) FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S15.3.6 (b)(c) (HYIII-5%) FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S19.4.4 (b)(c) (HYIII-12M) FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S21.5.5 (b)(c) (HyIII-3-year) FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S23.5.5 (b)(c) (HyIII-6-year) FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S25.4 (b)(c) (HyIII-5% Out of position)

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Chapter 2

Description of the Neck Criteria

Nij

Nij is the abbreviation for Normalized Neck Injury Criterion and includes the 4 neck criteria (Neck Injury Predictor) NTE (tension-extension), NTF (tension-flexion), NCE (compression-extension), and NCF (compression-flexion).

Description

The criteria for neck injuries are determined using the axial compression force, the axial tensile force, and the shearing forces at the transition from head to neck, expressed in kN, and the duration of these forces in ms. The neck bending moment criterion is determined by the bending moment, expressed in Nm, around a lateral axis at the transition from the head to the neck, and recorded.

Mathematical Calculation

The Nij value is calculated according to the equation:

F z M OCy Nij = ------- + ------------F zc M yc Fz Fzc MOCy Myc

with force at the transition from head to neck critical force Total Moment (see MOC) critical moment

Determining Input Values

The measured values of the tensile force and compression force are filtered in accordance with CFC 600. (cf. CFC filters). The Total Moment is calculated in accordance with MOC. When the criteria are calculated, particular forces and moments are to be set at 0. This is an AND condition, i.e. if one of the summands is zero, the condition is also zero. This is displayed in Table 2-4:

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Table 2-4. Forces and Moments

Criterion Nij NCF NCE NTF NTE Forces Compression(force of pressure) F<0 Moments Flexion (forwards bending) M>0 Extension (backwards extension) M<0 Flexion (forwards bending) M>0 Extension (backwards extension) M<0

Tension (tensile force) F>0

Table 2-5 shows the critical forces F zc and moments M yc for the `in position test` according to the dummy types.

Table 2-5. In position test

Dummy type Hybrid III, male 50% Hybrid III, female 5% a. Fzc [N] Tension 6806 4287 Fzc [N] a Compression -6160 - 3880 Myc [Nm] Flexion 310 155 Myc [Nm] a Extension -135 - 67

The negative signs of Fzc and Myc make positive Nij values (signal polarity in accordance with SAE J211 and SAE J1733).

Table 2-6 shows the critical forces F zc and moments M yc for the `out of position test` according to the dummy types.

Table 2-6. Out of Position Test

Dummy type Hybrid III, female 5% Hybrid III; 6-year Hybrid III; 3-year Hybrid III; 12 months a. Fzc [N] Tension 3880 2800 2120 1460 Fzc [N] a Compression -3880 -2800 -2120 -1460 Myc [Nm] Flexion 155 93 68 43 Myc [Nm] a Extension -61 -37 -27 -17

The negative signs of Fzc and Myc make positive Nij values (signal polarity in accordance with SAE J211 and SAE J1733).

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Chapter 2

Description of the Neck Criteria

Relevant Laws and Regulations

FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S6.6 FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S15.3.6 FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S19.4.4 FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S21.5.5 FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S23.5.5

Publications:

Supplement: Development of Improved Injury Criteria for the

Assessment of Advanced Automotive Restraint Systems-II; Rolf Eppinger, Emily Sun, Shashi Kuppa (NTBRC) and Roger Saul (VRTC); March 2000 NHTSA

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Description of the Neck Criteria

NIC (rear impact)

NIC is the abbreviation for Neck Injury Criterion.

Description

The criterion for the neck injury with a rear impact is expressed by the relative acceleration between the upper and lower neck acceleration, in m/s², and the relative velocity, in m/s.

Mathematical Calculation

The calculation of the NIC value is based on the equation:

NIC = a relative 0, 2 + v 2 relative

with:

a relative = a x v relative =

and

T1

ax

Head

a relative

axT1 axHead

Acceleration of the first chest vertebra in x-direction [m/s²] Acceleration in x-direction at the height of the center of gravity (c.o.g.) of the head [m/s²]

Determining Input Values

The measured values of the accelerations are filtered in accordance with CFC 180 (cf. CFC filters). The maximum value of NIC within an interval of 150 ms after the beginning of the sled acceleration schall be determined and documented as the NICmax value. If the head, after contacting the head restraint, reverses its direction of relative movement at a point in time before 150 ms, the upper end of the interval of NIC for the determination of NICmax shall be limited by this point in time.

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 2

Description of the Neck Criteria

Relevant Laws and Regulations

This injury criterion is in the research phase.

Publications:

A SLED TESTS PROCEDURE PROPOSAL TO EVALUATE THE

RISK OF NECK INJURY IN LOW SPEED REAR IMPACTS USING A NEW NECK INJURY CRITERION (NIC); Paper no. 98-S7-O-07; Ola Boström, Yngve Håland, Rikard Frediksson, Autoliv Research Sweden, Mats Y Svensoson Hugo Mellander, Chalmers University of Technology Sweden; 16 th ESV Conference; June 1-4, 1998 Windsor Canada

EVALUATION OF THE APPLACABILITY OF THE NECK

INJURY CRITERION (NIC) IN REAR END IMPACTS ON THE BASIS OF HUMAN SUBJECT TESTS; A.Eichberger, H. Steffan, B.Geigl, M.Svensson, O. Boström, P.E. Leinzinger, M.Darok; IRCOBI Conference Göteborg, September 1998

Proposal for the ISO/TC22N2071, ISO/TC22/SC10 (Collision Test

Procedures): TEST PROCEDURE FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE INJURY RISK TO THE CERVICAL SPINE IN A LOW SPEED REAR END IMPACT; M. Muser, H. Zellmer, F. Walz, W. Hell, K. Langwieder, K. Steiner, H. Steffan; Rear end impact test procedure, working draft 5, 05/2001

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Chapter 2

Description of the Neck Criteria

Nkm

Nkm in accordance with the 4 neck criteria Nfa (flexion-anterior), Nea (extension-anterior), Nfp (flexion-posterior), Nep (extension-posterior).

Description

The criteria for neck injuries for rear impact are determined using the axial compression force or the axial tensile force x, and the shearing forces at the transition from head to neck, expressed in kN, and the duration of these forces in ms. The neck bending moment criterion is determined by the bending moment, expressed in Nm, around a lateral axis at the transition from the head to the neck, and recorded.

Mathematical Calculation

The Nkm value is calculated with the equation:

F x ( t ) M OCy ( t ) Nkm ( t ) = ----------- + -------------------F int M int

with

Fx Fint MOCy Mint

force at the transition from head to neck critical force total moment (see MOC) critical moment

Determining Input Values

The measured values of the tension are filtered in accordance with CFC 600. The measured values of the bending moment and the side shearing force are also filtered in accordance with CFC 600 (cf. CFC filters). When the criteria are calculated, particular forces and moments are to be set at 0. This is an AND condition, i.e. if one of the summands is zero, the condition is also zero. This is displayed in Table 2-7:

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Chapter 2

Description of the Neck Criteria

Table 2-7. Forces and Moments

Criterion Nkm Nfa Nea Nfp Nep Forces Anterior (head backwards, torso forwards) Fx>0 Moments Flexion (forwards bending) My>0 Extension (backwards extension) My<0 Flexion (forwards bending) My>0 Extension (backwards extension) My<0

Posterior (head forwards, torso backwards) Fx<0

Table 2-8 shows the critical forces Fint and moments Mint for each dummy type.

Table 2-8. Critical Forces and Moments

Dummy type Hybrid III, male 50% a. Fint [N] positive shear 845 Fint [N] a negative shear -845 Mint [Nm] Flexion 88,1 Mint [Nm] a Extension -47,5

The negative signs of Fint and Mint make positive Nkm values (signal polarity in accordance with SAE J211 and SAE J1733).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

Working Group on Accident Mechanics

www.agu.ch

Publications:

A NEW NECK INJURY CRITERION CANDIDATE FOR

REAR-END COLLISIONS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SHEAR FORCES AND BENDING MOMENTS (Schmitt, Muser, Niederer) ESV Conference 2001, Amsterdam NL

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© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

Chapter 2

Description of the Neck Criteria

LNL

LNL is the abbreviation for the Lower Neck Load Index.

Description

The risk of damaging the lower neck vertebrae in a rear-impact crash is highest when the forces and moments impact simultaneously.

Mathematical Calculation

The LNL value is calculated with the equation:

My lower ( t ) + Mx lower ( t ) 2 Fx lower ( t ) 2 + Fy lower ( t ) 2 Fz lower ( t ) LNL index ( t ) = --------------------------------------------------------------------- + ------------------------------------------------------------------ + -----------------------C moment C shear C tension

2

with

Mylower Mxlower

Cmoment

Moment in y-direction Moment in x-direction Critical moment Force in x-direction Force in y-direction Critical force Force in z-direction Critical force

Fxlower Fylower Cshear Fz Ctension

Note

The formula applies for the Lower Neck Load Cell of the RID2 and Hybrid III. · The result My can be corrected for the Hybrid III with the Denton 1794, FMVSS IF-210, and IF-219, MSC 4894 power cells, using the formula below:

My lowercorrected = My + ( 0, 0282 Fx ) + ( 0, 0508 Fz )

· The My moment may not be corrected for RID2.

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 2

Description of the Neck Criteria

Determining Input Values

The measured values for the forces and moments are filtered in accordance with CFC 600 (cf. CFC filters). This filtering applies separately from the filter classes specified in SAEJ211 (cf. Nij-FMVSS208). Table 2-9 lists the critical forces and moments for the dummy type RID2.

Table 2-9. Critical Forces and Moments for RID2

Cmoment 15 [Nm]

Cshear 250 [N]

Ctension 900 [N]

Relevant Laws and Regulations

SAE J1727 SAE J1733 Denton Sign Convention for Load Cells AN EVALUATION OF EXISTING AND PROPOSED INJURY CRITERIA WITH VARIOUS DUMMIES TO DETERMINE THEIR ABILITY TO PREDICT THE LEVELS OF SOFT TISSUE NECK INJURY SEEN IN REAL WORLD ACCIDENTS; Frank Heitplatz et all; ESV Conference 2003

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© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

Description of the Chest Criteria

The following chest criteria are described in this chapter: · · · · · · · VC: THPC: TTI(d): ThAC: CTI: RDC:

3

Viscous Criterion (velocity of compression) Thorax Performance Criterion Thoracic Trauma Index (Thorax Trauma Index) Thorax Acceptability Criterion Combined Thoracic Index Rib Deflection Criterion

ThCC (or TCC): Thoracic Compression Criterion

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 3

Description of the Chest Criteria

VC

VC is the abbreviation for Viscous Criterion (velocity of compression), and is also called the Soft Tissue Criterion.

Description

VC is an injury criterion for the chest area. The VC value [m/s] is the maximum crush of the momentary product of the thorax deformation speed and the thorax deformation. Both quantities are determined by measuring the rib deflection (side impact) or the chest deflection (frontal impact).

Note

Only the crush is included in the calculation.

Mathematical Calculation

The calculation of the VC value is based on the equation: In accordance with ECE-R94, ECE-R95 and EuroNCAP (front and side impact) dY CFC180 Y CFC180 VC = Scalingfactor ----------------------- --------------------Defconst dt In accordance with SAE J1727: (Frontal impact) Y CFC600 dY CFC600 VC = Scalingfactor ----------------------- --------------------Defconst dt with: Y (dYCFCxxx/dt) Scalingfactor Defconst

Thoracic deformation [m] Deformation velocity Scaling factor (see Table 3-1) Dummy constant, i.e. depth or width of half the rib cage [mm] (see also determination of the input quantities (VC))

3-2

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Chapter 3

Description of the Chest Criteria

The deformation speed is calculated in accordance with ECE R94: dY [ t ] CFC180 8 ( Y [ t + t ] Y [ t t ] ) ( Y [ t + 2t ] Y [ t 2t ] ) ---------------------------- = V [ t ] = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------dt 12t with:

t

Note

Time interval between the single measurements in seconds

If required, the chest or rib crush/velocity can be calculated with the difference between opposite acceleration signals, using integration. This method is not included in any of the listed laws or guidelines.

Determining Input Values

Filtering of the input values cf. Mathematical Calculation Table 3-1 contains the scaling factor and the deformation constant (dummy constants) for each dummy type, in accordance with SAE J1727, 8/96.

Table 3-1. Scaling Factor and Dummy Constants

Dummy type Hybrid III, male 95% Hybrid III, male 50% Hybrid III, female 5% BioSID EuroSID-1 ES-2 SID-IIs Scaling factor 1,3 1,3 1,3 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 Deformation constant [mm] 254 229 187 175 140 140 138

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE R94, Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, 3.2.1.5 ECE R94, Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, Appendix 2, 6.1-6.2 ECE-R94, 5.2.1.4 ECE R94, Annex 4, 3.2 ECE R94, Annex 4, 6 ECE R95, 5.2.1.2 b)

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 3

Description of the Chest Criteria

ECE R95, Annex 4, Appendix 1, 2.2 ECE R95, Annex 4, Appendix 2 Directive 96/27 EG Annex 2, 3.2.1.2 b) Directive 96/27 EG Annex 1, Appendix 1, 2.2 Directive 96/27 EG Annex 1, Appendix 2 SAE J211, 9.4.3 SAE J1727, 3.8.1 EuroNCAP, Front Impact, 10.3 EuroNCAP, Side Impact, 10.3

3-4

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

Chapter 3

Description of the Chest Criteria

THPC

THPC is the abbreviation for Thorax Performance Criterion.

Description

THPC is the criterion for chest strain with side impact. The two elements of the THPC are the rib deflection criterion (RDC) and the viscous criterion (VC).

Mathematical Calculation

cf. RDC and VC

Determining Input Values

cf. RDC and VC

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE-R95, 5.2.1.2 ECE R95, Annex 4, Appendix 1, 2 Directive 96/27 EG Annex 2, 3.2.1.2 Directive 96/27 EG Annex 1, Appendix 1, 2 Directive 96/27 EG Annex 1, Appendix 2

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 3

Description of the Chest Criteria

TTI(d)

TTI(d) is the abbreviation for Thoracic Trauma Index (Thorax Trauma Index).

Description

The thorax trauma index is an injury criterion for the thorax in the case of a side impact. The TTI(d) is the mean of the maximum acceleration of the abdominal spine (12th spinal segment) and the higher of the two values for the maximum acceleration of the upper (8th) and lower (4th) ribs.

Mathematical Calculation

The calculation of the TTI value is based on the equation:

TTI ( d ) = A ( max, rip ) + A ( lwr ,spine ) ----------------------------------------------------------------------2 A ( max, rip ) = max { ( upr ,rip ) ,A ( lwr ,rip } A

with: A(upr.rib) A(lwr.rib) A(max.rib) A(lwr.spine) Maximum acceleration of the upper rib; [g] Maximum acceleration of the lower rib; [g] Maximum of A(upr.rib) and A(lwr.rib); [g] Maximum acceleration of the lower spine; [g]

Determining Input Values

Preprocessing of the acceleration data from the sensors (cf. FIR100 filters): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Filtering with CFC180 (cf. CFC filters) Reduction of the sampling rate to 1600 Hz Removal of bias Filtering with FIR100 Transferring the reduced sampling rate to the original sampling rate (oversampling, only SAE)

3-6

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Chapter 3

Description of the Chest Criteria

Due to the sign regulations in SAE J1733, the acceleration values have to be positive absolute maximum values. If the test data is to be evaluated with negative abs. maximum values, the measurement data must first be inverted. The calculation must use the original measurement data, not selected data sections, otherwise the digital filters may have differing transient responses.

Relevant Laws and Regulations

FMVSS 214, S5.1 FMVSS 214, S6.13.5 SAE J1727, 3.5

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 3

Description of the Chest Criteria

ThAC

ThAC is the abbreviation for Thorax Acceptability Criterion.

Description

This criterion is determined using the absolute value of the acceleration expressed in units of earth acceleration and the acceleration duration expressed in ms.

Mathematical Calculation

cf. Xms

Determining Input Values

The measured values of acceleration of gravity are filtered in accordance with CFC 180 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE-R80, Annex 1, 1.1.2.1.2 ECE-R80, Annex 4, 2

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© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

Chapter 3

Description of the Chest Criteria

CTI

CTI is the abbreviation for Combined Thoracic Index.

Description

The Combined Thoracic Index represents an injury criterion for the chest area in case of a frontal impact. The CTI is the evaluated 3 ms value from the resultant acceleration of the spinal cord and the deflection of the chest.

Mathematical Calculation

The calculation of the CIT value is based on the equation:

D max A max CTI = ----------- + ----------- A int D int

with: Amax Aint Dmax Dint 3 ms value (single peak) of the resultant acceleration of the spinal cord [g] Critical 3 ms values [g] Deflection of the chest [mm] Critical deflection [mm]

Determining Input Values

The measured values of the acceleration are filtered according to CFC180 and those of the displacement according to CFC600 (cf. CFC filters). In Table 3-2, the critical 3 ms Aint and the critical deflection Dint is given for each dummy type.

Table 3-2. Critical 3 ms Value and Critical Deflection

Dummy type Hybrid III, male 50% Hybrid III, female 5% Hybrid III; 6-year Hybrid III; 3-year CRABI; 12 months Aint [g] 85 85 85 70 55 Dint [mm] 102 83 63 57 49

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Chapter 3

Description of the Chest Criteria

Relevant Laws and Regulations

Note

This criterion is not included in the actual standard!

FMVSS 208 proposal (September 1998), S6.6 FMVSS 208 proposal (September 1998), S15.3 FMVSS 208 proposal (September 1998), S19.4 FMVSS 208 proposal (September 1998), S21.5 FMVSS 208 proposal (September 1998), S23.5

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Chapter 3

Description of the Chest Criteria

ThCC (or TCC)

ThCC (or TCC) is the abbreviation for Thoracic Compression Criterion.

Description

ThCC is the criterion of the compression of the thorax between the sternum and the spine and is determined using the absolute value of the thorax compression, expressed in mm.

Mathematical Calculation

--

Determining Input Values

The measured values for the chest deflection are filtered in accordance with CFC180 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

Note

ECE-R94, 5.2.1.4 ECE R94, Annex 4, 3 Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, 3.2.1.4 Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, Appendix 2, 3.1

In the German directives this criterion was called TCC, but it was called ThCC in the English directives.

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 3

Description of the Chest Criteria

RDC

RDC is the abbreviation for Rib Deflection Criterion.

Description

RDC is the criterion for the deflection of the ribs, expressed in mm, in a side impact collision.

Mathematical Calculation

--

Determining Input Values

The measured values for rib deflection are filtered in accordance with CFC180 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE R95, 5.2.1.2 a) ECE R95, Annex 4, Appendix 1, 2.1 Directive 96/27 EG Annex 2, 3.2.1.2. a) Directive 96/27 EG Annex 1, Appendix 1, 2.1

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© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

4

The following criteria for the lower extremities are described in this chapter: · · · · · · APF: PSPF: FFC (ECE): TI: TCFC: Abdominal Peak Force Pubic Symphysis Peak Force Femur Force Criterion Tibia Index Tibia Compression Force Criterion

FFC (EuroNCAP): Femur Force Criterion

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 4

Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

APF

APF is the abbreviation for Abdominal Peak Force. This is a criterion for the European side impact regulations.

Description

APF is the maximum side abdominal strain criterion. It is the highest value of the sum of the three forces [kN] that are measured on the impact side.

Mathematical Calculation

APF = max F yFront + F yMiddle + F yRear

Determining Input Values

The measured values for the abdominal strain are filtered in accordance with CFC 600 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE-R95, 5.2.1.4 ECE R95, Annex 4, Appendix 1, 3 Directive 96/27 EG Annex 2, 3.2.1.4 Directive 96/27 EG Annex 1, Appendix 1, 3

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Chapter 4

Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

PSPF

PSPF is the abbreviation for Pubic Symphysis Peak Force.

Description

PSPF is the criterion for pelvic strain during side impact and is determined by the maximum strain on the pubic symphysis, expressed in kN.

Mathematical Calculation

--

Determining Input Values

The measured values for the pelvic strain are filtered in accordance with CFC 600 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE R95, 5.2.1.3 ECE R95, Annex 4, Appendix 1, 4 Directive 96/27 EG Annex 2, 3.2.1.3 Directive 96/27 EG Annex 1, Appendix 1, 4

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 4

Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

FFC (ECE)

FFC is the abbreviation for Femur Force Criterion.

Description

FFC is the criterion of the force acting on the femur Fz(-) and is determined by the compression stress in kN that is transmitted axially on each femur of the dummy as well as the duration of action of the compression force in ms.

Figure 4-1. Pressure on the Thigh Note

The pressure is entered as a positive value in the diagram.

Mathematical Calculation

cf. Time At Level

Note

The time-at-level is calculated cumulatively (cf. FFC (EuroNCAP)).

Determining Input Values

The measured values for the axial force of pressure are filtered in accordance with CFC600 (cf. CFC filters).

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Chapter 4

Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE-R94, 5.2.1.6 ECE R94, Annex 4, 4 Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, 3.2.1.6 Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, Appendix 2, 4.1

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 4

Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

FFC (EuroNCAP)

FFC is the abbreviation for Femur Force Criterion

Description

FFC is the criterion of the force acting on the femur Fz(-) and is determined by the compression stress in kN that is transmitted axially on each femur of the dummy as well as the duration of action of the compression force in ms.

Figure 4-2. Cumulative Exceedence Limits Note

The dotted lines are determined from the Lower and Upper Limits, using linear scaling.

Mathematical Calculation

cf. Time At Level

Note

The time-at-level is calculated cumulatively.

Determining Input Values

The measured values for the axial force of pressure are filtered in accordance with CFC600 (cf. CFC filters).

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© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

Chapter 4

Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

Relevant Laws and Regulations

EuroNCAP, Frontal Impact Testing Protocol, Version 4.0; January

2003

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 4

Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

TI

TI is the abbreviation for the Tibia Index.

Description

The Tibia Index (TI) is an injury criterion for the lower leg area. It involves the bending moments around the x and y-axes as well as the axial force of pressure in the z direction at the top or bottom end of the tibia. When a "single-moment transducer" is used, the absolute measured value is valid for the calculation. If there are two directions, the resultant moment is to be calculated and used.

Mathematical Calculation

The tibia index (TI) is calculated in accordance with:

MR FZ TI = ---------------- + -------------( MC )R ( FC )Z

with:

MR =

Mx My (Mc)R Fz (Fc)z

( Mx ) + ( My )

2

2

Bending moment [Nm] around the x-axis Bending moment [Nm] around the y-axis Critical bending moment; cf. the table 4-1 Axial compression [kN] in z-direction Critical compression force in z-direction; cf. the table 4-1

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Chapter 4

Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

Determining Input Values

The measured values of the bending moment and the axial force of pressure are filtered in accordance with CFC600 (cf. CFC filters). Table 4-1 contains the critical bending moment and the critical compression force for each dummy type, in accordance with SAE J1727, 3.11.

Table 4-1. Critical Bending Moment and Compression Force

Dummy type Hybrid III, male 95% Hybrid III, male 50% Hybrid III, female 5% Critical bending moment [Nm] 307,0 225,0 115,0 Crit. compression force [kN] 44,2 35,9 22,9

Figure 4-3 shows the possible forces and moments of a lower leg (using the example of a Hybrid III dummy, lower left leg) for calculating the Tibia Index.

TIBILEUPH3M0Y y x z

TIBILEUPH3M0X TIBILEUPH3F0Z

TIBIA

TIBILELOH3M0Y

TIBILELOH3M0X TIBILELOH3M0Z

LOWER LEG LEFT

Figure 4-3. Forces and Moments Affecting the Lower Leg

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Chapter 4

Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

with

TIBILEUPH3M0X TIBILEUPH3M0Y TIBILEUPH3F0X TIBILEUPH3F0Y TIBILEUPH3F0Z TIBILELOH3M0X TIBILELOH3M0Y TIBILELOH3F0X TIBILELOH3F0Y TIBILELOH3F0Z Bending moment about the x-axis, upper tibia Bending moment about the y-axis, upper tibia axial compression force in x-direction, upper tibia axial compression force in y-direction, upper tibia axial compression force in z-direction, upper tibia Bending moment about the x-axis, lower tibia Bending moment about the y-axis, lower tibia axial compression force in x-direction, lower tibia axial compression in y-direction, lower tibia axial compression force in z-direction, lower tibia

Table 4-2 shows the differences in calculation of the upper or lower Tibia Index with a 5-channel and a 6-channel lower leg.

Table 4-2. Calculation of Tibia Indices for 5 and 6-Channel Lower Leg

5-channel lower leg

Values

6-channel lower leg

TIBILEUPH3F0Z TIBILEUPH3M0X TIBILEUPH3M0X TIBILELOH3F0Z TIBILELOH3M0X TIBILELOH3M0Y

TIBILEUPH3M0X TIBILEUPH3M0X TIBILELOH3F0X or TIBILELOH3F0Y TIBILELOH3F0Z TIBILELOH3M0X or TIBILELOH3M0Y

Upper tibia

Resultant moment

MR =

(TIBILEUPH3M0X )2 + (TIBILEUPH3M0Y )2

MR =

(TIBILEUPH3M0X )2 + (TIBILEUPH3M0Y )2

Axial compression force

Fz=TIBILELOH3FOZ

Fz=TIBILEUPH3FOZ

Lower tibia

Resultant moment

MR=|TIBILELOH3MOX| MR=|TIBILELOH3MOY| Fz=TIBILELOH3FOZ

or

MR =

(TIBILELOH3M0X )2 + (TIBILELOH3M0Y )2

Axial compression force

Fz=TIBILELOH3FOZ

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Chapter 4

Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

Table 4-3 shows the differences in the calculation of the upper or lower tibia-index with two different 8-channel lower legs.

Table 4-3. Calculation of Tibia Indices for 8-Channel and Lower Leg

8-channel lower leg

Values

8-channel lower leg

TIBILEUPH3F0X TIBILEUPH3F0Z TIBILEUPH3M0X TIBILEUPH3M0X TIBILELOH3F0X TIBILELOH3F0Y TIBILELOH3M0X TIBILELOH3M0Y

TIBILEUPH3F0X TIBILEUPH3F0Z TIBILEUPH3M0X TIBILEUPH3M0X TIBILELOH3F0X TIBILELOH3F0Z TIBILELOH3M0X TIBILELOH3M0Y

Upper tibia

Resultant moment

MR =

(TIBILEUPH3M0X )2 + (TIBILEUPH3M0Y )2

MR =

(TIBILEUPH3M0X )2 + (TIBILEUPH3M0Y )2

Axial compression force

Fz=TIBILELOH3FOZ

Fz=TIBILELOH3FOZ

Lower tibia

Resultant moment

MR =

(TIBILELOH3M0X )2 + (TIBILELOH3M0Y )2

MR =

(TIBILELOH3M0X )2 + (TIBILELOH3M0Y )2

Axial compression force

Fz=TIBILELOH3FOZ

Fz=TIBILELOH3FOZ

The axial compression force Fz in the z-direction can be measured in the upper or lower tibia, according to Annex 4, 5.2.

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE-R94, 5.2.1.8 ECE R94, Annex 4, 5.2 Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, 3.2.1.8 Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, Appendix 2, 5.2 SAE J1727, 3.11 SAE J211, Table 1 EuroNCAP, Front Impact, 10.6

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 4

Description of the Criteria for the Lower Extremities

TCFC

TCFC is the abbreviation for Tibia Compression Force Criterion.

Description

TCFC is the criterion for the tibia strain and is the force of pressure Fz, expressed in kN, that is transferred axially to each tibia on the test dummy (cf. TI).

Mathematical Calculation

--

Determining Input Values

The measured values for the axial force of pressure are filtered in accordance with CFC600 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE-R94, 5.2.1.7 ECE R94, Annex 4, 5.1 Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, 3.2.1.7 Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, Appendix 2, 5.1

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© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

Description of Additional Criteria

The following chest criteria are described in this chapter: · · · · · · · · · · · · Xms: Xg: Acomp: Pulse Test: Gillis Index: NCAP: EuroNCAP: SI: Integration: Differentiation: CFC filters: FIR100 filter: Generalization of the 3ms value

5

Time range for an acceleration greater than xg Average Acceleration During Compression Phase Deceleration corridor for trolley ID number for assessing vehicle safety in front impact. New Car Assessment Program European New Car Assessment Program Severity Index Integration method used Differentiation method used Channel Frequency Class Finite Impulse Response

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

Xms

Xms is a generalization of the 3ms value.

Description

The xms value is the highest amplitude in a measured signal that lasts x milliseconds. The Xms value specifies either as a single peak (SAE), or multiple peaks (ECE-R94, FMVSS). In the cumulative calculation, separate periods of the measurement signal are added, until x milliseconds are reached.

Mathematical Calculation

The xms value can be calculated using one peak, as shown in Figures 5-1 and 5-2, or using several peaks, as shown in Figure 5-3.

Figure 5-1. Xms Calculation in One Peak

5-2

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

Case 5-2 is an exception and may have a total time of >xms.

Figure 5-2. Xms Calculation in a Stepped Peak

Since the SAE prescribes a time span of at least x ms, the total time (4.5 ms) has to be specified, as shown in Figure 5-2.

Figure 5-3. Xms Calculation with Several Peaks

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

If the sampling rates are constant, the calculation of the accumulated xms value shown in Figure 5-3 can be based on the following algorithm: 1. 2. Acceleration values in descending order Acceleration value (sorted) after x ms is the required xms value.

During calculations in accordance with ECE R94, the rebound movement of the head is not to be taken into account.

Determining Input Values

The measured values are to be filtered in accordance with the legally prescribed filter classes.

Relevant Laws and Regulations

Directive 96/79/EG, Annex 2, 3.2.1.1 ECE R94, Annex 3, 5.2.1 ECE R94, Annex 4, 1.3 ECE-R80, Annex 4, 2.1 ECE R44, 7.1.4.2.1 ECE R44, 7.1.4.2.2 ECE-R12, 5.3 ECE-R17, 5.1.3.1 ECE R25, Annex 6, 2 FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S15.3.3 FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S19.4.3 FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S21.5.3 FMVSS 208 (May 2000), S23.5.3 SAE J1727, 3.4 ADR69/00, 5.3.2 NHTSA 49 CFR 571[Docket No. 92-28; Notice8],[RIN No. 2127-AG07]; S5.1 (b) Notice7],[RIN No. 2127-AB85]; S5.1 (b)

NHTSA 49 CFR 571,572,589[Docket No. 92-28; EURO NCAP, Front Impact, 10, 10.1 EURO NCAP, Side Impact, 10, 10.1

5-4

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Description of Additional Criteria

EURO NCAP, Pole Side Impact, 10, 10.1 EURO NCAP, Assessment Protocol , 5

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

Xg

Description

The Xg value is the time range for an acceleration that is greater than X[g] was.

Mathematical Calculation

The Xg-value is determined either individually (single peak) or cumulatively (multiple peaks) and is the time range in which the resultant head acceleration was greater than X[g]. In the cumulative calculation, disconnected time ranges for which the resultant head acceleration was greater than X[g], are added up.

Determining Input Values

--

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE-R12, 5.3 ECE-R17, 5.1.3.1 ECE-R24 ECE-R96, 3.2.1.1 ADR69/00, 5.3.2

5-6

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

Acomp

Acomp is the abbreviation for Average Acceleration During Compression Phase.

Description

In a front impact crash, the mean acceleration during the deformation phase is calculated for the vehicle acceleration in the x-direction.

Mathematical Calculation

The calculation is done in the following steps: 1. 2. 3. Integration of the acceleration with the starting speed Defining the first point in time t1 Alternative 1 in Figure 5-4: Determining a point of intersection t2 of the determined velocity with the abscissa (time axis).

Figure 5-4. Alternative 1: Point of Intersection t2 of the Velocity with the Time Axis

Alternative 5.08 cm Figure 5-5: The point of inflection of the velocity is determined. (The point of inflection is the first maximum of the acceleration). The point of intersection t2 of the tangent with the abscissa (time axis) is determined.

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

Figure 5-5. Alternative 2: Point of Intersection t2 of the Tangent to the Time Axis

4. 5.

The acceleration signal is filtered with CFC60 (cf. CFC filters). The mean acceleration of the signal filtered with CFC60 is found between the specified point in time t1 and the determined time t2.

Determining Input Values

The measured values of the acceleration are filtered in accordance with CFC180 (cf. CFC filters).

Relevant Laws and Regulations

Company standards

5-8

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

Pulse Test

Deceleration corridor for Trolley

Description

In sled tests, you check whether the measured acceleration is within a specific corridor, as shown in Figures 5-6 to 5-11.

Figure 5-6. Corridor for ECE-R44; Annex 7; Appendix 1

Figure 5-7. Corridor for ECE R44; Annex 7; Appendix 2

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

Figure 5-8. Corridor for ECE R16

Figure 5-9. Corridor for ECE R80; Annex 4; Figure 1

Acceleration inGs

0 A -5

E

H

D

-10

-15 B -20 0 25 50

F

G C 75 100 125 Time in ms

Figure 5-10. Corridor for FMVSS 208; S13.1; Figure 6

5-10

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

Figure 5-11. Acceleration Impulse of Test Sled in Accordance with EN 1789 and DIN 75302, Figure 7

Mathematical Calculation

The test must determine whether straight lines between two points exceed the specified range, not only whether the points themselves are within the given range, as shown in Figure 5-12.

Figure 5-12. Points and Connecting Lines Must be Within the Corridor.

Determining Input Values

The measured values of the acceleration are filtered in accordance with CFC60 (cf. CFC filters).

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE R16; Annex 8 ECE R44; Annex 7 ECE R80; Annex 4; Figure 1 FMVSS 208; S13.1 EN 1789 DIN75302

5-12

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Description of Additional Criteria

Gillis Index

Description

The Gillis index is a characteristic value for the assessment of the vehicle security during frontal impact. To calculate the Gillis index, the acceleration measurement points of the head and thorax are required as well as the forces on the femur of the driver and the passenger.

Mathematical Calculation

1. 2. 3. Calculate the HIC value and the HIC36 value for the driver and the passenger. Determine the 3ms values of the resultant thorax acceleration for driver and passenger. Determine the absolute maxima of the forces on the femur of the driver and the passenger.

The Gillis index is calculated in accordance with:

D 3 F +F G = HIC + ---------------------- 16, 7 -- + ----------------------------- 0, 44 9, 80665 4 4, 448232 4

F

F

F, l

F, r

1 D +F -- HIC B + ---------------------- 16, 7 3 + ----------------------------- 0, 44 1 -- F -2 9, 80665 4 4, 448232 4

The Gillis-Index for 36 milliseconds is calculated according to:

B

B, l

B, r

3 F D +F G36 = HIC36 + ---------------------- 16, 7 -- + ----------------------------- 0, 44 9, 80665 4 4, 448232 4

F

F

F, l

F, r

1 D 3 F +F 1 -- HIC36 B + ---------------------- 16, 7 -- + ----------------------------- 0, 44 -9, 80665 4 4, 448232 4 2

B

B, l

B, r

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

with: Indices HIC HIC36 D F F: Driver, B: Passenger, l: left, r: Right HIC value HIC36 value 3ms value of the resultant thorax acceleration Absolute maxima of the forces on the femur

Determining Input Values

cf. HIC and Xms

Relevant Laws and Regulations

5-14

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Description of Additional Criteria

NCAP

NCAP is the abbreviation for New Car Assessment Program.

Description

In order to evaluate the test results, the probabilities of head and thorax injuries according to Mertz (GM) and Prasad (Ford) are used.

Mathematical Calculation

The likelihood of head injuries is calculated according to:

P head = [ 1 + exp ( 5, 02 ( 0, 00351 HIC36 ) ) ]

with: HIC36 HIC36 value

1

The probability of thorax injuries is calculated in accordance with:

P chest = [ 1 + exp ( 5, 55 ( 0, 0693 a chest,

with:

3ms ) ) ]

1

achest, 3ms

3 ms value for chest acceleration

If head and thorax injuries occur simultaneously, a combined probability is calculated in accordance with:

P combined = P head + P chest ( P head P chest )

The following classification is determined with the determined probability of Pcombined: 0,00>Pcombined 0,10

0,10 < Pcombined 0,20 0,20 < Pcombined 0,35 0,35 < Pcombined 0, 45 0 ,00>Pcombined 0,45

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

Determining Input Values

--

Relevant Laws and Regulations

Refer to the Internet address www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/testing/ncap for

more information.

5-16

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

EuroNCAP

EuroNCAP is the abbreviation for European New Car Assessment Program.

Description

Vehicles are assessed and given stars that indicate the level of safety. The following tests are performed: · · · · Front Impact Side Impact Pole Side Impact Pedestrian Test

Mathematical Calculation

A EuroNCAP spreadsheet shows the test results as points.

33 - 40 points 25 - 32 points 17 - 24 points 9 - 16 points 1 - 8 points 0 points

Determining Input Values

--

Relevant Laws and Regulations

European New Car Assessment Programme Refer to the Internet address www.euroncap.com for more

information.

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

SI

SI is the abbreviation for the Severity Index.

Description

The SI value assesses the danger of a chest injury (obsolete, similar to HIC {head injury}). This procedure is based on the Wayne-State Curve of Human Tolerance of the human head.

Mathematical Calculation

The incremental SI value is calculated in accordance with:

Nj

SI j

inc

1 = ----------- N 1000

0,

i = N( j 1 )1

5 ( Ai

2, 5

+ Ai + 1 )

2, 5

with: j T N Ai j=1,2, ... T Length of the data set Values per ms i-th value of acceleration signal

The cumulative SI value is calculated in accordance with:

SI 1 SI j

cum cum

= SI 1

inc cum inc

= SI j 1 + SI j

with j = 2,3, ... T

Determining Input Values

--

Relevant Laws and Regulations

SAE J885

5-18

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Description of Additional Criteria

Integration

Description

All those numeric integration processes (differentiation processes) are suitable, which return the starting values after an integration followed by differentiation or a differentiation with a subsequent integration.

Mathematical Calculation

--

Determining Input Values

Note Note that numerical integration routine results are incorrect if there is an offset in the data set.

Relevant Laws and Regulations

SAE J1727, 3.1

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

Differentiation

Description

All those numeric differentiation processes (integration processes) are suitable, which return the starting values after an integration followed by differentiation or a differentiation with a subsequent integration.

Mathematical Calculation

The differentiation method in accordance with ECE R94 is (cf. VC): d 8 ( Y [ t + t ] Y [ t t ] ) ( Y [ t + 2t ] Y [ t 2t ] ) y [ t ] = V [ t ] = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------dt 12t with:

t

time interval between the single measurements in seconds

Determining Input Values

--

Relevant Laws and Regulations

ECE R94, Annex 4, 6.2 Directive 96/79/EG, Annex II, Appendix 2, 6.2 SAE J1727, 3.1

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

CFC filters

CFC is the abbreviation for Channel Frequency Class

Description

The CFC filters are analog or digital filters. The filters can be phased or un-phased. The filter types usually used are listed in Table 5-1.

Table 5-1. Filter Types

Filter type CFC60

Filter parameters 3 dB limit frequency Stop damping Sampling frequency 100Hz -30 dB at least 600 Hz 300Hz -30 dB at least 1800 Hz 1,000Hz -40 dB at least 6 khz 1,650Hz -40 dB at least 10 khz

CFC180

3 dB limit frequency Stop damping Sampling frequency

CFC600

3 dB limit frequency Stop damping Sampling frequency

CFC1000

3 dB limit frequency Stop damping Sampling frequency

Mathematical Calculation

In accordance with SAE J211, a 4-channel Butterworth low pass with linear phase and special starting conditions is used as a digital filter. The filter sequence is described by the following difference equation: Y [ t ] = a0 X [ t ] + a1 X [ t 1 ] + a2 X [ t 2 ] + b1 Y [ t 1 ] + b2 Y [ t 2 ]

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

The filter constants are calculated in accordance with:

w d = 2 CFC 2, 0775 T sin w d -2 w a = -----------------T cos w d -2 wa a 0 = ----------------------------------2 1 + 2w a + w a a 1 = 2a 0 a2 = a0 2 ( wa 1 ) b 1 = ----------------------------------2 1 + 2w a + w a 1 + 2w a w a b 2 = --------------------------------------2 1 + 2w a + w a

with: X[t] Y[t] a0, a1, a2, b1, b2 T Input data sequence Filtered output data sequence Filter constants varying with CFC Sampling rate in seconds

2 2 2

The difference equation describes a two-channel filter: To realize a four-channel filter, the data of the two-channel filter has to run twice: once forwards and once backwards, to prevent phase displacements.

5-22

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Description of Additional Criteria

Note

The filter constant wd is calculated differently to SAE J211 in the ISO 6487 sample

code:

5 w d = 2 CFC 1, 25 -3

is

w d = 2 CFC 2, 0833

Determining Input Values

--

Relevant Laws and Regulations

SAE J211, 9.4.1 SAE J211, 3.95, Appendix C ISO 6487, 4.5 ISO 6487, 5.8

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

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Chapter 5

Description of Additional Criteria

FIR100 filter

FIR is the abbreviation for Finite Impulse Response

Description

FIR filters are digital filters.

Mathematical Calculation

Filter characteristics in accordance with FMVSS 214, S6.13.5.4 · · · · Passband frequency Stopband frequency Stopband gain) Passband ripple 100 Hz 189 Hz -50 dB 0.0225 dB

NHTSA algorithm for FIR100: · · · · · CFC180 unphased Subsampling to 1600 Hz Removal of bias FIR filters in accordance with filter characteristic FMVSS 214 Oversampling to original sampling rate

Determining Input Values

--

Relevant Laws and Regulations

FMVSS 214, S6.13.5.4 SAE J1727, 3.5

5-24

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

Legislation and Directives

6

The legislation and directives are written as follows:

European Legislation

ECE-R80 (May 2001) ECE-R94 (June 2000) Directive 96/79/EG (16th December 1996) ECE-R95 (May 2001) Directive 96/27/EG (20th May 1996)

American Legislation

Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (49 CFR Part 571)

FMVSS 201 (10/2001) FMVSS 208 (5/2000) FMVSS 214

Current American stipulations are also available in the Internet: www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr

Standards and Directives

SAE J1727 (8.96) SAE J1733 (12.94) SAE J2052 (3.90) SAE J211 (3.95) ISO 6487 (07.87) ISO TS 13499:2002 DIN 75302 EN 1789

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

6-1

Chapter 6

Legislation and Directives

EuroNCAP (Version 4.0, January 2003); European New Car

Assessment Programme, www.euroencap.com/testprocedures

Robert A. Denton, Sign Conventions for Load Cells (S.A.E. J-211)

Rev. 27AUG02

6-2

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

Limits

Table 6-1. Criteria for Different Test Types

Type

FMVSS214 Side Impact 1972 50 km/h Mob.Def.Bar. 90° 950 kg X From 1998 From 1998 From 2003 From 2003 Front/ Side-Impact Front ODB Side ODB Front Impact Side Impact Side Pole From 2003 NCAP ECE-R94 96/79/EG EuroNCAP EuroNCAP EuroNCAP ECE-R95 96/27/EG

America

Europe

Other methods

ADAC Front/ Side Impact AMuS Front/ Side Impact

FMVSS208

Front Impact

Validity

60 km/h 29 km/h carrier Pole -- 90° 40% 0°

55 km/h 50% 90°

Velocity Barrier Overlapping Impact angle -- Active 1,368 kg -- / 1368 kg 950 kg X

NPRM 12.5.00 56/48 km/h Fixed bar. 100% 0° 56/61 km/h Rigid/def. bar. 100%/ -- 0° 50 km/h Mob.Def.Bar. -- 90°

NPRM 18.9.98 54 km/h Mob.Def.Bar -- 27°

Test weight

-- X

Plus luggage X

950 kg X

Restraint syst. PASSENGERS US-SID; Spec. HIII - 50 % HIII - 50 % -- -- -- Euro-SID -- -- -- -- HIII -50% US-SID

Passive

56 km/h Def. bar. 40% 0° Addit. weight X

64 km/h Def. bar. 40% 0° Addit. weight X

Driver

HIII 5, 50, 95%

HIII - 50 % HIII - 50 % P3

Euro-SID ES-2 from 11/02 -- P11/2

Euro-SID ES-2 from 11/02 -- --

HIII-50%/Eu rosid HIII-50%/Eu rosid --

50%/Eurosid 50%/Eurosid --

Front seat pass.

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

-- 18.89 -25.56°C -- 19-22ºC -- -- -- 18-26°C P11/2 19º-22º (>5h) P3 18-26ºC (>5h) -- 18-26ºC (>5h) -- -- 1000 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1000 80g -- MOC, Fz -- -- 1000 -- -- -- -- -- 1000 (HIC36)b a 80g 20g MOC, Fz -- -- 1000 (HIC36) -- -- -- -- -- 1000 (HIC36) 80g -- -- -- -- 1000 80g -- -- -- --

Pos. 4 - behind driver

Pos. 6 - behind passenger

-- --

Temperature (measurement time) SAFETY CRITERIAa

HIII 5, 50, 95% HIII 12m, 3-year, 6-year HIII 12m, 3-year, 6-year 20.55 -22.22°C

HIC, HPC

1000 80g -- -- -- --

Head res 3ms Head vert. 3ms Neck flex/extens. Thorax T1 Thorax T12

1000 (HIC36) 700 (HIC15) -- -- 190/57 Nm -- --

6-3

6-4

Type

FMVSS214 Side Impact -- -- -- -- -- 85/90g -- 130g -- -- -- -- -- 130g -- kN 10 -- -- -- -- 60g -- mm 50 m/s 1.0 -- -- -- -- Force/Time 15 mm kN 8 1,3 -- -- -- 42.0 mm m/s 1.0 -- 2.5 kN -- kN 6 -- -- -- -- -- 60g 30g mm 50 m/s 1.0 -- -- -- -- Force/Time 15 mm kN 8 1,3 -- -- -- 42.0 mm m/s 1.0 -- 2.5 kN -- kN 6 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Front/ Side-Impact -- 60g/ -- -- 76.2 mm m/s / -- 1.0 85/90g Front ODB Side ODB Front Impact Side Impact Side Pole NCAP ECE-R94 96/79/EG EuroNCAP EuroNCAP EuroNCAP ADAC ECE-R95 96/27/EG

America

Europe

Other methods

AMuS

FMVSS208

Front Impact

Ribs ChestRes 3ms Head vert. 3ms Chest compression VC TTI Abdomen Pelvis Pubic Symphysis Femur Knee Lower leg Tibia Index

-- 60g -- 76.2 mm m/s 1.0 -- -- -- -- 10 kN -- -- --

Front/ Side Impact -- 60g -- / 50 42mm m/s -- 1.0 -- 2.5 kN -- kN 6 Force/Time 15 mm kN 8 1,3

Front/ Side Impact -- 60g -- / 50 42mm m/s/ -- 1.0 -- 2.5 kN -- kN 6 Force/Time 15 mm kN 8 1,3

© Data Processing Vehicle Safety Workgroup -- Crash Analysis Criteria Version 1.6.2

a.Children have different injury criteria b.The limit values differ according to vehicle equipment and head contact.

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