Read Microsoft PowerPoint - NREGA PRESENTATION [New]30-8-08 text version

S.M. Vijayanand Principal Secretary Local Self Government

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BACKGROUND

Magna Carta of the Unorganised Manual Labour Concept of right to work as an entitlement Culmination of 3 ½ decade ­old demand Arrived at after several tentative efforts An Activists' Act Potential for sustainable Poverty Reduction Good working model has emerged Powerful political will for change Need to deconstruct ­ unlearn the past

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COMPARISON OF NREGS & EARLIER PROGRAMMES

NREGS Concept

Legal guarantee of right to employment ­ a full blown entitlement ­ a new vision of rights-based development for the poor Non-exclusive and total coverage Demand-based Self-targeting Focus on employment Focus on productive sector sustainable development Natural resource management ­ ­ for No grand vision ­ concepts incidental to schemes ­ based on executive decisions and instructions Limited in scope and coverage Supply-based Patronage-based Focus on assets Focus on public works, predominantly roads Real estate development ­ Perspective of the bureaucrat / engineer / middleman-contractor

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EARLIER PROGRAMMES

Labour perspective ­ voice of the worker

COMPARISON OF NREGS & EARLIER PROGRAMMES (Contd.)

NREGS Concept

Gender sensitive Off season employment Real participatory planning Transparent Accountable Vision-based perspective planning Organic, central role for PRIs Male / machine ­ dominated Peak season expenditure Negotiated priorities ­ decision based on local power relations Opaque Manipulative Short term priority listing Marginal agency role for PRIs

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EARLIER PROGRAMMES

COMPARISON OF NREGS & EARLIER PROGRAMMES (Contd.)

NREGS EARLIER PROGRAMMES Planning

Long preparatory phase Elaborate communication and extension Real planning from below covering who, what, where, when and how. Elaborate budget ­ work to match demand Can be integrated with varied development works Integrated plan Statutory across-tier linkages in the Panchayat Raj system Multi-dimensional action plans covering time, space, manpower and resources Results-based and outcome-oriented Real People's Plan Hurried quick-fix plans Routine motions for form's sake Hotchpotch list of works Financial budget ­ work resources Limited to schematic works Isolated works Independent and repetitive plans Two-dimensional action resources and works Expenditure oriented Bureaucratic/technocratic plan

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match

plan

covering

COMPARISON OF NREGS & EARLIER PROGRAMMES (Contd.)

NREGS EARLIER PROGRAMMES Organization

Panchayat in central development from within place ­ Middleman-contractor in central place ­ outsourcing development AS & TS in response to middlemen contractor clout Most of the activities carried out by the middlemen contractor except measurement and payment

Administrative Sanction and Technical Sanction before organization of work All activities done inhouse ·Getting together workers ·Executing the work ·Mustering ·Material procuring ·Measuring ·Paying Fortnightly measuring and payment

Often once or twice per work

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COMPARISON OF NREGS & EARLIER PROGRAMMES (Contd.)

NREGS EARLIER PROGRAMMES Organization

People's estimates Minimum wages Equal wages ­ strong subsidizing the weak Piece rate Local labour Payment through Bank Engineer's estimates Market wages Differential wages

Mostly bulk measurement Often outside labour Direct cash payment

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COMPARISON OF NREGS & EARLIER PROGRAMMES (Contd.)

NREGS EARLIER PROGRAMMES Organization

Payment by Government Work without whip ­ new dynamics of mutual help and group discipline Actual material labour ratio No abandoned works

Payment by middleman-contractor Ruthless supervision by middlemancontractor Notional and fictitious ratio Quite a number of abandoned works

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COMPARISON OF NREGS & EARLIER PROGRAMMES (Contd.)

NREGS EARLIER PROGRAMMES Administration

Outside DRDA Clear role for District Project Coordinator, Block Programme Officer etc. Real records ·Estimates ·Muster rolls ·Vouchers ·Measurements Integrated and consistent data base ·Unique ID of workers ·Unique ID of work ·ID of muster rolls ·Payment vouchers ·Bank Accounts of individuals No such data base Often "created" records DRDA centered Roles routinised over the years

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COMPARISON OF NREGS & EARLIER PROGRAMMES (Contd.)

NREGS EARLIER PROGRAMMES Administration

Close monitoring ·National level monitoring ·State level monitoring ·District level monitoring ·Inspection schedule Clear accountability systems ·Proactive disclosures ·Vigilance and Monitoring Committees ·Social Audit ·Penalties Ritualized and routine Routine monitoring

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COMPARISON OF NREGS & EARLIER PROGRAMMES (Contd.)

NREGS EARLIER PROGRAMMES Special features

Difficult to manipulate Criticality of Panchayat capacity Proactive role of Government of India High visibility, watched with interest by supporters and opponents Clearly articulated political will Easy to manipulate No such issue Routine role of Government of India No such interest

No such will

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COMPARISON OF NREGS & EARLIER PROGRAMMES (Contd.)

NREGS EARLIER PROGRAMMES Qualitative Distinctions

Rights-based Inclusive Participatory Redistributive Liberating Empowering Transparent Integrated Planned People-centered Patronage-based Exclusive Co-optive Rent-seeking Domesticating Exploiting Manipulated Atomised "Schemed" Power-centered

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COMPARISON OF NREGS & EARLIER PROGRAMMES (Contd.)

NREGS EARLIER PROGRAMMES Qualitative Distinctions

Engendered Organic Ecological Outcome-based Developmental Democratic Humanistic Vision-based REAL Male dominated Disjointed Mechanical Target-based Departmental Bureaucratic Materialistic Greed-based MAKE BELIEVE

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DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL

Focus on following works

Water conservation and water harvesting Drought proofing including aforestation and tree plantation Irrigation canals Irrigation facility to SC/ST/BPL lands Renovation of traditional water bodies Land Development Flood control and Drainage Rural connectivity

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DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL

(Contd..)

Primary Focus on Employment

Additional not substituted For Poverty Reduction ­ from work to skill Not tozhil dhanam Ultimately self-liquidating

Natural Resource Management

Watershed Management Land Development Soil and water conservation Micro Irrigation Horticulture

Eco Restoration

Forest Work River rejuvenation

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DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL

(Contd...) Social Security

Savings

Local Economic Development

Development of SC/ST/BPL Lands Increasing Agricultural Production Additional Income fueling Local Demands

Women's Empowerment

Kudumbasree and Women's perspectives Women workers Equal Wages Potential for thrift Intra-household status

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DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL

(Contd...) New opportunity for convergent poverty reduction

NREGA ­ additional spending powers NRHM Health Security Health Insurance SSA ­ Education Nutrition PDS Food & Nutritions Security Pensions Life Insurance Social Security Kudumbashree for self employment People's Plan for basic minimum needs

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DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL

(Contd...)

Social Mobilisation and Empowerment of worker Panchayat Empowerment

Planning Capacity Organization Capacity Ward Level Action ­ Leadership of the member Investment in all places - additional Partnership with Kudumbasree Organic ties with poorer agricultural labourers Continuous

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DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL

(Contd...) Ties with small/marginal farmers IN SUM, NREGS has relevance for 5 lakh workers ­ families With investment potential of Rs. 1040 Crore in backward areas.

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ACHIEVEMENTS

Zero Corruption New form of work organization & Work culture Move away from roads Visible Improvement in Local Economy Women Empowerment Respectability of Public Works & Large turnover Inspiring Cases

Work by small farmers Royal family participation

Social Audit ­ viable methodology

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ACHIEVEMENTS (Contd..)

High Degree of Acceptance

Local Governments Activist Media Workers Political leaders

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ISSUES TO BE ADDRESSED

Long Preparation time Not yet demand-based Clashing with agricultural season ­ substitution No clear Labour Budget Tribals still left out No large schemes Difficulties in identification of schemes in Plantations Proper Systems of material purchase not in place NRM Plans not yet ready Shortage of Technical Staff Delays in measurement and payment Integration with People's Plan not satisfactory link with department week MIS still weak Minimum wages not revised after 2003

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NEW INITIATIVES

Perspective Plan Focus on NRM River rejuvenation Paddy fields rejuvenation Time and motion study IT Applications Integrated MIS For Designs, Estimates, Bills Smart card-based payment Labour Bank Barefoot engineers Link with Departments Mass Social Audit Deterrent action against corruption

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CONCLUSION

· Limited relevance to Kerala

· educated unemployment among the poor and unemployability

· Inclusion of following items

· · · · Housing Cultivation in marginal farms Compost /soak pits Expanding permissible items to include services

· Cleaning public places · Barefoot extension work · Care of the elderly/chronically ill

· Creation of fund for employment ­ focussed skill development

· Self employment · Wage employment

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Information

Microsoft PowerPoint - NREGA PRESENTATION [New]30-8-08

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