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City Identity and Image

A first discussion

Erik Braun & Alexander Otgaar EURICUR Erasmus University Rotterdam

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Structure of the presentation

Urban dynamics in Europe The consequences for cities What cities do to change their image Key observations on city image(s) City image rooted in city identity?

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Canarias (E)

Guadeloupe Martinique

Réunion

(F)

(F) Guyane (F)

(F)

Açores (P)

Madeira

(P)

Kypros

SIG16

A.9 Spacing between European urban areas

Euclidean distance between centres of urban areas

less than 100 km 100 km to 150 km

Source: GEOPOLIS, F.Moriconi-Ebrard, 1993 @GIP R.E.C.L.U.S. Equipe P.A.R.I.S., C. Rozenblat, 1995

0 100 500 km

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Urban dynamics in Europe

The `Informational society' is one of the drivers behind urban change Globalisation is another driver behind urban change Competition between cities and regions Increasing interdependencies between cities and regions across Europe Generally speaking the differences among the `old member states and among regions have diminished Differences within regions, and especially within cities increase

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Urban dynamics in Europe

Cities are considered as engines behind the EU economy

Capital cities are major contributors to economic growth Economic performance of cities in transition is below the national average

Increasing social polarisation and spatial fragmentation

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The consequences for cities

Safeguard the city's competitiveness and stimulate social inclusion at the same time. Cities operate in a media society City marketing (or place marketing) has gained attention as a weapon against competition Image and identity have become key concerns of city managers and urban planners in times of globalisation and growing personal mobility. It has become essential to emotionally bind local residents and firms to a place, and to attract outside interest in the place

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What cities do to change their image

Branding City websites (Sporting or Cultural) Events Landmark buildings & projects Architecture & public space Citizen involvement; civic pride Urban communication policy (PR, media relations etc.) Sports team or cultural institution

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Example 1: Branding

A brand is more than a label or umbrella of products Brands bring to mind distinct images, associations, and experiences. Brands are not only a source of differentiation, but also of identification, recognition, continuity and collectivity. "Schmitt (1999) a brand is a rich source of sensory, affective and cognitive associations that result in memorable brand experiences

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Branding Amsterdam

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Building a brand for Birmingham

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Building a brand for Birmingham

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Building a brand for Birmingham

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Building a brand for Birmingham

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B for Barcelona

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Basel beats differently

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Basel beats differently

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Miffy loves New York City

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Miffy loves New York City

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Example 2: websites

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Example 3: Events

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Events

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Events

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Events

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Events: Cultural Capital 2004?

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Events: Cultural Capital 2004?

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Example 4: Landmark buildings & projects

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Bullring in Birmingham

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Key observations about the city image(s)

City image is the perception of the city (or city functions) by the stakeholders There is not just one city image The image presented by a city should be different from the image presented by others (competing cities) A one-dimensional image can make a city very vulnerable, and therefore, a more pluralist range of presentations seems advisable.

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Key observations about the city image(s)

City's image as a place to: ·Live ·Work ·Invest ·Visit ·Recreate ·Shop ·Etc. City's image as desired by Policy Makers

Urban Stakeholders

Black Box?

Perception

Possible GAP

City identity

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What's the black box about?

No definite answer but: 1. A key element is information processing

Information comes from various sources, own experience and experience of others, professional advice etc. influence the perception of stakeholders! There are limits to access to information as well as the capacity of stakeholders to process that information (bounded rationality) Information brokers and creators (opinion makers, media etc.)

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What's the black box about?

2. Emotions

(Personal) history, sympathy etc.

3. Associations

With: people, buildings, sports teams, important events, museums, companies, parks, public space, but also: crime, violence, pollution, congestion etc. Imagineability of the urban environment,

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A difficult concept: urban identity

Kotler states that you can create and design identities for places: "places are, indeed, products whose identities and values must be designed and marketed" Murray presents a different view: " identities can not be designed but need to be discovered"

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City image rooted in city identity?

Identity is not the same as image Identity is rooted in the community Murray: "Set of energetic (positive and negative) views held by individuals and communities" Identity can be described as `what the entity is': its character, its culture and personality An area (neighbourhood, city, region) can have several (multiple) identities

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Key observations about the city image(s)

City's image as a place to: ·Live ·Work ·Invest ·Visit ·Recreate ·Shop ·Etc. City's image as desired by Policy Makers

Urban Stakeholders

Black Box?

Perception

Possible GAP

City identity

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To conclude:

Build the on the identity and image framework as the scientific backbone of the project Position the TWT themes in the framework

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Information

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