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LEGISLATION AND STANDARDS

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HAZWOPER Training Manual

P/N 75001200

40-HOUR HAZARDOUS WASTE & EMERGENCY RESPONSE TRAINING

Envirowin Software, LLC

www.envirowin.com

P/N 75001200 Copyright © 2002 EnviroWin Software, LLC Reproduction Strictly Prohibited

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Editorial and Production Staff:

Publisher: Editor: Editorial Consultant: Graphic Coordinator: Writer: Envirowin Software, LLC Peggy Marino Peter Kennedy Martha Lovvoll Digital 2000, Inc.

HAZWOPER Training Manual

P/N 75001200

Copyright ©2002 Envirowin Software, LLC

DISCLAIMER

The information contained in this training manual is presented as a guide only, exclusively for the promotion of illness/injury prevention and to assist companies in complying with Federal Regulations relating to Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response. It is not a comprehensive review of all actions that may be taken to minimize damage, loss or to successfully comply with these Federal regulations. The producer makes no representation or warranties, express, implied or statutory, regarding the suitability of this material for your use in developing a comprehensive illness/injury prevention and safety program or HAZWOPER Program. Consult with your legal advisor concerning matters involving legal issues. The producer assumes no responsibilities and expressly disclaims liability for any injury, including death or any loss, damage, or exposure arising out of, or in any way related to, the use of this manual/training program or written materials accompanying this program. The company/person purchasing this manual or training program accepts understanding of this disclaimer by using the manual/training program in company training programs.

FBI WARNING--COPYRIGHT INFORMATION

No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and

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retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright holder. Envirowin Software, LLC, does give permission to those companies purchasing the HAZWOPER manual, with the manual on computer disk, to make changes as necessary for their company operations and to make as many copies of the manual as necessary for their own in-house use. HAZWOPER manual is a violation of copyright law and is infringement.

ISBN 1-55645-143-1 Printed in the United States of America Questions or comments may be addressed to: Envirowin Software, LLC 141 Mill Rock Road East Old Saybrook, CT 06475-4212 800-454-0404

Selling,

loaning, renting, or giving this information to others outside the entity that purchased the

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section

Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6

Topic

Legislation And Standards Toxicology and Chemistry Informational Resources/Hazard Recognition Containers and Labeling in Transportation of Hazardous Waste Compatibility of Hazardous Materials and Hazardous Wastes Safety at HAZMAT Incidents

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Page 9 Page 33 Page 46 Page 66 Page 91 Page 100

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training Section 7 Section 8 Section 9 Section 10 Section 11 Section 12 Section 13 Section 14 Exercise #1 Exercise #2 Exercise #3 Appendix A Appendix B Confined Spaces Incident Management Structure Surveying the Incident Personal Protective Equipment Metering HAZMAT Spill Control Decontamination Termination Procedure Hazardous Substance Incident Exercise #1 Hazardous Substance Incident Exercise #2 Optional Hazardous Substance Incident Exercise Material Safety Data Sheets Answers To In-Class Assignments

Click on the symbol

Page 125 Page 144 Page159 Page 179 Page 206 Page 218 Page 230 Page 241 Page 247 Page 250 Page 252 Page 255 Page 302

to go back to the Table of Contents.

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4040-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training COURSE OUTLINE

DAY 1

Video - HAZWOPER ORIENTATION Introductions Video Video ­ ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS OF CHEMICAL MATERIALS Section 1. Legislation And Standards

LUNCH

Video ­ INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL TOXICOLOGY Section 2. Toxicology and Chemistry Video ­ HAZWOPER IDENTIFYING HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Section 3. Informational Resources/Hazard Recognition

DAY 2

Video ­ CHEMICAL SAFETY Section 4. Containers and Labeling in Transportation of Hazardous Waste Video ­ FIRE PREVENTION RESPONSIBILITY Section 5. Compatibility of Hazardous Materials and Hazardous Wastes

LUNCH

Video ­ ONSITE SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS Section 6. Safety at HAZMAT Incidents Section 6.1 ­ 6.10 Video ­ HAZWOPER MEDICAL Section 6. Safety at HAZMAT Incidents Section 6.11 ­ 6.20 Video ­ BONDING GROUNDING OF FLAMM. LIQUID TRANS. Section 6. Safety at HAZMAT Incidents Section 6.21 ­ 6.30 Section 7. Confined Spaces

Show Bonding Grounding video prior to Sec. 6.21 Show HAZWOPER Medical video prior to Sec. 6.11

DAY 3

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Section 8. Incident Management Structure Video ­ S.T.E.P. SAFETY TRAINING AND EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS Section 9. Survey the Incident Section 9.1 ­ 9.5 Video ­ NFPA HAZARDOUS MATERIALS LABELING ID Section 9. Survey the Incident Section 9.6 ­ 9.12

Show NFPA video prior to Section 9.6

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4040-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training COURSE OUTLINE

LUNCH

Video ­ CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHINGS Section 10. Personal Protective Equipment Section 10.1 ­ 10.14 Video ­ RESPIRATORY PROTECTION SELECTION AND USE Video ­ HAZWOPER DONNING & DOFFING DECON. Section 10. Personal Protective Equipment Section 10.15 Video ­ LIFE SAVING THROUGH AIR MONITORING Section 11. Metering

Show next 2 videos prior to Section 10.15

DAY 4

Video ­ HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SPILL CLEANUP Section 12. HAZMAT Spill Control Section 13. Decontamination Section 14. Termination Procedure

LUNCH

Hazardous Substance Incident Exercise #1 Critique of Hazardous Substance Incident Exercise #1

DAY 5

Hazardous Substance Incident Exercise #2 Critique of Hazardous Substance Incident Exercise #2

LUNCH

FINAL EXAM Course Critique Completion Certificates

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2424-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training COURSE OUTLINE

DAY 1

Introductions Video ­ ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS OF CHEMICAL MATERIALS Section 1. Legislation And Standards Video ­ HAZWOPER IDENTIFYING HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Section 3. Informational Resources/Hazard Recognition

Skip in-class assignment Skip in-class assignment

LUNCH

Video ­ CHEMICAL SAFETY Section 4. Containers and Labeling in Transportation of Hazardous Waste Video ­ FIRE PREVENTION RESPONSIBILITY Section 5. Compatibility of Hazardous Materials and Hazardous Wastes

Skip in-class assignment

DAY 2

Video ­ HAZWOPER MEDICAL Section 6. Safety at HAZMAT Incidents Section 8. Incident Management Structure Section 9. Survey the Incident

Skip in-class assignment Skip in-class assignment Skip in-class assignment

LUNCH

Video ­ CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHINGS Section 10. Personal Protective Equipment Section 10.1 ­ 10.14 Video ­ RESPIRATORY PROTECTION SELECTION AND USE Video ­ HAZWOPER DONNING & DOFFING DECON. Section 10. Personal Protective Equipment Section 10.15 Video ­ LIFE SAVING THROUGH AIR MONITORING Section 11. Metering

Show next 2 videos prior to Section 10.15

DAY 3

Video ­ HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SPILL CLEANUP Section 12. HAZMAT Spill Control

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Section 13. Decontamination Section 14. Termination Procedure

LUNCH

FINAL EXAM Course Critique Completion Certificates

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8-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training COURSE OUTLINE

DAY 1

Video - HAZWOPER ORIENTATION Introductions Video ­ ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS OF CHEMICAL MATERIALS Section 2. Toxicology and Chemistry Section 3. Informational Resources/Hazard Recognition Section 6. Safety at HAZMAT Incidents

Skip in-class assignment Skip in-class assignment Skip in-class assignment

LUNCH

Section 9. Survey the Incident Section 10. Personal Protective Equipment FINAL EXAM Course Critique Completion Certificates

Skip in-class assignment

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INTRODUCTION

1. Watch the Video HAZWOPER ORIENTATION ORIENTATION. 2. Introductions of Instructor and Class. 3. Watch the Video ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS REGULATIONS MATERIALS OF CHEMICAL MATERIALS. 4. Go through Section 1 ­ Legislation And Standards

Day 1 (A.M.)

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1

LEGISLATION AND STANDARDS

In 1970, Congress established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). As defined in its enabling legislation, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, OSHA's mission is to "Assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions." This mandate involves the application of a set of tools by OSHA (e.g., standards development, enforcement, compliance assistance) that enable employers to maintain safe and healthful workplaces.

1.1 WHAT IS HAZWOPER?

HAZWOPER actually means Haz Hazardous Waste Op Operations and Emergency Response. Today, we'll discuss what this means and explain your responsibilities in meeting the requirements of these laws, rules, and procedures. The objective of HAZWOPER training is to provide the information necessary to help each and every person involved with hazardous materials to be able to respond effectively to any emergency. Now you may say, "I'm not involved with hazardous waste, I work only with petroleum products or toluene." Different government agencies regard these materials as hazardous waste if they are spilled, so everyone's involved. The protection of people, the environment, and property are the primary goals of HAZWOPER training. HAZWOPER has everything to do with the safety of employees and property, of the employer and surrounding communities, whether industrial, commercial, or residential. Over 70,000 chemicals are used by industry. Some 15,000 chemicals are made in industrial laboratories on a large scale today, and between 500 and 1,000 new chemicals are introduced each year. These simple statistics provide the basis for

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increased awareness, training, and responsibility when working with any type of chemicals. As the environment becomes more fragile and our responsibilities in protecting the environment and people increase, training becomes absolutely critical in meeting these responsibilities. No matter how technologically advanced we become with improved machines, equipment, and processes; there's always the threat of an emergency. In emergencies, human factors and, specifically, the training of those persons working in and around hazardous materials must be of the highest caliber and intensity. The more you know, the better you'll be able to react to emergencies. Your training can be the difference between successful containment or prevention of the emergency.

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1.2 SYNOPSIS: REGULATIONS LEADING UP TO THE FINAL RULE

A. THE RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT OF 1976 The first comprehensive, federal effort to deal with the solid waste problem in general, and hazardous waste specifically, came with the passage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The act provides for the development of federal and state programs for otherwise unregulated land disposal of waste materials and for the development of resource recovery programs. It regulates anyone engaged in the creation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of "hazardous wastes". It also regulates facilities for the disposal of all solid wastes and prohibits the use of open dumps for solid wastes in favor of requiring sanitary landfills. There are, however, many hazardous waste disposal sites that were created prior to the passage of RCRA. These sites are often abandoned and contain quantities of unknown wastes. B. THE COMPREHENSIVE, ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION AND LIABILITY ACT OF 1980 In response to the need to clean up and properly reclaim these pre-RCRA sites, Congress enacted the Comprehensive, Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) commonly known as "Superfund". Superfund established two related funds to be used for the immediate removal of hazardous substances released into the environment. Superfund is intended to establish a mechanism of response for the immediate clean up of hazardous waste contamination from accidental spills and from chronic environmental damage such as is associated with abandoned hazardous waste disposal sites. The treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes under RCRA and CERCLA creates a significant risk to the health and safety of the employees who work in treatment and disposal operations. Exposure to hazardous wastes through skin contact, skin absorption and inhalation pose the most significant risk to employees.

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Employee exposure to these risks occurs when employees respond to hazardous waste emergencies, when they work with hazardous wastes during storage, treatment and disposal operations, or when they participate in the clean up of abandoned waste sites. REAUTHORIZATION C. SUPERFUND AMENDMENTS AND REAUTHORIZATION ACT OF 1986 On October 17, 1986, the President signed into law the "Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). SARA provides that the Secretary of Labor shall "...pursuant to section 6 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, promulgate standards for the health and safety of employees engaged in hazardous waste operations." These standards must be promulgated within 1 year after the date of enactment of SARA.

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This notice initiates the development of those standards by issuing proposed regulations as indicated in Section 126(b) of SARA. SARA further provides in Section 126(b), that the proposed regulations address, as a minimum, certain worker protection provisions. These are: · · · · · · · · · · · Site Analysis Training Medical Surveillance Personal Protective Equipment Engineering Controls Maximum Exposure Limits Informational Programs Materials Handling New Technology Programs Decontamination Procedures Emergency Response

OSHA has specifically used the joint OSHA/EPA/USCG/NIOSH manual entitled "Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities" (Preamble Reference 6), as an outline in preparing The Final Rule. This manual was developed as a result of the collaborative efforts of professionals representing the four agencies. These professionals, who are knowledgeable in hazardous waste operations, worked with over 100 experts and organizations in the development of the criteria contained in this manual. The manual was published in October 1985 and is public information. The manual is a guidance document for managers responsible for occupational safety and health programs at active hazardous waste sites. The manual is intended for use by government officials at all levels and contractors involved in hazardous waste operations. Further, the major subject areas listed in Section 126(b) of SARA are nearly identical to the major chapters in the manual. The language of the proposed rule also clarifies some confusion in the interim rule that OSHA has identified since the promulgation of the interim final rule.

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1.3 SYNOPSIS: 29 CFR 1910.120 ­ THE FINAL RULE

Under the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), OSHA was required to promulgate standards to protect workers engaged in hazardous waste operations and emergency response activities. A rule promulgating final standards for these workers was published in the March 6, 1989 Federal Register, pages 9294-9336. A. APPLICABILITY The final hazardous waste/emergency response worker protection standards cover three distinct types of operations: 1) Clean up operations of the following types: · Those required by a federal, state, or local governmental body involving hazardous waste substances at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites, including National Priorities List (NPL) sites, sites recommended for the NPL, state Superfund sites, and initial investigations of government-identified sites that are conducted before the presence or absence of hazardous substances has been ascertained; · RCRA corrective actions; and Voluntary clean up operations at sites recognized by federal, state, or local governmental bodies as uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.

·

2) Hazardous waste management operations at treatment, storage, and disposal

(TSD) facilities under RCRA.

NOTE: Small quantity generators, i.e., <1,000 kilograms/month, and generators whose operations only involve storage of hazardous waste for less than 90 days are exempt from the worker protection standards unless they employ emergency response teams.

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3) Emergency Response Operations for releases, or substantial threats of releases, or hazardous substances, regardless of the location of the hazard. Because the requirements for each of these groups vary, they are discussed separately in the following sections. NOTE: Both private and public sector workers are covered by the standards.

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1.4 OPERATIONS COVERED BY 29 CFR 1910.120

· · · CLEAN UP RCRA-TSD FACILITIES EMERGENCY RESPONSE

A. REQUIREMENTS FOR CLEAN UP OPERATIONS Meeting the requirements of the hazardous waste worker protection standards for clean up operations involves development and implementation of and/or compliance with the following items. 1. A Safety and Health Program 2. Site Characterization and Analysis Requirements 3. A Site Control Program 4. Training Requirements 5. Informational Programs 6. A Medical Surveillance Program 7. Requirements for Engineering Controls, Work Practice and Personal Protective Equipment 8. Monitoring Requirements 9. Decontamination Requirements 10. Container and Drum Handling Requirements 11. An Emergency Response Plan 12. Sanitation and Lighting Requirements

The following sections discuss in detail the above requirements that employers involved in clean up operations must meet.

1. SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM

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Employers must develop and implement a written safety and health program designed to identify, evaluate, and control safety and health hazards, as well as provide for emergency response if necessary. The written safety and health program must be modified on a site-by-site basis and must incorporate the following elements.

1) An organizational structure that establishes a chain of command and specifies overall responsibilities of supervisors and employees. At a minimum, this structure must show: · · · The general supervisor with the responsibility and authority to direct all hazardous waste operations, a site safety and health supervisor; and all other personnel involved in hazardous waste operations and emergency response. 2) A comprehensive work plan addressing the tasks and objectives of the site operations and the logistics and resources necessary to reach those objectives, including implementation of required training, medical surveillance, and informational programs.

3) The employer's standard operating procedures for safety and health. 4) A site-specific safety and health plan, which must be kept on-site, addressing the safety and health hazards of each phase of site operation, as well as requirements and procedures for employee protection. At a minimum this plan must include:

· ·

A risk analysis for each site task and operation found in the work plan; Employee training assignments, including provisions for pre-entry briefings to be held before initiating any site activities, and at any other times as necessary to ensure that the employees are apprised of the safety and health plan is being followed;

·

Medical surveillance requirements in accordance with the required medical surveillance program;

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· Frequency and types of air monitoring, personnel monitoring, and environmental sampling, including instrumentation to be used and calibration of that equipment; · · · · · Site control measures in accordance with the required site control program; Decontamination procedures as discussed in a later section; An emergency response plan as discussed in a later section; Confined space entry procedures; and A spill containment program.

5) Any necessary interface between general program and site-specific activities. 6) A medical surveillance program as discussed in a later section. NOTE: The safety and health programs developed and implemented to meet other federal, state, or local regulations are acceptable in meeting these requirements, provided that all requirements are met or modifications are made for that purpose. In such cases, an additional safety and health program is not necessary. The written safety and health program must be made available to employees, employee-designated representatives; any contractors or subcontractors who will be involved in hazardous waste operations, or their designated representatives; OSHA personnel; and personnel of any other federal, state, or local agencies with regulatory authority over the site. In addition, the employer is required to inform contractors and subcontractors of site emergency response procedures and any potential fire, explosion, health and safety, or other hazards that have been identified. Inspections are to be conducted by the site safety and health supervisor (or another individual knowledgeable in occupational safety and health) as necessary to determine the effectiveness of the site safety and health plan. Any deficiencies that are identified must be corrected by the employer.

2. Site Characterization and Analysis Requirements

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In order to develop and implement effective control measures for the hazards facing employees, a site must be characterized. The accuracy, detail, and comprehensiveness of the collected information about a site will largely affect the appropriateness of employee protection measures, and hence, the ultimate safety of those employees. The final rule contains site characterization and analysis provisions requiring: 1) A preliminary evaluation of site characterizations prior to entry; 2) Hazard identification and the collection of crucial information prior to site entry; 3) Personal protective equipment for site entry; 4) Monitoring during initial site entry; 5) Identification of risks based on collected information and site entry data; and 6) Communication of identified risks to employees who will be working at the site. For the most part, the March 6th rule leaves these requirements intact; however, two changes have been made. First, although the final rule still requires the use a of five-minute escape, self-contained breathing apparatus (ESCBA) during initial site entry, this requirement is now conditional. Workers need not be provided with ESCBA unless 1) positive-pressure self contained breathing apparatus is not used as part of the entry personnel protective equipment; and, 2) respiratory protection is warranted by the potential hazards identified during the preliminary site evaluation. Second, direct reading instruments must be used for required monitoring during initial site entry when such instruments are available for specific chemical hazards. 3. Site Control Program Before clean up work begins, employers are required to implement appropriate procedures to control employee exposures to hazardous substances. This involves development and implementation of a site control program. At a minimum, this plan must include: · · A site map Site work zones

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· Use of a "buddy system" (i.e. a system of organizing employees into work groups such that each employee of the group is observed by at least one other employee in the group) · · · Site communications, including a means of emergency alert Standard operating practices or safe work practices Identification of the nearest medical assistance.

When these requirements are covered elsewhere (e.g. standard operating procedures in the safety and health program), they need not be repeated. 4. Training Requirements Under the final standards, all employees working on-site that are exposed or potentially exposed to hazardous substances, health hazards, or safety hazards must be trained. Furthermore, employees cannot participate in or supervise field activities until they have been trained to a level required by their job function: · General site workers engaged in hazardous substance removal or other activities that potentially expose them to hazardous substances or health hazards must receive at least 40 hours of off-site instruction and three days of actual field experience under the direct supervision of a trained, experienced supervisor. These workers must also receive eight hours of refresher training annually, and critiques of emergency response performance during the previous year is considered a form of refresher training. · A minimum of 24 hours off-site training and one day of actual field experience under the direct supervision of a trained, experienced supervisor is required for 1) workers on-site only occasionally for specific, limited tasks (e.g., ground water monitoring or surveying) who are unlikely to be exposed over permissible exposure limits, and published exposure limits, and 2) workers regularly on-site who work in areas that have been monitored and fully characterized indicating that exposures are below permissible and published exposure limits, respirators are not necessary, and no health hazards or possibility of an emergency developing exist.

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· Workers with 24 hours of off-site, and one day of on-site training (i.e., the last group) who become general site workers, or are required to wear respirators, must complete an additional 16 hours of off-site, and two days of on-site training to meet the requirements for general site workers above. · On-site managers must have the same amount of training as the workers they supervise (i.e., an on-site managerwith general site workers under his supervision must have 40 hours off-site and three days on-site training) and at least eight additional hours of specialized training at the time of job assignment on such topics as: the employer's safety and health program, PPE, spill containment program, and healh monitoring program. · In addition to the training otherwise required, employees who maybe engaged in responding to hazardous emergency situations involving hazardous substances at clean up sites shall be trained in proper response to such emergencies. The off-site training mentioned above must thoroughly cover the following topics: 1) Names of personnel and alternates responsible for site safety and health. 2) Safety, health and other hazards present on-site. 3) Use of personal protective equipment. 4) Work practices by which the employee can minimize risks from hazards. 5) Safe use of engineering controls and equipment on-site. 6) Medical surveillance requirements, including recognition of symptoms and signs that may indicate overexposure to hazards. 7) Decontamination procedures. 8) The emergency response plan. 9) Confined space entry procedures. 10) The spill containment program.

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Once an employee has successfully completed the required training, a written certificate certifying this fact is to be issued by his/her instructor or the head instructor and the employee's trained supervisor. Trainers must satisfactorily complete a training program for teaching the subjects program they are expected to teach or they must have adequate academic credentials and instructional experience to do so. Furthermore, instructors are required to demonstrate competent instructional skills and knowledge of the applicable subject matter. NOTE: Employers that can show by documentation or certification that an employee's work experience and/or training has resulted in training equivalent to that required need not provide additional training for such employees. However, employees certified in this manner who are new to a site must receive appropriate site specific training before site entry and must have appropriate supervised field experience at the new site.

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5. Informational Programs Under SARA, the worker protection standards must include an informational program to "inform workers engaged in hazardous waste operations of the nature and degree of toxic exposure likely as a result of such hazardous waste operations". Thus, the final standards require that employers develop a program to accomplish this. Note that this information will normally be covered as part of initial and refresher training, and a portion of the required training time may be allocated for this purpose. 6. Medical Surveillance Program The final rule requires that a medical surveillance program be instituted by the employer for the following groups of employees: · All employees that are exposed to hazardous substances or health hazards at or above the permissible exposure limits or in the absence of such limits, published exposure limits for 30 days or more a year, regardless of whether a respirator is used. NOTE: exposure to one hazardous substance for 15 days and a different hazardous substance for 15 days would meet the 30 day criterion. · · · All employees who wear a respirator for 30 days or more a year. All employees who are injured due to overexposure from an emergency incident involving hazardous substances or health hazards. Members of HAZMAT (i.e. emergency response) teams.

Employers should note that the medical surveillance requirements apply only to those employees involved in hazardous waste operations. For example, firefighters who wear respirators for 30 days or more a year would not normally be covered by this provision because they do not normally fall within the scope of operations covered by the rule. However, under the provisions for emergency response operations (discussed later), medical surveillance would be required for firefighters who are members or organized hazardous materials response teams, hazardous materials specialists, or have been injured due to overexposure to hazardous substances or health hazards during an emergency incident involving hazardous substances.

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Most covered employees must be provided medical examinations, paid for by the employer 1) prior to assignment; 2) at least once a year, unless the attending physician believes more or less frequent exams are appropriate, but not longer than once every two years; 3) as soon as possible after an employee has developed signs of overexposure to hazardous substances or health hazards, or when an employee has been injured, or exposure above permissible or published exposure limits during an emergency situation; and 4) at termination of employment. NOTE: Those employees who are covered by the medical surveillance provisions solely because of overexposure during an emergency incident are only required to be examined as soon as possible after the incident and at additional times as the attending physician determines necessary. The employer must provide certain information to the attending physician, including a description of the employee's duties as they relate to exposures, the employee's exposure levels or anticipated exposure levels, a description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used, information from the employee's previous medical examinations, and a copy of the OSHA hazardous waste worker protection standard. The content of the medical exam is to be determined by the physician and the guidelines in Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous

Waste Site Activities published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and

Health, OSHA, EPA, and the U.S. Coast Guard should be consulted. Following the examination, the employee must be provided with the employee's written opinion, which must include: · The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detected medical conditions which would place him/her at increased risk of material impairment to health from work in hazardous operations or emergency response, or from respirator use; · · · Recommended limitations on the employee's assigned work, if any; The results of the medical examination and tests if requested by the employee; and A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of the exam results and any medical conditions that require further examination or treatment.

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7. Requirements for Engineering Controls, Work Practices, and Personal Protective Equipment Employers must provide protection against potential hazards for employees entering hazardous waste sites. This protection to be provided via engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective equipment and must protect employees against health and other hazards, including hazards to the respiratory system, skin, eyes, face, hands, feet, body, head and hearing. The final rule retains existing requirements from the interim rule, which provides that toxic and hazardous substances regulated by OSHA are to be controlled to the permissible exposure limit with engineering control and work practices. If such control is not feasible, the exposure is to be controlled with personal protective equipment. Employee rotation schedule may not be used to control hazards within permissible exposure limits except when there is not other feasible ways to comply with airborne or dermal dose limits of ionizing radiation. When no OSHA -established permissible exposure limits exist, an appropriate combination of engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective equipment must be used to maintain employee exposure below published exposure limits. The new standards also contain requirements for a personal protective equipment (PPE) program, as well as for selection of such equipment at specific sites. The PPE program is a required part of the safety and health program and must also be included in the site-specific safety and health plan. The PPE program must address: · · · · · · · ·

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PPE selection based on site hazards Use and limitations of the equipment Work mission duration Maintenance and storage Decontamination and disposal Proper fitting and training Donning and doffing procedures Inspection procedures prior to, during, and after use

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· · Equipment limitations during temperature extremes, heat stress, and other appropriate medical considerations Evaluation of PPE program effectiveness

PPE selection is to be based on evaluation of the performance characteristics of equipment relative to the requirements and limitations of the site, task-specific conditions and duration, hazards and potential hazards identified at the site. Positive-pressure, self-contained breathing apparatus, or positive-pressure, airline respirators equipped with an escape-air supply, must be used when the chemical exposure levels create a substantial possibility of immediate death, immediate serious illness or injury, or when those exposure levels impair the ability of escape. When site conditions are such that skin absorption of hazardous substances might cause similar dangers, totally encapsulating chemical protective suits must also be used. These suits must 1) protect employees from identified hazards, 2) be capable of maintaining positive air pressure, and 3) be capable of preventing inward gas leakage of more than 0.5%. Testing procedures for PPE are given in 29 CFR 1910.120 Appendix A. Appendix 8. Monitoring Requirements The final worker protection standards contain monitoring requirements in order to ensure proper selection of engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective equipment. Air monitoring must be used upon site entry to identify and quantify airborne levels of hazardous substances and atmospheric safety and health hazards. In addition, air monitoring is required on a periodic basis, as necessary, when the possibility of a flammable atmosphere or IDLH condition has developed. Situations where periodic monitoring is required include: 1) When work begins on a different portion of the site. 2) When contaminants other than those previously identified are being handled. 3) When a different type of operation is initiated (e.g., drum opening as opposed to exploratory well drilling). 4) When employees are handling leaking drums and/or containers or working in areas with obvious liquid contamination (e.g., a spill or lagoon).

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Furthermore, after the clean up phase of any hazardous waste operation begins, the employer must monitor those employees likely to have the highest exposures to hazardous substances and health hazards by using personal sampling often enough to characterize those exposures. If these employees are over permissible of published exposure limits, monitoring must continue to identify all employees likely to be over exposure limits. NOTE: It is not necessary to personally monitor employees engaged in initial site characterization.

Requirements 9. Decontamination Requirements Employers are required to develop, communicate to employees, and implement decontamination procedures before any employees or equipment are allowed to enter areas at a site where potential for exposure to hazardous substances exist. All employees leaving contaminated areas must be decontaminated, and all contaminated clothing and equipment leaving a contaminated area must be decontaminated or disposed of Furthermore, the procedures must be monitored by the site safety and health supervisor to determine their effectiveness, and the procedures must be modified if deficient. The decontamination procedures must meet the following requirements: 1) Decontamination must be performed in an area that will minimize the exposure of uncontaminated employees and equipment to contaminated employees and equipment. 2) All equipment and solvents used for decontamination must be decontaminated or disposed of properly. 3) Personal protective clothing and equipment must be decontaminated as needed to maintain their effectiveness. 4) Employees wearing permeable clothing that becomes wet with hazardous substances must immediately remove that clothing and proceed to shower.

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5) Commercial laundries that decontaminate protective clothing or equipment must be informed of potential harmful effects associated with exposures to hazardous substances. 6) If decontamination procedures require the need for regular showers and change rooms outside a contaminated area, these facilities must be provided. 7) Only authorized employees are allowed to remove protective clothing and equipment from changing rooms.

10. Container and Drum Handling Requirements Because the handling of containers and drums poses significant dangers to employees, mandatory procedures have been promulgated in the final rule. These standards cover: · · · · · · · · General handling of drums and containers; Opening of drums and containers; Material handling equipment; Drum and containers containing radioactive wastes and shock-sensitive wastes; Laboratory waste packs; Sampling of drum and container contents; Shipping and transport; and Procedures for handling tanks and vaults.

11. Emergency Response Plan Prior to commencing operations, employers engaged in hazardous waste operations must develop an emergency response plan to handle anticipated emergencies. The emergency response plan must be included in the site health and safety plan, it must be in writing, and it must be made available to employees or their

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representatives, OSHA personnel, and other governmental agencies with relevant responsibilities. At a minimum, the emergency response plan must address the following: 1) Pre-emergency planning 2) Personnel roles, lines of authority, and communication 3) Emergency recognitions and prevention 4) Site topography, layout, and prevailing weather conditions 5) Site security and control 6) Evacuation routes and procedures 7) Decontamination procedures not covered by the site safety and health plan 8) Emergency medical treatment and first aid 9) PPE and emergency equipment 10) Critique of response and follow-up 11) Procedures for reporting incidents to local, state, and federal government agencies The plan must be compatible and integrated with the disaster, fire, and/or emergency response plans of local, state, and federal government agencies and must be rehearsed regularly as part of the overall training program for site operations. Furthermore, the plan must be reviewed periodically and amended as necessary. NOTE: Employers are exempt from the emergency response plan requirement if they evacuate their employees from the workplace when an emergency occurs and do not permit any employees to assist in handling the emergency; however, they must develop an emergency action plan complying with 29 CFR 1910.138.

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12. New Technology Programs Employers are also required to develop and implement procedures for evaluating and introducing the use of new technologies and equipment that become available. The purpose of this program is to improve employee protection to determining whether new methods, materials, or equipment would be effective, prior to using them on a large scale. Such evaluations must be made available to OSHA on request.

13. Sanitation and Lighting Requirements In addition to the other requirements, the new standards also contain requirements concerning: · · · · · · · The minimum illumination intensity in various types of work areas Potable and non-potable water supplies Toilet facilities Food handling Temporary sleeping quarters Washing facilities, and Showers and change rooms.

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RCRA RAB. REQUIREMENTS FOR RCRA-TSD FACILITY OPERATIONS Many of the requirements for RCRA-TSD facilities are identical or similar to those for clean up operations. Specifically, employers with RCRA-regulated hazardous waste management operations must implement the following program: 1) A written safety and health program designed to identify, evaluate, and control safety and health hazards at their facilities for the purpose of employee protection. The program must provide for emergency response, as discussed below, and must address the following items as appropriate: · · · · · Site analysis Engineering controls Maximum exposure limits Hazardous waste handling procedures Uses of new technologies

2) A hazard communication program to inform employee of potential hazards. 3) A medical surveillance program meeting the same requirements as that for clean up operation (Section A-6). A4) A decontamination program meeting the same requirements as that for clean up operations (Section A-9). A5) A new technology program meeting the same requirements as that for clean up Aoperations (Section A-12). 6) A materials handling program meeting the drum and container handling requirements discussed in Section A-10 with the exception of those requirements Athat are only applicable to clean up operations. 7) A training program as discussed in the next section. 8) An emergency response program as discussed in Section B-2. B-

1. Training Program Requirements

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The new OSHA standards require the employer to develop and implement a training program "for employees involved with hazardous waste operations to enable employees to perform their assigned duties and functions in a safe and healthy manner to prevent endangering themselves or other employees". Employees are required to receive 24 hours of initial training and an eight-hour annual refresher. As with training for clean up operations, employees receiving the initial training must be given a written certificate attesting successful completion. Note: If an employer can show that a current employee's previous work experience and/or training is equivalent to the initial training requirements, such employees will only be required to meet the annual refresher requirement.

2. Emergency Response Program Requirements The basic emergency response requirements for TSD facilities are the same as those for clean up operations with a few exceptions. First, because TSD facilities are required to have contingency plans covering many of the same areas as the emergency response plan, those items already in the contingency plan need not be duplicated in the emergency response plan if the contingency plan is made a part of the emergency response plan. Second, emergency response employees must complete training before they are called upon to perform in actual emergencies. Such training must cover: · · · · · · · The elements of the contingency plan The employer's standard operating procedures for the job Selection and use of personal protective equipment Procedures for handling emergency incidents Methods to minimize the risk from safety and health hazards Techniques for coordination of other employees to minimize risks Symptoms of and appropriate response to overexposures to health hazards Employees completing this training must be annually certified for competency. Note that the employer need not train all employees to this degree if 1) the work force is

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divided in a manner such that a sufficient number of employees who have responsibility and control of emergencies receive the specified training, or 2) arrangements have been made in advance for a fully trained, outside emergency response team to respond in a reasonable period. In either case, all employees must have sufficient training to recognize an emergency situation and not attempt to control activities for which they are not trained, and they just be instructed to summon the emergency response team for assistance.

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C. REQUIREMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE OPERATIONS Any emergency response operation involving hazardous substances that are not part of covered clean up or TSD facility operations are addressed separately in the final rule. Specifically, employers must develop and implement an emergency response plan, follow certain specific emergency response procedures, meet specific training requirements for their employees, and provide medical surveillance. Note: Any post-emergency response

clean up operation must meet all the requirements for clean up operations defined in Section A; post emergency clean up begins when the individual in charge of initial response declares the site to be under control and ready for clean up. The elements of the

emergency response plan and medical surveillance program are essentially the same as those required for clean up and TSD operations. The emergency response procedures and training requirements are discussed in the following sections. 1. Emergency Response Program Requirements Several procedures are to be followed during emergency response operations: 1. The senior emergency response official on-site at an emergency becomes the individual in charge of the Incident Command System (ICS) that should already be established prior to an emergency. As more senior officials arrive, command of the ICS is passed up the line of authority. 2. On-site commanders should do the following: · · · · · · · Site analysis Use of engineering controls Maximum exposure limits Hazardous substance handling procedures Use of any new technologies Implementation of emergency operations Use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE)

3) Employees engaged in emergency response and exposed to hazardous substances presenting an inhalation hazard must wear positive-pressure, self-contained breathing apparatus until the individual in charge of the ICS has determined that a decreased level of protection will not result in hazardous exposure.

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4) Response personnel in areas of potential or actual exposure to hazards should be limited to those actually performing emergency operations. Operations are to be performed using the buddy system. 5) Backup personnel must be standing by to provide assistance and rescue, and advanced first-aid support personnel must also be standing by to provide medical equipment and transportation. 6) The individual in charge of the ICS must designate a Safety Officer, knowledgeable in the operations being implemented, whose duty is to identify and evaluate hazards and provide direction with respect to the safety of operations. When operations are judged by the safety official to involve IDLH or imminent danger condition, he has the authority to alter, suspend, or terminate those operations. 7) After emergency operations have terminated, the individual in charge of the ICS shall implement appropriate decontamination procedures.

1.5 TRAINING REQUIREMENTS FOR BASIC EMPLOYEE LEVELS

The worker protection standards for emergency response operations define five basic employee levels with specific training requirements for each: Example: Police and State Troopers

First Responder Awareness Level personnel are

likely to witness or discover hazardous substance releases and are trained to initiate an emergency response sequence by contacting the proper authorities. They would take no further action beyond notification. Such employees are required to have "sufficient" training and/or experience to demonstrate competency in the areas listed below:

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· · · · · An understanding of what hazardous materials are and the risks associated with them in an incident. An understanding of the potential outcomes associated with an emergency that are created when hazardous materials are present. The ability to recognize the presence of hazardous materials in an emergency. The ability to identify the hazardous materials, if possible. An understanding of the role of the first-responder awareness individual in the employer's emergency response plan, including site security and control and the U.S. Department of Transportation's Emergency Response Guidebook · The ability to realize the need for additional resources and to make appropriate notifications to the communications center.

Example: Fire/Rescue Personnel

First Responder Operations Level personnel

respond to releases or potential releases of hazardous substances as part of the initial site response for the purpose of protecting nearby person, property, or the environment. They are trained to respond defensively, containing the release and preventing exposures, rather than trying to stop the release. Such employees must have at least 8 hours of training or sufficient experience to demonstrate competency in the areas below:

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· · · · · All requirements of First Responder Awareness Level. Knowledge of the basic hazard- and risk-assessment techniques. Know how to select and use proper personal protective equipment provided to the first responder operational level. An understanding of basic hazardous materials and terms. Know how to perform basic control, containment, and/or confinement operations with the capabilities of the resources and personal protective equipment available with their unit. · · Know how to implement basic decontamination procedures. An understanding of the relevant standard operating procedures and termination procedures.

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Example: HAZMAT Team Members

Hazardous Materials Technicians respond to releases

with the purpose of stopping those releases, They will approach a release for this purpose. Such employees are required to have at lease 24 hours of training equal to the first responder operations level and must be certified competent in the areas listed below:

· · · · · · ·

All requirements of First Responder Operations Level. Know how to implement the employer's emergency response plan. Know the classification, identification, and verification of known and unknown materials using field survey instruments and equipment. Be able to function within assigned role in the incident command system. Know how to select and use proper specialized chemical personal protective provided to the hazardous materials technician. Understand hazard and risk assessment techniques. Be able to perform advanced control, containment, and/or confinement operations within the capabilities and resources and PPE available with the unit.

·

·

Understand and implement decontamination procedures. Understand basic chemical and toxicological terminology and behavior.

Example: HAZMAT Team Members

Hazardous Materials Specialists respond with and

provide support to hazardous materials technicians. Their duties parallel those of the hazardous materials technicians; however these duties require more specific knowledge of the various substances they may be called upon to control. This level also acts as a liaison between federal, state, and local government officials with regard to site activities. Such employees must have at least 24 hours of training equal to the hazardous technician level and must be certified competent in the areas

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listed in Table A- 1 · · · All requirements of hazardous materials technician level. Know how to implement the local emergency response plan. Understand classification, identification, and verification of known and unknown materials by using advanced survey instruments and equipment. · · · · Know the state emergency response plan. Be able to select and use proper specialized chemical personal protective equipment provided to the hazardous materials specialist. Understand in-depth hazard- and risk-assessment techniques. Be able to perform specialized control, containment, and/or confinement operations within the capabilities of the resources and personal protective equipment available. · · · Be able to determine and implement decontamination procedures. Have the ability to develop a site safety and control plan. Understand chemical, radiological, and toxicological terminology and behavior.

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Example: Incident Commanders

On-scene Incident Commanders assume control of the Onincident scene beyond the first responder awareness level and must have at least 24 hours of training equal to the first responder operations level and must be certified competent in the areas listed below.

· · · · · ·

All requirements of the First Responder Operations Level. Know and be able to implement the employer's incident command system. Know and understand the hazards and risks associated with employees working in chemical protective clothing. Know how to implement the local emergency response plan. Know of the state emergency response plan and of the federal regional response team. Know and understand the importance of decontamination procedures.

All of the above employees must receive sufficient annual refresher training to maintain competency, or must make a statement of competency for these employees and must keep a record of the methodology used to demonstrate competency. In addition to the requirements above, there are requirements for all employees who, in the course of their regular job duties, work with and are training in the hazards of specific hazardous substances and will be called upon to provide technical advice or assistance at hazardous substance release incidents. Such employees must receive training or demonstrate competency in the area of their specialization on an annual basis. Training requirements are waived for skilled support personnel, not necessarily an employer's own employees who are needed to perform immediate emergency support work (e.g., earth moving, crane operation, and hoisting equipment

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operation) that cannot be performed in a timely fashion by the employer's own employees, regardless of whether such skilled personnel may or will be exposed to hazards at the site. However, these personnel must receive an initial briefing prior to their participation in an emergency situation, including instruction in the wearing of personal protective equipment, what chemical hazards are involved, and what duties are to be performed. All other precautions used to protect the employer's own employees must be used to protect such skilled support personnel.

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1.6 OSHA PENALTY STRUCTURE

On March 1, 1992, OSHA issued a penalty structure as a deterrent to employees who decide to ignore workplace safety and health requirements. A sevenfold increase in the maximum limits for OSHA civil monetary penalties was stipulated in the Budget Reconciliation Act passed by the 101st Congress. An abbreviated description of violations and penalties of the civil penalties of the civil policy is as follows: · Serious Violations: There is substantial probability that death or serious harm could result; the employer knew or should have shown of hazard. Penalties range up to $7,000. · Other than Serious Violations: The OSHA Regional Administrator may use a base penalty of up to $7,000 if circumstances warrant. Appropriate adjustment factors will be applied. · Regulatory Violations: Regulatory violations involve violations of posting injury and illness reporting, record-keeping requirements, and not informing employees about advance notice of inspection. OSHA will be applying adjustments only for the size and history of the establishment. Penalties range from a possibility maximum of $7,000 for the failure to report a fatality or catastrophe within 8 hours to a base penalty of $1,000 for a posting violation. · Willful Violations: Willful violations are those committed with an intentional disregard of, or plain indifference to, the requirements of the OSHA Act and regulations. The minimum willful serious penalty is $5,000. · Repeat Violations: A repeat violation is a violation of any standard, regulation, rule or order where, upon reinspection, a substantially similar violation was other-than-serious, without a penalty being assessed, then

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the penalty with be $200 for the first repetition, and $1,000 for the third repetition. Repeat violations will only be adjusted for size, depending on the number of employees and/or the OSHA Regional Administrator's desire to achieve the necessary deterrent effect. · Failure to Abate: Failure to correct a prior violation within the prescribed abatement period could result in a penalty for each day the violation continues beyond the abatement date.In failure to abate cases, the daily penalty will be equal to the amount of the initial penalty (up to $7,000) with an adjustment for size only. A failure to abate penalty may be assessed for a maximum of 30 days by the OSHA Area office. In cases of partial abatement of the violation, the OSHA Regional Administrator has authority to reduce the penalty by 25% to 75%.

1. Match the following laws with their descriptions: A. CERCLA 1. It regulates anyone engaged in the creation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of "hazardous wastes". B. SARA 2. Used for the immediate removal of hazardous substances released into the environment. C. RCRA 3. Promulgate standards for the health and safety of employees engaged in hazardous waste operations.

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2. Name 8 of the 10 off-site training requirements covered by 29 CFR 1910.120. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

3. List the following from the most training and responsibilities to the least training and responsibilities: Hazardous Materials Technicians, First Responder Operations Level, On-Scene Incident Commanders, First Responder Awareness Level, and Hazardous Materials Specialists. 1. __________________________ (Most Training and Responsibilities) 2. __________________________ 3. __________________________ 4. __________________________ 5. __________________________

(Answers found in Appendix B)

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1. Watch the VIDEO INTRODUCTION TO TOXICOLOGY INDUSTRIAL TOXICOLOGY. 2. GO through Section 2: TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

Day 2 (P.M.)

3. Watch the Video HAZWOPER IDENTIFYING MATERIALS. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

4.GO through Section 3: INFORMATIONAL

RESOURCES/HAZARD RECOGNITION

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2 TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

2.1 OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this module, you should be able to do the following: ·

Use a material safety data sheet (MSDS) and NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards to identify the following hazards. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Physical and chemical characteristics Physical hazards of the material Health hazards of the material Signs and symptoms of exposure Routes of entry

·

Describe the following toxicological terms and explain the risks associated with them. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Parts per million (ppm) Parts per billion (ppb) Lethal dose (LD50) Lethal concentrations (LC50) Permissible exposure limit (PEL) Threshold limit value time-weighted average (TLV-TWA) Threshold limit value short-term exposure limit (TLV STEL) Threshold limit value ceiling (TLV-C) Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH)

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It is important to understand the fundamentals of toxicology and to recognize potential health hazards to on-site personnel and the surrounding community.

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2.2 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Toxicology is the study of toxic or poisonous substances. It relates to the physiological effect, source, symptoms, and remedial measures for the materials. Toxin refers to any substance that, upon contact with a living organism, can cause injury or interference with the life processes of that organism without acting mechanically. Toxicity is the amount of a toxin or poison under specified conditions that will result in detrimental biological changes. Toxins cause injury in relatively small amounts compared with other substances, but materials classified as toxic may differ by a factor of 10 billion in their potencies. The margin of safety is determined by the dosage and the toxicity of the material encountered. Dose is the quantity of a substance that enters into the biological system. Dose is not synonymous with concentration. Concentration is the quantity of a substance in which a biological system is externally exposed. Units of Dose and concentration can be expressed in terms of the quantity administered: · Per unit weight, usually expressed as milligrams of substance per kilogram of body mass (mg/kg) · · Per area of skin surface, expressed as mg/cm2 Per unit volume of air inhaled, usually expressed as parts of vapor or gas per million parts (ppm) of air by volume · Solids would be expressed as milligrams of material per cubic meter (mg/m3), or part per million (ppm) 1/1,000,000­1 inch Acute Toxicity is the toxicity resulting from exposure to a relatively high concentration of a toxic material over a short period of time (i.e., seconds, minutes,

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and hours). The relationship of exposure and toxic effect is usually quite clear, since the effect is relatively immediate. Chronic Toxicity is the toxicity resulting from exposure to a relatively low concentration of a toxic material over a relatively long period of time (i.e., months and years). The relationship between exposure and toxic effect is not always apparent and in some cases cannot be established with certainty.

2.3 MODIFYING FACTORS

Some factors that may modify the toxic effects of a substance are: · Solids would be expressed as milligrams of material per cubic meter (mg/m3), or part per million (ppm) 1/1,000,000­1 inch 15.5 · · · · · The route of exposure or entry The physical state of the substance External temperature Physiological condition of the subject Possible synergistic effects, as with smoking when in a lead or asbestos environment · Dosage

2.4 DOSE RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP

· · · · · Toxicity--potential of a substance to cause harm Hazard--probability that a substance will cause harm Route of exposure Dose Duration

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· · Reaction and interaction Individual factors (age, nutrition, susceptibility)

2.5 ROUTES OF EXPOSURE

Inhalation · · · · Efficient route Most important Local effects System effects (body wide)

Dermal (Absorption) · Passing through unbroken skin (osmosis) · · Cuts and scrapes Absorption through mucus membranes (nose) · Local effects are most common · Systemic effects can occur

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Ingestion · · · Lesser concern Factors leading to exposure Toxic effects--local or systemic

Injection · · Lesser concern Puncture from sharp object (e.g., nails, glass, and needlestick) · Toxic effects--local or systemic

2.6 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Most toxic effects are reversible and do not cause permanent damage, although complete recovery may take a long time. With regard to emergency response personnel, potential acute exposures must be prevented. Acute exposures do not persist for long periods of time. Acute skin exposures may occur when workers must work close to substances in order to control a release or contain and treat the spilled material. Once the immediate site problems have been alleviated, exposures tend to become more chronic in nature as cleanup progresses. Chronic exposures usually are associated more with hazardous waste site investigations where contaminated soil, debris and water or containment systems

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may hold diluted chemicals. Abandoned waste sites represent potential chronic exposure problems. However, during initial activities at an emergency, response personnel engaged in sampling, handling containers, or bulking compatible liquids face an increased risk of acute exposures to splashes, mists, gases, or particulates.

2.7 DOSE RESPONSE

2.7.1 ACUTE EXPOSURE

· · · · One time, high-level exposure, short time period Symptoms and effects usually immediately apparent Effects can be reversible or irreversible Range of effects: ­ ­ Temporary, but reversible Permanent and irreversible

2.7.2 CHRONIC EXPOSURE

· · · Repetitive or continuous, low-level exposure, long time periods Symptoms and effects usually delayed Range of effects: ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­

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Irritant Nuisance, but temporary Permanent, but reversible Permanent and irreversible Chronic and debilitating Death

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2.8 TOXICITY MEASUREMENTS

2.8.1 THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES (TLV)

The first organization to suggest occupational guidelines for exposure to chemical hazards was the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). In 1941, ACGIH suggested Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC) for use. A list of MACs was put together in 1946. In the early 1960s, ACGIH revised the MAC recommendations and renamed them Threshold Limit Values (TLV). TLVs were developed on the basis of the body's ability to withstand various insults and continue to recover until a level is reached where recovery will no longer occur, or occur at decreased rates. This is referred to as the Threshold Concept. In other words, there is a sufficiently small amount of exposure to toxic substances that does nothing injurious. This concept implies that a threshold of effect, or a "no-effect" level exists. This no-effect level will vary from chemical to chemical. The development of Threshold Limit Values is on the basis of these important concepts. There are many professionals who believe the threshold concept does not apply to carcinogens and that no exposure should be tolerated, since it is believed that even low-level exposure to carcinogens could potentially result in cancer. TLVs refer to airborne concentrations of substances and represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without adverse effect. Some susceptible individuals may be affected at levels below the TLVs. TLVs are on the basis of the best available information from industrial experience, experimental human and animal studies and, when possible, from a combination of the three. TLVs vary widely for the various substances. TLVs are revised yearly. TLVs were formulated for the normal industrial workplace, which waste sites and spills are not. Thus, they can be used in decision-making at sites or spills only with great discretion. Before using the TLVs, the substance or substances of concern must be identified, which requires sound analytical techniques. TLVs can provide only a segment of the information needed to confidentially evaluate the situation.

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Time Weighted Average. This is the average concentration most workers can be repeatedly exposed to during an 8-hour day, 40-hour week, without developing adverse acute or chronic effects. TLV with "Skin" Notation. A TLV may include a special "skin" notation. This indicates that direct skin contact should be avoided because of the chemical's skin absorption properties. TLVTLV-C: Ceiling. This is a ceiling value. It's the concentration that cannot be exceeded even instantaneously because of serious health effects. TLV ­ STEL: Short Time Exposure Limit. This is the allowable exposure concentration for a short time period. A 15-minute average exposure period, repeated no more than four times a day, with at least one hour between successive exposures, provided the 8-hour TWA is not exceeded. The STEL supplements the TWA where acute effects from high short-time exposures are recognized.

2.9 OTHER EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT VALUES

2.9.1 IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH)

The "immediately dangerous to life and health" level was developed by NIOSH/OSHA for respirator selection and usage. IDLH means conditions that pose an immediate threat to life, health, or threat of severe exposure to contaminants. Exposure to IDLH environments is likely to cause irreversible damage or death. They can be found in the "NIOSH/OSHA Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards."

2.9.2 PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LEVELS (PELS)

OSHA legally mandated values, found in 29 CFR, 1910.1000.

Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) are set by OSHA to protect workers against the health effects of exposure to hazardous substances. PELs are regulatory limits on the amount or concentration of a substance in the air. They may also contain a skin designation. PELs are enforceable. OSHA PELs are based on an 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) exposure.

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HOW MUCH IS TOO MUCH? A PART PER MILLION? BILLION? TRILLION?

Twenty years ago, science could measure only in parts per million (ppm). Impurities below that range could not be found. Now, we can often detect impurities in parts per billion (ppb) or trillion (ppt). The result is that we are finding impurities more often in our food, water, and other products. These toxic substances can sometimes cause health problems to levels a person cannot detect with his or her own senses. The question is, are these numbers so small that we can safely ignore them? Is 11 ppm of a toxic chemical in drinking water or air really a threat? How about one ppm? Or one ppb? The chemical industry might say we can ignore these numbers. Eleven ppm is equal to an 11-ounce needle in a ton of hay or to 11 minutes in two years. These levels sound harmless. Also, some say that any dangers of toxic chemicals at such levels are outweighed by their potential or actual benefits, especially if used as recommended. But, let's look at this in another way. One ppm of a substance means there is one milligram of that chemical for every kilogram of water, soil, or body weight. For example, in an adult weighing 130 pounds, a dose of one ppm equals 59 milligrams. Consider this in terms of a common aspirin tablet. The average aspirin tablet has 325 milligrams of active ingredient. Two tablets equal 650 milligrams--about 11 ppm in a 130-pound person. This dose of aspirin seems small, yet it can stop pain and reduce fever. So, while 11 ppm may seem small, it can mean a lot of change in our bodies.

2.9.3 COMPARISON OF PARTS PER MILLION, BILLION, AND TRILLION

One part per million (ppm) is equal to: · One car in a line of traffic 2,650 miles long

One part per billion (ppb) is equal to: · One quarter in a stack of quarters nearly 1,500 miles high

One part per trillion (ppt) is equal to:

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· One minute of time in the past 1,920,000 years

2.9.4 RELATIVE TOXICITY

Relative toxicities of material are compared in various ways, but care should be taken not to interpret these values as absolute in all cases. Harmful amounts of toxic substances are usually listed in one or more of the following ways: · LD50-- LD50--Lethal dose. A single dose of a chemical, which kills 50 percent of the population when, exposed. Expressed as mg substance/kg animal. Lethal dose for average persons is LD50 x weight of person in kilograms. · LC50-- concentration. LC50--Lethal concentration. A concentration of a chemical that kills 50 percent of the population by inhalation exposure. Usually expressed in ppm by volume that, when administered to laboratory animals, kills half of them in some time period of exposure. · TLV-- TLV--Threshold limit value. The upper limit of a toxicant concentration to which an average healthy person may be repeatedly exposed on an all-day everyday basis.

2.9.5 PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF TOXINS

A good way to describe the various toxicants is by their physiological actions on living organisms. The following physiological categories of toxins will be discussed: · · · · Irritants Asphyxiate Nerve poisons Systemic poisons

Irritants are those substances that have a corrosive, inflammatory action on moist mucous membranes. A term commonly associated with irritating material is

pulmonary edema, a buildup of fluid in the lungs. This condition may occur when a

high concentration of an irritating material reaches the lungs. In an attempt to dilute

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the irritating substance, the lungs pour out fluid. This fluid may collect in the lungs and actually drown the respiratory system. Irritants may be divided into three classes: · Upper Respiratory Irritants are highly water-soluble and are removed in the upper respiratory tract (i.e., the nose and throat). Examples: aldehydes, ammonia, mineral acids, halogen acids, sulfur oxides · Lower Respiratory Irritants are only slightly water-soluble and may be carried throughout the lungs. Examples: chloropicrin, nitrogen oxides, phosgene, arsenic trichloride · Whole Respiratory Irritants are moderately water-soluble but are only partially removed in the upper respiratory tract. Their effects are severe throughout the respiratory tract. Examples: chlorine, toluene, dimethyl, sulfate, ozone Asphyxiants are those substances that interfere with the oxidation process of the body. Closely associated with asphyxiant is the term anoxia, which is a deficiency of oxygen in the body tissue. A person may not be aware that his or her body is not receiving sufficient oxygen unless that person is able to recognize the subtle effects of acute anoxia. Some symptoms of acute anoxia are as follows: · · · · · · Mild euphoria, possible increased heartbeat and breathing rate Headache and great fatigue after mild exertion Altered breathing, nausea Conscious or unconscious collapse Convulsions, gasping, breathing stops, heart stops Brain damage in five minutes, death in eight minutes

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Simple Asphyxiation may result from a decrease or dilution of atmospheric oxygen. Examples of simple asphyxiants: carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, methane Why does a man, capable of holding his breath for one minute, collapse unconscious after a few breaths in an oxygen atmosphere? Normally, the atmosphere contains about 21 percent oxygen. When a person inhales only a five percent concentration of oxygen, then venous blood returning to the lungs gives up additional oxygen to the lungs rather than receiving oxygen as it would in a normal situation. Super unoxygenated blood is then distributed throughout the body. When super unoxygenated blood reaches the brain, it shuts down. Only a few seconds may pass between the first breath and collapse. A Chemical Asphyxiant causes suffocation even though adequate oxygen may be available. Examples: carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, aniline, hydrogen cyanide, acrylonitrile, sulfur dioxide, mercaptan Carbon Monoxide binds to the blood hemoglobin 220 times tighter than oxygen. The more carbon monoxide that binds to blood, the less oxygen can be carried. Aromatic Nitrites and Aromatic Amines such as aniline cause oxygen not to release from the blood. A characteristic of this type of poisoning is a bluish coloration of the lips and fingernails. Effects are about one-half as severe as those for carbon monoxide. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is the only common material that can halt respiration. It is a colorless, flammable gas with an offensive odor. However, H2S can deaden the sense of smell at low concentrations. Hydrogen sulfide is five to six times more toxic than carbon monoxide. Hydrogen Hydrogen Cyanide can block oxygen uptake by the cells. It is an odorless, nonirritating gas that is highly toxic. A concentration of 250 to 300 ppm is usually fatal. Cyanide salts are also dangerous because they react with acids to form hydrogen cyanide.

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Nerve Nerve Poisons are particularly hazardous because most physical and mental processes in the human body are controlled by the nervous system. There are two categories of nerve poisons on the basis of their mechanism of action: depressants and convulsants. Depressants Depressants interfere with the transmission of nerve impulses, causing a narcotic effect, which can lead to unconsciousness and coma. Examples: lead and lead compounds, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, carbon disulfide, cyclohexane, ethyl ether, dichloride, methyl chloride Convulsants act at the spaces between nerve cells, causing a continuous stimulation. These materials are extremely hazardous because their action is at a very critical site in the body. The major group of common materials that fall into this category are the organophosphorus pesticides. Examples: Diazonon, malathion, and parathion Systemic Poisons injure or destroy internal organs of the body such as the liver, kidneys, and heart. Liver Poisons occur because the liver is involved in purification and detoxification of the bloodstream. When heavy metals are removed from the bloodstream, however, there is no mechanism for eliminating these heavy metal compounds from the liver. The heavy metals tend to accumulate and damage the liver as they build up. Another major class of liver poisons contains organic chlorinated compounds and fat solvents. Fat-soluble compounds are concentrated and stored in the liver, damaging liver tissues. Examples: Lead, mercury, arsenic, beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, vinyl chloride, chlordane, DDT Persons exposed in a fire situation will encounter gaseous combustion and decomposition products, which are generally toxic. The most common fire gases are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrogen cyanide. Plastics are becoming notorious because of the toxic gases produced during fires.

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Examples: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), hydrogen chloride, phosgene, polyurethane foam, orion, Plexiglas, nylon, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide

Procedures for handling victims whom have inhaled toxic substances: · · · · Rescuer must wear full protective clothing and breathing apparatus. Use "buddy system" for any rescue attempt and a lifeline. Carry patient to fresh air immediately. Institute general first-aid measures that apply.

Procedure for handling victims who have swallowed toxic substances: ·

DO NOT induce vomiting in patient unless authorized.

of substances: Procedures for handling exposure of the skin to toxic or corrosive substances 1. Immediately remove contaminated clothing, jewelry, etc. 2. Drench skin with large amounts of running water. 3. Rapid washing with soap and water reduces extent of poison absorption and injury. Include ear canal, nose, and under nails. 4. Initiate general first-aid measures that apply. 5. Cover injured area with loosely applied clean cloth. 6. Avoid application of ointments, greases, powder or drugs to injured area. Do not administer drugs unless directed by a physician. 7. For local pain, apply ice. These treatments may be administered until trained medical personnel arrive.

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Summary Toxic compounds may injure the human body in many ways and require only very small amounts to produce these injuries. Usually there are definite symptoms that provide clues that poisoning has occurred. Many potentially hazardous incidents may be avoided by being aware that toxic substances are present and taking proper safety precautions.

2.10 CHEMICALS HANDLING--GENERAL GUIDELINE

Chemicals present different problems in storage, handling, and use. While chemicals are safe when handled and stored properly, improper storage or handling could be hazardous. All employees should be aware that some chemicals may ignite when heated, react with water, heat spontaneously, decompose into a hazardous substance, or cause ignition on contact with combustible materials. It is essential that the properties of each chemical be understood. Remember to refer to the MSDS when working with any chemical.

2.10.1 DEFINITIONS OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS

Compatibility Capable of forming a chemically or biochemically stable system Incompatibility Capable of forming a chemically or biochemically unstable system Corrosive Capable of dissolving or eating away gradually, especially by chemical action Reactive Normally unstable and readily undergoes violent change without detonating Volatile Evaporating readily at normal pressures and temperatures Flammable Easily ignited and burns so vigorously and persistently that it creates a hazard

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Explosive Any chemical compound or mixture that can cause a substantially instantaneous release of gas and heat Toxic Of, relating to, or caused by a poison Inert Deficient in active properties Radioactive Any material that spontaneously emits radiation Heavy metals Having high specific gravity (Examples: Arsenic, copper, lead mercury) Organics (Aliphatic and halogenated aromatic) of, relating to, or containing carbon compounds Cyanides Compound of cyanogen PCBs, which are poisonous and environmental pollutants Pesticides Pesticides Agents used to destroy pests

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1. Define the following: (Terms found in Chapter 2) Toxin

Dose

Acute Toxicity

Chronic Toxicity

Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs)

LD50

Irritants

Asphyxiate

Nerve Poison

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Systemic Poisons 2. List the four routes of exposure: a. _____________________ c. _____________________ b. _____________________ d. _____________________

(Answers found in Appendix B)

3 INFORMATIONAL RESOURCES/HAZARD RECOGNINTION

3.1 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS (MSDS)

1. Chemical manufacturers and importers shall obtain or develop a MSDS for each hazardous chemical they produce or import. Employers shall have a material safety data sheet in the workplace for each hazardous chemical that they use. 2. Each MSDS shall be in English (although the employer may maintain copies in other languages as well), and shall contain at least the following information: a. The identity used on the label, and, except as provided for under trade secrets: (1) If the hazardous chemical is a single substance, its chemical and common name(s); (2) If the hazardous chemical is a mixture which has been tested as a whole to determine its hazards, the chemical and common name(s) of the ingredients which contribute to these known hazards, and the common name(s) of the mixture itself; or,

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(3) If the hazardous chemical is a mixture which has not been tested as a whole: (a) The chemical and common name(s) of all ingredients which have been determined to be health hazards, and comprise 1% or greater of the composition, except that chemicals identified as carcinogens. The "Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances" published by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health indicates whether a chemical is a potential carcinogen. Carcinogen concentrations shall be listed if the concentrations are 0.1% or greater; and, (b) The chemical and common name(s) of all ingredients which have been determined to be health hazards, and which comprise less than 1% (0.1% for carcinogens) of the mixture, if there is evidence that the ingredient(s) could be released from the mixture in concentrations which would exceed an established OSHA permissible exposure limit or ACGIH Threshold Limit Value, or could present a health risk to employees; and, (c) The chemical and common name(s) of all ingredients which have been determined to present a physical hazard when present in the mixture; · Physical and chemical characteristics of the hazardous chemical (such as vapor pressure, flash point); · The physical hazards of the hazardous chemical, including the potential for fire, explosion, and reactivity; · The health hazards of the hazardous chemical, including signs and symptoms of exposure, and any medical conditions which are generally recognized as being aggravated by exposure to the chemical; · · The primary route(s) of entry; The OSHA permissible exposure limit, ACGIH Threshold Limit Value, and any other exposure limit used or recommended by the chemical

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manufacturer, importer, or employer preparing the material safety data sheet, where available; · Whether the hazardous chemical is listed in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Annual Report on Carcinogens or has been found to be a potential carcinogen in the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs, or by OSHA; · Any generally applicable precautions for safe handling and use which are known to the chemical manufacturer, importer or employer preparing the material safety data sheet, including appropriate hygienic practices, protective measures during repair and maintenance of contaminated equipment, and procedures for clean-up of spills and leaks; · Any generally applicable control measures which are known to the chemical manufacturer, importer or employer preparing the material safety data sheet, such as appropriate engineering controls, work practices, or personal protective equipment; · · · Emergency and first aid procedures; The date of preparation of the MSDS or the last change to it; and, The name, address and telephone number of the chemical manufacturer, importer, employer or other responsible party preparing or distributing the material safety data sheet, who can provide additional information on the hazardous chemical and appropriate emergency procedures, if necessary. 3. If no relevant information is found for any given category on the material safety data sheet, the chemical manufacturer, importer or employer preparing the material safety data sheet shall mark it to indicate that no applicable information was found. 4. Where complex mixtures have similar hazards and contents (i.e. the chemical ingredients are essentially the same, but the specific composition varies from mixture to mixture), the

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chemical manufacturer, importer or employer may prepare one material safety data sheet to apply to all of these similar mixtures. 5. The chemical manufacturer, importer or employer preparing the material safety data sheet shall ensure that the information recorded accurately reflects the scientific evidence used in making the hazard determination. If the chemical manufacturer, importer or employer preparing the material safety data sheet becomes newly aware of any significant information regarding the hazards of a chemical, or ways to protect against the hazards, this new information shall be added to the material safety data sheet within three months. If the chemical is not currently being produced or imported the chemical manufacturer or importer shall add the information to the material safety data sheet before the chemical is introduced into the workplace again. 6. Chemical manufacturers or importers shall ensure that distributors and employers are provided an appropriate material safety data sheet with their initial shipment, and with the first shipment after a material safety data sheet is updated. The chemical manufacturer or importer shall either provide material safety data sheets with the shipped containers or send them to the distributor or employer prior to or at the time of the shipment. If the material safety data sheet is not provided with a shipment that has been labeled as a hazardous chemical, the distributor or employer shall obtain one from the chemical manufacturer or importer as soon as possible. The chemical manufacturer or importer shall also provide distributors or employers with a material safety data sheet upon request. 7. Distributors shall ensure that material safety data sheets, and updated information, are provided to other distributors and employers. Retail distributors selling hazardous chemicals to employers having a commercial account shall provide a material safety data sheet to such employers upon request, and shall post a sign or otherwise inform them that a material safety data sheet is available. Chemical manufacturers, importers, and distributors need not provide material safety data sheets to retail distributors that have informed them that the retail distributor does not sell the product to commercial accounts or open the sealed container to use it in their own workplaces. 8. The employer shall maintain in the workplace copies of the required material safety data sheets for each hazardous chemical, and shall ensure that they are readily accessible during each work shift to employees when they are in their work area(s).

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9. Where employees must travel between workplaces during a workshift, i.e., their work is carried out at more than one geographical location, the material safety data sheets may be kept at the primary workplace facility. In this situation, the employer shall ensure that employees can immediately obtain the required information in an emergency. 10. Material safety data sheets may be kept in any form, including operating procedures, and may be designed to cover groups of hazardous chemicals in a work area where it may be more appropriate to address the hazards of a process rather than individual hazardous chemicals. However, the employer shall ensure that in all cases the required information is provided for each hazardous chemical, and is readily accessible during each work shift to employees when they are in in their work area(s). 11. Material safety data sheets shall also be made readily available, upon request, to designated representatives and to the Assistant Secretary, in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.1020(e). The Director shall also be given access to material safety data sheets in the same manner. MSDSs 3.1.1 ROLE OF MSDSs The role of MSDSs is to provide detailed information on each hazardous chemical, including its potential hazardous effects, its physical and chemical characteristics, and recommendations for appropriate protective measures. This information should be useful to you as the employer responsible for designing protective programs, as well as to the workers. If you are not familiar with material safety data sheets and with chemical terminology, you may need to learn to use them yourself. A glossary of MSDS terms may be helpful in this regard. Most employers using hazardous chemicals will primarily be concerned with MSDS information regarding hazardous effects and recommended protective measures. Focus on the sections of the MSDS that apply to your situation.

MSDSs 3.1.2 ACCESSIBILITY OF MSDSs MSDSs must be readily accessible to employees when they are in their work areas during their workshifts. This may be accomplished in many different ways. You must decide what

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is appropriate for your particular workplace. Some employers keep the MSDSs in a binder in a central location (e.g., in the pick-up truck on a construction site). Others, particularly in workplaces with large numbers of chemicals, computerize the information and provide access through terminals. As long as employees can get the information when they need it, any approach may be used. The employees must have access to the MSDSs themselves-simply having a system where the information can be read to them over the phone is only permitted under the mobile worksite provision, paragraph (g)(9) of the Standard, when employees must travel between workplaces during the shift. In this situation, they have access to the MSDSs prior to leaving the primary worksite, and when they return, so the telephone system is simply an emergency arrangement.

3.1.3

MSDS COMPLIANCE

In order to ensure that you have a current MSDS for each chemical in the plant as required, and that employee access is provided, the compliance officers will be looking for the following types of information in your written program: · · Designation of person(s) responsible for obtaining and maintaining the MSDSs; How such sheets are to be maintained in the workplace (e.g., in notebooks in the work area(s) or in a computer with terminal access), and how employees can obtain access to them when they are in their work area during the work shift; · Procedures to follow when the MSDS is not received at the time of the first shipment; · For producers, procedures to update the MSDS when new and significant health information is found; and, · Description of alternatives to actual data sheets in the workplace, if used.

For employers using hazardous chemicals, the most important aspect of the written program in terms of MSDSs is to ensure that someone is responsible for obtaining and maintaining the MSDSs for every hazardous chemical in the workplace. The list of hazardous chemicals required to be maintained as part of the written program will serve as

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an inventory. As new chemicals are purchased, the list should be updated. Many companies have found it convenient to include on their purchase orders the name and address of the person designated in their company to receive MSDSs. 3.1.4 MSDS FORMAT

There is no specified format for the MSDS under the rule, although there are specific information requirements. OSHA has developed a non-mandatory format, OSHA Form 174. The OSHA Form 174 is an eight-section form. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has published a voluntary standard prescribing the division of MSDS data into 16 sections. These are the two most predominant forms of MSDSs. If you receive an incomplete MSDS, you should request an appropriately completed one. If your request for a data sheet or for a corrected data sheet does not produce the information needed, you should contact your local OSHA Area Office for assistance in obtaining the MSDS. The following is an example of an OSHA MSDS Format:

Material Safety Data Sheet

May be used to comply with OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200. Standard must be consulted for specific requirements. IDENTITY (As Used on Label and List)

U.S. Department of Labor

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Non-Mandatory Form) Form Approved OMB No. 1218-0072 Note: Blank spaces are not permitted. If any item is not applicable, or no information is available, the space must be marked to indicate that.

Section I Manufacturer's Name Address (Number, Street, City, State, and ZIP) Emergency Telephone Number Telephone Number for Information Date Prepared Signature of Preparer (optional)

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Section II - Hazard Ingredients/Identity Information Hazardous Components (Specific Chemical Identity; Common Name(s)) OSHA PEL ACGIH TLV Other Limits Recommended %(optional)

Section III - Physical/Chemical Characteristics Boiling Point Vapor Pressure (mm Hg.) Vapor Density (AIR = 1) Solubility in Water Appearance and Odor Section IV - Fire and Explosion Hazard Data Flash Point (Method Used) Extinguishing Media Special Fire Fighting Procedures Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards (Reproduce locally) OSHA 174, Sept. 1985 Flammable Limits LEL UEL Specific Gravity (H2O = 1) Melting Point Evaporation Rate (Butyl Acetate = 1)

Section V - Reactivity Data Stability Unstable Stable Incompatibility (Materials to Avoid) Hazardous Decomposition or Byproducts Hazardous Polymerization 75

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Conditions to Avoid

May Occur

Conditions to Avoid

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Will Not Occur Section VI - Health Hazard Data Route(s) of Entry: Inhalation? Skin? Ingestion?

Health Hazards (Acute and Chronic) Carcinogenicity: NTP? IARC Monographs? OSHA Regulated?

Signs and Symptoms of Exposure Medical Conditions Generally Aggravated by Exposure Emergency and First Aid Procedures Section VII - Precautions for Safe Handling and Use Steps to Be Taken in Case Material is Released or Spilled Waste Disposal Method Precautions to Be taken in Handling and Storing Other Precautions Section VIII - Control Measures Respiratory Protection (Specify Type) Ventilation Local Exhaust Mechanical (General) Protective Gloves Other Protective Clothing or Equipment Work/Hygienic Practices Page 2 * U.S.G.P.O.: 1986 - 491 - 529/45775 Special Other Eye Protection

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The following is an example of an ANSI MSDS Format:

Section 1. Product and company identification

MSDS contents (sample) Product name: Acme Termiticide Concentrate Manufacturer: Acme Agrosciences P.O. Box 12345 9330 Chemical Way Indianapolis, IN Telephone number for information: (800) 123-4567 CHEMTREC: (800) 424-9300 EPA registration number: 264-945 Date prepared: October 15, 1999 Code number: 000897 Non-emergency information regarding the product. CHEMical TRansportation Emergency Center phone number for transportation emergencies. EPA assigns each registered product its own identity number. Date on which the MSDS was prepared. Identification number assigned by the manufacturer. Company's identification and where to obtain information. Product's brand name. Explanation

Chemical family: Pyrethroid pesticide One of the classifications of pesticides. MSDS number: S000-10000 Specific product identification assigned by the manufacturer.

Section 2. Composition/information on ingredients

MSDS contents (sample) Chemical ingredients Active ingredient: -- 20% Inert ingredient: attapulgite -- 80% CAS Reg. No. propachlor 1919-16-7 attapulgite 8031-13-3 Active and inert ingredients are also identified by their Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) number. The active ingredient controls the pest. Inert ingredients can help make the be listed if they are known to contribute to the product's hazard potential unless they are a trade secret. propachlor, 2,3-diethyl product safer and easier to handle. Both the active and inert ingredients must Explanation

Section 3. Hazards identification

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MSDS contents (sample) Emergency overview: brown liquid, aromatic odor. Causes substantial but temporary eye injury. Harmful if absorbed through skin. Potential health effects: Acute eye: causes redness, irritation, tearing. Acute skin: nonirritating. Acute inhalation: may cause respiratory tract irritation. Acute ingestion: may cause loss of coordination, burns to mouth and esophagus. Chronic effects: This product contains ingredients that are considered to be probable or suspected human carcinogens (see Section 11 -- Chronic). Chronic effects are those due to long-term exposure to the substance. Acute effects occur immediately upon exposure to the substance through the eyes or skin or by inhalation or ingestion. Explanation This information is intended for emergency response personnel.

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Section 4. First aid measures

MSDS contents (sample) Eyes: Hold eyelids open and flush with a steady, gentle stream of water for at least 15 minutes. Seek immediate medical attention, preferably with an opthalmologist. Skin exposure: In case of contact, wash with plenty of soap and water. Seek medical attention if irritation develops or persists. Inhalation: Remove the victim from immediate source of exposure and assure that the victim is breathing. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen, if available. If victim is not breathing, administer CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Seek medical attention. Ingestion: If victim is conscious and alert, give 2Ð3 glasses of water to drink and do not induce vomiting. Seek immediate medical attention. Notes to physician: All treatments should be based on observed signs and symptoms of distress in the patient. Consideration should be given to the possibility that overexposure to materials other than this product may have occurred. Treat symptomatically. No specific antidote available. This material is an acid. The primary toxicity of this product is due to it irritant effects on mucous membranes. Specific instructions to the physician. Users should be familiar with where this is found on the MSDS so that in an emergency, the information can be given to the physician quickly. Any treatment listed in this section should not be attempted by a nonmedical person. What to do if the product is swallowed. What to do if the product is breathed into the lungs. What to do if the product gets on the skin. What to do if the product gets into the eyes. Explanation

Section 5. Fire fighting measures

MSDS contents (sample) Flash point: 63 degrees C/145 degrees F Lower explosive limit: 2.6% Upper explosive limit: 12.6% 79

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Explanation The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite near the surface of the liquid or in the test vessel used. The upper and lower explosive limits are concentrations in air that will produce a flash of fire

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when an ignition source is present. Extinguishing media: Recommended: foam, water, Specific instructions to firefighters on how to carbon dioxide, dry chemical. Personal protective equipment: Wear selfcontained breathing apparatus (pressure-demand MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full protective gear. Special procedures: Contain runoff. Remain upwind. Avoid breathing smoke. Use water spray to cool containers exposed to fire. Unusual fire and explosion hazards: Product will burn under fire conditions. Hazardous decomposition materials (under fire conditions): hydrogen chloride, oxides of carbon. Safety instructions to emergency personnel responding to the fire. Additional safety information for emergency personnel. By-products formed due to fire that may pose a risk to emergency personnel and the environment. Description of safety equipment that firefighters should use in case of fire involving the chemical. extinguish a fire involving the chemical.

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Section 6. Accidental release measures

MSDS contents (sample) Evacuation procedures and safety: Wear appropriate protective gear for the situation. See personal protection information in Section 8. Containment of spill: Stop leak if it can be done without risk. Dike spill using absorbent or impervious materials such as earth, sand or clay. Cleanup and disposal of spill: Absorb with vermiculite or other inert absorbent. Shovel up into an appropriate closed container (see Section 7: Handling and Storage). Decontaminate tools and equipment following cleanup. Environmental and regulatory reporting: If spilled on the ground, the affected area should be removed to a depth of 1Ð2 inches and placed in an appropriate container for disposal. Prevent material from entering public sewer system or any waterways. Spills may be reported to the National Response Center (800-4248802) and to state and/or local agencies. Actions to take when dealing with a spill. Explanation

Section 7: Handling and Storage

MSDS contents (sample) Minimum/maximum Minimum/maximum storage temperatures: 0 to 50 degrees C (32 to 122 degrees F) Handling: Do not breathe vapors and mists. Do not get on skin or in eyes. Do not ingest. Use handling, storage and disposal procedures that will prevent contamination of water, food or feed. Avoid freezing. If freezing occurs, thaw and remix before using. Storage: Store in an area that is away from ignition sources. Procedures that minimize potential storage hazards. Procedures to minimize the risks of accidental exposure or release of the product. Explanation Temperature range for storing the product in order to prevent chemical separation, inactivation, crystallization, coagulation or other breakdown.

Section 8. Exposure controls/personal protection

MSDS contents (sample) Ingestion: Prevent eating, drinking, tobacco usage and cosmetic application in areas where there is a potential for exposure to the material. Always wash thoroughly after handling. 81

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Explanation Protective measures to reduce the likelihood of swallowing.

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Eye contact: To avoid eye contact, wear safety glasses with side shields or chemical goggles. Skin contact: To avoid skin contact, wear rubber gloves, rubber boots, long-sleeved shirt, long pants and a head covering. Respiratory protection: To avoid breathing dust, use a particulate filter, NIOSH-approved per 42 CFR Part 84. Select N or R or P type as appropriate for the oil Filter efficiency may range from 95% to 99.7%. as appropriate t. Engineering controls: If needed, use local exhaust to keep exposures to a minimum. Exposure guidelines: Benomyl: PEL (OSHA): 15 mg/m 3 , total dust, 8 hr. TLV (ACGIH): 0.84 ppm, 10 mg/m 3 , 8 hr. Procedures used to maintain airborne levels below TLV (Threshold Limit Value) or PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit). PEL and TLV identify the concentration of chemical in the air, below which workers would not be expected to experience health problems during a 40-hour work week. The type of respirator, if any, needed when characteristics of any other air contaminants present. handling this product. Protective measures to reduce the likelihood of the pesticide getting in the eyes. Protective measures to reduce the possibility of getting the pesticide on the skin.

Section 9. Physical and chemical properties

MSDS contents (sample) Color: Yellow liquid. Odor characteristic: Kerosene odor. pH: 4.1 Aqueous solution. Specific gravity (Water = 1): 0.95 4.8 Vapor pressure: 3 mm Hg @ 25 degrees C/77 degrees F 82 Measurement of the potential of the chemical to convert to a gaseous form. Explanation Explanation Describes the physical appearance of the chemical. Describes the product odor for detection purposes. pH values from 0 to 2 and from 12 to 14 are usually corrosive to skin and eyes. Also may be helpful in neutralizing a chemical spill. The weight of the chemical compared to the weight of an equal volume of water. than 1, rise. Those with weight values greater than 1, sink and concentrate.

Vapor density (Air = 1): Weight of the chemical's vapor compared to air. Vapors with weight values less

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Boiling point: 176 Boiling degrees C (349 degrees Temperature at which a liquid becomes a vapor. F) Solubility in water: 0.1 ppm A measurement of the amount of material that will dissolve in water. Materials with a value of 100 ppm and less are considered to be relatively insoluble, while those with values greater than 1,000 ppm are considered very soluble.

Section 10. Stability and reactivity

MSDS contents (sample) temperatures and storage conditions. Hazardous polymerization: Will not occur. Conditions to avoid: Avoid freezing temperatures. Chemical incompatibility: Oxidizing agents. HCl, HF, NO 3 during combustion. Explanation temperatures will be listed at which the chemical becomes unstable. This is a statement that states if the product will react dangerously with itself to form other products. Describes conditions under which the product may damage the product, the container or cause a hazardous condition. Describes other materials which may react with the product. Chemical stability: Stable at normal Usually general terms to describe the chemical's stability. At times,

Hazardous decomposition products: A list of by-products that are formed when the product burns or is subjected to other conditions.

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Section 11.Toxicological information

MSDS contents (sample) Acute Data Eye irritation: Rabbit: substantial irritation. Skin irritation: Rabbit: severe irritation Oral LD50: Rat: 3600 mg/kg Dermal LD50: Rabbit: >5000 mg/kg Consequences of short-term exposure to eyes. Consequences of short-term exposure to skin. Toxicity of short-term exposure from ingestion. The LD50 is the dose level that is expected to cause the death of 50% of the test animals. Toxicity by absorption through the skin. Toxicity from breathing dusts, fumes or vapors. Inhalation LC50: Rabbit: 11 mg/L for 4 hr The LC50 is the concentration of dust, fume or mist that is expected to kill 50% of the test animals. Skin sensitization: Guinea pig: sensitizing Chronic Data Chronic toxicity studies: Liver (alteration and enlargement) and thyroid effects (hormone imbalances) at high dose levels (rats); decreased body weight gains. Mutagenicity data: This product does not pose a mutagenic hazard. Reproductive/teratology data: No birth defects were noted in rats and rabbits given dithiopyr technical orally Effects of exposure that may affect the ability to during pregnancy. No effects were seen on the ability of male or female rats to reproduce when fed dithiopyr technical for two successive generations. Carcinogenicity data: Benign thyroid tumors (speciesspecific). The U.S. EPA lists prodiamine as a possible human carcinogen based on limited evidence from animal studies. The ability of a substance to cause cancer. reproduce viable offspring or cause birth defects. Adverse health effects resulting from long-term exposure to a chemical, or long-term effects from short exposures. Effects of exposure to a substance that may change the genetic material in a living cell. An allergic reaction on tissue after repeated exposure. Explanation

Section 12. Ecological information

MSDS contents (sample) 84 Explanation

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Eco-acute toxicity Eco· · · · · · · Bluegill sunfish, 96-hour LC50 : 0.47 mg/l Rainbow trout, 96-hour LC50 : 0.46 mg/l Daphnia magna, 48-hour LC50 : 5.2 mg/l Mallard duck, 5-day dietary LC50 : >5620 ppm Bobwhite quail, Acute oral LC50 : >2250 mg/kg Honeybee, LD50 : 81 g/bee The breakdown processes of a chemical when exposed to various environmental elements. Photolysis: Exposure to sunlight. Hydrolysis: Exposure to water. This section describes indicator species that Bobwhite quail, 5-day dietary LC50 : >5620 ppm were used in toxicity testing.

Environmental fate Photolysis: Unstable, half-life less than 1 hour. Hydrolysis: Stable soil half-life: 2 months.

Section 13. Disposal considerations

MSDS contents (sample) Procedures: For disposal, incinerate this material at a facility that complies with local, state and federal regulations. Explanation Directions and limitations for disposal of the material.

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Section 14.Transportation information 14.Transportation

MSDS contents (sample) Proper shipping name: Triazine pesticide, liquid, toxic (cyanazine). Hazard class: Class 9. UN No.: UN 3082 information: Special information: Marine pollutant. Packing group: III. Explanation The official shipping name and description that should appear on U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping papers. DOT recognizes 9 classes of hazardous materials. Typically, the lower the number, the more hazardous the material. The number assigned for identification by the United Nations (UN) convention. Special provisions for a particular hazardous material. Specifies one or more packing groups for the material based on the hazard of great (I), medium (II), or minor (III) significance. May assist in selecting the proper packaging materials and labels.

Section 15. Regulatory information

MSDS contents (sample) Explanation Workplace classification: This product is considered The Occupational Safety and Health hazardous under the OSHA Hazard Communication Administration's interpretation of the product's Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200). SARA Title 3: Section 311/312 Categorizations (40 CFR 372): This product is a hazardous chemical immediate and delayed health, and flammability physical hazard. Toxic Substances Control Act statement regarding TSCA status: Exempt from TSCA. its regulation. This law covers the production and distribution of com-mercial and industrial chemicals in the United States. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act's RCRA classification: Reactive classification. RCRA regulates hazardous waste generators and transporters. CERCLA reportable quantity: This material contains Comprehensive Environmental Response, no hazardous or extremely hazardous substances 86 Compensation and Liability Act's classification. Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of any hazardous substance. under 29 CFR 1910.1200, and is categorized as an (SARA) category. SARA requires reporting any spill hazard to workers.

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as defined by CERCLA. CERCLA provides EPA authority to respond to releases of hazardous substances.

Section 16. Other information

MSDS contents (sample) ratings: Health = 2; Flammability = 1; Reactivity = 0. Issue date: 1/2/92 Revised date: 2/8/99 Supersedes: 2/3/99 Responsibility Responsibility for MSDS: Acme Agrosciences Address: P.O. Box 12345 9330 Chemical Way Indianapolis, IN Telephone: 800-555-1234 Explanation 4 = extreme. Classification and properties of hazardous chemical data. Original MSDS publishing date. Date that MSDS was amended. Date of previous MSDS. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) NFPA's scale: 0 = least; 1 = slight; 2 = moderate; 3 = high;

REVIEWING COMPLETENESS 3.1.5 GUIDE FOR REVIEWING MSDS COMPLETENESS Do chemical manufacturers and importers have MSDS for each hazardous chemical produced or imported? Is each MSDS in English? Does MSDS contain the identity used on the label? Does each MSDS contain the chemical and common name(s) for single-substance hazardous chemicals? For mixtures tested as a whole, does each MSDS contain the chemical and common name(s) of the ingredients that contribute to these known hazards? For mixtures tested as a whole, does each MSDS contain the common name(s) of the mixture itself? For mixtures NOT tested as a whole, does each MSDS contain the chemical and common name(s) of all ingredients which are health hazards (1% or greater), or in the case of

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carcinogens (0.1% or greater)? For mixtures NOT tested as a whole, does each MSDS contain the chemical and common name(s) of all ingredients that have been determined to present a physical hazard when present in the mixture? Does each MSDS contain the physical and chemical characteristics of the hazardous chemical (vapor pressure, flash point, etc.)? Does each MSDS contain the physical hazards of the hazardous chemical, including he potential for fire, explosion, and reactivity? Does each MSDS contain the health hazards of the hazardous chemical (including signs and symptoms, medical conditions aggravated)? Does each MSDS contain the primary routes of entry? Does each MSDS contain the OSHA PEL? the ACGIH TLV? other exposure limit (including ceiling and other short-term limits)? Does each MSDS contain information on carcinogen listings (reference OSHA regulated carcinogens, those indicated in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) annual report and those listed by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC). Note: Negative conclusions regarding carcinogenicity or the fact that there is no information do not have to be reported unless there is a specific blank for carcinogenicity on the form. Does each MSDS contain general applicable procedures and precautions for safe handling and use of the chemical (hygienic practices, maintenance and spill procedures)? Does each MSDS contain generally applicable control (engineering controls, work practices, or personal protective equipment)? Does each MSDS contain emergency and first aid procedures? Does each MSDS contain date of preparation or last change? Does each MSDS contain name, address and telephone number of responsible party? Are all sections of the MSDS completed?

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3.2 LABELS AND OTHER FORMS OF WARNING

1. The chemical manufacturer importer, or distributor shall ensure that each container of hazardous chemicals leaving the workplace is labeled, tagged, or marked with the following information: a. Identity of the hazardous chemical(s); b. Appropriate hazard warnings; and c. Name and address of the chemical manufacturer, importer or other responsible party.

2. For solid metal (such as a steel beam or a metal casting) that is not exempted as an article due to its downstream use, the required label may be transmitted to the customer at the time of the initial shipment, and need not be included with subsequent shipments to the same employer unless the information on the label changes. The label may be transmitted with the initial shipment itself, or with the material safety data sheet that is to be provided prior to or at the time of the first shipment. This exception to requiring labels on every container of hazardous chemicals is only for the solid metal itself and does not apply to hazardous chemicals used in conjunction with, or known to be present with, the metal and to which employees handling the metal may be exposed (for example, cutting fluids or lubricants). 3. Chemical manufacturers, importers, or distributors shall ensure that each container of hazardous chemicals leaving the workplace is labeled, tagged, or marked in accordance with this section in a manner which does not conflict with the requirements of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) and regulations issued under that Act by the Department of Transportation. 4. If OSHA regulates the hazardous chemical in a substance-specific health standard, the chemical manufacturer, importer, distributor or employer shall ensure that the labels or other forms of warning used are in accordance with the requirements of that standard.

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5. Except as provided in paragraphs 6 and 7, the employer shall ensure that each container of hazardous chemicals in the workplace is labeled, tagged or marked with the following information: a. Identity of the hazardous chemical(s) contained therein; and b. Appropriate hazard warnings. 6. The employer may use signs, placards, process sheets, batch tickets, operating procedures or other such written materials in lieu of affixing labels to individual stationary process containers, as long as the alternative methods identify the containers to which it is applicable and conveys the information required by paragraph 5 of this section to be on a label. The written materials shall be readily accessible to the employees in their work area throughout each work shift. 7. The employer is not required to label portable containers into which hazardous chemicals are transferred from labeled containers, and which are intended only for the immediate use of the employee who performs the transfer. 8. The employer shall not remove or deface existing labels on incoming containers of hazardous chemicals unless the container is immediately marked with the required information. 9. The employer shall ensure the labels or other forms of warning are legible, in English, and prominently displayed on the container, or readily available in the work area throughout each work shift. Employers having employees who speak other languages may add the information in their language to the material presented, as long as the information is presented in English as well. 10. The chemical manufacturer, importer, distributor or employer need not affix new labels to comply with this regulation if existing labels already convey the required information.

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11. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has developed a system of warning of placards and labels that are used in the transportation of hazardous materials. Any employee who works in a shipping, receiving or material handling area or who may be involved in preparing or transporting hazardous materials is required to have training that conforms to the requirements of 49 CFR Parts 171-180. The following are examples of DOT labels and placards.

3.3 EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDEBOOK

A. INTRODUCTION The US Department of Transportation, Transport Canada, and the Secretariat of Communications and Transportation of Mexico (SCT) jointly developed the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). It is for use by firefighters, police, and other emergency services personnel who may be the first to arrive at the scene of a transportation incident involving a hazardous material. It is primarily a guide to aid first responders in: 1. 2. quickly identifying the specific or generic classification of the material(s) involved in the incident, and protecting themselves and the general public during this initial response phase of the incident. The ERG is updated every three years to accommodate new products and technology. This guidebook can assist you in making decisions, but you cannot consider it to be a substitute for your own knowledge or judgment. This distinction is important since the

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recommendations it contains are those most likely to apply in a majority of cases and we do not represent that the recommendations are adequate or applicable in all cases. This guidebook was primarily designed for use at a hazardous materials incident occurring on a highway or a railroad. It will, with certain limitations, be useful in handling incidents in other modes of transportation and at transportation facilities such as terminals and warehouses. Each numbered guide provides only the most vital information in a brief practical form. It identifies the most significant potential hazards and gives information and guidance for initial actions to be taken. A numbered guide is assigned to each material listed in the indexes. Neither the numerical order of the guide presentation nor the guide number itself is of any significance. Since many materials represent similar types of hazards that call for similar initial emergency response actions, only a limited number of guide pages are required of all the materials listed. The guides cover hazardous materials, taken one at a time, spilled or involved in a fire. Incidents involving more than one hazardous material at a time require that the on-scene commander get expert advice as soon as the scope of the incident can be determined. The materials involved in an accident may, by themselves, be nonhazardous; however, a combination of several materials or the involvement of a single material in a fire, may still produce serious health, fire or explosion hazards. B. HOW TO USE THIS GUIDEBOOK DURING AN INCIDENT STEP ONE: IDENTIFY THE MATERIAL, by finding any ONE of the following: · · · The 4-digit ID number on a placard or orange panel The 4-digit ID number (after UN/NA) on shipping document or package The name of the material on a shipping document, placards, or package.

If an ID NUMBER or NAME OF MATERIAL, cannot be found, skip to the NOTE on the next page. STEP TWO:

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LOOK UP THE MATERIALS 3-DIGIT GUIDE NUMBER in either: · · The ID number index.. (the Yellow-border pages of the guidebook) or The name of the material index..(the Blue-border pages of the guidebook)

If the guide number is supplemented with the letter "P", it indicates that the material may undergo violent polymerization if subjected to heat or contamination. If the index entry is highlighted, look for the ID number and name of the material in the table of initial isolation and protective action distances (the green-border pages). If necessary, begin protective actions. (See the section on Protective Actions.) STEP THREE: TURN TO THE NUMBERED GUIDE, (the Orange-border pages) AND READ CAREFULLY.

IMPORTANT NOTE IF A NUMBERED GUIDE CANNOT BE OBTAINED BY FOLLOWING THE ABOVE STEPS, and a placard can be seen, locate the placard in the table of placards, then go to the 3-digit guide shown next to the sample placard. IF YOU DO NOT FIND ANY REFERENCE TO A GUIDE AND YOU BELIEVE THIS INCIDENT INVOLVES A HAZARDOUS MATERIAL, turn to GUIDE 111 now, and use it until additional information becomes available. If the shipping document lists an emergency response telephone number, call that number. If the shipping document is not available, or no emergency response telephone number is listed, IMMEDIATELY CALL the appropriate emergency response agency listed on the inside back cover of this guidebook. Provide as much information as possible, such as the name of the carrier (trucking company or railroad) and vehicle number.

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3.4 NIOSH POCKET GUIDE TO CHEMICAL HAZARDS

A. INTRODUCTION The NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards is intended as a source of general industrial hygiene information for workers, employers, and occupational health professionals. The Pocket Guide does not contain an analysis of all pertinent data; rather, it presents key information and data in abbreviated tabular form for 677 chemicals or substance groupings (e.g., manganese compounds, tellurium compounds, inorganic tin compounds, etc.) that are found in the work environment. The Pocket Guide' s industrial hygiene information will help users recognize and control occupational chemical hazards. The chemicals or substances contained in this revision include all substances for which the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has recommended exposure limits (RELs) and those with permissible exposure limits (PELs) as found in the OSHA General Industry Air Contaminants Standard (29 CFR 19 10. 1000). B. BACKGROUND In 1974 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) joined OSHA in developing a series of complete occupational health standards for substances with existing PELs. This joint effort was labeled the Standards Completion Program. The Standards

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Completion Program developed 380 substance-specific draft standards with supporting documentation that contained technical information and recommendations needed for the promulgation of new occupational health regulations. The Pocket Guide was developed to make the technical information in those draft standards more conveniently available to workers, employers, and occupational health professionals. The Pocket Guide is updated periodically to reflect new data regarding the toxicity of various substances and any changes in exposure standards or recommendations. C. POCKET GUIDE CONTENTS The Pocket Guide includes the following: · · · · · · · · · Chemical Names, synonyms, trade names, conversion factors, CAS, RTECS, and DOT Numbers NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits (NIOSH RELs) Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) NIOSH Immediate Dangerous to Life and Health values A physical description of the agent with chemical and physical properties Measurement methods Personal Protection and Sanitation Recommendations Respirator Recommendations Information on Health Hazards including route, symptoms, first aid and target organ information As you can see, the Pocket Guide can be used to gain the same information contained on MSDSs when an MSDS for a hazardous material is not available. The Pocket Guide cannot be used as a replacement for the MSDS, but rather as a backup when an MSDS is not available during an emergency situation.

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Using the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) found in Appendix A of this manual, answer the following: 1. What Health Hazards are associated with Paint Thinner?

2.

What First Aid Measures should be taken if Liquid Chlorine is splashed in the eyes?

3.

What Fire Fighting Measures are associated with Sodium Hydroxide?

4.

What Accidental Release Measures should be taken if Acetone is released?

5.

What Eye Protection should be employed when working with Tricholoroethylene?

6.

List the three things that should be found on every label from a manufacturer: b. _____________________ c. _____________________

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b. _____________________

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(Answers found in Appendix B)

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1. Watch the Video CHEMICAL SAFETY SAFETY. 2. GO through Section 4 ­ Containers and Labeling in Transportation of Hazardous Waste. 3. Watch the Video FIRE PREVENTION

Day 2 (A.M.)

RESPONSIBILITY. RESPONSIBILITY 4. GO through Section 5 ­ Compatibility of Hazardous Materials and Hazardous Wastes.

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4 CONTAINERS AND LABELING IN TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE

4.1 OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this module, you should be able to do the following:

· · · · ·

Identify when the word "waste" must precede the DOT proper shipping name. Identify the requirements associated with the use of the labpack provision. Define the packaging reuse provision applicable to hazardous waste. Select the additional marking requirements for packages of hazardous waste. Recognize that the EPA Hazardous Waste Code Number can be used to identify the package constituent or hazardous substance.

·

Recognize the appropriate shipping paper required for a shipment of hazardous waste.

·

Define the shipping paper entry requirements for the Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest (Manifest).

·

Identify the spill requirements for hazardous waste as addressed by the EPA in 40 CFR 263.

·

Determine the difference between hazardous waste transportation in the United States and Canada.

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4.2 UNIFORM HAZARDOUS WASTE MANIFEST

A generator of hazardous waste is required to complete a Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest (UHWM) (EPA 8700-22), which will accompany your shipment of hazardous waste. The Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest (UHWM) is the most important document that you will use. This document tracks your hazardous waste from the moment it leaves your facility until it is safely disposed of. Special attention must be given to this form. It must be filled out accurately and completely. No person may offer, transport, transfer, or deliver a hazardous waste unless an EPA Form 8700-22 and 8700-22A (when necessary) hazardous waste manifest is prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 262.20 and is signed, carried, and given as required of that person. The shipper (generator) must prepare the manifest in accordance with 40 CFR part 262. The original copy of the manifest must be dated by, and bear the handwritten signature of, the person representing: The shipper (generator) of the waste at the time it is offered for transportation;

·

and

· The initial carrier accepting the waste for transportation.

A copy of the manifest must be dated by, and bear the handwritten signature of, the person representing: Each subsequent carrier accepting the waste for transportation, at the time of acceptance. · The designated facility receiving the waste, upon receipt.

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A copy of the manifest bearing all required dates and signatures must be: Given to a person representing each carrier accepting the waste for transportation. · Carried during transportation in the same manner as required by The Hazardous Materials Regulations for shipping papers. · · Given to a person representing the designated facility receiving the waste. Retained by the shipper (generator) and by the initial and each subsequent carrier for three years from the date the waste was accepted by the initial carrier. Each retained copy must bear all required signatures and dates up to and including those entered by the next person who received the waste. A generator of hazardous waste is fully responsible and liable for the wastes they produce. They must accurately complete a manifest form and must ensure a notice is received when the wastes have been delivered to a licensed hazardous waste facility. States may print their own version of the manifest. These versions may require you to supply additional information. The following pages provide you with line-by-line instructions for completing your Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest (UHWM) filled with a completed example form.

·

4.3 SAMPLE UNIFORM HAZARDOUS WASTE MANIFEST

The following is an example of a uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest.

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training 4.3.1 INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING THE UNIFORM HAZARDOUS WASTE MANIFEST

Item 1. Generator's U.S. EPA ID Number-Manifest Document Number: Enter the generator's U.S. EPA 12-digit identification number and in the space to the right of this line, enter a 5-digit number of your choice. Item 2. Page 1 of ______: Enter the total number of pages used to complete this Manifest plus the number of continuation sheets, if any. Item 3. Generator's Name and Mailing Address: Enter the name and mailing address of the generator. The address should be the location that will manage the returned Manifest forms. Item 4. Generator's Phone Number: Enter a telephone number where an authorized agent of the generator may be reached in the event of an emergency. Item 5. Transporter-1 Company Name: Enter the company name of the first transporter who will transport the waste. Item 6. U.S. EPA ID Number: Enter the U.S. EPA 12-digit identification number of the first transporter identified in Item 5. Item 7. Transporter-2 Company Name: Enter the company name of the second transporter who will transport the waste. If more than two transporters are used to transport the waste, use a continuation sheet(s) and list the transporters in the order they will be transporting the waste. Item 8. U.S. EPA ID Number: If applicable, enter the U.S. EPA 12-digit identification number of the second transporter identified in Item 7. Item 9. Designated Facility Name and Site Address: Enter the company name and site address of the facility designated to receive the waste

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listed on this Manifest. The address must be the site address which may differ from the company mailing address. Item 10. U.S. EPA ID Number: Enter the U.S. EPA 12-digit identification number of the designated facility identified in item 9. Item 11. U.S. DOT Description: Enter the U.S. Dot Proper Shipping Name, Hazard Class, and ID number (UN/NA) for each waste as identified in 49 CFR 171 through 177. Item 12. Containers (No. and Type): Enter the number of containers for each waste and the appropriate abbreviation from Table I, below, for the type of container.

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training I-- Table I--Types of Containers

DM = Metal drums, barrels, kegs DW = Wooden drums, barrels, kegs DF = Fiberboard or plastic drums, barrels, kegs CW = Wooden boxes, cartons, cases CF = Fiber or plastic boxes, cartons, cases BA = Burlap, cloth, paper or plastic bags TP = Tanks, portable TT = Cargo tanks (tank trucks) TC = Tank cars DT = Dump truck CY = Cylinders CM = Metal Boxes, Cartons, Cases (including roll-offs) Item 13. Total Quantity: Enter the total quantity of waste described on each line. Item 14. Unit (Wt./Vol.): Enter the appropriate abbreviation from Table II (below) for the unit of measure.

II-- Table II--Unit of Measure

G = Gallons (liquids only) P = Pounds T = Tons (2000 lbs.) Y = Cubic yards L = Liters (liquids only) K = Kilograms M = Metric tons (1000 kg) N = Cubic Meters Item 15. Special Handling Instructions and Additional Information: Generators may use this space to indicate special transportation, treatment, storage, or disposal information or Bill of Lading information. For

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international shipments, generators must enter in this space the point of departure (city and state) for those shipments destined for treatment, storage, or disposal outside the jurisdiction of the United States. Item 16. Generator's Certification: The generator must read, sign (by hand), and date the certification statement. If a mode other than highway is used, the word "highway" would be lined out and the appropriate mode (rail, water, or air) inserted in the space below. If another mode in addition to the highway mode is used, enter the appropriate additional mode (e.g., and rail) in the space below.

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4.4 TRANSPORT OF WASTE IN CANADA

Hazardous waste handling/disposal in Canada is governed under both Federal and Provincial regulations. This section, while focusing on compliance to Federal Regulations, will list the applicable Provincial documents and detail requirements in the Province of Ontario ( as an example only). Although this section has been set up to contain all applicable acts and regulations, the information as printed is in no way intended to be an exact quote from, or duplication of the acts in question. All questions not answered by this section, or any further interpretations required to determine compliance with the law, should be referred to the acts and regulations for further interpretation.

4.4.1 FEDERAL

Transport Canada regulates the transportation of waste under the "Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act" and the "Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations." Of particular interest here is part nine of the Regulations. Part nine details the requirements for shipping Dangerous Goods from the U.S.A. to destinations within Canada. 9. (part nine TDGR) 9.1 Transporting Dangerous Goods from the United States into Canada (Reciprocity) 1. The handling, offering for transport, or transporting by road vehicle of dangerous goods from a place in the United States to a place in Canada, or from a place in the United States through Canada to a place outside Canada, are exempt from these regulations if they are done in accordance with 49 CFR. However the requirements in these regulations apply: a) Part 3, Shipping Documents;

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b) Section 4.4 of part 4 for retroreflective placards and orange panels; c) Part 7, Emergency Response Assistance Plan; and d) Part 8, Actual or Imminent Accidental Release Reporting requirements. 2. Subsection (1) does not apply if the dangerous goods: a) are not listed or defined by criteria in 49 CFR; b) are listed and designated as not regulated (NR) in 49 CFR; c) are exempt in 49 CFR; or d) are prohibited for handling, offering for transport, or transporting by these regulations (11.4.1 Shipping Documents). Routine shipments of Dangerous Goods would be handled with standard bills of lading and other applicable documentation. For waste, we need to consider additional regulations dealing specifically with this subject area. In particular, the "Canadian Environmental Protection Act" and under it the "Export and Import of Hazardous Waste Regulations--SOR/92-637." The regulation SOR/92-637 details the specifics on all aspects of importing or exporting hazardous waste into and out of Canada. Applicable highlights are listed below: 1. Notice--by hand delivery, registered mail, or facsimile: · Must contain a reference number unique to that notice provided by the chief (Chief refers to the chief of the hazardous waste division, Office of waste management, Department of the environment). · Notice period to be within one year before the export or import of the hazardous waste. 2. Conditions on Imports. · An importer may import a hazardous waste only if: ­ ­ The waste is not prohibited under the laws of Canada. The importer is the disposer of the hazardous waste in Canada.

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­ ­ ­ ­ Signed written contract between the importer and exporter. This is a three part document (A,B,C). The reference number is put on the manifest. The exporter completes and signs part A of the manifest in accordance with the TDG regulations and sends the manifest as per part IV of the same regulations. ­ ­ The carrier completes and signs part B of the manifest. The exporter ensures that part C will be completed, signed, and sent as per part IV of the regulations.

4.4.2 RETROREFLECTIVE PLACARDS AND ORANGE PANELS

TGDR 4.4 Visibility, Legibility, Color, and Retroreflectivity Dangerous goods' safety marks must be: · · Visible and legible. Durable and weather resistant to withstand the conditions to which they will be exposed without substantial detachment or alteration to color symbols text or numbers. · Displayed in the colors specified. The colors must correspond to the following standards in the Pantone R matching System Color Formula Guide 1000. · For placards and orange panels for dangerous goods that require an emergency response assistance plan, retroreflective with a minimum rating of level 2, as established in Canadian standards

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training 4.4.3 LABELS AND PLACARDS--SIZE AND HOW TO DISPLAY

· Labels and placards must be displayed on a means of containment square on a point. · Each side of a label must be at least 100 mm with a line running 5 mm inside the edge and the four sides must be of equal length. However if this size label cannot be displayed because of the configuration or size of the small means of containment, each side of the label may be reduced to not less than 30 millimeters (mm). As an option, the reduced labels may be affixed to a tag made of durable material securely attached to the means of containment. · Each side of a placard must be at least 250 mm with a line running 12.5 mm inside the edge and the four sides must be of equal length. (As above, the size may be reduced to no less than 100 mm, on the basis of the size of the containment.) · Each required placard and UN number must be displayed on or adjacent to each side and each end of a large means of containment.

4.4.4 DANGEROUS GOODS' SAFETY MARKS ON A SMALL MEANS OF CONTAINMENT

· Before being placed in a transport, a label must be displayed on a small means of containment for the primary class of each of the dangerous goods that are contained in the small means of containment. · Before being placed in a transport, a label must be displayed for the first subsidiary class as listed in the regulations. · When required, a label must be displayed on any side of the outer surface of a small means of containment other than the side on which it will rest or be stacked.

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4.5 EMERGENCY RESPONSE ASSISTANCE PLAN

Before importing dangerous goods or allowing the initial carrier to pick up dangerous goods, the consignor must have an emergency response assistance plan (ERAP) approved by the Minister, or a person designated by the regulations to do this for dangerous goods that require a ERAP: · Provisional approval may be given on the basis of a summary of an ERAP submitted that indicates that the ERAP appears capable of being implemented, and of being effective for use in responding to an accident involving the dangerous goods. · Approval of the ERAP expires on the date indicated on the document issuing the ERAP registration number. · · The Minister or a designated person may approve an extension of the ERAP. Rejection of an ERAP must be done in writing and must contain the reasons for rejection.

4.5.1 CONTENTS OF A SUMMARY OF AN ERAP

· · Name, address, and phone number of the consignor (the plan holder). Name, address, phone number and function of the person submitting the summary. · · · · · The classification of the dangerous goods to which the summary relates. The type and size of the means of containment of the dangerous goods. The geographical area to which the ERAP relates. A telephone number to be called to immediately activate the ERAP. A description of the emergency response capabilities of, or arranged to be available to, the consignor, including:

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­ Number of persons qualified to give technical advice by telephone about the dangerous goods. ­ Number of persons qualified and available to provide advice and assistance at the scene of an emergency. ­ A list of emergency equipment that can be transferred to the site for use as a general description of the response actions capable of being taken at the scene. ­ A description of the transportation arrangements to bring specialized emergency response personnel and equipment to the site of an emergency. ­ A description of the communication systems that are made available at the site. · The signature of the person submitting the summary.

4.5.2 CONTENTS OF AN ERAP

· · · A general analysis of how an accidental release could occur. A general identification of the consequences of a release. The action the plan holder expects to take in the event of an accidental release or an imminent accidental release, including an accidental release considered imminent by an inspector. · A copy of any formal agreement with a third party for the provision of assistance.

4.5.3 ACTUAL OR IMMINENT ACCIDENTAL RELEASE REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

In the event of an accidental release, the person who has the charge, management, or control of the dangerous goods at that time must immediately report the release to :

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· The local police--except for: ­ ­ ­ Northwest Territories: (867) 920-8130 Yukon Territory: (867) 667-7244 Manitoba: The local police or fire department and the Department of the Environment at (204) 945-4888 · · · · · · The person's employer The consignor of the dangerous goods employee For a road vehicle: the owner, lessee, or charterer For a railway vehicle: CHEMTREC 613-996-6666 For a ship: CHEMTREC For an aircraft, aerodrome, or air cargo facility: the nearest Regional Civil Aviation · Office of civil aviation of the Department of Transport or CHEMTREC

This would be followed by a detailed report (within 30 days ) of the incident to the Director General. This report would be submitted by the employer of the person who had charge, management, or control of the dangerous goods that were subject to immediate reporting, and were released. This report would include: · · · · · Name, address, and phone number of the employer Date, time, and location of the incident, including possible causes and factors Name and address of the consignor's place of business The classification of the dangerous goods Quantity released and the total quantity before the release

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· A description of the means of containment involved on the basis of identification markings, and a description of the failure or damage to the containment

4.5.4 PROVINCIAL ACTS

· Alberta: Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act ­ · The Waste Control Regulations

British Columbia: Waste Management Act ­ Special Waste Regulation

· · · · · · ·

Manitoba: Environment Act New Brunswick: Clean Environment Act Newfoundland: Waste Material Disposal Act Northwest Territories: Environmental Protection Act Nova Scotia: Environment Act, section 84, Handling Waste, Dangerous Goods Prince Edward Island: Environmental Protection Act Quebec: Loi Sur la Qualite de l'environment ( environment quality act) ­ Hazardous Waste Regulation

·

Saskatchewan: Environmental Management and Protection Act ­ Hazardous Substances and Waste, Dangerous Goods Regulations

· ·

Yukon: The Environmental Act Part 7 Ontario: Ontario Regulation 347, Waste Management ­ A regulation under the Environmental Protection Act

Instructions for Transporters Item 17. Transporter 1--Acknowledgment of Receipt of Materials: Enter the name of the person accepting the waste on behalf of the first

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transporter. That person must acknowledge acceptance of the waste described on the Manifest by signing and entering the date of receipt. Item 18. Transporter 1--Acknowledgment of Receipt of Materials: Enter, if applicable, the name of the person accepting the waste on behalf of the second transporter. That person must acknowledge acceptance of the waste described on the Manifest by signing and entering the date of receipt. Note--International Shipments Note Transporter Responsibilities: Exports--Transporters must sign and enter the date the waste left the United States in Item 15 of Form 8700-22. Imports-- Shipments of hazardous waste regulated by RCRA and transported into the United States from another country are responsible for completing the Manifest (40 CFR 263.10(c)(1)).

Instructions for Owners and/or Operators of Treatment, Storage, or Disposal Facilities Item 19. Discrepancy Indication Space: In this space, you must note any significant discrepancy between the waste described on the manifest and the waste you actually received. If you cannot resolve significant discrepancy within 15 days of receiving the waste, you must submit a letter to your Department of Health Services describing the discrepancy and your attempts to reconcile it. A copy of the manifest at issue must be enclosed with the letter. Item 20. Facility Owner or Operator: Certification of receipt of hazardous material covered by this manifest except as Noted in Item 19. Print or type the name of the person accepting the waste on behalf of the owner or operator of the facility. That person must acknowledge acceptance of the waste described on the Manifest by signing and entering the date of receipt.

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4.5.5 THE PAPER TRAIL

· · · The waste manifest is the shipping document. The manifest has 6 copies and three sections. Each section has to be completed by a specified individual, with completeness and accuracy critical for compliance. · Distribution of the manifest ensures compliance with Reg 347, as each individual identified on the manifest must mail one copy of the manifest to the Ministry of the Environment and keep one copy on file for 2 years. In summary, compliance with 49 CFR brings one very close to compliance with Canadian Regulations. Minor differences exist in the areas identified in this training module.

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4.6 TRANSPORT OF WASTE IN THE UNITED STATES

Hazardous waste handling and disposal in the United States is governed by both federal and state regulations. This section will focus on the federal regulations only. The transportation of hazardous waste is regulated by 49 CFR 100.180. You must first determine if the product to be transported is hazardous. This is accomplished by consulting the Hazardous Materials Table in 49 CFR 172.101. This table is divided into 10 columns as follows:

4.6.1 EXPLANATION OF COLUMNS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE

Column 1: Symbols. The letter G identifies proper shipping names for which one or more technical names of the hazardous material must be entered in parentheses, in association with the basic description. Column 2: Hazardous materials descriptions and proper shipping names. Proper shipping names are limited to those shown in Roman type (not italics). Hazardous wastes. If the word waste is not included in the hazardous material description, the proper shipping name must include the word Waste preceding the proper shipping name of the material. For example: Waste acetone.

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Column 3: Hazard class or Division contains a designation of the hazard class or division (i.e., 8 or 3) corresponding to each proper shipping name. Column 4: Identification number. Proper shipping names preceded by the letters UN are considered appropriate for international transportation as well as domestic transportation. Those preceded by the letters NA are not recognized for international transportation, except to and from Canada. Column 5: Packing group specifies one or more packing groups assigned to a material corresponding to the proper shipping name and hazard class for that material. Classes 1, 2, and 7 materials, combustible liquids, and ORM-D materials do not have packing groups. Packing Groups I, II, and III indicate the degree of danger of the material: great, medium, or minor respectively. minor, Column 6: Labels required specifies codes that represent the hazard warning labels required for a package filled with a material conforming to the associated hazard class and proper shipping name. The first code is indicative of the primary hazard of the material. Additional label codes are indicative of subsidiary hazards. The codes are defined according to the following table: -----------------------------------------------------------------------

Label code

Label name

-----------------------------------------------------------------------1................................ .. .. EXPLOSIVE. 1.1 \1\............................. 1.2 \1\............................. 1.3 \1\............................. 1.4 \1\............................. 1.5 \1\............................. 1.6 \1\............................. 2.1................................. 2.2................................. 2.3.................................

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EXPLOSIVE 1.1 \1\ EXPLOSIVE 1.2 \1\ EXPLOSIVE 1.3 \1\ EXPLOSIVE 1.4 \1\ EXPLOSIVE 1.5 \1\ EXPLOSIVE 1.6 \1\ FLAMMABLE GAS NONFLAMMABLE GAS POISON GAS

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3................................... 4.1................................. 4.2................................. 4.3................................. 5.1................................. 5.2................................. FLAMMABLE LIQUID FLAMMABLE SOLID SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE DANGEROUS WHEN WET OXIDIZER ORGANIC PEROXIDE

6.1(I) Zone A&B PIH \2\... POISON INHALATION HAZARD 6.1(I) not PIH \2\............... TOXIC/ POISON 6.1(II) not PIH \2\.............. TOXIC/ POISON 6.1(III) ........................ 6.2................................. 7................................... 8................................... 9................................... KEEP AWAY FROM FOOD INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE RADIOACTIVE CORROSIVE CLASS 9

-----------------------------------------------------------------------\1\ Refers to the appropriate compatibility group letter. \2\ The packing group for a material is indicated in column 5 of the Table.

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Column 7: Special provisions specifies codes for special provisions applicable to hazardous materials.

1. A code consisting only of numbers (for example, 2) is multimodal in application and may apply to bulk and nonbulk packages. 2. A code containing the letter A refers to a special provision that applies only to transportation by aircraft. 3. A code containing the letter B refers to a special provision that applies only to bulk packaging requirements. Unless otherwise provided, these special provisions do not apply to IM portable tanks. 4. A code containing the letter H refers to a special provision that applies only to transportation by highway. 5. A code containing the letter N refers to a special provision that applies only to nonbulk packaging requirements. 6. A code containing the letter R refers to a special provision that applies only to transportation by rail. 7. A code containing the letter T refers to a special provision that applies only to transportation in IM portable tanks. 8. A code containing the letter W refers to a special provision that applies only to transportation by water.

Column 8: Packaging (173***). Columns 8A, 8B, and 8C specify the applicable sections for exceptions, nonbulk packaging requirements, and bulk packaging

requirements, respectively.

Exceptions-- Exceptions--Column 8A contains exceptions from some of the requirements.

·

None in this column means no packaging exceptions are authorized, except as

may be provided by special provisions in Column 7.

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· packaging-- Nonbulk packaging--Column 8B references packaging requirements for nonbulk packages. A None in this column means nonbulk packages are not authorized, except as may be provided by special provisions in Column 7. · packaging-- Bulk packaging--Column 8C specifies the packaging requirements for bulk packaging other than IM and IBC portable tanks. A None in this column means bulk packages are not authorized, except as may be provided by special provisions in Column 7. Authorizations for use of IM portable tanks are set forth in Column 7.

Quantity Column 9: Quantity limitations. Columns 9A and 9B specify the maximum quantities that may be offered for transportation in one package by passenger-carrying aircraft or passenger-carrying railcar and cargo aircraft. Column 10: Vessel stowage. Column 10A [Location] specifies the authorized stowage locations onboard cargo and passenger vessels. Column 10B [Other] specifies codes for stowage requirements for specific hazardous materials.

4.6.2 SHIPPING PAPERS

The shipping description of a hazardous material on the shipping paper must include: · · · · The proper shipping name The hazard class or division The identification number The packing group

Except for empty packaging, cylinders for Class 2 materials and bulk packaging, the total quantity (net or gross mass) and the unit of measurement must be shown (e.g., "800 lb.," "55 gal.," "3,629 kg," or "208 L").

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The basic description must be shown in this sequence with no additional information inserted. For example: · Waste Flammable Liquid, n.o.s. (D001) 3, UN1993 III

The total quantity of the material must appear before or after the basic description. The type of packaging and designation marks may be entered in any appropriate manner before or after the basic description. Abbreviations may be used to specify the type of packaging and unit of measurement for total quantity. The required shipping description on a shipping paper and all copies thereof used for transportation purposes must be legible and printed in English, may not contain any unauthorized code or abbreviation, and must have any additional information placed after the basic description. The name of the hazardous substance must be entered in parentheses in association with the basic description. If the material contains two or more hazardous substances, at least two hazardous substances--including the two with the lowest reportable quantities (RQ)--must be identified. For a hazardous waste, the waste code (e.g., D001), if appropriate, may be used to identify the hazardous substance.

The letters "RQ'' must be entered on the shipping paper either before or after the basic description for each hazardous substance. For example: · RQ Waste Flammable Liquid, n.o.s. (D001)3, UN 1993 III

Shipper's Certification Shippers who offer a hazardous material for transportation must certify that the material is offered for transportation in accordance with the Hazardous Material

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Regulations by printing (manually or mechanically) on the shipping paper the following certification:

This is to certify that the above-named materials are properly classified, described, packaged, marked and labeled, and are in proper condition for transportation according to the applicable regulations of the Department of Transportation.

Signature__________________________

Must be legibly and manually signed.

4.6.3 PACKAGES

Forbidden material and packages. · A material in the same packaging, freight container, or overpack with another material, the mixing of which is likely to cause a dangerous evolution of heat, or flammable or poisonous gases or vapors, or to produce corrosive materials. · A package containing a material that is likely to decompose or polymerize with and will produce an evolution of a dangerous quantity of heat or gas unless the material is stabilized or inhibited in a manner to preclude such occurrence. Salvage packaging must be marked with the proper shipping name of the hazardous material inside the packaging and the name and address of the consignee. In addition, the packaging must be marked "SALVAGE" or "SALVAGE DRUM." A salvage packaging marked with a "T" in accordance with applicable provisions in the UN Recommendations may be used. Nonreusable containers. A packaging marked as NRC according to the DOT specification or UN standard requirements of part 178 of this subchapter may be reused for the shipment of any material not required by this subchapter to be shipped in a DOT specification or UN standard packaging.

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Exceptions for shipment of waste materials.

·

Open head drums. If a hazardous waste is to be shipped in a closed head (or less bung opening) and the hazardous waste contains solids or semisolids that make its placement in a closed head drum impracticable, an equivalent open head drum may be used for the hazardous waste.

·

Lab packs. Waste materials classed as Class or Division 3, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 6.1, 8, or 9 are excepted from the specification packaging for combination packaging if packaged in accordance with this paragraph and transported for disposal or recovery by highway only. In addition, a generic description from the Hazardous Material Table may be used in place of specific chemical names, when two or more chemically compatible waste materials in the same hazard class are packaged in the same outside packaging

·

Additional packaging requirements are as follows:

­

The outer packaging must be a UN 1A2 or UN 1B2 metal drum, a UN 1D plywood drum, a UN 1G fiber drum or a UN 1H2 plastic drum tested and marked at least for the Packing Group III performance level for liquids or solids;

­

The inner packagings must be either glass, not exceeding 1 gallon rated capacity, or metal or plastic, not exceeding 5.3 gallons rated capacity;

­

Each outer packaging may contain only one class of hazardous material;

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­ Inner packagings containing liquid must be surrounded by a chemically compatible absorbent material in sufficient quantity to absorb the total liquid contents; and ­ Gross weight of the complete package may not exceed 452 lb.

·

materials-- Prohibited materials--Materials meeting the definition of Division 6.1, Packing Group I, or Division 4.2, Packing Group I, and bromine pentafluoride; bromine trifluoride; chloric acid; and oleum (fuming sulfuric acid) may not be packaged or described under the provisions of this paragraph.

·

packagings-- Reuse of packagings--A previously used packaging may be reused for the shipment of hazardous waste to designated facilities, not subject to the reconditioning and reuse provisions under the following conditions:

· ·

Transportation is performed by highway only. A package is not offered for transportation less than 24 hours after it is finally closed for transportation, and each package is inspected for leakage and is found to be free from leaks immediately prior to being offered for transportation.

·

Each package is loaded by the shipper and unloaded by the consignee, unless the motor carrier is a private or contract carrier.

·

The packaging may be used only once under this paragraph and may not be used again for shipment of hazardous materials except in accordance with §173.28.

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descriptions-- Technical names for n.o.s. descriptions--The requirements for the inclusion of technical names for n.o.s. descriptions on shipping papers and package markings, Sections 172.203 and 172.301 of this subchapter, respectively, do not apply to packagings prepared in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, except as follows: Packages containing materials meeting the definition of a hazardous substance must be described and marked accordingly.

·

4.6.4 LABELS

Labels must be: · Printed on or affixed to a surface (other than the bottom) of the package or containment device containing the hazardous material. · Located on the same surface of the package and near the proper shipping name marking, if the package dimensions are adequate.

Exceptions. A label may be printed on or placed on a securely affixed tag, or may be affixed by other suitable means to:

·

A package that contains no radioactive material and that has dimensions less than those of the required label

· ·

A cylinder A package that has such an irregular surface that a label cannot be satisfactorily affixed

labels. Placement of multiple labels. When primary labels (NUMBER AT THE BOTTOM) and subsidiary hazard labels (NO NUMBER AT THE BOTTOM) are required, they must be displayed next to each other. Placement conforms to this requirement if labels are within 150 mm (6 inches) of one another.

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Contrasting background. Each label must be printed on or affixed to a background of contrasting color, or must have a dotted or solid line outer border.

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Each person who offers for transportation a hazardous material in a nonbulk packaging must mark the package with the proper shipping name and identification number (pre-ceded by "UN'' or "NA'" as appropriate) for the material. All markings: · Must be durable, in English and printed on or affixed to the surface of a package or on a label, tag, or sign; · · · Must be displayed on a background of sharply contrasting color; Must be unobscured by labels or attachments; and Must be located away from any other marking (such as advertising) that could substantially reduce its effectiveness.

Technical names. Nonbulk packaging containing hazardous materials must be marked with the technical name in parentheses in association with the proper shipping name.

For a hazardous waste, the word "Waste'' must precede the proper shipping name

on packages, except when using the EPA's prescribed marking.

The letters "RQ'' must be marked on the package in association with the proper shipping name.

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Liquid hazardous materials in nonbulk packages. Nonbulk combination package having inner packages containing liquid hazardous materials must be: · · Packed with closures upward. Legibly marked, with package orientation markings on two opposite vertical sides of the package with the arrows pointing in the correct upright direction. This does not apply to a nonbulk package with inner packages, which are cylinders.

NOTE: A package that has been previously marked for the material it contains and on which the marking remains legible, need not be remarked.

4.6.6 PLACARDS

Large quantities of hazardous material in nonbulk packages. A transport vehicle or freight container containing 4,000 kg (8,820 pounds) or more aggregate gross weight of a hazardous material having a single identification number must be marked with the identification (ID) number. For a cargo tank transported on or in a transport vehicle or freight container, if the identification number marking on the cargo tank is not visible, the transport vehicle or freight container must be marked on each side and each end with the ID number. For a bulk packaging contained in or on a transport vehicle or freight container, if the ID number marking on the bulk packaging (e.g., an IBC) is not visible, the transport vehicle or freight container must be marked on each side and each end with the ID number. Placarding for subsidiary hazards

NOTE: Hazardous materials from table 2 that possess secondary hazards may exhibit subsidiary placards.

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Table 2

Category of material (Hazard class or division number and additional description, as appropriate) 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.1 2.2 3 Combustible liquid 4.1 4.2 5.1 5.2 (Other than organic peroxide, Type B, liquid or solid, temperature controlled) 6.1 (other than inhalation 6.2 8 9 ORM-D POISON None CORROSIVE CLASS 9 None Placard name EXPLOSIVES 1.4 EXPLOSIVES 1.5 EXPLOSIVES 1.6 FLAMMABLE GAS NONFLAMMABLE GAS FLAMMABLE COMBUSTIBLE FLAMMABLE SOLID SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE OXIDIZER ORGANIC PEROXIDE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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4.6.7 EMERGENCY RESPONSE INFORMATION

The term "emergency response information'' means information that can be used in the mitigation of an incident involving hazardous materials and, as a minimum, must contain the following information:

· · · · · · ·

The basic description and technical name of the hazardous material Immediate hazards to health Risks of fire or explosion Immediate precautions to be taken in the event of an accident or incident Immediate methods for handling fires Initial methods for handling spills or leaks in the absence of fire Preliminary first-aid measures

Form of information. The information required for a hazardous material must be:

· · ·

Printed legibly in English. Available for use away from the package containing the hazardous material. Presented: ­ ­ ­ On a shipping paper. In a document, other than a shipping paper (e.g., an MSDS). Related to the information on a shipping paper, a written notification to pilot-in-command, or a dangerous cargo manifest.

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A person who offers a hazardous material for transportation must provide a 24-hour emergency response telephone number (including the area code) for use in the event of an emergency involving the hazardous material. The telephone number must be: · Monitored at all times the hazardous material is in transportation, including storage incidental to transportation. · The number of a person who is either knowledgeable of the hazardous material being shipped and has comprehensive emergency response and incident mitigation information for that material, or has immediate access to a person who possesses such knowledge and information. · Entered on a shipping paper, as follows: ­ ­ Immediately following the description of the hazardous material. Entered once on the shipping paper in a clearly visible location. This provision may be used only if the telephone number applies to each hazardous material entered on the shipping paper, and if it is indicated that the telephone number is for emergency response information (for example: EMERGENCY CONTACT: ***).

The telephone number must be the number of the person offering the hazardous material for transportation or the number of an agency or organization capable of, and accepting responsibility for, providing the detailed information concerning the hazardous material. A person offering a hazardous material for transportation who lists the telephone number of an agency or organization must ensure that agency or organization has received current information on the material before it is offered for transportation.

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1.

Who receives a copy of the Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest?

2.

How long do you retain a copy of a Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest?

5.

What is the minimum amount of emergency response information required that can be used in the mitigation of an incident involving hazardous materials? a. ___________________________ b. ___________________________ c. ___________________________ d. ___________________________ e. ___________________________ f. ___________________________

g. ___________________________

(Answers found in Appendix B)

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5 COMPATIBILITY OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

AND HAZARDOUS WASTES

5.1 INTRODUCTION

Users of Hazardous Materials (HM) and generators of hazardous waste (HW) have the responsibility to ensure that only compatible materials and wastes are accumulated within a container and that incompatible HM and HW containers are segregated during storage. This topic defines incompatible chemical reactions and provides two methods to determine hazardous waste/material compatibility. The methods include the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) HW Compatibility System and the MSDS System.

5.1.1 CASE HISTORY: HEAT GENERATION AND EXPLOSION FROM REUSE OF CONTAMINATED DRUMS

An employee transferred two 5-gallon cans of waste vinyl cyanide and water from a still to a supposedly empty waste drum. As the employee rolled the drum to a storage area across the road, it exploded. Waste material sprayed out on the employee. He believed that he saw a flash at the time of the explosion. The drum was thrown approximately 48 feet, wrapping around a steel guard post. The employee received thermal and possible chemical burns to both feet. The waste drum contained bottoms from the stripping of vinylation mixture. The exothermic reaction, causing the drum to rupture, was probably an example of violent polymerization.

5.1.2 SAFETY THROUGH COMPATIBILITY

In addition to knowing the properties of individual chemicals, it is also important to recognize that when certain classes of chemicals are mixed they can react in such a way as to cause fires, explosions, or toxic by-products. This section will cover the compatibility of

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chemical classes to ensure safe handling while hazardous waste are being accumulated, stored, and possibly consolidated prior to shipment of-site for disposal.

5.1.3 ACCUMULATION/STORAGE

Conforming Storage is "a facility or location which conforms to regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other regulatory authorities governing the storage of hazardous materials." Compatible Accumulation & Storage is the storage of materials to minimize the potential for different materials to react and produce fires, explosions, toxic vapors, or corrosion.

As part of the Part B application for a RCRA permit to store hazardous waste, the owner or operator of a storage facility must detail the procedures employed to ensure incompatible wastes are not n-fixed, even if a catastrophic failure occurred. While generators who have accumulation or satellite accumulation areas do not have to submit their procedure for handling incompatible wastes to EPA, the accumulation regulations, common sense, and proper waste management requires such procedures be established.

5.1.4 CONSOLIDATION

In addition to accumulation/storage situations, it is sometimes necessary to consolidate contents of containers. In such instances compatibility is extremely important. The compatibility system discussed in the next section, EPA Hazardous Waste Compatibility

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System can be used as guidelines for determining which wastes can be mixed and/or stored together. However, before mixing any materials, consult with: (1) The disposal facility to ensure that the mixed wastes are acceptable under permit and contract conditions. (2) A chemist to confirm that the materials are compatible (most of the systems assume pure materials, which is rarely the case for wastes).

5.2 DEFINITIONS

5.2.1 VIOLENT REACTION

A chemical reaction that results in fires, explosions, the generation of extreme heat, flammable or toxic gases, or polymerization of substances. Examples: Strong acid plus a strong base; or sodium metal plus water.

5.2.2 HEAT GENERATION

A chemical reaction that generates sufficient heat for human health hazards (skin-deep tissue burns) or to effect other materials, i.e., ignites other materials in the area or causes polymerization of chemicals. Examples: Strong acid (Sulfuric Acid) plus water; sodium plus an oxidizer.

5.2.3 FIRE HAZARD

Fire, the major hazard of flammable and combustibles, is a rapid, persistent chemical reaction that releases heat and light. It is the result of an interaction between three components of the fire tetrahedron: fuel, oxidizer, and a heat or ignition source. Fuels: Flammable and combustible materials Oxygen: Materials that contain oxygen or bring a rich supply of oxygen to a fire.

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Heat or Ignition Source: Materials that generate sufficient heat to ignite fuels such as open flames, sparks, heater, or hot plate. Examples: Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (flammable and strong oxidizer); calcium hypochlorite plus brake fluid.

5.2.4 INNOCUOUS AND NON-FLAMMABLE GAS GENERATION

Some materials react to form gases that are not toxic or flammable gases. However, these gases can present a hazard by replacing breathable air in a work area and are classified as a physical asphyxiant. Examples: Isocyanide plus water produces carbon dioxide; hydrochloric acid plus sodium carbonate produces carbon dioxide.

5.2.5 TOXIC GAS GENERATION

Certain materials react to form toxic gases that can cause adverse health effects. A toxic or poisonous gas means any material that is a gas at normal temperature and atmospheric pressure that is toxic to humans. These gases may cause immediate acute health effects or long-term chronic health effects. Examples: Sodium cyanide plus water produces cyanide gas; or sulfuric acid and plastic may produce chlorinated gases.

5.2.6 FLAMMABLE GAS GENERATION

A flammable gas is a gas that will ignite under normal conditions for temperature and atmospheric pressure. Flammable gases are fire hazards that require extensive fire safety planning due to their explosive nature. Flammable gases are usually heavier than air and have a wide explosive range. The explosive range indicates the difference between the minimum and maximum volume percentages of the material that forms a flammable mixture. Both oxygen and fuel are necessary for a flame to continue, and a mixture that does not have the right proportions of air and vapor will not support a flame, i.e., "too lean" or "too rich" a mixture. Examples: Sodium hydroxide plus aluminum produces hydrogen gas.

5.2.7 EXPLOSION

A violent reaction characterized by the extremely rapid release of gas and heat. Examples:

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Ammonia and bromine; or sulfuric acid and perchlorates; or picric acid and sodium hydroxide.

5.2.8 VIOLENT POLYMERIZATION

A chemical change at the molecular level most often characterized by a physical state change in the material as well as the chemical change. Examples: Contaminated ethylene oxide polymerizes and releases heat; or ammonia and acrylonitrile.

5.2.9 SOLUBILIZATION OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES

The "dissolving" of one substance into another is defined as solubilization. This may allow a relatively immobile chemical (in solid form) to become mobile by mixing with another chemical. Example: A powdered fungicide, when dissolved in water can create a toxic solution; hydrochloric acid and acrylonitrile.

5.3 CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY DETERMINATION

The improper storage of incompatible chemicals can lead to a wide variety of dangerous chemical reactions. This section describes two systems that may be used to determine the compatibility of chemicals. They include the EPA's method for determining the Compatibility of Hazardous Wastes. The second method is comparing MSDSs for reactivity.

5.3.1 EPA HAZARDOUS WASTE COMPATIBILITY SYSTEM

In an attempt to assist the regulated community, the EPA funded a study by the University of California at Berkeley to develop a Hazardous Waste Compatibility Protocol. This is the protocol discussed in this section. 5.3.1.1 Reactivity Group Number (RGN)

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The protocol begins by classifying the various chemical constituents of a waste into one (or more) of 41 different reactivity groups. To ease the process, each reactivity group is assigned a Reactivity Group Number (RGN). The chemicals in thirty-four of these groups (RGNs I through 34) are grouped together because they are chemically similar. The chemicals in the remaining seven groups (RGNs 101 through 107) are grouped together because they present a similar hazard. Caution: This Chart is intended as an indication of some of the hazards that can be expected on mixing chemical materials and wastes. Because of the differing activities of the thousands of compounds that may be encountered, it is not possible to make any chart definitive and all-inclusive. This chart does not ensure compatibility of wastes. Hazardous wastes are not classified as hazardous on the chart. Blanks on the chart may result in a hazard occurring. Detailed instructions as to hazards involved in handling and disposing of any given waste should be obtained from the originator of the waste.

RGN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Reactivity Group Acids, Mineral, Non-Oxidizing Acids, Mineral, Oxidizing Acids, Organic Alcohols and Glycols Aldehydes Amides Amines, Aliphatic and Aromatic Azo Compounds, Diazo Compounds and Hydrazines Carbamates

Incompatible With: 4-15,17-26,28,30-34,101-107 3-34,101-103,105-107 2,4,5,7,8,10-12,15,18,21,22,24,265,33,34,102105,107 1-3,8,18,21,25,30,34,104,105,107 1-3,7,8,10,12,21,25,27,28,30,33,34,104,105,107 1,2,21,24,104,105,107 1-3,5,12,17,18,21,24,30,34,104,105,107 1-5,9,11-13,17-23,25,30-34,102-107 1,2,8,10,21,22,25,30,104,107 1-3,5,9,13,17-19,21,22,24-27,32,34,102,103,107 1-3,5,9,13,17-19,21,22,2427,30,32,34,102,103,107 1-3,8,17-19,21,25,30,34,103,104,107 140

10 Caustics 11 Cyanides 12 Dithiocarbamates

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13 Esters 14 Ethers 15 Fluorides, Inorganic 16 Hydrocarbons, Aromatic 17 Halogenated Organics 18 Isocyanates 19 Ketones 20 Mercaptons and Other Organic Sulfides 1,2,8,10,11, 21,25,102,104,105,107 1,2,104,107 1-3,107 2,104,107 1,2,7,8,10,11,20-23,25,30,104,105,107 1-4,7,8,10-12,20-22,25,30,31,33,104-107 1,2,8,10,11,20,21,25,30,104,105,107 1,2,8,17-19,21,22,25,30,34,104,105,107

21 Metals, Alkali and Alkaline Earth Elemental 1-13,17-20,25-27,30-32,34,101-104,106,107 22 23 Metals, Other Elemental and Alloys as Powders, Vapors or Sponges Metals, Other Elemental and Alloys as Sheets, Rods, Drops, Moldings 1-3,8-10,17,18,20,28,30,34,102-104,106,107 1,2,8,17,102-104,107 1-3,6,7,10,26,30,34,102,103,106,107 1-5,8-13,17-21,26-27,30,31,34,101-104,106,107 1-3,10,21,24,25,30,104,105,107 2,5,10,21,25,104,105,107 1,2,5,22,30,104,107 2,104,107 1,2,4,5,7-9,11,12,17-22,24-26,28,31-34,101105,107 1,2,8,18,21,25,30,34,102-105,107 1,2,8,10,21,30,34,104,105,107 1-3,5,8,18,30,34,102-104,106,107 1-5,7,8,10-12,20-22,24,25,30-33,102,104,105,107 1,2,21,25,30,102,104,105,107 1-3,8,10,13,21-25,30,31,33,34,101,105-105,107 1-3,8,10-12,21-25,30,31,33,102,104,105,107 1,3-9,11-14,16-23,25-34,101-103,105,107 1-8,12,13,17-20,26,27,30,31,32,34,101104,106,107 141

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24 Metal and Metal Compounds, Toxic 25 Nitrides 26 Nitrites 27 Nitro Compounds, Organic 28 Hydrocarcons, Aliphatic, Unsaturated 29 Hydrocarbons, Aliphatic, Saturated 30 Peroxides and Hydroperoxides, Organic 31 Phenols and Cresols 32 Organophosphates, Phosphothioates, Phosphodithioates

33 Sulfides, Inorganic 34 Epoxides 101 Combustible and Flammable Materials, Misc.

102 Explosives 103 Polymerizable Compounds 104 Oxidizing Agents, Strong 105 Reducing Agents, Strong

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106 Water and Mixtures Containing Water 107 Water Reactive Substances 1,2,8,18,21,22,24,25,33,105,107 ALL!

This chart is used as an example in the course. Please do not use it to determine compatibility of chemicals and wastes in the workplace!

5.3.1.2 EPA Compatibility Chart Because of their similarities, the chemicals within a given RGN are assumed to be compatible with each other. To determine whether a given RGN is compatible with another RGN, the EPA Compatibility Chart shown above is employed. The EPA Compatibility Chart is a quick reference for determining the compatibility reaction of most binary combinations of hazardous wastes. The first column lists the reactivity groups by RGN. The second column lists the corresponding reactivity group names. 5.3.1.3 Determining Compatibility To assist in the process of determining compatibility between two, multi-component hazardous waste mixtures, the matrix chart shown below is used. A sample chart filled out with entries follows this section.

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In order to determine if materials/wastes are compatible: (1) List all materials and wastes in both the X and Y-axis. (2) Enter the RGN for each material/waste next to its name. (3) Blacken out chemicals within the same RGN. These are assumed to be compatible with each other. (4) Using the RGN chart found on the previous two pages, go line by line to determine if the chemicals are incompatible with each other. Place an " X" where materials/wastes are incompatible.

Methyl Ethyl Ketone

Material/Waste A Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) 19 Butyl Acetate 13 Ethylene Glycol 4 Octyl Peroxide 30 Kerosene 101 Sodium Cyanide 11

X X X X X X X X X

If you were to safely store the above six materials/wastes, one of several possible combinations is: Area 1 MEK Kerosene

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Area2 Ethylene Glycol Sodium Cyanide

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Area 3 Octyl Peroxide Butyl Acetate

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Sodium Cyanide 11 X X X

Octyl Peroxide 30

Ethylene Glycol 4

Material/Waste B

Butyl Acetate 13

Kerosene 101

(MEK) 19

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If a potential incompatible reaction is discovered, keep the wastes segregated until a chemist or other technically trained personnel provide other direction. A SPECIAL NOTE: The EPA Compatibility Protocol provides general guidance by which to follow. Although the compatibility chart has been prepared to err on the safe side, it cannot predict every potential reaction.

The difficulty with using the EPA Compatibility Protocol is choosing the correct RGN for each material/waste. A more accurate, but more labor-intensive method, is using the MSDS for each material/waste. Instead of referring the RGN table, you would refer to the MSDS. Procedures for using the MSDS Method: (1) List all materials and wastes in both the X and Y-axis. (2) Blacken out chemicals that intersect with each other. These are assumed to be compatible with each other. (3) Using the MSDSs, go line by line to determine if the materials/wastes are incompatible with each other. Place an " X" where materials/wastes are incompatible. Note: You will find that using the MSDS Method is difficult and because of the nature of MSDSs, not 100% reliable. It is strongly recommended that you use a reliable commercially developed chemical database that will identify incompatible materials and wastes.

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You are newly assigned to a work area and find the following materials stored in this manner: Area 1 Sodium Hydroxide Trichloroethylene Area 2 MEK Peroxide Chlorine Area 3 Acetone Caustic Potash (Potassium Hydroxide)

Using the MSDSs for these materials found in Appendix A, fill out the matrix below and rearrange the materials into compatible areas.

Material/Waste A

Area 1 __________ __________

Material/Waste B Area 2

Area 3 _______ _______

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(Answers found in Appendix B)

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1. Watch the Video ONSITE SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS. 2. Go through Section 6 ­ Safety at HAZMAT Incidents Section 6.1-6.10.

Day 2 (P.M.)

3. Watch the Video HAZWOPER MEDICAL. 4. Go through Section 6 ­ Safety at HAZMAT Incidents Section 6.11-6.20. 5. Watch the Video BONDING GROUNDING OF OF LIQUID TRANSFERS. FLAMMABLE LIQUID TRANSFERS 6. Go through Section 6 ­ Safety at HAZMAT Incidents Section 6.21-6.30. 7. Go through Section 7 ­ Confined Spaces.

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6 SAFETY AT HAZMAT INCIDENTS

6.1 OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this module, you should be able to do the following: ·

Describe the known hazards and evaluate the risks associated with the incident in each activity conducted.

·

List all the required information that must be included in an Emergency Response Plan.

· ·

Understand the effects of hazardous material exposure. Understand the physical hazards associated with an emergency incident.

6.2 SITE SAFETY PLANS

The purpose of the site safety plan is to establish requirements for protecting the health and safety of responders during all activities conducted at an incident. It contains safety information, instructions, and procedures. A site safety plan must be prepared and reviewed by qualified personnel for each hazardous substance response. Before operations at an incident commence, safety requirements must be written, conspicuously posted or distributed to all response personnel, and discussed with them. The safety plan must be periodically reviewed to keep it current and technically correct.

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In nonemergency situations, such as long-term remedial action at abandoned hazardous waste sites, safety plans are developed simultaneously with the general work plan. Workers can become familiar with the plan before site activities begin. Emergency response generally requires verbal safety instructions and reliance on existing standard operating procedures until, when time permits, a plan can be written. The plan must contain safety requirements for routine (but hazardous) response activities and also for unexpected site emergencies. The major distinction between routine and emergency site safety planning is predictability. Routine activities are predictable and may be monitored and evaluated. A site emergency is unpredictable and may occur anytime.

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6.3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

A site-specific health and safety plan becomes part of the company's written health and safety program. The site safety and health plan, which must be kept on-site, must address the safety and health hazards of each phase of site operations. The health and safety plan should: · Describe the known hazards and evaluate the risks associated with the incident and with each activity conducted. · List key personnel and alternates responsible for site safety, response operations, and for protection of the public. · · · · · · · · · Describe personal protective equipment (PPE) to be worn by personnel. Designate work areas. Establish procedures to control site access. Describe procedures to control site access. Establish site emergency procedures. Address emergency medical care for injuries and toxicological problems. Describe requirements for an environmental surveillance program. Specify any routine and special training required for responders. Establish procedures for protecting workers from weather-related problems.

6.4 SITE SAFETY PLANS--SCOPE AND DETAIL

The plan's scope, detail, and length is based on: · · Information available about the incident Time available to prepare a site-specific plan

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· Reason for responding

Three general categories of response exist--emergencies, incident emergencies, actions. characterizations, and remedial actions Considerations for personnel safety are generic and independent of the response category. However, in scope, detail, and length, safety requirements and plans vary considerably. These variations are determined by the reason for responding (or category of response), information available, and the severity of the incident with consideration for dangers to the responder.

6.4.1 EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

Emergencies generally require prompt action to prevent or reduce undesired effects. Immediate hazards of fire, explosion, and release of toxic vapors or gases are of prime concern. Emergencies vary greatly in respect to types and quantities of material, numbers of responders, type of work required, population affected, and other factors. Emergencies last from a few hours to a few days. · Information Available: Varies from none to much. Usually information about the chemicals involved and their associated hazards is quickly obtained in transportation-related incidents or incidents involving fixed facilities. Determining the substances involved in some incidents, such as mysterious spills, requires considerable time and effort. · Time Available: Little time generally requires prompt action to bring the incident under control. · Reason for Response: To implement prompt and immediate actions to control dangerous or potentially dangerous situations. Effects on Plan

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In emergencies, time is not available to write lengthy and detailed safety plans. Decisions for responder safety are on the basis of a continual evaluation of changing conditions. Responding organizations must rely on their existing written standard operating safety procedures or a generic plan, and verbal safety instructions adapted to meet site-specific conditions. Since heavy reliance is placed on verbal safety instructions, an effective system to keep all responders informed must be established. Whenever possible, these incident-specific instructions should be written.

6.4.2 INCIDENT CHARACTERIZATION SITUATION

In nonemergency responses, such as preliminary inspections at abandoned waste sites or more comprehensive waste site investigations, the objective is to determine and characterize the chemicals and hazards involved, the extent of contamination, and risks to people and the environment. In general, initial inspections, detailed investigations, and extent of contamination surveys are limited in the activities that are required and number of people involved. Initial or preliminary inspections generally require one to two days. Complete investigations may last over a longer time period. · Available: Information Available: Much background information. Generally limited on-site data for initial inspection. On-site information more fully developed through additional site visits and investigations. · Time Available: In most cases, adequate time is available to develop written site-specific safety plan. · Reason for Response: To gather data to verify or refute existing information, to gather information to determine scope of subsequent investigations, or to collect data for planning remedial action. Effects on Plan Sufficient time is available to write safety plans. In scope and detail, plans tend to be brief, containing safety requirements for specific on-site work relevant to collecting data. As information is developed through additional investigations, the

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safety plan is modified and, if necessary, more detailed and specific requirements are added.

6.4.3 REMEDIAL ACTIONS SITUATION

Remedial actions are cleanups, which last over a long period of time. They commence after more immediate problems at an emergency have been controlled, or they involve the mitigation of hazards and restoration of abandoned hazardous waste sites. Numerous activities are required involving many people, a logistics and support base, extensive equipment, and more involved work activities. Remedial actions may require months to years to completely accomplish. · · · Information Available: Much known about on-site hazards. Time Available: Ample time for work planning. Reason for Response: Systematic/complete control, cleanup, and restoration.

Effects on Plan Since ample time is available before work commences, the site safety plan tends to be comprehensive and detailed. From prior investigations, much detail may be known about the materials or hazards at the site and the extent of the contamination.

6.5 SITE SAFETY PLANS--CREATION

To construct the plan, as much information as possible should be gathered about the anticipated incident. This would include, but not be limited to: · · · · · Incident location and name Site description Site control procedures Chemicals and quantities involved Hazards associated with each chemical

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· · · · · · · · · · Behavior and dispersion of material involved Types of containers, storage or transportation methods Physical hazards Prevailing weather condition and forecast Surrounding populations and land use Ecologically sensitive areas Facility records Preliminary Assessment Reports Off-site surveys Topographic and Hydrologic information

This information provides a basis for developing a site-specific safety plan. Information is needed about the chemicals and hazards involved, movement of material on and off the site, and potential contact with responders or the public. This type of information is then used along with the reason for responding and the work plan to develop the safety plan. The plan is tailored to the conditions imposed by the incident and to its environmental setting. As additional information becomes available, the safety plan is modified to protect against the hazards discerned and to provide for site emergencies that may occur.

6.6 SITE CONTROL ISSUES

A site control program for protecting workers, which is part of the site safety and health program, should be developed during the planning stages of a hazardous waste operation. The program should be modified as necessary as new information becomes available. In general, the purpose of a site control program is to:

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1. 2. 3. Minimize potential contamination of workers. Protect the public from the site's hazards. Protect the environment from the spread of contamination.

6.7 ROUTINE OPERATIONS

Routine operations are those activities required when responding to either an emergency or a remedial action at a hazardous waste site. These activities may involve a high degree of risk, but must be performed at all incident responses. Safety practices for routine operations are very similar to generally accepted industrial hygiene and industrial safety practices. Whenever a hazardous incident progresses to the point where operations become more routine, the associated site safety plan becomes a more refined document.

ALL THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION MUST BE IN THE PLAN

6.7.1 DESCRIBE THE KNOWN HAZARDS AND RISKS

This must include all known or suspected physical, biological, radiological, or chemical hazards. It is important that all health-related information be kept up-to-date. As air, water, soil, or hazardous substance monitoring and sampling data become available, they must be evaluated, significant risk or exposures to workers noted, potential impact on the public assessed, and appropriate changes made to the plan. These evaluations must be repeated frequently, since much of the plan is on the basis of this information.

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training 6.7.2 LIST KEY PERSONNEL AND ALTERNATES

The plan must identify key personnel (and alternates) responsible for site safety. It should also identify key personnel assigned to various site operations. Telephone numbers, addresses, and organizations of these people must be listed in the plan and posted in a conspicuous place.

6.7.3 DESIGNATE LEVELS OF PROTECTION TO BE WORN

The type of personal protective equipment (PPE) workers should wear must be designated by worksite location and job function. This includes the specific types of respirators and clothing to be worn for each level. No one must be permitted in areas requiring PPE unless they have been trained in its use and are wearing it.

6.7.4 DELINEATE WORK AREAS

Work areas such as an exclusion zone, contamination reduction zone, and support zone must be designated on the site map and the map posted. The size of zones, zone boundaries, and access control points into each zone must be marked and made known to all site workers.

6.7.5 LIST CONTROL PROCEDURES

Control procedures must be implemented to prevent unauthorized access. Site security measures such as fences, signs, security patrols, and check-in protocol must be set up. Procedures must also be established to control personnel entry into work zones where personal protection is required.

6.7.6 ESTABLISH DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES

Decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment must be established. Arrangements must also be made for the proper disposal of contaminated material, solutions, and equipment.

6.7.7 ADDRESS REQUIREMENTS FOR AN ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM

A program to monitor site hazards must be implemented. This would include air monitoring and sampling. Other kinds of media sampling should also be done at or

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around the site that would indicate the presence of certain chemicals, their hazards, possible migration of hazards, and associated safety requirements.

6.7.8 SPECIFY ANY ROUTINE AND SPECIAL TRAINING REQUIRED

Personnel must be trained, not only in general safety procedures and use of safety equipment, but in any specialized work they may be expected to do.

6.7.9 ESTABLISH PROCEDURES FOR WEATHER

Weather conditions can affect site work. Temperature extremes, high winds, rain, and other conditions have an impact on personnel safety. Work practices must be established to protect workers from the effects of weather. Shelters should be provided when necessary. Temperature extremes, especially heat and its effect on people wearing protective clothing, must be considered and procedures established to monitor for and minimize heat stress.

6.8 ON-SITE EMERGENCIES

The plan must address site emergencies. Site emergencies are occurrences that require immediate action to prevent additional problems or harm to responders, the public, property, or the environment. In general, all responses present a degree of risk to the workers. During routine operations, risk is minimized by establishing good work practices and using PPE. Unpredictable events such as fire, chemical exposure, or physical injury may occur and must be anticipated. The plan must contain contingencies for managing them.

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6.9 SITE EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

Site emergency procedures must be written and include the following elements: · List the names and emergency function of on-site personnel responsible for emergency actions along with the special training they have. · · · Post the location of the nearest telephone. Provide alternative means for emergency communications. Provide a list of emergency services organizations that may be needed. Names, telephone numbers, and locations must be posted. Arrangements for using emergency organizations should be made beforehand. Organizations that might be needed are: ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ · Fire Police Health Explosive experts Local Hazardous Materials Response units Civil Defense Rescue

Address and define procedures for the rapid evacuation of workers. Clear, audible warning signals should be established. Well-marked emergency exits should be located throughout the site. Internal and external communications plans should also be developed.

·

A complete list of emergency equipment should be attached to the safety plan. This list should include emergency equipment available on-site, as well as all available medical, rescue, transport, firefighting, and mitigating equipment.

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· A process to debrief emergency responders and other involved personnel, critique the emergency response, and follow-up with a written report and recommendations.

6.9.1 ADDRESS EMERGENCY MEDICAL CARE

Determine the location of the nearest medical or emergency care facility. Find out if they are equipped to handle chemical exposure cases. · · Make arrangements to transport, admit, and treat injured or exposed workers. Post the name of the medical or emergency care facility along with its phone number, location, travel time, and directions. · Determine the local physician's office location, travel directions, availability, and phone number. Post the physician's phone number if other medical care is not available. · · Determine the nearest ambulance service and post the telephone number. List responding organizations' physicians, safety officers', or toxicologists' names and telephone numbers. Also, include the nearest poison control center phone number. · Maintain accurate records on any exposure or potential exposure of site workers during routine operations and emergencies.

6.9.2 DUTIES

Advise workers of their duties during an emergency. In particular, it is imperative that the site safety officers, standby rescue personnel, decontamination workers, and emergency medical technicians practice emergency procedures.

6.9.3 DECONTAMINATION

Incorporate into the plan procedures for the decontamination of injured workers and for the transport vehicles, transport personnel, and medical care facilities. Contamination of medical personnel may occur and should be addressed in the

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plan. Whenever feasible, these procedures should be discussed with appropriate medical personnel in advance of operations.

6.9.4 EVACUATION

Establish procedures in cooperation with local and state officials for evacuating residents who live near the site.

6.10 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SITE SAFETY PLAN

The site safety plan must be written to avoid misinterpretation, ambiguity, and the mistakes that verbal orders sometimes cause. The plan must be reviewed and approved by qualified personnel. Once the safety plan is implemented, it should be periodically examined and modified to reflect any changes in site work and conditions. All agencies and organizations that have an active role at the incident must be familiar with the plan. The plan should be written in coordination with the organizations involved. Lead personnel from these organizations should sign the plan to signify they agree with it and will follow its provisions. All personnel involved at the site must be familiar with the safety plan or the parts that pertain to their specific activities. Frequent safety meetings should be held to keep everyone informed about site hazards, changes in operating plans, modifications of safety requirements, and for exchanges of information. It is the responsibility of personnel involved at the site, as workers or visitors, to comply with the requirements of the plan.

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Frequent audits by the incident commander or the safety designee should be made to determine compliance with the plan's requirements. Any deviations should be brought to the attention of the incident commander. Modifications in the plan should be reviewed and approved by appropriate personnel.

6.11 MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM

Workers during hazardous material emergency can experience high levels of stress. Their tasks may expose them to toxic chemicals, safety hazards, biological hazards, and radiation. They may develop heat-stress while wearing protective equipment or working under temperature extremes, or face lifethreatening emergencies such as explosions and fires. Therefore, a medical program is essential to assess and monitor workers' health and fitness both prior to employment and during the course of work The program should provide emergency and other treatment as needed and keep accurate records. Information from a site medical program may also be used to conduct future epidemiological studies, adjudicate claims, provide evidence in litigation, and report workers' medical conditions to federal, state, and local agencies as required by law. The recommendations assume that workers will have adequate protection from exposures through administrative and engineering controls, and appropriate PPE and decontamination procedures, as described elsewhere in this manual. Medical surveillance should be used to complement other control.

6.12 HAZARDS AND HOW CHEMICALS ENTER OUR BODIES

Hazardous waste sites pose a multitude of health and safety concerns, any one of which could result in serious injury or death. These hazards are a function of the nature of the site as well as a consequence of the work being performed. They include: · Chemical exposure

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· · · · · · · · · · Fire and explosion Oxygen deficiency Ionizing radiation Magnetic flux fields Biologic hazards Safety hazards Electrical hazards Heat stress Cold exposure Noise

Several factors distinguish the hazardous waste site environment from other occupational situations involving hazardous substances. One important factor is the uncontrolled condition of the site. Even extremely hazardous substances do not endanger human health or safety if they are properly handled. However, improper control of these substances can result in a severe threat to site workers and to the general public. Another factor is the large variety and number of substances that may be present at a site. Any individual location may contain hundreds or even thousands of chemicals. Frequently, an accurate assessment of all chemical hazards is impossible because of the large number of substances and the potential interactions among the substances. In addition, the identity of the substances on-site is frequently unknown, particularly in the initial stages of an investigation. The Project Team Leader will often be forced to select protective measures on the basis of little or no information. Finally, workers are subject not only to the hazards of direct exposure but also to dangers

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posed by the disorderly physical environment of hazardous waste sites and the stress of working in PPE. The combination of all these conditions results in a working environment that is characterized by numerous and varied hazards that: · · · · May pose an immediate danger to life or health (IDLH). May not be immediately obvious or identifiable. May vary according to the location on-site and the task being performed. May change as site activities progress.

General categories of hazards that may be present at a site are described in this module. In approaching a site, it is prudent to assume that all these hazards are present until site characterization has shown otherwise. A site health and safety program, as described in Module 4.2 of this manual, must provide comprehensive protection against individual known hazards. It should be continuously updated to new information and changing site conditions.

6.13 CHEMICAL EXPOSURE

Preventing exposure to toxic chemicals is a primary concern at hazardous waste sites. Most sites contain a variety of chemical substances in gaseous, liquid, or solid form. These substances can enter the unprotected body by inhalation, skin absorption, ingestion, or through a puncture wound (injection). A contaminant can cause damage at the point of contact or can act systematically, causing a toxic effect at a part of the body distant from the point of initial contact.

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Chemical exposures are generally divided into two categories--acute and chronic. Symptoms resulting from acute exposures usually occur during or shortly after exposure to a sufficiently high concentration of a contaminant. The concentration required to produce such effects varies widely from chemical to chemical. The term "chronic exposure" generally refers to exposures to "low" concentrations of a contaminant over a long period of time. The "low" concentrations required to produce symptoms of chronic exposure depend upon the chemical, the duration of each exposure, and the number of exposures. For a given contaminant, the symptoms of an acute exposure may be completely different from those resulting from chronic exposure. For either chronic or acute exposure, the toxic effect may be temporary and reversible, or may be permanent (disability or death). Some chemicals can cause obvious symptoms such as burning, coughing, nausea, tearing eyes, or rashes. Other chemicals may cause health damage without any such warning signs. This is a particular concern for chronic exposures to low concentrations. Health conditions, such as cancer or respiratory disease, may not become manifest for several years. In addition, some toxic chemicals may be colorless and/or odorless, may dull the sense of smell, or may not produce any immediate or obvious physiological sensations. Thus, a worker's senses or feelings cannot be relied upon in all cases to warn of potential toxic exposure. The effects of exposure not only depend on the chemical, its concentration, route of entry, and duration of exposure, but may also be influenced by personal factors, such as the individual's smoking habits, alcohol consumption, medication use, nutrition, age, and even sex. An important exposure route of concern at a hazardous waste site is inhalation. The lungs are extremely vulnerable to chemical agents. Even substances that do not directly affect the lungs may pass through lung tissue into the bloodstream, where they are transported to other vulnerable areas of the body. Some toxic chemicals present in the atmosphere may not be detected by human senses, i.e., they may be colorless, odorless, and their toxic effects may not produce any immediate symptoms. Respiratory protection is therefore extremely important if there is a

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possibility that the worksite atmosphere may contain such hazardous substances. Chemicals can also enter the respiratory tract through punctured eardrums. Those individuals should be medically evaluated to determine if such a condition would place them at risk and preclude their working at the task in question. Direct contact of the skin and eyes by hazardous substances is another important route of exposure. Some chemicals directly injure the skin. Some pass through the skin into the bloodstream, where they are transported to vulnerable organs. Skin absorption is enhanced by abrasions, cuts, heat, and moisture. The eye is particularly vulnerable because airborne chemicals can dissolve in its moist surface and be carried to the rest of the body through the bloodstream (capillaries are very close to the surface of the eye). Wearing protective equipment, not using contact lenses in contaminated atmospheres (since they may trap chemicals against the eye surface), keeping hands away from the face, and minimizing contact with liquid and solid chemicals can help protect against skin and eye contact. Although ingestion should be the least significant route of exposure at a site, it is important to be aware of how this type of exposure can occur. Deliberate ingestion of chemicals is unlikely; however, personal habits such as chewing gum or tobacco, drinking, eating, smoking cigarettes, and applying cosmetics on-site may provide a route of entry for chemicals. The last primary route of chemical exposure is injection, whereby chemicals may be introduced into the body through puncture wounds, i.e., by stepping or tripping and falling onto contaminated sharp objects. Wearing safety shoes, avoiding physical hazards, and taking commonsense precautions are important protective measures against injection.

6.14 PRECAUTIONS AGAINST HAZARDOUS MATERIAL EXPOSURE

· Read container labels and material safety data sheets (MSDS). They will list safe handling procedures such as "wait for corrosive or solvent to dry completely before welding or cutting metal."

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· Always add acids to water (NOT water to acids) to prevent boiling over and splashing. · · Never sniff a chemical to identify its type or location. Use appropriate PPE when working with chemicals. These may include chemical splash goggles, full-face respirators, safety gloves, barrier creams, splash aprons, corrosive-resistant boots, or any combination of the above. · · Make sure that PPE fits properly and that you know how to use it. When using respirators, match your canister or cartridge to the correct respirator and the particular chemical, and replace when necessary. · Don't wear contact lenses--they absorb chemicals or trap them against your eyes. · Know the location of eyewash stations and safety showers and how to use them. In most cases, if you are exposed to a chemical splash, they will be your first emergency treatment. · · · Slowly mix corrosives or solvents or dip parts into them. Never put your hands into corrosives or solvents even if you are wearing gloves. Always wash your hands well before eating, smoking, and before and after every shift. · Use engineering controls, including fans, exhaust hoods, and other ventilation systems installed for your protection. · · Know emergency first-aid procedures. If you are unclear about your company's safety procedures for handling chemical substances, speak to your supervisor. Make sure you understand everything you need to know about protecting yourself from chemical hazards.

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· The last primary route of chemical exposure is injection, whereby chemicals are introduced into the body through puncture wounds; for example, by stepping or tripping and falling onto contaminated sharp objects. Wearing safety shoes, avoiding physical hazards, and taking commonsense precautions are important protective measures against injection.

6.15 WHAT ARE SOME EFFECTS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL EXPOSURE?

Scientists are constantly testing various chemicals to determine if they are toxic and to see what the long-term effects that continuous exposure may have. Toxic chemicals are defined as those gases, liquids, or solids that, through their chemical properties, can produce injurious or lethal effects upon contact with the body. The toxicity of a chemical is not synonymous with its quality for being a health hazard. Toxicity is the capacity of a material to produce injury or harm. The hazard is the possibility that exposure to a material will cause injury when a specific quantity is used under certain conditions. Toxic chemicals can enter the body from being swallowed, such as handling food after being in direct contact with a toxic material, inhaled (poor ventilation or the lack of proper respiratory protection), or absorbed through the skin (lack of proper PPE , such as eye protection, gloves, aprons, etc.). The effects of toxic chemical exposure to a substance is dependent on dose, rate, physical state of the substance, temperature, site absorption, diet, and general state of health of the individual. Some of the immediate symptoms may include: · · · · Eye Irritation Mucus Membrane Irritation Dermatitis Nausea

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· · · Headache Choking or coughing Dizziness, etc.

The cumulative effects of many toxic chemicals may not be known for years to come. We do know that many serious diseases and cancer are directly related to toxic exposure. It is obvious that scientists do not know all the effects of toxic chemicals; however, they do know enough to realize their potential hazard.

6.16 EXPLOSION AND FIRE

There are many potential causes of explosions and fires at hazardous waste sites: · · · · · Chemical reactions that produce explosion, fire, or heat Ignition of explosive or flammable chemicals Ignition of materials because of oxygen enrichment Agitation of shock or friction-sensitive compounds Sudden release of materials under pressure

Explosions and fires may arise spontaneously. However, more commonly, they result from site activities such as moving drums, accidentally mixing incompatible chemicals, or introducing an ignition source, such as a spark from equipment, into an explosive or flammable environment. At hazardous waste sites, explosions and fires not only pose the obvious hazards of intense heat, open flame, smoke inhalation, and flying objects, but may also cause the release of toxic chemicals into the environment. Such releases can threaten both personnel on-site and members of the general public living or working nearby. To protect against the hazard, have qualified personnel in the field monitor for explosive atmospheres and flammable vapors, keep all potential ignition sources away from an explosive or flammable

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environment, use nonsparking, explosion-proof equipment, and follow safe practices when performing any task that might result in the agitation or release of chemicals.

6.17 OXYGEN DEFICIENCY

The oxygen content of normal air at sea level is approximately 21 percent. Physiological effects of oxygen deficiency in humans are readily apparent when the oxygen concentration is decreased, causing increased breathing and heart rate. Oxygen concentrations lower than 16 percent can result in nausea and vomiting, brain damage, unconsciousness, and death. To take into account individual physiological responses and errors in measurement, concentrations of 19.5 percent oxygen by volume, or lower, are considered to be indicative of oxygen deficiency. Oxygen deficiency may result from the displacement of oxygen by another gas or the consumption of oxygen by a chemical reaction. Confined spaces or low-lying areas are particularly vulnerable to oxygen deficiency and should always be monitored prior to entry. Qualified field personnel should always monitor oxygen levels and use atmosphere supplying respiratory equipment when oxygen concentrations drop below 19.5 percent by volume.

6.18 IONIZING RADIATION

Radioactive materials emit one or more of three types of harmful radiation--alpha, beta, and gamma. If levels of radiation above natural background are discovered, consult a health physicist. Alpha radiation has limited penetration ability and is usually stopped by clothing and the outer layers of the skin. Alpha radiation poses little threat outside the body, but can be hazardous if materials that emit alpha radiation are inhaled or ingested. Beta radiation can cause harmful effects and is hazardous if materials that emit beta radiation are inhaled or ingested. Use of protective clothing, coupled with scrupulous personal hygiene and decontamination, affords good protection against alpha and beta radiation.

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Gamma radiation easily passes through clothing and human tissue and can also cause serious and permanent damage to the body. ChemicaI-protective clothing affords no protection against gamma radiation itself; however, use of respiratory and other protective equipment can help keep radiation-emitting materials from entering the body by inhalation, ingestion, injection, or skin absorption.

6.19 BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS

Wastes from hospitals and research facilities may contain disease-causing organisms that could infect site personnel. Like chemical hazards, etiologic agents may be dispersed in the environment via water and wind. Other biologic hazards that may be present at a hazardous waste site include poisonous plants, insects, animals, and indigenous pathogens. Protective clothing and respiratory equipment can help reduce the chances of exposure.

6.20 SAFETY HAZARDS

Hazardous waste sites may contain numerous safety hazards, such as: · · · · · · · Holes or ditches Precariously positioned objects, such as drums or boards that may fall Sharp objects such as nails, metal shards and broken glass Slippery surfaces Steep grades Uneven terrain Unstable surfaces, such as walls that may cave in or flooring that may give way

Some safety hazards are a function of the work itself. For example, heavy equipment creates an additional hazard for workers in the vicinity of the operating equipment. Protective equipment can impair a worker's agility, hearing, and vision, which can result in an increased risk of an accident.

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Accidents involving physical hazards can directly injure workers and can create additional hazards; for example, increased chemical exposure because of damaged protective equipment, or danger of explosion caused by the mixing of chemicals. Site personnel should constantly look out for potential safety hazards, and should immediately inform their supervisors of any new hazards so that mitigative action can be taken.

6.21 ELECTRICAL HAZARDS

Overhead power lines, downed electrical wires, and buried cables all pose a danger of shock or electrocution if workers contact or sever them during site operations. Electrical equipment used on-site may also pose a hazard to workers. To help minimize this hazard, low-voltage equipment with ground-fault interrupters and watertight, corrosion-resistant connecting cables should be used on site. In addition, lightning is a hazard during outdoor operations, particularly for workers handling metal containers or equipment. To eliminate this hazard, weather conditions should be monitored and work should be suspended during electrical storms. An additional electrical hazard involves capacitors that may retain a charge. All such items should be properly grounded before handling.

6.22 HEAT STRESS

6.22.1 HEAT STRESS

Heat-stress is the major problem caused by protective clothing interfering with the body's ability to cool itself. Clothing that provides a barrier against chemicals contacting the skin prevents the efficient dissipation of body heat. Evaporation, the body's primary cooling mechanism, is reduced since ambient air is not in contact with the skin's surface. Other heat exchange mechanisms, convection and radiation, are also impeded. Additional strain is put on the body as it attempts to maintain its heat balance. This added stress can result in health effects ranging from transient heat fatigue to

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serious illness or death. The smaller the area of the body exposed to the air, the greater the probability for heat stress. Fully encapsulating suits allow no ambient air to contact the skin's surfaces to aid in the evaporation of moisture. Heat in these suits builds up quickly. Splash suits may allow more body surface (head, neck and hands) to be cooled by the air, but if those areas are covered by hoods, gloves and respirators and the joints taped, the same conditions will exist as if wearing a fully encapsulating suit. Heat-related problems become more common as the ambient temperature rises above 70°F, but can also occur at much lower temperatures. Although wearing protective clothing establishes conditions that are conducive to heat-related illness, individuals vary in their susceptibility to heat-stress and their ability to withstand high temperatures. Four environmental factors affect the amount of stress a worker faces in a hot work area: temperature, humidity, radiant heat (such as from the sun or a furnace), and air velocity. Perhaps most important to the level of stress an individual faces are personal characteristics such as age, weight, fitness, medical condition, and acclimatization to the heat. The body reacts to high external temperature by circulating blood to the skin, which increases skin temperature and allows the body to give off its excess heat through the skin. However, if the muscles are being used for physical labor, less blood is available to flow to the skin and release the heat. Of course, there are many steps a person might choose to take to reduce the risk of heat stress, such as moving to a cooler place, reducing the work pace or load, or removing or loosening some clothing. If the body cannot dispose of excess heat, it will store it. When this happens, the body's core temperature rises and the heart rate increases. As the body continues to store heat, the individual begins to lose concentration and has difficulty focusing on a task, may become irritable or sick, and often loses the desire to drink. The next stage is most often fainting and then possible death if the person is not removed from the heat stress.

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Heatstroke, Heatstroke, the most serious health problem for workers in hot environments, is caused by the failure of the body's internal mechanism to regulate its core temperature. Sweating halts and the body can no longer rid itself of excess heat. Symptoms include: · · · · · · Mental confusion Delirium Loss of consciousness Convulsions or coma Body temperature of 106°F or higher Hot dry skin which may be red, mottled, or bluish

Victims of heatstroke will die unless treated promptly. Although medical help should be called, the victim must be removed immediately to a cool area. A cool towel on the nape (back of the neck) will effectively cause the hypothalamus (the body's thermostat) to reduce the body's temperature immediately by 2 to 4 degrees in a heat-stress situation. Prompt first-aid can prevent permanent injury to the brain and other vital organs. Heat exhaustion develops as a result of loss of fluid through perspiring when a worker has failed to drink enough fluids or take in enough salt or both. The worker with heat exhaustion still perspires but experiences extreme weakness or fatigue, giddiness, nausea, or headache. The skin is clammy and moist, the complexion pale or flushed, and the body temperature normal or slightly higher. The victim should rest in a cool place and drink salted liquids. Severe cases involving victims who vomit or lose consciousness may require longer treatment under medical supervision. Heat cramps, painful spasm of the bone muscles, are caused when workers drink large quantities of water but fail to replace their bodies' salt loss. Tired muscles, those used for performing the work, are usually the ones most susceptible to cramps. Cramps may occur during or after working hours and may be relieved by

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taking salted liquids by mouth or saline solutions intravenously for quicker relief, if medically determined to be required. Fainting may be a problem for the worker not acclimatized to a hot environment who simply stands still in the heat. Victims usually recover quickly after a brief period of lying down. Moving around, rather than standing still, will usually reduce the possibility of fainting. Heat rash, also known as prickly heat, may occur in hot and humid environments where sweat is not easily removed from the surface of the skin by evaporation. When extensive or complicated by infection, heat rash can be so uncomfortable that it inhibits sleep and impairs a worker's performance or even results in temporary total disability. It can be prevented by resting in a cool place and allowing the skin to dry.

6.23 PREVENTING HEAT STRESS

Most heat-related health problems can be prevented or the risk of developing them reduced. Following a few basic precautions should lessen heat stress. Acclimatization to the heat through short exposures followed by longer periods of work in the hot environment can reduce heat stress. New employees and workers returning from an absence of two weeks or more should have a 5-day period of acclimatization. This period should begin with 50 percent of the normal workload and time exposure the first day, and gradually building up to 100 percent on the fifth day. A variety of engineering controls including general ventilation and spot-cooling by local exhaust ventilation at points of high-heat production may be helpful. Shielding is required as protection from radiant heat sources. Evaporative cooling and mechanical refrigeration are other ways to reduce heat. Cooling fans can also reduce heat in hot conditions. Eliminating steam leaks will also help. Equipment modifications, the use of power tools to reduce manual labor, and using personal cooling devices or protective clothing are other ways to reduce heat exposure for workers.

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Work practices such as providing a period of acclimatization for new workers and those returning from two-week absences and making plenty of drinking water, as much as a quart per worker per hour, available at the workplace can help reduce the risk of heat disorders. Training first-aid workers to recognize and treat heat-stress disorders and making the names of trained staff known to all workers is essential. Employers should also consider individual workers' physical conditions when determining their fitness for working in hot environments. Older workers, obese workers, and personnel on some types of medication are at greater risk. Alternating work and rest periods with longer rest periods in a cool area can help workers avoid heat strain. If possible, heavy work should be scheduled during the cooler parts of the day and appropriate protective clothing provided. Supervisors should be trained to detect early signs of heat strain and should permit workers to interrupt their work if they are extremely uncomfortable. Employee education is vital so that workers are aware of the need to replace fluids and salt lost through sweat and can recognize dehydration, exhaustion, fainting, heat cramps, salt deficiency, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke as heat disorders. Workers should also be informed of the importance of daily weighing before and after work to avoid dehydration. Heat-stress is a major hazard, especially for workers wearing protective clothing. The same protective materials that shield the body from chemical exposure also limit the dissipation of body heat and moisture. Personal protective clothing can therefore create a hazardous condition. Depending on the ambient conditions and the work being performed, heat-stress can occur very rapidly--within as little as 15 minutes. It can pose as great a danger to worker health as chemical exposure. In its early stages, heat-stress can cause rashes, cramps, discomfort, and drowsiness, resulting in impaired functional ability that threatens the safety of both the individual and co-workers. Continued heat-stress can lead to heat stroke and death. Avoiding overprotection, providing careful training and frequent monitoring of personnel who wear protective

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clothing, judicious scheduling of work and rest periods, and frequent replacement of fluids can protect against this hazard.

6.23.1 PREVENTING HEAT STRESS

Excess heat can place an abnormal stress on your body. When your body temperature rises even a few degrees above normal (which is about 98.6°F), you can experience muscle cramps, become weak, disoriented, and dangerously ill unless you can help your body to cool down. If body temperature rises above 105°F, the condition can be fatal. Persons who work in hot environments (foundries, kitchens, laundries, etc.) must guard against heat stress. The following guidelines can help you keep your cool in the heat and avoid the dangerous consequences of heat stress.

6.23.2 ADAPT TO THE HEAT

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) suggests that all workers exposed to extreme heat gradually adjust to their environment over a one-week period. This means that on your first day in a hot environment, you may only be able to do half the work that a fully adapted worker would do. Each day, your workload increases slightly until you are able to operate at "full steam."

6.23.3 DRINK WATER FREQUENTLY

Perspiring is one of the ways your body cools itself down. Perspiration results in water loss, and the only way to replace the loss and help your body continue to cool itself is to drink water frequently. Ideally, you should drink at least eight ounces of water every 20 to 30 minutes while working in hot environments.

6.23.4 WEAR PPE

PPE for hot environments can range from ordinary work clothes made from "breathable" fabrics to specially designed suits that are cooled by air, ice, and even portable air conditioners. Check with your supervisor for appropriate PPE for your specific task.

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Your employer may also provide engineering controls such as fans, ventilators, exhaust systems, and air-coolant or conditioning systems. These controls can help reduce worksite temperatures to more adaptable levels. Other controls such as using heat shields and insulating heat-producing machinery can also help lower the environmental temperature.

6.23.6 KEEP COOL

Persons who work in hot environments should become familiar with first-aid techniques for heat stress. If you or someone you know suffers from heat exhaustion, cramps, or other signs of heat stress, get medical attention immediately. Keep your cool. Heat-stress is dangerous, but it's also preventable.

6.24 COLD EXPOSURE

Cold injury (frostbite and hypothermia) and impaired ability to work are dangers at low temperatures and when the wind-chill factor is high. To guard against them, wear appropriate clothing, have warm shelter readily available, carefully schedule work and rest periods, and monitor workers' physical conditions.

6.24.1 PREVENTING "COLD STRESS" HYPOTHERMIA

When your body temperature drops even a few degrees below normal, which is about 98.6°F, you can begin to shiver uncontrollably, become weak, drowsy, disoriented, unconscious, even fatally ill. This loss of body heat is known as "cold stress," or hypothermia. Persons who work outdoors or who enjoy outdoor activities should learn about how to protect against loss of body heat. The following guidelines can help you keep your body warm and avoid the dangerous consequences of hypothermia.

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training 6.24.2 DRESS IN LAYERS

Outdoors, indoors, in mild weather or in cold, it pays to dress in layers. Layering your clothes allows you to adjust what you're wearing to fit the temperature conditions. In cold weather, wear cotton, polypropylene, or lightweight wool next to the skin, and wool layers over your undergarments. In warm weather, choose loose-fitting cotton clothing. For outdoor activities, choose outergarments made of waterproof, wind-resistant fabrics such as nylon. And, since a great deal of body heat is lost through the head, always wear a hat for added protection.

6.24.3 KEEP DRY

Water chills your body far more rapidly than air or wind. Even in the heat of summer, falling into a 40°F lake can be fatal in a matter of minutes. Always take along a dry set of clothing whenever you are working or playing outdoors. Wear waterproof boots in damp or snowy weather and always pack raingear, even if the forecast calls for sunny skies.

6.24.4 TAKE A COMPANION

The effects of hypothermia can be gradual and often go unnoticed until it's too late. If you know you'll be outdoors for an extended period of time, take along a companion. At the very least, let someone know where you'll be and what time you expect to return. Check each other frequently for overexposure to the cold. Check for shivering, slurred speech, mental confusion, drowsiness, and weakness. If either of you show any of the above symptoms, go indoors as soon as possible and warm up.

6.24.5 WARMTH AND UNDERSTANDING

The key ingredients to preventing loss of body heat are staying warm and understanding what you can do to protect against conditions that can cause hypothermia. It can be fatal, but it can also be prevented.

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6.25 NOISE

Work around large equipment often creates excessive noise. The effects of noise can include: · Workers being startled, annoyed, or distracted · Physical damage to the ear, pain, and temporary and/or permanent hearing loss · Communication interference that may increase potential hazards because of the inability to warn of danger and the proper safety precautions to be taken If employees are subjected to noise exceeding an 8-hour, time-weighted average sound level of 85 dBA or more, feasible administrative or engineering controls must be utilized.

6.25.1 CHOOSING AND USING HEARING PROTECTION

Silence may be golden, but not when it's permanent. Hearing loss is a condition that occurs over time from repeated exposure to excessive noise. We can't always prevent noise, but we can prevent hearing loss by following established safety procedures and using the appropriate hearing protection for the noise hazards we encounter each day. The following is a guide to the most common types of hearing protectors and the types of hazards they can guard against.

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training 6.25.2 EARMUFFS

Earmuffs come in many styles. Most are attached to spring-loaded headbands, while others are attached directly to safety headgear. Specialized muffs are also available for persons who work in high-voltage exposures or who need to filter out hazardous noises while retaining acute hearing for normal sound ranges. Muffs cover the entire ear and can reduce noise by as much as 15 to 30 dBA. Muffs are often used in conjunction with earplugs when a worker is exposed to extremely high noise levels 105 dBA and above.

6.25.3 EARPLUGS

Like muffs, earplugs come in many varieties: formidable, custom molded, disposable, reusable, and may be made of many different types of materials, such as acoustical fiber, silicone, rubber, or plastic. Earplugs are positioned in the outer part of the ear and may reduce noise by as much as 30 dBA. Excessive noise is commonly defined as 85 to 90 dBA or more over an 8-hour period.

6.25.4 CANAL CAPS

As their name suggests, these hearing protectors cap off or close the ear canal at its opening. Like many muffs, canal caps are connected to a flexible headband that ensures a close fit. Canal caps are most commonly used when an individual is unable to use traditional earplugs.

6.25.5 USING HEARING PROTECTORS

Your supervisor can help determine the amount of noise you are exposed to on the job through various testing devices and will provide you with the appropriate type of hearing protection for the particular noise hazards you face. Remember, hearing protectors only work when you use them correctly and consistently. Depending on the type of hearing protectors you use, dispose of or replace them as necessary. For reusable protectors, follow the manufacturer's guidelines for cleaning and storage. When it comes to your hearing, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

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6.26 CHEMICAL EXPOSURE TO YOUR BODY

Chemicals surround us at work or at home. Their effect on our health is determined by how poisonous the chemicals are and how much actually enters or contacts our body. Even super toxic chemicals cannot hurt us unless they gain entry into our bodies. By identifying the primary routes of entry into the body for a particular product, workers can evaluate the adequacy of work practices to minimize exposure via that route. The first step in evaluating safe work practices is to identify routes of entry for the materials used in the workplace.

6.27 INHALATION

One way chemicals enter our bodies is inhalation. The lungs are extremely vulnerable to chemical agents. Some toxic chemicals present in the atmosphere may not be detected by human senses; i.e., they may be colorless and/or odorless, and their toxic effects may not produce any immediate symptoms. Respiratory protection is extremely important if there is any possibility that the worksite atmosphere may contain such hazardous substances. Chemicals can also enter the respiratory tract through punctured eardrums.

6.27.1 DUSTS/MISTS/FUMES

Coarse dusts, like sawdust, are usually trapped in our nose and upper respiratory tract. These dusts can be blocked by simple filter masks. Smaller particles enter the airways but settle out by gravity onto the mucus-coated walls of the airway tubes and are carried to the throat with the mucus flow. The very small particles, such as welding fumes and smoke particles, do not settle out in the airways but penetrate deep into the air sacs of the lungs where they can rapidly enter the blood if they are soluble. These very small particles are not blocked out by a simple, paper filter mask. Improved ventilation is the best answer.

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training 6.27.2 VAPORS/GASES

Water-soluble vapors and gases like ammonia will dissolve in the wet mucus coating of the upper airway surfaces. Often, this condition causes initiation of the eyes, nose, and throat if the mucus is made acidic or caustic. Gases and vapors which are less water soluble (such as chlorine or solvents) reach the deep lung in high concentrations. This allows rapid absorption into the blood or deep lung damage, depending on the properties of the chemical gas or vapor.

6.28 INGESTION OF CHEMICALS

Usually, ingestion is the least important route of exposure at a site. But, it is important to be aware of how this type of exposure can occur. Most ingestion is unintentional. Whenever hand-to-mouth contact, such as eating, smoking, or drinking occurs in an area where chemicals are handled, ingestion is possible. Wash contaminated hands and face prior to smoking, as well as before meals.

6.29 CUTS AND SCRAPES

Another route of chemical exposure is injection. Chemicals can be introduced into the body through puncture wounds by stepping, or tripping and falling onto contaminated sharp objects. When blood is visible, chemicals can enter the body. Work practices should be evaluated to minimize risk of injury; e.g., separate disposal of sharp objects or slash-resistant PPE.

6.30 ABSORPTION THROUGH THE SKIN

6.30.1 DIRECT SKIN DAMAGE THROUGH CORROSIVE MATERIALS

The oily barrier of the skin surface does not prevent penetration of strong caustics such as lye (caustic soda), because caustics combine with skin oils to create soaps. Caustic skin and eye burns can penetrate deep into the skin and may be quite severe before obvious pain is present. On contamination, wash immediately and thoroughly with water.

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training 6.30.2 SKIN ABSORPTION

The oily skin surface is an effective barrier against water and most water-soluble chemicals. Many chemicals that are soluble in oil will rapidly dissolve in the oily skin surface and penetrate through to the blood, and thus travel to other organs. Greases and oils are much slower to penetrate than organic solvents like benzene (found in gasoline), mineral spirits, toluene, etc. Solvents also dissolve away the oily surface layer of the skin, which prevents the skin from drying out. Repeated skin contact can cause severe drying and cracking. Direct contact of the skin and eyes by hazardous substances is another important route of exposure. Some chemicals directly injure the skin. Some pass through the skin into the bloodstream where they are transported to vulnerable organs. Skin absorption is increased by abrasions, cuts, heat, and moisture. The eye is particularly vulnerable because airborne chemicals can dissolve in its moist surface and be carried to the rest of the body through the bloodstream. Wearing protective equipment, not using contact lenses in contaminated atmospheres since they may trap chemicals against the eye surface, keeping hands away from the face, and minimizing contact with liquid and solid chemicals can help protect against skin and eye contact. Some chemicals damage the skin directly. Other chemicals will pass rapidly through the skin and enter the blood. Once in the blood they may affect other internal organs such as the brain, kidneys, or liver. Skin that is injured or chapped presents less of a barrier to chemicals.

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1. The three categories for response are: _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________

2. Name 6 of the 9 requirements that must be in a site safety plan. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

3. What are the symptoms of heat stroke? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 4. What PPE can you choose for hearing protection? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

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(Answers found in Appendix B)

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7 CONFINED SPACES

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.1.1 Overview

The hazards encountered and associated with entering and working in confined spaces are capable of causing bodily injury, illness, and death to the worker. Accidents occur among workers because of failure to recognize that a confined space is a potential hazard. It should therefore be considered that the most unfavorable situation exists in every case and that the danger of explosion, poisoning, and asphyxiation will be present at the onset of entry. Before forced ventilation is initiated, information such as restricted areas within the confined space, voids, the nature of the contaminants present, the size of the space, the type of work to be performed, and the number of people involved should be considered. The ventilation air should not create an additional hazard due to recirculation of contaminants, improper arrangement of the inlet duct, or by the substitution of anything other than fresh (normal) air (approximately 20.9% oxygen, 78.1% nitrogen, and 1% argon with small amounts of various other gases). The terms air and oxygen are sometimes considered synonymous. However, this is a dangerous assumption, since the use of oxygen in place of fresh (normal) air for ventilation will expand the limits of flammability and increase the hazards of fire and explosion. Hazardous conditions covered in this discussion include: Hazardous Atmospheres (flammable, toxic, irritant, and asphyxiating), and General Safety Hazards (mechanical, communications, entry and exit, and physical). 7.1.2 Types of Confined Spaces

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Confined spaces can be categorized generally as those with open tops and with a depth that will restrict the natural movement of air, and enclosed spaces with very limited openings for entry. In either of these cases, the space may contain mechanical equipment with moving parts. Any combination of these parameters will change the nature of the hazards encountered. Degreasers, pits, and certain types of storage tanks may be classified as open topped confined spaces that usually contain no moving parts. However, gases that are heavier than air (butane, propane, and other hydrocarbons) remain in depressions and will flow to low points where they are difficult to remove. Open topped water tanks that appear harmless may develop toxic atmospheres such as hydrogen sulfide from the vaporization of contaminated water. Therefore, these gases (heavier than air) are a primary concern when entry into such a confined space is being planned. Other hazards may develop due to the work performed in the confined space or because of corrosive residues that accelerate the decomposition of scaffolding supports and electrical components. Confined spaces such as sewers, casings, tanks, silos, vaults, and compartments of ships usually have limited access. The problems arising in these areas are similar to those that occur in open topped confined spaces. However, the limited access increases the risk of injury. Gases that are heavier than air such as carbon dioxide and propane, may lie in a tank or vault for hours or even days after the containers have been opened. Because some gases are odorless, the hazard may be overlooked with fatal results. Gases that are lighter then air may also be trapped within an enclosed type confined space, especially those with access from the bottom or side. Hazards specific to a confined space are dictated by: (1) the material stored or used in the confined space; as an example, damp activated carbon in a filtration tank will absorb oxygen, thus creating an oxygen deficient atmosphere; (2) the activity carried out, such as the fermentation of molasses that creates ethyl alcohol vapors and decreases the oxygen content of the atmosphere; or (3) the external environment, as in the case of sewer systems that may be affected by high tides, heavier than air gases, or flash floods. Confined spaces include but are not limited to: chimney boilers sterilizers washers/dryers hot well sewage pit daerator hot water tanks sump pump pits elevator sump pits

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The most hazardous kind of confined space is the type that combines limited access and mechanical devices. All the hazards of open top and limited access confined spaces may be present together with the additional hazard of moving parts. Digesters and boilers usually contain power-driven equipment, which unless properly isolated, may be inadvertently activated after entry. Such equipment may also contain physical hazards that further complicate the work environment and the entry and exit process. 7.1.3 Reasons for Entering Confined Spaces Entering a confined space as part of the industrial activity may be done for various reasons. It is done usually to perform a necessary function, such as inspection, repair, maintenance (cleaning or painting), or similar operations that would be an infrequent or irregular function of the total industrial activity. Entry may also be made during new construction. Potential hazards should be easier to recognize during construction since the confined space has not been used. The types of hazards involved will be limited by the specific work practices. When the area meets the criteria for a confined space, all ventilation and other requirements should be enforced. Unauthorized entry is one of the most difficult entries to control. Especially when there are large numbers of workers and trades involved, such as welders, painters, electricians, and safety monitors. A final and most important reason for entry would be emergency rescue. This, and all other reasons for entry, must be well planned before initial entry is made and the hazards must be thoroughly reviewed. The standby person and all rescue personnel should be aware of the structural design of the space, emergency exit procedures, and life support systems required.

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7.2 HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES Hazardous atmospheres encountered in confined spaces can be divided into four distinct categories: Flammable, Toxic, Irritant and/or Corrosive, and Asphyxiating. 7.2.1 Flammable Atmospheres A flammable atmosphere generally arises from enriched oxygen atmospheres, vaporization of flammable liquids, byproducts of work, chemical reactions, concentrations of combustible dusts, and desorption of chemical from inner surfaces of the confined space. An atmosphere becomes flammable when the ratio of oxygen to combustible material in the air is neither too rich nor too lean for combustion to occur. Combustible gases or vapors will accumulate when there is inadequate ventilation in areas such as a confined space. Flammable gases such as acetylene, butane, propane, hydrogen, methane, natural or manufactured gases or vapors from liquid hydrocarbons can be trapped in confined spaces, and since many gases are heavier than air, they will seek lower levels as in pits, sewers, and various types of storage tanks and vessels. In a closed top tank, it should also be noted that lighter than air gases may rise and develop a flammable concentration if trapped above the opening. The byproducts of work procedures can generate flammable or explosive conditions within a confined space. Specific kinds of work such as spray painting can result in the release of explosive gases or vapors. Welding in a confined space is a major cause of explosions in areas that contain combustible gas. Chemical reactions forming flammable atmospheres occur when surfaces are initially exposed to the atmosphere, or when chemicals combine to form flammable gases. This condition arises when dilute sulfuric acid reacts with iron to form hydrogen or when calcium carbide makes contact with water to form acetylene. Other examples of spontaneous chemical reactions that may produce explosions from small amounts of unstable compounds are acetylene-metal compounds, peroxides, and nitrates. In a dry state, these compounds have the potential to explode upon percussion or exposure to increased temperature. Another class of chemical reactions that form flammable atmospheres arises from deposits of pyrophoric substances (carbon, ferrous oxide, ferrous sulfate, iron, etc.) that can be found in tanks used by the chemical and petroleum industry. These tanks containing flammable deposits will spontaneously ignite upon exposure to air.

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Combustible dust concentrations are usually found during the process of loading, unloading, and conveying grain products, nitrated fertilizers, finely ground chemical products, and any other combustible material. High charges of static electricity, which rapidly accumulate during periods of relatively low humidity (below 50%), can cause certain substances to accumulate electrostatic charges of sufficient energy to produce sparks and ignite a flammable atmosphere. These sparks may also cause explosions when the right air or oxygen to dust or gas mixture is present. 7.2.2 Toxic Atmospheres The substances to be regarded as toxic in a confined space can cover the entire spectrum of gases, vapors, and finely-divided airborne dust in industry. The sources of toxic atmospheres encountered may arise from the following: 1. The manufacturing process (for example, in producing polyvinyl chloride, hydrogen chloride is used as will as vinyl chloride monomer, which is carcinogenic).

2. The product stored [removing decomposed organic material from a tank can liberate toxic substances, such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S)]. 3. The operation performed in the confined space (for example, welding or brazing with metals capable of producing toxic fumes). During loading, unloading, formulation, and production, mechanical and/or human error may also produce toxic gases that are not part of the planned operation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a hazardous gas that may build up in a confined space. This odorless, colorless gas that has approximately the same density as air is formed from incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood, coal, gas, oil, and gasoline; it can be formed from microbial decomposition of organic matter in sewers, silos, and fermentation tanks. Carbon monoxide is an insidious toxic gas because of its poor warning properties. Early stages

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of CO intoxication are nausea and headache. Carbon monoxide may be fatal at 1000 ppm in air, and is considered dangerous at 200 ppm, because it forms carboxyhemoglobin in the blood that prevents the distribution of oxygen in the body. Carbon monoxide is a relatively abundant colorless, odorless gas, therefore, any untested atmosphere must be suspect. It must also be noted that a safe reading on a combustible gas indicator does not ensure that CO is not present. Carbon monoxide must be tested for specifically. The formation of CO may result from chemical reactions or work activities, therefore fatalities due to CO poisoning are not confined to any particular industry. There have been fatal accidents in sewage treatment plants due to decomposition products and lack of ventilation in confined spaces. Another area where CO results as a product of decomposition is in the formation of silo gas in grain storage elevators. In the paint industry, varnish is manufactured by introducing the various ingredients into a kettle, and heating them in an inert atmosphere, usually town gas, which is a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. In welding operations, oxides of nitrogen and ozone are gases of major toxicologic importance, and incomplete oxidation may occur and carbon monoxide can form as a byproduct. Another poor work practice, which has led to fatalities, is the recirculation of diesel exhaust emissions. Increased CO levels can be prevented by strict control of the ventilation and the use of catalytic convertors. 7.2.3 Irritant (Corrosive) Atmospheres Irritant or corrosive atmospheres can be divided into primary and secondary groups. The primary irritants exert no systemic toxic effects (effects on the entire body). Examples of primary irritants are chlorine, ozone, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide. A secondary irritant is one that may produce systemic toxic effects in addition to surface irritation. Examples of secondary irritants include benzene, carbon tetrachloride, ethyl chloride, trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and chloropropene.

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Irritant gases vary widely among all areas of industrial activity. They can be found in plastics plants, chemical plants, the petroleum industry, tanneries, refrigeration industries, paint manufacturing, and mining operations. Prolonged exposure at irritant or corrosive concentrations in a confined space may produce little or no evidence of irritation. This may result in a general weakening of the defense reflexes from changes in sensitivity. The danger in this situation is that the worker is usually not aware of any increase in his/her exposure to toxic substances.

Atmospheres 7.2.4 Asphyxiating Atmospheres The normal atmosphere is composed approximately of 20.9% oxygen and 78.1% nitrogen, and 1% argon with small amounts of various other gases. Reduction of oxygen in a confined space may be the result of either consumption or displacement. The consumption of oxygen takes place during combustion of flammable substances, as in welding, heating, cutting, and brazing. A more subtle consumption of oxygen occurs during bacterial action, as in the fermentation process. Oxygen may also be consumed during chemical reactions as in the formation of rust on the exposed surface of the confined space (iron oxide). The number of people working in a confined space and the amount of their physical activity will also influence the oxygen consumption rate. A second factor in oxygen deficiency is displacement by another gas. Examples of gases that are used to displace air, and therefore reduce the oxygen level are helium, argon, and nitrogen. Carbon dioxide may also be used to displace air and can occur naturally in sewers, storage bins, wells, tunnels, wine vats, and grain elevators. Aside from the natural development of these gases, or their use in the chemical process, certain gases are also used as inerting agents to displace flammable substances and retard pyrophoric reactions. Gases such as nitrogen, argon, helium, and carbon dioxide, are frequently referred to as non-toxic inert gases but have claimed many lives. The use of nitrogen to inert a confined space has claimed more lives than carbon dioxide. The total displacement of oxygen by nitrogen will cause immediate collapse and death. Carbon dioxide and argon, with specific gravities greater than air, may lie in a tank or manhole for hours or days after opening. Since these gases are colorless and odorless, they pose an immediate hazard to health unless appropriate oxygen measurements and ventilation are adequately carried out.

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Oxygen deprivation is one form of asphyxiation. While it is desirable to maintain the atmospheric oxygen level at 21% by volume, the body can tolerate deviation from this ideal. When the oxygen level falls to 17%, the first sign of hypoxia is a deterioration of night vision which is not noticeable until a normal oxygen concentration is restored. Physiologic effects are increased breathing volume and accelerated heartbeat. Between 14-16% physiologic effects are increased breathing volume, accelerated heartbeat, very poor muscular coordination, rapid fatigue, and intermittent respiration. Between 6-10% the effects are nausea, vomiting, inability to perform, and unconsciousness. Less than 6%, spasmatic breathing, convulsive movements, and then death will occur within minutes.

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7.3 GENERAL SAFETY HAZARDS 7.3 Mechanical If activation of electrical or mechanical equipment would cause injury, each piece of equipment should be manually isolated to prevent inadvertent activation before workers enter or while they work in a confined space. The interplay of hazards associated with a confined space, such as the potential of flammable vapors or gases being present, and the build-up of static charge due to mechanical cleaning, such as abrasive blasting, all influence the precautions that must be taken. To prevent vapor leaks, flashbacks, and other hazards, workers should completely isolate the space. To completely isolate a confined space, the closing of valves is not sufficient. All pipes must be physically disconnected or isolation blanks bolted in place. Other special precautions must be taken in cases where flammable liquids or vapors may re-contaminate the confined space. The pipes blanked or disconnected should be inspected and tested for leakage to check the effectiveness of the procedure. Other areas of concern are steam valves, pressure lines, and chemical transfer pipes. A less apparent hazard is the space referred to as a void, such as double walled vessels, which must be given special consideration in blanking off and inerting. 7.3.1 Communication Problems Communication between the worker inside and the standby person outside is of utmost importance. If the worker should suddenly feel distressed and not be able to summon help, an injury could become a fatality. Frequently, the body positions that are assumed in a confined space make it difficult for the standby person to detect an unconscious worker. When visual monitoring of the worker is not possible because of the design of the confined space or location of the entry hatch, a voice or alarm-activated explosion proof type of communication system will be necessary. Suitable illumination of an approved type is required to provide sufficient visibility for work in accordance with the recommendations made in the Illuminating Engineering Society Lighting Handbook.

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7.3.2 Entry and Exit Entry and exit time is of major significance as a physical limitation and is directly related to the potential hazard of the confined space. The extent of precautions taken and the standby equipment needed to maintain a safe work area will be determined by the means of access and rescue. The following should be considered: type of confined space to be entered, access to the entrance, number and size of openings, barriers within the space, the occupancy load, and the time requirement for exiting in event of fire or vapor incursion, and the time required to rescue injured workers. 7.3.3 Physical The hazards described in this section include thermal effects (heat and cold), noise, vibration, radiation, and fatigue while working in a confined space.

7.3.3.1 Thermal Effects Four factors influence the interchange of heat between people and their environment. 1. 2. 3. 4. air temperature air velocity moisture contained in the air radiant heat

Because of the nature and design of most confined spaces, moisture content and radiant heat are difficult to control. As the body temperature rises progressively, workers will continue to function until the body temperature reaches approximately 102oF. When this body temperature is exceeded, the workers are less efficient, and are prone to heat exhaustion, heat cramps, or heat stroke. In a cold environment, certain physiologic mechanisms come into play, which tend to limit heat loss and increase heat production. The most severe strain in cold conditions is chilling of the extremities so that activity is restricted. Special precautions must be taken in cold environments to prevent frostbite, trench foot, and general hypothermia.

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Protective insulated clothing for both hot and cold environments will add additional bulk to the worker and must be considered in allowing for movement in the confined space and exit time. Therefore, air temperature of the environment becomes an important consideration when evaluating working conditions in confined spaces. 7.3.3.2 Noise Noise problems are usually intensified in confined spaces because the interior tends to cause sound to reverberate and thus expose the worker to higher sound levels than those found in an open environment. This intensified noise increases the risk of hearing damage to workers that could result in temporary or permanent loss of hearing. Noise in a confined space that may not be intense enough to cause hearing damage may still disrupt verbal communication with the emergency standby person on the exterior of the confined space. If the workers inside are not able to hear commands or danger signals due to excessive noise, the probability of severe accidents can increase. 7.3.3.3 Vibration Whole body vibration may affect multiple body parts and organs depending upon the vibration characteristics. Segmental vibration, unlike whole body vibration, appears to be more localized in creating injury to the fingers and hands of workers using tools, such as pneumatic hammers, rotary grinders or other hand tools which cause vibration. 7.3.3.4 General/Physical Some physical hazards cannot be eliminated because of the nature of the confined space or the work to be performed. These hazards include such items as scaffolding, surface residues, and structural hazards. The use of scaffolding in confined spaces has contributed to many accidents caused by workers or materials falling, improper use of guard rails, and lack of maintenance to insure worker safety. The choice of material used for scaffolding depends upon the type of work to be performed, the calculated weight to be supported, the surface on which the scaffolding is placed, and the substance previously stored in the confined space.

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Surface residues in confined spaces can increase the already hazardous conditions of electrical shock, reaction of incompatible materials, liberation of toxic substances, and bodily injury due to slips and falls. Without protective clothing, additional hazards to health may arise due to surface residues. Structural hazards within a confined space such as baffles in horizontal tanks, trays in vertical towers, bends in tunnels, overhead structural members, or scaffolding installed for maintenance constitute physical hazards, which are exacerbated by the physical surroundings. In dealing with structural hazards, workers must review and enforce safety precautions to assure safety. Rescue procedures may require withdrawal of an injured or unconscious person. Careful planning must be given to the relationship between the internal structure, the exit opening, and the worker. If the worker is above the opening, the system must include a rescue arrangement operated from outside the confined space, if possible, by which the employee can be lowered and removed without injury.

PERMIT7.4 PERMIT-REQUIRED CONFINED SPACES - 1910.146 7.4.1 INTRODUCTION Many workplaces contain spaces that are considered to be "confined" because their configurations hinder the activities of any employees who must enter into, work in, and exit from them. In many instances, employees who work in confined spaces also face increased risk of exposure to serious physical injury from hazards such as entrapment, engulfment, and hazardous atmospheric conditions. Confinement itself may pose entrapment hazards, and work in confined spaces may keep employees closer to hazards, such as an asphyxiating atmosphere, than they would be otherwise. For example, confinement, limited access, and restricted airflow can result in hazardous conditions that would not arise in an open workplace. The term "permit-required confined space" (i.e., permit space) refers to those spaces that meet the definition of a "confined space" and pose health or safety hazards, thereby requiring a permit for entry.

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A confined space has limited or restricted means of entry or exit, is large enough for an employee to enter and perform assigned work, and is not designed for continuous occupancy by the employee. These spaces may include, but are not limited to, underground vaults, tanks, storage bins, pits and diked areas, vessels, and silos. A permit-required confined space is one that meets the definition of a confined space and permithas one or more of these characteristics: 1. 2. 3. Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere, Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant, Has an internal configuration that might cause an entrant to be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor that slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section, and/or 4. Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazards.

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7.4.2 REQUIREMENTS OF THE STANDARD 7.4.2.1 General

In general, employers must evaluate the workplace to determine if spaces are permitrequired confined spaces. (See flow chart section 7.4.2.6 Emergencies). If there are permit spaces in the workplace, the employer must inform exposed employees of the existence, location, and danger posed by the spaces. This can be accomplished by posting danger signs or by another equally effective means. The following language would satisfy the requirements for such a sign:

DANGER

PERMIT REQUIRED-CONFINED SPACE AUTHORIZED ENTRANTS ONLY

If employees are not to enter and work in permit spaces, employers must take effective measures to prevent their employees from entering the permit spaces. If employees are to enter permit spaces, the employer must develop a written permit space program, which shall be made available to employees or their representatives. Under certain conditions, the employer may use alternate procedures for worker entry into a permit space. For example, if employers can demonstrate with monitoring and inspection data that the only hazard is an actual or potential hazardous atmosphere, which can be made safe for entry by the use of continuous forced air ventilation alone, they may be exempted from some requirements, such as permits and attendants. Even in such circumstances, however, the internal atmosphere of the space must be tested first for oxygen content, second for flammable gases and vapors, and third for potential toxic air contaminants before any employee enters. 7.4.2.2 Written Program The employer who allows employee entry must develop and implement a written program for permit-required confined spaces.

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Among other things, the OSHA standard requires the employer's program to:

· ·

Identify and evaluate permit space hazards before allowing employee entry Test conditions in the permit space before entry operations and monitor the space during entry

·

Perform in the following sequence, appropriate testing for atmospheric hazards: oxygen, combustible gases or vapors, and toxic gases or vapors

· ·

Implement necessary measures to prevent unauthorized entry Establish and implement the means, procedures and practices --such as specifying acceptable entry conditions, isolating the permit space, providing barriers, verifying acceptable entry conditions, purging, making inert, flushing, or ventilation of the permit space--to eliminate or control hazards necessary for safe permit-space entry operations

· ·

Identify employee job duties Provide, maintain, and require, at no cost to the employee, the use of personal protective equipment and any other equipment necessary for safe entry (e.g., testing, monitoring, ventilating, communications, and lighting equipment; barriers, shields, and ladders)

·

Ensure that at least one attendant is stationed outside the permit space for the duration of entry operations

·

Coordinate entry operations when employees of more than one employer are to be working in the permit space

· ·

Implement appropriate procedures for summoning rescue and emergency services Establish, in writing, and implement a system for the preparation, issuance, use, and cancellation of entry permits

·

Review established entry operations and annually revise the permit-space entry program

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·

When an attendant is required to monitor multiple spaces, implement the procedures to be followed during an emergency in one or more of the permit spaces being monitored

If hazardous conditions are detected during entry, employees must immediately leave the space, and the employer must evaluate the space to determine the cause of the hazardous atmospheres. When entry to permit spaces is prohibited, the employer must take effective measures to prevent unauthorized entry. Non-permit confined spaces must be reevaluated when there are changes in their use or configuration and, where appropriate, must be reclassified. If testing and inspection data prove that a permit-required confined space no longer poses hazards, that space may be reclassified as a non-permit confined space. If entry is required to eliminate hazards and to obtain the data, the employer must follow procedures as set forth under sections (d) through (k) of the standard. A certificate documenting the data must be made available to employees entering the space. The certificate must include the date, location of the space, and the signature of the person making the certification. Contractors also must be informed of permit spaces and permit space entry requirements, any identified hazards, the employer's experience with the space (i.e., the knowledge of hazardous conditions), and precautions or procedures to be followed when in or near permit spaces. When employees of more than one employer are conducting entry operations, the affected employers must coordinate entry operations to ensure that affected employees are appropriately protected from permit space hazards. Contractors also must be given and other pertinent information regarding hazards and operations in permit spaces and be debriefed at the conclusion of entry operations. 7.4.2.3 Permit System A permit, signed by the entry supervisor and verifying that pre-entry preparations have been completed and that the space is safe to enter, must be posted at entrances or otherwise made available to entrants before they enter a permit space. The duration of entry permits must not exceed the time required to complete an assignment. Also, the entry supervisor must terminate entry and cancel permits when an

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assignment has been completed or when new conditions exist. New conditions must be noted on the canceled permit and used in revising the permit space program. The standard also requires the employer to keep all canceled entry permits for at least 1 year. 7.4.2.4 Entry Permits Entry permits must include the following information:

· · · ·

Test results Tester's initials or signature Name and signature of supervisor who authorizes entry Name of permit space to be entered, authorized entrant(s), eligible attendants, and individual(s) authorized to be entry supervisor(s)

· ·

Purpose of entry and known space hazards Measures to be taken to isolate permit spaces and to eliminate or control space hazards, i.e., locking out or tagging of equipment and procedures for purging, making inert, ventilating and flushing permit spaces

· · · · ·

Name and telephone numbers of rescue and emergency services Date and authorized duration of entry Acceptable entry conditions Communication procedures and equipment to maintain contact during entry Additional permits(s), such as for hot work, that have been issued to authorize work in the permit space

·

Special equipment and procedures, including personal protective equipment and alarm systems

·

Any other information needed to ensure employee safety

7.4.2.5 Training and Education

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Before initial work assignment begins, the employer must provide proper training for all workers who are required to work in permit spaces. Upon completing this training, employers must ensure that employees have acquired the understanding, knowledge, and skills necessary for the safe performance of their duties. Additional training is required when: (1) the job duties change (2) there is a change in the permit-space program or the permit space operation presents a new hazard (3) when an employee's job performance shows deficiencies. Training also is required for rescue team members, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and firstaid training (see Emergencies). Employers must certify that training has been accomplished Upon completion of training, employees must receive a certificate of training that includes the employee's name, signature or initials of trainer(s), and dates of training. The certification must be made available for inspection by employees and their authorized representatives. In addition, the employer also must ensure that employees are trained in their assigned duties. 7.4.2.5.1 Authorized Entrant's Duties

·

Know space hazards, including information on the mode of exposure (e.g., inhalation or dermal absorption), signs or symptoms, and consequences of the exposure

·

Use appropriate personal protective equipment properly (e.g., face and eye protection, and other forms of barrier protection such as gloves, aprons, and coveralls)

·

As necessary, maintain communication (i.e., telephone, radio, visual observation) with attendants to enable the attendant to monitor the entrant's status as well as to alert the entrant to evacuate

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·

Exit from permit space as soon as possible when ordered by an authorized person, when the entrant recognizes the warning signs or symptoms of exposure exist, when a prohibited condition exists, or when an automatic alarm is activated

·

Alert the attendant when a prohibited condition exists or when warning signs or symptoms of exposure exist

7.4.2.5.2 Attendant's Duties

·

Remain outside permit space during entry operations unless relieved by another authorized attendant

· ·

Perform no-entry rescues when specified by employer's rescue procedure Know existing and potential hazards, including information on the mode of exposure, signs or symptoms, consequences of the exposure, and their physiological effects

·

Maintain communication with and keep an accurate account of those workers entering the permit-required space

·

Order evacuation of the permit space when a prohibited condition exists, when a worker shows signs of physiological effects of hazardous exposure, when an emergency outside the confined space exists, and when the attendant cannot effectively and safely perform required duties

· ·

Summon rescue and other services during an emergency Ensure that unauthorized persons stay away from permit spaces or exit immediately if they have entered the permit space

· ·

Inform authorized entrant's and entry supervisor of entry by unauthorized persons Perform no other duties that interfere with the attendant's primary duties

7.4.2.5.3 Entry Supervisor's Duties

·

Know space hazards including information on the mode of exposure, signs, or symptoms and consequences of exposure

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·

Verify emergency plans and specified entry conditions such as permits, tests, procedures, and equipment before allowing entry

·

Terminate entry and cancel permits when entry operations are completed or if a new condition exists

· ·

Take appropriate measures to remove unauthorized entrants Ensure that entry operations remain consistent with the entry permit and that acceptable entry conditions are maintained

7.4.2.6 Emergencies The standard requires the employer to ensure that rescue service personnel are provided with and trained in the proper use of personal protective and rescue equipment, including respirators; trained to perform assigned rescue duties; and have had authorized entrant's training. The standard also requires that all rescuers be trained in first aid and CPR and, at a minimum, one rescue team member be currently certified in first aid and in CPR. The employer also must ensure that practice rescue exercises are performed yearly, and that rescue services are provided access to permit spaces so that they can practice rescue operations. Rescuers also must be informed of the hazards of the permit space. Also, when appropriate, authorized entrants who enter a permit space must wear a chest or full body harness with a retrieval line attached to the center of their backs near shoulder level, or above their heads. Wristlets may be used if the employer can demonstrate that the use of a chest or full body harness is infeasible or creates a greater hazard. Also, the employer must ensure that the other end of the retrieval line is attached to a mechanical device or to a fixed point outside the permit space. A mechanical device must be available to In addition, if an injured entrant is exposed to a substance for which a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) or other similar written information is required to be kept at the worksite, that

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retrieve personnel from vertical type permit spaces more than 5 feet deep.

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MSDS or other written information must be made available to the medical facility treating the exposed entrant.

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training 7.1.1 CONFINED-SPACE-ENTRY SAFETY WORK PERMIT EXAMPLE

1. General Information (a) Identify permit space to be entered__________________________________ (b) Purpose of entry____________________________________________________ (c) Time of authorized entry. ________ am/pm (d) Authorized duration: Start Time ______am/pm (e) Entrants' names and employee numbers: ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ End Time____ am/pm

(f) Work Location: ________________________________________________________ (g) Equipment to be worked on: ____________________________________________ (h) Description of job: __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ (i) Hazards of the permit space: __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 2. Measures Used To Isolate the Permit Space: (a) Are electrical sources secured per Lockout/Tagout Chapter? _____ (b) Mechanical lockout/blockout _____ (c) Blanking/disconnect _____ 3. Acceptable Entry Conditions: (a) Acceptable oxygen content is between 19.5 and 23.5 percent. Make and model of oxygen tester ______________________________ Calibration Date_________________ Measured oxygen content ______ percent.

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Person performing test________________________________________________ (b) Acceptable flammable gas, vapor, and dust concentrations are less than 10 percent LEL/LFL. Make and model of flammability tester: _______________________________ Calibration Date___________ Measured flammability ______ percent of LEL/LFL. Person performing test______________________________________________ (c) Acceptable toxicity levels are those listed in the approved entry procedure. Make and model of toxicity testers:_________________________________ Calibration Date___________ Person performing test______________________________________________ (d) Ventilation: Powered fresh air ventilation is functioning properly ____

Confined-SpaceConfined-Space-Entry Safety Work Permit Example (continued)

(e) Temperature: There is safe working temperature in the confined space: ____ (f) Exhaust air is directed away from work areas ____ (g) Hot Work Permit is required for open flame torches, electric heater, arc, or flame welders, flame, or spark-producing devices. 4. Power Tool Use (a) Are portable electric tools double insulated or GFCI protected? ______ (b) Are electrical power cords routed so that personnel working in the confined space will not trip over them? ______ 209

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5. Personal Protective Equipment Are the following items below used as required by entry procedure? Air-purifying respirator _____ Head/eye protection _____ Protective clothing _____ Portable shower/eyewash _____ Continuous personal monitor _____ 6. Rescue (Call 911) (a) Name of safety attendant ___________________________________________ (c) Means of communication with emergency rescue services: Phone _____ Radio _____ Radio _____ Air-supplied respirator _____ Hand/foot protection _____ Hearing protection _____ Harness/rope _____ Rescue equipment _____

(d) Means of communication with entrant(s): Voice ____ (e) Continuous visual contact with entrants _____ 7. Special Restrictions / Instructions

__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 8. Approvals Signatures below indicate that all entrants and safety attendants have current training, physical examinations, and that all requirements of this permit are fulfilled. __________________________________ Supervisor/Lead Man

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________________________________ Safety Attendant

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CONFINED SPACES CHECKLIST

Are confined spaces thoroughly emptied of any corrosive or hazardous substances, such as acids or caustics, before entry? Are all lines to a confined space, containing inert, toxic, flammable, or corrosive materials valved off and blanked or disconnected and separated before entry? Are all impellers, agitators, or other moving parts and equipment inside confined spaces lockedout if they present a hazard? Is either natural or mechanical ventilation provided prior to confined space entry? Are appropriate atmospheric tests performed to check for oxygen deficiency, toxic substances and explosive concentrations in the confined space before entry? Is adequate illumination provided for the work to be performed in the confined space? Is the atmosphere inside the confined space frequently tested or continuously monitored during conduct of work? Is there an assigned safety standby employee outside of the confined space. when required, whose sole responsibility is to watch the work in progress, sound an alarm if necessary, and render assistance? Is the standby employee appropriately trained and equipped to handle an emergency? Is the standby employee or other employees prohibited from entering the confined space without lifelines and respiratory equipment if there is any question as to the cause of an emergency? Is approved respiratory equipment required if the atmosphere inside the confined space cannot be made acceptable Is all portable electrical equipment used inside confined spaces either grounded and insulated, or equipped with ground fault protection? Before gas welding or burning is started in a confined space, are hoses checked for leaks, compressed gas bottles forbidden inside of the confined space, torches lighted only outside of the confined area and the confined area tested for an explosive atmosphere each time before a lighted torch is to be taken into the confined space? If employees will be using oxygen-consuming equipment-such as salamanders, torches, and furnaces, in a confined space-is sufficient air provided to assure combustion without reducing the oxygen concentration of the atmosphere below 19.5 percent by volume? Whenever combustion-type equipment is used in a confined space, are provisions made to ensure the exhaust gases are vented outside of the enclosure? Is each confined space checked for decaying vegetation or animal matter which may produce methane? Is the confined space checked for possible industrial waste which could contain toxic properties? If the confined space is below the ground and near areas where motor vehicles will be 211

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operating, is it possible for vehicle exhaust or carbon monoxide to enter the space?

1. Give four examples of confined spaces. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

2. What are the four distinct categories of hazardous atmospheres. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

3. Entry Permits must include the following information: (List 6 of the 13) _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

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(Answers found in Appendix B)

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1. Go through Section 8 ­ Incident Management Structure. 2. Watch the Video S.T.E.P. SAFETY TRAINING AND TRAINING

Day 3 (A.M.)

PREPAREDNESS. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS. 3. Go through Section 9 ­ Survey the Incident Section 9.19.5. 4. Watch the Video NFPA HAZARDOUS MATERIALS LABELING ID 5. Go through Section 9 ­ Survey the Incident Section 9.6 ­ 9.12.

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8 INCIDENT MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE

8.1 OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this module, you should be able to do the following: · List the five major organizational activities within the Incident Command System and explain their primary functions. · · Give the titles, and explain the duties of Command and General Staff members. Match organizational units to appropriate Operations, Planning, Logistics, or Finance Sections. · · Match supervisory titles with appropriate levels within the organization. Describe the terms used to name major incident facilities, and state the function of each. · · Describe what an Incident Action Plan is and how it is used at an incident. Describe how span of control functions within the incident organization and in the use of resources. · Describe the common responsibilities (general instructions) associated with incident or event assignments. · Describe several applications for the use of ICS.

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Although many systems exist throughout the nation for the command and control of resources at an emergency, the Incident Command System (ICS) is a recognized system that has been successfully used in managing available resources at emergency operations. The system consists of procedures for controlling personnel, facilities, equipment, and communications. It is designed to begin developing from the time an incident occurs until the requirement for management and operations no longer exists. The "Incident Commander" is a title that can apply equally to an Engine Company Captain or the Chief Operating Officer of a major Company, depending upon the situation. The structure of the ICS can be established and expanded depending upon the changing conditions of the incident. It is intended to be staffed and operated by qualified personnel from any emergency services agency and may involve personnel from a variety of agencies. As such, the system can be utilized for any type or size of emergency, ranging from a minor incident involving a single unit, to a major emergency involving several agencies. The ICS allows agencies to communicate using common terminology and operating procedures. It also allows for the timely combining of resources during an emergency. The ICS is designed to be used in response to emergencies caused by fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, riots, hazardous materials, or other natural or human-caused incidents. The system has considerable internal flexibility. It can grow or shrink to meet differing needs. This makes it a very cost-effective and efficient management system. The system can be applied to a wide variety of emergency and nonemergency situations. Listed below are some examples of the kinds of events that can use the ICS: Applications for the use of the ICS: · · · · Fires, Hazmat, and multicasualty incidents Multijurisdiction and multiagency disasters Wide-area search and rescue missions Pest eradication programs

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· · · · · · Oil-spill response and recovery incidents Single and multiagency law enforcement incidents Air, rail, water, or ground transportation accidents Planned events; e.g., celebrations, parades, concerts Private sector emergency management programs State or local major natural hazards management

8.2 ICS ORGANIZATION

Every incident or event has certain major management activities or actions that must be performed. Even if the event is very small, and only one or two people are involved, these activities will still always apply to some degree. COMMAND SETS OBJECTIVES AND PRIORITIES, HAS OVERALL RESPONSIBILITY AT THE INCIDENT OR EVENT OPERATIONS CONDUCTS TACTICAL OPERATIONS TO CARRY OUT THE PLAN, DEVELOPS THE TACTICAL OBJECTIVES, ORGANIZES AND DIRECTS ALL RESOURCES PLANNING DEVELOPS THE ACTION PLAN TO ACCOMPLISH THE OBJECTIVES, COLLECTS AND EVALUATES INFORMATION, AND MAINTAINS RESOURCE STATUS LOGISTICS

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PROVIDES SUPPORT TO MEET INCIDENT NEEDS, PROVIDES RESOURCES AND ALL OTHER SERVICES NEEDED TO SUPPORT THE INCIDENT FINANCE/ADMINISTRATION MONITORS COSTS RELATED TO INCIDENT, PROVIDES ACCOUNTING, PROCUREMENT, TIME RECORDING, AND COST ANALYSIS These five major management activities are the foundation upon which the ICS organization develops. They apply whether you are handling a routine emergency, organizing for a major event, or managing a major response to a disaster. On small incidents, these major activities may all be managed by one person, the Incident Commander (IC). Large incidents usually require that they be set up as separate Sections within the organization as shown below. Incident Command Operations Section Planning Section Logistics Section Finance/ Administration Section Each of the primary ICS Sections may be subdivided as needed. The ICS organization has the capability to expand or to contract in order to meet the needs of the incident. A basic ICS operating guideline is that the person at the top of the organization is responsible until the authority is delegated to another person. Thus, on smaller situations where additional persons are not required, the IC will directly manage all aspects of the incident organization. Now we will look at each of the major functional entities of the ICS organization starting with the IC and the Command Staff.

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8.3 INCIDENT COMMANDER

The IC is the person in charge at the incident, and must be fully qualified to manage the incident. As incidents grow in size or become more complex, a more highly qualified IC may be assigned by the responsible jurisdiction or agency. The IC may have one or more deputies from the same agency or from other agencies or jurisdictions. Deputies must always be as qualified as the person for whom they work. The IC may assign personnel for both a Command Staff and a General Staff. The Command Staff provides Information, Safety, and Liaison services for the entire organization. The General Staff are assigned major functional authority for Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance/Administration. Initially, assigning tactical resources and overseeing operations will be under the direct supervision of the IC. As incidents grow, the IC may delegate authority for performance of certain activities to others as required. Taking over command at an incident always requires that there be a full briefing for the incoming IC and notification that a change in command is taking place.

8.4 COMMAND STAFF

In addition to the primary incident response activities of Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance/Administration, the IC has responsibility for several other important services. Depending on the size and type of an incident or event, it may be necessary to designate personnel to handle these additional activities. Persons filling these positions are designated as the Command Staff and are called Officers. There is only one Command Staff position for each of these functions. The Command Staff does not have deputies. However, each of these positions may have one or more assistants if necessary. On large incidents or events, it is not uncommon to see several assistants working under Command Staff Officers.

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Incident Command Information Safety Liaison Operations Section Planning Section Logistics Section Finance/ Administration Section

Officer-- Information Officer--The Information Officer will be the point of contact for the media, or other organizations seeking information directly from the incident or event. Although several agencies may assign personnel to an incident or event as Information Officers, there will only be one Incident Information Officer. Others will serve as assistants. Officer-- Safety Officer--This individual monitors safety conditions and develops measures for assuring the safety of all assigned personnel. A Safety Officer must be assigned at all Hazardous Materials incidents Officer-- Liaison Officer--On larger incidents or events, representatives from other agencies (usually called Agency Representatives) may be assigned to the incident to coordinate their agency's involvement. The Liaison Officer will be their primary contact.

8.5 THE GENERAL STAFF

The people who perform the four major activities of Operations, Logistics, Planning, and Finance/Administration are designated as the General Staff. THE INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM GENERAL STAFF Operations Section Chief

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Planning Section Chief Logistics Section Chief Finance/Administration Section Chief Each of the General Staff may have a deputy or more than one if necessary. The role of the deputy position is flexible. The deputy can work with the primary position, work in a relief capacity, or be assigned specific tasks. Deputies should always be as qualified as the person for whom they work. In large events, especially where multiple agencies or jurisdictions are involved, the use of deputies from other agencies can greatly increase interagency coordination. At the Section level, the person in charge will be designated as a Chief. For example, in the Logistics Section, the person in charge will always be called the Logistics Section Chief. Within the ICS organization, there are a number of organizational elements that can be activated as necessary. Each of the major Sections has the ability to expand internally to meet the needs of the situation. Let's start with the Operations Section of the ICS organization. The IC will determine the need for a separate Operations Section at an incident or event. Until Operations is established as a separate Section, the IC will have direct control of tactical resources. When activating an Operations Section, the IC will assign an individual as the Operations Section Chief. The Operations Section Chief will develop and manage the Operations Section to accomplish the incident objectives. There is only one Operations Section Chief for each operational period. That person is normally (but not always) from the jurisdiction or agency that has the greatest involvement either in terms of resources assigned or area of concern. The Operations Section Chief may have deputies from the same agency or from other agencies or jurisdictions. Using deputies from other agencies or jurisdictions often helps in the coordination of actions.

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Within the Operations Section, two additional levels of organization can be used as necessary. These are Divisions and/or Groups and Branches.

8.6 DIVISIONS

The Operations organization usually develops from the bottom up. This is because of the need to expand supervision as more and more resources are applied. For example, the IC or the Operations Section Chief on an incident may initially work with only a few single resources. Operations Section Chief

Resources

Resources

Resources

As more resources are added to the incident, another layer of organization may be needed within the Operations Section to maintain proper span of control. Normally, this will be done at the Division or Group level. Operations Section Chief Division A Division B

Resources

Resources

The goal is to keep the organization as simple and as streamlined as possible, and not to overextend the span of control. A Division is established to divide an incident geographically. How that will be done will be determined by the needs of the incident. Divisions covering an area on the ground are usually labeled by letters of the alphabet. Within a building, divisions are often designated by floor numbers. The important thing to remember about ICS divisions is that they describe some geographical area related to incident operations.

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8.7 GROUPS

Groups are established to describe functional areas of operation. The kind of group to be established will be determined by the needs of an incident. For example, in an earthquake incident with widespread structural damage, search and rescue activity would be organized geographically, using divisions. A specialized resource team using dogs or electronic equipment in an earthquake, or a salvage group in a maritime incident, may be designated as functional groups. Groups will work wherever they are needed, and will not be assigned to any single division. Divisions and Groups can be used together on an incident. Divisions and Groups are at an equal level in the organization. One does not supervise the other. When a functional group is working within a division on a special assignment, division and group supervisors must closely coordinate their activities. Division and group supervisors always report to the IC unless the Operations Section Chief and/or Branch Director positions have been established. Deputies are not used at the Division and Group level.

8.8 BRANCHES

On some incidents, it may be necessary to establish another level of organization within the Operations Section called Branches. There are generally three reasons to use Branches on an incident or an event. Control-- Span of Control--If the number of divisions and groups exceeds the recommended span of control, another level of management is necessary. Span of control will be discussed in more detail later in this module. Structure-- Need for a Functional Branch Structure--Some kinds of incidents have multiple disciplines involved, e.g., police, fire, search and rescue, and medical, that may create the need to set up incident operations around a functional branch structure. Multijurisdictional Incidents-- Multijurisdictional Incidents--In some incidents it may be better to organize the incident around jurisdictional lines. In these situations, Branches may be set up to

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reflect differences in the agencies involved. For example, in flooding, earthquake, or wildfire incidents, federal, county, and city property all could be simultaneously affected. One way of organizing operations in these kinds of incidents is to designate a separate Branch for each of the agencies involved. Various kinds of Branch alignments are shown below: Geographic Branches Operations Section Chief Branch 1 A Division B Division Each branch that is activated will have a Branch Director. Deputies may be used at the Branch level. There are two other parts of the Operations Section that you may need to understand. Branch 2 Functional Branches Operations Section Chief Medical Search Security

8.9 AIR OPERATIONS

If established separately at an incident, Air Operations will be activated at the Branch level within the Operations Section. Usually this is done on incidents that may have complex needs for the use of aircraft in both tactical and logistical operations.

8.10 STAGING AREAS

Staging Areas may be established wherever necessary to temporarily locate resources awaiting assignment. Staging Areas and the resources within them will always be under the control of the Operations Chief. Staging Areas will be discussed later under incident facilities.

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8.11 SUMMARY

There is no one "best" way to organize an incident. The organization should develop to meet the functions required. The characteristics of the incident and the management needs of the IC will determine what organization may change over time to reflect the various phases of the incident. SECTION: PLANNING SECTION Resources Unit Situation Unit Documentation Unit Demobilization Unit Technical Specialist Briefly stated, the major activities of the Planning Section are to: · · Collect, evaluate, and display information about the incident. Develop Incident Action Plans (IAP) for each operational period, conduct long-range planning, and develop plans for demobilization at the end of the incident. · Maintain resource status information on all equipment and personnel assigned to the incident. · Maintain incident documentation.

The Planning Section is also the initial place of check-in for any technical specialist assigned to the incident. Depending on their assignment, Technical Specialists may work within the Planning Section or be reassigned to other incident areas. Several Planning Section Units may be established. Duties of each Unit are covered in other modules. Not all of the Units may be required, and they will be activated on the basis of need.

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LOGISTICS SECTION: Service Branch Communications Unit Medical Unit Food Unit Support Branch Supply Unit Facilities Unit Ground Support Unit

The Logistics Section is responsible for all of the services and support needs of an incident, including obtaining and maintaining essential personnel, facilities, equipment, and supplies. The IC will determine the need to establish a Logistics Section on the incident. This is usually determined by the size of the incident, complexity of support, and how long the incident may last. Once the IC determines that there is a need to establish a separate Logistics function, an individual will be assigned as the Logistics Section Chief. Six functional units can be established within the Logistics Section. If necessary, a two-branch structure can be used to facilitate span of control. The titles of the units are self-descriptive. Detailed duties of each unit are covered in other modules. Not all of the units may be required, and they will be established on the basis of need. FINANCE/ADMINISTRATION SECTION: · · · · Time Unit Procurement Unit Compensation/Claims Unit Cost Unit

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The IC will determine if there is a need for a Finance/Administration Section, and designate an individual to perform that role. If no Finance Section is established, the IC will perform all finance functions. The Finance/Administration Section is set up for any incident that may require on-site financial management. More and more, larger incidents are using a Finance/ Administration Section to monitor costs. Smaller incidents may also require certain Finance/Administration functions. For example, the IC may establish one or more units of the Finance/Administration Section for such things as procuring special equipment, contracting with a vendor, or for making cost estimates of alternative strategies. The Finance Section may establish four units as necessary. Duties of each unit are covered in other modules. Not all of the units may be required, and they will be established based upon need.

8.12 ORGANIZATION TERMINOLOGY

At each level in the ICS organization, individuals with primary responsibility positions have distinctive titles. Primary Position IC Commander Staff Section Branch Division/Group IC Officer Chief Director Supervisor

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Support Position Deputy Assistant Deputy Deputy N/A

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Strike Team/Task Force Unit Single Resource Leader Leader Manager Use Unit Designation N/A N/A

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8.13 INCIDENT FACILITIES

Facilities will be established depending on the kind and complexity of the incident or event. It is important to know and understand the names and functions of the principal ICS facilities. Not all of those listed below will necessarily be used.

INCIDENT FACILITIES Incident Command Post Staging Areas Incident Base H-3 Each of the facilities is briefly described below: (ICP)--The location from which the IC oversees all incident Incident Command Post (ICP) operations. There is only one ICP for each incident or event. Every incident or event must have some form of an Incident Command Post. Areas--Locations at which resources are kept while awaiting incident Staging Areas assignment. Most large incidents will have a Staging Area, and some incidents may have several. Staging Areas will be managed by a Staging Area Manager who reports to the Operations Section Chief or to the IC if an Operations Section has not been established. Base--The location at the incident at which primary service and support activities Base are performed. Not all incidents will have a Base. There will only be one Base for each incident. Camps--Incident locations where resources may be kept to support incident Camps operations. Camps differ from Staging Areas in that essential support operations

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C H

Camps Helibase Helispot

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are done at Camps, and resources at Camps are not always immediately available for use. Not all incidents will have camps. Helibase--A location in and around an incident area at which helicopters may be Helibase parked, maintained, fuelled, and equipped for incident operations. Very large incidents may require more than one Helibase. Helispots--Temporary locations where helicopters can land and load and off-load Helispots personnel, equipment, and supplies. Large incidents may have several Helispots.

8.14 INCIDENT ACTION PLAN (IAP)

Every incident must have an oral or written IAP. The purpose of the plan is to provide all incident supervisory personnel with direction for future actions. IAPs that include the measurable tactical operations to be achieved are always prepared around a time frame called an Operational Period. Operational periods can be of various lengths, but should be no longer than 24 hours. 12-hour Operational Periods are common on many large incidents. It is not unusual, however, to have much shorter Operational Periods covering, for example, 2- or 4-hour time periods. The length of an Operational Period will be on the basis of the needs of the incident, and these can change over the course of the incident. The planning for an Operational Period must be done far enough in advance to ensure that requested resources are available when the Operational Period begins. Large incidents, which involve a partial or full activation of the ICS organization, should have a written IAP. Incidents extending through an Operational Period should also have a written IAP to ensure continuity because of personnel changes. The decision to have a written action plan will be made by the IC. Essential elements in any written or oral IAP are: · Objectives-- Statement of Objectives--Appropriate to the overall incident.

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· Organization-- Organization--Describes what parts of the ICS organization will be in place for each Operational Period. · Objectives-- Assignments to Accomplish the Objectives--These are normally prepared for each Division or Group and include the strategy, tactics, and resources to be used. · Material-- Supporting Material--Examples can include a map of the incident, communications plan, medical plan, traffic plan, etc. The IAP must be made known to all incident supervisory personnel. This can be done through briefings, by distributing a written plan prior to the start of the Operational Period, or by both methods.

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8.15 SPAN OF CONTROL

Span of Control means how many organizational elements may be directly managed by another person. Maintaining adequate Span of Control throughout the ICS organization is very important. Effective Span of Control may vary from three to seven, and a ratio of 1 to 5 reporting elements is recommended. If the number of reporting elements falls outside of those ranges, expansion or consolidation of the organization may be necessary. There will be exceptions; for example, in some applications specially trained hand crews may utilize a larger Span of Control.

Maintain Span of Control at 1 - 5 Supervisor 1 2 3 4 5

8.16 COMMON RESPONSIBILITIES

At this point, the IC should establish zones for the safe operation of Emergency Responders. These zones will not only help to bring order to an often chaotic scene, but will also help prevent personnel from entering contaminated or hazardous areas or from spreading contaminants to other responders. These zones are expandable in size and can be delineated by the use of traffic cones, banner tape, apparatus placement or geographic landmarks. The three zones that need to be established are: Zone--Exclusion Hot Zone Exclusion Zone The area that is potentially hazardous to life and/or health and necessitates the use of appropriate protective clothing and having rescue teams standing by to ensure entry.

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Zone--Contami Contamination Warm Zone Contamination Reduction Zone The intermediary area between the hot zone and a safe area where the decontamination area is set up and rescue teams stand by. Zone--Support Cold Zone Support Zone The safe area directly outside the warm zone where a majority of the Hazard Sector work takes place. This is separated from support activities, including the command post, to reduce confusion and interference during critical entry/decontamination operations. After the three zones have been established, work should be started on setting up a decontamination area. The specifics of this area will depend upon the nature of the material involved, the number of persons potentially exposed and the type of decontamination procedure that will be used. There are certain common responsibilities or instructions associated with an incident assignment that everyone assigned to an incident should follow. Following these simple guidelines will make your job easier and result in a more effective operation. 1. Receive your incident assignment from your organization. This should include, at a minimum, a reporting location and time, likely length of assignment, brief description of assignment, route information, and a designated communications link if necessary. Different agencies may have additional requirements. 2. Bring any specialized supplies or equipment required for your job. Be sure you have adequate personal supplies to last you for the expected stay. 3. Upon arrival, follow the check-in procedure for the incident. Check-in locations may be found at: Incident Command Post (at the Resources Unit) Staging Areas: ­ ­

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Base or Camps Helibases

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­ 4. Division or Group Supervisors (for direct assignments)

Radio communications on an incident should use clear text; that is, no radio codes. Refer to incident facilities by the incident name; for example, Rossmoor Command Post, or 42nd Street Staging Area. Refer to personnel by ICS title; for example, Division C, not numeric code or name.

5.

Obtain a briefing from your immediate supervisor--understand your assignment!

6. 7. 8.

Acquire necessary work materials and locate and set up your workstation. Organize and brief any subordinates assigned to you. Brief your relief at the end of each Operational Period and, as necessary, at the time you are demobilized from the incident.

9.

Complete required forms and reports and give them to your supervisor or to the Documentation Unit before you leave.

10. Demobilize according to plan.

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1. List the five major management activities of an ISC. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

2. Effective Span of Control may vary from _______(number) to _____(number), and a ratio of ______(number) to ______(number) reporting elements is recommended. 3. Match the Following:

Zone--Support Cold Zone Support Zone

The area that is potentially hazardous to life and/or health and necessitates the use of appropriate protective clothing and having rescue teams standing by to ensure entry.

Zone-- Warm Zone Contamination Reduction Zone

The intermediary area between the hot zone and a safe area where the decontamination area is set up and rescue teams stand by.

Zone--Exclusion Hot Zone Exclusion Zone

The safe area directly outside the warm zone where a majority of the Hazard Sector work takes place. This is separated from support activities, including the command post, to reduce confusion and interference during critical entry/decontamination operations.

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(Answers found in Appendix B)

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9 SURVEYING THE INCIDENT

9.1 OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this module, you should be able to do the following: · · Identify the five categories of hazardous materials.

Explain the difference between the physical properties of gases, liquids and solids.

· · ·

Explain the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 704 System. Know how to use the 2000 Emergency Response Guide Book in an emergency. Understand the possible hazards associated with explosives, gases, flammables, flammable solids, oxidizers and organic peroxides, poisons/toxic, etiologic agents, radioactive materials and corrosives.

·

Understand the handling of drums and other containers.

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9.2 DEFINITION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

A hazardous material is a naturally occurring or manmade material that, because of its physical or chemical properties, can cause the deterioration of other materials or can be injurious to living things.

9.3 CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Materials can be hazardous in five ways: 1. Flammable, ignitable, or explosive 2. Corrosive 3. Reactive 4. Toxic or poisonous 5. Radioactive

9.4 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Physical Condition The condition of a material (gas, liquid or solid) strongly influences the potential danger posed by that material. A material that is dangerous in one form may be relatively harmless in another. · Gases, as a general rule, are more hazardous than liquids or solids. ­ ­ ­ Flammable gases ignite easily. Toxic gases can easily enter the body through inhalation. Gases in the environment are more difficult to contain and control than liquids or solids, but they are more easily dispersed. ­

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­ Gases can be heavier or lighter than air, which can present a problem, if atmospheric testing, as in confined spaces, is not properly conducted. · Liquids are more hazardous than solids. ­ Liquids generally have a higher vapor pressure than solids, and flammable liquids ignite easily only when vaporized. ­ ­ Vapors from toxic liquids can be inhaled. Liquids have the greatest potential for skin absorption compared with gases or solids. Toxic liquids can be absorbed by the skin if spilled or splashed. ­ Hot or cold liquids have a greater risk of thermal injury than gases or solids. Liquids can be very hot, such as liquid sulfur (246°F), or very cold, such as liquid nitrogen (-230°F). ­ Liquids can sink, float, or dissolve in water. In the environment, they can be collected, contained, or absorbed if insoluble; they can be dispersed or diluted if soluble. · Solids are generally less hazardous than gases or liquids unless finely divided, such as a powder. ­ ­ ­ Ignitable solids will burn when the ignition temperature is reached. Toxic solids have the most difficulty gaining access to the body. Solids in the environment can be easily collected and contained.

9.5 HAZARDOUS MATERIAL/HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERISTICS

Four particular characteristics are associated with hazardous wastes: ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity. Some wastes may have more than one of these characteristics. Ignitable wastes can catch fire easily. Corrosive wastes can burn

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the eyes on contact or corrode standard containers. Reactive wastes can catch fire, explode, or give off dangerous fumes when exposed to water or air. Toxic wastes are poisonous.

9.6 HAZARD CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS

Hazardous materials are stored and transported in large quantities. Frequently, some are released that present a potential hazard to the public and to the environment. Such an incident can be managed better when the hazardous material is identified. Unfortunately, the contents of storage tanks or drums may not always be properly identified; records or shipping papers may be inaccessible. Even with such information, an experienced person is needed to define the hazards and their seriousness. Because of the immediate need for information concerning a hazardous material, two systems for hazard identification were developed and have become widely used. Both systems help responders to deal with an incident quickly and safely, and were devised for persons untrained in chemistry. The first system is the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 704 M System, which is used mostly on storage tanks and smaller containers. The second system is used exclusively on containers and tanks that are being transported.

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NFPA-- PROTECTION NFPA--NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION NFPA Standard applies to facilities that manufacture, store, or use hazardous materials. The system identifies the "health," "flammability," "reactivity," and "special hazards" of a material. Blue for "health" hazard Red for "flammability" Yellow for "reactivity" White for "special hazard" information

9.6.1 HEALTH HAZARD

Definition: The likelihood of a material to cause, either directly or indirectly, temporary or permanent injury or incapacitation as a result of an acute exposure by contact, inhalation, or ingestion. Degrees of Hazard: The degrees of health hazard must be ranked according to the probable severity of the effects of exposure to personnel as follows:

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4

Materials that, on very short exposure, could cause death or major residual injury, including those that are too dangerous to be approached without specialized protective equipment. This degree usually includes: Materials that, under normal conditions or under fire conditions, are extremely hazardous (i.e., toxic or corrosive) through inhalation or through contact with, or absorption by, the skin. Materials whose lethal dose (LD50) for acute oral toxicity is less than or equal to 5 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Materials whose LD50 for acute dermal toxicity is less than or equal to 40 mg/kg. Dusts and mists whose lethal concentration (LC50) for acute inhalation toxicity is less than or equal to 0.5 milligrams per litre (mg/L). Any liquid whose saturated vapor concentration at 20°C is equal to or greater than ten times its LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity, if its LC50 is less than or equal to 1,000 parts per million (ppm). Gases whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is less than or equal to 1,000 ppm.

3

Materials that, on short exposure, could cause serious temporary or residual injury, including those requiring protection from all bodily contact. This degree usually includes: Materials that give off highly toxic combustion products. Materials whose LD50 for acute oral toxicity is greater than 5 mg/kg, but less than or equal to 50 mg/kg. Materials whose LD50 for acute dermal toxicity is greater than 40 mg/kg, but less than or equal to 200 mg/kg. Dusts and mists whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 0.5 mg/L, but less than or equal to 2 mg/L. Any liquid whose saturated vapor concentration at 20°C is equal to or greater than its LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity, if its LC50 is less than or equal to 3,000 ppm and does not meet the criteria for degree of hazard 4. Gases whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 1,000 ppm, but less than or equal to 3,000 ppm.

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Materials that are either severely corrosive to skin on single, short exposure or cause irreversible eye damage. Materials that, on intense or short exposure, could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury, including those requiring the use of respiratory protective equipment that has an independent air supply. This degree usually includes: Materials that give off toxic or highly irritating combustion products. Materials that, under normal conditions or fire conditions, give off toxic vapors that lack warning properties. Materials whose LD50 for acute oral toxicity is greater than 50 mg/kg, but less than or equal to 500 mg/kg. Materials whose LD50 for acute dermal toxicity is greater than 200 mg/kg, but less than or equal to 1,000 mg/kg. Dusts and mists whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than mg/L, but less than or equal to 10 mg/L. Any liquid whose saturated vapor concentration at 20°C is equal to or greater than one-fifth of its LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity, if its LC50 is less than or equal to 5,000 ppm, and does not meet the criteria for either degree of hazard 3 or degree of hazard 4. Gases whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 3,000 ppm, but less than or equal to 5,000 ppm. Materials that cause severe but reversible respiratory, skin, or eye irritation.

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Materials that, on short exposure, could cause irritation, but only minor residual injury, including those requiring the use of an approved air-purifying respirator. This degree usually includes: Materials that, under fire conditions, give off irritating combustion products. Materials that, under fire conditions, cause skin irritation, but not tissue destruction. Materials whose LD50 for acute oral toxicity is greater than 500 mg/kg, but less than or equal to 2,000 mg/kg. Materials whose LD50 for acute dermal toxicity is greater than 1,000 mg/kg, but less than or equal to 2,000 mg/kg.

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Dusts and mists whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 10 mg/L, but less than or equal to 200 mg/L. Gases and vapors whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 5,000 ppm, but less than or equal to 10,000 ppm. Materials that are moderate respiratory irritants or that cause slight to moderate eye irritation. Materials that on short exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible materials. This degree usually includes: Materials whose LD50 for acute oral toxicity is greater than 2,000 mg/kg. Materials whose LD50 for acute dermal toxicity is greater than 2,000 mg/kg. Dusts and mists whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is greater than 200 mg/L. Gases and vapors whose LC50 for acute inhalation toxicity is exceeds 10,000 ppm.

0

9.6.2 FLAMMABILITY HAZARDS

Hazard: Degrees of Hazard The degrees of hazard must be ranked according to the susceptibility of materials to burning as follows:

4

Materials that will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature or that are readily dispersed in air, and which will burn readily. This degree usually includes: Flammable gases. Flammable cryogenic materials. Any liquid or gaseous material that is liquid while under pressure and has a flash point below 73°F (22.8°C) and a boiling point below 100°F (37.8°C) (i.e., Class IA flammable liquids). Materials that ignite spontaneously when exposed to air.

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3

Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Materials in this degree produce hazardous atmospheres with air under almost all ambient temperatures or, though unaffected by ambient temperatures, are readily ignited under almost all conditions. This degree usually includes: Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (22.8°C) and having a boiling point at or above 100°F (37.8°C) and those liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F (22.8°C) and below 100°F (37.8°C) (i.e., Class IB and Class IC flammable liquids). Materials that on account of their physical form or environmental conditions can form explosive mixtures with air and that are readily dispersed in air, such as dusts of combustible solids and mists of flammable or combustible liquid droplets. Materials that burn with extreme rapidity, usually by reason of self-contained oxygen, (e.g., dry nitrocellulose and many organic peroxides). Materials that must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur. Materials in this degree would not under normal conditions form hazardous atmospheres with air, but under high ambient temperatures or under moderate heating may release vapor in sufficient quantities to produce hazardous atmospheres with air. This degree usually includes: Liquids having a flash point above 100°F (37.8°C), but not exceeding 200°F (93.4°C) (i.e., Class II and Class IIIA combustible liquids). Solid materials in the form of coarse dusts that may burn rapidly but that generally do not form explosive atmospheres with air. Solid materials in a fibrous or shredded form that may burn rapidly and create flashfire hazards, such as cotton, sisal, and hemp solids and semisolids that readily give off flammable vapors.

2

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1

Materials that must be preheated before ignition can occur. Materials in this degree require considerable preheating, under all ambient temperature conditions, before ignition and combustion can occur. This degree usually includes: Materials that will burn in air when exposed to a temperature of 1,500°F (815.5°C) for a period of 5 minutes or less. Liquids, solids, and semisolids having a flash point above 200°F (93.4°C) (i.e., Class IIIB combustible liquids). Most ordinary combustible materials.

0

Materials that will not burn. This degree usually includes any material that will not burn in air when exposed to a temperature of 1,500°F (815.5°C) for a period of 5 minutes.

9.6.3 REACTIVITY (INSTABILITY) HAZARDS

Hazard: Degrees of Hazard The degrees of hazard must be ranked according to ease, rate, and quantity of energy release as follows:

4

Materials that in themselves are readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This degree usually includes materials that are sensitive to localized thermal or mechanical shock at normal temperatures and pressures.

3

Materials that in themselves are capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction, but that require a strong initiating source that must be heated under confinement before initiation. This degree usually includes: Materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechanical shock at elevated temperatures and pressures. Materials that react explosively with water without requiring heat or confinement.

2

Materials that readily undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures. This degree usually includes:

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Materials that exhibit an exotherm at temperatures less than or equal to 150°C when tested by differential scanning calorimetry. Materials that may react violently with water or form potentially explosive mixtures with water. Materials that in themselves are normally stable, but that can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressure. This degree usually includes: Materials that change or decompose on exposure to air, light, or moisture. Materials that exhibit an exotherm at temperatures greater than 150°C, but less than equal to 300°C, when tested by differential scanning calorimetry. Materials that in themselves are normally stable, even under fire conditions. This degree usually includes: Materials that do not react with water. Materials that exhibit an exotherm at temperatures greater than 300°C but less than or equal to 500°C when tested by differential scanning calorimetry. Materials that do not exhibit an exotherm at temperatures less than or equal to 500°C when tested by differential scanning calorimetry.

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9.6.4 SPECIAL HAZARDS

Symbols: Symbols Materials that demonstrate unusual reactivity with water must be identified with the letter W with a horizontal line through the center (W). Materials W that possess oxidizing properties must be identified by the letters OX OX.

9.7 UN HAZARD IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

Transportation Canada regulates over 16,000 dangerous goods. The regulations require labels on small containers, and placards on tanks and trailers. These placards and labels indicate the nature of the hazard presented by the cargo. The classification used for the placards and labels is on the basis of the United Nations

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Hazard Classes. The UN hazard class number is found in the bottom corner of a DOT placard or label.

UN HAZARD CLASS SYSTEM Class Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Explosives Nonflammable and flammable compressed gases Flammable liquids Flammable solids, spontaneously combustible substances, and water-reactive substances Oxidizing materials, including organic peroxides Toxics, irritants, and etiologic (disease-causing materials) Radioactive materials Corrosive materials (acids, alkaline liquids, and certain corrosive solids) Miscellaneous hazardous materials not covered by any of the other classes Description

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To facilitate handling a hazardous material incident, some placards are altered to accept a four-digit identification number and must be written on the shipping papers or manifest. In the event of an incident, the ID number on the placard will be much easier to obtain than the shipping papers. Once the number is obtained, The 2000 Emergency Response Guide Book can be consulted. This book describes the proper methods and precautions for responding to a release of each hazardous material with an ID number. The Guidebook is a tool that will convert the clues provided by labels, placards and four-digit ID numbers into more useful information. The Guide pages provide field information in health hazards, stability, and protective clothing and respiratory protection. They also recommend procedures for fire fighting, spill and leak control, and emergency care. The book is organized into four principal sections, including the white, yellow, and blue indices in the front, the orange-topped Guide pages in the middle, and green in the back. Using both systems when responding to hazardous material incidents will help to properly identify and characterize the hazards involved.

9.8 CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

An explosive is any chemical compound, mixture, or device whose primary purpose is to function by explosion, with or without an ignition source (flame or spark), intentionally/ unintentionally generated with substantial releases of heat and gas. 1.1-- Division 1.1--Explosives present a maximum hazard through mass detonation. Examples are dynamite, TNT, black powder, military ammunition. 1.4-- Divisions 1.2, 1.3, 1.4--Explosives are those materials or devices that function by deflagration and present a flammable hazard. Examples are display fireworks, rocket motor, military ammunition.

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1.6-- Divisions 1.5, 1.6--Explosives are those materials or devices that contain insensitive explosives. Examples are common fireworks, detonating fuses, small arms ammunition. Possible hazards from explosives: · · · Blast overpressure and shock waves Fragment scattering Fire proliferation

A compressed gas is any material having an absolute pressure in the container exceeding 40 pounds per square inch (psi) at 21°C or having an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 54°C. A flammable gas is any gas capable of forming ignitable mixtures with air. Examples are hydrogen, acetylene, propane, and butane. A nonflammable gas will not burn but may support combustion. Examples are carbon dioxide, oxygen, sulfur dioxide, and chlorine. Some nonflammable gases do not support combustion. Examples are argon and helium. A liquefied gas is a gas that is partially in a liquid state at a temperature of 21°C. Examples are propane, butane, chlorine, anhydrous ammonia, vinyl chloride, and carbon dioxide. A nonliquefied gas is entirely gaseous at a temperature of 21°C. Examples are hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.

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A gas in solution is a nonliquefied gas that is dissolved at high pressure in a solvent. An example is acetylene in acetone. A cryogen is a gas that must be cooled to an extremely low temperature to maintain it in a liquid form. Examples are nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen.

Possible hazards associated with compressed gases: · · · · · · Container rupture Combustion, explosion Asphyxiation Toxicity or corrosiveness Frostbite Reactivity

A flammable liquid is any liquid with a flash point below 37°C. Examples are gasoline, ethylene oxide, ethyl alcohol, toluene, and benzene. A combustible liquid is any liquid that has a flash point at or above 37°C but below 93°C. Examples are fuel oil, diesel, solvent, and thinners. A pyrophoric liquid is any liquid that ignites spontaneously in dry or moist air at or below 54°C. Examples are aluminum alkalies, alkyl borane.

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Possible hazards associated with flammable and combustible liquids: · · · · · Fire Container rupture Combustion explosion Toxicity or corrosiveness Aquatic contamination

A flammable solid is any solid material that is liable to cause fire through friction or retained heat from manufacturing or processing or that can be ignited readily, and when ignited, burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious transportation hazard. Air-reactive (pyrophoric) solids will ignite at normal temperatures when exposed to Air(pyrophoric) air. An example is white phosphorous. WaterWater-reactive solids will react in varying degrees when mixed with water or in contact with humid air. Examples are metallic sodium and calcium carbide. Spontaneously Spontaneously combustible solids can decompose in the presence/absence of air. Examples are oily cotton waste and burnt fibers. Possible hazards associated with flammable solids: · · · Fire Explosion Toxicity and corrosiveness

An oxidizer is a substance that yields oxygen readily to stimulate combustion.

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Examples are sodium nitrate, calcium hypochlorite, and potassium permanganate.

Possible hazards associated with oxidizers: · · · Increase fire intensity Sensitive to heat, shock, friction React spontaneously with organic matter

An organic peroxide is any organic carbon-based chemical compound that has two oxygen atoms joined together. They can be solids or liquids, also toxic or corrosive. The main hazards with organic peroxides are that they are unstable and can increase fire and explosion hazards. Examples are benzoyl peroxide, peracetic acid, and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide. Possible hazards associated with organic peroxides: · · · · Fire Explosion-sensitive to heat, shock, friction Toxic combustion byproducts Exposure to fire may evaporate inhibitor and increase

Poison is any substance of such a nature that a very small amount is dangerous to life. Examples are hydrogen cyanide, phosgene, nitrogen tetroxide, and aniline. Irritating materials are liquids or solids which, upon contact with fire or exposure to air, give off dangerous or irritating fumes. An example is a tear gas grenade. Possible hazards associated with poisons:

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· · · · Inhalation, skin absorption, or ingestion can be harmful Container rupture Fire Aquatic contamination

Etiologic agents are living microorganisms that may cause human disease. Examples are biological and viral specimens. A radioactive material is any material that spontaneously emits ionizing radiation. Examples are plutonium, enriched uranium, radioactive iodine, and radon Possible hazards associated with radioactive material: · · Lethal or sublethal effects from exposure Smoke, steam, or runoff water may be contaminant sources

A corrosive is any liquid or solid that can destroy human skin tissue or any liquid that has a severe corrosion rate of steel. Acids Examples are sulfuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids, and ferric chloride solution. Bases Examples are sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and alkaline battery fluid. corrosives: Possible hazards associated with corrosives: · · · Severe health hazard Violent reactions with some materials Container rupture

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· · · · Some may act as an oxidizer (Example: nitric acid) Heat of reaction may be sufficient to ignite combustible matter Flammable reaction products may be produced Aquatic contamination

9.9 HANDLING DRUMS AND OTHER CONTAINERS

Accidents may occur during handling of drums and other hazardous waste containers. Hazards include detonations, fires, explosions, vapor generation, and physical injury resulting from moving heavy containers by hand and working around stacked drums, heavy equipment, and deteriorated drums. While these hazards are always present, proper work practices--such as minimizing handling and using equipment and procedures that isolate workers from hazardous substances--can minimize the risks to site personnel.

9.9.1 INSPECTION

The appropriate procedures for handling drums depend on the drum contents. Thus, prior to any handling, drums should be visually inspected to gain as much information as possible about their contents. The inspection crew should look for: · Symbols, words or other marks on the drum indicating that its contents are hazardous; e.g., radioactive, explosive, corrosive, toxic, flammable. · Symbols, words, or other marks on a drum indicating that it contains discarded laboratory chemicals, reagents, or other potentially dangerous materials in small-volume individual containers. · · · · Signs of deterioration such as corrosion, rust, and leaks. Signs that the drum is under pressure such as swelling and bulging. Drum type. Configuration of the drumhead.

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Conditions in the immediate vicinity of the drums may provide information about drum contents and their associated hazards. Monitoring should be conducted around the drums using instruments such as a gamma radiation survey instrument, organic vapor monitors, and a combustible gas meter. The results of this survey can be used to classify the drums into preliminary hazard categories; for example: 0 1 2 3 4 Radioactive. Leaking/deteriorated. Bulging. Explosive/shock-sensitive. Contains small-volume individual containers of laboratory wastes or other dangerous materials. As a precautionary measure, personnel should assume that unlabeled drums contain hazardous materials until their contents are characterized. Also, they should bear in mind that drums are frequently mislabeled--particularly drums that are reused. Thus, a drum's label may not accurately describe its contents. If buried drums are suspected, ground-penetrating systems, such as electromagnetic wave, electrical resistivity, ground-penetrating radar, magnetometer, and metal detection, can be used to estimate the location and depth of the drums. Information Provided by Drumhead Configuration CONFIGURATION INFORMATION Whole lid removable. Designed to contain solid material. Has a bung. Designed to contain a liquid. Contains a liner. May contain a highly corrosive or otherwise hazardous material.

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· Pressurized drums are extremely hazardous. Wherever possible, do not move drums that may be under internal pressure, as evidenced by bulging or swelling. · If a pressurized drum has to be moved, whenever possible handle the drum with a grappler unit constructed for explosive containment. Either move the bulged drum only as far as necessary to allow seating on firm ground, or carefully overpack the drum. Exercise extreme caution when working with or adjacent to potentially pressurized drums.

9.9.3 LEAKING, OPEN, AND DETERIORATED DRUMS

· If a drum containing a liquid cannot be moved without rupture, immediately transfer its contents to a sound drum using a pump designed for transferring that liquid. · Using a drum grappler, place immediately in overpack containers.

9.9.4 OPENING

Drums are usually opened and sampled in place; however, remedial and emergency operations may require a separate drum-opening area. Procedures for opening drums to enhance the efficiency and safety of drum-opening personnel, the following procedures should be instituted. · If a supplied-air respiratory protection system is used, place a bank of air cylinders outside the work area and supply air to the operators via airlines and escape self contained breathing apparatuses (SCBA). This enables workers to operate in relative comfort for extended periods of time. · Protect personnel by keeping them at a safe distance from the drums being opened. If personnel must be located near the drums, place explosion-resistant plastic shields between them and the drums to protect them in case of detonation. Locate controls for drum-opening equipment, monitoring equipment, and fire suppression equipment behind the explosion-resistant plastic shield.

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· If possible, monitor continuously during opening. Place sensors of monitoring equipment, such as colourimetric tubes, dosimeters, radiation survey instruments, explosion meters, organic vapor analyzers, and oxygen meters, as close as possible to the source of contaminants; i.e., at the drum opening. · Use the following remote-controlled devices for opening drums: ­ ­ ­ Pneumatically operated impact wrench to remove drum bungs Hydraulically or pneumatically operated drum piercers Backhoes equipped with bronze spikes for penetrating drum tops in large-scale operations · · Always use nonsparking tools. Do not use picks or chisels to open drums.

If the drum shows signs of swelling or bulging, perform all steps slowly. Relieve excess pressure prior to opening and, if possible, from a remote location using such devices as a pneumatic impact wrench or hydraulic penetration device. If pressure must be relieved manually, place a barrier such as explosion-resistant plastic sheeting between the worker and the bung to deflect any gas, liquid, or solids that may be expelled as the bung is loosened. Open exotic metal drums and polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride-lined (PVC-lined) drums through the bung by removal or drilling. Exercise extreme caution when handling these containers. Reseal open bungs and drill openings as soon as possible with new bungs or plugs to avoid explosions and/or vapor generation. If an open drum cannot be resealed, place the drum into an overpack. Plug any openings in pressurized drums with pressure-venting caps set to a 5 psi release to allow venting of vapor pressure.

Special Drum Types and

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Their Associated Hazards PVCDrums--Often contain strong acids or bases. If the lining Polyethylene PVC-Lined Drums is punctured, the substance usually quickly corrodes the steel, resulting in a significant leak or spill. Drums--Very expensive drums that usually contain an extremely Exotic Metal Drums dangerous material (e.g., alumi-material, nun, nickel, stainless, steel, or other unusual metal). SingleVessel--These drums have fittings for Single-Walled Drums Used as a Pressure Vessel both product filling and placement of an inert gas, such as nitrogen. May contain reactive, flammable, explosive, or substances. Laboratory Packs--Used for disposal of expired chemicals and process samples Laboratory Packs from university laboratories, hospitals, and similar institutions. Individual containers within the lab pack are often not packed in absorbent material. They may contain incompatible materials, radioisotope, shock-sensitive, highly volatile, highly corrosive, or very toxic exotic chemicals. Laboratory packs can be an ignition source for fires.

9.10 SAMPLING

Drum sampling can be one of the most hazardous activities to worker safety and health because it often involves direct contact with the hazardous material. When manually sampling from a drum, use the following techniques: · Keep sampling personnel at a safe distance while drums are being opened. Sample only after opening operations are complete. · Do not lean over other drums to reach the drum being sampled, unless absolutely necessary. · Cover drum tops with plastic sheeting or other suitable noncontaminated materials to avoid excessive contact with the drum tops.

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· Never stand on drums--this is extremely dangerous! Use mobile steps or another platform to achieve the height necessary to safely sample from the drums. · Obtain samples with either glass rods or vacuum pumps. Do not use contaminated items such as discarded rags to sample. The contaminants may contaminate the sample and may not be compatible with the waste in the drum. Glass rods should be removed prior to pumping to minimize damage to pumps.

9.11 COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS

· Obtain expert assistance in moving and disposing of compressed gas cylinders. · Handle compressed gas cylinders with extreme caution. The rupture of a cylinder may result in an explosion, and the cylinder may become a dangerous projectile. · Record the identification numbers on the cylinders to aid in characterizing their contents.

9.12 PONDS AND LAGOONS

Drowning is a very real danger for personnel suited in protective equipment because the weight of protective equipment increases an individual's overall density and severely impairs their swimming ability. Where there is danger of drowning, provide necessary safety gear such as lifeboats, tag lines, railings, nets, safety harnesses, and flotation gear.

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· · Wherever possible, stay on shore. Avoid going out over the water. Be aware that some solid wastes may float and give the appearance of solid cracked mud. Caution should be exercised when working along shorelines.

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1. What five ways can materials be hazardous. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ 2. As a rule, which is more hazardous? Gases Liquids Solids

3. What do the numbers on this label mean?

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(Answers found in Appendix B)

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Day 3 (P.M.)

1. Watch the Video CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE PROTECTIVE CLOTHINGS. CLOTHINGS 2. Go through Section 10 ­ Personal Protective Equipment Section 10.1-10.14. 3. Watch the Video RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROTECTION USE. SELECTION AND USE 4. Watch the Video HAZWOPER DONNING AND AND DECONTAMINATION ION. DOFFING DECONTAMINATION 5. Go through Section 10 ­ Personal Protective Equipment Section 10.15 ­ End 6. Watch the Video LIFE SAVING THROUGH AIR MONITORING. 7. Go through Section 11 ­ Metering.

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10 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPIMENT

10.1 OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this module, you should be able to do the following: · Identify the appropriate respiratory protection required for a given defensive option. · Identify the three types of respiratory protection and the advantages and limitations presented by the use of each at hazardous materials incidents. · Identify the four levels of chemical protection (EPA/NIOSH) and describe the equipment required for each level and the conditions under which each level is used. · Demonstrate proper methods for donning, doffing, and using all PPE provided by the authority having jurisdiction for use in hazardous materials response activities. · · · Understand the physical stress associated with protective clothing. Be aware of performance requirements of protective clothing. Understand the performance ratings of common materials used in protective clothing. · Understand the advantages and disadvantages of protective equipment and clothing. Anyone entering a hazardous waste site must be protected against potential hazards. The purpose of personal protective clothing and equipment (PPE) is to shield or isolate individuals from the chemical, physical, and biologic hazards that may be encountered at a hazardous waste site. Careful selection and use of

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adequate PPE should protect the respiratory system, skin, eyes, face, hands, feet, head, body, and hearing. No single piece of PPE or combination of protective equipment and clothing is capable of protecting against all hazards. Thus, PPE should be used in conjunction with other protective methods. The use of PPE can itself create significant worker hazards, such as heat stress, physical and psychological stress, and impaired vision, mobility, and communication. In general, the greater the level of PPE protection, the greater the associated risks. For any given situation, equipment and clothing should be selected that provide an adequate level of protection. Overprotection as well as underprotection can be hazardous and should be avoided.

10.2 DEVELOPING A PPE PROGRAM

The two basic objectives of any PPE program should be to protect the wearer from safety and health hazards and to prevent injury to the wearer from incorrect use and/or malfunction of the PPE. To accomplish these goals, a comprehensive PPE program should include: · · · · · Hazard identification Medical monitoring Environmental surveillance Selection, use, maintenance, decontamination, or disposal of PPE Training

The written PPE program should include policy statements, procedures, and guidelines. Copies should be made available to all employees, and a reference

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copy should be available at each worksite. Technical data on equipment, maintenance manuals, relevant regulations, and other essential information should also be made available.

10.3 SELECTION OF RESPIRATORY EQUIPMENT

Respiratory protection is of primary importance, since inhalation is one of the major routes of exposure to chemical toxicants. Respiratory protective devices (respirators) consist of a facepiece connected to either an air source or an air-purifying device. Respirators with an air source are called atmosphere-supplying respirators and consist of two types: SelfSelf-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA), which supplies air from a source carried by the user. SuppliedSupplied-Air Respirator (SAR), which supplies air from a source located some distance away and connected to the user by an air line hose. Supplied air respirators are sometimes referred to as air line respirators. Air-Purifying Respirator (APR), on the other hand, does not have a separate air Airsource. Instead, it utilizes ambient air, which is "purified" through a filtering element prior to inhalation. SCBAs, SARs, and APRs are further differentiated by the type of airflow supplied to the facepiece: PositivePositive-pressure respirator maintains a positive pressure in the facepiece during both inhalation and exhalation. The two main types of positive-pressure respirators are pressure-demand and continuous flow. In pressure-demand respirators, a pressure regulator and an exhalation valve on the mask maintain the mask's positive pressure except during high breathing rates. If a leak develops in a pressure-demand respirator, the regulator sends a continuous flow of clean air into the facepiece, preventing penetration by contaminated ambient air. Continuous-flow respirators, including some SARs and all powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR), send a continuous stream of air into the facepiece at all times. With SARs, the continuous flow of air prevents infiltration by ambient air, but uses the air supply

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much more rapidly than with pressure-demand respirators. PAPRs are operated in a positive-pressure continuous flow mode utilizing filtered ambient air. However, at maximal breathing rates, a negative pressure may be created in the facepiece of a PAPR. NegativeNegative-pressure respirator draws air into the facepiece via the negative pressure created by user inhalation. The main disadvantage of the negative-pressure respirator is that if any leaks develop in the system, i.e., a crack in the hose or an ill-fitting mask or facepiece, the user draws contaminated air into the facepiece during inhalation. When atmosphere-supplying respirators are used, only those operated in the positive-pressure mode are recommended for work at hazardous waste sites. Different types of facepieces are available for use with the various types of respirators. The types generally used at hazardous waste sites are full facepieces and half masks. Full facepiece masks cover the face from the hairline to below the chin. They provide eye protection. Half masks cover the face from below the chin to over the nose and do not provide eye protection.

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10.4 HAZARD DETERMINATION AND SELECTION OF PPE

The adverse effects chemical substances may have on the human body necessitate the use of protective clothing. The predominant physical, chemical, or toxic property of the material dictates the type and degree of protection required. For example, protection against a corrosive compound is different than that for a compound, which releases a highly toxic vapor. The work function and the probability of exposure to the substance must also be considered when specifying protective clothing. As with the selection of proper respiratory protective apparatus, the hazards encountered must be thoroughly assessed before deciding on the protective clothing to be worn. Once the specific hazard has been identified, appropriate clothing can be selected. Several factors must be considered, most important being the safety of the individual. The level of protection assigned must match the hazard confronted. Other factors include cost, availability, and compatibility with other equipment, suitability, and performance. Protective clothing ensembles range from safety glasses, hardhats, and safety shoes to fully encapsulating suits with a supplied source of breathing air. The variety of clothing includes disposable coveralls, fire-retardant clothing, and chemical splash suits. Different materials are used to provide a protective barrier against the hazard.

10.5 PHYSICAL STRESS

Wearing chemical protective clothing can cause problems. These include heat stress, accident proneness, and fatigue. Accident proneness also increases when wearing chemical protective clothing. Suits are heavy, cumbersome, decrease mobility and dexterity, lessen visual and audio acuity, and increase physical exertion. The severity of the problems depend

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on the style of clothing worn. These negative qualities increase the risk of common accidental injury, such as slips, falls, or being struck. To minimize the adverse effects of physical stress, workers wearing protective clothing must change their normal work regimen. A medical surveillance program, including baseline physicals and routine medical monitoring, should be instituted. Personnel must be allowed to acclimatize to stressful environmental factors by varying work and rest periods as needed. Projects should be scheduled for cooler periods of the day when possible. The intake of fluids must be maintained at levels to prevent dehydration, and body electrolytes replaced through added salting at mealtimes. Compensatory efforts such as these must be established as part of Standard Operating Safety Procedures on a site-specific basis to reduce the risks associated with wearing protective clothing.

10.6 INSPECTION OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

Before chemical protective clothing can be worn, it must be properly inspected. The following is a checklist for visually inspecting all types of chemical protective suits. Chemical suits should be inspected immediately before use, and monthly when not in use. Inspection Procedures · · Spread out suit on a flat surface. Examine the outside for the following: ­ ­ ­ ­ Abrasions, cuts, holes, or tears in the fabric. Retention of original flexibility and durability in the fabric. Separations or holes in the seams. Proper sealing and operation of zippers, buttons, storm flaps, and other connecting devices.

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­ Signs of previous chemical attack or incomplete decontamination such as unusual discoloration, rough surface, gummy feeling, cracks; elastic around wrists and ankles and the drawstrings on hoods are in good condition, if applicable. · Fully encapsulating suits require additional inspection, which includes checking: ­ Exhalation valves (positive pressure) for debris and proper functioning. ­ The suit facepiece for poor visibility (cuts, scratches, and dirt) and an adequate facepiece-to-suit seal. ­ Presence and condition of waist belts, velcro adjustments (head and hips), and ankle straps. ­ ­ ­ Condition of integral gloves, boots, and leg gaiters. Presence of hard hat or ratchet head suspension. Presence/condition of air line attachment and hoses for cooling system. ­ Leaks and pinholes.

If an air source is available, secure the suit and inflate it, then use a mild soap solution, look for bubbles on the surface or around seams. If an air source in not available, take the suit into a dark room, run a flashlight inside the suit and look for pinpoints of light from outside the suit. Records should be maintained on each suit's inspection, use conditions, and repair status. These records are especially important for fully encapsulating suits (FES) that are usually not individually assigned but shared. Suggestions for maintaining records include: · Inspection--who, when and any problems

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· · · Use conditions--where, activity, and chemicals, if known Repaired--date of repair, nature of repair Tag the suit "out of service" if not repaired.

10.7 TYPES OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

Protective materials are available for specific chemical contaminants, but there is no single material that provides protection against all types of contaminants. Several layers of protection should be considered when more than one contaminant is present or the hazards are unknown. Disposable boots, gloves, and splash suits are another way to provide an extra layer of protection. The selection of appropriate protective gear is on the basis of the hazards anticipated or recognized. Complete protection calls for assembling a set of gear including hardhat, safety glasses or faceshield (preferably both), body covering (coveralls, pants and jacket), gloves and safety shoes (steel toe and shank). Omitting one item may compromise the individual's safety. Some pieces of protective equipment, such as hardhats and boots, have specific standards for manufacture--only items meeting these standards should be used.

10.7.1 HEAD PROTECTION

The hardhat, a basic piece of safety equipment used in any work operation, must meet ANSI Z89.1-1969 specifications for protection. Manufacturers have adapted hardhats so that ear protection and faceshields may be easily attached. Hardhats are adjustable, so a liner can be worn during cold weather. A chin strap is advantageous when work involves bending and ducking. It also helps secure the hardhat to the head when full-face masks are worn. Faceshields that attach to hardhats provide added protection. A combination that leaves no gap between the shield and the brim of the cap is best because it prevents overhead splashes from running down inside the faceshield. The faceshield must meet ANSI Z87.1-1968 specifications.

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Safety glasses must also meet ANSI Z87.1-1968. They should be standard safety gear when the respiratory protection is a half-face mask with no faceshield. Both safety glasses and a faceshield are advisable as long as they do not impair visibility. Safety glasses should be of the type that incorporate faceshields.

10.7.3 EAR PROTECTION

Earplugs or muffs should be issued when noise may be a problem, such as around heavy machinery and impact tools.

10.7.4 FOOT PROTECTION

Footwear worn during site activities (including leather work boots and rubber boots) must meet the specifications of ANSI Z41.1-1969. The material used to make the boots is not subject to any standards. Protection against liquid hazardous chemicals requires a boot of neoprene, PVC, butyl rubber, or some other chemical-resistant material. Boots are available in two styles: pullover and shoeboot. Pullovers may be inexpensive enough to be considered disposable; otherwise, they must be completely decontaminated. With chemical-resistant boots, the pant leg should be outside and over the boots to prevent liquids from entering.

10.7.5 HAND PROTECTION

The hands are as susceptible to contamination as the feet. Gloves must resist puncturing and tearing as well as provide the necessary chemical resistance. Most of the materials discussed earlier can be used in gloves. Heavy leather gloves may be worn over chemical protective gloves when doing heavy work. If they become contaminated, they should be discarded, because leather is difficult to decontaminate. Jacket cuffs should be worn over glove cuffs to prevent any liquid from spilling into the gloves. If hands are elevated above the head during work, the gloves should be sealed with tape to the coveralls or splash suit.

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When selecting gloves, consider thickness and cuff length. The thicker and longer the glove, the greater the protection. However, the material should not be so thick that it interferes with the necessary dexterity. Two pair of gloves should also be considered for extra protection of the hands if the outer glove is torn or permeated. A pair of inner gloves also adds an extra layer of protection for the hands during the removal of outer gloves and other chemically protective items.

10.7.6 BODY PROTECTION

Clothing to protect the body against hazardous liquids, gases, or vapors is available in a variety of styles and materials. If the hazard present is known to be minor or simply a nuisance, minimal protection is warranted. This may be in the form of garments of Tyvek, which are disposable, or Nomex, which are durable. Both are available as coveralls suitable for field use. As the hazards to the body increase, so does the level of protection needed. A splash suit made of PVC is suitable for a liquid such as an acid or base or when there will be minimal contact with organic materials. Some are inexpensive enough to be disposable. If the material is more toxic, then more protection must be utilized. Splash suits similar in design to the PVC splash suits are good barriers against toxic hazards. These are made of neoprene and butyl rubber. Toxic vapor/gases require the most complete protection, the best being fully encapsulating suits. The suit must not allow any penetration or permeation. Zippers must be properly sealed and seams properly connected and sealed to protect against vapors. Fully encapsulating suits also require the basic safety items such as safety boots and hardhats, along with a source of breathing air. Wearing protective clothing creates some problems, the main one being that the body is shielded from normal circulation of air. Perspiration does not evaporate, thus eliminating the body's main mechanism for cooling. A cool towel on the nape (back of the neck) will effectively cause the hypothalamus (the body's thermostat to

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reduce the body's temperature immediately by 2 to 4 degrees in a heat-stress situation. With that gone, the body is prone to heat stress, including heatstroke, which can be fatal. Heat-related problems are very common when temperature rises above 75°F. Work schedules for persons wearing fully encapsulating clothing must be closely and conservatively regulated lest heat-stress become more of a threat than the chemical hazard itself. The best way to combat heat-stress is to allow the body to cool normally. The most efficient body cooling process is by evaporation. Someone wearing protective clothing that has no ventilation perspires profusely. If the perspiration remains in contact with the skin, it has a better chance of evaporating and cooling the body surface. If the perspiration is allowed to run off the body quickly, less evaporation occurs. This happens when shorts are worn under a fully encapsulating suit. Also, the suit material can become very hot and cause severe burns if it contacts the wearer's bare skin. Long cotton underwear is the best choice. Long cotton underwear clings to the body when soaked with perspiration, thus allowing the greatest amount of cooling by evaporation and also protects the body from burns caused by the suit itself. During extended periods of work in fully encapsulating suits, some sort of "cooling" must be provided to the wearer. The best method is to schedule frequent rest periods. If this is not adequate, a cooling device should be employed. Effective cooling units are available for use with supplied-air units. A vortex tube separates the air into cool and warm components, releasing the warm air outside the suit. When self-contained air is used for breathing, the cooling device must also be self-contained. For example, vests have been designed to carry ice packs. There are other commercial devices available to combat heat generated by fully encapsulating suits. Many workers spend some part of their working day in a hot environment. Workers in foundries, laundries, construction projects, and bakeries, to name a few industries, often face hot conditions that pose special hazards to safety and health.

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10.8 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

Protective clothing protects primarily because of the material from which it is made. In selecting the protective material, the following should be considered: Chemical Resistance, which is the most important. When clothing contacts a hazardous material, it must maintain its structural integrity and protective qualities. Strength, which is on the basis of resistance to tears, punctures, and abrasions, as well as tensile strength. Flexibility, clothing easy to move in and work in. Flexibility is especially important in glove materials. Thermal limits affect the ability of clothing to maintain its protective capacity in temperature extremes. Thermal limits also affect mobility in cold weather and transfer of heat to the wearer in hot weather. Cleanability, difficult and expensive if protective clothing is not cleanable. Some materials are nearly impossible to clean adequately under any circumstances. Disposable clothing is sometimes used. Lifespan, which is the ability to resist aging, especially in severe conditions over time. This should be balanced against the initial cost of the garment. Protective material must be able to resist degradation, penetration, and permeation by the contaminant. Any of these actions may result upon contact, depending on factors such as concentration and contact time. Degradation is the result of a chemical reaction between the contaminant and the protective material. Damage to the material may be slight or as severe as complete deterioration. The reaction may cause the material to shrink or swell, become brittle or very soft, or completely change its chemical and physical structure. Changes such as these may enhance or restrict permeation or allow penetration by the contaminant.

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A chemical penetrates a protective garment because of its design and construction imperfections, not because of the inherent material from which it is made. Stitched seams, button holes, porous fabric, and zippers can provide an avenue for the contaminant to penetrate the garment. A well-designed and constructed protective suit with self-sealing zippers and lapped seams made of a nonporous degradationresistant material prevents penetration, but as soon as the suit is ripped or punctured, it loses its ability to prevent penetration. A material may also be easily penetrated once degraded. The ability of a protective material to resist permeation is an inherent property. A contaminant in contact with the protective material establishes a concentration gradient. The concentration is high on the contact surface and low inside. Because the tendency is to establish equilibrium, diffusion and other molecular forces "drive" the contaminant into the material. When the contaminant passes through the material to the inside surface, it condenses there. The process of permeation continues as long as the concentration remains greater at the contact surface. The permeation rate is on the basis of several factors. Rate is inversely proportional to the thickness of the material and directly proportional to the concentration of the contaminant. The amount or degree of permeation is related to the exposure conditions, especially contact time, which ultimately dictates how much of the contaminant permeates the protective material. Thus, a conscious effort should be made to avoid prolonged exposure or contact with any hazardous contaminant, even when wearing protective clothing. NO material resists permeation by all agents.

10.9 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE CHARTS

Tables are available indicating relative effectiveness of various protective materials against generic classes of chemicals. Most tables reflect only ability to resist degradation. A protective material may resist degradation by a contaminant but still be very permeable to it. Such charts are useful when used with discretion and when the seriousness of the hazard is properly evaluated. If a chemical is extremely toxic, any activity involving it should be reevaluated.

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Permeability data are available from manufacturers and independent testing laboratories. If there is a question about permeability of a material in contact with a specific contaminant, a sample swatch of the material should be tested by a recognized laboratory for permeability to that chemical.

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EFFECTIVENESS OF PROTECTIVE MATERIALS AGAINST CHEMICAL DEGRADATION Generic Class Alcohols Aldehydes Amines Esters Ethers Fuels Halogenated hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons Inorganic acids Inorganic bases and salts Ketones Natural fats and oils Organic acids E ­ Excellent Butyl Rubber E E-G E-F G-F G-F F-P G-P F-P G-F E E G-F E F ­ Fair Polyvinyl Chloride E G-F G-F P G G-P G-P F E E P G E G ­ Good Neoprene E E-G E-G G E-G E-G G-F G-F E-G E G-F E-G E P ­ Poor Natural Rubber E E-F G-F F-P G-F F-P F-P F-P F-P E G-F G-F E

10.10

CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTECTIVE MATERIALS

Materials such as Tyvek offer little or no protection against hazardous liquid or vapor contaminants. Such materials can, however, protect against particulate contaminants and other nuisances. Tyvek is often used as an outer covering over the primary protective gear such as splash gear or fully encapsulating suits.

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Although Tyvek provides little chemical resistance, it does limit the amount of direct contamination on the primary protective gear. The Tyvek can then be discarded.

Elastomers (polymeric materials that, after being stretched, return to about their original length) provide the best protection against chemical degradation, permeation, and penetration from toxic and corrosive liquids or gases. Elastomers are used in boots, gloves, coveralls, and fully encapsulating suits. They are sometimes combined with a flame-resistant fabric called Nomex to enhance durability and protection. Chemical protective clothing manufacturers have developed a technique of layering materials to improve chemical resistance. Essentially one suit is designed with multiple layers. Some examples of layered fully encapsulating suits are viton/butyl (Trellborg), viton/neoprene (MSA Vautex and Draeger), and butyl/neoprene (MSA Betex).

10.11

PROTECTION FACTORS TO CONSIDER

The abilities of elastomers to resist degradation and permeation range from poor to excellent. The selection of a particular material should be on the basis of its resistance to chemical degradation, as well as on its ability to resist permeation and the other performance characteristics discussed earlier. Other factors to be considered include: Temperature of Service: Higher temperatures increase the effects of all chemicals on elastomers. The increase varies with the material and chemical. A material quite suitable at room temperature could fail at elevated temperatures. Extreme temperatures may also affect the physical properties of many polymer compounds. For example, some materials tend to become brittle and crack when cold, or become overly soft when warm. Of the two primary types of materials used for protective clothing--plastics and synthetic rubbers--plastics are generally more affected by temperature extremes.

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Conditions of Service: A material that swells upon contact with the chemical may function well in a test situation, but may fail in actual use. Grade of the Elastomer: Elastomers are manufactured in different grades, each providing different degrees of protection. Grades vary from lot to lot because of process changes, curing times, and overall quality control.

10.12

MATERIALS USED IN PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

There is a wide variety of protective materials. The following is a list of the more common materials used in CPC segregated as elastomers or nonelastomers. The elastomers are not listed in any particular priority. The classes of chemicals rated as "good for" or "poor for" represent test data for both permeation breakthrough and permeation rate. They are general recommendations; there are many exceptions within each chemical class. Sources consulted for this information included Guidelines for the Selection of Chemical Protective Clothing (ACGIH, Vol. 1, 1985) and manufacturer's literature. Suppliers should be consulted for current prices. Butyl Rubber (Synthetic Rubber) (Isobutylene/Isoprene Copolymer). Resists degradation by many contaminants except halogenated hydrocarbons and petroleum compounds, a common deficiency of most protective materials. It is especially resistant to permeation by vapors and gases. A relatively expensive material used in boots, gloves, splash suits, aprons, and fully encapsulating suits. · Good for: ­ ­ ­ · Poor for: ­ ­ ­ Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons Gasoline Halogenated hydrocarbons--abrasion resistance Bases and many organics Heat and ozone resistance Decontamination

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Chloropell (Plastic) also referred to as CPE or chlorinated polyethylene. ILC Dover product. Used in splash suits and fully encapsulating suits. No data on permeability. · Good for: ­ ­ ­ ­ · Poor for: ­ ­ ­ Amines, ester, ketones Halogenated Hydrocarbons Cold temperature (becomes rigid) Aliphatic hydrocarbons Acids and bases Alcohols, phenols Abrasion and ozone

Natural rubber (Polyisoprene). This is also a synthetic latex. Resists degradation by alcohols and caustics. Used in boots and gloves. · Good for: ­ ­ ­ · Poor for: ­ ­ Organic chemicals Aging (affected by ozone) Alcohols Dilute acids and bases Flexibility

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Neoprene (Synthetic rubber) resists degradation by caustics, acids, alcohols, and oils. Used in boots, gloves, and respirator facepieces and breathing hoses. Commonly available and inexpensive. · Good for: ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ · Poor for: ­ ­ ­ ­ Halogenated hydrocarbons Aromatic hydrocarbons Ketones Concentrated acids Bases and dilute acids Peroxides Fuels and oils Aliphatic hydrocarbons Alcohols Glycols Phenols Abrasion and cut-resistance

Nitrile (Synthetic rubber) also referred to as Buna-N, milled nitrile, nitrile latex, NBR. Resists degradation by petroleum compounds, gasoline, alcohols, acids, and caustics. Also reasonably good for some chlorinated compounds. Used in boots and gloves. Commonly available and inexpensive. · Good for: ­ Phenols

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­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ · Poor for: ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons Amines Ketones Esters Cold temperature PCBs Oils and fuels Alcohols Amines Bases Peroxides Abrasion and cut-resistance Flexibility

The higher the acrylonitrile concentration, the better the chemical resistance; but also increases stiffness. Nomex (product of DuPont) Aromatic polyamide fiber. Noncombustible and flame-resistant up to 428°F, thus providing good thermal protection. Very durable and acid-resistant. Used in firefighters' turnout gear and some fully encapsulating suits as a base for the rubber.

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Polyethylene (Plastic) used as a coating on polyolefin material such as Tyvek, increasing resistance to acids, bases, and salts. Provides limited chemical protection against concentrated liquids and vapors. Useful against low concentrations and those activities that do not create a high risk of splash; also worn over COC to prevent gross contamination of nondisposables. The disposable poly is considered good "inner liners" and assists decontamination procedures. Also used in disposable gloves and boot covers. · Good for: ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ · Poor for: ­ ­ ­ ­ Halogenated hydrocarbons Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons Physical properties (durability) Penetration (stitched seams) Acids and bases Alcohols Phenols Aldehydes Decontamination (disposable) Lightweight

PVA (Plastic) Polyvinyl alcohol. Resists degradation and permeation by aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons and petroleum compounds. Major drawback is its solubility in water. Used in gloves. · Good for: ­ ­ Almost all organics Ozone resistance

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· Poor for: ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Esters Ethers Acids and bases Water and water solutions Flexibility

PVC (Plastic) Polyvinyl chloride. Resists degradation by acids and caustics, used in boots, gloves, aprons, splash suits, and fully encapsulating suits. · Good for: ­ ­ ­ · Poor for: ­ ­ ­ Most organic compounds Cut and heat resistance Decontamination Acids and bases Some organics Amines, peroxides

Saranex is made of Saran, a Dow product, coated on Tyvek. Very good general purpose disposable material. Provides greater chemical resistance and overall protection compared with polyethylene-coated Tyvek; used to prevent contamination of nondisposable clothing. · Good for: ­ ­ ­

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Acids and bases Amines Some organics

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­ ­ Decontamination (disposable) Lightweight durability

·

Poor for: ­ ­ ­ Halogenated hydrocarbons Aromatic hydrocarbons Stitched seams (penetration may occur)

Teflon has become available for chemical protective suits. Limited permeation test data is published on Teflon. Teflon, similar to Viton, is thought to afford excellent chemical resistance against most chemicals. Tyvek is a product of DuPont. Spun-bonded nonwoven polyethylene fibers. Has reasonable tear, puncture, and abrasion resistance. Provides excellent protection against particulate contaminants. Inexpensive and suitable for disposable garments. Worn over other protective clothing to prevent gross contamination of nondisposable items and under suits to replace cotton. · Good for: ­ ­ ­ · Poor for: ­ ­ Chemical resistance (penetration/degradation) Durability Dry particulate and dust protection Decontamination (disposable) Lightweight

Viton (Plastic) is a product of DuPont. Fluoroelastomer similar to Teflon. Excellent resistance to degradation and permeation by aromatic and chlorinated

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hydrocarbons and petroleum compounds. Very resistant to oxidizers. Extremely expensive material used in gloves and fully encapsulating suits. Degraded by some rather common materials such as Acetone. · Good for: ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons Halogenated hydrocarbons Acids Decontamination Physical properties

·

Poor for: ­ ­ ­ ­ Aldehydes Ketones Esters (oxygenated solvents) Amines

It is evident that protective materials are available for specific chemical contaminants, but there is no one material that provides protection against all types of contaminants. Thus, several layers of protection should be considered when more than one contaminant is present or the hazards are unknown. Disposable boots, gloves, and splash suits are another way to provide an extra layer of protection. The selection of appropriate protective gear is on the basis of the hazards anticipated or recognized. Complete protection calls for assembling a set of gear including hardhat, safety glasses, or faceshield (preferably both), body covering (coveralls or pants and jacket), gloves, and safety shoes (steel toe and shank).

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Omitting one item may compromise the individual's safety. Some pieces of protective equipment such as hardhats and boots have specific standards for manufacture, and only those items meeting these standards should be used. Selections must be based upon judgment. Each type of protective clothing has a specific purpose, as well as limitations. The following are common problems associated with the use of protective clothing: · · · · No clothing is resistant to all chemicals. Workers have decreased manual dexterity and/or mobility. Vision is often impaired. Heat-stress may result from the prevention of normal body heat exchange mechanisms.

10.13

EPA LEVELS OF PROTECTION

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) levels of protection can be used as a starting point for assembly of protective clothing ensembles. However, each ensemble must be tailored to the specific situation in order to provide the best level of protection. The type of environment and the overall level of protection should be reevaluated periodically as the amount of information about the site increases and as workers are required to perform different tasks. Reasons to Upgrade: · · · Known or suspected presence of dermal hazards Occurrence or likely occurrence of gas or vapor emission Change in work task that will increase contact or potential contact with hazardous materials · Request of the individual performing the task

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Reasons to downgrade: · New information indicating that the situation is less hazardous than was originally thought · · Change in site conditions that decreases the hazard Change in work task that will reduce contact with hazardous materials

10.14

LEVELS OF PROTECTION

When response activities are conducted where atmospheric contamination is known or suspected to exist, PPE must be worn. PPE is designed to prevent/reduce skin and eye contact as well as inhalation or ingestion of the chemical substance. Protective equipment to protect the body against contact with known or anticipated chemical hazards has been divided into four categories.

10.14.1

LEVEL A

Level A protection should be worn when the highest level of respiratory, skin, eye, and mucous membrane protection is needed. PPE: · · · · · Positive-pressure (pressure demand), self-contained breathing apparatus Fully encapsulating chemical-resistant suit Gloves, inner, chemical-resistant Gloves, outer, chemical-resistant Boots, chemical-resistant, steel toe and shank (depending on suit boot construction, worn over or under suit boot) · Underwear, cotton, long-john type *

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· · · Hardhat (under suit) * Coveralls (under suit) * Two-way radio communications (intrinsically safe/non-sparking)

* Optional

10.14.2

LEVEL B

Level B protection should be selected when the highest level of respiratory protection is needed, but a lesser level of skin and eye protection. Level B protection is the minimum level recommended on initial site entries until the hazards have been further identified and defined by monitoring, sampling, and other reliable methods of analysis, and equipment corresponding with those findings utilized. PPE: · · Positive-pressure (pressure-demand), self-contained breathing apparatus Chemical-resistant clothing (overalls and long-sleeved jacket, coveralls, hooded two-piece chemical splash suit, disposable chemical-resistant coveralls) · · · · · · · Coveralls (under splash suit) * Gloves, outer, chemical-resistant Gloves, inner, chemical-resistant Boots, outer, chemical-resistant, steel toe and shank Boots, outer, chemical-resistant * Two-way radio communications (intrinsically safe) Hardhat *

* Optional

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training 10.14.3 LEVEL C

Level C protection should be selected when the type of airborne substance is known, concentration measured, criteria for using air-purifying respirators met, and skin and eye exposure is unlikely. Periodic monitoring of the air must be performed. PPE · · Full-face, air-purifying respirator Chemical-resistant clothing (one-piece coverall, hooded two piece chemical splash suit chemical-resistant hood and apron, disposable chemical-resistant coveralls) · · · · · · · · Gloves, outer, chemical-resistant Gloves, inner, chemical-resistant Boots, steel toe and shank, chemical-resistant Boots, outer, chemical-resistant * Cloth coveralls (inside chemical protective clothing) * Two-way radio communications (intrinsically safe) Hardhat * Escape mask *

* Optional

10.14.4

LEVEL D

Level D is primarily a work uniform. It should not be worn on any site where respiratory or skin hazards exist. Refer to the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Environmental Response Division. See "Interim Standard Operating Safety Procedures" for full details.

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The need for protective clothing and equipment is obvious for those of us who may work in hostile environments. Since one particular type of equipment or clothing will not fill the needs for all conditions, we will discuss some types and designs of protective equipment and clothing available.

Fully Encapsulating Suits The encapsulating type of body covering is most advantageous because most are impervious to dusts, liquids, and vapors. This type is a must in some atmospheres. · Possible advantages: ­ ­ ­ · Impervious Internal pressure May be used with an air pack and/or air manifold

Possible disadvantages: ­ ­ ­ Bulky Takes time for donning Donning is difficult for one person

Acid-Resistant Suits Most acid-resistant suits do not offer the "seal" that encapsulating suits have. Some acid-resistant suits have a hood cover for the head and may have exhalation valves that allow liquid to seep into the suit. · Possible advantages: ­ ­ Resistant to corrosive material Internal pressure

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­ · Some may be used with air pack and/or air manifold

Possible disadvantages: ­ ­ ­ Bulky Takes time for donning Poor "seal"

Fire Suits Aluminized fire suits are designed for heat reflection and the prevention of body contact with pyrophoric materials. These fire suits are not to be used in hazardous atmospheres other than those for which they were designed. · Possible advantages: ­ ­ ­ · Reflect heat Barrier between body and pyrophoric material Fairly easy to don

Possible disadvantages: ­ ­ Limited use Short life span

Plastic Suits Rainwear and clothlike plastics have a role in protective clothing with limitations. Plastics possess a barrier against many hazardous materials as pesticides and corrosives, but are poor barriers in heat situations. The wrists, neck, and ankle must be taped for a vapor barrier. · Possible advantages: ­ Availability

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­ ­ · Cost Light-weight

Possible disadvantages: ­ ­ Poor seal Thin, will tear

Bunker Suits Firefighter's bunker suits have built-in vapor barrier liners and are designed to reflect the heat. The outer fabric material can become impregnated with products such as pesticides. Bunker suits are very popular and can be used in some hostile environments with proper modifications. · Possible advantages: ­ ­ ­ · Design Cost Vapor Barrier

Possible disadvantages: ­ ­ Poor seal Fiber material

Hardhats Hardhats are needed for obvious reasons. Those that can be worn over a hood or have liners will offer protection from some materials.

·

Possible advantages: ­ Barrier to liquids

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­ · Protection from failing objects

Possible disadvantages: ­ Does not encapsulate the head

Gloves Gloves that are designed for firefighting should not be used if the gloves will absorb the spilled material or be porous to liquids and vapors. Hand coverings should also be compatible with the hazardous material. The gloves can be fastened to the coat with Velcro or be taped. · Possible advantages: ­ ­ · Hand protection Permits the use of hands

Possible disadvantages: ­ ­ Poor "seal" May not be compatible with all products

Boots Some protective clothing suits are not equipped with boots. Therefore, boot selection must match the type of clothing. Boots with steel insoles will prevent cuts, punctures. Taping clothing or wrapping and taping plastic bags to boots provides a good seal. · Possible advantages: ­ · Foot and leg protection

Possible disadvantages: ­ May not be compatible with hazardous material

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­ Respirators Some respirators are basically designed for escape from a hazardous atmosphere or to be used in an atmosphere above 19.5 percent oxygen level. Because of their simple construction and light weight, respirators are very popular, but are not as versatile as other types of breathing equipment. Poor "seal"

·

Possible advantages: ­ ­ ­ Size and weight Donning time Cost

·

Possible disadvantages: ­ ­ ­ Should not be used in an atmosphere less than 19.5 percent oxygen Limited to types of hazardous atmosphere Time limit on the filter

SCBA The self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) type of breathing equipment will fit the needs of most hazardous atmospheres and oxygen-deprived air. They are more complex in their construction, operation, and maintenance than the filter kind · Possible advantages: ­ ­ · Versatile May be used in an atmosphere less than 19.5 percent oxygen

Possible disadvantages:

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­ ­ ­ Cost Weight Oxygen and air containers must be refilled

10.15

DONNING AND DOFFING FULLY ENCAPSULATING SUITS

In responding to episodes involving hazardous substances, it may be necessary for response personnel to wear self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) and fully encapsulating suits to protect against toxic environments. Donning and doffing of both is a relatively simple task, but a routine must be established and practiced frequently. Not only do correct procedures help instill confidence in the wearer of the suit, they reduce the risk of exposure and the possibility of damage to the suit. It is especially important to remove the equipment systematically so as to prevent or minimize the transfer of contaminants from suit to wearer. The following procedures for donning and doffing apply to certain types of suits. They should be modified if a different suit or extra boots and gloves are worn. These procedures also assume that: · · · The wearer has been trained in the SCBA. The SCBA has been inspected and tested. Appropriate decontamination steps have been taken prior to removal of the suit or other components. · Sufficient air is available for routine decontamination and doffing of the suit.

Donning and doffing an encapsulating suit is more difficult if the user has to do it alone because of the physical effort required. The possibility of the wearer being exposed to contaminants or damaging the suit is also greatly increased. Therefore, assistance should be used in donning and doffing the equipment.

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training 10.15.1 DONNING

Before donning the suit, thoroughly inspect it for deficiencies that will decrease its effectiveness as the primary barrier for protecting the body. Do not use any suit with holes, rips, malfunctioning closures, or cracked masks. If the suit contains a hoodpiece, or a hard hat is worn, adjust it to fit the user's head. If the suit has a back enclosure for changing air bottles, open it. Use a moderate amount of talcum powder or cornstarch to prevent chafing and increase comfort. Both also reduce rubber binding. Use an antifog preparation on the suit and mask facepieces.

10.15.2

·

DONNING THE SUIT

While sitting, step into the legs, place your feet in properly, and gather the suit around your waist.

·

While sitting, put on the chemical-resistant steel toe and shank boots over the feet of the suit. Properly attach and seal suit leg over the top of the boot. For one-piece suits with heavy-soled protective feet, wear leather or short rubber safety boots inside the suit. Wear an additional pair of disposable boot protectors if appropriate.

·

Put on the SCBA airtank and harness assembly. Don the facepiece and adjust it securely yet comfortably. Do not connect breathing hose. Open the valve to the air tank. (The air tank and harness assembly could also be put on before stepping into the legs of the suit.)

·

Depending on the type of suit, either put on the inner gloves or for suits with detachable gloves, secure the gloves to the sleeves. (In some cases, extra gloves are worn over suit gloves.)

·

While standing, put your arms into the sleeves, and then your head into the hood of the suit. The helper pulls the suit up and over the SCBA, resting the hood on top of the SCBA and adjusting the suit around the SCBA backpack and user's shoulders to ensure unrestricted motion. To ease entry into the suit, bend at the knees as hood is placed over wearer's head. Avoid bending at the waist,

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as this motion tends to use up room in the suit rather than provide slack. For a tall or stout person, it is easier to put on the hood of the suit before getting into the sleeve. · Begin to secure the suit by closing all fasteners until there is only room to connect the breathing hose. Also, secure all belts and/or adjustable leg, head, and waist bands. Connect breathing hose while opening the main valve. · · When you are breathing properly in the SCBA, finish closing the suit. The helper should observe for a time to ensure that the wearer is comfortable and equipment is functioning properly.

10.15.3

DOFFING

Exact procedures must be established and followed to remove the fully encapsulating suit and SCBA. Adherence to these procedures is necessary to minimize or prevent contamination (or possible contamination) of the wearer through contacting the outside surface of the suit. The following procedures assume that before the suit is removed, it has been properly decontaminated, considering the type and extent of contamination, and that a suitably attired helper is available. · · Remove any extraneous or disposable clothing, boot covers, or gloves. If possible, wearer kicks off chemical-resistant boots unassisted. To achieve this, oversized boots are often selected. Otherwise, helper loosens and removes chemical-resistant boots. · Helper opens front of suit to allow access to SCBA regulator. As long as there is sufficient air pressure, hose is not disconnected. · Helper lifts hood of the suit over wearer's head and rests hood on top of SCBA air tank. For a tall or stout person, it is easier to remove the arms from the sleeves of the suit prior to removing the hood. · Remove external gloves.

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· To minimize contact with contaminated clothing, helper touches only the outside of the suit, and the wearer touches only the inside. Remove arms, one at a time, from suit. Helper lifts suit up and away from SCBA backpack, avoiding any contact between outside surface of suit and wearer's body. Helper lays suit out flat behind wearer. · · · · While sitting (preferably), remove both legs from suit. After suit is completely removed, roll internal gloves off your hands, inside out. Walk to clean area and follow procedure for doffing SCBA. Remove inner clothing, clean body thoroughly.

10.15.4

ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

If the worksite is very dirty or the potential for contamination is extremely high, wear disposable Tyvek or PVC coveralls over a fully encapsulating suit. Make a slit in back to fit around the bulge of the SCBA backpack. Wear clothing under the suit appropriate to outside temperatures. Even in hot weather, wear long cotton underwear, which absorbs perspiration and acts as a wick for evaporation, thus aiding body cooling. Long underwear also protects skin from contact with the hot surfaces of the suit, reducing the possibility of burns in hot weather. Monitor the wearer for heat stress. If a cooling device is used, modify the donning and doffing procedure. If the low-pressure warning alarm sounds signifying approximately five minutes of air remaining, signal your partner and get out of the hazard area.

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This assignment is an in-class exercise for all students in the 40-Hour and 24-Hour Course to accomplish. 1. Inspect, Don, Use, Doff, and Store respiratory equipment.

2. Inspect, Don, Use, Doff, and Store the highest PPE equipment you are being trained to use.

Answers found in Appendix B)

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11 METERING

11.1 OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this module, you should be able to do the following:

· · · · · ·

Understand the use and limitations of direct-reading instruments. Understand the variables that affect exposure at a hazardous material site. Use the information gathered to select personal protective equipment (PPE). Delineate areas where protection is needed. Assess the potential health effects of exposure. Determine the need for specific medical monitoring.

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11.2 METERING

Airborne contaminants can present a significant threat to worker health and safety. Thus, identification and quantification of these contaminants through air monitoring is an essential component of a health and safety program at a hazardous waste site. Reliable measurements of airborne contaminants are useful for: · · · · Selecting PPE. Delineating areas where protection is needed. Assessing the potential health effects of exposure. Determining the need for specific medical monitoring.

11.3 MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

The purpose of air monitoring is to identify and quantify airborne contaminants in order to determine the necessary level of worker protection. Initial screening for identification is often qualitative, i.e., the contaminant, or the class to which it belongs, is demonstrated to be present by the determination of its concentration (quantification) and must await subsequent testing. Two principal approaches are available for identifying and/or quantifying airborne contaminants: · · The on-site use of direct-reading instruments. Laboratory analysis of air samples obtained by gas sampling bag, filter, sorbent, or wet-contaminant collection methods.

11.3.1 DIRECT-READING INSTRUMENTS

Direct-reading instruments were developed as early warning devices in industrial settings where a leak or an accident could release a high concentration of a known chemical into the ambient atmosphere. Today, some direct-reading instruments can detect contaminants in concentrations down to one part contaminant per million (ppm) parts of air, although quantitative data are difficult to obtain when multiple

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contaminants are present. Unlike air sampling devices, which are used to collect samples for subsequent analysis in a laboratory, direct-reading instruments provide information at the time of sampling, enabling rapid decision-making.

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Direct-reading instruments may be used to rapidly detect: · · · · Flammable or explosive atmospheres. Oxygen deficiency. Certain gases and vapors. Ionizing radiation.

They are the primary tools of initial site characterization. The information provided by direct-reading instruments can be used to institute appropriate protective measures (e.g., PPE, and evacuation), to determine the most appropriate equipment for further monitoring, and to develop optimum sampling and analytical protocols. All direct-reading instruments are limited in some way in their ability to detect hazards: · · They usually detect and/or measure only specific classes of chemicals. They are not generally designed to measure and/or detect airborne concentrations below 1 ppm. · Many of the direct-reading instruments that have been designed to detect one substance also detect other substances (interference) and, consequently, may give false readings. Direct-reading instruments must be operated, and their data interpreted, by qualified individuals who are thoroughly familiar with each device's operating principles and limitations. The individual should also be knowledgeable of current operating instructions and calibration curves. At hazardous waste sites, where unknown and multiple contaminants are the rule rather than the exception, instrument readings should be interpreted conservatively. The following guidelines may facilitate accurate recording and interpretation:

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· Calibrate instruments according to the manufacturer's instructions before and after every use. · Develop chemical response curves if these are not provided by the instrument manufacturer. · Remember that the instrument's readings have limited value where contaminants are unknown. When recording readings of unknown contaminants, report them as "needle deflection" or "positive instrument response" rather than specific concentration (i.e., ppm). Conduct additional monitoring at any location where a positive response occurs. · A reading of zero should be reported as "no instrument response" rather than "clean" because quantities of chemicals may be present that are not detectable by the instrument. · The survey should be repeated with several detection systems to maximize the number of chemicals detected. Tables 1 and 2 list several direct-reading instruments and the conditions and/or substances they measure. The flame ionization detector (FID) and the photo-ionization detector (PID) are commonly used at hazardous waste sites.

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11.4 LABORATORY ANALYSIS

Direct-reading personal monitors are available for only a few specific substances and are rarely sensitive enough to measure the minute quantities of contaminants, which may include health changes. Thus, to detect relatively low-level concentrations of contaminants, long-term or "full-shift" personal air samples must be analyzed in a laboratory. Full-shift air samples for some chemicals may be collected with passive dosimeters or by means of a pump that draws air through a filter or sorbent. Table 3 lists some sampling and analytical techniques used at hazardous sites. Selection of the appropriate sampling media depends largely on the physical state of the contaminants. For example, chemicals such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and PNAs (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) occur as both vapors and particulate-bound contaminants. A dual-media system is needed to measure both forms of these substances. The volatile component is collected on a solid absorbent and the nonvolatile component is collected on a filter. More than two dozen dual-media, sampling techniques have been evaluated by NIOSH. Mobile laboratories may be brought on-site to classify hazardous wastes for disposal. A mobile laboratory is generally a trailer truck that houses analytical instruments capable of rapidly classifying contaminants by a variety of techniques. Usually, a few of the field samples collected are analyzed on-site to provide rapid estimates of the concentration of airborne contaminants. These data can be used to determine the initial level of worker personal protection necessary to modify field sampling procedures and to guide the fixed-base laboratory analysis. If necessary, samples screened in the mobile laboratory can be subsequently re-analyzed in sophisticated fixed-base laboratories.

11.5 SITE MONITORING

Priorities for air monitoring should be on the basis of the information gathered during initial site characterization. This information serves as the basis for selecting the

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appropriate monitoring equipment and PPE to use when conducting site monitoring. Depending on-site conditions and project goals, four categories of site monitoring may be necessary: monitoring for IDLH and other dangerous conditions, general on-site monitoring, perimeter monitoring, and periodic monitoring.

11.5.1 MONITORING IDLH AND OTHER DANGEROUS CONDITIONS

As a first step, air monitoring should be conducted to identify any IDLH and other dangerous conditions, such as flammable or explosive atmospheres, oxygen-deficient environments, and highly toxic levels of airborne contaminants. Direct-reading monitoring instruments will normally include combustible gas indicators, oxygen meters, calorimetric indicator tubes, and organic vapor monitors. Other monitoring instruments may be necessary on the basis of the initial site characterization. Monitoring personnel should be aware that conditions can suddenly change from non-hazardous to hazardous. Acutely hazardous concentrations of chemicals may persist in confined and low-lying spaces for long periods of time. Look for any natural or artificial barriers, such as hills, tall buildings, or tanks, behind which air might be still, allowing concentrations to build. Examine any confined spaces such as cargo holds, mine shafts, silos, storage tanks, box cars, buildings, bulk tanks, and dumps, where chemical exposures capable of causing acute health effects are likely to accumulate. Low-lying areas, such as hollows and trenches, are also suspect. Monitor these spaces for IDLH and other dangerous conditions. In open spaces, toxic materials tend to be emitted into the atmosphere, transported away from the source, and dispersed. Thus acutely hazardous conditions are not likely to persist in open spaces for extended periods of time unless there is a very large (and hence, readily identifiable) source, such as an overturned tank car. Open spaces are therefore generally given a lower monitoring priority.

TABLE 3

Some Sample Collection and Analytical Methods Substance Collection Devicea Analytical Method

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Limit Typical Detection Limit of Analytic Instrument (g)

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Anions: Bromide Chloride Fluoride Nitrate Phosphate Sulfate Aliphatic Amines Asbestos Metals Organics Nitrosamines Particulates PCBs Pesticides MCEF MCEF Charcoal tube Thermosorb/N MCEF GF filter and florisil tube 13-mm GF filter and chromosorb 102 tube

aMCEF

Prewashed Silica Gel Tube

Ion Chromatography

10

Silica Gel

GC/NPDb

10

PCM ICP-AES GC/MS GC/TEA Gravimetric GC-ECD GC/MS

100c 0.5 10 0.01

0.001 0.05

= mixed cellulose ester filter. GF - glass fibre filter = gas chromatography and nitrogen/phosphorus detector

bGC/NPD

PCM = phase contrast microscopy ICP-AES = inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry GM/MS = gas chromatography using an electrical conductivity detector

cUnits

in fibers per mm2 of filter (Method No. 7400 from the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods,

3rd edition)

11.5.2 GENERAL ON-SITE MONITORING

Air sampling should be conducted using a variety of media to identify the major classes of airborne contaminants and their concentrations. The following sampling pattern can be used as a guideline. First, after visually identifying the sources of possible generation, collect air samples downwind from the designated source along the axis of the wind direction. Work upwind, until reaching or getting as close as

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possible to the source. Level B protection should be worn during this initial sampling. Levels of protection for subsequent sampling should be based on the results obtained and the potential for an unexpected release of chemicals.

11.5.3 PERIMETER MONITORING

Fixed-location monitoring at the "fence line" or perimeter, where PPE is no longer required, measures contaminant migration away from the site and enables the Site Safety Officer to evaluate the integrity of the site's clean areas. Since the fixed-location samples may reflect exposures either upwind or downwind from the site, wind speed and direction data are needed to interpret the sample results.

11.5.4 PERIODIC MONITORING

Site conditions and atmospheric chemical conditions may change following the initial characterization. For this reason, monitoring should be repeated periodically, especially when: · · · · Work begins on a different portion of the site. Different contaminants are being handled. A markedly different type of operation is initiated. Workers are handling leaking drums or working in areas with obvious liquid contamination.

11.5.5 PERSONAL MONITORING

The selective monitoring of high-risk workers, i.e., those who are closest to the source of contaminant generation, is highly recommended. This approach is on the basis of the rationale that the chance of significant exposure varies in direct proportion to the distance from the source. If workers closest to the source are not significantly exposed, they probably do not need to be monitored. Since occupational exposures are linked closely with active material handling, personal air sampling should not be necessary until site mitigation has begun.

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Personal monitoring samples should be collected in the breathing zone and if workers are wearing respiratory protective equipment outside the facepiece. Personal monitoring may require the use of a variety of sampling media. Unfortunately, single workers cannot carry multiple sampling media because of the added strain and because it is not usually possible to draw air through different sampling media using a single portable, battery-operated pump. Consequently, several days may be required to measure the exposure of a specific individual using each of the media. Alternatively, if workers are in teams, a different monitoring device can be assigned to each team member.

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1. What are the two principal approaches to identifying and/or quantifying airborne contaminants? _____________________________ _____________________________

2. Where should you use direct-reading instruments? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

3. Generally, what level of protection should be worn during initial sampling? A B C D E

(Answers found in Appendix B)

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1. Watch the Video HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SPILL CLEANUP. CLEANUP 2. Go through Section 12 ­ HAZMAT Spill Cleanup.

Day 4 (A.M.)

3. Go through Section 13 ­ Decontamination. 4. Go through Section 14 ­ Termination Procedure.

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12

HAZMAT SPILL CONTROL

12.1 OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this program, the candidate will demonstrate, through a series of tests and practical applications, the skills required to safely respond to and control a hazardous material incident. · · · State the difference between containment and confinement. State the five steps in spill/leak response. Understand different control methods and materials and their limitations for: ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Covering Containerizing Diking Diverting Damming Absorbing

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12.2 PURPOSE

We will look at the purpose of controlling releases, the various steps that are involved, as well as the different methods that are used throughout the hazardous materials emergency response industry.

12.3 PURPOSE OF CONTROLLING HAZARDOUS MATERIAL RELEASES:

Emergency responders must know how to use techniques to minimize or prevent harm to life, environment, and property.

12.4 OUTCOME CONSIDERATIONS

12.4.1 SPILLS MUST BE HANDLED PROPERLY

An improper action, regardless of good intentions, can risk the lives and health of many people and can cause permanent environmental damage.

12.4.2 WHERE SPILLS CAN OCCUR

Hazardous material spills can occur at any time in the chemical's life cycle "from cradle to grave."

12.4.3 OUTCOMES OF INAPPROPRIATE CONTROL METHODS

Emergency responders, in handling hazardous material spills, often create, most unwittingly, tremendous environmental cleanup problems. Goal: To prevent harm to the environment. The goal of spill control is to prevent or at least to minimize environmental damage resulting from exposure to a released hazardous substance.

Preventing environmental damage is more important than preventing property damage.

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12.5 OBJECTIVES

12.5.1 CONTAINMENT

The first objective is to prevent a hazardous substance from escaping from a damaged container--to stop the flow of the material from its original container, which is known as "containment."

12.5.2 CONFINEMENT

The second objective is to control where a hazardous material that has already been spilled or otherwise released from its container is going.

12.6 STEPS IN SPILL/LEAK RESPONSE

· · · · · Identify the material and its associated hazards. Use proper protective clothing and equipment. Stop the flow and the source (confinement). Confine spilled material to the immediate area (confinement). Recover spilled material (utilizing a professional cleanup company).

12.7 CONTROL METHODS

12.7.1 CONTAINMENT

Containment refers to controlling the flow at the source. This means either preventing the release or stopping the flow at the container itself.

12.7.2 CONFINEMENT

Confinement is any action employed to control where a spilled hazardous material is going. Confinement methods vary with the state of the substance when released from its container: · Solid

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· · Liquid Gas

12.8 SOLIDS

Containerization Containerizing refers to the technique of confining the spilled material by placing the chemical and/or its container in a larger, intact container. Covering Covering a powdered hazardous material can easily be done by using a tarp, plastic sheeting, soil, etc. Whatever you use to cover the solid, be sure it is compatible with the chemical! Using water spray to dampen dusts or powders will prevent them from becoming wind-borne may also facilitate their absorption into the soil and thus into the water table below.

12.9 LIQUIDS RETAINING

When liquids are being discharged from an elevated source--such as from a pipe or aboveground leak--they can be collected in a temporary basin, bucket, portable dump, etc., for later disposal.

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12.10

DIKES

When a liquid is spilled, it tends to seek the lowest level of the terrain. Use dikes to direct the flow of a spilled liquid either away from a critical exposure or toward a desirable location for holding the chemical. Dikes can be built of soil, clay, soil-filled plastic bags, etc. Even a fire hose filled with water can act as a dike. Avoid digging holes or trenches in the path of the liquid to contain or direct it. This tends to increase the rate of soil permeation and groundwater contamination. Protect storm drains by covering them with plastic sheeting or tarp and lining the edges with dirt or heavy objects. Diverting the flow of a spilled liquid by building dikes and isolating the liquid in a particular area is an interim method that can be used so that final confinement and recovery of the material can be accomplished more easily.

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12.11

ABSORPTION

Absorption refers to a technique that utilizes any solid capable of absorbing a liquid several times its own weight and mass. The sorbent must be compatible with the spilled substance. The sorbent will become contaminated with chemicals and will have to be transported to the disposal site. Contaminated sorbent materials possess all of the hazards of the chemicals they have absorbed: · · · Flammability Toxicity Reactivity, etc.

12.11.1 SORBENT MATERIALS

· · Dirt is much more absorbent than sand. Sawdust can react with some materials, and does not hold onto the absorbed material for very long. · Vermiculite is extremely effective and is usually available in quantity at places that supply materials for lightweight concrete, "cottage-cheese ceilings," insulators, etc. · Absorbent clay is also very effective. The key to obtaining such resources as is to identify local agencies and businesses with the resource as normal "in-house" stock that is accessible 24 hours a day. · Diatomaceous earth is available in quantities from local suppliers. Sorbent and imbibing materials retain the spilled material until put through a chemical process to reverse molecular adhesion.

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12.12

DAMS

Dams are a barrier built to hold back flowing water or material. They are effective for controlling water and hazardous material movement through drainage or ditches.

12.12.1 SIMPLE DAMS

A simple dam is a wall that keeps the chemically contaminated water in one place. Simple dams are built by shoveling dirt into a natural eddy or drainage ditch to allow pooling of the material. Dirt dams are only a temporary solution, they require constant monitoring and reinforcement. The chemical may readily permeate the soil and dirt dams are easily eroded by pressure as the liquid level rises. Simple dirt dams can be improved by lining them with plastic sheeting or by placing the soil in plastic garbage bags before placement.

12.12.2 COMPLEX DAMS

There are two types of complex dams: · Overflow Dams are used for immiscible substances that tend to sink in water. These dams are designed to allow the water to overflow the dam wall while trapping the heavier liquid chemical. · Underflow Dams work on the opposite principle. Designed for use with immiscible substances that tend to float on water, they allow the water to flow under the dam wall while trapping the lighter chemical behind at the top. Prior to constructing either type of separation dam, build a "confinement area" using simple dams or dikes to buy time while the complex dams are being constructed. In some cases, it may be necessary to build two or more confinement areas, each a little farther downstream, to buy sufficient lead time to complete larger, complex separation dams.

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12.13

COVERING

Covering a spilled liquid will reduce vapor production dramatically. Liquids may be covered with plastic sheeting or in the case of high-density liquids (that tend to sink), water or foam may be used to cover them. Whatever material is used to cover the spilled liquid, be sure it is compatible with the chemical before applying it.

12.14

GASES AND VAPORS

Gases tend to engulf an area in all directions at once. Gases with a vapor density less than 1.0 have a tendency to rise in air, while those greater than 1.0 have a tendency to sink.

12.14.1 GASES ESCAPING INDOORS

Heavier-than-air gases escaping in an aboveground building will tend to drift to lower floors, while lighter-than-air gases escaping at ground level or below will rise in a building to upper floors.

12.14.2 GASES ESCAPING OUTDOORS

Gases that are released from their containers and vapors that are formed from evaporating liquids and solids are more difficult to control. Gases will dissipate in the atmosphere over time. This process can be facilitated by using portable fans or water fog spray. Remember the steps in spill/leak response: 1. Identify the material and its associated hazards. 2. Use proper protective clothing and equipment. 3. Stop the flow at the source. 4. Confine spilled material to the immediate area, recover spill.

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The person who attempts to handle the spill leak response must be in positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus and protective clothing compatible with the material. The initial mitigation strategy should focus on controlling the spill/leak at the source. If you can't stop the leak with available resources and common sense, then at least confine the spilled material, secure the scene, and request qualified assistance.

12.15

RECOVERY OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Recovery of hazardous materials is a very important phase of the response to a chemical release. There are a number of ways in which recovery of hazardous materials may be accomplished, but one must be careful to match the recovery techniques and equipment with the physical and chemical properties of the material involved. The following text will review some of the techniques and equipment that may be used in recovering hazardous materials.

12.15.1 SINKING PRODUCTS

Sinking products are those with a specific gravity greater than 1.0. They pose special recovery problems when spilled into watercourses. Dredging may be feasible if: · · · The boundary of the spilled product is known. Special precautions are taken for the chemical involved. Disposal and treatment of the solid waste can be accomplished.

12.15.2 MECHANICAL DREDGES (CLAMSHELL, DIPPER, AND BUCKET)

· Advantages: ­ ­ Good for deep-water excavation Work well in confined areas

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­ · Do not create a large excess of material

Disadvantages: ­ ­ No storage capabilities Not useful on free liquids

12.15.3 PNEUMATIC DREDGES (HYDRAULIC PIPELINE SYSTEMS)

· ­ ­ · ­ Advantages: No depth restriction Portability Disadvantage: Cables and pipelines cause navigational obstructions

12.16

WATER-SOLUBLE PRODUCTS

Water-soluble products are materials that can be mixed in water. They require total removal of the contaminated water if the product is present in harmful quantities and cannot be treated where it is confined. Various types of pumping devices such as depression pumps may be used, taking into consideration the properties of containment and the possible fire explosive or toxic problems, which could result.

12.17

FLOATING PRODUCTS

Products that float in water are recovered in many instances using techniques and equipment designed for recovery of crude-oil-related products. The potential hazards of many chemicals, however, are considerably greater from both a toxic and flammability standpoint than crude oil. Many hazardous floating chemicals are more difficult to detect and monitor than oil, and they present a greater problem in this regard, as well.

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12.18

SORBENT

Sorbents may be used to pick up spills of certain hazardous materials on the surface of the water, below the surface of the water (if the sorbent is sufficiently hydrophobic), and on land. Sorbents are only cost effective on smaller spills and for final polishing. Storage, transport, disposal, and possible reuse are problems, which should be addressed when considering the use of sorbents. Sorbents work in two ways: Absorption--the material is pulled into the body of the sorbent, such as a pad or Absorption sponge. Adsorption--the material adheres or clings to the surface of the sorbent. Adsorption There are three classes of sorbents: · · · Natural materials; Mineral materials; and Synthetic materials.

materials--straw, sawdust, rice hulls Natural materials · Advantages: ­ ­ Cheap Readily available

·

Disadvantages: ­ ­ ­ Absorb water and will sink Not compatible with some hazardous materials Low sorption capacity (3 to 6 times sorbent weight)

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Mineral Materials--vermiculite, perlite, volcanic ash Mineral Materials · Advantages: ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ · Relatively cheap Available Do not absorb water Float indefinitely Sorbent capacity (4 to 8 times sorbent weight)

Disadvantages: ­ ­ Dusty Hard to recover

Synthetic Materials--polyurethane, polypropylene, polyethylene, cross-linked Materials polymers · Advantages: ­ ­ ­ ­ · Sorption capacity (25 to 30 times sorbent weight) Many forms Reusable Hydrophobic and hydrophilic forms available

Disadvantages: ­ ­ ­ Cost Availability Ultimate disposal

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material rial--Fast absorption, must be confined. Loose material Sorbent pads--Easy to work with, good for wiping equipment and small spill pickup. pads pillows--Used as "sandbags," drain filtration, large sorbent area. Sorbent pillows sweeps--Good for corralling thin spills or scattered patches. Sorbent sweeps rolls--Shoreline protection, material can be torn to any size. Sorbent rolls booms-- Sorbent booms--Good for some containment, useful as backup to containment boom, can be used to soak up small spills. generation--Urethane foam, easily stored, must be shredded, very Foam generation expensive.

12.18.2 SPECIALTY SORBENTS

beads--Cross-linked polymeric beads, no water absorption, absorbed Dow imbiber beads material cannot be squeezed from beads, lessens vapors, many forms. Usage · For light fuels, chlorinated solvents, aromatic solvents, many polar compounds. Will not absorb viscous oils, low molecular weight alcohols, or highly polar materials. Hazorb--for land spills, low-toxicity inorganic foam. Diamond Shamrock Hazorb Usage · Wide application: acids, alkalies, solvents, hydrocarbons; absorbs water, not reusable. 3M-LSM 3M-LSM--Many forms, 12 times body weight absorption, effective on most liquids. Usage · Works well on fuels, lubricants, coolants, acids, bases, emulsions, oils.

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Permasorb--Free-flowing granular solid, chemically inert under most conditions, Permasorb can gel up to 200 times weight of water, high ionic strength or extreme pHs reduce absorbent capacity, will retain 80 percent at 2 pounds per square inch, effective on water-based materials or emulsions only.

12.19

CONCLUSION

Recovery of products can be accomplished under some conditions by using equipment or materials compatible with the hazardous material that has been spilled. Floating products or those contained on land are easiest to remove, while recovery of sinking or miscible products present a much more difficult task in cases involving spills into watercourses. Oil spill recovery technology and equipment can be applied effectively to most floating products. In most cases, simple commonsense and ingenuity are your best resources when devising means of controlling hazardous material releases. Remember, however, that "preplanning" prevents poor performance, especially when handling hazardous materials incidents.

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1. What are the five steps in spill/leak response? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

2. Why would you build a dike?

3. Which is NOT a good sorbent material because it may react with some materials? · · · · Vermicule Absorbent clay Sawdust Diatomaceous earth

4. A gas with a vapor density of 1.4 is released. Where will the gas go? a. It will rise to the upper floors. b. It will sink to the lower floors. c. It will remain on the same floor.

(Answers found in Appendix B)

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13 DECONTAMINATION

13.1 OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this module, you should be able to do the following: ·

Identify the advantages and limitations of each of the following decontamination methods: ­ ­ ­ Absorption Chemical degradation Dilution

·

Explain the need for decontamination procedures at hazardous materials incidents.

·

Identify the considerations associated with the placement, location, and setup of the decontamination corridor.

·

Understand basic considerations for decontamination during medical emergencies.

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13.2 DECONTAMINATION

Personnel responding to hazardous substance incidents may become contaminated in a number of ways, including: · · · · Contacting vapors, gases, mists, or particulates in the air. Being splashed by materials while sampling or opening containers. Walking through puddles of liquids or on contaminated soil. Using contaminated instruments or equipment.

Protective clothing and respirators help prevent the wearer from becoming contaminated or inhaling contaminants. Good work practices help reduce contamination on protective clothing, instruments, and equipment. Even with these safeguards, contamination may occur. Harmful materials can be transferred into clean areas, exposing unprotected personnel. In removing contaminated clothing, personnel may touch contaminants on the clothing or inhale them. To prevent such occurrences, methods to reduce contamination, and decontamination procedures, must be developed and implemented before anyone enters a site and must continue (modified when necessary) throughout site operations. Decontamination consists of physically removing contaminants or changing their chemical nature to innocuous substances. Decontamination methods and the extent of decontamination performed depends on a number of factors, the most important being the types of contaminants involved. The more harmful the contaminant, the more extensive and thorough decontamination must be. Less harmful contaminants may require less decontamination. Decontamination, proper doffing of PPE, and the use of site work zones minimizes cross-contamination from protective clothing to the wearer, equipment to personnel, and one area to another. Only general guidance can be given on methods and

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techniques for decontamination. The exact procedure must be determined after evaluating a number of factors specific to the incident.

13.3 INCIDENT SAFETY PRACTICES

The most hazardous part of an emergency incident is, typically, the scene itself. The most hazardous time for the responders is generally when they arrive, primarily because of the many unknowns at that point. One of the most important points of Hazardous Materials Emergency Response (HMRT) is to steer away from the typical idea of "rushing right in to take care of the problem." This recklessness must be avoided! A good, safe practice to follow when responding to Hazmat emergencies is to approach from uphill and upwind, being sure to leave a clear escape route. Driving through or past a vapor cloud, visible spill, or flow of product should never be attempted. First responders should quickly control access to the hazard area. When this is accomplished, the area around the hazard itself can be secured. Finally, practical access/egress points can be reestablished on the basis of the size and scale of the incident and the resource and the resources needed to control it. The IC has established zones for the safe operation of Emergency Responders. These zones are called the HOT, WARM, and COLD ZONES. The purpose serves to control personnel entering contaminated or hazardous areas and to prevent the spread of contaminants to other responders and the environment. These zones should be set up in advance and must be obviously marked or delineated by the use of traffic cones, banner tape, or tarps to contain contaminated runoff. DECONTAMINATION ALWAYS TAKES PLACE IN THE WARM ZONE. · Zone-- Hot Zone--Exclusion Zone Responders who require decontamination leave this work zone and enter the warm zone for decontamination. · Zone--Contamination Warm Zone--Contamination Reduction Zone

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The intermediary area between the hot zone and a safe area where the decontamination area is set up and rescue teams stand by. Contaminated equipment that has been used must be placed in a separate container for cleaning just outside the entry point. · Zone-- Cold Zone--Support Zone This zone must be protected from contamination. The cold zone serves to provide the necessary medical surveillance and rehabilitation of workers or responders.

13.4 INITIAL PLANNING

The initial decontamination plan assumes all personnel and equipment leaving the Exclusion Zone (area of potential contamination) are grossly contaminated. A system is then set up for personnel decontamination to wash and rinse, at least once, all the protective equipment worn. This is done in combination with a sequential doffing of PPE, starting at the first station with the most heavily contaminated item and progressing to the last station with the least contaminated article. Each piece requires a separate station. The spread of contaminants during the washing and doffing process is further reduced by separating each decontamination station by a minimum of three feet. Ideally, contamination should decrease as a person moves from one station to another further along in the line. While planning site operations, methods should be developed to prevent the contamination of people and equipment. For example, using remote sampling techniques, not opening containers by hand, bagging monitoring instruments, using drum grapplers, watering down dusty areas, and not walking through areas of obvious contamination would reduce the probability of becoming contaminated and require a less elaborate decontamination procedure. An attempt must be made to identify the chemical that will require decontamination. The MSDS may offer information as to the proper decontamination material.

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Specific conditions at the site are then evaluated, including: · · · · · · Type of contaminant The amount of contamination Levels of protection required Work function being performed Location of contamination Reason for leaving the site

There are two key questions from a health and safety standpoint that are answered to determine which physical or chemical decontamination method should be used. · · What method is most effective for the specific substance? Does the method itself pose any hazards?

The initial decontamination plan is then modified, eliminating unnecessary stations or otherwise adapting it to site conditions. For instance, the initial plan might require a complete wash and rinse of chemical-resistant garments. If disposable garments are worn, the wash/rinse step could be omitted. Wearing disposable boot covers and gloves could eliminate washing and rinsing these items and reduce the number of stations needed. An area within the Contamination Reduction Zone is designated the Contamination Contamination Reduction Corridor (CRC). The CRC controls access into and out of the Exclusion Zone and confines decontamination activities to limited areas. The size of the corridor depends on the number of stations in the decontamination procedure. A corridor of 75 feet should be adequate for full decontamination. Whenever possible, it should be a straight path. The CRC boundaries should be conspicuously marked, with entry and exit restricted. The far end is the Hot Line, the boundary between the Exclusion Zone and the Contamination Reduction Zone. Personnel leaving the Exclusion Zone must go through the CRC. Anyone in the CRC should be wearing the level of

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protection designated for the decontamination crew. Another corridor may be required for heavy equipment needing decontamination. Within the CRC, distinct areas are set aside for decontamination of personnel, portable field equipment, removed clothing, etc. These areas should be marked and personnel restricted to those wearing the appropriate level of protection. All activities within the corridor are confined to decontamination. Personal protective clothing, respirators, monitoring equipment, and sampling supplies are all maintained outside of the CRC. Personnel don their protective equipment away from the CRC and enter the Exclusion Zone through a separate access control point at the Hot Line. Once decontamination procedures have been established, all personnel requiring decontamination must be given precise instructions (and practice, if necessary). Compliance must be frequently checked. The time it takes for decontamination must be ascertained. Personnel wearing SCBAs must leave their work area with sufficient air to walk to the CRC and go through decontamination.

13.5 EXTENT OF DECONTAMINATION REQUIRED

The original decontamination plan must be adapted to specific conditions found at incidents. These conditions may require more or less personnel decontamination than planned, depending on a number of factors. · Contaminant--The extent of personnel decontamination depends on the Type of Contaminant effects and degree of toxicity (or other hazard). Whenever it is known or suspected that personnel can become contaminated with highly toxic or skin-damaging substances, a full decontamination must be performed. Depending on the materials involved, the procedure can be downgraded. · Contamination--The amount of contamination on protective clothing Amount of Contamination is usually determined visually. If it is badly contaminated, a thorough decontamination is generally required. Hazardous material residue may degrade or permeate clothing. This likelihood increases with higher air concentrations and greater amounts of liquid contamination. Gross

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contamination also increases the probability of personnel contact. Swipe tests may help determine the type and quantity of surface contaminants. There are five major factors that affect the extent of permeation of contaminants into PPE. 1. Contact time 2. Concentration 3. Temperature 4. Size of the contaminant molecules and size of the pores 5. Physical state of the waste/hazardous material

13.6 LEVEL OF PROTECTION

The Level of Protection and specific pieces of clothing worn determine, on a preliminary basis, the layout of the decontamination line. Each Level of Protection incorporates different problems in decontamination and doffing of the equipment. For example: Decontamination of the harness straps and backpack assembly of the self-contained breathing apparatus is difficult. A butyl rubber apron worn over the harness makes decontamination easier. Clothing variations and different Levels of Protection may require adding or deleting stations in the original decontamination procedure.

13.7 WORK FUNCTION

The work each person does determines the potential for contact with hazardous materials. In turn, this dictates the layout of the decontamination line. For example. observers, photographers, operators of air samplers, or others in the Exclusion Zone performing tasks that will not bring them in contact with contaminants may not need to have their garments washed and rinsed. Others in the Exclusion Zone with a potential for direct contact with the hazardous material will require more thorough decontamination. Different decontamination lines could be set up for different job functions, or certain stations in a line could be omitted for personnel performing certain tasks.

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13.8 LOCATION OF CONTAMINATION

Contamination on the upper areas of protective clothing poses a greater risk to the worker because volatile compounds may generate a hazardous breathing concentration both for the worker and for the decontamination personnel. There is also an increased probability of contact with skin when doffing the upper part of clothing.

13.9 REASON FOR LEAVING SITE

The reason for leaving the Exclusion Zone also determines the need and extent of decontamination. A worker leaving the Exclusion Zone to pick up or drop off tools or instruments and immediately returning may not require decontamination. A worker leaving to get a new air cylinder or to change a respirator or canister, however, may require some degree of decontamination. Individuals departing the CRC for a break, lunch, or at the end of the day, must be thoroughly decontaminated.

13.10

EFFECTIVENESS OF DECONTAMINATION

There is no method for immediately determining how effective the decontamination process is in removing contaminants. Signs of surface contamination visible to the eye in natural light are discolorations, stains, corrosive effects, alterations in the clothing fabric, and substances adhering to objects. However, observable effects only indicate surface contamination and not permeation (absorption) into clothing. Also, many contaminants are not easily observed.

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A method for determining the effectiveness of surface decontamination is swipetesting. Cloth or paper patches called swipes are wiped over predetermined surfaces of the suspect object and analyzed in a laboratory. Both the inner and outer surfaces of protective clothing should be swipe-tested. Positive indications of both sets of swipes would indicate surface contamination has not been removed and substances have penetrated or permeated through the garment. Swipe tests can also be done on skin or inside clothing. Permeation of protective garments requires laboratory analysis of a piece of the material. Both swipe and permeation testing provide after-the-fact information. Along with visual observations, results of these tests can help evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination.

13.11

DECONTAMINATION SOLUTION

For biological contamination, use a 10% mix of 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite (Cholorox Bleach) and 90% Distilled Water. For other decontamination, read MSDS for instructions on how to decontaminate. PPE, sampling tools, and other equipment are usually decontaminated by scrubbing with detergent-water using a soft-bristle brush followed by rinsing with copious amounts of water. While this process may not be fully effective in removing some contaminants (or in a few cases, contaminants may react with water), it is a relatively safe option compared with using a chemical decontaminating solution. This requires that the contaminant be identified. A decontamination chemical is then needed that will change the contaminant into a less harmful substance. Especially troublesome are unknown substances or mixtures from a variety of known or unknown substances. The appropriate decontamination solution must be selected in consultation with an experienced chemist or other trained professional.

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Decontamination equipment, materials, and supplies should be prepared in advance. Other considerations are ease of equipment decontamination or disposability. Most equipment and supplies can be easily procured. For example, soft-bristle scrub brushes or long-handled brushes are used to remove contaminants. Water in buckets or garden sprayers are used for rinsing. Large galvanized wash tubs or stock tanks can hold wash-and-rinse solutions. Children's wading pools can also be used. Large plastic garbage cans or other similar containers lined with plastic bags store contaminated clothing and equipment. Contaminated liquids can be stored temporarily in metal or plastic cans or drums. Other gear includes paper or cloth towels for drying protective clothing and equipment.

13.12

DECONTAMINATION METHODS

Dilution is the use of water to flush hazardous material from protective clothing and equipment. Before this method is used, consideration must be given to the water reactivity potential of the spilled material and the possibility of pollution caused by the runoff water. Also, it must be remembered that although the application of water to most hazardous materials will generally reduce the concentration, it will not change the material chemically. Absorption is the process of absorbing or "picking up" the hazardous material to prevent enlargement of the contaminated area. The material used for absorption should be chemically inert. The most readily available absorbent is soil and should be as dry as possible. Other examples include sand, clay, or commercially produced absorption products. Chemical Degradation alters the chemical structure of the hazardous material. The most commonly used degradation chemicals are sodium hypochlorite (bleach), sodium hydroxide (lye), sodium carbonate slurry (washing soda), calcium oxide slurry (hydrated lime), liquid detergents (household), and ethyl alcohol. Technical advice for chemical degradation should be obtained from the manufacturer of the product whenever possible. The principal advantage of chemical degradation is that

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the hazardous material is rendered less harmful than it was prior to decontamination. When it is not possible to decontaminate equipment or materials, the final remedy is disposal and isolation.

13.13

DECONTAMINATION OF EQUIPMENT

Measures should be taken to prevent contamination of sampling and monitoring equipment. Sampling devices become contaminated, but monitoring instruments, unless they are splashed, usually do not. Once contaminated, instruments are difficult to clean without damaging them. Any delicate instrument that cannot be easily decontaminated should be protected while it is being used. It should be placed in a clear plastic bag, and the bag taped and secured around the instrument. Openings are made in the bag for sample intake. Wood tools are difficult to decontaminate because they absorb chemicals. If they must be used, they should be kept on-site and handled only by protected workers. At the end of the response, wooden tools should be discarded. For decontaminating other tools, Regional Laboratories should be consulted. Certain parts of contaminated respirators, such as the harness assembly and leather or cloth components, are difficult to decontaminate. If grossly contaminated, they may have to be discarded. Rubber components can be soaked in soap and water and scrubbed with a brush. Regulators must be maintained according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Persons responsible for decontaminating respirators should be thoroughly trained in respirator maintenance. Bulldozers, trucks, backhoes, bulking chambers, and other heavy equipment are difficult to decontaminate. The method generally used is to wash them with water under high pressure and/or to scrub accessible parts with a detergent-and-water solution, under pressure if possible. In some cases shovels, scoops, and lifts have been sand-blasted or steam-cleaned. Particular care must be given to those components in direct contact with contaminants such as tires and scoops. Swipe tests should be used to measure the effectiveness of the decontamination effort.

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It is to be noted that byproducts of any equipment cleansing must themselves be considered hazardous waste and be contained and disposed of in the proper manner.

13.14

SANITIZING OF PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT

Respirators, reusable protective clothing, and other personal articles not only must be decontaminated before being reused, but also sanitized. The inside of masks and clothing become soiled because of exhalation, body oils, and perspiration. The manufacturer's instructions should be used to sanitize the respirator mask. If practical, protective clothing should be machine-washed after a thorough decontamination; otherwise, it must be cleaned by hand.

13.15

PERSISTENT CONTAMINATION

In some instances, clothing and equipment will become contaminated with substances that cannot be removed by normal decontamination procedures. Always consult with the manufacturer as to the proper method of decontamination. A solvent may be used to remove such contamination from equipment if it does not destroy or degrade the protective material. If persistent contamination is expected, disposable garments should be used. Testing for persistent contamination of protective clothing and appropriate decontamination must be done by qualified laboratory personnel.

13.16

DISPOSAL OF CONTAMINATED MATERIALS

All materials and equipment used for decontamination must be disposed of properly. Clothing, tools, buckets, brushes, and all other equipment that are contaminated must be secured in drums or other containers and labeled. Clothing not completely decontaminated on-site should be secured in plastic bags before being removed from the site. Contaminated wash-and-rinse solutions should be contained by using step-in containers (for example, child's wading pool) to hold spent solutions. Another containment method is to dig a trench about four inches deep and line it with plastic.

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In both cases, the spent solutions are transferred to drums, which are labeled and disposed of with other substances on-site, for proper disposal.

13.17

DECONTAMINATION DURING MEDICAL EMERGENCIES

Considerations--Part of the overall planning for incident response is Basic Considerations managing medical emergencies. The plan should provide for: · · Response team members fully trained in first-aid and CPR. Arrangements with the nearest medical facility for transportation and treatment of the injured, and for treatment of personnel suffering from exposure to chemicals. · · · Consultation services with a toxicologist. Emergency eyewashes, showers, and/or wash stations. First-aid kits, blankets, stretcher, and resuscitator.

In addition, the plan should establish methods for decontaminating personnel with medical problems and injuries. There is the possibility that the decontamination may aggravate or cause more serious health effects. If prompt lifesaving first-aid and medical treatment is required, minimal decontamination procedures should be followed. Whenever possible, response personnel should accompany contaminated victims to the medical facility to advise on matters involving decontamination.

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Lifesaving care should be instituted immediately with consideration to decontamination. The outside garments can be removed (depending on the weather) if they do not cause delays, interfere with treatment, or aggravate the problem. Respirators and backpack assemblies must always be removed. Fully encapsulating suits or chemical-resistant clothing can be cut away. If the outer contaminated garments cannot be safely removed, the individual should be wrapped in plastic, rubber, or blankets to help prevent contaminating medical personnel and the inside of ambulances. Outside garments are then removed at the medical facility. One exception would be if it is known that the individual has been contaminated with an extremely toxic or corrosive material that could also cause severe injury or loss of life. For minor medical problems or injuries, the normal decontamination procedures should be followed.

13.18

CHEMICAL EXPOSURE

Exposure to chemicals can be divided into two categories: · · Injuries from direct contact, such as acid burns or inhalation of toxic chemicals. Potential injuries because of gross contamination on clothing or equipment.

For inhaled contaminants, treatment can only be by qualified physicians. If the contaminant in on the skin or in the eyes, immediate measures must be taken to counteract the substance's effect. First-aid treatment usually is flooding the affected area with water; however, for a few chemicals, water may cause more severe problems. When protective clothing is grossly contaminated, contaminants may be transferred to treatment personnel or the wearer and cause injuries. Unless severe medical problems have occurred simultaneously with splashes, the protective clothing should be washed off as rapidly as possible and carefully removed.

13.19

PROTECTION FOR DECONTAMINATION WORKERS

The Level of Protection worn by decontamination workers is determined by:

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· · · · · Expected or visible contamination on workers. Type of contaminant and associated respiratory and skin hazards. Total vapor/gas concentrations in the contamination reduction corridor. Particulates and specific inorganic or organic vapors in the CRC. Results of swipe tests.

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1. Where does decontamination take place? a. b. c. Hot Zone Warm Zone Cold Zone

2. What five major factors affect the extent of permeation of contaminants into PPE? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

3. Incident response should take into account medical emergencies. What should the plan provide for?

(Answers found in Appendix B)

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14 TERMINATION PROCEDURE

14.1 OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this module, you should be able to do the following: · · · Understand the goals of a proper debriefing. Understand the topics that should be addressed during a debriefing. Understand the principles a good critique promotes mentally.

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14.2 PURPOSE OF TERMINATION PROCEDURES

Proper termination activities help ensure the safety of emergency response personnel and the general public and ensure that lessons learned are shared with other emergency response organizations.

14.3 COMPONENTS

Termination activities are divided into several phases, including debriefing and critiquing the incident.

14.4 SCOPE

Initially, the most involved group are the emergency responders who may be briefed in the signs and symptoms of a particular poison or special decon procedures. With larger incidents, the number of people with a need to know expands and may even include the investigation team or representatives from contractors or other agencies. Potential negative outcomes of failure to properly terminate an incident: · · · Incorrect hazard data could result in illness to those exposed Improper cleanup techniques Unsafe disposal procedures

14.5 DEBRIEFING

A debriefing distributes the right amount of information to the right people before they leave the incident scene. Goals--An effective debriefing should: Goals · Inform responders about which hazardous materials were involved and the signs and symptoms of exposure. · Provide information for personal exposure records.

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· Identify equipment damage and unsafe conditions requiring immediate attention, including isolation for further evaluation. · Assign information-gathering responsibilities for a post-incident analysis and critique. · Summarize the activities performed by each section, including topics for follow-up. Debriefings should begin as soon as the emergency phase of the operation is over. Whenever possible, this should be before first responders leave the scene. Debriefings should include the regional response team, section chiefs, branch directors, and other key players such as public information officers and those agency representatives who the IC determines have a need to know. Debriefings should be conducted in buildings or vehicles that are free from distractions such as cold or hot temperatures, emergency service radios, and loud generators. Debriefings should be conducted by one person acting as the chairperson and limited to a maximum of 45 minutes. Topics to be addressed are: · · · · · Provide health information. Equipment and apparatus exposure. Follow-up contact person. Problems requiring immediate action. Say "THANK YOU"

14.6 CRITIQUE

An effective critique program is a positive way to outline lessons learned. The more severe the incident, the more important it is to share what you have learned. A

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commitment to critique all Hazmat responses will improve emergency response personnel performance by improving efficiency and pinpointing weaknesses. A good critique mentally promotes: · · · · · Trust in the response system as being self-correcting. Willingness to cooperate through teamwork. Continuing training in skills and techniques. Preplanning for significant incidents. Sharing information between response agencies: ­

Never use a critique to assign blame--public meetings are the worst

time to discipline personnel.

­

Do use reviews as a valuable learning experience--everyone came

to the incident with good intentions.

14.7 SUMMARY

The proper management of any emergency incident--whether police, fire, medical, or natural disaster--requires continuing training and education of response personnel. When an incident also involves hazardous materials, the scope of what constitutes proper management only increases in complexity. Establishing and following formal termination procedures through debriefings and critiques helps ensure the safety of emergency response personnel and the general public and ensures that lessons learned are shared with other emergency response organizations.

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1. An effective debrief following a HAZMAT incident should:

2. A good critique mentally promotes:

(Answers found in Appendix B)

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Day 4 (P.M.)

Go through HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE INCIDENT EXERCISE #1 Critique HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE INCIDENT EXERCISE #1

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HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE INCIDENT EXERCISE #1

GROUND RULES

This exercise should be done outdoors in a parking lot. Potable water should be used to simulate hazardous materials. Students should don appropriate PPE and use actual cleanup equipment during exercise.

Students must NOT make actual telephone calls or sound actual alarms, but they should indicate which alarms and telephone calls they would make during an actual emergency. Signs should be clearly posted near the area reading "Training Exercise" to communicate to others who may be observing. Safety must be #1. If at anytime during the incident exercise safety is compromised, the exercise must be terminated.

SITUATION

A 55-gallon drum of paint thinner is punctured by a forklift. The forklift driver is splashed. The spilled liquid is running toward a storm drain. What are you going to do?

ADDITIONAL POSSIBLE FACTORS TO INCLUDE DURING THE EXERCISE

There are a group of smokers taking a break in the yard and they do not see the incident. The forklift driver passes out. The paint thinner enters the storm drain.

STUDENTS REQUIRED TASKS

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Students will form a team and simulate a hazardous substance incident response from discovery through cleanup. Students will make all of the appropriate warning calls and alarms (remember to only simulate this), don the appropriate PPE, simulate applying first aid, use fire fighting equipment (simulate) and do a cleanup of a hazardous material (using potable water as a substitute). Students not performing the exercise should critique the exercise using the worksheet on the following page. All students involved in the exercise should critique their performance at the conclusion of the exercise.

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CRITIQUE WORKSHEET FOR EXERCISE

1. Chemical(s) in the incident:

2. Information consulted during the incident (i.e. MSDSs, Warning Labels, etc.)

3. Warnings Given/Telephone Calls Made.

4. PPE Used

5. First Aid Rendered

6. Cleanup Materials

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training 7. Fire/Explosive Hazard

8. Other Cautions

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Day 5 (A.M.)

Go through HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE INCIDENT EXERCISE #2 Critique HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE INCIDENT EXERCISE #2 Optional Go through OPTIONAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE INCIDENT SUBSTANCE EXERCISE Critique OPTIONAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE INCIDENT EXERCISE

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HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE INCIDENT EXERCISE #2

GROUND RULES

This exercise should be done outdoors in a parking lot. Potable water should be used to simulate hazardous materials. Students should don appropriate PPE and use actual cleanup equipment during exercise.

Students must NOT make actual telephone calls or sound actual alarms, but they should indicate which alarms and telephone calls they would make during an actual emergency. Signs should be clearly posted near the area reading "Training Exercise" to communicate to others who may be observing. Safety must be #1. If at anytime during the incident exercise safety is compromised, the exercise must be terminated.

SITUATION

The valve of a 2000-gallon tank of sodium hydroxide is broken open. The secondary containment tank is ¾ full. It is beginning to rain. What are you going to do?

ADDITIONAL POSSIBLE FACTORS TO INCLUDE DURING THE EXERCISE

Vehicles are operating in the yard less than 30 feet from the leaking tank. The sodium hydroxide is about to enter a nearby creek.

STUDENTS REQUIRED TASKS

Students will form a team and simulate a hazardous substance incident response from discovery through cleanup. Students will make all of the appropriate warning

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training calls and alarms (remember to only simulate this), don the appropriate PPE, simulate applying first aid, use fire fighting equipment (simulate) and do a cleanup of a hazardous material (using potable water as a substitute). Students not performing the exercise should critique the exercise using the worksheet on the following page. All students involved in the exercise should critique their performance at the conclusion of the exercise.

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CRITIQUE WORKSHEET FOR EXERCISE

1. Chemical(s) in the incident:

2. Information consulted during the incident (i.e. MSDSs, Warning Labels, etc.)

3. Warnings Given/Telephone Calls Made.

4. PPE Used

5. First Aid Rendered

6. Cleanup Materials

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8. Other Cautions

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OPTIONAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE INCIDENT EXERCISE #3

GROUND RULES

This exercise should be done outdoors in a parking lot. Potable water should be used to simulate hazardous materials. Students should don appropriate PPE and use actual cleanup equipment during exercise. Students must NOT make actual telephone calls or sound actual alarms, but they should indicate which alarms and telephone calls they would make during an actual emergency. Signs should be clearly posted near the area reading "Training Exercise" to communicate to others who may be observing. Safety must be #1. If at anytime during the incident exercise safety is compromised, the exercise must be terminated.

SITUATION

As you are about to leave home for the day, you hear a crash in the parking lot. A tanker truck carrying chlorine has jack-knifed and struck a pickup truck. The pick-up truck's engine is on fire. What are you going to do?

ADDITIONAL POSSIBLE FACTOR TO INCLUDE DURING THE EXERCISE

The pick-up truck driver is unconscious.

STUDENTS REQUIRED TASKS

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training Students will form a team and simulate a hazardous substance incident response from discovery through cleanup. Students will make all of the appropriate warning calls and alarms (remember to only simulate this), don the appropriate PPE, simulate applying first aid, use fire fighting equipment (simulate) and do a cleanup of a hazardous material (using potable water as a substitute). Students not performing the exercise should critique the exercise using the worksheet on the following page. All students involved in the exercise should critique their performance at the conclusion of the exercise.

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WORKSHEET CRITIQUE WORKSHEET FOR EXERCISE

1. Chemical(s) in the incident:

2. Information consulted during the incident (i.e. MSDSs, Warning Labels, etc.)

3. Warnings Given/Telephone Calls Made.

4. PPE Used

5. First Aid Rendered

6. Cleanup Materials

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8. Other Cautions

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Day 5 (P.M.)

1. Take the Final Exam 2. Correct the Final Exam 3. Course Critique 4. Distribute Completion Certificates

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APPENDIX A

List of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) For Exercises and Assignments

IMPORTANT NOTE: Do not use these MSDSs in your workplace. They are to be used only in this training course. Always use the most current provided MSDS provided by the manufacturer of the products you use in your workplace.

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ACETONE

1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

Synonyms: Dimethylketone; 2-propanone; dimethylketal CAS No.: 67-64-1 Molecular Weight: 58.08 Chemical Formula: (CH3)2CO Product Codes: J. Smith: 5356, 5580, 5805, 9001, 9002, 9003, 9004, 9005, 9006, 9007, 9008, 9009, 9010, 9015, 9036, 9125, 9254, 9271, A134, V655

2. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Ingredient --------------------------------------Acetone CAS No -----------67-64-1 Percent ------99 - 100% Hazardous --------Yes

3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

Emergency Overview -------------------------DANGER! EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOR. VAPOR MAY CAUSE FLASH FIRE. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. AFFECTS CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Health Rating: 1 - Slight Flammability Rating: 4 - Extreme (Flammable) Reactivity Rating: 2 - Moderate Contact Rating: 1 - Slight

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Lab Protective Equip: GOGGLES; LAB COAT; VENT HOOD; PROPER GLOVES; CLASS B EXTINGUISHER Storage Color Code: Red (Flammable) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Potential Health Effects ----------------------------------

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Inhalation: Inhalation of vapors irritates the respiratory tract. May cause coughing, dizziness, dullness, and headache. Higher concentrations can produce central nervous system depression, narcosis, and unconsciousness. Ingestion: Swallowing small amounts is not likely to produce harmful effects. Ingestion of larger amounts may produce abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Aspiration into lungs can produce severe lung damage and is a medical emergency. Other symptoms are expected to parallel inhalation. Skin Contact: Irritating due to defatting action on skin. Causes redness, pain, drying and cracking of the skin. Eye Contact: Vapors are irritating to the eyes. Splashes may cause severe irritation, with stinging, tearing, redness and pain. Chronic Exposure: Prolonged or repeated skin contact may produce severe irritation or dermatitis. PreAggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Use of alcoholic beverages enhances toxic effects. Exposure may increase the toxic potential of chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as chloroform, trichloroethane.

4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention. Ingestion: Aspiration hazard. If swallowed, vomiting may occur spontaneously, but DO NOT INDUCE. If vomiting occurs, keep head below hips to prevent aspiration into lungs. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Call a physician immediately. Skin Contact: Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical attention. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean

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shoes before reuse. Eye Contact: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting upper and lower eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention.

5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Fire: Flash point: -20C (-4F) CC Autoignition temperature: 465C (869F) Flammable limits in air % by volume: lel: 2.5; uel: 12.8 Extremely Flammable Liquid and Vapor! Vapor may cause flash fire. Explosion: Above flash point, vapor-air mixtures are explosive within flammable limits noted above. Vapors can flow along surfaces to distant ignition source and flash back. Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fire. Sealed containers may rupture when heated. This material may produce a floating fire hazard. Sensitive to static discharge. Fire Extinguishing Media: Dry chemical, alcohol foam or carbon dioxide. Water may be ineffective. Water spray may be used to keep fire exposed containers cool, dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures, protect personnel attempting to stop leak and disperse vapors. Special Information: In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.

6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

Ventilate area of leak or spill. Remove all sources of ignition. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment as specified in Section 8. Isolate hazard area. Keep unnecessary and unprotected personnel from entering. Contain and recover liquid when possible. Use nonsparking tools and equipment. Collect liquid in an appropriate container or absorb with an inert material (e. g., vermiculite, dry sand, earth), and place in a chemical waste container.

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Do not use combustible materials, such as saw dust. Do not flush to sewer! If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray to disperse the vapors, to protect personnel attempting to stop leak, and to flush spills away from exposures. US Regulations (CERCLA) require reporting spills and releases to soil, water and air in excess of reportable quantities. The toll free number for the US Coast Guard National Response Center is (800) 424-8802.

7. HANDLING AND STORAGE

Protect against physical damage. Store in a cool, dry well-ventilated location, away from any area where the fire hazard may be acute. Outside or detached storage is preferred. Separate from incompatibles. Containers should be bonded and grounded for transfers to avoid static sparks. Storage and use areas should be No Smoking areas. Use non-sparking type tools and equipment, including explosion proof ventilation. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (vapors, liquid); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.

8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION

Airborne Exposure Limits: Acetone: -OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): 1000 ppm (TWA) -ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 500 ppm (TWA), 750 ppm (STEL) A4 - not classifiable as a human carcinogen Ventilation System: A system of local and/or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures below the Airborne Exposure Limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion of it into the general work area. Please refer to the ACGIH document, Industrial Ventilation,

A Manual of Recommended Practices, most recent edition, for details.

Personal Respirators (NIOSH Approved):

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If the exposure limit is exceeded, a half-face organic vapor respirator may be worn for up to ten times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face piece organic vapor respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-face piece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Air-purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. Skin Protection: Wear impervious protective clothing, including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron or coveralls, as appropriate, to prevent skin contact. Eye Protection: Use chemical safety goggles and/or a full face shield where splashing is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.

9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Appearance: Clear, colorless, volatile liquid. Odor: Fragrant, mint-like Solubility: Miscible in all proportions in water. Specific Gravity: 0.79 @ 20C/4C pH: No information found. % Volatiles by volume @ 21C (70F): 100 Boiling Point: 56.5C (133F) @ 760 mm Hg Melting Point: -95C (-139F) Vapor Density (Air=1):

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2.0 Hg): Vapor Pressure (mm Hg): 400 @ 39.5C (104F) Evaporation Rate (BuAc=1): ca. 7.7

10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability: Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Hazardous Decomposition Products: Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may form when heated to decomposition. Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur. Incompatibilities: Concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid mixtures, oxidizing materials, chloroform, alkalis, chlorine compounds, acids, potassium t-butoxide, caustic potash. Conditions to Avoid: Heat, flames, ignition sources and incompatibles.

11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Oral rat LD50: 5800 mg/kg; Inhalation rat LC50: 50,100mg/m3; Irritation eye rabbit, Standard Draize, 20 mg severe; investigated as a tumorigen, mutagen, reproductive effector. --------\Cancer Lists\--------------------------------------------------------NTP Carcinogen--Ingredient -----------------------------------Acetone (67-64-1) Known ----No Anticipated ----------No IARC Category ------------None

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12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Environmental Fate: When released into the soil, this material is expected to readily biodegrade. When released into the soil, this material is expected to leach into groundwater. When released into the soil, this material is expected to quickly evaporate. When released into water, this material is expected to readily biodegrade. When released to water, this material is expected to quickly evaporate. This material has a log octanol-water partition coefficient of less than 3.0. This material is not expected to significantly bioaccumulate. When released into the air, this material may be moderately degraded by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. When released into the air, this material may be moderately degraded by photolysis. When released into the air, this material is expected to be readily removed from the atmosphere by wet deposition. Environmental Toxicity: This material is not expected to be toxic to aquatic life. The LC50/96-hour values for fish are over 100 mg/l.

13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be handled as hazardous waste and sent to a RCRA approved incinerator or disposed in a RCRA approved waste facility. Processing, use or contamination of this product may change the waste management options. State and local disposal regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations. Dispose of container and unused contents in accordance with federal, state and local requirements.

14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION

Domestic (Land, D.O.T.) ----------------------Proper Shipping Name: ACETONE Hazard Class: 3 UN/NA: UN1090 Packing Group: II

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Information reported for product/size: 350LB International (Water, I.M.O.) -----------------------------

Proper Shipping Name: ACETONE Hazard Class: 3.1 UN/NA: UN1090 Packing Group: II Information reported for product/size: 350LB

15. REGULATORY INFORMATION

--------\Chemical Inventory Status - Part 1\--------------------------------Ingredient Acetone (67-64-1) TSCA Yes EC --Yes Japan ----Yes Australia --------Yes ----------------------------------------------- ----

--------\Chemical Inventory Status - Part 2\----------------------------------Canada-Ingredient ----------------------------------------------Acetone (67-64-1) Korea ----Yes DSL --Yes NDSL ---No Phil. ----Yes

--------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 1\----------------SARA 302Ingredient ----------------------------------------Acetone (67-64-1) RQ --No ------SARA 313-----TPQ ----No List ---Yes Chemical Catg. -------------No

--------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 2\----------------RCRA-TSCA380

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Ingredient ----------------------------------------Acetone (67-64-1) CERCLA -----5000 261.33 -----U002 8(d) -----No

Chemical Weapons Convention: No SARA 311/312: Acute: Yes Reactivity: No (Pure / Liquid)

TSCA 12(b): Yes

CDTA: Yes

Chronic: No Fire: Yes Pressure: No

Australian Hazchem Code: 2[Y]E Poison Schedule: No information found. WHMIS: This MSDS has been prepared according to the hazard criteria of the Controlled Products Regulations (CPR) and the MSDS contains all of the information required by the CPR.

16. OTHER INFORMATION

NFPA Ratings: Health: 1 Flammability: 3 Reactivity: 0 Label Hazard Warning: DANGER! EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOR. VAPOR MAY CAUSE FLASH FIRE. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. CAUSES IRRITATION TO SKIN, EYES AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. AFFECTS CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Label Precautions: Keep away from heat, sparks and flame. Keep container closed. Use only with adequate ventilation. Wash thoroughly after handling. Avoid breathing vapor. Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Label First Aid: Aspiration hazard. If swallowed, vomiting may occur spontaneously, but DO NOT INDUCE.

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If vomiting occurs, keep head below hips to prevent aspiration into lungs. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Call a physician immediately. If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes or skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. In all cases, get medical attention. Product Use: Laboratory Reagent. Revision Information: No changes.

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LIQUID CHLORINE

======================================================= MSDS Safety Information ======================================================= FSC: 6830 NIIN: 00-281-3464 MSDS Date: 07/17/1997 MSDS Num: BKBKT Product ID: LIQUID CHLORINE MFN: 01 Responsible Party Cage: 0G5T1 Name: PRILLAMAN CHEMICAL CORP Address: 201 SUBBURBAN DR Box: 1606 City: SUFFOLK VA 23434-1606 Info Phone Number: 804-539-7401 Emergency Phone Number: 804-539-7401 ======================================================= Item Description Information ======================================================= Item Manager: S9G Item Name: CHLORINE, TECHNICAL Specification Number: BB-C-120 Type/Grade/Class: NONE Unit of Issue: CY Quantitative Expression: 00000000150LB UI Container Qty: 0 Type of Container: CYLINDER ======================================================= Ingredients ======================================================= Cas: 7782-50-5 RTECS #: FO2100000

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Name: CHLORINE (SARA III) % Wt: 100 Other REC Limits: NONE SPECIFIED OSHA PEL: (C) 1 PPM ACGIH TLV: 0.5 PPM/1 STEL; 9293 EPA Rpt Qty: 10 LBS DOT Rpt Qty: 10 LBS ======================================================= Health Hazards Data ======================================================= LD50 LC50 Mixture: PRODUCT'S LD50 (ORAL RAT) WAS NOT STATED Route Of Entry Inds - Inhalation: YES Skin: YES Ingestion: NO Carcinogenicity Inds - NTP: NO IARC: NO OSHA: NO Effects of Exposure: INHALATION: SEVERE RESPIRATORY IRRITATION, COUGHING, BURNING, CHEST PAIN, VOMITING, HEADACHE, ANXIETY & FEELING OFSUFFOCATION. SEVERE EXPOSURE PNEUMONITIS & PULMONARY EDEMA, DENTAL EROSION, REDUCED PULMONA RY CAPACITY. INGESTION: UNLIKELY. SKIN: BURNS, BLISTERS. EYES: EXTREME IRRITATION, BURNS. CHRONIC:EXPOSURE ABOVE T LV MAY RESULT IN REDUCED LUNG CAPACITY, BRONCHITIS AND DENTAL EROSION. Explanation Of Carcinogenicity: NOT LISTED AS A CARCINOGEN BY NTP OR IARC. Signs And Symptions Of Overexposure: INHALATION: SEVERE RESPIRATORY IRRITATION, COUGHING, BURNING, CHEST PAIN, VOMITING, HEADACHE, ANXIETY & FEELING OFSUFFOCATION. SEVERE EXPOSURE PNEUMONITIS & PULMONARY EDEMA, DENTAL EROSION, REDUCED PULMONA RY CAPACITY. INGESTION: UNLIKELY. SKIN: BURNS, BLISTERS. EYES: EXTREME IRRITATION, BURNS. Medical Cond Aggravated By Exposure: MFR GAVE NO INFORMATION ON MSDS.

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First Aid: TREAT INHALATION FIRST. EYE: FLUSH W/WATER FOR 15 MIN. SKIN: REMOVE CONTAMINATED CLOTHING & FLUSH W/WATER. INHALED: REMOVE FROM EXPOSURE. ADMINISTER OXYGEN UNTIL BREATHING IS EASY. GET IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION. INGESTED: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. GIVE SEVERAL GLASSES OF MILK OR WATER TO DRINK. GET IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION. NOTHING BY MOUTH IF UNCONSCIOUS. ======================================================= Handling and Disposal ======================================================= Spill Release Procedures: IF >10 LB (RQ), REPORT SPILL. KEEP UPWIND & VENTILATE AREA. WEAR FULL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT & SHUT OF LEAK AT SOURCE. CONTAIN LIQUID & PREVENT DISCHARGE TO STREAMS & SEWERS. CONTROL LOSS OF VOLITILES T O ATMOSPHERE. DO NOT APPLY WATER TO LEAK. Neutralizing Agent: MFR GAVE NO INFORMATION ON MSDS. Waste Disposal Methods: REMOVE LEAKING CONTAINER TO ISOLATED AREA. POSITION TO RELEASE GAS NOT LIQUID. ABSORB IN ALKALINE SOLUTION (CAUSTIC SODA, SODA ASH, HYDRATED LIME). AS CHLORINE GAS WILL DISPERSE TO THE ATMOSPHERE LEAVING NO RESIDUE. UNUSED GAS CYLINDERS MAYBE RETURNED TO MANUFACTURER OR TO A QUALIFIED WASTE DISPOSAL COMPANY. EPA HAZ WASTE #D003, D001. Handling And Storage Precautions: STORE IN WELL-VENTILATED AREA W/LOW FIRE POTENTIAL & AWAY FROM INCOMPATIBLES. KEEP AWAY FROM HEAT & SOURCE OF IGNITION. PROTECT FROM WEATHER & DAMAGE. Other Precautions: AVOID INHALATION OF VAPORS & BODY CONTACT AS MOISTURE FORMS WEAK ACID. TRAIN WORKERS IN CHLORINE HANDLING. KEEP CHLORINE HANDLING SYSTEMS FREE OF ORGANICS, CLEAN, DRY & PROTECTED FROM FIRE. ======================================================= Fire and Explosion Hazard Information =======================================================

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Lower Limits: NONFLAMMABLE Upper Limits: NONFLAMMABLE Extinguishing Media: USE WATER TO KEEP FIRE-EXPOSED CONTAINERS COOL. IF IT IS NECESSARY TO STOP THE FLOW OF GAS. USE WATER SPRAY TO DIRECT ESCAPING GAS AWAY FROM EFFECTING THE SHUT-OFF. Fire Fighting Procedures: WEAR FULL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING. USE EXTINGUISHING MEDIA AS APPROPRIATE FOR SURROUNDING FIRE. REMOVE CONTAINERS FROM FIRE ZONE IMMEDIATELY, UNLESS LEAKING. TOW TANK CARS & BARGES FROM DANGER AREA. WEAR SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS. Unusual Fire/Explosion Hazard: CHLORINE GAS OR LIQUID IS NONEXPLOSIVE AND NONFLAMMABE. HOWEVER, LIKE OXYGEN, IT IS CAPABLE OF SUPPORTING COMBUSTION OF CERTAIN SUBSTANCES. REACTS EXPLOSIVELY OR FORMS EXPLOSIVE COMPOUNDS WITH MANY CH EMICALS SUCH AS ETHER AND HYDROGEN. ======================================================= Control Measures ======================================================= Respiratory Protection: USE NIOSH APPROVED ACID GAS CHEMICAL CARTRIDGE RESPIRATOR OR FULL FACE W/CANISTER. USE SUPPLIED AIR RESPIRATOR IN POSITIVE PRESSURE MODE FOLLOWING ANSI Z117-1977 FOR TANK & CONFINED SPACE ENTRY. Ventilation: USE CLOSED SYSTEM WHEN POSSIBLE. PROVIDE GENERAL AND LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION TO MEET OSHA CEILING EXPOSURE LIMIT OF 1PPM. Protective Gloves: IMPERVIOUS (LATEX & RUBBER RECOMMENDED) Eye Protection: CHEMICAL GOGGLES & FACE SHIELD Other Protective Equipment: HIGH CONCENTRATIONS: FULL BODY PROTECTION. LIGHT CONCENTRATIONS: TYVEC SUIT SEALED AT NECK, WRISTS, ANKLES IS FUNCTIONAL. Work Hygienic Practices: USE STRICT CHEMICAL HYGIENE PRACTICES. AVOID CONTACT IF AT ALL POSSIBLE. WASH THOROUGHLY AFTER HANDLING. Supplemental Safety and Health: DANGER! POISON GAS! HAZARDOUS LIQUID & GAS

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UNDER PRESSURE. MAY CAUSE CHEMICAL PHEUMONIA & DEATH IN HIGH CONCENTRATIONS. MAY CAUSE SEVERE IRRITATION TO EYES, SKIN & RESPIRATORY TRACT. LIQUID MAY BURN E YES & SKIN. CAN REACT EXPLOSIVELY W/ORGANIC PRODUCTS. TOXIC TO FISH. ======================================================= Physical/Chemical Properties ======================================================= HCC: G6 NRC/State LIC No: NONE Net Prop WT For Ammo: NONE Boiling Point: >-34.C, -29.2F B.P. Text: -34C THRU -100 M.P/F.P Text: -148F,-100C Decomp Text: UNKNOWN Vapor Pres: 114 PSI Vapor Density: 2.5 Spec Gravity: 1.4 PH: 0.7 Viscosity: UNKNOWN Solubility in Water: 0.7% Appearance and Odor: AMBER COLOR LIQUID. GREENISH-YELLOW GAS. PUNGENT IRRITATING ODOR. Percent Volatiles by Volume: 100 Corrosion Rate: UNKNOWN

======================================================= Reactivity Data ======================================================= Stability Indicator: YES Stability Condition To Avoid: AVOID RELEASING CHLORINE GAS INTO THE ATMOSPHERE. DO NOT PLACE NEAR HEAT/ FIRE. NEVER USE WATER ON SOURCE OR CHLORINE LEAK.

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WATER FOG CAN BE USED TO DIRECT FLOW OF GAS. Materials To Avoid: REDUCING AGENTS, COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. KEEP AWAY FROM MATERIALS SUCH AS HYDROCARBONS, AMMONIA, HYDROGEN, ETHER, POWDERED METALS, SULFUR, AND ALUMINUM. MOIST CHLORINE IS VERY CORROSIVE TO MOST METALS. STRONG OXIDIZER. Hazardous Decomposition Products: HYDROCHLORIC ACID AND HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. Hazardous Polymerization Indicator: NO Conditions To Avoid Polymerization: WILL NOT OCCUR. AVOID INCOMPATIBLE DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS AS ALKALIES, REDUCING AGENTS, ORGANIC MATERIALS. ======================================================= Toxicological Information ======================================================= Toxicological Information: MAXIMUM DRINKING WATER USE CONCENTRATION= 30 MG/L AS CHLORINE. ======================================================= Ecological Information ======================================================= ======================================================= MSDS Transport Information ======================================================= Transport Information: REGULATED FOR TRANSPORTAION. INHALATION HAZARD. FORBIDDEN BY AIR TRANSPORTATION INCLUDING PASSENGER AND CARGO. ======================================================= Regulatory Information ======================================================= Sara Title III Information: SEC 313: LISTED. CHLORINE IS ALSO ON THE LIST AS REQUIRED UNDER SEC. 101(14) OF CERCLA WHICH INCLUDES SUBSTANCES DESIGNATED PURSUANT TO SEC. 311 OF THE CLEAN WATER ACT, HAZ WASTE UNDER SEC. 3001 OF RCRA TOXIC POLLUTANTS, UNDER SEC. 307 OF CLEAN

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WATER ACT, HAZARDOUS ACT POLLUTANTS UNDER SEC 112 OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT, IMMINENTLY HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS UNDER SEC. 7 OF TSCA. Federal Regulatory Information: CHLORINE IS DESIGNATED A HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE BY 29 CFR SEC. 1910 SUBPART Z. FIFRA IS APPLICABE IF CHLORINE IS USED AS A PESTICIDE OR IN WATER OR SEWER TREATMENT APPLICATION. ======================================================= Other Information ======================================================= ======================================================= Transportation Information ======================================================= Responsible Party Cage: 0G5T1 Trans ID NO: 65834 Product ID: LIQUID CHLORINE MSDS Prepared Date: 07/17/1997 Review Date: 07/23/1997 MFN: 1 Net Unit Weight: 150.00 LB AF MMAC Code: NR Multiple KIT Number: 0 Review IND: Y Unit Of Issue: CY Container QTY: 0 Type Of Container: CYLINDER Additional Data: FORBIDDEN FOR AIR TRANSPORT.ZONE B INHALATION HAZARD.SHIP AFTER CARGO ONLY.IMDG MARINE POLLUTANT; CATEGORY D STOWAGE; REFER TO PAGE 2116 OF THE IMDG CODE.NSN OF CONTAINER; 812000-285-0786. ======================================================= Detail DOT Information ======================================================= DOT PSN Code: DDA DOT Proper Shipping Name: CHLORINE Hazard Class: 2.3

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UN ID Num: UN1017 Label: POISON GAS, CORROSIVE Special Provision: 2, B9, B14 Non Bulk Pack: 304 Bulk Pack: 314,315 Max Qty Pass: FORBIDDEN Max Qty Cargo: FORBIDDEN Vessel Stow Req: D Water/Ship/Other Req: 40,51,55,62,68,89,90 ======================================================= Detail IMO Information ======================================================= IMO PSN Code: DYX IMO Proper Shipping Name: CHLORINE IMO PSN Modifier: P IMDG Page Number: 2116 UN Number: 1017 UN Hazard Class: 2(2.3) IMO Packaging Group: Subsidiary Risk Label: CORROSIVE EMS Number: 2-08 MED First Aid Guide NUM: 740 ======================================================= Detail IATA Information ======================================================= IATA PSN Code: ZZY IATA Proper Shipping Name: FORBIDDEN BY THIS MODE OF TRANSPORTATION ======================================================= Detail AFI Information ======================================================= AFI PSN Code: GBW AFI Proper Shipping Name: CHLORINE AFI Hazard Class: 2.3

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AFI UN ID NUM: UN1017 Special Provisions: P2, 2 Back Pack Reference: A6.5 ======================================================= HAZCOM Label ======================================================= Product ID: LIQUID CHLORINE Cage: 0G5T1 Company Name: PRILLAMAN CHEMICAL CORP Street: 201 SUBBURBAN DR PO Box: 1606 City: SUFFOLK VA Zipcode: 23434-1606 Health Emergency Phone: 804-539-7401 Label Required IND: Y Date Of Label Review: 09/08/1999 Status Code: C MFG Label NO: NONE Label Date: 07/23/1997 Year Procured: 1999 Origination Code: F Chronic Hazard IND: Y Eye Protection IND: YES Skin Protection IND: YES Signal Word: DANGER Respiratory Protection IND: YES Health Hazard: Severe Contact Hazard: Severe Fire Hazard: None Reactivity Hazard: Slight Hazard And Precautions: DANGER! POISON GAS! HAZARDOUS LIQUID & GAS UNDER PRESSURE. MAY CAUSE CHEMICAL PHEUMONIA & DEATH IN HIGH CONCENTRATIONS.

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MAY CAUSE SEVERE IRRITATION TO EYES, SKIN & RESPIRATORY TRACT. LIQUID MAY BURN E YES & SKIN. CAN REACT EXPLOSIVELY W/ORGANIC PRODUCTS. TARGET-ORGANS: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. FIRST AID:- EYES:FLUSH W/WATER FOR 15 MIN. SKIN: REMOVE CONTAMINATED CLOTHING & FLUSH W/WATER. INHALED: REMOVE FR OM EXPOSURE. ADMINISTER OXYGEN UNTIL BREATHING IS EASY. GET IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION. INGESTED:DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. GIVE SEVERAL GLASSES OF MILK OR WATER TO DRINK. GET IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTIO N. NOTHING BY MOUTH IF UNCONSCIOUS.

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MEK PEROXIDE (LIQUID HARDENER)

======================================================= MSDS Safety Information ======================================================= FSC: 6750 NIIN: 00-153-8922 MSDS Date: 09/01/1994 MSDS Num: CGMTD Product ID: LIQUID HARDENER (MEK PEROXIDE),602,603,CATALYST MFN: 01 Responsible Party Cage: 18731 Name: FIBRE GLASS-EVERCOAT CO.,INC. Address: 6600 CORNELL ROAD City: CINCINNATI OH 45242-2033 Info Phone Number: 513-489-7600/800-543-4530 Emergency Phone Number: 513-489-7600/800-424-9300(CHEMTREC) Preparer's Name: UNKNOWN Review Ind: Y Published: Y ======================================================= Contractor Summary ======================================================= Cage: 18731 Name: FIBRE GLASS-EVERCOAT CO INC Address: 6600 CORNELL ROAD City: CINCINNATI OH 45242 Phone: 513-489-7600 Cage: 9F681 Name: INDUSTRIAL ARTS SUPPLY CO (612-920-7393) Address: 5724 W 36TH ST Box: UNKNOW City: MINNEAPOLIS MN 55416

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Phone: 612-920-7393 ======================================================= Item Description Information ======================================================= Item Manager: S9I Item Name: HARDENER, PHOTOGRAPHIC Specification Number: NONE Type/Grade/Class: NONE Unit of Issue: EA UI Container Qty: 1 Type of Container: UNKNOWN ======================================================= Ingredients ======================================================= Cas: 1338-23-4 RTECS #: EL9450000 Name: METHYL ETHYL KETONE PEROXIDE (MEKP) (CERCLA) % Wt: 35 Other REC Limits: NONE RECOMMENDED OSHA PEL: C 0.7 PPM ACGIH TLV: C 0.2 PPM; 9596 EPA Rpt Qty: 10 LBS DOT Rpt Qty: 10 LBS -----------------------------Cas: 131-11-3 RTECS #: TI1575000 Name: DIMETHYLPHTHALATE (SARA 313) (CERCLA) % Wt: 50 Other REC Limits: NONE RECOMMENDED OSHA PEL: 5 MG/M3 ACGIH TLV: 5 MG/M3; 9596 EPA Rpt Qty: 5000 LBS DOT Rpt Qty: 5000 LBS

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-----------------------------Cas: 7722-84-1 RTECS #: MX0900000 Name: HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (SARA 302) % Wt: 1 Other REC Limits: NONE RECOMMENDED OSHA PEL: 1 PPM ACGIH TLV: 1 PPM; 9596 -----------------------------Cas: 78-93-3 RTECS #: EL6475000 Name: METHYL ETHYL KETONE (2-BUTANONE) (MEK) (SARA 313) (CERCLA) % Wt: 2 Other REC Limits: NONE RECOMMENDED OSHA PEL: 200 PPM ACGIH TLV: 200 PPM/300STEL; 9596 EPA Rpt Qty: 5000 LBS DOT Rpt Qty: 5000 LBS -----------------------------Name: ALIPHATIC ESTER % Wt: 12 Other REC Limits: NONE RECOMMENDED OSHA PEL: NOT ESTABLISHED ACGIH TLV: NOT ESTABLISHED ======================================================= Health Hazards Data ======================================================= LD50 LC50 Mixture: LD50 (ORAL, RAT) IS UNKNOWN. Route Of Entry Inds - Inhalation: YES Skin: NO Ingestion: NO Carcinogenicity Inds - NTP: NO IARC: NO OSHA: NO

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training

Effects of Exposure: TARGET ORGANS: EYE, SKIN, CNS, RESPIRATORY & GI TRACTS. ACUTE- EYE: CAN CAUSE BURNS, POSSIBLY BLINDNESS. SKIN: MAY CAUSE IRRITATION OR CHEMICAL BURNS. INHALE:OVEREXPOSURE MAY CAUSE CNS DEPRESSION, HEADACHE, DIZZINESS. ORAL: MAY CAUSE SEVERE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT IRRITATION. CHRONIC-UNKNOWN. Explanation Of Carcinogenicity: NONE Signs And Symptoms Of Overexposure: SEVERE IRRITATION, HEADACHE, DIZZINESS, WEAKNESS, FATIGUE, NAUSEA, VOMITING, DIARRHEA, ABDOMINAL PAIN, MUSCULAR WEAKNESS, BURNS, TEARING, LOSS OF VISION Medical Conditions Aggravated By Exposure: PERSONS WITH PRE-EXISTING SKIN DISORDERS, EYE PROBLEMS OR IMPAIRED RESPIRATORY FUNCTION MAY BE MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO THE EFFECTS OF THIS PRODUCT. First Aid: GET MEDICAL HELP IF SYMPTOMS PERSIST. INHALED:MOVE TO FRESH AIR. PROVIDE CPR/OXYGEN IF NEEDED. EYES:IMMEDIATELY FLUSH WITH WATER FOR 15 MINUTES, HOLDING EYELIDS OPEN. CALL PHYSICIAN. SKIN: IMMEDIATELY WASH WITH SOAP & WATER. ORAL: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. IFCONSCIOUS, DRINK SEVERAL GLASSES OF MILK OR WATER. SEEK IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION FOR LAVAGE (STOMACH WASH). ======================================================= Handling and Disposal ======================================================= Spill Release Procedures: WEAR PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. ELIMINATE SOURCES OF IGNITION. VENTILATE AREA. CONTAIN SPILL. SOAK UP SPILL WITH NONFLAMMABLE ABSORBANT. SWEEP UP ABSORBED MATERIAL AND PLACE IN A CHEMICAL WASTE CONTAINER FOR DISPOSAL. PREVENT FROM ENTERING SEWERS. Neutralizing Agent: NOT RELEVANT Waste Disposal Methods: DISPOSAL SHOULD BE MADE IN ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLE FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS. REUSING, RECYCLING OR INCINERATION IS RECOMMENDED. Handling And Storage Precautions: STORE AT OR BELOW 80F TO MAINTAIN ACTIVE

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OXYGEN CONTENT. KEEP AWAY FROM IGNITION SOURCES & INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Other Precautions: DO NOT GET IN EYES, ON SKIN/ON CLOTHING. AVOID INHALATION OF VAPORS/MIST. FOR INDUSTRIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL USE ONLY. READ AND FOLLOW ALL LABEL DIRECTIONS AND PRECAUTIONS. NEVER ADD PROMOTERS OR PROMOTED RESIN TO THIS PRODUCT. ======================================================= Fire and Explosion Hazard Information ======================================================= Flash Point Method: SCC Flash Point Text: >140F, >60C Lower Limits: UNKNOWN Upper Limits: UNKNOWN Extinguishing Media: DRY CHEMICAL, CARBON DIOXIDE, FOAM, WATER SPRAY/FOG. USE WATER SPRAY TO COOL FIRE-EXPOSED CONTAINERS. Fire Fighting Procedures: WEAR PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND NIOSH-APPROVED SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS. IF LARGE AMOUNT IS INVOLVED, FIGHT FIRE FROM SAFE DISTANCE USING WATER/FOAM. Unusual Fire/Explosion Hazard: HIGHLY REACTIVE AND THERMALLY UNSTABLE. DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS ARE FLAMMABLE AND CAN IGNITE WITH EXPLOSIVE FORCE IF CONFINED. PRODUCES FLAMMABLE VAPORS.

======================================================= Control Measures ======================================================= Respiratory Protection: IF ENGINEERING CONTROLS ARE INADEQUATE TO CONTROL VAPOR CONCENTRATIONS BELOW TLV, A NIOSH-APPROVED ORGANIC VAPOR RESPIRATOR WITH PARTICULATE FILTER OR SUPPLIED-AIR RESPIRATOR SHOULD BE WORN.

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Ventilation: MECHANICAL (GENERAL AND/OR LOCAL EXHAUST, EXPLOSION-PROOF) VENTILATION TO MAINTAIN EXPOSURE BELOW TLV(S). Protective Gloves: NEOPRENE, NATURAL RUBBER Eye Protection: SAFETY GLASSES - CHEMICAL SPLASH GOGGLES Other Protective Equipment: EYE WASH STATION AND SAFETY SHOWER. INDUSTRIAL-TYPE WORK CLOTHING AND APRON AS REQUIRED. Work Hygienic Practices: OBSERVE GOOD INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AND RECOMMENDED PROCEDURES. IMMEDIATIATELY WASH AFTER HANDLING AND BEFORE EATING OR DRINKING. Supplemental Safety and Health: KEY1: P1. KIT CONSISTS OF TWO PARTS: RESIN (6850-00-D00-6810) AND CATALYST (6750-00-153-8922). ======================================================= Physical/Chemical Properties ======================================================= HCC: F4 NRC/State LIC No: NOT RELEVANT B.P. Text: 293F, 145C M.P/F.P Text: UNKNOWN Decomp Text: UNKNOWN Vapor Pres: UNKNOWN Vapor Density: >1 Spec Gravity: 1.141 Viscosity: UNKNOWN Solubility in Water: UNKNOWN Appearance and Odor: LIQUID Corrosion Rate: UNKNOWN ======================================================= Reactivity Data ======================================================= Stability Indicator: YES Stability Condition To Avoid: TEMPERATURES ABOVE 100F, OPEN FLAMES, SPARKS, DIRECT SUNLIGHT, PROLONGED STORAGE ABOVE 90F Materials To Avoid: STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS, STRONG ACIDS, STRONG BASES,

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ACCELERATORS AND REDUCING AGENTS, METALLIC CONTAMINATION, AMINES Hazardous Decomposition Products: CARBON MONOXIDE, CARBON DIOXIDE, VARIOUS HYDROCARBONS Hazardous Polymerization Indicator: NO Conditions To Avoid Polymerization: NOT RELEVANT ======================================================= Toxicological Information ======================================================= ======================================================= Ecological Information =======================================================

======================================================= MSDS Transport Information ======================================================= ======================================================= Regulatory Information ======================================================= ======================================================= Other Information ======================================================= ======================================================= Transportation Information ======================================================= Responsible Party Cage: 18731 Trans ID NO: 51762 Product ID: LIQUID HARDENER (MEK PEROXIDE),602, 603, CATALYST MSDS Prepared Date: 09/01/1994 Review Date: 05/21/1998

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training

MFN: 1 Net Unit Weight: 9.2 LBS Multiple KIT Number: 0 Review IND: Y Unit Of Issue: EA Container QTY: 1 Type Of Container: UNKNOWN Additional Data: FORBIDDEN FOR TRANSPORTATION BY AIR INCLUDING PASSENGER AND CARGO AIRCRAFT. ======================================================= Detail DOT Information ======================================================= DOT PSN Code: KYV Symbols: G DOT Proper Shipping Name: ORGANIC PEROXIDE TYPE B, LIQUID Hazard Class: 5.2 UN ID Num: UN3101 DOT Packaging Group: II Label: ORGANIC PEROXIDE, EXPLOSIVE Special Provision: 53 Packaging Exception: NONE Non Bulk Pack: 225 Bulk Pack: NONE Max Qty Pass: FORBIDDEN Max Qty Cargo: FORBIDDEN Vessel Stow Req: D Water/Ship/Other Req: 12,40 ======================================================= Detail IMO Information ======================================================= IMO PSN Code: LAE IMO Proper Shipping Name: ORGANIC PEROXIDE TYPE B, LIQUID IMDG Page Number: 5221

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UN Number: 3101 UN Hazard Class: 5.2 IMO Packaging Group: II Subsidiary Risk Label: * EMS Number: 5.2-01 MED First Aid Guide NUM: 735 ======================================================= Detail IATA Information ======================================================= IATA PSN Code: ZZY IATA Proper Shipping Name: FORBIDDEN BY THIS MODE OF TRANSPORTATION ======================================================= Detail AFI Information ======================================================= AFI PSN Code: SNE AFI Symbols: * AFI Proper Shipping Name: ORGANIC PEROXIDE TYPE B, LIQUID AFI Hazard Class: 5.2 AFI UN ID NUM: UN3101 AFI Packing Group: II AFI Label: EXPLOSIVE Special Provisions: P3, 53 Back Pack Reference: TABLE A9.2.5 ======================================================= HAZCOM Label ======================================================= Product ID: LIQUID HARDENER (MEK PEROXIDE),602,603,CATALYST Cage: 18731 Company Name: FIBRE GLASS-EVERCOAT CO INC Street: 6600 CORNELL ROAD City: CINCINNATI OH Zipcode: 45242 Health Emergency Phone: 513-489-7600/800-424-9300(CHEMTREC) Label Required IND: Y

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Date Of Label Review: 05/21/1998 Status Code: C MFG Label NO: UNKNOWN Label Date: 05/21/1998 Year Procured: 1995 Origination Code: F Eye Protection IND: YES Skin Protection IND: YES Signal Word: DANGER Health Hazard: Moderate Contact Hazard: Severe Fire Hazard: Moderate Reactivity Hazard: None Hazard And Precautions: TARGET ORGANS: EYE, SKIN, CNS, RESPIRATORY & GI TRACTS. ACUTE- EYE: CAN CAUSE BURNS. SKIN: MAY CAUSE IRRITATION/BURNS. INHALE: OVEREXPOSURE MAY CAUSE CNS DEPRESSION. ORAL: MAY CAUSE SEVERE GI IRRITATION. CHRONIC- UNKNOWN. STORE AT OR BELOW 80F,AWAY FROM IGNITION SOURCES & INCOMPATIBLES. PICK UP SPILL WITH NONFLAMMABLE ABSORBANT. FIRST AID - GET MEDICAL HELP IF SYMPTOMS PERSIST. INHALED: MOVE TO FRESH AIR. PROVIDE CPR/OXYGEN IF NEEDED. EYES: IMMEDIATELY FLUSH WITH WATER FOR 15 MINUTES. HOLD EYELIDS OPEN. CALL PHYSICIAN. SKIN: WASH WITH SOAP & WATER. ORAL: DON'T INDUCE VOMITING. IFCONSCIOUS, DRINK PLENT Y OF MILK/WATER. SEEK IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION

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PAINT THINNER, MINERAL SPIRITS.

======================================================= MSDS Safety Information ======================================================= FSC: 8010 NIIN: 00-597-5251 MSDS Date: 03/05/1996 MSDS Num: CKJSN Product ID: PAINT THINNER, MINERAL SPIRITS. MFN: 02 Responsible Party Cage: 0YFV5 Name: BEST CHEMICAL INC Address: 5 MAIN STREET Box: 111 City: HOUSTON TX 77305 Info Phone Number: 409-539-6244 Emergency Phone Number: (800) 424-9300 Chemtrec IND/Phone: (800) 424-9300 Review Ind: Y Published: Y ======================================================= Contractor Summary ======================================================= Cage: 0YFV5 Name: BEST CHEMICAL INC Address: 5 MAIN STREET Box: 111 City: HOUSTON TX 77305 Phone: 409-539-6244 ======================================================= Item Description Information ======================================================= Item Name: THINNER, PAINT PRODUCTS

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training

Specification Number: UNKNOWN Type/Grade/Class: UNKNOWN Type of Container: CAN ======================================================= Ingredients ======================================================= Cas: 8052-41-3 RTECS #: WJ8925000 Name: MINERAL SPIRITS (STODDARD SOLVENT) Other REC Limits: NIOSH350MG/M3CL1800 OSHA PEL: 500 PPM ACGIH TLV: 100 PPMM ACGIH STEL: NOT ESTABLISHED -----------------------------Cas: 111-84-2 RTECS #: RA6115000 Name: N-NONANE % low Wt: 1. % high Wt: 6. ACGIH TLV: 200 PPM ACGIH STEL: NOT ESTABLISHED -----------------------------Cas: 111-65-9 RTECS #: RG8400000 Name: N-OCTANE % low Wt: 1. % high Wt: 3. Other REC Limits: NIOSH=TWA75PPM/CL385 OSHA PEL: 500 PPMM ACGIH TLV: 300 PPMM ACGIH STEL: 475 PPM -----------------------------Cas: 95-63-6

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RTECS #: DC3325000 Name: 1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE % low Wt: 1. % high Wt: 5. ======================================================= Health Hazards Data ======================================================= Route Of Entry Inds - Inhalation: YES Skin: YES Ingestion: YES Effects of Exposure: EYE: MAY CAUSE SEVERE IRRITATION,REDNESS,TEARING,BLURRED VISION & CONJUNCTIVITIS. SKIN: PROLONGED/REPEATED CONTACT MAY CAUSE MODERATE IRRITATION, DEFATTING (CRACKING) REDNESS, ITCHING, INFLAMMATION, DERMATITIS, & POSSIBLE SECONDARY INFECTION.HIGH PRESSURE SKIN INJECTIONS ARE SERIOUS MEDICAL EMERGENCIES.INJURY MAY NOT APPEAR SERIOUS @ FIRST. WITHIN HOURS, TISSUES WILL BECOME SWOLLEN, DISCOLORED & EXTREMELY PAINFUL.SEE NOTES-PHYSICIAN.* Signs And Symptoms Of Overexposure: MAY CAUSE IRRITATION TO EYES, SKIN AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. AVOID LIQUID, MIST AND VAPOR CONTACT. HARMFUL OR FATAL IF SWALLOWED. ASPIRATION HAZARD CAN ENTER LUNGS AND CAUSE DAMAGE. MAY CAUSE IRRIT ATION OR BE HARMFUL IF INHALED OR ABLSORBED THROUGH THE SKIN. FLAMMABLE LIQUID. VAPORS MAY EXPLODE. Medical Condition Aggravated By Exposure: PREEXISTING EYE, SKIN, HEART, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AND RESPIRATORY DISORDERS MAY BE AGGRAVATED BY EXPOSURE TOTHIS PRODUCT. First Aid: EYE: FLUSH IMMEDIATELY W/LARGE AMOUNTS WATE15MINUTES.EYELIDS SHOULD BE HELD AWAY F/EYEBALL-ENSURE THOROUGH RINSING.GET MEDICAL ADVICE IF PAIN/REDNESS CONTINUES.SKIN: WASH EXPOSED AREA THOROGHLY W/ SOAP & WATER. REMOVE CONTAMINATED CLOTHING PROMPTLY&LAUNDER BEFORE REUSE. CONTAMINATED LEATHER GOODS SHOULD BE DISCARDED.IF IRRITATION PERSISTS/SYMPTOMS DEVELOP, GET MEDICAL ATTENTION. HIGH

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40-Hour Hazardous Waste & Emergency Response Training

PRESSURE SKIN INJECTIONS ARE SERIOUS MEDICAL EMERGENCIES.GET IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION.INHALATION: REMOVE-FRESH AIR.IF BREATHING IS DIFFICULT, ENSURE CLEAR AIRWAY&ADMINISTER OXYGEN.*** ======================================================= Handling and Disposal ======================================================= Spill Release Procedures: IF FACILITY/OPERATION HAS"OIL/HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE CONTINGENCY PLAN", ACTIVATE ITS PROCEDURES.STAY UPWIND&AWAY F/SPILL.WEAR APPROPRIATE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT INCLUDING RESPIRATROY PROTECTION AS CONDITION S WARRANT.DO NOT ENTER/STAY IN AREA UNLESS MONITORING INDICATES IT IS SAFE.ISOLATE HAZARD AREA&RESTRICT ENTRY-EMERGENCY CREW.SEE HARD COPY OF MSDS FOR MORE INFORMATION. Waste Disposal Methods: DISPOSE OF MATERIAL IN ACCORDANCE WITH LOCAL, COUNTY, STATE AND FEDERAL REGULATIONS. CONTACT STATE AND FEDERAL REGULATIORS TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE MATERIAL SHOULD BE CLASSIFIED AS A HASARDOUS WASTE OR INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND HANDLED ACCORDINGLY. USE LICENSED TRANSPORTERS AND DISPOSAL FACILITY. Handling And Storage Precautions: KEEP CLOSED, COOL, DRY, IOLATED IN WELL VENTELATED AREA, AWAY F/HEAT, SOURCES OF IGNITION&INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Other Precautions: USE NONSPRKING TOOLS & EXPLOSION PROOF EQIPMENT. GROUND LINES, CONTAINERS & EQUIPMENT USED DURING TRANSER TO REDUCE POSSIBILITY OF STATIC INDUCED SPARK. DON'T LOAD INTO CONTAINERS WHICH PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED GAS/OTHER LOW FLASH MATERIAL BECAUSE OF POSSIBLE ACCUMLATION OF STATIC CHARGE RESULTING IN IGNITION. ======================================================= Fire and Explosion Hazard Information ======================================================= Flash Point: =40.6C, 105.F Flash Point Text: 105F Autoignition Temp: =204.4C, 400.F Autoignition Temp Text: 400F

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Lower Limits: .9 Upper Limits: 6 Extinguishing Media: WATER SPRAY, FOAM, DRY CHEMICAL, CO2 Fire Fighting Procedures: CONSLT FOAM MFR FOR APPROPRIATE MEDIA, APPLCATION RATES & WATER/FOAM RATIO.WATER CAN BE USED-COOL FIREEXPOSED CONTAINERS, STRUCTRES & PROTECT PERSONNEL. IF LEAK/SPILL HAS NOT IGNITED, VENTLATE AREA & USE WATER SPRAY- DISPERS GAS/VAPOR & PROTECT PERSONNEL. USE WATER-FLUSH SPILLS AWAY F/SOURCS OF IGNITION. DO NOT FLUSH DOWN PUBLC SEWERS. Unusual Fire/Explosion Hazard: DANGEROUS WHEN XPOSED-HEAT/FLME.VPORS FOR FLAMMBLEXPLOSSIVE MIXTURES W/[email protected] TEMP. VAPOR/GAS MAY SPREAD-DISTANT IGNITION SOURCES (PILOT LIGHTS, WELDING EQUIPMENT, ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, ETC.) & FLASH BACK. VAPORS MAY ACCUMULATE IN LOW AREAS. VAPORS MAY CONCENTRATE IN CONFINED AREAS. ======================================================= Control Measures ======================================================= Respiratory Protection: IF WORKPLACE EXPOSURE LIMITS ARE EXCEEDED, NIOSH EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE WORN. PROPER RESPIRATOR SELECTION SHOULD BE DETERMINED BY ADEQUATLY TRAINED PERSONNEL, BASED ON THE CONTAMINANTS, THE DEGREE OF POTENTIAL EXPOSURE AND THE PUBLISHED RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FACTORS. THIS EQUIPMENT SHOULD BE AVAILABLE FOR NONROUTINE AND EMERGENCY USE. Ventilation: SEE SUPLIMENTAL Protective Gloves: NEOPRENE, NITRILES-BUTADIENE RUBBER, ETC. Eye Protection: SAFETY GLASSES OR CHEMICAL SPLASH GOGGLES. Other Protective Equipment: IMPERVIOUS CLOTHING AND BOOTS. LEATHER GOODS CONTAMINATED WITH THIS PRODUCT SHOULD BE DISCARDED. A SOURCE OF CLEAN WATER SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN THE WORK AREA FOR FLUSHING EYES AND SKIN. Supplemental Safety and Health: AVOID BREATHING MISTS AND VAPOR. USE IN WELL VENTILATED AREA. IN CONFINED SPACE, MECHANICIAL VENTILATION MAY

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BE NECESSARY TO REDUCE VAPOR CONCENTRATIONS TO LEVELS BELOW THE ALLOWABLE EXPOSURE LIMITS. ======================================================= Physical/Chemical Properties ======================================================= Boiling Point: >154.4C, 310.F B.P. Text: 310-400F Vapor Pres: 0.1 PSI @ 100'F Vapor Density: >AIR Spec Gravity: 0.77 @ 60'F Solubility in Water: NEGLIGABLE Appearance and Odor: WHITE LIQUID/MILD HYDROCARBON ODOR. Percent Volatiles by Volume: MODERATE ======================================================= Reactivity Data ======================================================= Stability Indicator: YES Stability Condition To Avoid: HEAT, SPARKS, OPEN FLAME, STATIC ELECTICITY OR ANY OTHER POTENTIAL IGNITION SOURCES SHOULD BE AVOIDED. PREVENT VAPOR ACCUMULATION. DO NOT SWITCH LOAD. Materials To Avoid: AVOID STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (PEROXIDE, DICHROMATE, PERMANGANATE, CHLORINE, ETC.) STRONG ACIDS CAUSTICS AND HALOGENS. Hazardous Decomposition Products: CO, CO2 AND REACTIVE HYDROCARBONS (ALDEHYDES, AROMATICS, ETC.). Hazardous Polymerization Indicator: NO ======================================================= Toxicological Information ======================================================= Toxicological Information: *SEE MSDS. CO, CO2 AND REACTIVE HYDROCARBONS (ALDEHYDES, AROMATICS, ETC.). ======================================================= Ecological Information =======================================================

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Ecological: THIS PRODUCT IS INCLUDED IN THE CURRENT TSCA INVENTORY. ======================================================= MSDS Transport Information ======================================================= ======================================================= Regulatory Information ======================================================= Sara Title III Information: SECTION 313 TOXIC CHEMICALS: 1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE. State Regulatory Information: WARNING! THIS PRODUCT CONTAINS BENZENE AND TOLUENE, CHEMICALS KNOWN TO THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA TO CAUSE BIRTH DEFECTS AND OTHER REPRODUCTIVE HARM. ======================================================= Other Information ======================================================= Other Information: SECTION 311 HAZARD CATEGORY: ACUTE: YES, CHRONIC: YES, FIRE: YES, PRESSURE: NO, REACTIVE: NO ======================================================= HAZCOM Label ======================================================= Product ID: PAINT THINNER, MINERAL SPIRITS. Cage: 0YFV5 Company Name: STARTEX CHEMICAL INC Street: 5 HACKBERRY LANE PO Box: 3087 City: CONROE TX Zip Code: 77305 Health Emergency Phone: (800) 424-9300 Label Required IND: Y Date Of Label Review: 04/26/2000 Status Code: A Origination Code: G

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Hazard And Precautions: EYE: MAY CAUSE SEVERE IRRITATION, REDNESS, TEARING, BLURRED VISION & CONJUNCTIVITIS. SKIN: PROLONGED/REPEATED CONTACT MAY CAUSE MODERATE IRRITATION, DEFATTING (CRACKING) REDNESS, ITCHING, INFLAMMATION, DERMATITIS, & POSSIBLE SECONDARY INFECTION. HIGH PRESSURE SKIN INJECTIONS ARE SERIOUS MEDICAL EMERGENCIES.INJURY MAY NOT APPEAR SERIOUS @ FIRST. WITHINHOURS, TISSUES WILL BECOME SWOLLEN, DISCOLORED & EXTREMELY PAINFUL. SEE NOTES - PHYSICIAN.

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POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE (CAUSTIC POTASH)

1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

Synonyms: Caustic potash; potassium hydrate CAS No.: 1310-58-3 Molecular Weight: 56.11 Chemical Formula: KOH Product Codes: J. Smith: 3140, 3141, 3146, 3150, 5685

2. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS Ingredient --------------------------------------Potassium Hydroxide Water CAS No -----------1310-58-3 7732-18-5 Percent ------85 - 90% 10 - 15% Hazardous --------Yes No

3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

Emergency Overview --------------------------

SEVERE POISON! DANGER! CORROSIVE. CAUSES SEVERE BURNS TO SKIN, EYES, RESPIRATORY TRACT, AND GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. MATERIAL IS EXTREMELY DESTRUCTIVE TO ALL BODY TISSUES. MAY BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED. HARMFUL IF INHALED. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Health Rating: 3 - Severe (Poison) Flammability Rating: 0 - None Reactivity Rating: 2 - Moderate

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Contact Rating: 4 - Extreme (Corrosive) Lab Protective Equip: GOGGLES; LAB COAT; VENT HOOD; PROPER GLOVES Storage Color Code: White Stripe (Store Separately) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Potential Health Effects ---------------------------------Inhalation: Severe irritant. Effects from inhalation of dust or mist vary from mild irritation to serious damage of the upper respiratory tract, depending on the severity of exposure. Symptoms may include coughing, sneezing, damage to the nasal or respiratory tract. High concentrations can cause lung damage. Ingestion: Toxic! Swallowing may cause severe burns of mouth, throat and stomach. Other symptoms may include vomiting, diarrhea. Severe scarring of tissue and death may result. Estimated lethal dose: 5 grams. Skin Contact: Corrosive! Contact with skin can cause irritation or severe burns and scarring with greater exposures. Eye Contact: Highly Corrosive! Causes irritation of eyes with tearing, redness, swelling. Greater exposures cause severe burns with possible blindness resulting. Exposure: Chronic Exposure: Prolonged contact with dilute solutions or dust of potassium hydroxide has a destructive effect on tissue. PreAggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems or impaired respiratory function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.

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4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Call a physician. Ingestion: If swallowed, DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Give large quantities of water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical attention immediately. Skin Contact: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Get medical attention immediately. Eye Contact: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately.

5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Fire: Not combustible, but contact with water or moisture may generate enough heat to ignite combustibles. Explosion: Can react with chemically reactive metals such as aluminum, zinc, magnesium, copper, etc. to release hydrogen gas which can form explosive mixtures with air. Fire Extinguishing Media: Use any means suitable for extinguishing surrounding fire. Special Information: Solution process causes formation of corrosive mists. Hot or molten material can react violently with water. In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.

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6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

Ventilate area of leak or spill. Keep unnecessary and unprotected people away from area of spill. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment as specified in Section 8. Spills: Pick up and place in a suitable container for reclamation or disposal, using a method that does not generate dust. Do not flush caustic residues to the sewer. Residues from spills can be diluted with water, neutralized with dilute acid such as acetic, hydrochloric or sulfuric. Absorb neutralized caustic residue on clay, vermiculite or other inert substance and package in a suitable container for disposal. US Regulations (CERCLA) require reporting spills and releases to soil, water and air in excess of reportable quantities. The toll free number for the US Coast Guard National Response Center is (800) 424-8802.

7. HANDLING AND STORAGE

Keep in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area. Protect against physical damage. Isolate from incompatible substances. Protect from moisture. Addition to water releases heat which can result in violent boiling and spattering. Always add slowly and in small amounts. Never use hot water. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (dust, solids); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.

8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION

Airborne Exposure Limits: - OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): 2 mg/m3 Ceiling - ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 2 mg/m3 Ceiling Ventilation System: A system of local and/or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures below the Airborne Exposure Limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion

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of it into the general work area. Please refer to the ACGIH document, Industrial Ventilation,

A Manual of Recommended Practices, most recent edition, for details.

Personal Respirators (NIOSH Approved): If the exposure limit is exceeded, a half-face dust/mist respirator may be worn for up to ten times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face piece dust/mist respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency, or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Airpurifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. Skin Protection: Rubber or neoprene gloves and additional protection including impervious boots, apron, or coveralls, as needed in areas of unusual exposure. Eye Protection: Use chemical safety goggles and/or a full face shield where splashing is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.

9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Appearance: White deliquescent solid Odor: Odorless. Solubility: 52.8% in water @ 20C (68F) Specific Gravity: 2.04 pH: 13.5 (0.1 molar solution) % Volatiles by volume @ 21C (70F): 0 Boiling Point: 1320C (2408F)

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Melting Point: 360C (680F) Vapor Density (Air=1): No information found. Vapor Pressure (mm Hg): 1.0 @ 714C (1317F) Evaporation Rate (BuAc=1): No information found.

10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability: Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Hazardous Decomposition Products: Carbon monoxide when reacting with carbohydrates, and hydrogen gas when reacting with aluminum, zinc and tin. Thermal oxidation can produce toxic fumes of potassium oxide (K2O). Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur. Incompatibilities: Contact with water, acids, flammable liquids and organic halogen compounds, especially trichloroethylene and Acetone, may cause fire or explosion. Contact with nitromethane and other similar nitro compounds cause formation of shock sensitive salts. Contact with metals such as aluminum, tin and zinc causes formation of flammable hydrogen gas. Conditions to Avoid: Heat, moisture, incompatibles.

11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

For potassium hydroxide: Oral rat LD50: 273 mg/kg; Investigated as a mutagen. Skin Irritation Data (std Draize, 50 mg/24 H): Human, Severe; Rabbit, Severe. Eye Irritation Data(Rabbit, non-std test,1 mg/24 H, rinse): Moderate. --------\Cancer Lists\-----------------------------------------------------P P/N 75001200 Copyright © 2002 EnviroWin Software, LLC

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---NTP Carcinogen--Ingredient -----------------------------------Potassium Hydroxide (1310-58-3) Water (7732-18-5) Known ----No No Anticipated ----------No No IARC Category ------------None None

12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Environmental Fate: No information found. Environmental Toxicity: Potassium Hydroxide: TLm: 80 ppm/Mosquito fish/ 24 hr./ Fresh water

13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be handled as hazardous waste and sent to a RCRA approved waste facility. Processing, use or contamination of this product may change the waste management options. State and local disposal regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations. Dispose of container and unused contents in accordance with federal, state and local requirements.

14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION

Domestic (Land, D.O.T.) ----------------------Proper Shipping Name: POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE, SOLID Hazard Class: 8 UN/NA: UN1813 Packing Group: II Information reported for product/size: 110LB International (Water, I.M.O.) ----------------------------Proper Shipping Name: POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE, SOLID

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Class: Hazard Class: 8 UN/NA: UN1813 Packing Group: II Information reported for product/size: 110LB International (Air, I.C.A.O.) ----------------------------Proper Shipping Name: POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE, SOLID Hazard Class: 8 UN/NA: UN1813 Packing Group: II Information Information reported for product/size: 110LB

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15. REGULATORY INFORMATION

--------\Chemical Inventory Status - Part 1\--------------------------------Ingredient Potassium Hydroxide (1310-58-3) Water (7732-18-5) TSCA Yes Yes EC --Yes Yes Japan ----Yes Yes Australia --------Yes Yes ----------------------------------------------- ----

--------\Chemical Inventory Status - Part 2\----------------------------------Canada-Ingredient --------------------------------------------Potassium Hydroxide (1310-58-3) Water (7732-18-5) Korea ----Yes Yes DSL --Yes Yes NDSL ---No No Phil. ----Yes Yes

--------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 1\----------------SARA 302Ingredient ----------------------------------------Potassium Hydroxide (1310-58-3) Water (7732-18-5) RQ --No No ------SARA 313-----TPQ ----No No List ---No No Chemical Catg. -------------No No

--------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 2\----------------RCRAIngredient ----------------------------------------Potassium Hydroxide (1310-58-3) Water (7732-18-5) -----1000 No -TSCA261.33 -----No No 8(d) -----No No CERCLA

Chemical Weapons Convention: No SARA 311/312: Acute: Yes Reactivity: Yes (Mixture / Solid)

TSCA 12(b): No

CDTA: No

Chronic: Yes

Fire: No Pressure: No

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Australian Hazchem Code: 2R Poison Schedule: S6 WHMIS: This MSDS has been prepared according to the hazard criteria of the Controlled Products Regulations (CPR) and the MSDS contains all of the information required by the CPR.

16. OTHER INFORMATION

NFPA Ratings: Health: 3 Flammability: 0 Reactivity: 1 Label Hazard Warning: POISON! DANGER! CORROSIVE. CAUSES SEVERE BURNS TO SKIN, EYES, RESPIRATORY TRACT, AND GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. MATERIAL IS EXTREMELY DESTRUCTIVE TO ALL BODY TISSUES. MAY BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED. HARMFUL IF INHALED. Label Precautions: Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Do not breathe dust. Keep container closed. Use only with adequate ventilation. Wash thoroughly after handling. Label First Aid: If swallowed, DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Give large quantities of water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes or skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. In all cases get medical attention immediately. Product Product Use: Laboratory Reagent. Revision Information: None

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SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTIONS (MORE THAN 10% NaOH)

1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

Synonyms: Caustic soda solution; lye solution; sodium hydroxide liquid; sodium hydrate solution, Sodium Hydroxide Concentrate Solution Standard(R), Sodium Hydroxide, DILUTIT(R) Analytical Concentrates, sodium hydroxide volumetric solutions CAS No.: 1310-73-2 Molecular Weight: 40.00 Chemical Formula: NaOH in water Product Codes: J. Smith: 0337, 3719, 3725, 3727, 3729, 4689, 4690, 5000, 5661, 5666, 5668, 5669, 5671, 5672, 5674, 5676

2. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Ingredient CAS No Percent ------10 - 60% 40 - 90% Hazardous --------Yes No

--------------------------------- -----------Sodium Hydroxide Water 1310-73-2 7732-18-5

3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

Emergency Overview -------------------------POISON! DANGER! CORROSIVE. MAY BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED. HARMFUL IF INHALED. CAUSES BURNS TO ANY AREA OF CONTACT. REACTS WITH WATER, ACIDS AND OTHER MATERIALS. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Health Rating: 3 - Severe (Poison)

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Flammability Rating: 0 - None Reactivity Rating: 2 - Moderate Contact Rating: 4 - Extreme (Corrosive) Lab Protective Equip: GOGGLES & SHIELD; LAB COAT & APRON; VENT HOOD; PROPER GLOVES Storage Color Code: White Stripe (Store Separately) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Potential Health Effects ---------------------------------Inhalation: Severe irritant. Effects from inhalation of mist vary from mild irritation to serious damage of the upper respiratory tract, depending on severity of exposure. Symptoms may include sneezing, sore throat or runny nose. Severe pneumonitis may occur.

Ingestion: Corrosive! Swallowing may cause severe burns of mouth, throat, and stomach. Severe scarring of tissue and death may result. Symptoms may include bleeding, vomiting, diarrhea, fall in blood pressure. Damage may appear days after exposure. Skin Contact: Corrosive! Contact with skin can cause irritation or severe burns and scarring with greater exposures. Eye Contact: Corrosive! Causes irritation of eyes, and with greater exposures it can cause burns that may result in permanent impairment of vision, even blindness. Chronic Exposure: Prolonged contact with dilute solutions or dust has a destructive effect upon tissue. PreAggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems or impaired respiratory function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.

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4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Call a physician. Ingestion: DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING! Give large quantities of water or milk if available. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Get medical attention immediately. Skin Contact: Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Call a physician, immediately. Wash clothing before reuse. Eye Contact: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately. Note to Physician: Perform endoscopy in all cases of suspected sodium hydroxide ingestion. In cases of severe esophageal corrosion, the use of therapeutic doses of steroids should be considered. General supportive measures with continual monitoring of gas exchange, acidbase balance, electrolytes, and fluid intake are also required.

5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Fire: Not considered to be a fire hazard. Hot or molten material can react violently with water. Can react with certain metals, such as aluminum, to generate flammable hydrogen gas. Explosion: May cause fire and explosions when in contact with incompatible materials. Fire Extinguishing Media: Use any means suitable for extinguishing surrounding fire. Adding water to caustic solution generates large amounts of heat. Special Information: In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained

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breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.

6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

Ventilate area of leak or spill. Keep unnecessary and unprotected people away from area of spill. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment as specified in Section 8. Contain and recover liquid when possible. Do not flush caustic residues to the sewer. Residues from spills can be diluted with water, neutralized with dilute acid such as acetic, hydrochloric or sulfuric. Absorb neutralized caustic residue on clay, vermiculite or other inert substance and package in a suitable container for disposal. US Regulations (CERCLA) require reporting spills and releases to soil, water and air in excess of reportable quantities. The toll free number for the US Coast Guard National Response Center is (800) 424-8802.

7. HANDLING AND STORAGE

Keep in a tightly closed container. Protect from physical damage. Store in a cool, dry, ventilated area away from sources of heat, moisture and incompatibilities. Store above 16C (60F) to prevent freezing. Always add the caustic to water while stirring; never the reverse. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (vapors, liquid); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product. Do not store with aluminum or magnesium. Do not mix with acids or organic materials.

8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION

Airborne Exposure Limits: - OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): 2 mg/m3 Ceiling - ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 2 mg/m3 Ceiling Ventilation System: A system of local and/or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures below the Airborne Exposure Limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred

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because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion of it into the general work area. Please refer to the ACGIH document, Industrial Ventilation,

A Manual of Recommended Practices, most recent edition, for details.

Personal Respirators (NIOSH Approved): If the exposure limit is exceeded, a half-face dust/mist respirator may be worn for up to ten times the exposure limit or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. A full-face piece dust/mist respirator may be worn up to 50 times the exposure limit, or the maximum use concentration specified by the appropriate regulatory agency, or respirator supplier, whichever is lowest. For emergencies or instances where the exposure levels are not known, use a full-facepiece positive-pressure, air-supplied respirator. WARNING: Airpurifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. Skin Protection: Wear impervious protective clothing, including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron or coveralls, as appropriate, to prevent skin contact. Eye Protection: Use chemical safety goggles and/or a full face shield where splashing is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.

9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Physical data is displayed for 10%, 30% and 50% aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. (Merck Index). Appearance: Clear, colorless solution. Odor: Odorless. Solubility: Completely miscible with water. Density: 10% solution - 1.11; 30% solution - 1.33; 50% solution - 1.53 pH: 14.0 (10%, 30% and 50% solutions) % Volatiles by volume @ 21C (70F):

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No information found. Boiling Point: For 10% solution = 105C (221F); for 30% solution = 115C (239F); for 50% solution = 140C (284F). Melting Point: For 10% solution = -10C (14 F); for 30% solution = 1C (34F); for 50% solution = 12C (53.6F). Vapor Density (Air=1): No information found. Vapor Pressure (mm Hg): 13 @ 60C (140F) (50% solution) Evaporation Rate (BuAc=1): No information found.

10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability: Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Hazardous Decomposition Products: Sodium oxide. Decomposition by reaction with certain metals releases flammable and explosive hydrogen gas.

Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur. Incompatibilities: Sodium hydroxide in contact with acids and organic halogen compounds, especially trichloroethylene, may causes violent reactions. Contact with nitromethane and other similar nitro compounds causes formation of shock-sensitive salts. Contact with metals such as aluminum, magnesium, tin, and zinc cause formation of flammable hydrogen gas. Sodium hydroxide, even in fairly dilute solution, reacts readily with various sugars to produce carbon monoxide. Precautions should be taken including monitoring the tank atmosphere for carbon monoxide to ensure safety of personnel before vessel entry.

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Conditions to Avoid: Heat, moisture, incompatibles.

11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Sodium hydroxide: irritation data: skin, rabbit: 500 mg/24H severe; eye rabbit: 50 ug/24H severe. Investigated as a mutagen. --------\Cancer Lists\---------------------------------------------------------NTP Carcinogen--Ingredient ----------------------------------------Sodium Hydroxide (1310-73-2) Water (7732-18-5) Known No No Anticipated No No IARC Category ------------------None None ----------- -------------

12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Environmental Fate: No information found. Environmental Toxicity: No information found.

13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be managed in an appropriate and approved waste facility. Although not a listed RCRA hazardous waste, this material may exhibit one or more characteristics of a hazardous waste and require appropriate analysis to determine specific disposal requirements. Processing, use or contamination of this product may change the waste management options. State and local disposal regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations. Dispose of container and unused contents in accordance with federal, state and local requirements.

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14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION

Domestic (Land, D.O.T.) ----------------------Proper Shipping Name: SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION Hazard Class: 8 UN/NA: UN1824 Packing Group: II Information Information reported for product/size: 360LB International (Water, I.M.O.) ----------------------------Proper Shipping Name: SODIUM HYDROXIDE, SOLUTION Hazard Class: 8 UN/NA: UN1824 Packing Group: II Information reported for product/size: 360LB

15. REGULATORY INFORMATION

--------\Chemical Inventory Status - Part 1\-------------------------------Ingredient ----------------------------------------------Sodium Hydroxide (1310-73-2) Water (7732-18-5) TSCA ---Yes Yes EC --Yes Yes Japan ----Yes Yes Australia --------Yes Yes

--------\Chemical Inventory Status - Part 2\----------------------------------Canada-Ingredient Sodium Hydroxide (1310-73-2) Water (7732-18-5)

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Korea Yes Yes

DSL --Yes Yes

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--------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 1\----------------SARA 302Ingredient ----------------------------------------Sodium Hydroxide (1310-73-2) Water (7732-18-5) RQ --No No ------SARA 313-----TPQ ----No No List ---No No Chemical Catg. -------------No No

--------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 2\----------------RCRAIngredient ----------------------------------------Sodium Hydroxide (1310-73-2) Water (7732-18-5) -----1000 No -TSCA261.33 -----No No 8(d) -----No No CERCLA

Chemical Weapons Convention: No SARA 311/312: Acute: Yes Reactivity: Yes (Mixture / Liquid)

TSCA 12(b): No

CDTA: No

Chronic: Yes Fire: No Pressure: No

Australian Hazchem Code: 2R Poison Schedule: S6 WHMIS: This MSDS has been prepared according to the hazard criteria of the Controlled Products Regulations (CPR) and the MSDS contains all of the information required by the CPR.

16. OTHER INFORMATION

Ratings: NFPA Ratings: Health: 3 Flammability: 0 Reactivity: 1 Label Hazard Warning: POISON! DANGER! CORROSIVE. MAY BE FATAL IF SWALLOWED. HARMFUL IF INHALED. CAUSES BURNS TO ANY AREA OF CONTACT. REACTS WITH WATER, ACIDS AND OTHER MATERIALS. Label Precautions:

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Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Do not breathe mist. Keep container closed. Use only with adequate ventilation. Wash thoroughly after handling. Label First Aid: If swallowed, DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Give large quantities of water. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes or skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. In all cases get medical attention immediately. Product Use: Laboratory Reagent. Revision Information: None

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TRICHLOROETHYLENE

1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

Synonyms: Trichloroethene; TCE; acetylene trichloride; Ethinyl trichloride CAS No.: 79-01-6 Molecular Weight: 131.39 Chemical Formula: C2HCl3 Product Codes: J. Smith: 5376, 9454, 9458, 9464, 9473, 9474

2. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Ingredient --------------------------------------Trichloroethylene CAS No -----------79-01-6 Percent ------100% Hazardous --------Yes

3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

Emergency Overview -------------------------WARNING! HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. AFFECTS HEART, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, LIVER AND KIDNEYS. CAUSES SEVERE SKIN IRRITATION. IRRITATION CAUSES IRRITATION TO EYES AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. SUSPECT CANCER HAZARD. MAY CAUSE CANCER. Risk of cancer depends on level and duration of exposure. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Health Rating: 3 - Severe (Cancer Causing) Flammability Rating: 1 - Slight Reactivity Rating: 1 - Slight Contact Rating: 2 - Moderate Lab Protective Equip: GOGGLES & SHIELD; LAB COAT & APRON; VENT HOOD; PROPER GLOVES

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Storage Color Code: Blue (Health) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Potential Health Effects ---------------------------------Inhalation: Vapors can irritate the respiratory tract. Causes depression of the central nervous system with symptoms of visual disturbances and mental confusion, incoordination, headache, nausea, euphoria, and dizziness. Inhalation of high concentrations could cause unconsciousness, heart effects, liver effects, kidney effects, and death. Ingestion: Ingestion: Cases irritation to gastrointestinal tract. May also cause effects similar to inhalation. May cause coughing, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, pulmonary edema, unconsciousness. Kidney failure can result in severe cases. Estimated fatal dose is 3-5 ml/kg. Skin Contact: Cause irritation, redness and pain. Can cause blistering. Continued skin contact has a defatting action and can produce rough, dry, red skin resulting in secondary infection. Eye Contact: Vapors may cause severe irritation with redness and pain. Splashes may cause eye damage. Chronic Exposure: Chronic exposures may cause liver, kidney, central nervous system, and peripheral nervous system effects. Workers chronically exposed may exhibit central nervous system depression, intolerance to alcohol, and increased cardiac output. This material is linked to mutagenic effects in humans. This material is also a suspect carcinogen. PreAggravation of Pre-existing Conditions: Persons with pre-existing skin disorders, cardiovascular disorders, impaired liver or kidney or respiratory function, or central or peripheral nervous system disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance.

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4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation: Remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Call a physician. Ingestion: Induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Call a physician. Skin Contact: Immediately flush skin with plenty of soap and water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical attention. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Eye Contact: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, lifting lower and upper eyelids occasionally. Get medical attention immediately. Note to Physician: Do not administer adrenaline or epinephrine to a victim of chlorinated solvent poisoning.

5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Fire: Autoignition temperature: 420C (788F) Flammable limits in air % by volume: lel: 8; uel: 12.5 Explosion: A strong ignition source, e. g., a welding torch, can produce ignition. Sealed containers may rupture when heated. Fire Extinguishing Media: Use water spray to keep fire exposed containers cool. If substance does ignite, use CO2, dry chemical or foam. Special Information: In the event of a fire, wear full protective clothing and NIOSH-approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive

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pressure mode. Combustion by-products include phosgene and hydrogen chloride gases. Structural firefighters' clothing provides only limited protection to the combustion products of this material.

6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

Ventilate area of leak or spill. Remove all sources of ignition. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment as specified in Section 8. Isolate hazard area. Keep unnecessary and unprotected personnel from entering. Contain and recover liquid when possible. Use nonsparking tools and equipment. Collect liquid in an appropriate container or absorb with an inert material (e. g., vermiculite, dry sand, earth), and place in a chemical waste container. Do not use combustible materials, such as sawdust. Do not flush to sewer! US Regulations (CERCLA) require reporting spills and releases to soil, water and air in excess of reportable quantities. The toll free number for the US Coast Guard National Response Center is (800) 424-8802.

7. HANDLING AND STORAGE

Keep in a tightly closed container, stored in a cool, dry, ventilated area. Protect against physical damage. Isolate from any source of heat or ignition. Isolate from incompatible substances. Containers of this material may be hazardous when empty since they retain product residues (vapors, liquid); observe all warnings and precautions listed for the product.

8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION

Airborne Exposure Limits: Trichloroethylene: -OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): 100 ppm (TWA), 200 ppm (Ceiling), 300 ppm/5min/2hr (Max) -ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV):

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50 ppm (TWA) 100 ppm (STEL); listed as A5, not suspected as a human carcinogen. Ventilation System: A system of local and/or general exhaust is recommended to keep employee exposures below the Airborne Exposure Limits. Local exhaust ventilation is generally preferred because it can control the emissions of the contaminant at its source, preventing dispersion of it into the general work area. Please refer to the ACGIH document, Industrial Ventilation,

A Manual of Recommended Practices, most recent edition, for details.

Personal Respirators (NIOSH Approved): If the exposure limit is exceeded and engineering controls are not feasible, wear a supplied air, full-facepiece respirator, airlined hood, or full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus. Breathing air quality must meet the requirements of the OSHA respiratory protection standard (29CFR1910.134). This substance has poor warning properties. Where respirators are required, you must have a written program covering the basic requirements in the OSHA respirator standard. These include training, fit testing, medical approval, cleaning, maintenance, cartridge change schedules, etc. See 29CFR1910.134 for details. Protection: Skin Protection: Wear impervious protective clothing, including boots, gloves, lab coat, apron or coveralls, as appropriate, to prevent skin contact. Neoprene is a recommended material for personal protective equipment. Eye Protection: Use chemical safety goggles and/or a full face shield where splashing is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.

9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Appearance: Clear, colorless liquid. Odor: Chloroform-like odor. Solubility: Practically insoluble in water. Readily miscible in organic solvents. Specific Gravity: 1.47 @ 20C/4C

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pH: No information found. % Volatiles by volume @ 21C (70F): 100 Boiling Point: 87C (189F) Melting Point: -73C (-99F) Vapor Density (Air=1): 4.5 Vapor Pressure (mm Hg): Vapor 57.8 @ 20C (68F) Evaporation Rate (BuAc=1): No information found.

10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability: Stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Will slowly decompose to hydrochloric acid when exposed to light and moisture. Hazardous Decomposition Products: May produce carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride and phosgene when heated to decomposition. Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur. Incompatibilities: Strong caustics and alkalis, strong oxidizers, chemically active metals, such as barium, lithium, sodium, magnesium, titanium and beryllium, liquid oxygen. Conditions to Avoid: Heat, flame, ignition sources, light, moisture, incompatibles

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11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Toxicological Data: Trichloroethylene: Oral rat LD50: 5650 mg/kg; investigated as a tumorigen, mutagen, reproductive effector. Reproductive Toxicity: This material has been linked to mutagenic effects in humans. --------\Cancer Lists\--------------------------------------------------------NTP Carcinogen--Ingredient -----------------------------------Trichloroethylene (79-01-6) Known ----No Anticipated ----------Yes IARC Category ------------2A

12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Environmental Fate: When released into the soil, this material may leach into groundwater. When released into the soil, this material is expected to quickly evaporate. When released to water, this material is expected to quickly evaporate. This material has an experimentally-determined bioconcentration factor (BCF) of less than 100. This material is not expected to significantly bioaccumulate. When released into the air, this material may be moderately degraded by reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. When released into the air, this material is expected to have a half-life between 1 and 10 days. Environmental Toxicity: The LC50/96-hour values for fish are between 10 and 100 mg/l. This material is expected to be slightly toxic to aquatic life.

13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

Whatever cannot be saved for recovery or recycling should be handled as hazardous waste and sent to a RCRA approved incinerator or disposed in a RCRA approved waste facility. Processing, use or contamination of this product may change the waste management options. State and local disposal regulations may differ from federal disposal regulations.

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Dispose of container and unused contents in accordance with federal, state and local requirements.

14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION

Domestic (Land, D.O.T.) ----------------------Proper Shipping Name: TRICHLOROETHYLENE Hazard Class: 6.1 UN/NA: UN1710 Packing Group: III reported Information reported for product/size: 5GL International (Water, I.M.O.) ----------------------------Proper Shipping Name: TRICHLOROETHYLENE Hazard Class: 6.1 UN/NA: UN1710 Packing Group: III Information reported for product/size: 5GL I.C.A.O.) International (Air, I.C.A.O.) ----------------------------Proper Shipping Name: TRICHLOROETHYLENE Hazard Class: 6.1 UN/NA: UN1710 Packing Group: III Information reported for product/size: 5GL

15. REGULATORY INFORMATION

--------\Chemical Inventory Status - Part 1\--------------------------------Ingredient ----------------------------------------------P P/N 75001200

TSCA ---438

EC ---

Japan -----

Australia ---------

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Trichloroethylene (79-01-6) Yes Yes Yes Yes

--------\Chemical Inventory Status - Part 2\----------------------------------Canada-Ingredient ----------------------------------------------Trichloroethylene (79-01-6) Korea ----Yes DSL --Yes NDSL ---No Phil. ----Yes

--------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 1\----------------SARA 302Ingredient ----------------------------------------Trichloroethylene (79-01-6) RQ --No ------SARA 313-----TPQ ----No List ---Yes Chemical Catg. --------No

--------\Federal, State & International Regulations - Part 2\----------------RCRAIngredient ----------------------------------------Trichloroethylene (79-01-6) Chemical Weapons Convention: No SARA 311/312: Acute: Yes Reactivity: No WARNING: THIS PRODUCT CONTAINS A CHEMICAL(S) KNOWN TO THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA TO CAUSE CANCER. Australian Hazchem Code: No information found. Poison Schedule: S6 WHMIS: This MSDS has been prepared according to the hazard criteria of the Controlled Products Regulations (CPR) and the MSDS contains all of the information required by the CPR. (Pure / Liquid) -TSCACERCLA -----100 TSCA 12(b): No 261.33 -----U228 CDTA: No 8(d) -----No

Chronic: Yes

Fire: No Pressure: No

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16. OTHER INFORMATION

NFPA Ratings: Health: 2 Flammability: 1 Reactivity: 0 Label Hazard Warning: WARNING! HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. AFFECTS HEART, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, LIVER AND KIDNEYS. CAUSES SEVERE SKIN IRRITATION. CAUSES IRRITATION TO EYES AND RESPIRATORY TRACT. SUSPECT CANCER HAZARD. MAY CAUSE CANCER. Risk of cancer depends on level and duration of exposure. Label Precautions: Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Do not breathe vapor. Keep container closed. Use only with adequate ventilation. Wash thoroughly after handling. Keep away from heat and flame. Label First Aid: If swallowed, induce vomiting immediately as directed by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes or skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. In all cases call a physician. Note to physician: Do not administer adrenaline or epinephrine to a victim of chlorinated solvent poisoning. Product Use: Laboratory Reagent. Revision Information: MSDS Section(s) changed since last revision of document include: 8, 11.

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APPENDIX B

IN-CLASS ASSIGNMENTS ANSWERS

1. Match the following laws with their descriptions: A. CERCLA 1. It regulates anyone engaged in the creation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of "hazardous wastes". B. SARA 2. Used for the immediate removal of hazardous substances released into the environment. C. RCRA 3. Promulgate standards for the health and safety of employees engaged in hazardous waste operations.

2. Name 8 of the 10 off-site training requirements covered by 29 CFR 1910.120. · · · · · · · · · · Names of personnel and alternates responsible for site safety and health. Safety, health and other hazards present on-site. Use of personal protective equipment. Work practices by which the employee can minimize risks from hazards. Safe use of engineering controls and equipment on-site. Medical surveillance requirements, including recognition of symptoms and signs that may indicate overexposure to hazards. Decontamination procedures. The emergency response plan. Confined space entry procedures. The spill containment program.

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3. Rank the following employee levels from the most training and responsibilities to the least training and responsibilities: Hazardous Materials Technicians, First Responder Operations Level, On-Scene Incident Commanders, First Responder Awareness Level, and Hazardous Materials Specialists. On-Scene Incident Commanders (Most Training and Responsibilities) Hazardous Materials Specialists Hazardous Materials Technicians First Responder Operations Level First Responder Awareness Level

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1. Define the following: Toxin - any substance that, upon contact with a living organism, can cause injury or interference with the life processes of that organism without acting mechanically. Dose is the quantity of a substance that enters into the biological system. Dose is not synonymous with concentration. Acute Toxicity is the toxicity resulting from exposure to a relatively high concentration of a toxic material over a short period of time. Chronic Toxicity is the toxicity resulting from exposure to a relatively low concentration of a toxic material over a relatively long period of time. Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) are set by OSHA to protect workers against the health effects of exposure to hazardous substances. LD50-- LD50--Lethal dose. A single dose of a chemical, which kills 50 percent of the population when, exposed. Irritants are those substances that have a corrosive, inflammatory action on moist mucous membranes. Asphyxiants Asphyxiants are those substances that interfere with the oxidation process of the body. Nerve Poisons are particularly hazardous because most physical and mental processes in the human body are controlled by the nervous system. There are two categories of nerve poisons on the basis of their mechanism of action: depressants and convulsants. Systemic Poisons injure or destroy internal organs of the body such as the liver, kidneys, and heart.

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2. List the four routes of exposure: a. Inhalation c. Ingestion b. Dermal (Absorption) d. Injection

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Using the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) found in Appendix A of this manual, answer the following: 1. What Health Hazards are associated with Paint Thinner? Effects of Exposure: EYE: May cause severe irritation, redness, tearing, blurred vision and conjunctivitis. SKIN: Prolonged/Repeated contact may cause moderate irritation, defatting (cracking) redness, itching, inflammation, dermatitis, and possible secondary infection. Medical Condition Aggravated By Exposure: Pre-existing eye, skin, heart, central nervous system and respiratory disorders may be aggravated by exposure to this product. 2. What First Aid Measures should be taken if Liquid Chlorine is splashed in the eyes? Flush with water for 15 minutes. 3. What Fire Fighting Measures are associated with Sodium Hydroxide? Not considered to be a fire hazard. Hot or molten material can react violently with water. Can react with certain metals, such as aluminum, to generate flammable hydrogen gas. 4. What Accidental Release Measures should be taken if Acetone is released? Ventilate area of leak or spill. Remove all sources of ignition. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment as specified in Section 8. Isolate hazard area. Keep unnecessary and unprotected personnel from entering. Contain and recover liquid when possible. Use non-sparking tools and equipment. Collect liquid in an appropriate container or absorb with an inert material (e. g., vermiculite, dry sand, earth), and place in a chemical waste container. Do not use combustible materials, such as saw dust. Do not flush to sewer! If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water

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spray to disperse the vapors, to protect personnel attempting to stop leak, and to flush spills away from exposures. US Regulations (CERCLA) require reporting spills and releases to soil, water and air in excess of reportable quantities. 5. What Eye Protection should be employed when working with Tricholoroethylene? Use chemical safety goggles and/or a full face shield where splashing is possible. Maintain eye wash fountain and quick-drench facilities in work area.

6. List the three things that should be found on every label from a manufacturer: · · · Identity of the hazardous chemical(s); Appropriate hazard warnings; and Name and address of the chemical manufacturer, importer or other responsible party.

1.

Who receives a copy of the Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest? The generator and everyone who ships or accepts the Hazardous Waste.

2.

How long do you retain a copy of a Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest? The generator and each person who accepts the waste must retain a copy of the Manifest for three years from the time of acceptance of the waste.

6.

What is the minimum amount of emergency response information required that can be used in the mitigation of an incident involving hazardous materials?

a. The basic description and technical name of the hazardous material

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b. Immediate hazards to health c. Risks of fire or explosion d. Immediate precautions to be taken in the event of an accident or incident e. Immediate methods for handling fires f. Initial methods for handling spills or leaks in the absence of fire

g. Preliminary first-aid measures

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You are newly assigned to a work area and find the following materials stored in this manner: Area 1 Sodium Hydroxide Trichloroethylene Area 2 MEK Peroxide Chlorine Area 3 Acetone Potassium Hydroxide (Caustic Potash)

Using the MSDSs for these materials found in Appendix A, fill out the matrix below and rearrange the materials into compatible areas. Trichloroethylene Material/Waste B Material/Waste A

MEK Peroxide

Potassium X X

Hydroxide

Sodium Hydroxide Trichloroethylene MEK Peroxide Chlorine Acetone Potassium Hydroxide X X

X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X

One Possible Solution Area 1 Sodium Hydroxide

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Area 2 Acetone

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Hydroxide

Chlorine

Acetone

Sodium

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Chlorine Trichloroethylene Potassium Hydroxide

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1. The three categories for response are: i. ii. iii. Emergencies Incident Characterizations Remedial Actions

2. Name 6 of the 9 requirements that must be in a site safety plan. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. Describe the Known Hazards and Risks List Key Personnel and Alternates Designate Levels of Protection to Be Worn Delineate Work Areas List Control Procedures Establish Decontamination Procedures Address Requirements for an Environmental Surveillance Program Specify Any Routine and Special Training Required Establish Procedures for Weather

3. What are the symptoms of heat stroke? · · · · · · Mental confusion Delirium Loss of consciousness Convulsions or coma Body temperature of 106°F or higher Hot dry skin which may be red, mottled, or bluish

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4. What PPE can you choose for hearing protection? Earplugs, Earmuffs, and Canal Caps

1. Give four examples of confined spaces. · · · · · · · · · · Chimney Boilers Sterilizers Washers/Dryers Hot well Sewage pit Daerator Hot water tanks Sump pump pits Elevator sump pits

2. What are the four distinct categories of hazardous atmospheres. Flammable, Toxic, Irritant (Corrosive) and Asphyxiating.

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3. Entry Permits must include the following information: (List 6 of the 13) · · · · · · Test results; Tester's initials or signature; Name and signature of supervisor who authorizes entry; Name of permit space to be entered, authorized entrant(s), eligible attendants, and individual(s) authorized to be entry supervisor(s); Purpose of entry and known space hazards; Measures to be taken to isolate permit spaces and to eliminate or control space hazards, i.e., locking out or tagging of equipment and procedures for purging, making inert, ventilating and flushing permit spaces; · · · · · · · Name and telephone numbers of rescue and emergency services; Date and authorized duration of entry; Acceptable entry conditions; Communication procedures and equipment to maintain contact during entry; Additional permits(s), such as for hot work, that have been issued to authorize work in the permit space; Special equipment and procedures, including personal protective equipment and alarm systems; and Any other information needed to ensure employee safety.

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1. List the five major management activities of an ISC. Command, Operational, Planning, Logistics, Finance/Administrative

2. Effective Span of Control may vary from 3 to 7, and a ratio of 1 to 5 reporting elements is recommended. 3. Match the Following:

Zone--Support Cold Zone Support Zone

The area that is potentially hazardous to life and/or health and necessitates the use of appropriate protective clothing and having rescue teams standing by to ensure entry.

Zone-- Warm Zone Contamination Reduction Zone

The intermediary area between the hot zone and a safe area where the decontamination area is set up and rescue teams stand by.

Zone--Exclusion Hot Zone Exclusion Zone

The safe area directly outside the warm zone where a majority of the Hazard Sector work takes place. This is separated from support activities, including the command post, to reduce confusion and interference during critical entry/decontamination operations.

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1. What five ways can materials be hazardous. i. Flammable, ignitable, or explosive ii. Corrosive iii. Reactive iv. Toxic or poisonous v. Radioactive vi. 2. As a rule, which is more hazardous? Gases Liquids Solids

3. What do the numbers on this label mean?

Red (4) ­ Highly Flammable

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Blue (1) ­ Short exposure will cause irritation buy only minor residual injury White (0) ­ No special hazards Yellow (2) ­ Materials that readily undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures.

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This assignment is an in-class exercise for all students in the 40-Hour and 24-Hour Course to accomplish. 1. Inspect, Don, Use, Doff, and Store respiratory equipment. Refer to Manual for Correct Procedures.

2. Inspect, Don, Use, Doff, and Store the highest PPE equipment you are being trained to use. Refer to Manual for Correct Procedures.

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1. What are the two principal approaches to identifying and/or quantifying airborne contaminants? a. On-site direct-reading instruments b. Laboratory analysis

2. Where should you use direct-reading instruments? a. Flammable or explosive atmospheres b. Oxygen deficiency atmospheres c. For certain gases and vapors d. For ionizing radiation

3. Generally, what level of protection should be worn during initial sampling?

A

B

C

D

E

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1. What are the five steps in spill/leak response? a. Identifying the material and its associated hazards. b. Use proper protective clothing and equipment. c. Stop the flow and the source (confinement). d. Confine spill material to the immediate area. e. Recover spilled material

2. Why would you build a dike? To direct the flow of a spilled liquid. 3. Which is NOT a good sorbent material because it may react with some materials? c. Sawdust

4. A gas with a vapor density of 1.4 is released. Where will the gas go? b. It will sink to the lower floors.

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1. Where does decontamination take place? b. Warm Zone

2. What five major factors affect the extent of permeation of contaminants into PPE? a. Contact time b. Concentration c. Temperature d. Size of the contaminant molecules and size of the pores e. Physical state of the waste/hazardous material

3. Incident response should take into account medical emergencies. What should the plan provide for? · · Response team members fully trained in first-aid and CPR. Arrangements with the nearest medical facility for transportation and treatment of the injured, and for treatment of personnel suffering from exposure to chemicals. · · · Consultation services with a toxicologist. Emergency eyewashes, showers, and/or wash stations. First-aid kits, blankets, stretcher, and resuscitator.

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1. An effective debrief following a HAZMAT incident should:

·

Inform responders about which hazardous materials were involved and the signs and symptoms of exposure.

· ·

Provide information for personal exposure records. Identify equipment damage and unsafe conditions requiring immediate attention, including isolation for further evaluation.

·

Assign information-gathering responsibilities for a post-incident analysis and critique.

·

Summarize the activities performed by each section, including topics for follow-up.

2. A good critique mentally promotes:

· · · · ·

Trust in the response system as being self-correcting. Willingness to cooperate through teamwork. Continuing training in skills and techniques. Preplanning for significant incidents. Sharing information between response agencies.

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