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Household Biogas Digester

An Underutilized Potential

Pramod Pandey

Research Assistant (PhD candidate)

Biological System Engineering Department Washington State University, Pullman, WA

Supervisor: Prof. Schulin Chen

Email: [email protected] Phone: 011-509-335-3859

Objectives

To present the overview of Renewable Energy programme in India

In view of the above to introduce the development and diffusion of biogas technology in India To provide the historical perspective and evaluation of biogas technology in China

Overview of Renewable Energy Programme in India

Biogas Biomass Wind energy Solar Energy Small Hydro Power Other Technologies

Energy-fuel cell Hydrogen Energy Transprotation-Battery operated vehicle Geothermal Energy Ocean and Tidal Energy. Biofuels

Diffusion of Biogas Technology in India

It is the main programme under rural energy development

Objectives Provide fuel for cooking purpose Provide organic manure to rural poor Reduce pressure on forest Improve sanitation by linking toilets with biogas plant

Target and Potential

The Advisory Board on Energy (May, 1985) indicated a potential for setting up 16 to 22 million small biogas units in the country. MNES and Ninth Five Year Plan Document have indicated a potential of 12 million plants based on 1981-82 livestock census and availability of cattle dung. A cumulative of 3.37 million biogas plant has been installed which is a 25 % of potential

Historical Perspective of Biogas (Gobar Gas) In India

1950 1950-72 First units constructed. Some research on the process and design Industrial development of India and agriculture. First practical designs constructed, small projects, mainly one organization involved, one design disseminated. Energy crisis attracts attention to the technology, start of national interest. Fossil fuel dependency identified. Indira Gandhi to power. National interest and research. National programme developed Initiation of large national programme relying on subsidies. Multi organization, multi-design approach. Improving designs, improving the organization and results from dissemination. Decrease in subsidies, new structures of dissemination and extension Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) has achieved 97% to 108% of annual target during the five years. At the instance of MNES, the Programme Evaluation Organisation (PEO) undertook evaluation of National Project of Biogas Development (NPBD) primarily to examine the implementation methods. MNES and Ninth Five Year Plan Document have indicated a potential of 12 million plants bases on 1987-82 livestock census and availability of cattle dung. During the Ninth Plan, a target of installing 12.6 lakh plants has been fixed, while the proposed Tenth Plan target is 15 lakh plants. Subsidies

1972-1975 1975-1980/81 1980/81-1985 1985-1992 1992-1996 1996-2000

2000-2003

Scope of Biogas Technology in India

India has the largest cattle population in the world. There are about 75 million farm families 60 percent families own 4 or more cattle, which are sufficient to operate a small biogas plant.

SATNA Study area

3%

2%

1.50% 1.50% 3%

89%

waste land

pasture

house

nala

road

cultivable land

Land use pattern of Jakhi village

11.50% 8.30%

15.60% 65%

marginal

small

medium

large

Land holding pattern of Jakhi village

Direct Energy Calculation

DE = 1.96 HLH + 80.7 BPH + 56.31 DC + 11.93 EC DE = Direct energy input MJ HLH = Human Power hours used per ha BLH = Bullock power hours used per ha DC = Diesel consumption per ha EC = Electricity consumption per ha, KWH

Indirect Energy calculation

IE = C x WM x HUM/OA IE C =Indirect Energy calculation MJ/ha = Energy coefficient

WM = Weight of machinery used per hour HUM = Hours of machinery used OA = Operation area, ha

Cooking

40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0

Lighting

27452

Miscelleeous domestic

35254 28534

26882

27465

2256 1557

3295 2142

2154 1423

2685 2762

2642 2164

ar gi

Sm

nd

Energy consumption in household activities (MJ/year/household)

La

M

M

ed i

La rg e

na

al l

le

um

ss

Soft coke (%) Electricity (%)

Kerosene (%) Non-commercial fuel (%)

Average 18000-above 12000-18000 6000-12000 3000-6000 Utp to 3000

0

20

40

60

80

100

Rural Area

Energy use pattern

Rural Area

Most people depends on traditional fuels of wood, cowdung, crop residues Often using inefficient and primitive technology Commercial fuels are used for lighting Cooking alone consumes around 85.5% of the total energy Household activities consumes about 74.4% of the total energy

Organizational Structure of National Programme on Biogas Technology in India

MNES Support system Implementation Nodal agencies (state departments/corporation) Autonomous bodies (KVIC/DIC)

Training, feedback research and development

NABARD/ RBI National banks State lead banks Bank branches

Regional training and development centers

District offices

NGOs

State offices/ co-operatives

Research institutions

Block offices

Turnkeys /workers

NGOs

Turnkey workers

State Nodal

140000 125608 125128

KVIC

Others

Number of Biogas plant

120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 37666 36421

116352 108181

115565

47900 32868 33346

2746

3882

3594

2983

1 0887

1995-96

1996-97

1997-98 Years

1998-99

1999-2000

Fig 2 Share in achievement of targets by various agency

Reciept 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1996 1997

Expenditure

Rupees (million)

1998

Year

1999

2000

Receipt and expenditure of funding under NPBD in Selected States (MNES, 2002)

Classification of Biogas Model

Batch Type

Semi continuous type

Continuous type

Stage type Plug flow type Well mixed type

FLOATING DRUM KVIC Model Pragati Model Ganesh Model

FIXED DOME Janata Model

Deenbandhu Model

Janata ­ II Model

Ferro cement VINCAP Model

Ferro cement Deenbandhu

Over View of Floating Type Biogas Plant

Structural View of Digester of Floating Type Biogas Plant

Biogas Plant in Rural Area of West Bengal (Kharagpur)

6 MW MSW plant in Lakhnow, UP

Schematic Presentation of Pragati Type of Biogas Plant

Schematic Presentation of Janta Type Biogas Plant

Schematic Presentation of Floating Type of Gas Holder

Schematic Presentation of Deenbandhu Biogas Plant

Plug flow digester

Plug flow digester

Biogas Development in China

Initial phase

Mr. Luo Guorui founded the first Chinese company to disseminate biogas technology in Shantou in the summer 1929

The company has developed along the Yangtse River and more then 10 provinces along the eastern and southern coast

The first specialized technology training material on desing and construction and operation of biogas technology was published in 1935

Second Phase

Second upsurge for promoting the biogas technology in China initiated in Wuchant City of Hubei province in 1958.

Although new hydraulic biogas digester they have developed but still Guorui Biogas plant was mostly adopted

More then 100 thousand plants were dismantled due to poor scientific construction and blind construction.

Third Phase

In the 70 and 80s the energy consumption and fuel supply was poor as 122 kg/capita. 66% of the stalks was used as farmers cooking fuel.

The central Govt. pointed out that dissipation of biogas technology in rural area could effectively utilize agriculture resource and forest protection

These leads to professional management organisation and leading group of biogas development, and professional institute namely, Chengdu Biogas Institute

Rural Energy Programme in China

Rural household biogas digesters were widely disseminated some cities and town in Northern China

Since 1983, China is emphasizing the policy of rural energy in every five year development plan.

Rural energy development has been arranged into national economic planning for 20 years. An unique way of China rural energy development has been explored.

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 hunan zhejiang shanong guangdong sichuan jiangsu Chongqing liaoning Hainan shanghai Shanxi Beijing Guangsi jiangsi Tianjin henan fujian anhui hebei hubei Jilin

175 160 160 150 160 125 50 55 60 80 100 30 20 15 15 310 440 410

10

8

5

Medium and large size biogas plant in different part of China

Shanghi No of decontamination biogas systems Guangxi Hubei Anhi Jiangxi Hunan Fujian Jiangsu Zhejiang Chongding Guangdong Sichuan 0

800 1200 2000 2200 2500 3000 3200 4000 10000 12000 20000 32000 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000

Cities

No of Biogas decontamination system in China, 2001

electricity, 9.3 natural gas, 0.005

biogas, 0.40%

firewood, 21.3 coal gas, 0.003

stalks, 33.42 Oil, 2 LPG, 1.1

coal , 32

Percentage contribution of energy sources utilized in Rural China (2001)

In 2000, population in China rural areas was 0.82 billion around 65% of Chinese total population 1.26 billion. In 2001, China rural areas were 9.57 million households having biogas digesters of which 8.57 million (90%) plants are working.

If those plants work properly they can produce yearly around 2.98 billion Cumec biogas amounting to standard coal 2.13 million tones.

Positioning of bottom hemisphere and out let for fixed dome type of biogas plant

Joining of two hemisphere of biogas plant

Top view of fixed dome type of biogas plant

Trainees of biogas training programme (Feb 12-17, 2004), Mechada, India

Trainees with Mr. Pandey in Gadbeta Dairy Farm, Aug12-28, 2003, India

Mr. Pandey, and Mossa Kareem, owner of a poultry biogasdigester, 26, June, 2005

Visit in a kusiari village, May, 2005

Masson Training for biogas plant designing

Speech for biogas in National level seminar for farmers, at IIT, Kharagpur, Feb, 12, 2004

Prof. T. Nejat Veziroglu, International Hydrogen President, with Mr. Pandey in his laboratery

Dr. T. Kasturirangan, eminent space scientist, and Mr. Pandey

Isolated bacteria for anaerobic digestion

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