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CSE 757 (WI'10) Software Engineering Team Project On Apple, Inc.

Guided by: Dr. Rajiv Ramnath

Submitted by: Amit Modi Nishanth Dandapanthula Rohit Patali

Table of Contents

Industry Segment and Products ................................................................................................................ 3 Services ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 Market....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Value Chain ............................................................................................................................................... 5 Areas of differentiation........................................................................................................................... 10 Organizational Structure ......................................................................................................................... 11 5 Forces Analysis ..................................................................................................................................... 12 Balanced Scorecard aimed at improving marketing ............................................................................... 16 Suggested portfolio of Apple's Innovation: ............................................................................................ 17 Storyboard .............................................................................................................................................. 22 Problem Statement ................................................................................................................................. 24 Business Case .......................................................................................................................................... 24 Use Cases and User Scenarios................................................................................................................. 27 Non Functional Requirements ................................................................................................................ 30 Acceptance Plan ...................................................................................................................................... 31 Project Schedule ..................................................................................................................................... 34 Risk Plan .................................................................................................................................................. 36 Project Schedule ..................................................................................................................................... 41 Linear Cost Estimation: ........................................................................................................................... 42 Use Case Point Estimation ...................................................................................................................... 43 Parametric Cost Estimation (Wideband Delphi Process [5]): ................................................................... 45 Domain Analysis ...................................................................................................................................... 48 Research Scope ....................................................................................................................................... 48 Solution Analysis ..................................................................................................................................... 51 Subsystem Models .................................................................................................................................. 54 Architectural Representation.................................................................................................................. 60 Architectural Decision Analysis ............................................................................................................... 65 Target Environment ................................................................................................................................ 71 References: ............................................................................................................................................. 73

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Enterprise Analysis

Apple Inc. (Apple) has managed to create substantial value in the highly competitive personal computer industry, portable media industry and software industry by innovating and forging a path considerably different from those of the largest competitors in the market, successfully differentiating its products from those of the competitors by choosing to focus on design elegance, quality and superior customer service, while outsourcing actual manufacturing to trusted original equipment manufacturers. Yet, despite the advantages Apple has created for itself, the stiff competition within the industry and other external factors present formidable challenges to the firm.

Industry Segment and Products

Computer Hardware and Consumer Electronics Mac: Pro, Mini, iMac, MacBook, Air, Pro, Xserve iPhone iPod: Shuffle, Nano, Classic, Touch Apple TV Cinema Display AirPort Time Capsule

MACBOOK AIR

IPHONE

IPOD

TIME CAPSULE

APPLE TV

CINEMA DISPLAY

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Computer Software and its Digital Distribution Mac OS X: Server, iPhone OS iLife iWork Multimedia applications: Aperture, iTunes, Logic Express, Logic Studio, Quick Time Player Safari Web Browser

MAC OS

APPLE iLIFE

ITUNES

SAFARI WEB BROWSER

APPLE APERTURE

APPLE LOGIC STUDIO

Services

Stores: Retail, Online, iTunes, App Retail Internet: MobileMe

Market

Business Consumer market Creative professional Education Government Customers Teen Age Buyers

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Figure 1.1: Percentage market value generated by each segment

Value Chain

CORE ACTIVITIES

Inbound Logistics

Apple Incs direct business model yields strong production inventory and capital investment efficiency that translate into tangible benefits for the environment. Because all products are made to order, Apple currently maintains only three days of inventory for most parts and equipment, which keeps the environmental impact of warehousing to a minimum. Components and parts are only ordered and shipped to Apple when they are ready to be assembled into the final computer product, thereby saving energy and operational costs associated with storing inventory.

Figure 1.2: Inbound Logistics Raw material acquisition such as required hardware, etc. Just in Time receiving system & optimized storage requirement : Sequencing and Just-in-Time solutions that allow manufacturers synchronize with suppliers in support of production line demand. Inbound quality check

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Via our inbound logistics capabilities, we can prioritize orders and shipments to coordinate inventory and transportation. Our capabilities include: Order management ­ Coordinated, proactive order status and issue resolution using strategies that allow variability Visibility, monitoring & reporting ­ Visibility to inventory at rest or in motion, allowing you to monitor and evaluate

Operations

To a company of this size, the impact of successfully managing product line complexity, or the cost of its mismanagement, can easily reach into the hundreds of millions of dollars. Our experience has shown us that reducing product line complexity without appropriate analysis can be detrimental to business results. Complexity has an intrinsic value, in many cases improving profitability. The difficulty in managing complexity is in separating "good complexity" from "bad complexity" in a systematic way. Customers are happy to pay for "good" complexity. "Bad" complexity needlessly increases costs and jeopardizes profitability.

Figure 1.3: Operations We have developed a five-step process that measures the costs and benefits of complexity, and then uses these measurements to guide product line planning. A schematic overview of this process is illustrated in the figure below.

Figure 1.4: Schematic overview of Operations process

Step 1: Identify cost areas impacted by product line complexity.

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The first step is to identify which cost areas are impacted by product line complexity. To avoid overlooking hidden costs, conduct a thorough review of material, information and financial flows along the value chain.

Step 2: Estimate complexity costs per unit in each area.

The next step is to estimate the effects of complexity in each cost area on a per-unit basis. This aids in quantifying the cost impacts of changes in product line size or configuration. The estimation approaches used will vary by the type of business and by cost type. Generally, this requires a combination of theoretical principles (such as statistical techniques for calculating inventory-pooling benefits) and empirical measurement.

Step 3: Define "cutoff" margin threshold per SKU (Stock keeping units).

Measuring the per-unit costs of complexity has some challenges. Most troublesome is the fact that these costs are generally nonlinear, and vary depending on the characteristics of the portfolio being offered. In order to enable rapid decision-making, we found it necessary to devise a simpler set of "complexity guidelines" that could be used to evaluate individual products without having to model an entire portfolio.

Step 4: Evaluate incremental margin of each proposed SKU.

Increased product line complexity can yield benefits as well as costs. Benefits include greater consumer choice, increased shelf space at retailers, increased consumer mindshare and reduced pricing transparency. Complexity also benefits retailers who can offer custom-built SKUs to differentiate their product offerings. Thus, offering a broader product line not only brings in additional revenue but also strengthens Apple's relationships with retail channel partners.

Figure 1.5: Margin contribution by each product

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Step 5: Eliminate proposed SKUs that do not exceed threshold.

The last step involves eliminating products under consideration for which the projected margin contributions do not exceed the thresholds assigned. At its most basic level, this is simply a SKU-by-SKU comparison of projected margin impacts against the measured cost threshold. Following steps 1-3 of our approach can avoid any complexity crisis, so that when new products are proposed, the organization understands the costs that new SKUs will bring and can control their growth appropriately.

Outbound Logistics

There are a set of guiding principles which are strictly adhered to. They are listed as follows Obtains visibility of goods from end-to-end, maintaining control every step of the way Manage orders, pricing and shipments Gain efficiency by consolidation, cross-docking and scheduling Leading to increased supply chain velocity and improved service

Based on the above mentioned guidelines Apple Inc has been able to develop a very coherent system using an objective approach which is a consequence of advanced information systems, which assists in choosing the carriers that maximize service. It takes a non-asset based approach to transportation management, focusing on selecting and managing suitable carriers, determined by the requirements. Advanced information systems developed by Apple Inc. in association with its sellers and distributors provide additional value through:

Load optimization Network analysis Shipment visibility Management reporting

Figure 1.6: Outbound Logistics

Marketing and Sales

"Get a Mac" Ads: Apple uses a series of television advertisements comparing the firms products to competitors using a variety of direct and indirect methods to build a lifestyle brand image. The 8|Page

ads are humorous and do not emphasize cost or feature-by-feature comparisons, opting instead to develop the firms image. Retail locations/Flagship stores: Apple stores across the United States serve as living advertisements for the company promoting the brand and lifestyle image. Flagship stores, like the 5th Avenue New York store are an attraction drawing visitors on novelty hoping to convert the visits into sales. Secretive and selective unveilings: By keeping secrets about products releases and holding invitation-only press events for products unveilings, Apple creates hype and suspension around product launches [2].

Services

Apple Genius: Apple stores house the ,,Apple Genius Bar where customers can talk with an Apple specialist known as a ,,genius about problems with their device. This human interaction with a first party service providers, builds a rapport with customers and offers a stark contrast to endless phone service calls. Included and extended warranty: Apple offers an included 90 day warranty against defects and issues with its products. Customers can also purchase extended warranties through ,,Apple Care to protect their product Free consultation: Customers can bring in their device for a free consultation regarding issues problems with no commitment, whether it is in or out of warranty. The customers then have the option to pursue different avenues of resolving the issue without an upfront

SUPPORT ACTIVITIES

Procurement

Positive relationships with suppliers: Long term relationship with the supplier helps to build confidence in Apple, mutual benefiting both Apple and the supplier. Partnering with original equipment manufacturers'(OEM): To reduce cost of acquisition

Human Resource Management

In-store/in-house employee recruiting and training Corporate HR management Compensation, benefits, rewards

Technological Development

Research & Development: expenditure increased about 66% from 2007 to 2009 Patent filing: protection of important inventions and innovations in the US and worldwide Designing: Design and conceptualization of current and future product is done internally, utilizing industry-leading industrial design teams and engineering knowhow. Stylist packaging: In order to entice customers Apple uses eye-catching packaging.

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Areas of differentiation

Geography: Products are sold over a geographical basis, specifically focused on the United States, Europe and Japan Ease of Use: According to Apple, their products are generally easy to use and promise lasting entertainment. R & D: Apple harnesses inventions through continuous research and development and provides continuous updates to its released products.

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Organizational Structure

Figure 1.7 Organization structure of Apple Inc. [4]

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5 Forces Analysis

Figure 1.8: Porters Five Force Analysis [2]

The industry is moderately attractive overall. The established players have a history of success and innovation, but competitors who fall behind the fast moving technological curve, or cannot compete efficiently on price or differentiate effectively are eliminated. The power asserted by buyers and the dominance of suppliers puts strain on the industrys profits. While new entrants are possible, the cost in dollars and time of successful branding are a hindrance. While some users may move most of their 12 | P a g e

computing activities to truly mobile devices like smart phones personal computers are likely to remain a tech staple for the foreseeable future.

OPPORTUNITIES

Growing consumer electronic market Opportunity to extend new products to existing loyal customers

Strategy should be oriented towards pleasing customers. The forces are mostly of comparable strength, with many opposing elements within each force. Most of the strengthening elements, however, are customer-centric. The threat of substitute products is moderate, but maintaining customer loyalty can help Apple Inc.

RESPONDING TO MARKET DEMAND

Strategy

Innovation System integration capabilities Cost structure Consumer branding Manufacturing and supply chain efficiency Time to market Service provision Recruiting talented people

To increase customer satisfaction, the enterprise should be aware of customer desires. Customized softwares are the best way to do that. It may be profitable to respond to broader wishes such as those for increased convenience and faster product delivery. It may pay to adopt (or adapt) some practices used by competitors to satisfy these desires (such as online gaming support and customized software).By adding new products to its range Apple Inc can reduce the life cycle of existing products and bring more diversity for its customer base.

APPLE INC'S COMPETITIVE POSITION WITHIN ITS INDUSTRY SEGMENT

Figure 1.9: Apples's competitive position in market

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ANALYSIS OF APPLE INC'S CURRENT MARKET STANDINGS

Computers and Software Macintosh (Mac) brand desktops, laptops and related hardware/software are a traditional mainstay of Apple's business. Fewer sales can generate significantly more profit for Apple than the same number would for its big-business competitors, both because of Apple's carefully monitored stiff pricing and the extra revenue captured from the sale of accessories in Apple's retail stores. Apple's main competitors are HP and Dell, both of which have experienced significantly lower growth rates than Apple recently. In June of 2006 Apple announced that it would begin shipping its computers with Intel processors. Since the switch Apple has, on two occasions, announced new computer specs that include processors that haven't been officially released by Intel. The first of these announcements came in April 2009 when Apple announced that its Mac Pro would be available with two quad-core processors that were not on Intel's price sheet or website. About a year later Apple again announced a new model that would ship with a previously unreleased Intel processor, this time for the iMac. In both cases Intel has said that the processors shipping in the new Apple models are available in limited quantities. Furthermore, competitors like Dell and HP have been left without access to these processors in their early stages. Apple's ability to get exclusive access to new products, like Intel's processors, could provide a significant advantage over their competition in the future [3]. Music

Apple's main competitors in this area include: SanDisk's Sansa players, one model of which beat the Nano to market, with more GB and a lower price point. Creative's Zen, which has a strong grounding in flash-based players--including the first true widescreen video PMP with the Zen Vision W. Microsoft's Zune, currently uninspiring, but with the potential for significant growth and the ability to leverage unique files transfer technology. Apple's music offerings include the iPod and its variations (i.e., Nano, Shuffle, and Video) as well as the iTunes media player and distribution system. Although Apple remains the industry leader in digital media player (DMP) industry, the competition is making significant gains. The popularity of flash-based DMP is problematic for Apple, which has much stronger market presence in hard-drive based (HDD) players. To combat this, Apple released a new flash-based line of players (iTouch), in addition to a souped-up and rehauled version of HDD iPods [3].

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Figure 1.10: Market share in digital music industry

Mobile Communication

Apple launched its iPhone in June 2009. Touted as a device converging communications and media playback, the iPhone combines EDGE mobile technology with widescreen PMP ability as well as internet browsing. Apple's iPhone must compete with established mobile phone and PDA companies, including the likes of Motorola, Nokia, and Sony, many of which have significantly larger R&D budgets than Apple. The company also experiences challenges from BlackBerry and similar high-end PDAphone combinations. Because it is unlikely that the iPhone will be issued by corporations as a productivity tool, the BlackBerry and similar devices may enjoy a significant edge in the corporate markets. Google's Android operating system aims to provide a competitive application platform for rival handsets. Although Apple has a huge head-start with their app-store, Android is expected to provide rivals with a leg-up in their quest to catch the iPhone [3].

Home Entertainment

In 2009, Apple introduced its Apple TV product for the home entertainment center. Apple TV allows digital media from a user's computer to be played on entertainment systems and digital televisions such as high-definition LCDs and plasmas. Apple TV may face much stiffer competition. While the concept of digital media played on the TV initially seems very promising, Apple TV actually has rather limited functionality- especially against established and well-received sources of media, from Video On-Demand to Netflix to recordable cable programming. All three of these distribution channels offer significantly higher image quality than much of what is available on Apple TV [3].

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Balanced Scorecard aimed at improving marketing

MISSION: CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND PROFITABILITY

When you buy an Apple product, you join a club. Its more than simply owning a product; its being part of the entire Apple ecosystem. Each part of each product is tied together to provide a seamless experience that brings together your electronics so you can get on with the business of living your life. Apple enjoys copious amounts of free advertising from staunch loyalists and media buzz that generate "word of mouth". Apple's customer satisfaction ratings repeatedly top the charts. This is beneficial since many highly satisfied users, in effect, become quasi-Apple salespeople as they recommend products to friends. If this level of high customer satisfaction and/or Apples brand image starts to suffer, it would unquestionably dramatically undermine sales.

Theme: Streamlining Outbound Logistics Objectives Measures Targets Initiatives

Financial

Profitability

Reduce Costs

Profitability Reduce costs Increase revenues

Budget analysis Inventory tracking

Long-term

increase in profitability Reduce damage and misplace

Customer tracking

and statistical order cycling (prevent abandoned orders)

Increase Revenue s

Customer

Satisfaction Convenience

Increase

satisfaction Improve convenience

Customer count Customer waiting

times Customer feedback

More total

customers Smaller inventory Negligible customer waiting times

Online order with

pick-up

Display details of

shipment and manufacture

Internal

Track Supplies Reduce Loitering

Track/predict

Streamline Ordering

Tracking and

prediction accuracy Instances of delivery tardiness or absence due to confusion

Reduce

instances of supply shortage or surplus Increase customer satisfaction and reliability

Statistical supply

usage schedules based on external conditions Maintain technological extensions

Streamline Logistics

Track/Externalize Orders

supply use Order tracking and externalization Streamline order fulfillment Streamline employee management Reduce loitering time

Learning

New Software & Technology

Adoption of better

technological solutions Employee training for new systems

Questions,

complaints, and comments about the new technology

Minimize

confusion in technology use

Online help, possibly

including walkthrough videos On-site training and meetings for new ideas

Train Employees

Table 1.1 Balanced Scorecards for Apple, Inc.

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Suggested portfolio of Apple's Innovation:

"DIVERSIFYING MARKET SHARE"

Apple is becoming a mature company. So for Apple to continue to grow it has to expand into more markets and has had to change its ways. Apple should diversify its portfolio and market share by entering in this niche field. Apple will almost certainly offer a new version of its App Store and tools for creating apps sized to custom fit the tablet. Those applications could also be more expensive and thus more profitable for Apple. The App Store has been called Apples most important invention ever and was estimated to have brought in $1.4 billion in revenue last year. The following ideas are used to increase customer satisfaction as mentioned in the weakness (or threat) of the five forces analysis. Apart from customer satisfaction, innovations such as Apple Tablet and Apple iGameZone and virtual iBox try to compete with the alternative source of entertainment provided by competitors. Apple Custom OS would provide its customer base more and new products which do not really exist in the market right now. Apple Data Management System captures data electronically and hence can be used to model areas where and when the customer demand is high. In addition, an advance request to suppliers for raw materials can be made. The new initiative Apple Recycle Program is a new initiative started by any industry and gives Apple Inc a new and noble cause to attract more customers. From the below mentioned areas of innovation, the portfolio will be concentrating on online ordering due to the reasons mentioned above and analysis from Porters five forces model.

Apple Tablet

Everyone is hungry for the next iPhone moment and Apple's bid to squash the Kindle and reinvent the publishing business with the iPad or the iSlate tablet computer. But that is a mere sideshow. The real road kill this time will not be the Kindle. It will be handheld video gaming devices like Sony's PSP and the Nintendo DS, as Apple establishes a lock on the economics of casual gaming with its newest device.

Apple iGameZone and virtual iBox

We plan to develop a web based video game model (iGameZone) where players can directly logon to internet play online games. Shop games online in the iGame store. The Apple iBox like virtual machines can be installed in iPhone to play games. Apple aims at providing user a new gaming experience and also market new games launched by Pixar.

Apple Custom OS

Since long companies have been customizing the products for the customers but Apple could plan to change the experience of buying its product by creating a website where people can actually customize their OS for each and every device. The customized OS is a new fundamental in the market and can attract lot of customers and customer satisfaction for the existing customers.

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Apple Recycle Program Tracker and manager

Apple has launched Apple Recycle Program. Apple free recycling program tracker can be used to track the recycled product details. These product details can later be used by company to encash them as carbon credits.

Apple Data Management System

Apple plans to come up with a data management system that using the statistical analysis of the historical data and given the demographic details would predict the sales for the coming year. This data management system can improve the supply chain management of the Apple Inc.

APPLE'S TIMING IN ENTERING NEW MARKETS

Apple launched the first iPod in Oct-01, three years after the first portable MP3 player was on the market. Likewise, the iPhone debuted in Jun-07, five years after the first BlackBerry with email and mobile phone capabilities. With both products, Apple designed devices that were differentiated enough to gain significant market share despite its later entrance into the markets. We believe Apple is observing the netbook market in a similar way, and will eventually enter with a tablet, a premium mobile computing device. After the release of Kindle, which is an e reader by Amazon, there has been new found demand for products of similar genre. We have decided to pick up one of the applications for Apple Tablet, iReader, which provides the all functionalities of the Kindle but also delivers where Kindle fell short. iReader combined with the newly launched iPad will make an attractive package. This will not only enable Apple to capture market in software business but also help it compete with other reader devices like Amazons Kindle, Sonys PRS-600. Hence, we plan to consider iReader for further development.

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Requirements Analysis

The initial step is to identify Software Engineering processes for the development of our product which includes identifying workflows as agile processes or structured processes. Based on the analysis of the five dimensions of a software engineering process we came up with a conclusion that a Hybrid model would suite our needs in the best way. The following spider diagram gives an overview of how we reached the conclusion

Figure 2.1: Spider Diagram indicating that a hybrid of Agile and Structured practice suite our project

The following points provide an in-depth analysis of all the five dimensions:

Level

We believe that since it is a new product so the kind of skill set required during the initial design and research would be high but over the period the level2 and 3 people can be reduced and more of Level 1B people can be introduced.

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Criticality

The criticality of the application is very high, as the revenues of the company are highly dependent on the performance of the product. Thus a bias towards structured approach has been depicted.

Dynamism

Since the application is only an idea right now. Nobody really has a clear picture of what it is going to be like. Any creative ideas or suggestions can be incorporated in it. Based on the on-going analysis of the available competitive market products we expect that there will be a lot of dynamic requirements. So a structured approach would be suitable. But we also want to give the developers and analysts the freedom of implementation so as to incorporate new ideas. Hence a hybrid model would be more suitable.

Size

Looking at the scope of the application , the requirements of the skill set and our past experience with such applications we suggest that the team size would grow somewhere between 50 to 60 resources.

Culture

The existing culture of the organization follows a structured approach. But a few small projects with low criticality have been developed here with agile approach. Keeping these things in mind we plot the approach a bit biased towards structured process. We plan to extract the maximum benefit from the hybrid model by carrying out agile practice for the initial phase. Although the initial phase is carried out using agile practice, the overall methodology for the entire scope of the projects tends to become structured over the periods of time because of the growing complexity, large project size and inherent structured culture of Apple, Inc.

WORK-PRODUCTS

We identify the following work products for our project:

Storyboard

Used for initial problem analysis and captures sequence. Since the requirements in the beginning are not very clear and substantially depend on the competing products in the market, the requirements will change with the understanding of the current market scenario. Well follow an agile practice while drafting this work product.

Problem Statement: (Structured and Agile)

Used for analysis and initial understanding of the problem. Also gives a fair idea of user expectations. The final product may have a number of additional features but the primary goal of the project is well structured. 20 | P a g e

Business Case: (Structured)

This product is targeted to compete with existing products in this segment, this piece of document serves as an important material. It will also define the business advantage Apple will have over other companies. Well defined goals, highly structured layout.

Use cases User Stories or Scenarios: (Hybrid of Structured and Agile)

The Use Cases provides an overview on the modules of the applications and the functionality that it provides to the various users and/or actors. User Stories will be used for the requirements following the agile process so that it captures the functional and non functional requirements. We would like to develop it into structured work product once all the requirements are clearly understood.

Non functional requirements: (Structured)

It is a new product offered by Apple and aims at competing already established products in the market for this segment, the non functional requirements play an important part in the success of this product. The portability and compatibility issues need to be addressed carefully or the product may incur loss in market revenue and can also defame the product brand name. This work product needs to be well structured.

Acceptance Plan: (Structured)

Finally an acceptance plan is required for approval from the higher management. The goals should be clear and well defined. Hence, this work product will be well structured.

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Requirements

Storyboard

After the considering the current market survey and the view of business analysts, the higher management came up with the whole flow of how the product would look like what all will be its capability. Management wants the product to have a nice interface, nice to look and feel. This is how they narrate the flow, "When the application is launched, I want to have a library opened showcasing the books onto the system. So that I can organize these books according to the category, title, etc by clicking on to the options. I also want to be able to open any book by just one click/touch. When an application/book is closed by clicking onto the close button, next time the reading should begin from where he had left off". Manager adds to it that since he is very impatient, he wants the application to load as quickly as possible. Also loading of images and videos should be quick. One member points out that he would like to have a feature which will enable him to add more books to his virtual shelf by either enabling to make purchases online. He wants to do this by entering as minimum amount of details as possible, i.e. without having to go through random processes. He wants the purchasing of the books process to be as simple as possible so that even naïve users such has his grandma can take advantage of such an application. One user is concerned about getting his stuff deleted by mistake; a developer counters this by adding that he can have his books reinstalled for free from the online database. Another user says that he would like to have features by with he can add notes or draw on the screen some notations alongside some text which can reference later.

Storyboard Analysis

We perform problem analysis and requirement generation by evaluating well established market products similar to the one we are proposing. We use user feedback as means of evaluation. This will give a good picture of the user preferences, likes and dislikes. Incorporating these features in our product will give us competitive advantage over the existing products. For this purpose, in the following section, we provide some background and user feedback. E-book market is growing due to its advantages over printed books. It is very easy to purchase and download e-books. They are eco-friendly. E-books are easy to carry around, manage and upgrade. They can be easily searched. The market for e-books is huge with comparatively less competition. We would like to capitalize the market with the introduction of our new product. The current generation readers are overly dependent on the hardware for performance. Many people find the need to carry a separate hardware redundant. Moreover, these devices are bulky, costly,

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irritatingly slow and inconvenient with poor backlit, contrast, color and resolution. The page rendering is not very good, doesnt support multimedia content and limited support for file types. Also some consumers report excessive straining of the eyes due to continuous reading. Keeping in mind these inherent drawbacks of the generic hardware based e-book readers; we propose a software solution, the iReader. iReader is a low cost software solution to the current generation readers with support for online store, smooth rendering, embedded URL content, dynamic notes creation and crash recovery. Many consumers have reported problems regarding straining the eyes. This software solution aims at making the whole experience of reading and managing books very easy.

-Appealing display -Book like feel

-Better resolution -Support for graphics

Figure 3.1: Color not supported by Kindle

Figure 3.2: iReader support for colored images

Some Customer Reviews on Kindle and other readers that need to be addressed:

Melissa Perensons review from "PC World: First look at Kindle e-book reader," in the Nov 21, 2007 issue of PC World, is basically positive, but not particularly enthusiastic; for example, she refers to the "unassuming, functional design" of the Kindle device, with its "boxy rectangle of white plastic with a matte finish." Filio, an avid reader says, "Amazons ebook, Kindle, looks great. But as far as I can tell, it doesnt browse. You can only receive the materials Amazon chooses to provide. Too bad. I was about to buy one." Raldon had to say, "Its horrible for reference. Dont buy a Kindle of you just read programming manuals."

Additional Issues to be addressed based on Reviews

Simple and Appealing GUI Support to read online text embedded in books as URLs. Nice formatting for Code snippets and programming manuals.

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Problem Statement

iReader is an effort to improve the emerging electronic book field with software that turns e-books into more than just a digital copy of the print edition. It is software that combines a full-color digital book with the ability to add Web content, video, and professionally narrated audio books. This kind of reading experience just isn't possible on current e-readers like the Kindle. Plus most people don't want to carry a separate device just for reading. Current E-Ink technology reader takes a second when you turn a page. Some may find this delay bothersome, irritating and jarring. The back-lit screens strain the users eyes. Navigation through the book is not very convenient. With high resolution, rich and sharp color contrast; it is easy to read even in low light Initially, the software will run on Apple's Mac, iPhone, iTouch and Tablet, and then make it compatible on other devices as well.

Business Case

Market Analysis

Apple plans to launch the tablet. The products that pose a threat to Apple in this area are majorly readers and notebooks .Apple tablet with its slim design appeal plans to capture the notebook market. But the e-reader market needs to be handled. Our analysis suggests that most of the readers present in the market do not have a big screen like I pad. Taking an advantage of the Tablet hardware we plan to make an application that would give is an edge over e-readers in the market. This e-reader would also add a value to the App Store. FACTS based on the current market: Amazon captured 80% of e book market. iTunes store has 70% of world wide online music sales. The sales projections have amounted to $1 billion per year from Apr 2003 to Jan 2010. For attorneys and business professionals who must wade through endless documentation, ereaders offer instant access to libraries worth of information on devices the size of modest notebooks. This is going to appeal to the personality that has a voracious appetite for information. Environment friendly as it reduces the use of traditional paper based books and thus adding more significance to the tag line of greener apple.

Conclusion based on facts from the current market scenario: The area is new and only few competitors like Amazon exist. Apple with its experience has the capability to throw out these competitors in the market. Being an early entrant in the market would give Apple an edge over Microsoft or Google who can be the next big competitors. The iBook store clubbed with the iReader could be the next big idea.

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It will add value to the Apples new initiative Green Apple.

Cost- Benefit Analysis COST

ESTIMATE FOR THE PERIOD OF PROJECT DURATION (1 Year 4 months) Senior level employees X 8 Developers X 30 SSL certificate Payment plug-in R&D TOTAL COST 1.2M (150,000 x 8) 3.0 M (100,000 x 30) $30,000 to $40,000 $200,000.00 to $300,000.00 2.5M 6.5M

The development team will need to have close to 8 senior level employees like the Project managers, Software architects etc and 30 developers, Quality Assurance Specialists, Testers etc. This Development team will cost $3.5M to $4M For online payment, the cost to purchase an SSL certificate ($30,000 to $40,000 US annually) and to develop a payment plug-in, which necessitates a proper software development cycle (including specification design, build, test and installation), will be in the range of $200,000.00 to $300,000.00 per year. The overall project development will cost an approximate of $ 6.5M including any R&D, Testing Environment, Developing Environment, Software licenses, risk mitigation etc.

BENEFITS

Projections of sales for duration of 1 year The reader software will have partnership with most of the leading Electronic digital media vendors like Amazon, EBay etc. There are also partnerships with publishers, newspapers, magazines etc. Recovery in 1st year = $8M Multimedia E books Audio books Comics Magazines News papers 30% 4% 50% 6% 10%

*Percentages based on annual market demand of E Books

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News papers 10% Magazines 6%

Chart Title

Multimedia E books 30%

Comics 50%

Audio books 4%

With increasing customer base every year we expect the projected recovery each year (for next 1 or 2 years) would be around: $10 to $12 M. The recovery details of products of similar genre are as follows. Amazon Kindle Sony Digital reader Barnes and Nobless NOOK iRex iLiad Released November 2007 Released August 2009 Released November 2009 Released May 2008 Sales till Nov 2009 $45M Sales till date $7M Sales till date $4M Sales till date $6M

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Use Cases and User Scenarios

1. DESKTOP APPLICATION

Normal Flow User Story

Launch Application: The user launches the application by clicking on the icon. The user interface appears on the screen providing the various user options. 27 | P a g e

Opening a Book: The user can choose to read a book from the available books. The user clicks onto the icon of the book he chooses to read. If the book was previously opened than it will continue from the page it was read till otherwise it will open from the beginning. Display content: When the book is opened, the content of the book is displayed along with the various user editing options. Also any previously added annotations or notes is loaded and displayed alongside the text. Write notes: The user can make his custom notes while reading books. He can also make simple drawing which can serve him to understand easily later. Play ebook: The user can take advantage of the text-to-speech functionality provided in the application. This will read books for the user while the user is busy performing some other task finds listening more comfortable. Shelf ebook: The user can customize the stacking of books by classifying them by categories. Purchase books: Users can add more books to their application by making purchases from the online store.

Exceptional Flow

Unsupported file type: Since the reader supports reading of the file outside the application, the user can select a file to read from open menu and read any supported content. When a user attempts to open an unsupported file, the reader will display "Unsupported file type, cant read!"

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2. ONLINE PURCHASE:

Normal flow

Select Category: While making an online purchase, the user can simplify his search by classifying them in categories. Add to cart: When the user finds his book, he can add it to his shopping cart for checking out later. Multiple books can be added before making the actual purchase. Delete: Once the books are added to cart, if the user changes his mind, he can easily remove the book from his cart. Make Payment: Once the selection is done, the purchase can be completed by making payments using users credit card. Track Order: After the purchase is being made, the book is downloaded to the users machine. The user can track the percentage of book downloaded, queuing downloads, manage incomplete or aborted downloads, etc. Watch News Feed: New books, reviews, etc. will be available to the user through news feeds and RSS.

Exceptional flow

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The user doesnt have a valid login/password. In this case the system will provide with a hint for the right password (provided by the user during setup). User may try again using the hint provided. Another situation that could happen is when the payment details are incorrect. This could be the outcome of wrong/invalid/incorrect credit card and/or billing details. After failed authorization process, the user will be notified and she might try again. Under extreme situation, the online server itself might crash.

Non Functional Requirements

Performance

Based on studies of user attention span, synchronous tasks must respond within 5s in system steady state. In case of large diagrams the movement of the pages should not slow down (marginal degradation is expected but should not lead to illegal termination or crashing of the system).

Availability

System should not crash if unsupported formats are being attempted.

Compatibility

Should display diagrams and code snippets in a legible way.

Modifiability

System must be compatible with enhancements by future components, such as new formats.

Portability

Should support installation on all the Apple products such as iPad, iPod touch, iPhone, Mac book and iMac in the Release 1. Will support compatibility with other platforms like Linux, UNIX and Windows in later releases.

Usability

Novice users should not take the more than in 10-15 minutes to understand basic functionalities such as launching the application, selecting the book, closing the book, bookmarking the page number, using comments, connecting to iLibrary. of the reader. Within a weeks time user should become comfortable enough to play around with software for advanced functionalities such as borrowing or purchasing books online, creating annotations, etc. Should connect easily to the Apple iBook Store.

Scalability

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Multimedia Books: Apple plans to launch the multimedia books that would support video clips and 3D diagrams. As the size of books will grow the performance should remain stable.

Recovery

Should provide means recovery of data after a system crash

Acceptance Plan

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

All the functional Requirements need to be tested and approved by the Testing Manager.

NON-FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Benchmark Machine to be used for testing: MacBook, 2.4GHz Intel Processor with 3GB RAM.

Performance

The application should launch in 5 seconds for all the specified file formats and irrespective of the file size. This can be tested as follows Use the following file formats with different file sizes ranging from 1KB to 10 MB. The file formats are AZW, TXT, PDF, MOBI, LIT, KML, PDB, FUB, KML, LRF, PRC, IMP, EPUB. Use 20 files of each format with different file sizes. Test for Launch in 5 seconds.

In case of large diagrams the movement of the pages should not slow down. The flip of a normal page and a multimedia page should take same time i.e. less than 1 second. This can be tested as follows. Take 20 PDF files with normal image content and 20 HTML files with Multimedia content. Test for the Latency.

Availability

If some unsupported formats are opened then system should give a user friendly error message. Take a format provided by the user (*.bat format) and test for error messages.

Compatibility

Multimedia books and programming manuals should be opened and checked thoroughly to see if there are any differences in the formatting or resolution.

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Consider 100 books from the format of HTML with a wide usage of Multimedia content. Consider programming manuals from C, C++, Java. Check for lapses in formatting and resolution when multimedia content is opened. Check for lapses in the display when programming manuals are opened. Connectivity to Apple iBook Store should be checked in one-click. Provide a dedicated shortcut to the apple book store. Check for connectivity by testing the shortcut and its response time multiple times.

Portability

Installation on all Apple products should be done to check portability and also check if the software performance degrades or remains consistent. Install on Ipad, Itouch, Mac and test for difference in performance when various formats and various ranges of file sizes are opened. Compatibility with all other platforms also like Linux, Unix and Windows should also be checked. Use the reader on the platforms of Debian, Fedora, RedHat, Mint, Ubuntu distros of Linux and Windows Vista, Windows 7.

Usability

50 novice users (people who just know the basics of operating a computer and other electronics but those who are not pros) should be asked to use system and it should be observed that they can learn the system in 10 minutes. These users should be asked to play around with application for a week to become comfortable enough to play around with software for advanced functionalities.

Security

Check using the same installation again and see if online validation works fine and no copies can be reinstalled. Check using hacking tools if payments can be hacked or by simulating server crashes if the transactions are aborted successfully. Server crashes can be simulated by increasing the load on the system. This can be done by using either manual or artificial means. Amazon mechanical Turk provides this service and paketh software is used to emulate the load.

Scalability

Scalability can be checked with performance testing to test the Quality of Service. Use Amazon Mechanical Turk for testing how the system handles load Use a new format suggested by client (.RB format) and check for scalability.

Recovery

Check after simulating system crash if data is restored.

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System crash can be simulated by Introducing a bug in the critical section of the code Subjecting the system to heavy traffic Introducing a network congestion pattern. Check if Data is restored or not by comparing with backup servers or check points

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Project Planning

Project Schedule

Release Plan Release 1 will include (to be released Date (04/30/2010))

Risk Management Launching application on Mac Products Open books with Text Content and Images Notification of the unsupported formats

Release 2 will include (to be released Date (08/31/2010))

Risk Management Online connectivity with the iLibrary Multimedia Content display capability Writing Notes and marking the textual content capability

Release 3 will include (to be released Date (12/31/2010))

Risk Management Shelf e-books feature Text to Speech conversion

Release 4 will include (to be released Date (04/01/2011))

Risk Management Compatibility with Other platforms (Windows, Unix etc) News Feeds from iLibrary Profiling

Iteration Plan Iteration Plan for Release 1

Iteration 1: Mac product compatibility test. Designed only for text content. Launch application on Mac products. Iteration 2: Compatibility when images are introduced. Testing when books with both text and images are opened. Latency and display of images tested. 34 | P a g e

Iteration 3 Provide Notification for the unsupported formats. Testing for proper functionality of application on Mac Product after launch. Testing for compatibility when books containing images are opened. Testing for notifications

Iteration Plan for Release 2

Iteration 1: Provide Online Connectivity with the iLibrary. Test the attributes of the Web host. They could be as follows Latency Design Flow of the Site Effect on performance on account of the browser. Iteration 2: Introduce multimedia display support and capability. Test compatibility with text and image display. Check for latency delays because of introducing multimedia capabilities. Test iLibrary in terms of performance attributes when multimedia content are included. Iteration 3 Provide capability for writing notes Provide capability for marking the textual content (High lighting etc) Test for compatibility with other features introduced.

Iteration Plan for Release 3

Iteration 1: Support the shelving of e books feature. Test the online connectivity required for this feature. Test effect of the new feature on the iLibrary Iteration 2: Provide special support for code snippets. Introduce programming language syntax recognition. Test on several programming languages. Iteration 3 Introduce the Text to Speech Conversion Feature. Test for various categories of users. Test for pronunciation issues. Test memory issues of the feature if the space required is not optimal.

Iteration Plan for Release 4

Iteration 1: Improve compatibility with contemporary operating systems. Test for change in performance. Extensive Testing of all features on all platforms. 35 | P a g e

Evaluating the dependency of a certain feature on the platform. Iteration 2: Support regarding news feeds from iLibrary. Profiling. Test the web connectivity for the feature. Final testing the compatibility of all the features introduced.

Risk Plan

RISK MANAGEMENT APPROACH

The overall risk management approach follows the standard risk management model as show in the following diagram.

.

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RISK CATEGORIES

The following diagram shows pre-defined risk categories. Risk categories should be used in thinking about and identifying risks.

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RISK ANALYSIS AND RESPONSE PLANNING

Risk Category Technical Risk Description Transition Indicator Analysis of developers professional experience during allocation of the project indicated this risk. Proba bility 0.8, effect on cost more than 50% Impact Level 0.8 Strategy Training the team. And at least one domain expert from all the domains (e.g. Windows XP, Linux ,Mobile Device etc) will help the developers to solve the issues

Since the e-Reader is a kind of new product meant using different platforms for different kinds of development. The team should be familiar with these mew technologies. It is highly unlikely that people know all the technologies being used here. Technical Embedding Multimedia content involves lot of complexities e.g. Content Based search in the book for multimedia, support of fast players better than flash etc. so that the speed of loading pages is not affected etc. Requirem As we plan to provide ents support to all the existing file formats for documents and also plan to extend it in the future. The complexity if the code will increase with support to new requirements or formats. External Also we need to address the legal issues associated with proprietary formats.

Past experience of the developers who have worked on desktop and web applications with multimedia in the meeting session have raised this issue. Existing Readers do provide support to limited formats.

0.4, 2040% effect on cost

0.6

At least two experts on multimedia should survey the existing techniques and try to come up with new and better way to address the issue.

0.4, 2040% effect on cost

0.4

Structured, Efficient and Reusable code can minimize the risk.

Technical

Dependency on the Operating System team of Tablet

Some formats like pdf etc are proprietary so to provide support for these formats we need to have license The continuous changes in the operating system files have created some compatibility issues for other Tablet specific softwares.

0.6, 3040% effect on cost

0.4

Approval of licenses and other formalities is addressed before the analysis phase starts

0.8, 4050% effect on cost

0.4

Modularized development and Constant interaction between the team members.

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Organizat ional

Financial problems force reductions in the project budget

0.7 3540% effect on cost

0.4

Personnel Project Manage leaves turnover the company

Estimation

· Time required to develop the software is underestimated. · Rate of defect repair is underestimated · Size of software is underestimated

Notified the company that he will leave. Working on the project in his notice period. · Not much progress in the project for 1 month. · Iteration end time reached but deliverable is not ready.

0.3, 1015% effect on cost 0.3, 1015% effect on cost

0.05

Extra Features like eshelves for the books can be eliminated or support. After the successful release and feedback of the initial software a report can be submitted asking for more funds Allocate new manager and arrange knowledge Transition sessions. Developers and project managers with knowledge on how the software should be developed as well as the experience and expertise in technology involved should be involved in software estimation. Other steps include investigate buying in components; investigate use of a program generator. Increased collaboration and information sharing on the team by Agile process for pair programming common code ownership, and frequent reporting at daily stand-ups specifically to reduce the "bus-factor". When this "bus factor" (the impact to the project of a key member being hit by a bus) is reduced multiple team members share key information and the risk due to employee turnover is small. 39 | P a g e

0.2

People

Main developers are ill and are not available at critical times of the project development

Usually happens in each and every project. Past experience of the manager tells them to address this issue.

0.5, 3540% effect on cost

0.1

RISK PROBABILITY DEFINITIONS

The following chart shows risk probability definitions. During risk analysis the potential likelihood that a given risk will occur is assessed, and an appropriate risk probability is selected from the chart.

Probability Category Very High High Probable Low Very Low Probability 0.90 0.70 0.50 0.30 0.10 Description Risk event expected to occur Risk event more likely than not to occur Risk event may or may not occur Risk event less likely than not to occur Risk event not expected to occur Table 1 ­ Risk Probability Definitions

RISK IMPACT DEFINITIONS

The following chart shows risk impact definitions across each of the potentially impacted project areas (cost, schedule, scope, and quality). During risk analysis the potential impact of each risk is analyzed, and an appropriate impact level (0.05, 0.10. 0.20, 0.40, or 0.80) is selected from the chart below.

Project Objective Cost Schedule Very Low 0.05 Insignificant cost impact Insignificant schedule impact Barely noticeable Low 0.10 < 10% cost impact < 5% schedule impact Minor areas impacted Moderate 0.20 10-20% cost impact 5-10% schedule impact Major areas impacted High 0.40 20-40% cost impact 10-20% schedule impact Changes unacceptable to sponsor Quality reduction unacceptable to sponsor Very High 0.80 > 40% cost impact > 20% schedule impact Product becomes effectively useless Product becomes effectively useless

Scope

Quality

Barely noticeable

Only very demanding applications impacted

Sponsor must approve quality reduction

Table 2 ­ Definition of Risk Impact Scales

RISK PROBABILITY AND IMPACT MATRIX

The risk probability and impact matrix shows the combination of risk impact and probability, and is utilized to decide the relative priority of risks. Risks that fall into the red-shaded cells of the matrix are the highest priority, and should receive the majority of risk management resources during response planning and risk monitoring/control. Risks that fall into the yellow-shaded cells of the matrix are the next highest priority, followed by risks that fall into the green-shaded cells. 40 | P a g e

Probability 0.90 0.70 0.50 0.30 0.10 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.05 0.09 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.10

Threats 0.18 0.14 0.10 0.06 0.02 0.20 0.36 0.28 0.20 0.12 0.04 0.40 0.72 0.56 0.40 0.24 0.08 0.80

Table 3 ­ Risk Probability and Impact Matrix

Project Schedule

Fig - Project Schedule

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Linear Cost Estimation:

The Estimations are based on modules (not use cases). The estimated figures go as follows. Total Staff comprise of 30 Developers of 8 senior. Initial costs include For online payment, the cost to purchase an SSL certificate $30,000 to $40,000 US annually To develop a payment plug-in, which necessitates a proper software development cycle (including specification design, build, test and installation) - $100,000.00 to $150,000.00 per year. Hours Rate Total Comments

Phase/Activity Description 1. Evaluation of Business Potential & Initial Release 1.1 Assemble available data 1.2 Visualize sales concepts 1.3 Guesstimate possible sales 1.4 Estimate costs 1.5 Launching application on Mac Products 1.6 Open books with Text Content and Images 1.7 Notification of the unsupported formats Total Release 1 Activities(4 months) 2. Online Connectivity and Second Release (5 months) 2.1 Brainstorm approach to site 2.2 Evaluate hosting needs 2.3 Establish merchant services 2.4 Establish corporate identity 2.5 Develop site content 2.6 Develop promotional material 2.7 Online connectivity with the iLibrary 2.8 Multimedia Content display capability 2.9 Writing Notes and marking the textual content capability Total Phase 2 Activities

30 8 4 4 1400 1000 50 2504

$80 $80 $80 $80 $100 $100 80

$2400 $640 $320 $320 $140000 $100000 $4000 $247680

12 - 15 people 10-12 people

8 4 8 8 40 40 1500 3000 500 5108

$80 $80 $80 $80 $80 $80 $100 $100 $100

$640 $320 $640 $640 $3,200 $3,200 $150000 $300000 $50000 $508640

5 pages at 8 hr 10 - 12 people 12 ­ 15 people 10 ­ 11 people

3. Release 3 (4 months) 3.1 Establish hosting account 3.2 Establish site monitoring 3.3 Transfer files and test 3.4 Shelf e-books feature 3.5 Special support for code snippets 3.6 Text to Speech conversion 3.7 Follow up and track Total Phase 3 Activities

4 4 4 2500 800 4000 472 7784

$80 $80 $80 $100 $100 $120 $80

$320 $320 $320 $250000 $80000 $480000 $37,760 $848720

10-12 people 5 ­ 6 people 12-15 people 3 ­ 4 people

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4. Release 4( 4 months) 4.1 Track activity regularly 4.2 Develop ongoing content 4.3 Compatibility with Other platforms (Windows, Unix etc) 4.4 News Feeds from iLibrary 4.5 Profiling

200 100 1000 1000 1000 3300

$80 $80 $80 $80 $80

$16000 $8000 $80000 $80000 $80000 $264000

10 people 15 people 10 people

Total Phase 4 Activities Total All Activities 18696 $1.86M

Total costs including the Initial costs and excluding costs for R&D = $2.2M

Use Case Point Estimation

An important part of the decision-making process around starting a new software development project is how much it will cost. Estimating these costs at the beginning can be quite a task. In our case, capturing functional requirements in terms of use cases has helped considerably in communicating requirements in a form that is understandable for users and other domain experts. Early in the project, we constructed use case model containing a list of actors, their names and a brief description. The use case point estimation method that we will sketch is an estimation method that takes advantage of the use case method used earlier as part of requirement elicitation to estimate cost. At the basis lies the use case model, which consists of actors and use cases. The number and weight of the actors (UAW) and use cases (UUCW) identified is the most important component in the calculation of the so-called unadjusted use case points. For our estimation we use the following criteria to assign a weight to a use case: Simple use case ­ 1 to 3 transactions, weight = 5 Average use case ­ 4 to 7 transactions, weight = 10 Complex use case ­ more than 7 transactions, weight = 15

The size of a system is calculated from the unadjusted use case points by adjusting them with the architecture of the system (which is dictated by NFRs) (TSUM) and technical complexity factor (TCF), obtained from a consideration of the systems technical properties. The skill levels of the people working on the project as well as other environmental factors (ESUM and EF) contribute to the cost estimation. 43 | P a g e

The weight of a use case is determined by the number of different use case transactions in the interaction between the actor and the system to be built. The table below shows the use case estimation of our project: UAW (1,2,3) 1 2 3 2 8 UUCW (5,10,15) 5 15 10 5 10 10 5 5 65 13 0.73 1 1.37 UAW (1,2...10) 10 7 10 5 3 7 3 3 15 UCP 15.0015 22.0015 20.002 10.001 13.0013 17.0017 8.0008 8.0008 104.02 44 | P a g e

Actor Customer Offline Library Book Server Paypal Total: Use case Use Case 1: User is reading a book Use Case 2: User purchases an ebook Use Case 3: Multimedia data is put together for efficient representation and storage Use Case 4: User places an order for purchase Use Case 5: User makes payment Use Case 6: Server authenticates the payment Use Case 7: User tracks the order Use Case 8: User receives/views latest newsfeeds Total: TSUM Calculations: TCF ESUM Actor types are given weights - simple (1) Average(2) EF Complex(3) Use case · Sum = UAW (Unadjusted Actor Weight) Normal Use Case 1 Normal Use Case 2 Use cases are given weights based on complexity: Normal Use Case 3 Normal Use Case 4 · Simple 5, Average 10, Complex 15 Normal Use Case 5 Normal Use Case 6 · Complexity = # of transactions, # of analysis Normal Use Case 7 classes Normal Use Case 8 · Weighted sum = UUCW (Unadjusted Use Case Total: Weight) Use case Normal Use Case 1 Architecture is given weights based on NFR: Normal Use Case 2 Normal Use Case 3 ­ Distributed = 2 .. Security = 1 etc. Normal Use Case 4 Normal Use Case 5 ­ Sum of architecture weights = TSUM Normal Use Case 6 Normal Use Case 7 Technical Complexity Factor (TCF) = 0.6 + 0.01*TSUM Normal Use Case 8 Skill levels and other environmental conditions are given Total:

weights: · · Sum of environmental factors = ESUM Environmental Factor (EF) = 1.4 - 0.03*ESUM Use case Normal Use Case 1 Normal Use Case 2 Normal Use Case 3 Normal Use Case 4 Normal Use Case 5 Exceptional Use Case 1 Exceptional Use Case 2 Exceptional Use Case 3 Total:

Use Case Points (UCP) = (UAW + UUCW)*TCF*EF Staff Hours = UCP*(15 to 35 hours per UCP depending on Environmental Factors)

Staff Hours 525.05 440.03 400.04 150.015 255.0255 340.034 120.012 120.012 2350.2185

Assuming that the team has 30 members with 8 senior members included. The expense on 22 developers per month per person is $12000 and an expense on 8 senior members per month per person is $18000. Also the project takes approximately 2350 hours i.e. 3.26 months. If we included R&D cost, the cost will increase by around $0.4M. Hence, the total cost is Total cost = [3.26 * (22*12000 + 8*18000)] + 400000 = 1730080 i.e. $1.73M The use case estimation differs from the linear estimation because in the linear model, each step in the process is estimated linearly i.e. the complexity, environmental factors, skill set of the team, etc. is not taken into account. These factors also play very important role in determining the cost.

Parametric Cost Estimation (Wideband Delphi Process [5]):

For the estimation team, we have elected 5 members. The process will consist of several meetings run by the moderator. The first meeting is the kickoff meeting, during which the estimation team creates a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and discusses assumptions. After the meeting, each member creates an individual effort estimate for each task. The second meeting is the estimation session, in which the team reviews the estimates as a group and achieves consensus. After the estimation session, the project manager summarizes the results and reviews them with the team, at which point they are ready to be used as the basis for planning the software project. The Delphi script is described in the table below. Table 4.1: Wideband Delphi Script

Name Purpose Summary

Work Products

Wideband Delphi Script A project team generates estimates and a work breakdown structure. A repeatable process for estimation. Using it, a project team can generate a consensus on estimates for the completion of the project. Input Scope document that defines the scope of the work product being estimated Output Work breakdown structure (WBS) Effort estimates for each of the tasks in the WBS

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Entry Criteria

The following criteria should be met in order for the Delphi process to be effective: · The scope document has been agreed to by the stakeholders, users, managers, and engineering team. · The kickoff meeting and estimation session have been scheduled (each at least two hours). · The project manager and the moderator agree on the goal of the estimation session by identifying the scope of the work to be estimated. Basic Course of 1. Choosing the team. The project manager selected an estimation team and a Events moderator. The team consists of five project team members. The team includes representatives from every group that will be involved in the development of the work product being estimated like development, testing, stakeholders, architect, QA, etc. 2. Kickoff meeting. The moderator prepares the team and leads a discussion to brainstorm assumptions, generate a WBS, and decide on the units of estimation. 3. Individual preparation. After the kickoff meeting, each team member individually generates the initial estimates for each task in the WBS, documenting any changes to the WBS and missing assumptions. 4. Estimation session. The moderator leads the team through a series of iterative steps to gain consensus on the estimates. At the start of the iteration, the moderator charts the estimates on the whiteboard so the estimators can see the range of estimates. The team resolves issues and revises estimates without revealing specific numbers. The cycle repeats until either no estimator wants to change his or her estimate, the estimators agree that the range is acceptable, or two hours have elapsed. 5. Assembling tasks. The project manager works with the team to collect the estimates from the team members at the end of the meeting and compiles the final task list, estimates, and assumptions. 6. Reviewing results. The project manager reviews the final task list with the estimation team. Alternative 1. During Step 1, if the team determined that there is not enough information known Paths about the project to perform an estimate, the script ends. Before the script can be started again, the project manager documented the missing information by creating or modifying the scope document. 2. During either Step 1 or 3, if the team determines that there are outstanding issues that must be resolved before the estimate can be made, they agree upon a plan to resolve the issues and the script ends. Exit Criteria The script ends after the team has either generated a set of estimates or has agreed upon a plan to resolve the outstanding issues.

ESTIMATION FORM

Name: Abhijat Agarwal Date: 02/11/2010 Goal Statement: estimate the cost to develop the project Priority Task Name Est.(per Delta (people req) person) 1. Interview 2 +5 customer 2. Story Board 2 +5 3. Problem 1 +3 Statement 4. Inspect 3 +7 Estimation Form #: 4 Units: Hours Total Assumptions 10 10 3 21 No previous exp with 46 | P a g e Off-shore required travelling

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Requirements Doc Business Case Use Case Acceptance Plan Redo Prototype Design Test Design Total

this kind of project 5 5 3 8 40 10 79 +8 +6 +10 +25 +30 +5 104 40 30 30 200 1200 50 1594 Some error is present and needs revision Design works fine 15% tests cases exists

ESTIMATION MEETINGS

REVIEW RESULTS

In the final meeting, the team met for 45-60 minutes and came to a conclusion that a total of 1594 hours per person will be required for the completion of the project. R&D cost is assumed to be $0.4M Again, the cost can be estimated like we have done in the use case points estimation.

Total cost = [2.213 * (22*12000 + 8*18000)] + 400000 = 1303266 i.e. $1.3M The results of Delphi estimation are totally different from those of the use case points estimation because the Delphi estimation is based on opinions of the domain experts. Each expert gives his opinion and several iterations are performed till the team of experts reaches a consensus. On the other hand, the use case estimation model is based on initial suggested project size derived from use cases.

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Domain and Problem Analysis

Domain Analysis

By completing a domain analysis, we hope to gain an appreciation of similar products and services that are already available from our competitors. Furthermore, by indentifying the desirable features and undesirable drawbacks of these products, we should be able to draw conclusions about suitable functionality in the Design Documentation. The domain in which we will be working has of late become highly competitive one. There are many possible uses for the device and many different people who wish to use it. One type of consumer would be people who travel a lot. The software will allow them to carry their entire collection with them when on travel. Also, it will enable them to buy books on the go and directly download it to their collection. Other type of consumer would be someone who just likes to read a lot of books without having to worry about manage them. College students are popular example of this category.

Research Scope

Due to innovative concept of the tablet iReader, it has been difficult to find a comparable software/hardware combination that already exists in the marketplace. To overcome such difficulties this analysis considers similar products which have different configurations.

AMAZON KINDLE

Amazon Kindle is a software and hardware platform developed by Amazon used for displaying and rendering e-books and other digital media. The Kindle hardware device uses an E Ink brand electronic paper display and is able to download content over Amazon Whispernet using the Sprint EVDO in the USA.

Desirable Features

E Ink technology ­ helps in efficient rendering of text. Downloading ability ­ One can download e-books on go.

Undesirable features

Limited Connectivity ­ Can connect only to sprint EVDO networks in USA and doesnt support online downloading outside USA. Color ­ No support for colored documents Multimedia Content Support ­ Doesnt support the display of various commonly used multimedia file formats like jpeg, mpeg, etc. 48 | P a g e

Code Snippet ­ It doesnt support the rendering of code snippets, it appear garbled.

SONY PRS-600

The Sony Reader is an e-book reader manufactured by Sony. It uses an electronic paper display which enables viewing in direct sunlight, requires no power to maintain a static image and is usable in portrait or landscape orientation. The reader uses iTunes like store interface to purchase books from Sony Connect eBook store. It also can display Adobe PDFs, ePub formats, personal documents, blogs, RSS newsfeeds, JPEGs and Sonys proprietary BBeB format. The reader can play mp3 and unencrypted AAC audio file formats.

Desirable features

Support for various formats ­ Sonys PRS-300 supports a large number of popular file formats which makes it more flexible as compared to Kindle Support for portrait or landscape mode ­ gives the user more flexibility, user can hold the device according to his convenience Code Snippet ­ Support for display of code snippets with advanced image processing.

Undesirable features

Limited memory ­ has a limited inbuilt memory of 420MB which can hold limited number of eBooks and songs. Color support ­ like kindle, PRS-600 lags support for color. Multimedia Content Support ­ Doesnt support the display of various commonly used multimedia file formats like jpeg, mpeg, etc.

BARNES & NOBLE'S NOOK

Nook is an e-book reader developed by Barnes & Noble based on Android platform. The Nook includes Wi-Fi and AT&Ts 3G wireless connectivity.

Desirable Features

LendME ­ some books are licensed by their publishers for sharing. In those cases, the purchaser is permitted to share a book once, with one other user, for up to two weeks. MicroSD ­ supports expansion of in-built memory through MicroSD, can be expanded to 16GB. Software Updates ­ Updates are automatically provided "over the air".

Undesirable Features

Formats Supported ­ Supports a limited variety of well known file formats. Multimedia Content Support ­ Doesnt support the display of various commonly used multimedia file formats like jpeg, mpeg, etc. 49 | P a g e

UNITED STATES PATENT 76543210

The US patent office is an ideal place to find new and innovative ideas in the specific domain. One example is the US patent #76543210, which is described as a handheld e-reader with support for color. The device uses plasma display to provide a high quality image rendering.

Desirable features

Support for color ­ Unlike most other handhelds, this one has support for color. Code Snippet ­ Support for code snippets, not as advanced as Sonys PRS - 600

Undesirable feature

No Wifi ­ It cannot connect to internet, hence no online downloads. Protection ­ This document is protected under US patent and hence is a major barrier for use. Well need to develop technology other than plasma display. Multimedia Content Support ­ Doesnt support the display of various commonly used multimedia file formats like jpeg, mpeg, etc.

PRODUCT FUNCTIONALITY MATRIX

Product Name Amazon Kindle Sony PRS-600 Barnes & Nobles Nook Patent 76543210 iReader Formats supports Amazon formats only Some variety Some variety No Huge variety Memory Limited Internet connection Limited E Ink Yes Image Support No Annotations No Multimedia Support No Code Snippet No

Lmited Expandable

No Yes

Yes Yes

No Yes

No No

No No

Yes Yes

Expandable Large

No Yes

Yes Yes

No Yes

No Yes

No Yes

Limited Yes

Provides Exclusive library support for shelving e-books (all the above devices provide this facility)

ADDITIONAL FEATURES IN IREADER

Supports the display of almost all the commonly know multimedia formats such as jpeg, png, wma, wmv, mp3, mp4, aac, etc. along with text formats such as rtf, txt, docx, ps, pdf. Special Support for auto-bookmarking so that the reader can easily come back to the point last reader without the hassle to remember the page no., etc. Support for free hand annotations so that one can make notes at any point inside the e-book, stored alongside the book itself.

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Solution Analysis

Static structure is modeled using class diagram with a broad view of the solution as shown in the figure below:

Class Diagram:

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Sequence Diagram:

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System Architecture

This document provides a comprehensive architectural overview of the iReader system, using a number of different architectural views to depict different aspects of the system. It is intended to capture and convey the significant architectural decisions which have been made while designing iReader.

A General Overview of Subsystem Interaction

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Subsystem Models

Reader (User Interface Subsystem) Library Profile Manager 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Communication subsystem (IS) Memory Management

READER

Purpose and System Responsibility Delegation:

This subsystem decouples the user interface from the underlying layers and hides complexity Different Kind of Packages in Reader provide support to different requirements of the system New Technology can be used later to further improve the layout features without hampering the functionalities in existing system.

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LIBRARY

Purpose and System Responsibility Delegation

Decoupling the Library System and hence provides facility for using this library with other applications also just by accessing the interface provided by Library Subsystem. We plan to later add the facility of storing Music and Videos to it so that user can maintain a common library for all the apple products. Uses synchronization with Database to generate indexes for the search. The synchronization here refers to indexing the contents of the book and keeping in the database their position and corresponding content. This would lead to a drastic increase in the search speed. Uses the File System to store books because of their large size and diverse content. Guarantees capability of easily arranging the online shopped books in Library.

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PROFILER

Purpose and System Responsibility Delegation

Decoupling the Profiler Subsystem provides facility for using this profiler with other applications. Apple is planning to come up with a recommender system that will use the settings stored in profiler. So the complexity is expected to increase over the years. Hence keeping it as a subsystem makes more sense. Uses security to personalize the settings. We plan to gather the user name and other required attributes from the operating system settings and use this to provide user security and more personalized feeling to the user. Trade off comes with the speed that time taken during 1st time loading the book may increase because of interaction with profile subsystem.

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3G IP MULTIMEDIA SUBSYSTEM (IMS)

Purpose and System Responsibility Delegation

Decoupling the IMS provides facility compatibility with different file formats. Different codecs add to the complexity of IMS. Hence making it as a subsystem will help us address its issues separately. IMS also provides compatibility with different types of multimedia content. It also provides a special support for inline rendering of web content. Like providing a glimpse of the web page for a URLs in the book.

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COMMUNICATION SUBSYSTEM(IS)

Purpose and System Responsibility Delegation

Decoupling the IS provides facility to address all the internet related functionalities separately. Like connectivity to iLibrary so that user can purchase books online with a connectivity of a click. Use of secure connections and also linking with other bookstore will increase the complexity over time and hence considered as different subsystem.

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MEMORY MANAGER

Purpose and System Responsibility Delegation

Decoupling the Memory Subsystem provides platform independence. Also issues like failure recovery and checkpoint restoration can be addressed. Low Level memory related issues of caching are also handled by this subsystem.

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Architectural Representation

The architecture of the system is represented following the recommendations of the Rational Unified Process. We will use UML specification for representing the system architecture views. The architecture views of the system are divided into the following views:

PROCESS VIEW

The process view addresses the non functional requirements for the iReader namely concurrency, distribution, performance, and scalability. The performance is optimal in case of multimedia content because the system checks in advance for additional codecs which may be required by the upcoming pages with multimedia content. Thus the user cannot find any discrepancy when operating with normal pages and pages with multimedia content. Because of the caching methodology of the system, the time taken to operate on files of huge size is also low. The system caches the next five pages of the file 60 | P a g e

irrespective of the file size which makes the low latency possible. The system integrates all the different subsystems such as the reader subsystem, multimedia subsystem, profile subsystem, internet subsystem, library subsystem and memory subsystem. The Library is indexed and thus only the index is placed in the main memory. The actual data is present on the disk. This helps in reducing the time taken to search for the book on the disk as the search can be done with greater speed because of the indexed data structure in the main memory. The functional requirements of the basic functionalities of the reader are also addressed. The iReader opens the book and displays the content irrespective of whether the content is normal or multimedia or programming language manual. All the frequently used formats are integrated into the system.

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PHYSICAL VIEW

As the profile manager is responsible for maintaining the user settings and the security settings of the particular user, there is much interaction between the reader subsystem and the profile manager. The library subsystem deals with the indexing of the files and thus helps in increasing the speed with which the book search is done as the files on the disk are not accessed. The memory subsystem deals with the caching of the pages and also loads the required codecs for proper formatting and displaying the content of the book. Thus the library and the memory subsystem need to interact during run time when the books are searched and the content is displayed. These subsystems are enough for the basic functionalities of the reader. But to provide the proper multimedia support for pages with high graphic content, the memory subsystem needs to interact with the multimedia subsystem. The internet subsystem is used for the online access of the book store and also provides support regarding the news feeds and manages the online account. Thus the profile subsystem and the library subsystem need to interact with the internet subsystem.

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LOGICAL VIEW

The logical view is concerned with the functionality that the system provides to end-user. The reader takes care of rendering the GUI and text. The internet manager helps the user to connect to the online book store and obtain the latest news feeds. The library manager helps the user to optimize the search for faster results and also adds and arranges the books. The memory manager optimizes the cache usage and provides optimal experience to the user by reducing the latency of displaying the book content. The reader interacts with the multimedia subsystem for rendering the files with multimedia content which in turn provides the codecs for images and videos. The interaction between the profile manager and the reader subsystem basically deals with the security and personal settings of the user.

The above picture denotes the flow of screens in the iReader giving a look and feel. 63 | P a g e

DEVELOPMENT VIEW

The reader package implements the video and image rendering and is integrated with the browser capabilities and library management. It uses the multimedia module to obtain the required codecs for multimedia content rendering. It calls the profiler to import the settings of the user. The reader package uses the internet module which implements the online store connectivity, podcasts and URL content management. The profiler implements the user settings and security settings for the particular settings. The memory manager takes care of the cache management functionality. And the library module implements the indexing structure for faster searches.

Non-functional requirements are listed here for convenience. They have been discussed in greater detail in the Requirements analysis section.

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Architectural Decision Analysis

SCENARIOS-DRIVEN APPROACH

(Non-functional requirements and corresponding refinements)

Performance Stimulus Source: User Stimulus: Opening a book, Browsing through a book Artifact: Response time to open Requirement:

Based on studies of user attention span, synchronous tasks must respond within 5s in system steady state. In case of large diagrams the movement of the pages should not slow down (marginal degradation is expected but should not lead to illegal termination or crashing of the system).

Response measure: The system should respond in 5 seconds. Tactics: When user opens an application, fetch and cache the pages from the bookmarks(user is more likely to continue reading from where the user had last left off) [Profile Manager] Cache the next and previous 5 pages from the currently opened page(based on the study which shows that time taken to open a page from cache is enough to cache 10 pages) [Memory Management , IMS] Load all the necessary codecs that might be need at the beginning so that certain memory intensive file types like images do not take long to open during run time. [Memory Management , IMS] Availability Stimulus Source: Internal or external to the system Stimulus:

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System receives an unanticipated message or fault due to : System crash, Synchronization error, No response, Incorrect response Incompatible File Artifact: System's processors, persistent storage Requirements:

System should not crash if unsupported formats are being attempted.

Environment: Normal operation, degraded (safe mode) operation Response measure: The system must record the message or fault, inform the user continues to operate normally without any downtime. Measures would include time interval available, availability percentage, repair time, unavailability time interval. Tactics: Maintain log file and report failure for bug fixing [IMS] Identify and isolate the source of failure and force reboot the module. [Memory Management] Save the user data before rebooting and restart from the most recent checkpoint. [Profile Manager, Memory Management]

Compatibility Stimulus Source: User and development team Stimulus: Running application on different platform Artifact: Display, Memory buffer Requirement:

Should display diagrams and code snippets in a legible way.

Environment: Normal operation Response measure: Appearance of the application shouldn't change

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Tactics: Make the application platform independent by using TapLynx framework for touch screens which do not depend on the underlying hardware. [Reader ,3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)] Dynamic GUI adjustments due to changing screen resolution Screen rather than due to hardware. [Reader, 3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)]

Modifiability Stimulus Source: User and development team Stimulus: Open a new format Artifact: Memory buffer and Codecs Requirement:

Should be able to modifiable to open new formats.

Environment: Normal operation Response measure: New format codecs should render the new format Tactics: Adding the new codecs should provide support for the new formats. [3G IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)] Portability Stimulus Source: User and development Stimulus: Migration Artifacts: Install Logs Requirements: Should support installation on all the Apple products such as iPad, iPod touch, iPhone, Mac book and iMac in the Release 1. Will support compatibility with other platforms like Linux, UNIX and Windows in later releases Environment: Installation

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Response Measure: Percentage code portable

Tactics: Memory Subsystem manages the memory affectively with help of JVM and with the rest of the layers interacting with it for all low level operations. Hardware independence is achieved. [Memory Management]

Usability Stimulus Source: User Stimulus: Exploring reader capabilities Artifact: Online book store and offline shelf Requirement: Novice users should not take the more than in 10-15 minutes to understand basic functionalities such as launching the application, selecting the book, closing the book, bookmarking the page number, using comments, connecting to iLibrary. of the reader. Within a weeks time user should become comfortable enough to play around with software for advanced functionalities such as borrowing or purchasing books online, creating annotations, etc. Should connect easily to the Apple iBook Store. Should provide profiling, that is every user can maintain his personal settings. Environment: Runtime of the software Tactics: Comprehensive user manual demonstrating the use of the application at great detail. [Reader] Offline Tutorial available for piratical understanding [Reader] Online support system available [Reader, MIS] Interactive and self explanatory interfaces [Reader] One click easy recovery of user data from online server [Reader, MIS] Save the user personnel settings[Profile Manager]

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Scalability

Stimulus Source: ­ Users, Increasing data and bigger files. Stimulus: Users create new accounts or orders. Artifacts: Library file system and caching

Requirement: If multiple copies of the application are launched. It should not crash or end up degrading the performance of the system. With the increase in the number of books in the library the search should not slow down. For up to 10,000 books maximum search time should be 4 seconds. For every increase of 10,000 books thereafter, the search time should not increase by more than 1/2 second. For large files the performance in flipping around the pages should not degrade.

Environment: Normal operation. Response: Consistent performance with growing load. Response measure: Acceptability of performance under maximum conceivable load. (See Performance) Tactics:

The number of copes to be launched should be opened as different threads rather than processes. [Memory Manager] Linking of the Library File system with the database that stores the index of the files in the subsystem, for optimal search performance.[Library] Caching of the pages 5 by 5 and their corresponding codec will keep check over performance, irrespective of file size.[Memory Manager]

Recovery Stimulus Source: Internal or external source. Stimulus: User data deleted accidentally/maliciously Artifact: Memory manager Response: Safe mode operation . Requirement: In case of unexpected memory errors it should recover automatically.

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On opening incompatible file format, system should not crash. Environment: Unexpected Crash or failure

Tactics: One click recovery of the user data by maintaining logs.[Memory Manager, Reader] Format compatibility be tested with the existing codecs if not available then appropriate message should be displayed rather than trying to open the file.[3G IP multimedia subsystem]

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Target Environment

RELEASE [1-3]

Macintosh PowerPC® G4, G5 or Intel processor PPC: Mac OS X v10.4.11­10.5.8. Intel: Mac OS X v10.4.11­10.6 128MB of RAM (256MB recommended) 405MB of available hard-disk space (additional space required for installation) Safari® 3.0.4 or later Java Virtual Machine 5

Tablet 1GHz Apple A4 custom-designed, high-performance, low-power system-on-a-chip Audio formats supported: AAC (16 to 320 Kbps), Protected AAC (from iTunes Store), MP3 (16 to 320 Kbps), MP3 VBR, Audible (formats 2, 3, and 4), Apple Lossless, AIFF, and WAV

RELEASE 4

Windows

Intel® 1.3 GHz processor or equivalent Microsoft® Windows® 2000 with Service Pack 4, Windows Server® 2003, 2008 and 2008 R2; Windows XP® Professional, Home Edition, or Tablet PC Edition with Service Pack 2 or 3 (32-bit and 64-bit); Windows Vista® Home Basic, Home Premium, Business, Ultimate, or Enterprise Service Pack 1 or 2 (32-bit and 64-bit), Microsoft Windows 7 Starter, Home Premium, Professional, Ultimate or Enterprise (32-bit and 64-bit) 128MB of RAM (256MB recommended) 335MB of available hard disk space (additional space required for installation) Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0, 6.0 with Service Pack 1, 7.0 or 8.0; Firefox 2.0, 3.0 or 3.5 Java Virtual Machine 5

Linux 32-bit Intel Pentium processor or equivalent Red Hat® Linux WS 5, SUSE® Linux Enterprise Desktop (SLED) 10 SP2 or Ubuntu 7.10 GNOME or KDE Desktop Environment 512MB of RAM (1GB recommended) 150MB of available hard-disk space (additional 75MB required for all supported font packs)

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GTK+ (GIMP Toolkit) user interface library, version 2.6 or later Firefox 2.0 or later Java Virtual Machine 5 OpenLDAP and CUPS libraries

Solaris 32-bit Intel Pentium processor or equivalent Solaris 10 u5 or OpenSolaris 2008.11 GNOME or KDE Desktop Environment (GNOME only for Solaris 10) 512MB of RAM (1GB recommended) 200MB of available hard-disk space (additional 75MB required for all supported font packs) GTK+ (GIMP Toolkit) user interface library, version 2.6 or later (on Solaris 10; also works with GTK 2.4.9) Firefox 2.0 or later OpenLDAP and CUPS libraries Java Virtual Machine 5

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References:

1. "Product info for Media", http://www.apple.com/pr/products 2. A white paper from Brian Masi, "Strategic Analysis of Apple, Inc.", Barney School of Business, University of Hartford. 3. http://www.wikinvest.com/stock/Apple_%28AAPL%29 4. Provided by the members of The Official Board 5. http://www.stellman-greene.com/aspm/images/ch03.pdf 6. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/25086557/Domain-Analysis

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