Read Mid Term B Ques & Ans text version

MID Term "B" Psychology 101

Summer Semester 2010 Sections: 542 and 543

Mid Term Due: July 15, 2010

INSTRUCTIONS: This is the first test of the semester covering Chapters 1 through 7of our textbook "Psychology in Everyday Life". by David Myers. The questions are in the multiple-choice format covering a random selection of psychological topics that were either discussed during class or cloistered within the above noted text. Please note that it is imperative that you mark your SCANTRON with a number 2 pencil along with your Name, Section Number and if you are taking the "A" Exam or the "B" exam. The "A" and "B" designation is noted above.

Good Luck Dr.B

1. Schizophrenia is most closely linked with an oversupply of the neurotransmitter A) dopamine. B) epinephrine. C) acetylcholine. D) serotonin. 2. Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for A) competence. B) intimacy. C) autonomy. D) trust. 3. Chromosomes are contained within A) brain cells. B) sperm cells. C) blood cells. D) all of these cells.

4. Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding. A) decrease; increase B) increase; decrease C) increase; increase D) have no effect on; decrease 5. Identical twins originate from the fertilization of A) a single egg cell by a single sperm cell. B) two egg cells by a single sperm cell. C) a single egg cell by two sperm cells. D) two egg cells by two sperm cells. 6. Spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction A) the CS is eliminated. B) the CR is eliminated. C) the CS is suppressed. D) the CR is suppressed. 7. Lower rates of pregnancy have been observed among teens who have A) sexually vivid dreams that lead to orgasm. B) imagined being taken sexually by someone overwhelmed with passion. C) watched a higher-than-average amount of prime-time television. D) participated in a service learning program as tutors or teachers' aides. 8. Shaping is a(n) ________ procedure. A) latent learning B) operant conditioning C) classical conditioning D) observational learning 9. Cognition refers to A) an emotional tie linking one person to another. B) the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. C) any process that facilitates the physical development of the brain. D) any process of change that accompanies maturation. 10. In considering gender differences, you should remember that

A) no gender difference is common to all human cultures. B) gender similarities are much greater than gender differences. C) genetic differences between the genders do not contribute to gender differences in behavior. D) all of these answers are true. 11. The hippocampus plays a critical role in A) repression. B) explicit memory. C) sensory memory. D) implicit memory. 12. As a rock musician who has spent too many hours listening to or playing loud music, Rodney is beginning to lose his hearing. It is most likely that this hearing loss results from damage to A) the auditory canal. B) hair cells. C) ganglion cells. D) bipolar cells. 13. Martin Seligman advocates a positive psychology that focuses on such topics as A) prejudice. B) spirituality. C) depression. D) poverty. 14. Wernicke's area is typically located in the left ________ lobe. A) parietal B) occipital C) temporal D) frontal 15. Our sense of hearing is known as A) the vestibular sense. B) kinesthesis. C) audition. D) tinnitus. 16. Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be

A) authoritarian. B) conservative. C) permissive. D) authoritative. 17. Correlation refers to the extent to which two factors A) vary together. B) are random samples. C) influence each other. D) are representative of a larger population. 18. The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates A) spontaneous recovery. B) partial reinforcement. C) generalization. D) shaping. 19. The interior surface of the cochlea is lined with A) hair cells. B) olfactory receptors. C) bipolar cells. D) feature detectors. 20. Diego, a 25-year-old law student, is heterosexual; his brother Alejandro, a 21-yearold college senior, is homosexual. The brothers obviously differ in their A) erotic plasticity. B) sexual response cycle. C) sexual orientation. D) refractory period. 21. The absolute threshold for hearing is represented by zero A) decibels. B) amps. C) phonemes. D) hertz. 22. The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the A) cerebellum. B) medulla. C) amygdala.

D) thalamus. 23. The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Weisel respond to specific aspects of ________ stimulation. A) visual B) auditory C) olfactory D) kinesthetic 24. The personality theorist, Sigmund Freud, was an Austrian A) chemist. B) physician. C) theologian. D) politician. 25. Aggression is defined in psychology as A) physical behavior intended to hurt someone. B) any behavior that harms someone whether it is intentional or unintentional. C) physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone. D) verbally insulting someone, whether intentional or unintentional. 26. Sensations of floating weightlessly are most closely associated with ________ sleep. A) Stage 1 B) Stage 2 C) Stage 3 D) Stage 4 27. Forming many associations between new course material and what you already know is an effective way to build a network of A) retrieval cues. B) sensory memories. C) state-dependent memories. D) serial position effects. 28. Authoritative parents are likely to have children who A) are obedient but have low self-esteem. B) have high self-esteem and are self-reliant. C) have high self-esteem but are somewhat dependent. D) are rebellious and have low self-esteem.

29. An axon is A) a cell that serves as the basic building block of the nervous system. B) the cell's life-support center. C) a molecule that blocks neurotransmitter receptor sites. D) the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body. 30. Alex learned how to make 3-point basketball shots by successfully making very short shots before shooting from increasingly longer distances from the hoop. This learning strategy best illustrates the process of A) observational learning. B) delayed reinforcement. C) classical conditioning. D) shaping. 31. A type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety-arousing memories are blocked from consciousness is known as A) source amnesia. B) interference. C) repression. D) LTP. 32. Effortful processing and the meaningful organization of information take place in A) mood-congruent memory. B) flashbulb memory. C) working memory. D) sensory memory. 33. Giving half the members of a group a supposed psychological finding and the other half an opposite result is an easy way to show the effect of A) a placebo. B) illusory correlation. C) hindsight bias. D) the double-blind procedure. 34. The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by the A) iris. B) retina. C) optic nerve. D) feature detectors.

35. After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first chimp opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates A) shaping. B) spontaneous recovery. C) respondent behavior. D) observational learning. 36. John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov would have disapproved of attempts to scientifically study whether A) consumer buying habits are influenced by newspaper advertisements. B) worker productivity is influenced by hourly wage rates. C) academic achievement is influenced by a positive self-concept. D) aggressive behavior is influenced by threats of punishment. 37. When given a whiff of a scent derived from men's sweat, gay and straight men responded differently in the area of the ________ that governs sexual arousal. A) cerebellum B) hypothalamus C) motor cortex D) reticular formation 38. The egocentrism of preschoolers was most strongly emphasized by A) Harlow's attachment theory. B) Kohlberg's moral development theory. C) Piaget's cognitive development theory. D) Erikson's psychosocial development theory. 39. Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between A) natural selection and behavior tendencies. B) childhood memories and psychological disorders. C) thought processes and brain functions. D) philosophy and physiology. 40. Stress hormones promote stronger memories by A) decreasing the availability of serotonin. B) increasing the availability of glucose. C) decreasing the availability of epinephrine. D) increasing the availability of dopamine.

41. Endorphins are A) neurotransmitters. B) motor neurons. C) endocrine glands. D) sensory neurons. 42. Jordan is frightened by the sound of a train whistle. The sound is a(n) A) intermittent reinforcement. B) spontaneous recovery. C) operant chamber. D) stimulus. 43. The axons of ganglion cells converge to form A) the basilar membrane. B) bipolar cells. C) the auditory nerve. D) the optic nerve. 44. The placebo effect best illustrates the impact of ________ on feelings and behaviors. A) the double-blind procedure B) random sampling C) positive expectations D) random assignment 45. Conscious, active processing of new incoming information and of information retrieved from long-term memory involves A) implicit memory. B) flashbulb memory. C) sensory memory. D) working memory. 46. Social learning theory emphasizes that A) observation and imitation play a crucial role in the gender-typing process. B) children only learn gender-typed behaviors if they have been directly rewarded for them. C) children will not learn gender-typed behaviors if the same-sex parent is absent from the home. D) all of these statements are true. 47. The function of dendrites is to

A) receive incoming messages from other neurons. B) release neurotransmitters into the spaces between neurons. C) coordinate the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. D) control pain through the release of opiatelike chemicals into the brain. 48. A flashbulb memory would typically be stored in ________ memory. A) sensory B) implicit C) short-term D) long-term 49. The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called A) priming. B) kinesthesis. C) interposition. D) sensation. 50. The first stage of the sexual response cycle is A) a refractory period. B) an excitement stage. C) a plateau stage. D) orgasm. 51. A dog salivates to the sound of a tone because the tone has regularly been associated with the delivery of food. In this case, the tone is called a(n) A) unconditioned stimulus. B) primary reinforcer. C) conditioned stimulus. D) immediate reinforcer. 52. Illusory correlation refers to A) the perception of a relationship that does NOT exist. B) a correlation that exceeds the value of +1.00. C) a relationship due solely to a placebo effect. D) a correlation attributable to random sampling. 53. A problem that consistently interferes with a person's ability to complete the sexual response cycle is called A) an STI. B) erotic plasticity.

C) a sexual disorder. D) a refractory period. 54. If asked to watch a video and press a key each time a black-shirted player passed a basketball, most research participants remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman strolling across the video screen. This illustrated A) REM rebound. B) inattentional blindness. C) plasticity. D) latent content. 55. Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ________ changes throughout the human life cycle. A) concrete operational B) embryonic C) genetic D) social 56. Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell? A) hippocampus B) amygdala C) angular gyrus D) thalamus 57. A synapse is a(n) A) chemical messenger that triggers muscle contractions. B) automatic response to sensory input. C) junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron. D) neural cable containing many axons. 58. The process by which our sensory systems transform stimulus energies into neural impulses is called A) priming. B) sensory adaptation. C) transduction. D) sensory interaction. 59. The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as A) behaviorism.

B) cognitive neuroscience. C) humanistic psychology. D) positive psychology. 60. The process of encoding refers to A) the persistence of learning over time. B) the recall of information previously learned. C) getting information into memory. D) a clear memory of an emotionally significant event. 61. Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people's A) childhood memories. B) genetic predispositions. C) unconscious thought processes. D) potential for healthy growth. 62. On the way to the visual cortex, neural impulses from the retina are first relayed to the A) cerebellum. B) thalamus. C) hippocampus. D) oval window. 63. To remember information in her psychology textbook, Susan often relates it to her own life experiences. Susan's strategy facilitates A) implicit memory. B) meaningful encoding. C) source amnesia. D) unconscious processing. 64. To find out whether breast-milk feeding contributes to the intellectual development of children, psychologists used A) case studies. B) surveys. C) naturalistic observations. D) experiments. 65. Zian can't decide what he wants to do with his life. He has tried several different jobs, but has been fired for lack of effort each time. According to Erikson, Zian best illustrates

A) crystallized intelligence. B) preconventional morality. C) role confusion. D) egocentrism. 66. Extinction occurs when a(n) ________ is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus. A) conditioned stimulus B) positive reinforcement C) operant behavior D) conditioned reinforcer 67. If pregnant sheep are injected with ________ during a critical period of fetal development, their female offspring will show homosexual behavior. A) estrogen B) adrenalin C) serotonin D) testosterone 68. Who are likely to show the greatest similarity in temperament? A) Ruth and Ramona, identical twins B) Philip and Paul, fraternal twins C) Larry and Laura, brother and sister D) Vincent Sr. and Vincent Jr., father and son 69. Suppose you inherit a tendency to be attracted to beautiful people. If this trait increases your chances of survival, it will likely be passed on to succeeding generations. This best illustrates A) gender typing. B) natural selection. C) erotic plasticity. D) gender schema theory. 70. Déjà vu refers to the A) emotional arousal produced by events that prime us to recall associated events. B) tendency to remember experiences that are consistent with our current mood. C) unconscious activation of particular associations in memory. D) eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation or event.

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