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Oswald de Andrade's "Cannibalist Manifesto" Author(s): Leslie Bary Source: Latin American Literary Review, Vol. 19, No. 38 (Jul. - Dec., 1991), pp. 35-37 Published by: Latin American Literary Review Stable URL: Accessed: 06/08/2009 13:23

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Introduction Oswald de Andrade's "Manifesto in the first number of Revista de (MA) originally appeared Antrop?fago" the S?o Paulo cultural review directed by Alc?ntara Machado Antropofagia, other important avant-garde declarations 1928. While and Raul Bopp, inMay, are interesting as literary documents of the period (e.g. Mario de Andrade's to his 1921 collection of poetry Paulic?ia "Prefacio Interessant?ssimo" and the programmatic editorial of the May Desvairada, 15, 1992 issue of that was an immediate the avant-garde result of the Klaxon, magazine held in S?o Paulo in February of that year, theMA "Semana de Arte Moderna" has retained more immediate scholarly and even popular interest as a cultural, as well as a purely in the last The MA has, especially literary manifesto. cited in Brazil as a paradigm for the creation of a twenty years, been widely The Brazilian modernist poet modern and cosmopolitan, but still authentically national culture. In the earlier (1924) "Manifesto da Poesia Pau-Brasil" ["Manifesto of an "export-quality" Brazilwood Poetry"], Oswald had announced poetry that in Brazilian would not copy imported esthetic models but find its material life. Brazilwood history, popular culture, and everyday poetry will provide, of native originality to neutralize Oswald says here, "[t]he counter-weight academic conformity" the avant-garde notions of poetry (1986: 187). Opposing as "invention" and "surprise" to the erudite, imitative art he associates with the Oswald unites the search for (1822-1889), colony and the Brazilian Empire national identity with the modernist esthetic project. In this schema, Brazilian cultural production becomes both native and Brazil's "wild wilderness," far from generating second-rate cosmopolitan. copies of Continental models, will give rise to an "agile and candid" modern cultural poetry. Brazilwood poetry thus offers a solution for Brazil's perceived and at the same time injects new life into the international cultural inferiority,


theory of cultural "cannibalism" Oswald develops of these ideas. The MA challenges the dualities and original/derivative, which had civilization/barbarism, modern/primitive, informed the construction of Brazilian culture since the days of the colony. In the MA, Oswald the colonizer's of subversively appropriates inscription as a savage territory which, once civilized, would be a necessarily America The use of the cannibal metaphor the copy of Europe. muddy permits Brazilian subject to forge his specular colonial identity into an autonomous and to dependent, national culture. Oswald's (as opposed original derivative) a cannibalization, not of Rousseau's idealized anthropophagist?himself

The playful, polemical in the MA is a radicalization


Latin American

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avowed and active cannibal,?neither savage but of Montaigne's apes nor but "devours" it, adapting its strengths and incor culture, rejects European porating them into the native self.1 are central texts in the continuing The two manifestos creation of to reveal with much Brazilian national culture and as controversial writings an about the structure of colonialist thought and the problems of constituting context. identity in the post-colonial to read and to translate because The MA is difficult it is built on a series to Brazilian references and to sometimes of joking and punning history obscure informing works. The annotated translation I present here is intended as well as to make to clarify these references, to this important text available an English-speaking audience. I would direct first-time readers of Oswald especially to Benedito Nunes' ao alcance de todos," Haroldo de Campos' "Urna po?tica essay "Antropofagia e cosmopolitismo. da radicalidade," and Jorge Schwartz' Vanguarda The is much sparser, but Randal Johnson provides English-language bibliography an informative in "Tupy or not Tupy: Cannibalism introduction and in Contemporary and Culture." Haroldo Brazilian Literature Nationalism de Europe Under the Sign of Devoration," Campos' "The Rule of Anthropophagy: Two Cubists: William Richard Morse's Carlos Williams and "Triangulating Oswald de Andrade," and Kenneth David Jackson's Prose in "Vanguardist as introductions to Oswald, are Oswald de Andrade," though not written to the general reader as well as useful to the scholar. Johnson's three accessible as articles, as well as Neil Larsen's "Eating the Torn Halves: Modernism in the period and to Cultura Brasileira" will be of interest both to specialists in problematizing scholars interested discussions of national and cultural context. identity in the post-colonial Louisiana State University


1 Other are Picabia's to this manifesto "Manifeste key precedents Cannibale" Paris, March 1920, 7) and the avant-garde Parisian (Dadaphone, review Cannibale 1920). See Benedito Nunes, (April-May "Anthropophagisme et surr?alisme," Surr?alisme de Montr?al, (Montr?al: Universit? p?riph?rique 1984) 159-79, esp. 164-65.


2 vols. S?o de. Paulic?ia Desvairade. Poes?as Andrade, Mario completas. Paulo: Livraria Martins Editora, (1980). I: 13-32. de. "Le manifeste Trans. Benedito Nunes. Andrade, Oswald antropophage." Ed. Luis de Moura Surr?alisme Sobral. Montreal: P?riph?rique. Universit? de Montr?al, (1984). -. "Manifesto of Pau-Brasil Poetry." Trans. Stella M. de S? Rego. Latin American Literary Review XIV: 27 (January-June, 1986): 184-87.

Oswald -.

de Andrade's Obras completas. Maria

"Cannibalist Manifesto"

37 Brasileira, (1971

11 vols. Rio de Janeiro: Civiliza??o A vanguarda antropof?gica.


Boaventura, -., Eugenia. S?o Paulo: ?tica,


do Departamento ed. Remate de Males de Teoria (Revista de Estudos da Linguagem, Universidade Estadual de Literaria/Instituto 6 (1986). Special issue on Oswald de Andrade. Campinas) os antrop?fagos." de. re-vistas: "Revistas Poes?a, Augusto Campos, S?o Paulo: Cortez & Mor?es, (1978). 107-24. antipoesia, antropofagia. di?logo e diferen?a na cultura Campos, Haroldo de. "Da raz?o antropof?gica: Mario 44 Boletim Biblioteca de Andrade brasileira." Bibliogr?fico


(1983): 107-25.






"Urna po?tica Poes?as Reunidas. da radicalidade." de By Oswald 11 vols. Rio de Janeiro: 7 of Obras Andrade. Vol. completas. Brasileira, (1979). 9-62. Civiliza??o "The Rule of Anthropophagy: Europe Under the Sign of Devoration." Latin American Literary Review XTV: 27 (January-June, 1986): 42-60. de Oswald de Andrade. Chalmers, Vera. 3 linhas 4 verdades. O jornalismo S?o Paulo: Duas Cidades, (1976). Lucia. Totens e tabus da modernidade brasileira. Rio de Janeiro: Helena, (1985). Tempo Brasileiro, na literatura brasileira: Oswald Jackson, Kenneth David. A prosa vanguardista de Andrade. S?o Paulo: Perspectiva, (1978). in Oswald Prose de Andrade." Diss. University of "Vanguardist Wisconsin, (1972). in Brazil, Johnson, Randal. "Literature, Culture and Authoritarianism (1930 179. Latin American 1945)." Working Papers Program, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Washington, D.C., (1989). Texas Papers on Latin America, no. "Rereading Brazilian Modernism." at Institute of Latin American 89-04. of Texas Studies, University Austin, (1989). or not Tupy: Cannibalism in Contemporary and Nationalism "Tupy Brazilian Literature and Culture." On Modern Latin American Fiction. Ed. John King. New York: The Noonday Press, (1989). 41-59. as Cultura Brasileira: "Modernism Larsen, Neil. Eating the 'Torn Halves'." A Materialist Modernism and Hegemony: Critique of Aesthetic of Minnesota Press, (1990). 72-97. Agencies. Minneapolis: University Carlos Williams and Morse, Richard. "Triangulating Two Cubists: William Oswald de Andrade." Latin American Review XIV: 27 Literary 1986): 175-83. (January-June, ao alcance de todos." In Oswald de Andrade, Nunes, Benedito. "Antropofagia e as Utopias. By Oswald de Andrade. Vol. Do Pau-Brasil ? Antropofagia 6 of Obras 11 vols. Rio de Janeiro: Civiliza??o Brasileira, completas. (1976). xi-liii. Oswald can?bal S?o Paulo: Perspectiva, (1979). e cosmopolitismo na d?cada de 20: Oliverio Schwartz, Jorge. Vanguarda Girondo e Oswald de Andrade. S?o Paulo: Perspectiva, (1983). Schwarz, Roberto. Que horas s?o? S?o Paulo: Companhia das Letras, (1987).


Oswald de Andrade's "Cannibalist Manifesto"

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