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Department of Sociomedical Sciences

MPH Student Handbook 2008 ­ 2009

Allan Rosenfield Building 722 West 168th Street New York, NY 10032 (212) 305-5656 www.mailman.columbia.edu/sms

Department of Sociomedical Sciences MPH Students Handbook: Table of Contents

Department of Sociomedical Sciences MPH Students Handbook: Table of Contents .......................... 1 Overview....................................................................................................................................................... 3 General Information and Resources .......................................................................................................... 3 MPH Programs Offered by the Department............................................................................................... 3 Department of Sociomedical Sciences Central Office ............................................................................... 4 Advisement ............................................................................................................................................... 4 Financial Aid .............................................................................................................................................. 5 Accessing Information ............................................................................................................................... 5 Campus Shuttle Service ............................................................................................................................ 5 Campus Escort Service ............................................................................................................................. 5 Academic Affairs ......................................................................................................................................... 6 Registration Process ................................................................................................................................. 6 Holds..................................................................................................................................................... 6 Add/Drop ............................................................................................................................................... 6 Full- and Part-Time Programs ................................................................................................................... 7 Procedures for Changing Tracks within SMS ............................................................................................ 7 Course Waivers ......................................................................................................................................... 7 Transfer of Credits..................................................................................................................................... 8 Incomplete Grades .................................................................................................................................... 8 Leave of Absence / Inactive Status ........................................................................................................... 8 Filing for Graduation .................................................................................................................................. 8 Learning Objectives for the Master of Public Health ................................................................................ 9 Learning Objectives: Mailman School of Public Health ............................................................................. 9 Learning Objectives: Department of Sociomedical Sciences .................................................................... 9 Degree Requirements for SMS MPH Students ........................................................................................ 12 Credits ..................................................................................................................................................... 12 Course Requirements ............................................................................................................................. 12 Master's Thesis ....................................................................................................................................... 13 Required Examinations and Certifications ............................................................................................... 13 Practicum Requirement ........................................................................................................................... 14 Are You Ready to Graduate? .................................................................................................................. 14 Track-Specific Degree Requirements ...................................................................................................... 15 Health Promotion Track........................................................................................................................... 15 Social Science Research in Public Health Track ..................................................................................... 21 History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine Track ......................................................................... 24 Aging and Public Health Track ................................................................................................................ 28 Urbanism and the Built Environment Track ............................................................................................. 31 Sexuality and Health Track ..................................................................................................................... 35 Global Health Track................................................................................................................................. 39 Masters Dual Degree Programs .............................................................................................................. 43 Dual Degree Guidelines .......................................................................................................................... 44 Practicum ................................................................................................................................................... 47 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 47 General Objectives .................................................................................................................................. 47 Roles and Responsibilities ...................................................................................................................... 48

Preceptor Practicum Evaluation Form ..................................................................................................... 56 Student Practicum Evaluation Form ........................................................................................................ 57 Health Promotion Track Practicum Evaluation Competencies ............................................................... 59 Social Science Research Track Practicum Evaluation Competencies ................................................... 60 History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine Track Practicum Evaluation Competencies ............... 61 Aging and Public Health Track Practicum Evaluation Competencies ...................................................... 62 Urbanism and the Built Environment Track Practicum Evaluation Competencies .................................. 63 Sexuality and Health Track Practicum Evaluation Competencies ........................................................... 64 The Master's Thesis .................................................................................................................................. 65 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 65 Planning your Thesis ............................................................................................................................... 65 The Thesis Course .................................................................................................................................. 67 Writing the Thesis Proposal ..................................................................................................................... 70 Writing the Thesis...................................................................................................................................... 72 1. Writing a Review Article ....................................................................................................................... 74 2. Developing a Research Proposal ........................................................................................................ 75 3. Developing a Research Report ............................................................................................................ 78 4. Developing an Evaluation Proposal .................................................................................................... 81 5. Developing an intervention proposal .................................................................................................. 84 Academic Advising FAQ ........................................................................................................................... 87 Appendix A Methods Courses and Research Training in SMS ............................................................. 90 Appendix B Department of Sociomedical Sciences Thesis Faculty Sponsors ................................... 95 Appendix C Frequently Used Contacts ................................................................................................... 99

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Overview

In 1968, the Columbia University School of Public Health became the first institution in the country to offer a graduate degree in Sociomedical Sciences (SMS). What began as a collaborative research project on rural health care in 1956, spearheaded by a physician, an epidemiologist, and a sociologist, evolved over a decade's time into a formal doctoral program. Dr. Jack Elinson, first head of SMS, coined the term "sociomedical sciences" to incorporate the social sciences of sociology, anthropology, economics, history, political science, and social psychology into a multidisciplinary study of health and medicine. The most recent addition to this academic framework is philosophy, especially relevant with the ever-increasing focus on ethics in medicine and public health. In 1991, in response to a growing interest in health promotion and disease prevention, the Department added a track specializing in this area of study to its Master of Public Health (MPH) Research Program. In 1998, a third MPH track, specializing in the History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine, was added. A fourth track, focusing on Aging and Public Health, was created in 1999; and in Fall 2002, a fifth track, in Urbanism and the Built Environment, was introduced. The sixth track added the Sexuality and Health track was introduced in Fall 2003. It is a joint program of SMS and the Department of Population and Family Health. In fall 2005, a school-wide program in Global Health was added. Today, the SMS faculty is broadly involved in both research and teaching, applying social science theory and methodology to health and medical issues. Research projects are focused on such contemporary health topics as sociocultural aspects of drug use behavior and alcoholism, adolescent health, the role of social supports and social networks, health, well-being and disability in older people, social aspects of disability, the organization of health care and health care program evaluation, the health professions, stress and coping, prejudice and discrimination, health disparities, and social factors in pain, the social and ethical impact of AIDS, preventive health behavior, chronic illness and caregiving, end-of-life and bereavement, sexuality and sexual orientation, gender and health, and response of the medical profession to major issues in the organization and delivery of health care to special populations including older adults. Within SMS, three degrees can be pursued: The Master of Public Health (MPH), The Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)--both conferred by the Mailman School of Public Health--and the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), conferred by the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Doctoral graduates often do research, teach, and/or assume advanced administrative positions. MPH graduates often work in public health agencies, service delivery systems, participate as members of research or health promotion teams, or use the degree to complement such professional careers as nursing, law, medicine, social work, urban planning, occupational therapy, or international affairs.

General Information and Resources MPH Programs Offered by the Department

Dr. Amy Fairchild is the Chair of the Department of Sociomedical Sciences and Dr. Ilan Meyer is the Deputy Chair for the Masters Programs. The Department offers seven tracks in the MPH Program, each directed by a member of the faculty, as follows: Aging and Public Health, Dr. Victoria Raveis; Global Health, Dr. Marni Sommer; Health Promotion, Dr. Marita Murrman; History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine, Dr. James Colgrove; Sexuality and Health,

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Drs. Richard Parker and Diane di Mauro; Social Sciences Research in Public Health, Dr. Naa Oyo Kwate; and Urbanism and the Built Environment, Drs. Lourdes Hernández-Cordero and Robert Fullilove. Dr. Lourdes Hernández-Cordero is the Practicum Director and is the principle person responsible for the practica of all the MPH students. Andrea Constancio, MSW is the Department Academic Coordinator. She is responsible for all academic affairs related to the MPH and doctoral programs including admissions, academic progress, practicum, and graduation. Toya Smith provides administrative support to the Academic Coordinator and to the Department.

Department of Sociomedical Sciences Central Office

The SMS Central Office, located at 722 West 168th Street on the 5th floor (212-305-5656), serves as a center of information for students and faculty. Housed at the SMS Office are the Department Chair and Deputy Chairs, many full-time faculty members, Academic Program Coordinator, and administrative staff. Although students are encouraged to e-mail or phone ahead if they wish to consult with their faculty advisors, they are always welcome to drop in at the SMS Office if they have questions or wish to look through any materials. Ms. Andrea Constancio's door is always open, so feel free to come by at any time if you have questions about SMS programs, for help getting through the Columbia bureaucracy, or just to say hello. Andrea can be reached at 212-342-0287, and her e-mail address is [email protected] Student files and progress sheets are kept in the office of the Program Coordinator.

Advisement

Upon admission to SMS, each student is assigned a faculty academic advisor. The advisor is responsible for guiding the student's progress through the program. The faculty advisor assists the student in planning a program to meet his/her needs and professional interests. There are some areas in which Ms. Constancio, the Academic Program Coordinator, is the most appropriate person to consult with. For example, she is knowledgeable about the rules and facilities of the University and serves as a resource person to both students and faculty. Students should meet with their advisors at least once a semester to plan for the semester, discuss general progress, and update plans for the future. During the first semester, students should meet with their faculty advisors to begin planning for the Practicum and Master's Thesis (see relevant sections of this Handbook for more information about advisement, practicum, and the Master's Thesis). Student advisement is an important and integral part of the master's study. We recommend that the students take an active role in developing a relationship with his/her advisor and at least adhere to the suggested schedule of consultation meetings (once per semester). We try to match student and faculty advisor as best we can at the beginning of the student's tenure, but sometimes there may be a need to change student-advisor. Students who need such a change, or who otherwise need help in managing their advisement, are encouraged to contact Dr. Ilan Meyer ([email protected]).

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Financial Aid

Students who need financial aid should first contact the Financial Aid Office in the Mailman School of Public Health (212-305-4113, [email protected]). The types of student aid available, including loans, awards, and work-study employment, are outlined on the School website. Fellowships and grants from government agencies and private foundations are available for graduate students. The amounts awarded, eligibility for the awards, and the basis for selecting recipients vary. Students interested in exploring these funding possibilities should consult with the Office of Financial Aid.

Accessing Information

The following is a brief overview of how students may access information through computers at Columbia. Because this is a rapidly expanding information system, students are advised to become familiar with resources and assistance available at the Health Sciences Library. Students should open a Columbia University e-mail account as soon as possible. The Department sends important information including program announcements and job postings for students via email. E-mail accounts are free to all Columbia University faculty, staff and students. The Columbia University (Cunix) ID is issued by Columbia University Information Technology (CUIT). To activate e-mail, and for other computing information, at the main Columbia web page (www.columbia.edu), click on "E-mail and computing." Available on Columbia's home page, under "Students," are schedules of classes, schedules of finals, grades, registration holds and bulletins, which can be accessed with a Columbia UNI. The Mailman School of Public Health has a web page at www.mailman.hs.columbia.edu. SMS has its own departmental page within the School's home page. Grades may also be accessed using a touch-tone telephone through the Grade Inquiry System (212-854-7373). Entrance into the system is gained by using a social security number and a Personal Identification Number, issued by the Registrar and sent to students by mail.

Campus Shuttle Service

A free campus shuttle bus service is available between the Medical Center campus (in front of Neurological Institute on Fort Washington Ave. and 168th street), the Morningside campus (in front of the main gates on Broadway and 116th Street) and Harlem Hospital (on Lenox Avenue and 136th Street). A valid Columbia University identification card is required. The shuttle runs between 6:45 AM and 11:55 PM except in the summer when there is no evening service between the Medical Center and Morningside campuses. For further information please call the security office at 212-305-8100.

Campus Escort Service

Students may call the security office (212-305-8100) for escort service among all Medical Center

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facilities or to their cars.

Academic Affairs Registration Process

Registration for classes is held at the beginning of each semester and at the beginning of each summer session. You will receive information about these registration periods from the Mailman School of Public Health Office of Student Affairs. We will keep you informed of changes in registration procedures. Each semester, course schedules for the entire University are published online in the Directory of Classes. The Mailman School of Public Health publishes a separate course schedule available online at http://www.mailmanschool.org/courses/index.asp. Students may take courses offered in many schools in the University, but their registration must be processed through the school in which they are enrolled. All MSPH students should register through the Medical Center campus registrar. Dual degree students should consult with their academic advisor and/or the Academic Program Coordinator about cross-registration and residency credits. Students should note that semester start and end dates, as well as holiday schedules, may not be the same for all schools of the University, so please consult the calendars for each school. Continuing students must obtain approval from their academic advisors either in person or via email before they register. Many courses require the instructor's approval. If approval is required it will be noted in the Public Health web site course listing. Approval is obtained by contacting the professor who teaches the course. If permission is not given in advance, students may be placed out of the class even after having registered for it. Holds The Office of Student Affairs may place a hold a student's registration. Examples of "holds" include academic holds for incomplete courses, library holds for outstanding materials and/or fees, Bursar's Office holds for any money owed, or Health Services holds for failure to comply with immunization requirements. If your registration is held, you will receive a notice from the Registrar's office before registration. Holds on registration must be cleared before you will be allowed to register. To clear the hold, you must settle the outstanding obligation(s) that caused the hold. Add/Drop Changes in your class schedule may be made during the Add/Drop period, usually occurring the first 2 weeks of classes. There are no extra charges for adding and/or dropping courses during this period.

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Full- and Part-Time Programs

Students may enroll as full- or part-time students. Part-time students must be able to take classes during the day time in order to complete required courses. Health Promotion part-time students must follow a fixed program plan and should consult with the Track Director, Marita Murrman, about their program and schedule planning.

Procedures for Changing Tracks within SMS

A request to change tracks must be filed by the beginning of the student's second semester in the School. A student who wants to change tracks must first meet with the Academic Program Coordinator to discuss the requested change and file an application for admission to the new track. The admission application includes a personal statement explaining the reason for the requested change. The Academic Program Coordinator will forward to a faculty reviewer the student's application and the original MSPH application file along with a review form. Admissions criteria for a change of track are the same as those for accepting new students into that track. Applications for a change of track and the reviewer's recommendation must be approved by the Deputy Chair for Masters Programs. The Academic Program Coordinator will inform the student of the Department's decision and, if the change is approved, assign a new faculty advisor to the student. The track directors of the old and new track are cc'd.

Course Waivers

Students may seek a waiver of any core course by taking a waiver exam. Successful completion of a core waiver exam exempts students from the course requirement but does not carry course credit or reduce the number of credits needed for the degree. These examinations are scheduled during the registration period. There is no penalty for failed waiver attempts. Students may request a waiver or exemption from a specific course requirement if they believe that they have satisfactorily completed a graduate-level course that is of comparable rigor and scope to that of the required SMS course. Students initiate this process by preparing a written request that identifies the SMS course to be waived and brief description of prior course work that is the basis for the waive. Attach to the statement a syllabus for the prior course and transcript indicating the final grade for this course. Submit a signed and dated written request along with the supporting material to the Academic Program Coordinator. When a request for a waiver is received, the Academic Program Coordinator will designate the faculty member teaching the course to be waived to review the request. The faculty member should base the decision whether to waive the course on his or her judgment that the prior course work is comparable in rigor and coverage to the course being waived. The student must have earned a grade of B+ or better for the course. (Faculty discretion may be required when there is no letter grade). The faculty member's recommendation is returned with the student' request and supporting material to the Academic Program Coordinator who forwards the material to the Deputy Chair for Masters Programs. Once the Deputy Chair has approved the recommendation, the Department notifies the student via e-mail. The Department Chair and appropriate faculty are cc'd.

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Transfer of Credits

Up to 15 transfer credits may be granted to MPH degree candidates for appropriate graduate level courses. The courses must have been completed within the preceding five years at an accredited institution and not have been counted toward another degree. Please consult with the Academic Program Coordinator about applying for transfer credit.

Incomplete Grades

The Department does not grant automatic incompletes. Students who request an incomplete (IN) for a course must get the instructor's approval. The instructor determines whether to permit a student to receive a grade of IN for his/her course. Students who have a grade of incomplete (IN) have one year from the end of the semester of registration to complete the work. Unless there is notification of change of grade from incomplete to letter grade the incomplete will automatically be converted to unofficial withdrawal (UW), defined as "student did not complete attendance and/or assignment, but failed to withdraw." Under very special circumstances an instructor may grant an extension, usually for a specified period of time, and usually not more than six months. A grade of "UW" will not be changed to a passing grade. In most cases a student will have to register again for the course to complete the requirement. Students who have three or more incompletes will not be allowed to register for the next semester of classes. Registration will be held until they clear their records of the incompletes.

Leave of Absence / Inactive Status

Leave of absence or medical leave must be approved by the Academic Program Coordinator and by Lillian Morales (212-305-8690, [email protected]), Associate Director of Academic Standards and Academic Record in the Office of Student Affairs (OSA). A student who takes a leave that extends beyond 2 years would be required to re-apply for admission through the OSA. Re-application materials and instructions are available to download at the OSA website. The reapplication materials include a letter of readmission, an updated personal statement, and a resume /CV. Re-admission is reviewed by the School admissions committee and is not guaranteed. If re-admission is approved, the student may be bound by degree requirements that are in effect at the time of re-admission.

Filing for Graduation

Degrees are granted three times a year by the University: October, February and May. The precise dates vary from year to year and students should check the schedule on the calendar sent to them and in the school bulletins. Students may file an application for graduation when they anticipate fulfillment of all degree requirements by the graduation date. Sometimes this happens before all work for fulfillment of the degree requirements has been completed (for example, a student may be working on finishing touches of their thesis).

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Applications for graduation must be filed with the Mailman School of Public Health's Office of Student Affairs. The filing deadlines are absolute. They are published each year in the academic calendar. It is the student's responsibility to file for graduation on time. Students who filed for graduation but failed to complete required work will not graduate. The next time they file for graduation, they will have to complete all degree requirements before re-application for graduation will be accepted.

Learning Objectives for the Master of Public Health

The MPH degree in Sociomedical Sciences (SMS) is designed to train health care professionals in the application of theories and methods of social and behavioral sciences to address public health issues. Students are provided with the knowledge to understand the importance of social and behavioral sciences for the health of individuals and communities and the skills to apply this knowledge in the analysis and formulation of public health programs and policies. These general goals are reflected in specific learning objectives for MPH students developed at the school, department, and track levels. The learning objectives identify the various concepts and skills students are expected to master through the course of the MPH program in Sociomedical Sciences.

Learning Objectives: Mailman School of Public Health

Upon satisfactory completion of the MPH degree, all graduates will be able to demonstrate a broad knowledge and skills base in the core areas of public health, with particular emphasis in a selected field of public health, and will be able to: · · · · · · Apply epidemiologic methods to the measurement of disease rates, prevention of infectious diseases, and the development and evaluation of health programs and policies; Apply statistical methods of estimation and hypothesis testing and explain the basics of correlation and regression for the purpose of analyzing the health of populations; Analyze how environmental contaminants (chemical, physical and other exposures) interact with biological systems and their effect on human populations for the purpose of evaluating risk reduction strategies; Assess the impact on health policy options of social, political, technological, economic and cultural forces, and apply basic management techniques to address organizational challenges to providing health care; Examine public health issues and responses from a social and behavioral sciences perspective and explain social, cultural, political, economic, and behavioral determinants of disparities in health status among population sub-groups; and Demonstrate knowledge and skills for effective practice in their selected field of study.

Learning Objectives: Department of Sociomedical Sciences

The MPH degree in Sociomedical Sciences (SMS) is designed to train health care professionals in the application of theories and methods of social and behavioral sciences to address public health issues. Students are provided with the knowledge to understand the importance of social and behavioral sciences for the health of individuals and communities and the skills to apply this

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knowledge in the analysis and formulation of public health programs and policies. Students in this program select one of seven tracks: Aging and Public Health, Health Promotion, History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine, Sexuality and Health, Social Sciences Research in Public Health, Urbanism and the Built Environment, and Global Health. Graduates of SMS complete 45 credit hours, the Good Clinical Practices Certification examination, a practicum, and a Master's Thesis. Upon satisfactory completion of the MPH program in SMS, graduates will be able to: · · Describe how major theories and methods from the fields of medical sociology, medical anthropology, history, and health psychology can be used to address a variety of public health issues; Examine public health issues from a social and behavioral sciences perspective: o Discuss the relationships of social, cultural, political, economic, and behavioral factors to health and disease outcomes o Explain social, cultural, political, economic, and behavioral determinants of disparities in health status among population sub-groups and related public health responses o Distinguish a population-wide public health perspective from individual and clinical perspectives regarding determinants of health status and related responses; · Analyze public health issues from the perspective of at least one of the following fields of study: o Explain how medical sociology examines the multiple paths by which social class (SES), ethnicity/race, gender, and organizational structure leads to states of good and poor health o Explain how medical anthropology examines the relationship between culture and health as well as the cultural constructions of health and illness o Explain how history examines the relationship among biological, social, political, and economic factors in the creation of health and the political response to health issues o Explain how health psychology examines behavioral, cognitive and emotional factors and their relationship to health; · Analyze public health problems by selecting and employing appropriate research methodology from the social and behavioral sciences: o o o o · Collect appropriate data to understand determinants of health and disease Apply appropriate social indicators to describe population health Assess strengths and limitations of various sources of data Assess strengths and limitations of various approaches to research and evaluation;

Discuss public health research and practice issues from an ethical perspective: o Discuss historical and emerging ethical issues o Identify appropriate stakeholders whose perspectives should be considered in

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public health endeavors o Discuss principles and requirements for the protection of human subjects in public health research; and · Demonstrate proficiency in written, oral and visual communication skills for the purpose of: o Communicating research and program findings into action oriented recommendations o Reporting findings in a manner useful for informing the public about health issues.

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Degree Requirements for SMS MPH Students Credits

MPH students require 45 credits to graduate. Up to 12 credits of course work may be taken for Pass/Fail with the approval of the instructor and the advisor. No core courses or required courses may be taken for Pass/Fail. No more than 3 credits may be taken in tutorials (see below).

Course Requirements

School-wide Core Courses Students are required to take the 5 School of Public Health core courses: Biostatistics (6103 or 6104), Principles of Epidemiology I (6400), Environmental Health Sciences (P6300), Issues and Approaches in Health Policy and Management (P6530), and Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences (P6700). Biostatistics Placement Examination: Biostatistics P6103 and P6104 are parallel introductory courses. A placement examination is given by the Department of Biostatistics to all students wishing to take P6104. Performance in the placement examination determines whether the student enrolls in P6103 or P6104. An intermediate performance results in placement in P6103, and a poor performance results in a recommendation that remedial work be taken to improve basic quantitative skills before taking either course. SMS Track Requirements SMS tracks have specific course requirements described on the following pages. Methods Course Students are required to take at least one 3-credit methods course in the Department of Sociomedical Sciences. Elective Courses Students are required to take at least one 3-credit elective course in the Department of Sociomedical Sciences. This is limited to non-tutorial courses offered in SMS or cross listed between SMS and other departments/schools. Students also take at least one 3-credit general elective. General electives may be taken outside of the Department and may be taken at other schools of the University. This applies to general track electives, as well.

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Tutorials Tutorials afford students a chance to learn from the expertise of faculty members by concentrating on specific areas of interest in a less structured setting than a classroom course. One-to-one student/faculty tutorials may include, for example, participation in major research or other projects, small individual projects, pilot projects, literature review, and field experience. No more than 3 credits of tutorials may be taken; tutorial credits may be applied toward general elective credits, but not toward the SMS elective. Students interested in taking a tutorial must complete the Tutorial Form and submit it to the Academic Program Coordinator no less than 72 hours prior to the last registration day. The Academic Program Coordinator will submit the request to have the tutorial activated. Once activated, a registration call number will be assigned and the Academic Program Coordinator will notify you of the registration number.

Master's Thesis

Students are required to register for a one-year 0-credit Master's Thesis course. The Graduate Schools of Public Health's Council on Education for Public Health describes the thesis as "an important culminating experience that requires students to synthesize and integrate knowledge acquired in coursework and other learning experiences and to apply theory and principles in a situation that approximates some aspect of professional practice."* The Department of Sociomedical Sciences has developed an elaborate thesis guide to help students in planning and executing the thesis (see Thesis section of this Handbook).

Required Examinations and Certifications

The following examinations and certifications are required of all students. Students must submit certification and/or proof of compliance to the Academic Program Coordinator. Good Clinical Practice: Protection of Human Subjects in Biomedical and Behavioral Research All SMS students are required to pass a certification exam in Protection of Human Subjects in Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Study materials and the certification exam are available on line at https://www.rascal.columbia.edu/. Go to "Training Center," "Course TC 0006," "Health Sciences: Protection of Human Research Participants (GCP) - for Investigators in Epidemiology and the Social and Behavioral Sciences." A free 3-hour course is also available. For schedules and more information go to the IRB website (http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/irb) under "Related Links." Students should obtain certification in their first or second semester as it is required for work on Mailman School of Public Health projects. GCP certification is a prerequisite for the Practicum and Master's Thesis.

*

Accreditation Criteria, Graduate Schools of Public Health, Council on Education for Public Health amended January 2002, pg. 9-10.

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Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) SMS students are required to pass the HIPAA certification exam. To take the HIPAA training course and certification, log on to http://www.rascal.columbia.edu then login to the "Training Center" and within "Course Listings," select training module "TC0019 (HIPAA: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Training Course)."

Practicum Requirement

MPH students are required to complete a 280-hour Practicum (see details in the Practicum section of this Handbook).

Are You Ready to Graduate?

Use the following checklist as a guide of requirements for the MPH degree. Task All course work completed Good Clinical Practices & HIPAA Certification Examination Identifying an THESIS sponsor & determining need for IRB Practicum Agreement Practicum Evaluation Forms Thesis Proposal to Sponsor and Academic Program Coordinator Final Thesis to Sponsor and Academic Program Coordinator Filing for Graduation February May October Graduation Graduation Graduation Completion of all course requirements for a total of 45 credits First or second semester End of first year Signed Practicum agreement filed prior to starting practicum Submitted online within one week of the end of practicum Prior to registration to P8707 December December 1 April February 1 August August 1

Note: Students unable to complete degree requirements in time for graduation will need to file again. When filing for graduation the second time all requirements will need to be met.

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Track-Specific Degree Requirements Health Promotion Track

Health Promotion has been defined as "Any combination of education, political, regulatory and organizational supports for actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups or communities" (Green & Kreuter, 2005, p. G-4). It encompasses "a broad and varied set of strategies to influence both individuals and their social environments, to improve health behavior, and to enhance health and quality of life" (Glanz, et al., 2002). The settings for Health Promotion include schools, communities, worksites, health care settings, homes and the consumer marketplace. Mission and Learning Objectives The Health Promotion Track prepares students to design, implement, and analyze findings from needs and assets assessments; develop theory-guided, evidence-based, multi-level interventions; evaluate health promotion programs; and apply theory in order to understand and change health behavior. Students will also learn how to mobilize partnerships to identify and solve health problems and empower people and communities about health issues. It is preferred, but not required, that students enter the program with some work experience in public health. Students who come into the program already having a public health background will have the opportunity to strengthen and expand their skills. Those who come into the program without prior work experience will develop introductory level skills that they will have the opportunity to refine through their practica and subsequent work experience. Coursework focuses on public health in the United States, and although the environmental level determinants of health may be quite different in international settings, the skills students will acquire in the Health Promotion Track are transferable. Rather than focusing on particular health behaviors, problems, or settings, Health Promotion Track coursework incorporates examples and readings from a broad spectrum of health topics and considers the need for public health programs across the lifespan, for neonates on up to the frail elderly. Specifically, graduates of this track will be able to: · Assess individual and community needs and priorities for health promotion: o Obtain health data about behavioral, social and cultural environments o Identify behaviors that tend to promote or compromise health o Infer needs for health promotion programs on the basis of obtained data; · · Explain leading theories of individual, interpersonal, organizational and community-wide health behavior change and discuss their relevance to health promotion and disease prevention; Plan evidence-based health promotion interventions utilizing the appropriate theoretical framework:

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o Identify community organizations, resources, and potential participants for support and assistance in health promotion intervention planning o Develop a logical scope and sequence plan for a health promotion intervention o Formulate appropriate and measurable intervention objectives; · Implement health promotion interventions employing appropriate methods and strategies: o Identify evidence-based and theoretically-grounded methods and strategies best suited to implement the intervention for a specific population o Determine the availability of resources needed to implement the intervention for a given population o Monitor intervention implementation; and · Develop an evaluation plan to assess health promotion interventions: o Describe methods for evaluating intervention efficacy and effectiveness o Identify potential performance standards o Identify existing valid and reliable measures and instruments. The table below provides real examples of the first positions that Health Promotion Track graduates entered into after completing their degrees. Administration The Health Promotion track is directed by Dr. Marita K. Murrman ([email protected]). Health Promotion Track Course Requirements The Health Promotion Track includes a full-time and part-time program. Full-time students typically take four courses (12 credits) per semester and complete the program in four semesters. Part-time students usually complete the program in six semesters (plus summer sessions), taking two courses (6 credits) per semester. Part-time students are required to take Biostatistics P6103 or P6104 and Epidemiology P6400 before registering for their Health Promotion Track required courses. Health Promotion Track required courses are indicated in the following form. This form should be used as an aid in planning your studies. You should consult with your academic advisor before scheduling your coursework. To provide students with the opportunity to develop the practical skills described above, the Track requirements include few elective courses. Instead, the focus is on foundational courses in methods and theory. Students should also be aware that many of the Track requirements must be taken in a specific sequence; students who transfer into the Track after their first semester at the School may therefore be unable to complete their degree in four semesters. In keeping with the Department's requirements, Health Promotion Track students are required to

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complete a practicum and a Master's Thesis. The practicum should relate to your career goals and will ideally be done at an agency or program where you would like to get a job after graduation; if you are already working, think of the practicum as an opportunity to advance into a different position or department at your current agency or program. The Master's Thesis will ideally provide students with the opportunity to build upon their coursework and their practicum and delve deeper into issues of individual interest.

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Health Promotion Track Program Requirements Checklist

Course (credits given) SPH Requirements Biostatistics P6103 (3) Epidemiology P6400 (3) Environmental Health Sciences P6300 (3) Issues & Approaches in Health Policy & Mgt. P6530 (3) Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences P6700 (3) SMS Research Methods* (3) SMS Elective (3) General Elective (3) Good Clinical Practices certification exam (0) Practicum (0) Master's Thesis Proposal P8707 and Master's Thesis P8708 (0) Health Promotion Track Requirements Theories That Promote Health P6790 (3) Needs Assessments in Public Health P8766 (2) Advanced Intervention Design P8772 (4) Evaluation of Health Programs P8705 (3) Health Promotion Electivea (6) Research Methods Electiveb (3) TOTAL CREDITS EARNED (45 needed)

* Choose one SMS Research Methods · Introduction to SMS Research Methods P8774 or · Survey Research Methods P8777 · Qualitative Research Design in Public Health P8785

a b

Semester planned

Semester taken

Grade

Credits earned

Health Promotion electives (These also can be used to satisfy SMS Electives or General electives): · Chronic Disease & Community Health P8762 · Coercion and Persuasion in Public Health P8746 · Introduction to Theory & Research on Interpersonal Violence P6758 · Public Health and Aging P8714 · Public Health Informatics P8779 · Race and Health P8750 · Social and Economic Determinants of Health P8745 · Stigma, Prejudice and Discrimination in Social Stressors P8763 · The Ethics of Public Health P8747 · Women, Children and AIDS P8727

Choose one of the following to satisfy SMS Research Methods Elective · Community Based Participatory Research P8771 · Ethnographic Methods in Health Research P8786 · Qualitative Research Methods P9775 · Survey Research Methods P8777 · Qualitative Research Design in Public Health P8785

18

Health Promotion Track Sample Full-time Schedule 2008-2009

(Note: Courses are not offered in the same semester each year)

Semester 1 (Fall) P8766 Needs Assessments in Public Health Theories That Promote Health Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences Principles of Epidemiology 2 P6530 Semester 2 (Spring) Issues and Approaches in Health Policy and Management Advanced Intervention Design SMS Research Methods Health Promotion Elective 3

P6790 P6700 P6400

3 3 3

P8772 P8774 P8777 P8785

4 3

3

P6103

Introduction to Biostatistical Methods

3

14 Summer Semester Practicum* P6300 P8705 Semester 3 (Fall) Environmental Sciences Evaluation of Health Programs SMS Elective Research Methods Elective P8707 Master's Thesis Proposal 3 3 3 3 0 12 P8708 Master's Thesis Semester 4 (Spring) Health Promotion Elective General Elective

13

3 3

0 9

* Practicum: All students are required to complete a 280 hour clinical or research apprenticeship planned in consultation with the student's advisor, Practicum Director, and proposed Preceptor. See the Practicum section of this Handbook for more information and additional ways to time the practicum experience.

19

Health Promotion Track Sample Part-time Program Schedule 2008-2009

(Note: Courses are not offered in the same semester each year)

Semester 1 (Fall) P6700 P6300 Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences Environmental Sciences 3 3 6 Summer Semester Semester 2 (Spring) P6103 P6530 Introduction to Biostatistical Methods Issues and Approaches in Health Policy and Management 3 3 6

P6400

Principles of Epidemiology General Track Elective

3 3 6

Semester 3 (Fall) P8766 P6790 Needs Assessments in Public Health Theories That Promote Health

Semester 4 (Spring)

2

3

P8774 P8777 P8785 P8772

SMS Research Methods Advanced Intervention Design

3 4 7

5

Summer Semester Practicum* Semester 5 (Fall) P8705 Evaluation of Health Programs Research Methods Elective Health Promotion Elective P8707 Master's Thesis Proposal 3 3 3 0 9 P8708 Master's Thesis Semester 6 (Fall) Health Promotion Elective SMS Elective

3 3

0 6

* Practicum: All students are required to complete a 280 hour clinical or research apprenticeship planned in consultation with the student's advisor, Practicum Director, and proposed Preceptor. For students who are working full-time in the field of public health, in an area related to their program track, the practicum time requirement is decreased to 140 hours. See the Practicum section of this Handbook for more information and additional ways to time the practicum experience.

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Social Science Research in Public Health Track

The Social Science Research in Public Health track provides graduate education in public health research with a strong social science orientation. Training is provided in social science theory and methods and the application of social science research to public health. For some students, the MPH will be their first professional degree. Other students may enter the program with previous masters, doctoral, or professional degrees (e.g., medicine, nursing, social work) and with varying years of practical experience in fields related to public health. Mission and Learning Objectives The Social Science Research in Public Health track provides a strong foundation in the social sciences and trains students to use the theories and methods of these disciplines in the critical evaluation of public health issues. The program builds upon a strong departmental interest in the social, cultural, behavioral and ethical factors affecting health. Students in the program are trained to treat these as central in the collection and evaluation of research data. Graduates of the program are prepared for employment in public health research in academic, non-profit and governmental settings, as well for doctoral studies (DrPH or PhD). Graduates of this track will be able to: · · · · · · · Review and critique social and behavioral science research literature in at least one substantive area of public health (e.g., gender, race, ethnicity, life course, sexuality, social and economic inequality, violence, and prevention interventions) Discuss and explain public health phenomena using concepts and theories from the social and behavioral sciences Compare and contrast social and behavioral science research methodologies relevant to the study of public health questions Develop testable public health research hypotheses using concepts and theories from the social and behavioral sciences Design data collection tools and materials using a variety of research methodologies Analyze data using appropriate statistical methods Identify ethical principles in conducting and disseminating social and behavioral science research in public health

Administration The Social Science Research in Public Health track is directed by Dr. Naa Oyo A. Kwate ([email protected]). Research Course Requirements The curriculum and sample program for the Social Science Research in Public Health track are indicated on the following pages. This checklist should be used as an aid in planning your studies. You should consult with your academic advisor before scheduling your coursework.

21

Social Science Research in Public Health Track Program Requirements Checklist

Course (credits given) SPH Requirements (5 courses): Biostatistics P6103 (3) or P6104 (4) Epidemiology I P6400 (3) Environmental Sciences P6300 (3) Issues & Approaches in Health Policy & Mgt. P6530 (3) Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences P6700 (3) SMS Requirements SMS Research Methods* (3) SMS Elective (3) General Elective (3) Good Clinical Practices certification exam (0) Practicum (0) Master's Thesis Proposal P8707 and Master's Thesis P8708 (0) Social Science Research in Public Health Requirements SMS Social Sciencea (3) Track Methodb (6) Track Theoryc (6) General Research Methodd (3) General Track Elective (3) TOTAL CREDITS EARNED (45 needed)

* Choose one SMS Research Methods · Introduction to SMS Research Methods P8774 or · Survey Research Methods P8777 · Qualitative Research Design in Public Health P8785

c SMS Social Science Track Theory · Medical Sociology P8704 · Race & Health P8750 · Medical Anthropology P8755 · Social & Economic Determinants of Health P8745 · Social History of American Public Health P8773 · Stigma & Discrimination Associated with Health-Related Conditions P8730 · Health Psychology P8767 b Track Method · Stigma, Prejudice & Discrimination as Social Stressors P8763 · Ethnographic Methods in Health Research P8786 · The Ethics of Public Health P8747 · Qualitative Research Design in Public Health P8785 · Introduction to Theory & Research on Interpersonal · Survey Research Methods P8777 Violence P6758 · Community Based Participatory Research P8771 · Women and Health P8711 · Evaluation of Health Programs P8705 · Seminar on Gay and Lesbian Issues in Public Health P8738 · Applied Regression (Biostatistics) P8100 d Social Science Research in Public Health Track Electives The general research method elective is a course in research methodology or statistical analysis that can be taken anywhere in the University. For example, students might take P8438- Design and Conduct of Observational Epi (Epidemiology), P8120- Analysis of Categorical Data (Biostatistics), or G4099 ­ Field Research Methods (Sociology). a

Semester Planned

Semester Taken

Grade

Credits Earned

22

Social Science Research in Public Health Track Sample Full-Time Schedule 2008-2009

(Note: All courses are not necessarily offered in the same semester each year)

Semester 1 (Fall) P6400 P6103 or P6104a P6700 Principles of Epidemiology* Introduction to Biostatistical Methods* Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences* SMS Social Science Course 3 3 (4) 3 3 12 Summer Semester Practicumb P6300 Semester 3 (Fall) Environmental Sciences Research Theory or SMS Elective Research Method Research Method P8707 Master's Thesis Proposal Semester 4 (Spring) 3 3 3 3 0 12

* Denotes courses that must be taken in the semester indicated.

a

Semester 2 (Spring) P8774 P8777 P8785 P6530 SMS Research Methods* Issues and Approaches in Health Policy and Management *General Research Method Elective Research Theory Elective* 3 3 3 3 12

General Track Elective or Research Theory SMS Elective General Elective P8708 Master's Thesis

3 3 3 0 9

Students take P6103 (3) or P6104 (4) depending on placement exam results.

Practicum: All students are required to complete a 280 hour clinical or research apprenticeship planned in consultation with the student's advisor, Practicum Director, and proposed Preceptor. See the Practicum section of this Handbook for more information and additional ways to time the practicum experience.

b

23

History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine Track

The History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine MPH track brings together the faculties of the Department of Sociomedical Sciences at the Mailman School of Public Health, the Center for the Study of Society and Medicine at Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, and the Department of History at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. The goal of the program is to equip its graduates with the knowledge and skills necessary to work in academic and policy positions. Mission and Learning Objectives The MPH offered in the Program in the History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine track is the only one of its kind in the nation. It emphasizes training health professionals in historical methods and provides a unique opportunity to develop an understanding of the context in which ethical considerations have emerged in public health and medicine. The program provides opportunities to study with public health experts, ethicists, and historians from the Mailman School of Public Health, the History Department of Columbia University, and other experts in the field from affiliated centers. In addition to the required School and Department courses, students take a sequence of public health history, policy, and ethics courses to develop proficiency in different areas of social, political, and intellectual history, public health policy and law, or ethics. Graduates of this track will be able to: · · Explain the general chronology of major events and innovations, significant individuals, significant documents, and significant institutions in the history of medicine and public health as well as general social history in the 19th and 20th centuries; Explain critical interpretive challenges that emerge at the intersection of history and policy: o Explain terms and concepts including but not limited to: presentism, historicism, Whig history, counterfactual condition, positivism, historical determinism, usable past, teleology, revisionism, social constructionism, deconstructionism, and postmodernism o Apply terms and concepts to the explanation of how the present may shape our understanding of the past and how the past may frame an understanding of the present; · Explain the major theoretical shifts in the literature in the history of public health and medicine and their relation to the social and political context in which they emerged in the following areas: the social construction of race, urban and occupational history, social reform and social welfare policy, hospitals and institutions, epidemics and the social construction of disease, and medical or public health ethics; Analyze and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the different uses of history in the policy arena such as history as lessons from the past, history as advocacy, history as social criticism or social indictment, history as analogy or metaphor; Analyze historical and contemporary policy problems:

24

· ·

o Frame an analysis of historical or public health issues in terms of the major literature in the history of public health and medicine o Identify, evaluate, collect, and interpret appropriate primary data (including archival data and manuscripts, oral histories, published records or sources, and legislative records or cases); and · Analyze and evaluate public health issues from an ethical perspective: o Describe the medical, social, economic, political, and cultural factors that shape the responses and interests of public health and medical professionals o Describe the responsibilities of public health and medical professionals to the community, institutions, and society o Apply key ethical concepts (e.g. justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence, harm, wrong, respect for persons) to the analysis of specific public health problems or policy responses o Describe the inherent ethical tension between civil liberties and public health necessity o Describe the duties of the state when compromising individual rights in the name of public health necessity o Distinguish between the ethical principles at issue in public health and those of clinical bioethics o Recognize the similarities and differences between the ethics of public health research and the ethics of public health practice. Administration The History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine track is directed by Dr. James Colgrove ([email protected]). History Course Requirements It is strongly recommended that students take introductory courses in history, ethics, and policy (Social History of American Public Health; Health Promotion, Disease Prevention, and the State; History and Policy; Coercion and Persuasion) in their first year, and reserve more advanced courses (Social History of American Medicine; Historiography of Public Health and Medicine) for their second year. History and ethics track required courses are indicated in the following form. This form should be used as an aid in planning your studies. You should consult with your academic advisor before scheduling your coursework.

25

History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine Track Program Requirements Checklist

Course (credits given) SPH Requirements Biostatistics P6103 (3) Epidemiology P6400 (3) Environmental Sciences P6300 (3) Issues & Approaches in Health Policy & Mgt. P6530 (3) Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences P6700 (3) SMS Requirements SMS Research Methods* (3) SMS Elective (3) General Elective (3) Good Clinical Practices Certification Exam (0) Practicum (0) Master's Thesis Proposal P8707 and Master's Thesis P8708 (0) History, Policy and Ethics Track Requirements Choose 4 of 6: Professionalism in Public Health and Medicine P8749 (3) The Ethics of Public Health P8747 (3) Social History of American Medicine P8732 (3) Social History of American Public Health P8773 (3) History and Policy P9740 (3) Coercion and Persuasion in Public Health P8746 (3) Track Electives History or Ethics Elective (9) TOTAL CREDITS EARNED (45 needed)

* Choose one SMS Research Methods · Introduction to SMS Research Methods P8774 or · Survey Research Methods P8777 · Qualitative Research Design in Public Health P8785 History or Ethics Electives This is an illustrative list of possible courses to fulfill this requirement. Talk to your advisor about other possible courses . · Seminar in Sexuality, Gender, Health, & Human Rights P8709 · Law, Policy and Rights: Exploring Rights-Based Approaches to Health P8692 · Disease, Public Health and Empire: Comparative Perspectives G8920 · History of the City of New York W3535

a

Semester planned

Semester taken

Grade

Credits earned

· · · · · · ·

Seminar in American Urban History G9570 South Africa in the 19th and 20th Century W3762 20th Century Political History G8409 The South After Reconstruction G8538 20th Century American History G9560 Oral History Theory and Method G9920 Intro to Health Advocacy P6712

26

History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine Track Sample Full-Time Schedule 2008-2009

(Note: Courses are not offered in the same semester each year)

Semester 1 (Fall) P6400 P6700 Principles of Epidemiology Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences The Ethics of Public Health Social History of American Public Health 3 3 P6103 P6530 Semester 2 (Spring) Introduction to Biostatistical Methods Issues and Approaches in Health Policy and Management History and Policy or Persuasion and Coercion SMS Research Methods 3 3

P8747 P8773

3 3 12

P9740 or P8746 P8774 P8777 P8785

3 3 12

Summer Semester Practicum* P6300 Semester 3 (Fall) Environmental Sciences History or Ethics Elective 1 G8732 or P8716 Social History of American Medicine or Professionalism Semester 4 (Spring) 3 3 3 General Elective History or Ethics elective 2 3 3

in Public Health and Medicine

SMS Elective P8707 Master's Thesis Proposal 3 0 12

* Practicum: All students are required to complete a 280 hour clinical or research apprenticeship planned in consultation with the student's advisor, Practicum Director, and proposed Preceptor. See the Practicum section of this Handbook for more information and additional ways to time the practicum experience.

History or Ethics Elective 3 P8708 Master's Thesis

3 0 9

27

Aging and Public Health Track

The Aging and Public Health MPH track is designed for students who are interested in understanding the public health challenges associated with aging and the increasingly older American, and world populations. Students completing the MPH in Aging and Public Health will be well qualified to address the challenges and opportunities posed by increased longevity, as well as related changes in the delivery and financing of health care for the aging population. Upon program completion, students may go on to doctoral study or enter the growing fields of service delivery, policy, and/or research in elder care. Mission and Learning Objectives This track provides public health students, who have an interest in aging, with a comprehensive understanding of the special public health challenges of an aging population. The program offers a public health perspective on aging that encompasses both applied and policy dimensions. This program is also relevant to a broad array of public health professionals including those who are providing clinical services, managers and administrators of aging-related institutions, community-based social service and health care agencies, geriatric clinicians, and health services researchers. Students take courses designed to address: aging-related quality of life issues, successful aging, life course transitions, elder-based health promotion and disease prevention efforts, chronic disease and disability, technology and health, bioethical issues related to healthcare and the elderly, and public health issues in special aging populations. Students in this program develop proficiency in public health-related aging concerns and issues. Graduates of this track will be able to: · · · · · · Identify major public health issues relevant to aging; Define the major social, cultural, developmental and economic factors contributing to health and illness in aging populations; Discuss the major societal forces impacting health services and aging resources; Explain the social, cultural and economic consequences of an aging population; Apply relevant behavioral and social science research approaches to understanding major public health issues relevant to aging; and Design services and interventions to promote healthy aging using relevant behavioral and social science theoretical approaches.

Administration The Aging and Public Health track is directed by Dr. Victoria Raveis ([email protected]) and Dr. Sheindy Pretter ([email protected]). Aging and Public Health track required courses are indicated in the following form. This form should be used as an aid in planning your studies. You should consult with your academic advisor before scheduling your coursework.

28

Aging and Public Health Track Program Requirements Checklist

Course (credits given) SPH Requirements Biostatistics P6103 (3) Epidemiology P6400 (3) Environmental Sciences P6300 (3) Issues & Approaches in Health Policy & Mgt. P6530 (3) Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences P6700 (3) SMS Requirements SMS Research Methods* (3) SMS Elective (3) General Elective (3) Good Clinical Practices Certification Exam (0) Practicum (0) Master's Thesis Proposal P8707 and Master's Thesis P8708 (0) Aging and Public Health Required Courses Public Health and Aging P8714 (3) Social Dimensions of Aging P8701 (3) Caregiving in Chronic Illness P8744 (3) SMS Social Science Coursea (3) Choose 2 of 7: Interdisciplinary Planning for Health (P8784 (3) Public Health & Disability P6726 (3) Designing Needs & Assets Assessment in Public Health P8766 (3) Population Aging & Public Policy in Developing Countries P8751 (3) Overview of Long Term Care P6741 (3) Epidemiology & Genetics of Aging P8404 (3) Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Health Careb M8500 (3) Elective: General Track Elective (3) TOTAL CREDITS EARNED (45 needed)

* Choose one SMS Research Methods · Introduction to SMS Research Methods P8774 or · Survey Research Methods P8777 · Qualitative Research Design in Public Health P8785

a

Semester planned

Semester taken

Grade

Credits earned

SMS Social Science Course Electives Medical Sociology P8704 (3) Medical Anthropology P8755 (3) Health Psychology P8767 (3) Social History of American Public Health P8773 (3)

b

HP M8500 is offered through the Rehabilitation Medicine Program in Occupational Therapy

29

Aging and Public Health Track Sample Full-Time Schedule 2008-2009

Semester 1 (Fall) P6400 P6103 Principles of Epidemiology Introduction to Biostatistical Methods Public Health & Aging Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences 3 3 P8774 P8777 P8785 P6530 Semester 2 (Spring) SMS Research Methods Issues and Approaches in Health Policy and Management Overview of Long Term Care Social Dimensions of Aging or Caregiving in Chronic Illness 3 3

P8714 P6700

3 3 12

P6741 P8701 or P8744**

3 3 12

Summer Semester Practicum* P6300 Semester 3 (Fall) Environmental Sciences SMS Social Science course General Track Elective 1 SMS Elective P8707 Master's Thesis Proposal Semester 4 (Spring) 3 3 3 3 0 12

* Practicum: All students are required to complete a 280 hour clinical or research apprenticeship planned in consultation with the student's advisor, Practicum Director, and proposed Preceptor. See the Practicum section of this Handbook for more information and additional ways to time the practicum experience. **Course offered in alternate years.

P8784 P8701 or P8744**

Interdisciplinary Planning for Health Social Dimensions of Aging or Caregiving in Chronic Illness General Elective Master's Thesis

3 3 3 0 9

P8708

30

Urbanism and the Built Environment Track

The Urbanism and the Built Environment MPH track offers a public health perspective on cities that encompasses both applied and policy dimensions, and provides students with a comprehensive understanding of the special public health challenges of an urbanized population. An important feature of this program is its location within the Department of Sociomedical Sciences, which emphasizes the social and behavioral aspects of health. Sociomedical components of urbanism include: placing cities in the context of globalization; understanding the intersections of cultures that occur in cities; integrating concepts of space, place and history into the patterns of health and disease; and conceptualizing the effects of spatial interventions for health and disease. The track is designed for students who have an interest in city life and are seeking a public health perspective. This program is also relevant to a broad array of public health professionals, including those who lead community agencies, provide community-level needs assessment, or work in conjunction with city agencies to plan for any and all aspects of the city's future. Mission and Learning Objectives The Mailman School of Public Health is geographically situated at a juncture among a variety of ethnic communities in New York City, and thus provides an ideal setting for understanding the relationship between the city and health. We define urbanism as "the ecology of cities" and place a particular emphasis on the nested relationships that embed populations within the city and the city within the global network of cities. Students prepared in this track will bring an awareness of the dynamics of urbanism to positions of leadership as researchers, planners, administrators or policy makers in public health in urban settings. Graduates of this track will be able to: · Assess the association between patterns of health and disease and the urban environment, in the United States and globally: o Analyze the impact of market forces on urban development and the health of urban populations o Analyze how population movements, both forced and voluntary, contribute to these patterns o Analyze how transportation systems and transportation links affect population migration and patterns of morbidity and mortality o Analyze the political and social organization of urban areas and their association with patterns of health and disease; · Conduct needs assessments and asset mappings to: o Determine the psychological, social, and cultural factors that influence community health in urban settings

31

o Identify and locate the members of cultural, social and political groups who function as stakeholders and gatekeepers in urban community settings and community social networks o Identify behavioral, cultural, social, economic, and environmental factors that affect morbidity and mortality in urban communities; · · · Use the tools of spatial analysis and spatial mapping [Geographic Information Systems (GIS)] to conduct studies linking health survey data and/or surveillance data to maps of neighborhoods, community settings, urban areas and districts; Participate with professionals from other disciplines in the development of policies that promote health and contribute to the elimination of disease in urban settings; Contribute to urban and environmental planning initiatives: o Explain the range of methods used in urban and environmental planning o Explain current and past theories and concepts of urban planning and design o Assess and evaluate using current methods the appropriateness and effectiveness of urban planning and design initiatives for improving community health; · Apply effective and efficient electronic search strategies to the collection and organizing of information relevant to past, current and future developments in urbanism and urban health: o Identify appropriate electronic information retrieval sources o Develop and refine electronic search strategies o Identify changes in research and planning literature in urbanism and health Administration The Urbanism and the Built Environment track is directed by Dr. Robert Fullilove ([email protected]) and Dr. Lourdes Hernández-Cordero ([email protected]). Urbanism and the Built Environment Course Requirements Students are required to take a track core course, P8717 Urban Space and Health, and at least 1 semester of the program's 1-credit seminar, Emerging Topics in Urbanism and the Built Environment (P8737). Students may take Emerging Topics (P8737) for up to 3 credits toward track electives. Those who take less than 3 credits for Emerging Topics (P8737) may take 1 - 2 credits toward track electives. They must also complete four other courses relevant to urbanism selected from a list of offerings in the Public Health and Urban Planning programs (see checklist). These courses were selected to provide the student with fundamental knowledge of the basic concepts of urbanism, as well as key skills for urban analysis, such as use of geographical information systems (GIS) for the analysis of health problems. Substitutions are possible at the advisor's discretion. Urbanism and the Built Environment track required courses are indicated in the following form. This form should be used as an aid in planning your studies. You should consult with your academic advisor before scheduling your coursework.

32

Urbanism and the Built Environment MPH Program Program Requirements Checklist

Course (credits given) SPH Requirements Biostatistics P6103 (3) Epidemiology P6400 (3) Environmental Sciences P6300 (3) Issues & Approaches in Health Policy & Mgt. P6530 (3) Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences P6700 (3) SMS Requirements SMS Research Methods* (3) SMS Elective (3) General Elective (3) Good Clinical Practices Certification Exam (0) Practicum (0) Master's Thesis Proposal P8707 and Master's Thesis P8708 (0) Urbanism Track Requirements Urban Space and Health P8717 (3) Emerging Topics in Urbanism & the Built Environment P8737a (1-3)

Choose 4 of 7: Race and Health P8750 Globalization, Social Movements, and Health P8741 Social History of American Public Health P8773 Introduction to Environmental Planning PLA4319 Design and Public Health P8784 History of urbanization and physical structure of cities PLA4112 Chronic Disease and Community Health P8762

Semester planned

Semester taken

Grade

Credits earned

Elective: General Track Electivea 3-5 TOTAL CREDITS EARNED (45 needed)

* Choose one SMS Research Methods · Introduction to SMS Research Methods P8774 or · Survey Research Methods P8777 · Qualitative Research Design in Public Health P8785

a

If less then 3credits in P8737, the difference is made up with general elective credit.

33

Urbanism and the Built Environment MPH Program Sample Full-Time Schedule 2008-2009

(Note: Courses are not offered in the same semester each year)

Semester 1 (Fall) P6400 P6103 Principles of Epidemiology Introduction to Biostatistical Methods Emerging Topics in Urbanism and Community Health Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences Urbanism Track Required 1 3 3 P6530 P8717 Semester 2 (Spring) Issues and Approaches in Health Policy and Management Urban Space and Health 3 3

P8737 P6700

1 3 3 13

P8774 P8777 P8785

SMS Research Methods Urbanism Track Required 2

3 3

12

Summer Semester Practicum* P6300 Semester 3 (Fall) Environmental Sciences Urbanism Track Required 3 SMS Elective General Elective P8707 Master's Thesis Proposal Semester 4 (Spring) 3 3 3 3 0 12 P8708 Urbanism Track Required 4 General Track Elective General Track Elective Master's Thesis 3 3 2 0 8

* Practicum: All students are required to complete a 280 hour clinical or research apprenticeship planned in consultation with the student's advisor, Practicum Director, and proposed Preceptor. See the Practicum section of this Handbook for more information and additional ways to time the practicum experience.

34

Sexuality and Health Track

The Sexuality and Health (S&H) track is designed for public health students who are interested in a career as a health professional working in the field of sexual and reproductive health and in agencies and organizations involved in programmatic work or direct service delivery with this focus Mission and Learning Objectives The Sexuality and Health Program provides public health students with the conceptual and practical skills necessary to identify, analyze and address health issues connected to sexuality within the United States and within a global context. The program is guided by the following assumptions: · · Sexuality encompasses diverse behaviors and meanings that are shaped by individual, social and cultural factors; Sexual health is a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. For sexual health to be attained and maintained, the sexual rights of all persons must be respected, protected and fulfilled. Sexual health can be promoted via a variety of strategies including policy development, health education programs and interventions, and advocacy efforts. The dynamic relationship between sexuality and gender impacts the sexual health and well-being of individuals and communities; Age, race/ethnicity, class, sexual orientation and historical context have profound effects on the linkages between sexuality, gender and health;

· · · ·

All educational, research, and service activities in this track are based on fundamental respect for the dignity, equality and full rights of all persons. As a program within a School of Public Health, we understand that the work to create the conditions by which the greatest diversity of persons can be healthy and participate as equal members of their local, national, and global communities requires a commitment to justice and tolerance. Graduates of this program will be able to: · Differentiate and assess key frameworks for understanding sexuality, sexual health and sexual health promotion: o Explain the strengths and limitations of relevant social and behavioral scientific theories of sexuality and sexual health promotion; o Analyze major sexual health issues including: HIV and other STI's, sexual violence, unwanted pregnancies, stigmatization and discrimination based on sexual behavior/identity, reproductive autonomy; o Explain the linkages between sexuality, gender and health, both across populations and in minority and stigmatized communities; o Apply ethical and human rights perspectives to understanding sexuality and health.

35

·

Design, implement and evaluate strategies to promote sexual health on individual and community levels: o Apply the principles from relevant theories of behavioral and structural change to the development of strategies for sexual health promotion; o Apply insights gained from an understanding of the history and organization of programs and policies in this field to the development of strategies for sexual health promotion; o Apply ethical and human rights perspectives in designing and critiquing sexual health promotion strategies.

Administration The Master of Public Health (MPH) is jointly offered by the Departments of Sociomedical Sciences and Population and Family Health. The SMS track is directed by Dr. Richard Parker ([email protected]) and Dr. Diane di Mauro ([email protected]). Sexuality and Health Course Requirements Sexuality and Health students are required to participate in a three-day Values Clarification Workshop and the Sexuality and Health Seminar. The Values Clarification Workshop will provide participants with an opportunity to gain insight to their personal and professional attitudes, values and beliefs regarding sexuality and to become more aware of the cultural contexts for addressing sexuality issues with different populations. Dates for this Workshop will be set in early September, in consultation with students. The aim of the Sexuality and Health Seminar is to give students an opportunity to discuss various things about the program and their future work field, and to learn from the other students' prior work experiences in the field of sexuality and health. All Sexuality and Health Track students will be consulted in the beginning of the academic year to find a time for this seminar that is most suitable for everybody. All Sexuality & Health students must complete four online Technical Issues modules before the start of their second semesters: (i) Demography, (ii) Human Rights, (iii) Reproductive Health, and (iv) Forced Migration. These modules are designed to expose students to core content in each of the four areas, so that instructors are free to pursue more in-depth content in class. Scores of 80% or higher are considered passing. The modules are located online within CourseWorks. If you do not succeed in scoring higher than 80%, contact the Lynne Loomis-Price ([email protected]), who will reset the test. Scores of 80% or higher on all four modules are required for graduation. Sexuality and Health track required courses are indicated in the following form. This form should be used as an aid in planning your studies. You should consult with your academic advisor before scheduling your coursework.

36

Sexuality and Health Track Program Requirements Checklist

Course (credits given) SPH Requirements Biostatistics P6103 (3) Epidemiology P6400 (3) Environmental Sciences P6300 (3) Issues & Approaches in Health Policy & Mgt. P6530 (3) Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences P6700 (3) SMS Requirements SMS Research Methods* (3) SMS Elective (3) General Elective (3) Good Clinical Practices Certification Exam (0) Practicum (0) Master's Thesis Proposal P8707 and Master's Thesis P8708 (0) Sexuality and Health Track Requirements Theories & Perspectives on Sexuality and Health P8736 (3) Current Issues in Sexual Health P8615 (3) Promoting Sexual Health: Theories & Strategies P8721 (3) Ethics and Human Rights Perspectives on Sexuality and Sexual Health P8606 (1) History of Sexual Health Promotion P8720 (2) Research Design and Data Collection: Service Based Research I P8619 (3) S & H Elective Skill Coursea (6) Four Technical Issues Modules (0) TOTAL CREDITS EARNED (45 needed)

* Choose one SMS Research Methods · Introduction to SMS Research Methods P8774 or · Survey Research Methods P8777 · Qualitative Research Design in Public Health P8785

a

Semester planned

Semester taken

Grade

Credits earned

Sexuality and Health Elective Skill Courses: · Quantitative Data Analysis: Service Based Research II P8623 (3) · Qualitative Data Analysis: Service Based Research III P8637 (3) · Program Design in Sexual & Reproductive Health P8601 (3) · Quantitative Methods in Program Evaluation P8640 (3) · Survey Research Methods P8777 (3) · Ethnographic Methods P8786 (3) Prerequisite: P8619 Prerequisite: P8623

· Designing Needs and Assets Assessments in Public Health P8766 (2) · Evaluation of Health Programs P8705 (3) · Community-based Participatory Research P8771 (3) · SRH Public Health Program Planning P8601 (3) · Case Studies in Advocacy Skills P8691 (1.5) · Management of Health Care Organizations P8614 (3) · Training for Public Health Programs P8670 (1.5) · Epidemiology II P8438 (3) · Qualitative Research Design in Public Health P8785 (3)

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Sexuality and Health Track Sample Full-Time Schedule 2008-2009

(Note: Courses are not offered in the same semester each year)

Semester 1 (Fall) P6400 P6700 P8736 P8619 Principles of Epidemiology Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences Theories and Perspectives on Sexuality, and Health Research Design and Data Collection: Service Based Research 1 3 3 3 3 P6103 P8615 P8774 P8777 P8785 P8720 Semester 2 (Spring) Introduction to Biostatistical Methods Current Issues in Sexual Health SMS Research Methods History of Sexual Health Promotion 3 3 3 2

12 Summer Semester Practicum** P6300 P8721 P8606 Semester 3 (Fall) Environmental Sciences Promoting Sexual Health: Theories and Strategies Ethics and Human Rights Perspectives S&H Elective skill course or SMS elective** S&H Elective skill course or SMS elective** P8707 Master's Thesis Proposal Semester 4 (Spring) 3 3 1 3 3 P6530 Issues and Approaches in Health Policy and Management S&H Elective skill course or SMS elective** S&H Elective skill course or SMS or general elective** P8708 Master's Thesis

11

3 3 3

0

13

0

9

* When planning your required S&H skill courses and your SMS and general electives: take into account in which semester these courses are given. ** Practicum: All students are required to complete a 280 hour clinical or research apprenticeship planned in consultation with the student's advisor, Practicum Director, and proposed Preceptor. See the Practicum section of this Handbook for more information and additional ways to time the practicum experience.

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Global Health Track

The Global Health Track in Sociomedical Sciences provides students who have some level of prior experience in global health with additional theoretical and methodological tools from a variety of the social sciences in order to understand the ways that health problems in a variety of global settings are influenced by psychological, social, cultural or structural contexts. The track aims to increase the skills among health researchers and health program personnel to incorporate systematic and scientific approaches to understanding the social roots of health problems and include this knowledge in the design of more successful and culturally appropriate health interventions. The track is particularly appropriate for individuals who are interested in developing and evaluating population-based, scientifically sound public health programs, particularly in resource-poor settings. Mission and Learning Objectives The Global Health Track provides public health students with the conceptual and practical skills necessary to identify, analyze and address health issues within a global context. The program is guided by the following objectives: · · · Understand the various ways that specific global health problems are shaped by individual, social, cultural, and structural factors; Learn the theories and methodologies necessary to examine health in the context of both local settings and geographies as well as the interconnected global processes that shape health and disease in a variety of settings; Develop expertise in the use of public health strategies such as policy development, health education programs, and health interventions to appropriately address health problems in a global context.

Graduates of this program will be able to: · · · · · Conduct international health work in resource-poor settings, or within global health initiatives, incorporating expertise in the application of social, behavioral, and cultural approaches to health and disease; Apply formal behavioral and social scientific theories and methodologies to global health policies and programs; Explain how local health problems are linked to larger global systems, processes, and inequalities, and apply this knowledge to the goals of global health policy, advocacy, intervention, and health equity; Understand the relevance of social, cultural, and historical diversity for the conduct of global health, and develop programs and policies that account for this diversity; Design, implement and evaluate strategies to promote global health in a variety of cultural and geographical settings.

Administration The Global Health Track is a cross-departmental program that is tailored to the specializations and requirements of each participating department. Students must choose within which

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department they will pursue their MPH in Global Health, depending on their interests and career goals. In the Department of Sociomedical Sciences (SMS), the Global Health Track is directed by Dr. Marni Sommer ([email protected]). At the school level, the larger program is coordinated by Dr. Pamela Collins ([email protected]). Global Health Course Requirements In addition to the general MSPH and SMS requirements, Global Health Track (GHT) students in Sociomedical Sciences are required to take a year-long Global Health core course sequence in two parts during their first year in the track, while simultaneously taking a Global Health Issues seminar sequence. The first year of the track is designed to provide a context in which GHT students can share experiences together in seminar format as well as prepare for the unique practicum experience to occur following the first year of the program. Beginning in June of the summer after completing the first year of the program, students will embark on an extended sixmonth practicum in a field site approved by the GHT, where they will engage in an extensive and mentored practicum experience in a global health setting. Because of the particular cultural, logistical, and resource concerns which global health practitioners must face, as well as the desire to prepare students through hands-on work that contributes to local needs, the Global Health practicum facilitates a deep and valuable real-world experience while maintaining the supervision and support that is necessary for such work to be successful. Global Health students must discuss the GHT academic program and receive approval from Dr. Marni Sommer prior to registration. [should we put this sentence at the end?] This academic program is tailored towards students' areas of skill interest. SMS GHT students select to concentrate in one of two main areas: research methods or program design. If the student has prior expertise in both of these two areas, or wants to concentrate on social topics related to global health or in public health policy, this is also a possibility within the SMS Global Health curriculum. Social topics in global health electives are courses within Sociomedical Sciences on issues related to global health. Several SMS courses incorporate global health into the syllabi, and students are thus encouraged to take courses relevant to their area of topical interest. The Global Health Track required courses are indicated in the following form. This form should be used as an aid in planning your studies.

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Global Health Track Program Requirements Checklist

Course (credits given) SPH Requirements Biostatistics P6103 (3) Epidemiology P6400 (3) Environmental Sciences P6300 (3) Issues & Approaches in Health Policy & Mgt. P6530 (3) Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences P6700 (3) SMS Requirements SMS Research Methods* (3) SMS Elective (3) General Elective (3) Good Clinical Practices Certification Exam (0) Practicum (0) Master's Thesis Proposal P8707 and Master's Thesis P8708 (0) Global Health Track Requirements Introduction to Global Health P6810 (3) Priorities in Global Health P6811 (3) Professional Development in Global Health P8880 (.5) Pre-Practicum Seminar P8881 (.5) Advanced Topics in Global Health P8820 (2) Field Practicum Tutorial (1) Post-Practicum Seminar P8885 (1) SMS Global Health Substantive Courses Global Health Skills Area Coursea (6) Social Topics in Global Health Electiveb (3) Advanced Program/Research Design Seminar (1) TOTAL CREDITS EARNED (45 needed)

* Choose one SMS Research Methods · Introduction to SMS Research Methods P8774 or · Survey Research Methods P8777 · Qualitative Research Design in Public Health P8785 Global Health Skills Areas in SMS Research Methods Program Design P8786 Ethnographic Methods P6728 Theories That Promote Health P8777Survey Research Methods P8787 Adv. Intervention Design (4) P9775Qualitative Research Methods P8705 Evaluation of Health Programs P8705 Evaluation of Health Programs P8766 Designing Needs Assessments in Public Health (2)

a b

Semester planned

Semester taken

Grade

Credits earned

Examples of Social Topics in GH P6723 Women & AIDS P8709 Seminar in Sexuality, Gender, Health & Human Rights P8721 Promoting Sexual Health P8760 Adv. Seminar Medical Anthropology

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Global Health Track Sample Full-Time Schedule 2008-2009

(Note: Courses are not offered in the same semester each year)

Semester 1 (Fall) P6400 P6103 Principles of Epidemiology Introduction to Biostatistical Methods Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences Intro to Global Health 3 3 P6300 P6530 Semester 2 (Spring) Environmental Sciences Issues and Approaches in Health Policy and Management SMS Research Methods Priorities in Global Health 3 3

P6700 P6810

3 3

P8774 P8777 P8785 P6811

3 3

P8880

Professional Development in Global Health SMS Global Health Skills Area Course 1

.5

P8881

Pre-Practicum Seminar

.5

3

SMS Global Health Skills Area Course 2

3

15.5 Summer Semester: P8819 Global Health 6-month Practicum (0) * P8790 P8707 Semester 3 (Fall) Field Practicum Tutorial Master's Thesis Proposal 1 0 P8820 P8885 Semester 4 (Spring) Advanced Topics in Global Health Post-Practicum Seminar Social Topics in Global Health Elective SMS Elective General Elective Advanced Program/Research Design Seminar Master's Thesis

15.5

2 1 3 3 3 1 0 13

P8708 1

* Students are not required to register for P8819 in the summer but may do so for financial aid.

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Masters Dual Degree Programs

The Mailman School of Public Health offers a variety of formal and informal cooperative educational programs with other units and departments of the University. Students wishing to enter dual degree programs must submit separate applications to each school. These applications should indicate that the student wishes to be a dual degree candidate. The total number of credits required for the dual degree program varies. Listed below are the schools participating in the dual degree program. Please check the bulletins and Student Services offices of the individual schools for more information. · · · · · · · · · Business School (MBA/MPH) Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation (MS/MPH) School of Dental and Oral Surgery (DDS/MPH) College of Physicians and Surgeons (MD/MPH) School of Social Work (MSW/MPH) School of Nursing (MS/MPH) Program in Occupational Therapy (MS/MPH) Master of International Affairs Program (MIA/MPH) Graduate Program in Public Policy and Administration (MA/MPH)

Unfortunately, there is little written information to guide students enrolled in dual degree master's programs. Therefore, it is extremely important that these students seek guidance from the program coordinators and academic advisors in both programs and the Director of Student Services in the Mailman School of Public Health. Students must be careful to both register for the correct number of credits in each school and to complete all program requirements for each school. Sometimes this is tricky because most courses are not offered every semester and because some courses must be taken in sequence. Dual degree students must consult with and get approval from Andrea Constancio before registration. Master's thesis and practicum experiences usually can be coordinated between the two programs so that they may be used to satisfy requirements for both programs. Students must obtain prior approval for the thesis and practicum from both schools in order to assure fulfillment of the requirements. Although the above stresses the difficulties in participating in a dual master's program, students in these programs usually find great fulfillment in pursuing both interests concurrently and are well-prepared to seek professional positions after graduation. Program planning information, dual degree guidelines, and sample schedules for MPH/MSW students are also included on the following pages.

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Dual Degree Guidelines

MPH/MD and MPH/DDS As of Fall 1999- 35 points Public Health courses required; pay for 30 through Public Health, balance through P&S. Concurrent or earlier MD or DDS. MPH/MSN 30 points Public Health = 2 terms minimum 30 points School of Nursing = 2 terms minimum 15 points either school - 1 term Total 75 points required MPH/MSOT - Professional 38 points Public Health 52 points Occupational Therapy Total 90 points required MPH/MSOT - Post-Professional 40 points Public Health 32 points Occupational Therapy Total 72 points required MPH/MSW 45 points Public Health 45 points Social Work Total 90 points required

- Core courses required. - Exempt from Medical Background exam.

- Core courses required. - Practicum required. - Exempt from Medical Background exam. - SMS require Masters Essay. - Core courses required. - Practicum required. - Exempt from Medical Background exam. - SMS require Masters Essay. - Core courses required. - Practicum required. - Exempt from Medical Background exam. - SMS require Masters Essay - Core courses required. SW 2nd year field placement can be integrated with PH practicum with advance planning and approval by SW and SMS field/practicum coordinators. - Medical Background exam required. - SMS require Masters Essay or Project. - Core courses required. - UP studio may replace PH practicum. - UP thesis may replace PH essay for SMS and EPI. - Medical Background exam required. - Core courses required. - Practicum requirement can be met through either school. - SMS require Masters Essay. - 15 points of core courses required. - MPA internship may meet PH practicum requirement. - SMS require Masters Essay. - Medical Background exam required.

MPH/MSUP 35 points Public Health 45 points Urban Planning Total 80 points required MPH/MIA 45 points Public Health 30 points International Affairs Total 75 points required MPH/MPA 30 points Public Health 45 points Public Administration Total 75 points required

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Sample Schedules for MPH/MSW Students

Dual Degree Public Health and Social Work Program - Sample 1

Fall 1st Year (Registered at Social Work): 13.5 credits Seminar in Professional Identity Foundations of Social Work Practice Human Behavior and the Social Environment A Social Welfare Policy Field Instruction Spring 1st Year (Registered at Social Work): 16 Credits Human Behavior and the Social Environment B Direct Practice ­ 3 credits Advocacy in Social Work Practice ­ 3 credits Field Instruction ­ 4 credits Environmental Health (MSPH core course) Summer 1st Year (Registered at Public Health): 3 Credits Biostatistics (MSPH core course) Fall, 2nd Year,(Registered at Public Health): 15 Credits Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences (MSPH core course) Epidemiology (MSPH core course) Theories That Health Promotion Needs Assessment in Public Health SMS Elective Spring, 2nd Year (Registered at Public Health): 16 Credits Health Policy (MSPH core course) Advanced Intervention Design Evaluation of Health Programs SMS Research Methods HP Elective Summer 2nd Year (Registered at Social Work,) 3 Credits General Elective Fall, 3rd Year (Registered at Social Work): 12/13 Credits Advanced Clinical Practice Field Placement Evaluation of Health Programs HP Research Methods Elective Master's Thesis Proposal (1st of a 2 semester course)** Spring, 3rd Year (Registered at Public Health) 10 Credits Advanced Clinical Practice ­ 3 credits Field Placement ­ 4 credits Social Work Elective­ 3 credits Master's Thesis (2nd of a 2 semester course)** Total Credits CUSSW Credit 1.5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 0 3 4 3 43.5 0 45 MSPH Credit

**Effective Fall 2006, Master's Thesis is a two semester 0-credit course. See sample 2 for alternate plan.

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Dual Degree Public Health and Social Work Program ­ Sample 2

Fall 1st Year (Registered at Social Work): 13.5 credits Seminar in Professional Identity Foundations of Social Work Practice Human Behavior and the Social Environment A Social Welfare Policy Field Instruction Spring 1st Year (Registered at Social Work): 16 Credits Human Behavior and the Social Environment B Direct Practice ­ 3 credits Advocacy in Social Work Practice ­ 3 credits Field Instruction ­ 4 credits Health Policy (MSPH core course) Fall, 2nd Year (Registered at Public Health): 15 Credits Epidemiology (MSPH core course) Biostatistics (MSPH core course) Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences (MSPH core course) Theories That Promote Health Needs Assessment in Public Health Spring, 2nd Year (Registered at Public Health): 16 Credits Environmental Health (MSPH core course)* Advanced Intervention Design SMS Research Methods Health Promotion Elective Summer 2nd Year (Registered at Social Work,) 2/3 Credits General Track Elective Fall, 3rd Year (Registered at Social Work): 13 Credits Advanced Clinical Practice Field Placement HP Research Methods Elective Evaluation of Health Programs Health Promotion Elective Spring, 3rd Year (Registered at Public Health) 13 Credits Advanced Clinical Practice Field Placement Social Work Elective SMS Elective Master's Thesis (P8708)*** Total Credits CUSSW Credit 1.5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 43.5 3 0 45 MSPH Credit

*** Dual Degree students may register for SMS Thesis Proposal (P8707) and SMS Master's Thesis (P8708) (sample 1), or they may register for one semester only, SMS Master's Thesis (P8708); Thesis Proposal required at time of registration.

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Practicum Introduction

All MPH students in accredited schools of public health throughout the United States must complete "a planned, supervised and evaluated practice experience (as part of their) public health professional degree program."* For the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, the length of time for this practice experience, or practicum, is required to be equivalent to one full term semester. Within the Department of Sociomedical Sciences (SMS), this means an MPH student must devote a minimum of 280 hours to her/his practicum. For students who are working full-time in the field of public health, in an area related to their program track, the practicum time requirement is decreased to 140 hours. The practicum should provide the student the opportunity to apply the concepts and methods of social science and public health learned in the classroom to actual public health problems. During the practicum, a student works under the guidance of a supervisor (Practicum Preceptor) who agrees to orient, supervise, and evaluate the work of the student. In general, stipends or pay for work done during the student practicum are unusual. However, the Department of SMS encourages students to seek sources of funding through work-study, grants, and other venues. The settings of student practica vary by track. The content of the practica within each track is flexible to meet each student's interests, educational needs, professional objectives, and career goals. However, in all cases the practicum experience must be consistent with the academic goals and objectives of the Department of SMS in general and the academic program for each track in particular. Lourdes Hernández-Cordero, DrPH ([email protected]) is the Practicum Director.

General Objectives

There are four components to the MPH experience: coursework, advisement, practicum and the Masters Integrative Project (MIP or thesis). Each component contributes to the student's professional development. The practicum provides a special opportunity for learning about the application of topics discussed in class as well as developing a positive work ethic. The practicum will allow the student to: · · · · · · · apply classroom knowledge in an in-vivo setting; experience the nature of work in his/her specialized area of training; carry out a project useful to an organization or group that provides the opportunity to develop/refine professional public health skills; gain confidence, competence, and satisfaction in completing individual projects and developing insight into personal skills and attributes; learn additional skills; meet regularly with a qualified Practicum Preceptor who can both guide the student's experience in a specific area of interest and serve as a role model and/or mentor; attend meetings and seminars to learn about the work of other relevant organizational/project

* Accreditation Criteria, Graduate Schools of Public Health, Council on Education for Public Health amended June 2005, pg. 13.

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· · ·

personnel; explore opportunities for Masters Integrative Project (MIP or thesis) topics based upon the needs of the organization or project and individual interests (Note: It is encouraged, but not mandatory that the practicum serve as the basis of the MIP); obtain job references from public health professionals who can speak to the student's abilities in an applied context; and obtain a position with the organization or group when relevant openings are available upon graduation.

Roles and Responsibilities

The agency, program, project or individual that ultimately agrees to accept a student for a practicum experience also assumes an educational role. One person, a Practicum Preceptor, must agree to help arrange the student's experience and define activities that will help meet the objectives of both the student and of the agency/project. The practicum, however, is not meant to burden the preceptor with extensive supervisory demands. The roles and responsibilities for students and preceptors are outlined below: Preceptor · Define scope of the practicum with student; · Determine the need for special training, certifications (HIPAA, etc.); · Discuss and develop a schedule with the student; · Schedule regular meetings to chart development and progress; · Discuss maintenance of data/record notebook, if applicable; · Include student in meetings or seminars related to the practicum area; · Clarify to whom student should report if preceptor is not available; · Review and sign the Practicum Agreement Form before the practicum start date; · Complete an evaluation form at the end of the practicum. Student · Ask for specific background reading or other information prior to meeting with preceptor; · Discuss the scope of the practicum; · Clarify with preceptor whether work will be independent or in collaboration with others; · Clarify to whom she/he should report if preceptor is not available; · Discuss how time should be allocated and hours recorded; · Comply with time commitments whether or not preceptor is on site; · Discuss her/his work schedule with preceptor on a regular basis; · Document her/his involvement in the project (i.e. project activities, data collection, meeting minutes) in a data/record notebook if applicable; · Complete any special training as required.

Prior to the Practicum The first step to a successful practicum is: reading the handbook! Many questions students usually have are answered here. Orientation meetings are held every semester for students planning their practicum ­ a morning session and an evening session. Students will receive an email on their Columbia account regarding the time and place once it is scheduled.

48

When selecting a practicum, students should consider the following: their enrollment status (part-time or full-time), expected graduation date, departmental track, course load, financial situation (i.e. need for paid practicum) and the nature of the proposed practicum. Practica projects can be carried out over a semester, a year (e.g. 7 hours/week x 40 weeks = 280 hours) or during the summer (e.g. 35 hours/week x 8 = 280 hours), depending on the student's schedule and the needs of the sponsoring organization. There are many ways to find about prospective Practicum steps at a glance: practica. Students may contact a faculty member or an organization they are interested to work with 1) Read the handbook. directly. Students can search Mailman eRecruiting 2) Attend an orientation meeting. (http://mailman.erecruiting.com/er/security/login.jsp), 3) Select a practicum project. the Career Services search engine, for paid and 4) Discuss plans with your advisor. unpaid internships and should also review the Friday 5) Submit a Practicum Agreement Form. OCS Announcements (distributed by Career Services 6) Commence practicum. via listserv each Friday during the academic year) for 7) Notify us of practicum completion. featured internship opportunities. Finally, students 8) Submit a Summary Report can ­ and should ­ discuss options with their advisor 9) Evaluate your experience. or the practicum director (by appointment or during orientation meetings). Occasionally, the email announcements of available practica are sent to the student listserv. Students should consider discussing the timing and general goals and objectives for his/her practicum with his/her Faculty Advisor during their first semester. Finally, students can ­ and should ­ discuss options with their advisor or the practicum director (by appointment or during orientation meetings). Once the practicum agency and project have been identified and agreed upon, it is the student's responsibility to submit the Practicum Agreement Form (PAF) prior to the practicum start date. The specific educational objectives and activities of the practicum should reflect as many of the core competencies of each track as possible. These objectives should be initially outlined by the student with input from the Practicum Preceptor in the (PAF). Students are encouraged to provide their Preceptor with copies of the track-specific evaluation criteria when planning the practicum to ensure that the Preceptor understands his or her responsibilities. The student must obtain a written approval (signatures on the PAF) on the nature, location, specific objectives and activities of the practicum from 1) his/her Preceptor, and 2) Faculty Advisor. The Practicum Director will defer to the Academic Advisor's judgment, since she/he will know the student's needs better. Thereafter, the student delivers the original signed Practicum Agreement form to the Academic Program Coordinator for processing (Andrea Constancio's mailbox is on the 5th floor of the Allan Rosenfield building). Under special circumstances, such as if the practicum placement is outside of the New York City area, a faxed copy or email directly from the preceptor or academic advisor can serve in lieu of an original copy of the PAF. During the Practicum Once a student commences her/his practicum, the Practicum Preceptor coordinates and supervises the student's work and takes responsibility for seeing that the specific objectives and activities agreed upon in the Practicum Agreement are being carried out according to schedule.

49

The Preceptor agrees to orient the student to the agency and project and to meet with the student on a weekly basis to monitor progress. During the practicum, the student is responsible for performing according to the finalized, approved Practicum Agreement and for fulfilling the usual responsibilities of punctuality, accountability, and appropriate deportment and initiative expected of all public health professionals. The first couple of weeks of the student's practicum should be considered a probationary period. During this time, the Practicum Director will e-mail the Preceptor a thank you letter confirming the placement and to inquire about how things are progressing. If there are any problems or concerns the Practicum Director is available to meet with the student and/or the student's Preceptor. If for any reason the student or Preceptor is unable to fulfill his or her responsibilities according to the finalized, approved Practicum Agreement, plans and activities for the practicum may be changed or modified with the approval of the Faculty Advisor, the Practicum Director, and the Practicum Preceptor. Following the Practicum The student should notify Toya Smith (ts2439), Administrative Assistant, of practicum completion and copy in the correspondence the Practicum Director (Lourdes HernándezCordero, ljh19). This is the student's responsibility. Students should not wait until the period of review of graduation requirements. A Summary Report will be due upon completion of the practicum. See Figure 4 for the Summary Report form. The summary should not exceed two pages. When applicable ­ and with the authorization of the preceptor ­ students should submit a sample of any products she/he helped develop (i.e. survey instrument, evaluation plan, policy brief, curriculum). All Summary Reports will be made available to future students as they seek examples of practica projects. At the end of the student's practicum, the Practicum Preceptor and the student must complete the online Preceptor and Students Evaluation Forms. Toya will forward an email to the Practicum Preceptor and student with the web address and instructions for completing the online evaluation form. The evaluations must be completed by both the Preceptor and the student within two weeks of the end of the practicum. Once both evaluations have been completed online and the Summary Report has been submitted the student has fulfilled the Practicum requirement. The Academic Program Coordinator will notify the Office of Student Affairs for graduation clearance. A sample confirmation letter is provided on the following the pages.

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Figure 1. Example of Practicum Agreement Form

Department of Sociomedical Sciences PRACTICUM AGREEMENT This form is to be filled out by the Practicum Preceptor and student together. It must be completed, appropriately signed and hand delivered to the Practicum Coordinator prior to the start of the practicum. Any time spent working on a practicum prior to receiving

the approval from the Practicum Director will not be counted toward the 280 hours required by the department.

Once the practicum is completed and the Student and Preceptor Evaluation Forms have been completed online and verified by the MPH Program Coordinator, the Practicum Director will sign off and the MPH Program Coordinator will notify the Office of Student Services that the student has fulfilled the practicum requirement for the Department of Sociomedical Sciences. Student Information Name: Email: SMS Track: Preceptor Information Name & Title: Dr. / Mr. / Ms Email: Telephone: Name of Organization: Address: Practicum Start Date: How will the Preceptor orient, supervise, and evaluate the student? What, specifically, does the Preceptor expect the student to do during his/her practicum? What does the Preceptor expect the student to accomplish by the end of his/her practicum? What does the Preceptor understand the student's time commitment to be during the practicum? What meetings, conferences, and/or seminars (if appropriate) does the Preceptor anticipate the student will attend? Preceptor Signature: Student Signature: Faculty Advisor Signature: Practicum Director Signature: Date: Date: Date: Date: Practicum Finish Date:

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Figure 2. Example of Practicum Thank You Letter to Preceptor

Department of Sociomedical Sciences

Dear Ms. Jones, Thank you for agreeing to provide a Practicum opportunity for Diego Rodriguez, and for your timely and thoughtful completion of the Practicum Agreement form. I am confident that this will be an exciting learning experience for Diego. If, however, either of you should feel that the practicum experience is not proceeding in the way it was originally planned, please do not hesitate to let me know. In the past, preceptors have found it useful to have an idea on the criteria by which students will be evaluated. Hence, I have included a list of the learning objectives for Diego's MPH track in Health Promotion for your reference.

· · · · · · · · · · · ·

Designing a needs (broadly defined) and assets assessment Implementing a needs and assets assessment Analyzing and/or reporting on results from a needs and assets assessment Designing a health promotion program Implementing a health promotion program Evaluating a health promotion program Linking people to needed health related services Convening and/or facilitating groups to promote health Informing people using the media about health issues Mobilizing partnerships to identify and solve health problems Empowering people and/or communities about health issues Student was involved in other activities (please specify): ______________

Best wishes for a productive practicum! If you have any other questions or concerns, please feel free to contact me. Sincerely, Lourdes J. Hernández-Cordero, DrPH Practicum Director 722 W 168th Street, R556 New York, NY 10032

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Figure 3. Example of Practicum Evaluation Letter to Preceptor and Student

Department of Sociomedical Sciences

Dear Ms. Jones and Diego, Congratulations on what we hope has been a successful practicum experience for both of you. We are interested in learning about how the Practicum experience served your organization's needs while providing our students with opportunities to participate in Public Health-related activities. To that end, we ask that both of you complete the online Practicum Evaluation Form. The evaluation consists of three parts. The first part is about the competencies related to Diego's MPH track, Health Promotion. The second part refers to the quality of work performed by Diego. The third part is a set of open-ended questions were you can include any suggestions for how the practicum experience and process could be improved. Kindly click on the links below to access the online evaluation. It will take you approximately 10 minutes to complete this form. When prompted, please indicate that Diego is a student in the Health Promotion MPH track. Your responses will be strictly confidential. For Preceptors: preceptor evaluation link For Students: student evaluation link Thank you again for your assistance. Feel free to contact me if you have additional comments or questions. Sincerely, Lourdes J. Hernández-Cordero, DrPH. Practicum Director 722 W 168th Street, R556 New York, NY 10032

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Figure 4. Example of Practicum Summary Report [INSERT HERE]

Department of Sociomedical Sciences PRACTICUM SUMMARY Instructions Congratulations on completing the Practicum! I hope your practicum experience was useful and fulfilling. You are one step closer to graduation. In order to help us advise other students about what to expect/look for in a Practicum, we would like to hear about your experience. Please provide us with a 1- 2 page summary of the practicum experience. The report may be a narrative and/or include pictures, maps or other visual aids as you deem appropriate. You may use the form included. This document will be available to other students seeking advisement as a reference. Including your personal information is optional. Also, if you are willing to chat with a future student about the experience, please let us know. If you have a final product that you can share (i.e. not confidential) such as a manuscript, presentation, educational material, or newsletter a copy of that document may be submitted instead of this summary page. Student Information (optional) Name: Email (if you want to be contacted by other students): SMS Track: Practicum Site Information Name of Organization: Is this organization/preceptor interested in being a future site for practicum? ____ Y ____N If yes, please provide info below: Name & Title of Preceptor: Dr. / Mr. / Ms Email: Address:

Practicum Summary (Briefly describe the experience in general. You may include activities, tasks performed, challenges, etc.)

54

Figure 5. Example of Practicum Completion Letter to the Office of Student Affairs

Department of Sociomedical Sciences

Lillian Morales Coordinator of Academic Records and Standards Office of Student Affairs 722 W. 168th Street, 10th floor New York, NY 10032 Dear Lillian, Diego Rodriguez has met the practicum requirement. Dr. Hernández-Cordero approved the application after reviewing the Practicum Agreement Form and Student and Preceptor Evaluations. Diego is a student in the Health Promotion Track in the Department of Sociomedical Sciences. Please add this information to her file. If you have any questions, please feel free to email me at [email protected] Thank you.

Sincerely,

Andrea Constancio Academic Program Coordinator

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Preceptor Practicum Evaluation Form

The Preceptor Evaluation is to be completed online. Preceptors will receive information on accessing the online form along with instructions for completing the evaluation. Below is a sample of common questions for all practicum sites. Track specific questions and criteria for evaluation are on the following pages. Section 2: Practicum Quality Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement below. My student had the opportunity to: · · · · · · · · Practice communication skills Interact with people from different cultural backgrounds Take initiative in his/her own learning Practice leadership skills Learn from experience and feedback Reflect on his/her professional capacities and limitations Explore career/specialization choices Develop community collaborations/partnerships

Overall, I would say that my: · · · · · Student had access to me at least once per week Student's roles and responsibilities were clear Student will continue a mentoring relationship with me after his/her practicum concludes Student met his/her educational goals and expectations Student had a practicum that was a worthwhile learning experience

Section 3: Open-ended Questions What skills did you find necessary for your student to have to complete the practicum that he/she did NOT have? How can the Department of Sociomedical Sciences improve the practicum process for Practicum Preceptors?

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Student Practicum Evaluation Form

The Student Practicum Evaluation is to be completed online. Students will receive information on accessing the online form along with instructions for completing the evaluation. Below is a sample of common questions for all practicum sites. Track specific questions and criteria for evaluation are on the following pages. Please describe in about 250 words the project you worked on during your practicum experience. Was your practicum a paid experience: Was your practicum site: Domestic Hourly Stipend Other Not Paid

International

Section 2: Practicum Quality Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement below. My practicum allowed me to: · · · · · · · · Practice my communication skills Interact with people from different cultural backgrounds Take initiative in my own learning Practice leadership skills Learn from experience and feedback Reflect on my professional capacities and limitations Explore career/specialization choices Develop community collaborations/partnerships

Overall, I would say that: · · · · · · · · My experience was well supervised I had access to my preceptor at least once per week My roles and responsibilities were clear The practicum site was within a well-run organization I felt integrated into the atmosphere of the work environment I will continue a mentoring relationship with my preceptor after my practicum concludes My educational goals and expectations were met The practicum was a worthwhile learning experience

Section 3: Open-Ended Questions How did you locate your practicum position? What resources did you find most helpful in planning and obtaining your practicum placement? What did you find least helpful in planning and obtaining your practicum placement? What skills were most applicable to your practicum? In which courses did you learn the skills that YOU listed in the previous question? What skills did you find necessary to have during your practicum that you did not have? In what ways can the practicum experience be improved?

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Will your practicum in any way relate to your Master's Thesis? If your practicum will relate to your Master's Thesis, please describe. How can the Department of Sociomedical Sciences improve the practicum process for students?

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Health Promotion Track Practicum Evaluation Competencies

Student was involved in: · · · · · · · · · · · · Designing a needs (broadly defined) and assets assessment Implementing a needs and assets assessment Analyzing and/or reporting on results from a needs and assets assessment Designing a health promotion program Implementing a health promotion program Evaluating a health promotion program Linking people to needed health related services Convening and/or facilitating groups to promote health Informing people using the media about health issues Mobilizing partnerships to identify and solve health problems Empowering people and/or communities about health issues Student was involved in other activities (please specify): ______________

I believe that my (student's) practicum experience: · · · Helped him/her become more aware of the needs of the community Benefited the community Modified in a positive way his/her attitudes about the community

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Social Science Research Track Practicum Evaluation Competencies

Student was involved in: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Designing a research project Applying for a research grant Designing an informed consent form for a research project Applying for IRB approval for a research project Constructing and/or testing measures for a research project Monitoring progress of a research project Evaluating a research project Designing a database Collecting human subjects or environmental data Utilizing quantitative data collection techniques Utilizing qualitative data collection techniques Monitoring and assuring quality of research data Reviewing research literature Selecting techniques for analyzing quantitative and/or qualitative information Analyzing and interpreting data Utilizing data analytic software Preparing presentations for scientific conferences Preparing journal manuscripts, books, or book chapters Participating in community-based participatory research project Student was involved in other activities (please specify): ______________

I believe that my (student's) practicum experience: · · · · · Helped her/him become more aware of the steps involved in a research project Fostered her/his own independent research ideas Benefited the research team Helped advance public health research and knowledge Helped develop the skills necessary to conduct research

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History and Ethics of Public Health and Medicine Track Practicum Evaluation Competencies

My student was involved in: · · · · · · · Archival research or research using primary sources Analytic historical research of secondary literature related to history Policy related research Policy analysis Policy development Ethical discussions or evaluations My student was involved in other activities (please specify): ______________

I believe that my student's practicum experience: · · · · · Helped him/her integrate history and policy Helped him/her integrate history and ethics Helped him/her integrate history, ethics and policy with the other Public Health core disciplines (epidemiology, biostatistics and health policy) Gave him/her a new perspective on history, policy or ethics Made a unique contribution

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Aging and Public Health Track Practicum Evaluation Competencies

Student was involved in: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Designing a needs and assets assessment of older adults or their communities Implementing a needs and assets assessment of older adults Designing a health related program for older adults Providing health services for older adults in an institutional setting Providing health services for older adults in a community- based setting Evaluating health services for older adults Providing older adults with health information, health systems advocacy, or support in obtaining appropriate services Conducting research on the health of older adults Constructing and testing research or evaluation instruments specific to aging and health Utilizing quantitative data collection techniques for research with older adults Utilizing qualitative information collection techniques for research with older adults Analyzing and interpreting data and information from research with older adults Developing health policy for the aging population Changing health policy for older adults Student was involved in other activities (please specify): ______________

I believe that my (student's) practicum experience: · · · Helped him/her become more aware of the health needs of older adults Modified in a positive way his/her attitudes about older adults Benefited older adults

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Urbanism and the Built Environment Track Practicum Evaluation Competencies

Student was involved in: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Designing a community (broadly defined) needs assessment and/or asset map Implementing a community needs assessment and/or asset map Utilizing GIS to conduct studies linking health data to maps Analyzing GIS data from studies linking health data to maps Identifying cultural, behavioral, social, economic and environmental factors affecting health in cities Identifying and locating stakeholders and gatekeepers in urban communities and social networks Determining psychological, social and cultural factors that influence health in urban settings Analyzing the impact of market forces on urban development and health of urban populations Analyzing population movements that contribute to patterns of development and health Analyzing the effect of transportation systems and links on population migration and health patterns Analyzing the political and social organization of urban areas and their association with health patterns Developing policies that promote health and contribute to the elimination of disease in urban areas Utilizing a range of urban and environmental planning methods Integrating current and past theories and concepts of urban planning and design Collecting and organizing information on urbanism using electronic retrieval sources Identifying changes in research and planning literature in urbanism and health Mobilizing partnerships to identify and solve urban health problems Student was involved in other activities (please specify): ______________

I believe that my (student's) practicum experience: · · · · · Helped him/her become more aware of the needs and assets of urban communities Helped him/her understand the association between patterns of health & disease and the urban environment Contributed to urban and environmental planning initiatives Helped him/her develop skills necessary to conduct spatial analysis and mapping Benefited urban communities

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Sexuality and Health Track Practicum Evaluation Competencies

Student was involved in: · · · · · · · · · Applying basic health sciences, social sciences, ethics and human rights to define public health problems in the field of sexuality Identifying and retrieving current relevant scientific evidence regarding sexuality-related public health issues Collecting, summarizing and interpreting information relevant to a sexual health issue Identifying and applying basic research methods used in the field of sexuality and health Designing strategies to promote sexual health on individual or community levels Implementing strategies to promote sexual health on individual or community levels Evaluating strategies to promote sexual health on individual or community levels Advocating for programs and resources for sexual health promotion Student was involved in other activities (please specify): ______________

I believe that my (student's) practicum experience: · · · Helped him/her become more aware of the sexual health needs of the community Benefited the sexual health status of the community Helped advance research on or knowledge of sexual health issues

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The Master's Thesis Introduction

The Master's Thesis is the capstone requirement of all students in all tracks of the MPH program of the Department of Sociomedical Sciences (SMS). The thesis is intended to reflect the training you have received in the MPH program and demonstrate your ability to design, implement, and present professional work relevant to your major field of interest. Writing the thesis is an essential experience that could further your career development. Employers seek in potential employees with a MPH degree the ability to write articles and reports, and want to see evidence that you can design studies, analyze data, write a needs assessment, and/or design a health program. If you plan to continue your academic studies, developing expertise and demonstrating your ability as a writer are two important skills required of all doctoral candidates in the Department of SMS. A well-written paper is a great asset that you can bring with you to a job interview or include in an application for further study. The thesis ought to demonstrate your ability to think clearly and convey your thoughts effectively and thereby provide an example of your understanding and insight into a substantive area in which you have developed expertise.

Planning your Thesis

Full-time students who plan to complete the degree in 2 years will register for the year-long, 2part course (P8707 and P8708). Dual degree students and students who complete the degree requirements in 3 semesters and plan to graduate in February will register for a 0-credit, onesemester course (P8708). If taking the one semester thesis course, students must have an approved thesis proposal before registering. Students who complete the degree in 2 years need to begin exploring ideas for a thesis during their 2nd semester. If you plan to complete the degree requirements in 2 years, you must have a thesis sponsor by the beginning of the Fall semester of your second year, when you will register for the thesis course. Ideally, students should use the practicum experience as a basis for the thesis. Selection and Role of the Thesis Sponsor Toward the end of your first year (for students completing the degree in 2 years) you should identify a general thesis topic and a member of the SMS faculty as a potential thesis sponsor. The role of your thesis sponsor is to provide close guidance and feedback to you throughout the writing of your thesis. It is your responsibility to approach a faculty member and get her/his agreement to serve as a thesis sponsor. A list of eligible faculty members and their research topics is printed in the appendix to this Handbook. You may need to approach more than one faculty member if the first one or two you approach cannot serve as your sponsor (e.g., because they are already

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working as sponsors of other students' theses). In rare cases you may wish to consult and otherwise involve other faculty or non-faculty individuals as advisors for your project. Including other advisors in the thesis process should be done with the permission of the thesis sponsor. However, only the faculty designated as thesis sponsor is responsible for approving the proposal and grading the final project. You should schedule, as soon as possible, ongoing meetings with your thesis sponsor, where you would obtain regular feedback during the process of preparing your thesis. This is important because you and/or your sponsor may have planned trips out of the city. It is your responsibility, not your thesis sponsor's to ensure that a sufficient number of sessions are scheduled. It is also recommended that you form a study group with one or more other students and use the study group format to ensure that you are making progress toward finishing your thesis on time. Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval of the Thesis All research with human subjects must be submitted to the IRB for review with no exception. This includes applications for exemption. An IRB review may involve an expedited review or an exemption. A full review is rarely required. An expedited review can take several months to conclude. An exemption follows an administrative review by the IRB. Only the IRB, following a review of the IRB protocol, may grant an exemption. That is, neither the faculty member with whom you are working nor you can make the determination that your project is exempt. If you believe that your project should be exempt, you must apply to ask the IRB for an exemption. A full description of the projects that require IRB review is available on the IRB web page (see below, Submission of IRB Protocols). The following are some examples of the types of theses that require review and approval by the Columbia IRB: · · · · Theses that involve the collection and analysis of data from human subjects need to be submitted for review to the IRB before any data are collected. Theses that involve the collection or analysis of data from human subjects as part of an already approved IRB study. Theses that involve analysis of data from human subjects that was already collected and approved by another institution's IRB Protocols for research activities that involve only the analysis of de-identified data within a publicly available dataset need not be submitted to the IRB for review or for a determination that the project falls into an "exempt" category.

An IRB protocol must have a Principal Investigator (PI). The Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center IRB does not permit students to be listed as the PI on an IRB protocol. Theses that are submitted to the IRB need to be submitted with the Columbia University faculty member who is the Sponsor listed as the PI on the IRB protocol. The students should be listed as an Investigator. In the protocol, the project should be identified as thesis research that you are conducting under faculty mentorship.

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The IRB review process can be complex and lengthy, so any theses that may require IRB approval should be started as soon as possible. If you seek to work on a thesis project that may require an application to the IRB, you should discuss your project with your thesis sponsor before beginning the process and obtain her/his agreement to serve as the PI on your project. All personnel listed on the protocol (including students) need to have passed the Good Clinical Practices (GPC) exam and the Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act Training Course (HIPPA) exam (see the MPH Handbook for information about these exams). Submission of IRB protocols Submission of IRB protocols and correspondence with the IRB is conducted on-line using RASCAL (see https://www.rascal.columbia.edu/). At the RASCAL website, click on "Compliance" and then click on "Human Subjects (IRB)," "HIPAA," or "Consent Forms" as applicable. Under "Human Subjects Protocols" you can also click on "Helpful Information," a comprehensive archive of information and frequently asked questions.

The Thesis Course

All MPH students are required to register for their thesis as a year-long, 2-part course, P8707 and P8708 for 0 credits each semester. Students completing their degree in 3 semesters and dual degree students may take the thesis course in one semester only, P8708 for 0 credits. The course aims to lead students through the process of writing the thesis: from developing ideas and writing the thesis proposal (due by the end of P8707) to completing the thesis (due at the end of P8708). The course is comprised of 3 elements: Independent work by the student, meetings between the student and her/his thesis sponsor, and participation in thesis seminars together with other students. SMS Thesis Proposal (P8707) Fall Semester In the Fall of their second year of matriculation, students will register for P8707, a 0-credit course entitled SMS Thesis Proposal (P8707). The aim of the work in this semester is to complete a thesis proposal. At the end of the semester the student should submit a hard copy of the proposal, approved and signed by the thesis sponsor, to the Academic Program Coordinator. The Academic Program Coordinator will submit a Pass grade for students who have fulfilled this requirement. If a proposal has not been approved by the end of the semester, the student will receive an incomplete grade (IN). Students may get an IN grade only with written permission of the thesis sponsor. Permission must be sent to the Academic Program Coordinator by the last day of classes. If the student has not completed the work, and the IN grade has not been changed to a Pass grade by the beginning of the Spring semester, the students will not be eligible to register for P8708 in the Spring semester and her/his graduation will be delayed. SMS Master's Thesis (P8708) Spring Semester In the Spring, students will register for SMS Master's Thesis (P8708), a 0-credit course. Successful completion of P8707 is a pre-requisite for registering for P8708. The aim of the work in this semester is to complete the thesis. Upon completion, at the end of the Spring semester, the student will receive a letter grade for P8708.

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Dual Degree students and students who expect to complete their degree requirements in three semesters may enroll in this one-semester 0-credit course in the fall or spring semesters, without the completion of the pre-requisite P8707. However, in this course, students must have an approved thesis proposal before registering for the course. Submission of Thesis Proposal A hard copy of the thesis proposal, signed by the thesis sponsor must be submitted to the Academic Program Coordinator by the date specified in the Courseworks page for the P8707 course. Depositing the Complete Thesis After the thesis sponsor has approved the final version of the manuscript, the student will deposit the thesis with her/his thesis sponsor and the Academic Program Coordinator for grading. If the approved thesis is not submitted on time, the students will receive an incomplete and his/her graduation will be delayed. The front page of the thesis must include the title of the thesis, the type of thesis, the student's track, and the student's and the thesis sponsor's names. A second title page, which will be submitted to a blind reviewer (see Grading, below), must include the title of the thesis, the type of thesis, the student's track. It must not include the name of the student and the thesis sponsor. Watch for important deadline for submission of thesis in the Courseworks page for the thesis course. Grading of the Thesis Project The final version of the thesis will be graded by the thesis sponsor and a faculty reviewer blind to the identity of the student and his/her sponsor. The Academic Program Coordinator will assign the thesis to a reviewer from among the SMS faculty and request an independent review and grade for the thesis. At the same time the thesis sponsor will read and grade the final version of the thesis. If there is a discrepancy between the grades a third reviewer will grade the thesis and the final grade will be agreed upon by consensus of faculty members. The Academic Program Coordinator is responsible for entering the students' final grades in the students' academic record. Both the thesis sponsor and the blind reviewer will grade the thesis based on the following criteria: How well defined is the topic of discussion/research problem/theoretical issue?; How well-developed and appropriate are the theoretical/conceptual frameworks?; How welldeveloped is the literature review (i.e., are the relevant sources on the topic cited and discussed)?; How well executed and presented are the data (when relevant)?; How wellsupported/convincing are the discussion points, inferences and conclusions?; How wellorganized, well written, and readable is the thesis? Postponement of Graduation A student who did not complete the thesis proposal by the end of P8707, or did not submit

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her/his final thesis on time, will have her/his graduation postponed. The Office of Students Affairs (OSA) requires that a student who did not graduate as planned will re-apply for a new graduation date only after all degree requirements have been fulfilled. Please consult the OSA for application deadline.

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Writing the Thesis Proposal

During the first semester you will work toward preparing a written thesis proposal. Your thesis proposal should consist of the following: 1. Cover page. The title of your thesis, the type of thesis (e.g., literature review), your name, your SMS track, your projected date of graduation, and the name and signature of your thesis sponsor (the signature is required to indicate that the Sponsor has approved the final proposal). (See example on page 71). 2. Description of project. Limited to 2-3 pages. Incorporates the following elements: a. Statement of the problem: A general statement of the issue to be addressed, what is the topic of the thesis? b. Background and significance: Briefly sketch the basis for the proposal, the existing knowledge on the topic, the theoretical framework, and the importance of the project for public health in general and your area of specialization in particular. c. Specific aims: State concisely and realistically what the proposed project is intended to accomplish. 3. Project plan: Provide a brief description of the proposed project, target population(s) or sample(s) to be used, specific theory(s) to be applied, program components (if applicable), proposed methods, and data analysis plan (if you plan on using data).

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Figure 5. Example of Cover Page for Thesis Proposal

Master's Thesis Proposal

Gender Nonconformity, Sexual Orientation and Discrimination: Exploring the connections through the Project Stride Study Thesis Type: Research Report

Allegra Gordon Sexuality & Health Track Dept. of Sociomedical Sciences Expected Graduation: February 2006

{Sponsor's Signature} ______________________________________ Ilan H. Meyer, Ph.D. Sponsor

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Writing the Thesis*

The thesis may be in one of the following formats: · · · · · A review article A research proposal A research report An evaluation proposal An intervention prosposal

The following are general guidelines. Please see specific comments and tips below for each of the thesis formats. The thesis should be written in scientific style that is consistent with the American Psychological Association's Publication Manual (5th Edition) or the AMA Manual of Style. Consult with your thesis sponsor regarding the preferred style. For writing research papers see, for example, Booth, W.C., Colomb, G.G., & Williams, J.M. (1995). The Craft of Research. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. An excellent resource of review articles is the Handbook of Research Synthesis by H. Cooper & L. Hedges (eds.), (1994). New York: Russell Sage Foundation. See also the Annual Review of Public Health (http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/toc/publhealth/). In writing, think about your audience. An effective essay is one that argues a point. Imagine that you are arguing your point to a class, to me, or to friends. Write in a formal (social science) style, but write clearly. Use simple language. Avoid jargon, fancy words, and florid styles. Use terms consistently. In a review article, you must be very economical. Even if you have many interesting ideas, concentrate on one or two major themes. Introduce the theme or themes early on, preferably in the first paragraph (e.g., "In this essay I will argue that..."). Use a title and headings to help your reader move along through your essay. These will make it clearer when you move to the next step of your argument, or from one topic to another. Often, the most important part of the writing process is in the editing stage. You are unlikely to come up with a clear structure on your first draft. Allow yourself the freedom to write unreservedly, but then edit your work closely. Even if you didn't start out with a clear structure,

* Contributors: Miguel Muñoz-Laboy jointly conceived of the thesis Guidelines, conducted the research and networking required to compile this document. Victoria Raveis wrote the section on Institutional Review Board Approval. Cheryl Merzel and Marita Murrman wrote the evaluation plan for the section on the Health Program. Ilan Meyer wrote the research report and consulted on tips for writing essays, the evaluation criteria, and provided overall guidance to the assembled team towards the successful completion of this document. Mary Northridge and Ilan Meyer provided final review and editing of the guidelines and evaluation advice.

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outline your essay after it is written. This also provides an opportunity for you to add headings if you didn't start out with them! Make sure your arguments are built logically and coherently. Careful editing will help you to see where you drift from a main argument, or where a second argument needs an introduction. Don't hesitate to remove passages if they distract from the main theme(s) of your essay. Even if these extrinsic arguments are interesting, it is better to be coherent and stay on topic. You may expand on such passages in another essay or place them in a footnote. Provide proof for your statements and arguments. Imagine your readers are a jury in a court of law. You have to convince us! Why should we agree with what you say? What is your reasoning? Where is your evidence? In the social sciences, we use and cite sources of both ideas and facts. But remember, evidence may be of mixed validity ­ use it critically! Don't just say, for example, "youths have unsafe sex because of low self-esteem." Be clear when you are mentioning this as a fact based upon research evidence by citing the source of the information. If instead you are proposing this as a hypothesis, let your readers know. If the hypothesis is someone else's, cite the source. Furthermore, you will help the reader assess the evidence you provide by qualifying it. Is there overwhelming evidence for this assertion, or is it merely suggested by one research project? Is the evidence convincing to you? It is more than all right if you don't know the answer to everything. Raise questions. Discuss problems. Draw conclusions and take sides. Your review article should reflect your own thinking. Take care not to be simplistic or overzealous. Complex problems often have complex, somewhat conflicting, or even bewildering conclusions. This makes them interesting.

References

References are critical to a review article. Use the reference style consistent with the writing style of the thesis (APA or Medical), see above.

Notes

Citations: Make sure that you properly cite the sources of information that you use throughout your proposal. When citing in the text, use the last name of the author and the year of publication (e.g., Markel, 1995) or, if there are more than two authors, use "et al." (e.g., Markel et al., 1996). Figures and Tables: If you have figures and tables, include them together after the references section, but refer to them in the text per se (e.g., see Figure 3). Appendices such as questionnaires, scales, interview schedules, maps, and photographs, should be included after the reference section. There is no limit on the number of appendices or the number of pages in the appendices. Appendices are not required as part of your proposal.

NOTE: All written submissions should follow this format: Use white paper and black ink only. Double space. 73

1" margins all around text on each page. Include page numbers. Do not use tiny fonts! (Use 12 pt Times New Roman or 11 pt Arial)

1. Writing a Review Article Overview

A review article consists of selecting a problem, reviewing what is currently known in the scientific literature, and building an argument that will lead to a set of suggestions and recommendations. Review articles typically fall into one of the following categories: · · · · Theoretical reviews focus on the theoretical underpinnings and frameworks around a particular issue, develop an argument that constructively critiques current thinking, and propose alternative ways or frameworks for analyzing the issue. Methodological reviews focus on a particular method or methodology for research, evaluation, or intervention on a specific research problem, discuss the strengths and limitations of the method, and offer a critique and suggestions for future work. Research reviews focus on scanning findings from research on a particular issue, summarizing findings (for example, using meta-analysis), analyzing trends discovered in the summary, and suggesting new research directions in the field. Policy reviews focus on analyzing the impact of a specific policy or set of policies in certain populations, and suggesting arenas for advocacy and points of intervention.

The structure of a review article will depend in part upon the content of the material that you collected for it. In other words, its organization depends on the ways that you want to build your argument. In general, however, your review article should contain at least the following components:

Abstract

· · Content: The abstract of your proposal is a concise summary of your research problem, objectives, and research design. It is the last thing that you should write and the first thing that you should present. Approximate Length: Half a page.

Introduction

Content: Introduce the central issue or topic of your argument, state the significance of the issue or topic, and present an overview of the overall manuscript.

Argument/Subtopics

Divide the second part of your essay into the different subtopics that will allow you to build the argument that you are trying to articulate in your paper. Here you need to be strategic and

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creative in efficiently conveying the elements of your argument. Subheadings are very useful in delineating the different subtopics. You may want to elaborate a progression in your argument that starts from the basic points and moves through to the more elaborated ones.

Discussion/Final Concluding Remarks

In the concluding part of your argument, you ought to summarize the primary points of your general thesis, advance any new directions, and provide recommendations or suggest approaches you have come up with after analyzing this body of information.

Literature Cited

Use the reference style consistent with the writing style of the thesis (APA or Medical).

2. Developing a Research Proposal Overview

Writing a research proposal consists of developing a set of arguments that illustrate the public health relevance at the theoretical and/or programmatic level of the specific topic of investigation, and presenting a convincing methodology to efficiently investigate the research problem. This type of research proposal may be designed from multiple methodological perspectives, including but not limited to quantitative studies such as surveys and secondary data analysis, historical studies such as those using archival data, and ethnographic and other types of qualitative studies. There is no single formula for writing a proposal that will assure approval and subsequent funding. Nonetheless, there are general tips that may assist you and targeted resources that are available to guide you in writing proposals. The Social Science Research Council has an online publication entitled, "Art of Writing Proposals" by Adam Przeworski and Frank Salomon, which is available electronically at http://www.ssrc.org/fellowships/art_of_writing_proposals.page. The "Quick Guide for Grant Applications" by the National Institutes of Health also offers specific tips on writing the different sections of a research proposal for funding at this government agency (see http://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/extra/extdocs/gntapp.htm#6).

The Structure of a Research Proposal

Research proposals for the thesis are divided into three main components, namely: the abstract, the research protocol, and the references.

Abstract

· Content: The abstract of your proposal is a concise summary of your research problem, objectives, and research design. It is the last thing that you should write and the first thing

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·

that you should present. Approximate Length: Half a page.

Research Protocol

Section 1: Specific Aims · Content: In this section, you should describe: the research problem, the overall purpose of the study; the specific objectives of the study (i.e., what you explicitly want to investigate), the hypotheses (if applicable), and the implications of the study. For example, an excerpt from an on-going study at the National Institute for Child Health and Development is provided below: Research Problem Understanding the impact of social inequalities on health has become a public health priority in the new millennium. Social, political, and economic factors now are acknowledged to be "fundamental causes" of disease that affect behaviors, beliefs, and biology. Throughout industrialized countries, lower socioeconomic status (SES) has been clearly linked to poorer health. Additionally, SES gradients in adolescent health have been documented in both the United States and Europe. The goal of the study is to investigate the population-level impact of SES on adolescent health in the United States. That is, we seek to determine the population attributable risk (PAR) for lower education and lower household income on adolescents' physical and mental health. We hypothesize that lower household income will have substantial population-level effects on two major public health problems of youth: depression and obesity.

Source: Goodman, E., Slap, G. & Huang, B. (2003). The public health impact of socioeconomic status on adolescent depression and obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 93 (11): 1844-1850.

Overall Purpose Specific Objective Hypothesis

·

Approximate length: 1 page.

Section 2: Background and Significance · Content: This section provides a literature review. Here the goal is to present: 1) a detailed description of the research problem, including the magnitude, scope, and significance of the research problem that you have elected to address; 2) the key findings in the scientific literature regarding your research problem; 3) how your study will contribute to the existing knowledge gained from prior findings; and 4) the theoretical perspective that your study is guided by (e.g., social learning theory, social constructionism) and your reason for selecting it. Remember to be concise. Approximate Length: 6 pages.

·

Section 3: Preliminary Work (Optional) · Content: In this section, you should describe the findings from prior studies that you have

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·

conducted or have been involved with. Do not repeat findings mentioned in the prior section. This section allows you to argue why you and/or your team will be capable of conducting the proposed study. Since your research experience may be limited, we suggest keeping this section particularly short, or do not include it at all if it does not make sense to do so. Approximate Length: 2 pages.

Section 4: Research Design · Content: This is the part of the proposal where you need to be the most creative. After you select a specific research problem, you need to decide upon the most effective design for investigating it. Therefore, you need to determine which of the following sub-sections to include and the approximate length of each: o Overview of Research Design: Briefly describe the overall approach of your study. If it has phases, describe these, too (e.g., household survey of clients of the Visiting Nurse Services of New York). o Source(s) of Data: Depending upon the type of study that you are designing, you should include as many of the following sub-sections as necessary: o Sample: In writing this sub-section, try to answer the following questions: What is the general study population from which you are planning to draw your sample? Who are you selecting to participate in your study? Who is not eligible? In other words, what are the inclusion and exclusion criteria for your study? What are the reasons for your selection criteria? How many people do you plan to include in the study? What are the reasons for your sample size? How much power does your study have to detect an effect? What are your estimates of participant attrition? How do you plan to recruit research participants? Be very specific. For example, Latina women between the ages of 60 and 75 who reside in upper Manhattan, New York City will be recruited. o Archival Materials: In writing this sub-section, try to answer the following questions: Which archives do plan to visit? What are your reasons for selecting these archives? What type of materials will be included as part of the study? Which materials will be excluded? o Secondary Data Sets: In writing this sub-section, try to answer the following questions: What is the data set that you have selected for your research? How were the data collected for the selected data set? What are the benefits and limitations of the data set? o Research Setting: Describe in detail the geographical and/or social community that you have selected for your study, and the reasons for your selection. o Data Collection Method(s): Present a general overview of the method(s) you selected, your reasons for selecting it, and how this is going to be implemented in your data collection. If your research proposal only concentrates on secondary data analysis, you should focus this section on the types of measures that you are going to use in your analysis. o Analytical Methods: Specify the types of methods that you are going to use to analyze your data (e.g., logistic regression, historical trends, content analysis) and the reasons for your selection. o Data Management: How are you going to organize the collection and storage of

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data? You should include a timeline or timetable for the 12 months of the project period. o Ethical Concerns: Discuss the most salient ethical concerns related to your research proposal, whether or not these relate to human subject research or broader ethical implications of your research study, and what mechanisms you propose to use to address them. While you are not expected to write a Protection of Human Subjects Protocol for an Institutional Review Board, you must write at least one Informed Consent Form. · Approximate length: 15­20 pages.

Section 5: Feasibility · Content: In this section, you ought to consider the feasibility of the proposed study. Discuss the resources that will be needed to implement the research project. It is very important that is possible and practical to conduct the study. Take into consideration the resources needed to complete the study. If these exceed the benefits of the study, it is unlikely that it will be funded. As part of the feasibility section, include a timetable to show when and how the different components of the research study are going to be implemented. Approximate Length: 1-2 pages.

·

Section 6: Discussion · Content: In the discussion summarize and review the aims and methodology of the proposed research addressing mainly how well this proposal addresses the main issues and questions raised in the background and significance and specific aims sections. The most important part of this discussion is a consideration of the strengths and limitations of the study. All studies have limitations. Here you can show that you understand your proposed study's limitations and discuss why the study if valuable despite its limitations. Approximate Length: 5 pages

·

Literature Cited

Use the reference style consistent with the writing style of the thesis (APA or Medical).

3. Developing a Research Report Overview

Writing a research report is similar to writing a review article, except in a research report you have conducted the empirical research to address the research questions that a review article would discuss. A research report should be attempted only after you are familiar with the research area, have access to research data (that you collect yourself or that has been collected by others), and are confident in your ability to analyze the data and present it in a research report.

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The Structure of a Research Report

Research reports are divided into four main components: the introduction or literature review, the methods, the results, and the discussion. Of course you must also include an abstract and a list of literature cited.

Abstract

· · Content: The abstract of your proposal is a concise summary of your research problem, objectives, research design, research findings, and conclusions. It is the last thing that you should write and the first thing that you should present. Approximate Length: Half a page.

Introduction/Literature Review

· · Content: Introduce the central issue or topic of your argument, state the significance of the issue or topic, and present an overview of the overall manuscript. Describe the research questions that the research aims to address and what hypotheses will be tested. This section provides a literature review. Here the goal is to present: 1) a detailed description of the research problem, including the magnitude, scope, and significance of the research problem that you have elected to address; 2) the key findings in the scientific literature regarding your research problem; 3) how your study will contribute to the existing knowledge gained from prior findings; and 4) the theoretical perspective that your study is guided by (e.g., social learning theory, social constructionism) and your reason for selecting it. Remember to be concise. In this section, you should describe: the research problem, the overall purpose of the study; the specific objectives of the study (i.e., what you explicitly want to investigate), the hypotheses (if applicable), and the implications of the study. Approximate Length: 15 ­ 20 pages.

· ·

Argument/Subtopics

· Divide your introduction into the different subtopics that will allow you to build the argument that you are trying to articulate in your paper. Here you need to be strategic and creative in efficiently conveying the elements of your argument. Subheadings are very useful in delineating the different subtopics. You may want to elaborate a progression in your argument that starts from the basic points and moves through to the more elaborated ones. Also, introduce here any topic that touches on some of the main arguments that your discussion covers. You will have to start your writing with the introduction so that you build main arguments of the research, but then revisit the introduction to cover any new issues that have been raised by your research results. In the concluding part of your argument, you ought to summarize the primary points of your general thesis and describe the aims of the research.

·

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Methods*

· · · Overview of Research Design: Briefly describe the overall approach of your study. If it has phases, describe these, too (e.g., household survey of clients of the Visiting Nurse Services of New York). Source(s) of Data: Depending upon the type of research that you conducted. Some of the sections that are often included are: Sample: In writing this sub-section, try to answer the following questions: What is the general study population from which your sample was drawn? Who is not eligible? (what were the inclusion and exclusion criteria for your study?) How many people were included in the study? How were participants recruited into the study (e.g., random sampling technique)? Archival Materials: Which archives did you visit? What were your reasons for selecting these archives? What type of materials were included as part of the study? Which materials were excluded? Data Collection Method(s): Present a general overview of the method(s) for data collection, and/or the procedures used (e.g., personal interview, focus group). Instruments used: Describe the instruments or measure used in the study. Analytical Methods: Specify the types of methods that you used to analyze your data (e.g., logistic regression, historical trends, and content analysis) and the reasons for your selection. Approximate Length: 3 ­ 5 pages.

· · · · ·

Results

· · · · In text, describe each of your results, pointing the reader to observations that are most relevant. Provide a context, such as by describing the question that was addressed by making a particular observation. Describe results of control experiments and include observations that are not presented in a formal figure or table, if appropriate. Depict analyzed data in figures (graphs), tables, or in text form. But avoid repeating a description of the same findings in these different modes. If results are presented in a table, they do not need to be repeated in the text. You should refer to the table and describe highlights of the results presented there. In text, refer to each figure as "figure 1," "figure 2," etc. ; number your tables as well (see the reference text for details). Do not discuss or interpret your results, you will have the opportunity to do that in the Discussion section. Approximate Length: Typically quite short for quantitative data and much longer for qualitative data.

· ·

* Some of the tips provided here were adopted from instructions developed by David R. Caprette ([email protected]), Rice University available at http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/tools/report/reportform.html#methods 80

Discussion

· · The purpose of the discussion is to provide the reader with an integration and interpretation of the results and provide conclusions that address the research aims presented in the introduction. Begin with a description of the results. What did you find, how your findings related to the research aims you set up at the introduction. Which findings, if any, are clear and straight-forward? Which findings are equivocal? Interpret your findings responsibly and honestly. Do they provide good evidence for answering the research questions? Do they open more questions? How are your results different from your hypotheses? What do your results tell us about the theory you used to understand the issues under investigation? Do they support the theory? Are they consistent with the theory? Describe limitations of your study. The most relevant limitations are those that threaten the interpretation of your results in the way that you have. What possible other explanations are there that may have explained your results? Perhaps a bias in the sample or an imperfect measure led to results that are spurious? Every study has its limitations. A good discussion is one that provides insight into the study results by taking into account potential alternative interpretations and biases. How do your results fit in with the literature on the topic you studied? Are your results completely at odds with what others have found? If so, why is that? Why should the reader trust your results, interpretations, and conclusions? What new questions come to mind in view of the research results and discussion? What future studies would you recommend be done, or what future studies would you be interested in conducting to forward our understanding of the research questions? What is the significance of your findings? What is the significance to the specific area of investigation and, more generally, to public health? Are there any implications for prevention or intervention design? In interpreting your results and in discussing them or their implications to public health do not exceed your findings! Do not conclude with statements that could have been made even if you did not present your findings. Especially avoid presenting clichés and truisms as conclusions or recommendations of your findings. Approximate length: 10 ­ 15 pages.

· ·

· · · ·

·

Literature Cited

Use the reference style consistent with the writing style of the thesis (APA or Medical).

4. Developing an Evaluation Proposal Overview

Writing an evaluation proposal is very similar to writing a research proposal. An evaluation proposal typically focuses on assessing the effects of or the impact of a particular program, event, program, or intervention. Thus, for the purpose of writing your thesis, if you are interested in conducting a needs assessment, pre-post assessment project, or a policy impact analysis, you ought to write an evaluation proposal. Evaluation proposals are divided into three main components, namely: the abstract, the evaluation protocol, and the references.

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Abstract

· · Content: The abstract of your proposal is a concise summary of your evaluation problem, objectives, and evaluation design. It is the last thing that you should write and the first thing that you should present. Approximate length: Half a page.

Evaluation Protocol

Section 1: Specific Aims · Content: In this section, you ought to describe the overall purpose, specific objective(s), and implications of the evaluation. For example, below please find an excerpt from an ongoing study at the National Institute for Child Health and Development: Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among U.S. children and a major cause of childhood morbidity. Most injury morbidity and mortality occur in the home or automobile, and may Evaluation be decreased through the use of preventive safety practices. The Problem purpose of this evaluation is to determine the effectiveness of tailored injury prevention information provided in the primary care setting on parent adoption of injury prevention practices. Initial Overall investigation demonstrated the potential feasibility and Purpose effectiveness of a computer-tailored information approach to the provision of injury prevention education during well-child visits. Specific The objective of this evaluation is to test the impact of the delivery Objective of concurrent tailored parent and physician information on (1) physician-parent communication during the well-child visit regarding injury prevention behaviors and (2) subsequent parent Implications adoption of new safety practices. This evaluation will inform the potential development and use of strategies employing tailored communications for pediatric injury prevention in the primary care setting.

Source: Research Study: Pediatric Injury Prevention Health Communications Study (Principal Investigator: Dr. Nansel) at the Prevention Research Branch from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (http://www.nichd.nih.gov/about/despr/prbrsh.htm).

·

Approximate Length: 1 page.

Section 2: Background and Significance · Content: This section is dedicated to your literature review. Here the goal is to present: 1) a detailed description of the evaluation problem and the significance of conducting a rigorous evaluation of the problem that you have selected; 2) the key findings in the scientific/evaluation literature regarding ways to evaluate your selected problem; 3) a discussion of how your study will contribute to the already existing knowledge base from prior findings; 4) the theoretical perspective from which your evaluation design emerged;

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and 5) any conceptual innovations in the approach of your evaluation. Remember to be concise. Approximate Length: 6-8 pages.

Section 3: Evaluation Design · Content: This is the part of the proposal where you need to be the most creative. After you select a specific evaluation problem, you need to decide upon the most effective design for investigating it. Therefore, you need to determine which of the following subsections to include and the approximate length of each: Overview of evaluation design - Briefly describe the overall design/approach of your evaluation (outcome evaluation, process evaluation, structural evaluation, etc.) and your reasons for selecting it. Approximate length: 1-2 pages. Target Program - Describe the program that you plan to evaluate, its components, its target population (e.g., urban youths), and its expected goals. Approximate Length: 2-3 pages. Indicators - Identify and define the specific indicators that you are going to use in your evaluation, and your reasons for selecting these indicators. Approximate Length: 2-3 pages. Data collection methods - Describe the methods and strategies that you are going to use to assess the indicators of the proposed evaluation. For each data collection method/strategy, present a general overview, your reasons for selecting it, and how it is going to be implemented in your data collection. Approximate Length: 3-5 pages. Validity - In this part of your proposal, you ought to identify the issues of internal validity, construct validity, and external validity of your evaluation design, and discuss the ways that you are going to address them in your evaluation. Approximate Length: 12 pages. Analytical methods - Specify the methods that you are going to use to analyze your data (e.g., logistic regression, historical trends, analysis of variance [ANOVA], and content analysis) and the reasons for your selection. Approximate Length: 2-3 pages. Data management - Describe how are you planning to organize the collection and storage of your data. You need to include a timeline or timetable for the 12 months of the project. Approximate Length: 1-2 pages. Ethical concerns - Discuss the most salient ethical concerns related to your evaluation proposal, whether or not these relate to human subjects research or broader ethical implications of your evaluation, and the mechanisms you propose to use to address them. You are not expected to write a Protection of Human Subjects Protocol for an Institutional Review Board. Approximate Length: 8­21 pages.

· · · ·

·

· · ·

Section 4: Feasibility · Content: In this section, you ought to discuss the feasibility of conducting the evaluation design that you propose. The viability of the evaluation is a very important component of your proposal. Take into consideration that if the resources necessary to complete the evaluation exceed the actual benefits, it is unlikely that such an evaluation will be funded. As part of the feasibility section, include a timetable to show when and how the different components of the evaluation are going to be implemented.

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·

Approximate Length: 1-2 pages.

Literature Cited

Use the reference style consistent with the writing style of the thesis (APA or Medical).

5. Developing an intervention proposal Overview

Anyone who will be responsible for helping individuals or communities change health risk behavior, initiate health-promoting behavior, change environmental factors, or manage illnesses must be able to design effective programs and develop plans to implement, evaluate and sustain them. Writing a Master's Thesis about planning a health promotion program to produce health outcomes can be designed to change behavioral or environmental factors related to health but the most immediate impact is usually on well defined determinants of behavior and environmental conditions. There are a number of program planning models that can be used to design health programs. The guidelines used below have been adapted from the framework by Bartholomew, Parcel, Kok and Gottlieb in their book Planning Health Promotion Programs: An Intervention Mapping Approach (2nd edition), San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006. In using this model, you will note that many of the key elements you will need to address have already been described in sections 2.Developing a Research Proposal and 4. Developing an Evaluation Proposal.

Executive Summary

· Content: In this section, you should succinctly describe: the health and quality of life problem that you are addressing and its importance; the behaviors and environmental conditions that contribute to the problem; the target audience and setting for your intervention, the theoretical basis, scope and sequence of your program; and how the program will be implemented, evaluated and sustained. The executive summary is the last thing that you should write and the first thing that you should present. Approximate Length: 2-3 pages.

·

Mission Statement

· Content: Describe the general focus of the program and the philosophy behind it. An example of a mission statement is provided below: "The purpose of this program is to empower pregnant women and their families to cultivate health-promoting habits during pregnancy and beyond, and to connect them to broader community resources that support overall health and well-being."

Background and Significance

· Content: This section is dedicated to your literature review. Here the goal is to present: 1) a detailed description of the health and quality of life problem, including its magnitude,

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·

scope, and significance 2) key findings in the scientific literature regarding determinants of the problem and an analysis of programs that have been tested to influence the determinants 3) how your program will contribute to the existing knowledge gained from prior programs and your target population's health and quality of life 4) the theoretical perspective that your program is guided by and your reasons for why you think it is appropriate Approximate Length: 6-8 pages.

Method

· · · Content: Building on the information addressed above, describe your at-risk population, your target audience and the community and setting in which your program will take place. Identify the specific program planning model that you used to design your program and explain why you chose this model over others. Explicitly describe how you applied each step or phase of your planning model in designing your program and planning for its implementation and sustainability. For example, if you chose to use Intervention Mapping as your program planning model you would need to describe how you applied each of the six steps, and their required tasks, to designing and implementing your program. Approximate Length: 15-20 pages excluding logic models and tables required in using your planning mode. These should go in the appendices.

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Evaluation Plan

Your proposal for a health program must include a plan for evaluating the program. The evaluation can be a process and/or outcome evaluation and should be both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Your evaluation plan should be guided by a concern for maximum rigor under feasible and realistic conditions. Take into consideration that many program grant requests for proposals do not set aside separate funds for evaluation. Therefore, the resources needed to conduct the evaluation should be realistic and your design should reflect these resources. · · · · · · · Content: Briefly describe the overall design/approach of your evaluation and your reasons for selecting it. Describe your program's goals and specific objectives. Identify and define the specific indicators that you are going to use in your evaluation, and your reasons for selecting these indicators. Describe the methods and strategies that you are going to use to assess the indicators of the proposed evaluation. Identify issues related to internal validity, construct validity, and external validity of your evaluation design, and discuss the ways that you are going to address them in your evaluation. Specify the methods that you are going to use to analyze your data (e.g., logistic regression, historical trends, analysis of variance [ANOVA], content analysis) and the reasons for your selection. Describe how you are planning to organize the collection and storage of your data. You

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· ·

need to include a timeline or timetable for the program in the appendices. Discuss any ethical concerns related to your evaluation plan, whether or not these relate to human subjects research or broader ethical implications of your evaluation and the mechanisms you propose to use to address them. Approximate Length: 5-6 pages.

Implications and Recommendations

· · Content: Finally, discuss the implications and contributions of your health program to the at-risk population. Approximate Length: 1-2 pages.

Literature Cited

Use the reference style consistent with the writing style of the thesis (APA or Medical).

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Academic Advising FAQ Introduction

Academic advising is an important part of your education at the Department of Sociomedical Sciences. Your advisor should guide you in planning your academic program in view of your academic and career plans. The following are answers to some common questions students have regarding the role of the academic advisor and the kind of issues to discuss with him/her. You should also remember that Andrea Constancio, the Academic Program Coordinator, is available to discuss with you any additional questions you may have about academic advising, and she can address any problems that may arise.

First Meeting with Your Academic Advisor

Q. What is the purpose of the first meeting? The purpose of the first meeting is for you and your advisor to plan out your academic program. The length of your program will depend upon the number of courses you plan to take each semester (Fall and Spring), including Summer Sessions (A and B). Q. What do I need to do to prepare for the first meeting? E-mail your advisor during the first 2 weeks of your first Fall Semester and request a time to meet for 30 to 45 minutes. Before the meeting, read this Handbook, especially the Program Requirements Checklist (checklists are different for each of the 7 Tracks; the Handbook contains a sample copy of each). You should also have a copy of the current Fall Mailman School of Public Health (MSPH) course schedule. Bring a copy of the Handbook. The Handbook is very helpful; it describes all SMS policies and procedures including course requirements, deadlines, practicum procedures, and the Master's Thesis. Q. How do I begin the first meeting? Be prepared to discuss the following items: · · · · The track you are in and why you selected this track. When you plan to graduate How many courses per semester you are planning to take. In general, first semester, fulltime students are advised to take 4 courses; part-time students are advised to take 2 courses per semester. Whether you plan to take any summer courses ­ If yes, how many? Summer course offerings are limited at the MSPH. Therefore, you should investigate appropriate elective course offerings at other schools within the University.

Begin the meeting by telling your advisor about your background, interests and future career goals. Next, you and your advisor should start to review the pertinent Program Requirements Checklist in the following order: 1. MSPH Core Courses. At the time of the first meeting (first fall semester), most students

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2.

3.

4.

5.

will be taking Principles of Epidemiology (P6400) and Introduction to Biostatistical Methods (either P6103 or P6104). Other students will be taking Epidemiology (P6400) and Environmental Health Sciences (P6300). All students should take Introduction to Sociomedical Sciences (P6700) during your year (this course is only offered once a year). This means you and your advisor only have to plan for scheduling the 2 remaining MSPH core courses. MPH Track Required Courses. Refer to the Track-specific Program Requirements Checklists and sample schedules in the Handbook. If there are elective courses within the track requirements, discuss with your advisor which would best fit your interests and schedule. Elective Courses. The number of elective courses available to you depends on your track. Please note that most elective courses must be taken within the Department of Sociomedical Sciences. Other elective courses may be taken in other MSPH Departments and Columbia University graduate programs. To choose appropriate elective courses, think about your current interests and future career plans, and ask your advisor for his/her recommendations. Certification. All SMS students are required to pass the certification exams. Certification exams must be completed during the student's first year. For more information refer to the course requirements in this Handbook. Discuss with your advisor the timetable for completing the certifications. Practicum. Start to think about the skills that will be needed for your future career. Some of these skills cannot be developed through course work alone. The practicum should be an opportunity to develop such skills. Ideally, the practicum project should form the basis for the required Master's Thesis (see the Guidelines for Preparing a Master's Thesis in this Handbook). Q. How should I end the first meeting?

Before leaving your advisor's office: Make a copy of the completed Program Requirements Checklist for yourself and date it. Give the original to your advisor. · Schedule a second advisement meeting. At this next meeting you and your advisor should discuss practicum possibilities and ways in which you should begin thinking about your thesis. ·

In Between Meetings with Your Academic Advisor

Q. Is it important for me to keep in contact with my advisor in between formal meetings? Yes, at a minimum 2 weeks before each of the three registration periods and graduation filing dates. Stay in contact throughout the semester and email or call him/her with any questions, concerns, or changes in your agreed upon Program Requirements Checklist (i.e. dropping/adding of a course). Remember that you will need your advisor's approval to register for courses. You can email

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him/her the list of courses you plan to take each semester; your advisor can approve the list via email. If you are not following the plan you and your advisor agreed upon, you need to email your advisor and explain the reasons for the requested changes.

Second Meeting with Your Academic Advisor

Q. What is the purpose of the second meeting? The purpose of the second meeting is to follow up with your advisor to discuss your academic program and future plans, as well as to help with any problems or concerns you may have. It is also important to begin to discuss the Practicum and the Master's Thesis at that time. Before the meeting, make sure you re-review the Practicum requirements and guidelines, and the trackspecific practicum information in the Practicum section of this Handbook to get an idea of the types of skills that are important for you to develop through your Practicum experience. Q. How can I figure out what type of practicum to do? Start by asking yourself the following questions: · · · What do I want to do when I graduate? What skills am I going to need that I am not likely to obtain through classroom work alone? Do I know of any possible practicum opportunities that could help me develop needed skills?

Make sure to: · · · Focus on the Track-specific and other professional skills that you need to develop. Discuss ideas or practicum possibilities. If you and your advisor have no ideas or practicum possibilities, don't worry; the Academic Program Coordinator and Practicum Director will work with you to find a suitable practicum experience. Remember to schedule a meeting with the Academic Program Coordinator and the Practicum Director to discuss plans for your practicum.

Other meetings with your academic advisor

Q. When should I meet with my advisor again? Keep in regular contact with your advisor, especially before each semester and any time you want to make program changes or discuss your future plans. Also be prepared to have your advisor review and approve the Practicum Agreement form, a sample copy of which is provided in the Handbook. Discuss with your advisor your thesis plans. Ideally the thesis should relate to your Practicum experience. Q. When should I meet with my advisor to discuss the Master's Thesis? One month before you plan to register for your thesis course (P8707) (before the end of your first year for full time students), you should meet with your advisor to discuss your thesis plan. Your advisor should be prepared to recommend one or more possible theses sponsors at this time.

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Appendix A Methods Courses and Research Training in SMS

Developing methodological skills and research training is a primary component of the MPH degree in Sociomedical Sciences. In fact, a defining characteristic of SMS ­ and of the larger Mailman School of Public Health - is the diverse methodological training and approaches to research questions taken by faculty members and students. In particular, SMS offers methods courses utilizing quantitative, qualitative, and historical approaches to public health questions. Students should take advantage of these resources within the MSPH by carefully planning methods courses during their first or second semester in the program. Methods courses offer students specific skills to effectively collect and analyze data on their substantive topic of interest. Regarding degree requirements, methods courses are important because they provide research skills that can be applied during the Practicum and towards the Master's Thesis. Additionally, research skills learned during methods courses are of great interest to potential employers who may seek to hire an MPH. to develop an intervention, evaluate a program, or create a survey, for instance. Each track within the SMS MPH program ­ Health Promotion, Social Science Research, History, Aging, Urbanism and the Built Environment, and Sexuality and Health ­ offers students a number of electives depending upon the track. With the exception of the Social Science Research track ­ which specifically focuses on methods training as a substantive focus ­ students in each track should consider taking at least one of their electives as a methods course. Currently, SMS offers an introductory research methods course each spring semester entitled Introduction to SMS Research Methods (P8774). While a required course for the Social Science Research track, students in other tracks should consider taking this course in the Spring semester of their 1st year to develop an understanding of quantitative and qualitative approaches to public health research. Following this course, students may wish to take additional methods courses in the areas of research design, quantitative methods, qualitative methods, or historical methods. Students interested in research design should consider the following courses: · · · · · SMS Research Methods (P8774) Seminar in Program Evaluation (P8705) Qualitative Research Design in Public Health (P8785) Design and Conduct of Observational Epidemiology (Epi) (P8438) Statistical Computing with SAS (P6110s)

Students interested in quantitative methods should consider the following methods courses: · · · Applied Regression Analysis (P8100) Survey Research Methods (P8777) Selected Problems of Measurement in Epidemiology (Epi) (P8417)

Students interested in qualitative methods should consider the following methods courses:

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· · ·

Qualitative Research Methods (P9775) Qualitative Research Design in Public Health (P8785) Ethnographic Methods in Health Research (P8786)

Students interested in historical methods should consider the following courses: Quantitative: Theory and Methodology in Quantitative Social Sciences (W4010) Qualitative: Oral History Method and Theory (G9920) Archival: A Social History of American Public Health (P8773) Race and Public Health in the United States (G8572) Historiography: history of medicine and public health (P8716) As indicated above, students should begin thinking about potential methods courses during their first year in the program. Courses are not always offered each semester or every year so students should also consider taking alternative methods courses if a specific course is not offered during a particular semester. Also, students should ask their academic advisor for assistance in finding or selecting appropriate methods courses. Below is a description of many of the courses referred to above: P6110 Statistical Computing with SAS (3 points) Uses of the computer in cleaning, summarizing, and cross-classifying data. Expansion of the material covered in Public Health P6103 - regression, correlation and contingency table analysis, and the analysis of variance - with data analysis carried out using standard statistical packages. P8705 Seminar in evaluation of health programs (3 points) Prerequisite: Public Health P6104 or the equivalent. Overview of basic principles and methods of program evaluation in public health. Students are introduced to essentials of quasi-experimental design and analysis. The course includes examination of both process and outcome evaluation and emphasizes a practical understanding of program evaluation. P8716 Historiography: history of medicine and public health (3 points) Introduces students to the classic texts and concepts in the field of history of public health and medicine and explores how these texts have structured specific areas of research. Particular attention to (1) changing historical interpretations; (2) historical methods, quantitative and qualitative; and (3) the use of history in the formation and analysis of public policy. Team taught by faculty members in the program. Each section is led by two faculty members whose scholarship and current research relate to the historical concepts and methodologies that are the focus of the session. P8773 A Social History of American Public Health (3 points) (Offered on the Morningside Campus at 116th Street, History Department) Provides students with a historical understanding of the role public health practice has played in American history during the 19th and 20th centuries. First, focus is on the social and biological

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environ-ment and the creation of conditions for 19th-century epidemics of cholera, typhoid, yellow fever, and other epidemic diseases. Second, the course traces the changing urban and industrial infrastructure and their relationship to late 19th- and 20th-century concerns about tuberculosis, industrial illness, and infection. Third, public health practice and public health campaigns are traced, looking at the ways in which social attitudes toward the industrial worker, the immigrant, and the urban environment shaped the field. The class then looks at the boundaries between public health and medical practice and raises questions about their shifting definitions. As lecture topics indicate, the course empha-sizes that public health is intimately related to broader social, political, as well as scientific changes overtaking the country and incorporates a very broad range of subjects from changes in urban living and culture through the transformation of the industrial workplace. P8774 Introduction to sociomedical sciences research methods (3 points) This course provides an overview of the fundamental concepts and components of research methodology as used for social science investigation of public health issues. The focus of the course will be to acquaint students with quantitative and qualitative research methods. It will cover when each method is appropriate, different types of research designs, development of data collection instruments, data collection techniques and the statistical analysis of data. By practicing various parts of the research process, students will gain an appreciation from this course of all components involved in sound public health research. P8777 Survey research methods (3 points) Overview of methods in survey research. Includes defining the aims of a survey, sampling, question-wording and designing the survey instrument, methods of data collection (including face-to--face and telephone interviewing and mail questionnaire), entry of data, elementary data analysis, and writing the report. The organization of survey research, its uses, and ethical issues are also discussed. Student exercises emphasize learning of practical skills. P8785 Qualitative research design in public health (3 points) Focuses on the principles and practices of designing social science research in public health, particularly using qualitative methodology. Developing research agendas and undertaking research proposal assessment is becoming an important aspect of many health professionals' work. Principal research design concerns included in the course are: selecting a research topic; developing and clarifying specific research aims and purposes; selecting populations or target groups to be involved in the research; identifying audiences; assessing resources; nominating research outcomes and applications; project planning and data management; dissemination of findings. Key issues discussed include: capacities and objectives of qualitative social research; multi-method research; and the relationship between difficult health problems and feasible research projects, including collaboration with affected communities. Students will begin to develop their own research proposals during the course in preparation for subsequent intensive methods training in the second course in the sequence - P8786 'Ethnographic methods in health research.' The course utilizes case studies in qualitative research, particularly from the HIV/AIDS, sexual health and related fields. P8786 Ethnographic methods in health research (3 points) Offers advanced training in the use of ethnographic methods in health research. Explores a range of different qualitative research methods, including participant observation, in-depth interviewing, oral histories, life histories, and case studies, and examines the ways in which these

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methods can be employed in developing ethnographic studies. Readings draw on different methodological texts and guidelines, as well as a range of published ethnographic studies of different health issues in order to illustrate the use of different approaches. Students are also expected to carry out hands-on observation and interviewing on a regular basis, and receive feedback from the instructor and other class participants on field notes, analysis, and interpretation of ethnographic data. P9775 Qualitative research methods (3 points) Survey of methods employed in qualitative research. For each of the methods of interest, examines the technical problems of data collection, the kinds of data that are collected, and the strategies for data analysis. Major emphasis is on understanding the rationale for selecting a particular method of qualitative research to answer a specific research question. Methods discussed include: direct observation in field settings, focus groups, individual life story interviews, family and group interviews, historical analysis, and literary analysis. W4010 Theory and Methodology in Quantitative Social Sciences (4 points) (Offered on the Morningside Campus at 116th Street, History Department) This course exposes students to the basic quantitative and mathematical methods used in the social sciences and describes how quantitative methodology is applied to solve problems in the social sciences. The economics material normally covers empirical applications of micro-and macro-economic theories or introduce game theory (for example, for setting of prices or labor patterns); and experimental economics. The historical material normally compares the more traditional historiography with contemporary theories and methodologies since the turn of the century; explore the history and modes of analysis relevant to demographic history; and examine the specific analytical tools used in this and other fields. The political science material might include topics such as the normative methods and the spatial (Downsian) model of voting; game theory as applied to international relations; the use of opinion polls by political scientists and politicians, and the question of when it is appropriate to use available data and when it is appropriate to use available data and when it is necessary to gather additional data (for example, a focus group). The psychology material usually covers the psychological principles of approach/avoidance that underlie judgment and decision making; cognitive and motivational variables underlying preferences and attitude change; social psychological determinants of social influence and persuasion. The sociological material usually covers Markov and semi-Markov models of occupational change; strategies in the analysis of personnel data from large corporations: the determinants of promotion and departure from different grade levels; or formulations of attitude change that have been used in the analysis of advertising data as well as demographic models. G8572 Race and Public Health in the United States (4 points) (Offered on the Morningside Campus at 116th Street, History Department) This course will offer varying interpretations of the history of race and public health in the United States. Students will examine issues dealing with epidemic and chronic disease, substance abuse, public health policy, and urban politics, among others. The texts elected in no way represent the full spectrum of this history - the field has grown rapidly in the past decade. Rather than a "comprehensive knowledge" of race and public health in the United States, a grasp of historical methods will be gained through the readings. In this sense, students will end the semester well prepared to tackle problems pertaining not only to public health, but to larger policy issues as well.

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G9920 Oral History Method and Theory (4 points) (Offered on the Morningside Campus at 116th Street, History Department) Each fall the Columbia University Department of History offers a graduate level multidisciplinary methods seminar in Oral History Method and Theory. The seminar is a four credit research seminar organized as a combination of research and fieldwork. The seminar is open to graduate students across the disciplines who are interested in the historical uses of oral history testimony and literature for the purposes of fieldwork and interpretation. Discussions will include topics on ethics, the relationship between memory and history, and the multidisciplinary uses of oral history.

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Appendix B Department of Sociomedical Sciences Thesis Faculty Sponsors

Abraido-Lanza, Ana (afl7), Associate Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Psychology). The health of Latino populations in the United States; socioeconomic status and health; breast and cervical cancer screening; acculturation theory; psychological adjustment to chronic illness, especially arthritis; psychological thriving; social support and coping with illness; social roles and identity theory; health disparities between Latinos and non-Latino whites. Aidala, Angela (aaa1), Associate Research Scientist (Ph.D. - Sociology). Micro (individual dispositions, beliefs, choices) and macro (cultural systems, economic structures) interlinkages in the etiology and impact of drug use, health, and illness behaviors; the family and intergenerational relations; research methodology. Bayer, Ronald (rb8), Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Political Science). Ethical and social policy issues in health; AIDS and screening for AIDS. Berkman, Alan (ab376), Assistant Professor of Clinical Epidemiology and Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (MD). Global AIDS epidemic; integration of HIV prevention and treatment in poorly resourced settings; social mobilization for community health, HIV and the mentally ill. Caton, Carol (clc3), Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (in Psychiatry) (Ph.D. - Sociology). Epidemiology of homelessness, drug use, and severe mental illness, psychosocial and family studies of people with severe mental illness; evaluation of community mental health and substance abuse treatment programs. Colgrove, James (jc988), Assistant Professor (Ph.D. ­ Sociomedical Sciences), History of vaccination; history of government responsibility for public health; the relationship between individual rights and communal responsibilities from the 19th century to the present; the role of the law and other forms of coercion in public health; ethical issues in public health; harm reduction and substance use policy. di Mauro, Diane (dd2041), Assistant Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (PhD. - Social Psychology). Social policy and sexuality; sexuality and reproductive health; sexuality research; gender and sexuality; adolescent sexuality; developmental issues of sexuality; cross-cultural issues and sexuality; Evans, David (de8), Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (in Pediatrics) (Ph.D. - Sociology). Health behavior change interventions; health education for family management of childhood asthma; teaching communication and health behavior intervention skills to physicians and nurses; risk factors for developing asthma. Fairchild, Amy (alf4), Associate Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D., MPH). Program in the History of Public Health & Medicine: history and ethics of public health policy (AIDS, TB, immigration, surveillance, harm reduction); history of race and disease. Fullilove, Mindy (mf29), Professor of Clinical Psychiatry and Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (M.D.). Relationship between the structure of cities and the health of populations. Fullilove, Robert (ref5), Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Ed.D. - Teachers College). AIDS epidemiology effects of racism on health; educational achievement; drug abuse and AIDS risk behaviors. Gershon, Robyn (rg405), Associate Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (Dr.P.H.). Occupational and environmental health and safety issues focused on high risk, high stress occupations including health care workers, first responders, law enforcement, and aging workers; hospital safety, including patient safety; emergency preparedness, bioterrorism, weapons of mass destruction. Hernández-Cordero, Lourdes J. (ljh19) Assistant Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Dr.P.H.). Multilevel approaches - individual, embedded in family, embedded in neighborhood, embedded in city ­ to understand health; community mobilization to address health issues (i.e. violence, obesity); using situation analysis to understand complex time-people-place interactions; intersection of public health and urban planning; urbanism. 95

Hirsch, Jennifer S. (jsh2124), Associate Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Anthropology and Population Dynamics). Gender, sexuality, and reproductive health; U.S.-Mexico migration and transnational communities; HIV/AIDS (heterosexual transmission, cultural and political-economic approaches); the application of anthropological theory and methods in public health; faith-based approaches to public health. Hopper, Kim ([email protected]), Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Sociomedical Sciences/Medical Anthropology). Homelessness; the "de facto" public mental health system; recovery from severe psychiatric disorders; ethnographic methods; ethics and research. Hung, Dorothy (dh2237), Assistant Professor (Ph.D. ­ Health Services Research/Policy; M.A. - Political Science; M.P.H. ­ Health Management and Policy). Preventive service delivery, health risk behaviors (tobacco use, risky drinking, physical inactivity, poor dietary patterns), rational choice theory, Chronic Care Model applications and health systems change, multilevel modeling of clinician behavior, organization of primary care practices. Kandel, Denise (dbk2), Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (in Psychiatry) (Ph.D. - Sociology). Epidemiology, antecedents and consequences of drug use and dependence, in particular tobacco; ethnic differences in smoking; effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on offspring conduct problems and substance use; adolescent problem behaviors and psychosocial development; depression in adolescence and early adulthood; interpersonal influences on behavior; cross-cultural studies. Kirchner, Corinne (c k12), Lecturer (Ph.D. - Sociology). Disability and rehabilitation; health professions; health services delivery. Klitzman, Robert (rlk2), Associate Professor of Clinical Psychiatry (in Sociomedical Sciences) (M.D). Disclosure of HIV status; disclosure and privacy of genetic and other health information; physician-patient communication and relationships; bioethics; cultural and policy responses to epidemics; communication of gay men and lesbians with health professionals; use of club drugs among gay men. Kunzel, Carol (ck60), Associate Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences and Dentistry (Ph.D. - Sociology). Clinician behavior; social-behavioral models of clinical decision-making; diffusion of innovation; adherence to clinical guidelines; early oral cancer detection; access of HIV+ patients to dental care; sociology of the professions. Kwate, Naa Oyo A. (nak2106), Assistant Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Clinical Psychology). African American health; multiple levels of racism as health determinant; racial/cultural identity; dietary behavior; intersection of individual and macro-level variables in health; sociocultural construction of illness and health Lapp, Ian (il2011), Assistant Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Sociology). Dynamics of social inequality in terms of gender, race, class and sexuality; organization theory; health communications; qualitative methods; innovations in teaching and learning; curriculum development for public health Lee, Gunjeong (gl65), Associate Research Scientist (Ph.D. ­ Sociology). Social capital and health; gender differences in health service use; reproductive health for minority women; evaluation of public health programs and health service delivery system, community health promotion; geographic information systems (GIS) and quantitative methods. Lekas, Helen-Maria (hl11), Assistant Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Sociology). The impact of class, race and gender on health issues; vulnerable populations, such as, the poor, homeless persons, substance users and those with a mental illness; living with chronic illness with a focus on HIV, cancer and mental illness; ethnography and other qualitative methods. Lerner, Barron (bhl5), Associate Professor of Medicine and Sociomedical Sciences (M.D., Ph.D. - History). Historical and ethical issues in breast cancer screening and treatment; history of tuberculosis and noncompliance; history of informed consent; biomedical ethics. Link, Bruce (bgl1), Professor of Epidemiology (in Psychiatry) (also Sociomedical Sciences) (Ph.D.). Socioeconomic status and health, the stigma of mental illness, violence and mental disorders; homelessness and health, public conceptions of mental illness. 96

Litwak, Eugene (el12), Professor of Sociology and Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Sociology). Informal social supports, formal organizations, social gerontology; health promotion and disease prevention. Mellins, Claude Ann (cam14), Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology (in Psychiatry and Sociomedical Sciences) (Ph.D. - Psychology). Child and family mental health; maternal and pediatric HIV; psychosocial predictors of adherence to treatment. Merritt, Brenda ([email protected]), Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine and Sociomedical Sciences (M.D.). Homelessness; medical care for the homeless; AIDS; mental illness; substance abuse. Messeri, Peter (pam9), Associate Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Sociology). Relationship between health promotion and primary group structure; etiology of drug use; evaluation of HIV/AIDS service delivery program; interorganizational theory; evaluation of community level health and disease prevention interventions; health services research; tobacco control. Meyer, Ilan (im15), Associate Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Sociomedical Sciences, Social Psychology). Minority health issues; health psychology; stress, identity and illness; identity structures, prejudice and discrimination; the impact of minority stress related to prejudice on mental health; methodological issues in the study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. Millery, Mari (mm994), Associate Research Scientist (Ph.D. - Psychology). Applied social science research; program evaluation; drug use and abuse; AIDS; adult development and adult education; social informatics; capacity building; integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Moon Howard, Joyce (jmh7), Assistant Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (Dr.P.H. - Sociomedical Sciences). Preventive health behavior; housing and health and the impact of community environment on health, especially in minority communities; delivery of health services and evaluation of health programs. Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel (mam172), Assistant Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (Dr.P.H. - Sociomedical Sciences). Gender, sexuality and sexual health; urban youth; health promotion and disease prevention; research methods; Latino populations. Murrman, Marita K. (mkm27), Associate Clinical Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (Ed.D. - Health Education). Multi-level program/intervention design; competency-based curriculum design and evaluation (for programs in the U.S. and South Africa); health promotion and disease prevention; TB and HIV/AIDS; public health workforce development. Nathanson, Constance (can2002), Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Sociology). Comparative cross-national politics and sociology of public health; health-related social movements; gender and sexuality; gender and health outcomes; reproductive health; sociology of health and medicine. Northridge, Mary (men11), Associate Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Epidemiology; M.P.H. Environmental Health). Environmental and social epidemiology; joint urban planning and public health research and practice; community-based participatory research; environmental racism; women's health. Oppenheimer, Gerald (go10), Associate Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - History; M.P.H. Epidemiology). History of HIV/AIDS; history of public health; history of epidemiology, particularly heart disease epidemiology; history of social medicine; history of race and research. Parker, Richard (rgp11), Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Anthropology). Medical anthropology; international health; gender and sexuality; HIV/AIDS; reproductive health and reproductive rights; social movements and community health; Brazil, Latin America and the Caribbean, South Africa, United States. Phelan, Jo (jcp13), Associate Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Sociology). Social and economic inequalities in health and mortality; public attitudes and conceptions about mental illness and homelessness; stigma; social impact of the genetics revolution. 97

Pretter, Sheindy (sp431), Assistant Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Psychology). Health psychology; stress and coping; aging and public health; familial caregiving in chronic illness; grief and bereavement; post-traumatic growth; women's health issues. Raveis, Victoria (vhr1), Associate Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Sociology). Psychosocial and behavioral aspects of health; informal and familial caregiving in chronic illness; health-related quality of life; end-of-life issues; palliative care; grief and bereavement; life-course issues; midlife transitions, aging and public health. Rosner, David (dr289), Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (also History) (Ph.D. - History). History of public health; history of urban health; race and mental health; occupational and environmental disease; health in New York City; history of hospitals and medical care. Rothman, Sheila (smr4), Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (in the Center for the Study of Society and Medicine) (Ph.D. - History). Public health genetics; use of race and ethnicity in population genetics; risks and benefits of genetic enhancement; decision-making in organ transplantation; history of tuberculosis and confinement; history of death. Samples, Faith (fls13), Assistant Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Program Evaluation and Planning). Social and behavioral development of children and youth at-risk for maltreatment and exposure to familial and community violence; program evaluation; adolescents substance abuse; conceptual models for the relationship between risk and protective factors; and developmental outcomes among adolescent mothers and their children. Sandfort, Theodorus (tgs2001), Associate Professor of Clinical Sociomedical Sciences (in Psychiatry; Ph.D. - Social Psychology). Sexuality, gay and lesbian issues; sexual risk behavior; sexual health and sexual health promotion. Siegel, Karolynn (ks420), Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (also Social Work) (Ph.D. - Sociology). Psychosocial oncology; psychological adjustment to chronic or life threatening illness; AIDS; childhood bereavement; stress and coping; illness and mental health; aging. Vance, Carole S. (csv1), Associate Clinical Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (Ph.D. - Anthropology; M.P.H. Epidemiology); Director, Program for the Study of Sexuality, Gender, Health, and Human Rights. Also appointed in Department of Anthropology and Columbia Law School. Sexuality and human rights; medical anthropology; sexuality and policy; sex and representation; sexuality and globalization; ethnographic methods; gender and health; United States; India. Wilson, Patrick, Assistant Professor of Sociomedical Sciences (PhD ­ Psychology), community psychology, HIV/AIDS prevention and health promotion in ethnic and sexual minority populations, ecological-level influences to mental and physical health, and program evaluation and community research.

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Appendix C Frequently Used Contacts

Sociomedical Sciences, Administration Amy Fairchild, PhD, Department Chair Ilan Meyer, PhD, Deputy Chair for MPH Program Lourdes J. Hernández-Cordero, DrPH, Practicum Director Andrea Constancio, MSW, Academic Program Coordinator SMS Track Directors Marita K. Murrman, Health Promotion Naa Oyo Kwate, Social Science Research James Colgrove, History & Ethics Vicki Raveis, Aging & Public Health Lourdes J. Hernández-Cordero, Urbanism Robert Fullilove, Urbanism Richard Parker , Sexuality & Health Diane di Mauro, Sexuality & Health Marni Sommer, Global Health Office of Student Affairs, Administration Marlyn Delva, Assistant Dean Office of Student Academics Affairs / Student Life Jim Glover, Director Lillian Morales, Associate Director, Records and Standards Office of Student Financial Services: Financial Services Joseph Korevec, Director Admissions & Financial Aid Farah Burnett-Rodriguez, Assistant Director Charles Liriano, Administrative Clerk Office of Career Services Tanya Cobbs Leslie, Assistant Dean and Director Phyllis E. Hulen, Assistant Director Liz K. Sung, Employer Relations Coordinator Office of Student Administrative Services: 650 West 168th Street, Room 141 Registrar Services (Transcripts) Student Account Services (Billing) Telephone Registration Services Registration (use your CUID/SS# & PIN) Registration Appointments (use your CUID/SS#) Course/ Grade Inquiries (use your CUID/SS# & PIN) Hold Inquiry (use your CUID/SS#) Other Registration Questions 305-1724 305-1952 305-1077 342-0287 305-0096 305-5736 305-0561 304-5563 740-7292 305 0195 305-3616 305-8541 305-0384 305-3067 305 1166 305-8690 305-4113 302-8698 305-1029 305-4113 305-1548 305-3803 342-3600 305-3992 305-3633 854-8282 854-4488 854-7373 854-6464 854-4400 alf4 @columbia.edu [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

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