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Gifted and Talented Education

Extract from Support package: Curriculum differentiation The Kaplan model

The Kaplan Model

The Kaplan model, like Maker also examines the differentiation of the curriculum in terms of content, process, product and learning environment. The learning experience in the Kaplan model, is based on a central theme that is valuable for gifted students, as they tend to learn holistically and make connections with other knowledge skilfully. The more highly gifted do so with even greater ease (Gross, 2000). Content This should be related to the chosen theme. The topics within the content area should be multi-disciplinary, integrated and covered by all students. The study topics should include a time perspective. Process This includes the types of skills that students acquire through the learning process. These are encompassed in three areas: · · · basic skills ­ e.g. observing, recording, analysing... research skills ­ e.g. using the information skills process, designing a research method... productive thinking skills ­ e.g. critical thinking skills, creative thinking skills

Product Various products can be negotiated to achieve the pre-determined outcomes ­ e.g. oral, written, artistic ... Learning environment The selection of the content, process and product will have an effect on the type of learning environment that develops or that the teacher influences. Several factors need to be considered: · characteristics of the group of gifted students · students' interests · developmental level of students · type of gifted program How do we apply our knowledge of the characteristics of gifted students and our understanding of the Board of Studies (BOS) syllabuses in creating appropriate programs? The BOS syllabuses provide information about the knowledge and understanding, skills, values and attitudes that students should develop as a result of engaging in a course. The syllabuses also provide information about extension activities and optional study opportunities. It is useful to consider what the syllabus has to offer in terms of ideas for meeting the needs of gifted students.

GAT Unit Curriculum K-12, NSW DET 2004

e.g. History Stage 4 Syllabus Rationale: "...syllabus emphasises that skills of interpretation, analysis, empathy, research and communication should be intentionally developed as students acquire knowledge and understanding. As a result, learning will be deeper, more retrievable and grounded in historical contexts." This syllabus provides opportunities for addressing the needs of gifted students through examining differing perspectives of history, engagement in civics and citizenship education, development of research skills and the acquisition of literacy skills. Outcomes: M 4.6 describes significant features of indigenous cultures prior to colonisation creates texts using evidence to retell, describe, explain and argue with guidance

M 4.14

Table 5: KAPLAN MODEL ­ Aboriginal history and culture

THEME

BASIC SKILL

RESEARCH SKILL

PRODUCTIVE SKILL

PRODUCT

OUTCOME

Change

Classifying Describing Communicating Recording Analysing

Application of the information skills process

Distinguish warranted and unwarranted conclusions Distinguish reliable and unreliable sources of information Modification ­ change or reformulate ideas/problems/ solutions

(mandatory plus optional) Oral presentation Poetry Painting Research report News article Play

M 4.6 M 4.14

GAT Unit Curriculum K-12, NSW DET 2004

ARTICULATING ACTIVITY (Logical sequence of teaching this learning experience, incorporating all skills and product expectations to reflect on the `theme') Context: This teaching and learning sequence is based on the time period pre ­ 1788. Students: 1. discuss the special relationship that Aboriginal people have to the land 2. describe the components of Aboriginal peoples' education or learning 3. identify how Aboriginal culture was transmitted 4. specify the stages in attainment of adulthood 5. describe the lifestyle of Aboriginal peoples including shelter, technology, hunting/gathering/fishing Differentiated activities: a) How do we know the nature of indigenous cultures that not did not leave written records prior to colonisation? b) Outline the methods of inquiry that have been used to understand Aboriginal history. Some Aboriginal historians think that Aboriginal history should be recorded not only through oral traditions but also through the written word. Express your views in an exposition about the merits of this proposal. c) People may have conflicting views of the history of Aboriginal people before white settlement. Discuss two different perspectives of an aspect of Aboriginal history. Why do you think different views of history can arise? d) Consider the following statement: All Australians have an opportunity to better understand their past and present. This understanding is a necessary part of the process of reconciliation. Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement.

This example illustrates how options can be provided in a program to cater for the range of individual differences in a class. It also illustrates how ideas from the Maker and Williams models can be incorporated to stimulate critical and creative thinking skills.

References

Gross, M.U.M. (2000). Issues in the cognitive development of exceptionally and profoundly gifted individuals. In K.A. Heller, F.J. Monks, R.J. Sternberg & R.F. Subotnik (Eds.), International handbook of research and development of giftedness and talent (2nd ed., pp. 179-192). New York: Pergamon. Kaplan, S.N. (1993). The grid: A model to construct differentiated curriculum for the gifted. In J.S. Renzulli (Ed.), Systems and models for developing programs for the gifted and talented (pp. 180-193). Highett, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow Education.

GAT Unit Curriculum K-12, NSW DET 2004

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