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Key concepts and terms

As the philosophy for content is the foundation of the content with attention to new concepts and terms and and skills relevant to content are achieved through section of these materials there is a `Key Concepts and new syllabus, we will unpack the identify how the understandings the Outcomes. In the Resource Terms' table that you can add to.

Activity 4: Practice

The purpose of the activity is to: · understand notions of `Practice'

The first of the outcomes refers to `Practice'. The syllabus tells us that us that: · · · · Practice describes categories in the artworld That the practices need to be understood discretely as disciplines, while appreciating how they interact. Practices require progressive ownership by students The Practices are understood through other areas of content

Below are some statements and questions in relation to practice that you can explore with your students. These enquiries are to assist the student to understand notions of practice.

Practice Includes social structures, positions, actions, and sequences that affect the choices, perceptions, directions, ways of working and views of those involved in the visual arts. Students are introduced to the beliefs, interests and values circulating in the visual arts and how they may proceed in their own work. Below are questions to introduce to students, through the Preliminary course to address practice outcomes. These questions arise in teaching/learning activities, negotiations with the teacher regarding artmaking (in V.A.P.D.)

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Artmaking

What procedures can I use to make art? What are the various forms I might use in my Preliminary Year? How can I learn to use my judgment about artworks? How can I make decisions that are not just `first thing that comes into my head' How should I use the Frames and the Conceptual Framework to extend my investigations? How can I learn to value creative products? Can I give form to my mental representation of ideas How can I give them meaning? What will be the qualities, both aesthetic and expressive, of my representations? What are my intentions and assessments in my artmaking? Does my artwork show conceptual strength and meaning? Is it simple or does it have layers meaning? Why did I do this (intentions)? How did I use signs, symbols, codes and conventions? How will others interpret it? How is this different to my interpretations?

Art history Art criticism

What types of broad­based study should I undertake in the preliminary yea

Am I bringing a new approach to this concept/idea? How have other artists explored this concep What aesethic considerations should I give my work? What experiments do I intend to make? How do I want others to respond to my work?

aking? How do I investigate art history/art criticism using the conceptual framework and the agencies in the artworld? How do I work out the different interpretations of art history/art criticism offered by the frames? Does this help me form judgements? How important is representation in a particular time and place, and over time and in different places? How do different beliefs, technologies and events influence different representations?

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In art making, students need to understand the nature of the practice of artists so that they can apply acquired knowledge, skills and values to their own practice. They should explore how artists make selections and decisions, how they organise their investigations, what actions or procedures they take and what processes of self­evaluation and editing they pursue. They need to appreciate how the frames and Conceptual framework can be applied to artist's practice and how this gives insight to the representation of images and ideas in artworks. This understanding can then enable them to explore their own artmaking using the frames. The above notions of practice need to be identified in terms of both conceptual and material practice; ie students should investigate how artists determine conceptual meaning in their works through a network of explorations and how they experiment and make decisions about media and process. Similarly, in art criticism and art history students need to understand how a r t critics and historians go about their practice, how they make selections, interpretations and judgements and in what forms they express their ideas. From these understandings and skills students can then apply their learning to their own art critical and historical writing and verbal expression.

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Key concepts and terms

Activity 5 will explore the key concepts and terms for art making outcomes P5, P6, H5 and H6.

Activity 5: Artmaking concepts and terms

The purpose of this activity is to: · appreciate the concepts and terms in art making `practice' outcomes

`Sustained intentions' The intention or focus for art making can be of a concept, idea, process, event, artist, theme, style, artist, etc. This intention should be sustained through a network of related activities, processes and investigations. The challenge for teachers is to extend students' conceptual grasp and to sustain their intention or focus; to provide activities that encourage them to explore and build on their concepts and to develop and hone their skills of critical judgement of their own work and the work of others. By investigating art criticism and art history in relation to their art making, students can come to terms these as disciplines and this should inform their own practice. The frames provide them with ways of interpreting interest areas, expanding their ideas and language. The conceptual framework gives them a structure; they could apply it to their practice in artmaking and art criticism/art history, recording responses in their VAPDs and recording the dialogue that they conduct with the teacher. Within art making practice, students should acquire knowledge, understandings and skills in relation to both `conceptual practice' and `material practice'. They should sustain explorations in relation to the concept of their work and with the materials and processes that they employ. Conceptual Strength and Meaning (Conceptual practice) Conceptual strength and meaning should be demonstrated in a Body of work and is a criterion used in its assessment. As the concept is explored, worked on, evaluated and reworked, the artworks should gain conceptual strength and meaning. This can range from a convincing statement about a simple idea, say the representation of fish or other simple object, to the building of layers of meaning where there is a complex language of signs and symbols.

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The sustained investigation in art making should be encouraged from the beginning of the Preliminary Course. It involves questioning work through the frames and conceptual framework with their own work and other artist's works. This practice should give rise to a `body of work'. With sustained intentions or investigation and continual re­evaluation and working back into a work, students move towards coherence in their work. Resolution Resolution is another criterion used for marking a body of work and is addressed in a separate set of outcomes. The outcomes refer to: `Material techniques' or manipulation of a medium through sustained investigation leading to `technical accomplishment'. The notion of technical accomplishment is inferred to be the intentions of the artist. Resolution is achieved in a student's work with sustained development, where they persist with the manipulation of process and media. In some artworks, it is possible that the media and process constitute the concept itself. For example, in the colour field paintings by Mark Rothko, the medium and i t s manipulation IS the message. Students should aim to integrate conceptual and material practice; ie the conceptual strength and meaning of a work should be enhanced by technical accomplishment. Here is a range of artworks by art student Polly Staniford. They represent mixed media works, including photography, digital images, print­making and found object sculpture. Titled "Fish", these works were placed in the category of `Collection of Works'.

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Polly collected various paraphernalia from the sea over a period of time. She used these objects either directly in her artwork or a stimulus for the work. One of the objects she collected was a dead puffer fish that had been washed up onto the sand. Polly cleaned and dried the carcass, which she later mounted and presented it in a perspex box. This `find' was pivotal in the exploration of fish, which became the concept for her explorations. Polly understood the importance and value of research and, therefore, she explored her concept in various ways (including visits to the fish market), this attitude logically led to the development of work in more than one form. Fish was not an attempt to address `deep and meaningful' world issues; her intention was to simply explore part of the world that had meaning for her. Her concept was simple and very much part of her personal experience and as such it became strong stimulus for the marking of art works. Her work demonstrated a strength of concept, reinforced by a high technical accomplishment in a range of media.

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The frames

Outcomes P3, H3, P9 and H9 address the frames.

Activity 6: The frames

The purpose of this activity is to: · · understand key concepts and terms select appropriate historical investigations in relation to the frames

Most of you will be familiar with this content from the year 7-10 syllabus. You may have used terms other than Frames. Some of these are `points of view', standpoints'. The outcomes refer to frames as `orientations' in art history and a r t criticism. The word `Frames' does not necessarily imply what it means to a student. You could make actual frames that represent the four frames and insert coloured cellophane windows through which artworks can be viewed, thereby colouring the interpretation and understanding according the frame.

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Key concepts and terms

Here is a range of questions that can be posed to students within each frame

Frames:

These enquires into the frames can be regarded as discrete or fluid. Each frame sets up different relationships between artists, artworks, the audience and the world. The questions relate both to the student's own artmaking and the study of artworks of others. Below are questions to introduce to students to address the application of the frames in teaching/learning activities, art critical and art historical research investigations and negotiations with the teacher regarding art making (VAPD). Subjective frame

Personal psychological experience

What is my first impression? What do I see, hear, ... ? What is the emotional impact? What do I feel, recall, remember? What am I reminded of? What intuition or imaginings do I have about the artwork ? Do I like it? What has it got to do with me or my experiences? What emotions does the artist want to express? Why did he (or I) make it? What is it about?

Cultural frame

Cultural and social meanings

What cultural group, race, place, identity is represented? What ideology is revealed in ideas, concepts, manifestoes, shared beliefs? What social class, gender? What political stance (dissent or support, propaganda or protest)? What beliefs- secular or spiritual? What significant events? What meanings? What signs and symbols reveal this information? How do these cultural and social meanings affect the art practices of this artist?

Structural frame

Communication, system of signs

Describe the visual language of line, shape, colour, texture, tone, focal point, visual devices lighting, composition, 3D space. What style, or period, or art movement? What materials and processes are used? What other use do found objects have? What symbolic value do the above convey? Why were these symbols, signs selected? What are the relationships between the symbols, signs? What formal conventions are shown eg perspective, tonal modelling? What cultural conventions are shown eg landscape, nude? How do all of these explain the world at the time and now?

Postmodern frame

Ideas that challenge the mainstream

Is it mainstream or is it outside the mainstream? What is appropriated, quoted from another source? Explain the source and what meaning is added. Does this produce humour, irony, parody, wit, playfullness? What is omitted or disregarded? What is re-configured and reinterpreted? What is challenged in social cultural values, beliefs spiritual/secular, power authorities? What is challenged in art practices­classifications, conventions, art movements/styles? What is challenged about art history, the masterpiece, art for art's sake, the role of art?

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Frames and Historical Investigations Within the Preliminary course outcomes it is expected that students understand the frames discreetly. You need to select artists/artworks, movements, styles, events in your investigations that appropriately represent each frame. For instance: · Subjective: Romanticism, expressionism, abstract expressionism, Frank Lloyd Wright, Van Gogh, Pollock Cultural: Daumier, Futurists, Rodin, Mexican Revolutionary art Structural: Formalists, Cezanne, Mondrian, Bauhaus, Rothko Postmodern: Dada, Cindy Sherman, Janet Laurence, Roberto Venturi

· · ·

Even though the syllabus implies discreet understanding of the frames, they cannot be fully understood if studied in isolation. The same is true when applying the frames to artists, artworks, movement, styles and events. Each of the above investigations can be explored and, therefore, better understood if investigated through all of the frames. To address both discreet and integrated understanding of the frames, it is merely a matter of foregrounding one, while others are also explored. Refer to the unit on `Modernism' in the Resource section for `framed' explorations.

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Key concepts and terms

The conceptual framework

The last component of content in the outcomes is the Conceptual framework (Outcomes P2, H2, P8 and H8). This acts as an organiser to explore `agencies' in the artworld and their relationships. If you ask a class of year 11 students to write down what they understand by the term `conceptual framework' it is probable that they will come up with a wide range of interpretations that may not coincide with the syllabus use of the term. A device which can be a helpful aid to meaning and provide a physical explanation is a triangular pyramid (tetrahedron) constructed from straws or wire. With edges of about 15cm, this can be placed on an overhead projector. The image that is projected should correlate to the 2­dimensional diagram given in the syllabus. This device is useful in explaining a) the fixed nature of relationships between the agencies of the art world, represented by the edges, and b) that the focus for study can be located at any of the apexes and that this focus can be shifted or rotated.

Activity 7: The conceptual framework

The purpose of the activity is to: · · · appreciate the relationships between the agencies of the artworld understand new concepts and terms in relation to the conceptual framework select appropriate historical investigations in relation to the conceptual framework

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World description and interpretation of aspects of the World representations of experience class ideology age events technology

Artwork Material, physical, virtual objects Art, craft, design 2 D,3D,4D/time based works representations of ideas personal experience, cultural views, symbolic interpretations and challenges to other ideas

Audience the role and value of the audience as critical consumers, art critics, art historians, teachers, students, entrepreneurs, members of public meanings differ now and over time patron, curator, gallery vs Guild, Salon, Academy.

Artist the role of the artist Who, what,

­to me? ­to others? Who do I hope will see my work? What do I want them to

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Let's look at the agencies in the artworld and who or what they refer to: What new terms are referred to in each agency? · · · 4D, virtual, material, physical works the roles of artists as new inclusion in syllabus the various players in the field of audiences and the roles of museums, curators etc

Artwork Artworks are differentiated as 2D, 3D and time­based. It is, therefore, advisable that examples of each are included in investigations and that students have ideas about the characteristics of each. Also, `material, physical, virtual' objects are listed. Students should have an understanding of the differences of these manifestations. Teachers should include interaction with each in student investigation. Notice Question 1a) in the draft sample exam paper "Artworks can exist as physical things". Artist The wide­ranging roles of artists are made explicit in this listing. Students should explore examples of these and others, and develop ideas about their roles. Notice Question 7 in the draft sample exam paper "Artists can be warriors, rebels and great masters". Audience Even though the relationship between audiences and artists and their works is implicit in art criticism/art history of the current syllabus, it has become a formulised part of study within the conceptual framework. Audience is a collective term representing a range of interest groups. Students need to explore a range of audiences in their investigation. For example, if we consider the Archibald Prize exhibition, which different interest groups or audiences affect the way artworks are understood or valued, and how artists are perceived? In this case, students could explore such audiences as curators, judges, sponsors, critics, consumers, etc. Conversely, students should explore the impact of the exhibition on the visiting public. See draft sample exam Question 5 "Exhibitions are constructed to represent a point of view to audiences".

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World The world indicates both the world of the artist and the audience. Students need to understand how artists represent ideas and images of their world in artworks, and that audiences bring along to exhibitions and artworks their own ideas and images of the world which they draw on to make sense of artworks. Often, the artist and audience are from different worlds, and this creates circumstances for different types of understandings of artworks. Where artists and audiences share the same world, the audience's understandings might be challenged. See Question 6 of the Draft sample exam " Artists seek to interpret the world in new ways".

In the Preliminary Course it is advisable to foreground each of the elements of the Conceptual Framework. What event, issue, concept, movement, style, artist etc. might you select to high­light each agency? As students move through the Preliminary course, they should question the relationships between the agencies of the world and start to `frame' their investigations.

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Key concepts and terms

Activity 8: Representation

The purpose of this activity is to: · · understand what is representation appreciate how the application of the frames and conceptual framework can provide insight into representation

Representation

Representation is the process of interpreting and depicting an idea or aspect of the world in a particular way. It involves a mental operation in which certain qualities of the idea/world are used to produce another idea which i s registered in the artwork. Ideas or aspects of the world that are represented are communicated or depicted through image or word and become `texts' or `narratives' in an artwork. Artists re-present ideas, images, issues, events etc. They bring to the present or give presence. The audience is confronted with this re-presentation and responds to what i s represented or communicated to them. They combine this with their own ideas or expectations about artworks to arrive at new representations. Representation in the field of the visual a r ts is interpreted and documented by art critics and art historians. Their representations are evident in their a r t writing.

The artwork below is an artwork by Polly Staniford exhibited in a school exhibition, part of a collection of works. Polly has represented her ideas about fish in this work. She has also represented her understanding of artworks as sculpture and art exhibits (indicated by the `Do not touch' sign and the presentation table). Audiences bring their representations or notions about artwork and fish to the exhibition. They understand the sculpture as an artwork. This object would have a very different representation if it were placed in a petshop or seafood restaurant.

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Below is an extract from "Art of the Postmodern Era" by Irving Sandler (Harper Collins 1996) that might assist you in your understanding of what is representation. ...But fewer and fewer you critics, scholars, and intellectuals seemed t o be listening to formalists of any persuasion. Instead, they saw an unbridgeable rift between art critics, who paid close attention to what was `within' the frame of the work of art, that is, its formal components, and art theorists, who looked `beyond' the frame to the social, economic, and political context within which art came into being and whose institutions it served. Art theorists paid particular attention t o class and gender, which they claimed shaped art. They shifted critical attention away from the particular work of art to its social context, claiming that art could be understood only by investigating the extraaesthetic circumstances within which it was produced and exhibited. Above all, they insisted that what counted most in art was what it represented. Representation was defined as the complex of images and texts through which a society represents itself­images and texts that have become so ingrained as to be accepted without question. The work of art was treated as a kind of "text" leading to a discourse on representation. Instead of focusing on the singleness of the art object, art theoreticians dealt with its multiple contexts, with the polyvalence of meaning, with intertextuality­more specifically, with the patronage of art, the class interests served by it, and its relation to popular culture. This resulted in a considerable diversity of approaches among art theorists. They analysed the content of art from the often conflicting perspectives of Marxism. Feminism, history (rather than art history), sociology, psychoanalysis, semiology, and linguistics. But they all agreed that art was essentially about representation, not formal issues...

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Representation, the Frames, Conceptual framework and Practice

By applying the frames and Conceptual framework to the investigation of the field of art, students can gain insight into representation in art making, art criticism and a r t history. The Conceptual framework could be explored through any of the frames. The agency ` World' could be examined via the Cultural frame, where the example of WWI could be seen to give rise to art movements and artworks that register the social and political horrors of that event (see Futurism or `Guernica'). The `World' of new technologies could be explored through the structural frame to give meaning to the representations in Howard Arkley's work. The technology of air brushing gives insight to his material practice. Audiences could be examined through the Subjective frame. The Archibald audience have strong personal responses and views as to who should be prize winners. This i s dependent on their previous notions of what portraits should be and how they should be represented. Generally speaking, visitors to the Biennale expect to be challenged both by the nature of artworks and their social implications; they could be understood as Postmodern audiences. Art critics and historians, by way of their selections, interpretations and judgements, are framing their responses to artworks. Feldman, in his formalist analysis of artworks, employs the Structural frame, Robert Hughes could be seen as being motivated by cultural considerations in his art histories. Griselda Pollock challenges conventional art histories through the Postmodern frame. In Section 2, Teaching and Learning Activities further explores the integration of content. These should assist student's understanding of representation.

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