Read Microsoft Word - Science - Grade 05 _2003-2006_.doc text version

Analysis of 2006 Released TAKS Tests By

John A. Crain. Ed.D. Project Coordinator

Karen Laurenzi Science Specialist, Region XIII ESC, Austin, TX

Analysis of 2004 Released TAKS Tests By

Katie Donaldson Secondary Science Instructional Support Teacher Garland ISD Jean Gill Former Science Teacher on Special Assignment Grapevine-Colleyville ISD

Analysis of 2003 Released TAKS Tests By

Laurel Dingrando Secondary Science Coordinator Garland ISD Katie Donaldson Secondary Science Instructional Support Teacher Garland ISD Cindy Gillean Science Coordinator Highland Park ISD Bill Neal Director of Science - K-2 Richardson ISD

Science Grade 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Acknowledgements

Deanne Hullender Public Information Director Dallas County Schools Coordinated production of this publication, contributing numerous ideas to smooth the way to a finished process Rex Cole Director of Special Projects Dallas County Schools Coordinated many of the activities for this project, including the production of the video training segment Reavis Wortham Communications Coordinator Garland ISD Provided photos for cover. Judy Kriehn Communications Coordinator Garland ISD Designed the cover and did the page layout for the introductory/acknowledgement section Cathy Reaves Executive Director Dallas Schools Television Oversaw the production of the video training project Chris Morrison Technology Consultant Created/converted documentation utilizing the current testing format for primary documentation Leatha Mullins Chief Technology Officer Project manager for the project, coordinating the timeline, documentation for the analysts, website and CDs.

The Board of Trustees of Dallas County Schools and Superintendent Rick Sorrells

for their support of this project.

Science Grade 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Table of Contents

th

Science 5 Grade

Objective 1:

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science.

(5.1) Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. A Demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations ................................ S5-1 (5.2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. A Plan and implement descriptive and simple experimental investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology.......................................................................................... S5-6 B Collect information by observing and measuring .............................................................. S5-11 C Analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence ......................................................................................................... S5-13 D Communicate valid conclusions ........................................................................................ S5-17 E Construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools [including computers] to organize, examine, and evaluate information.............................................. S5-19 (5.3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. A Analyze, review, [and critique] scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information......................................................................................................................... S5-21 B Draw inferences based on information [related to promotional materials] for products and services ......................................................................................................... S5-22 C Represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations ........................... S5-25 (5.4) Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. A Collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, microscopes, [cameras, sound recorders, computers,] hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, compasses, balances, [hot plates,] meter sticks, timing devices, magnets, collecting nets, and safety goggles (5.4)............................................................................................. S5-27

Science Grade 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Objective 2:

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences.

(2.9) Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs. A Identify the external characteristics of different kinds of plants and animals that allow their needs to be met................................................................................................. S5-34 B Compare and give examples of the ways living organisms depend on each other and on their environments.................................................................................................. S5-36 (3.8) Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms need food, water, light, air, a way to dispose of waste, and an environment in which to live. A Observe and describe the habitats of organisms within an ecosystem ............................... S5-39 B Observe and identify organisms with similar needs that compete with one another for resources such as oxygen, water, food, or space .......................................................... S5-42 C Describe environmental changes in which some organisms would thrive, become ill, or perish ........................................................................................................................ S5-44 D Describe how living organisms modify their physical environment to meet their needs such as beavers building a dam or humans building a home ................................... S5-47 (4.6) Science concepts. The student knows that change can create recognizable patterns. A Identify patterns of change such as in weather, metamorphosis, and objects in the sky...................................................................................................................................... S5-48 (5.5) Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. A Describe some cycles, structures, and processes that are found in a simple system .......... S5-50 B Describe some interactions that occur in a simple system ................................................. S5-52 (5.6) Science concepts. The student knows that some change occurs in cycles. C Describe and compare life cycles of plants and animals .................................................... S5-54 (5.9) Science concepts. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. A Compare the adaptive characteristics of species that improve their ability to survive and reproduce in an ecosystem (5.9) ..................................................................... S5-56 B Analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem (5.9)................................................................................................ S5-61 C Predict some adaptive characteristics required for survival and reproduction by an organism in an ecosystem (5.9).......................................................................................... S5-73

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(5.10) Science concepts. The student knows that likenesses between offspring in plants and parents can be inherited or learned. A Identify traits that are inherited from parent to offspring in plants and animals (5.10).................................................................................................................................. S5-75 B Give examples of learned characteristics that result from the influence of the environment (5.10)............................................................................................................. S5-77

Objective 3:

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences.

(3.6) Science concepts. The student knows that forces cause change. A Measure and record changes in the position and direction of the motion of an object to which a force such as a push or pull has been applied ........................................ S5-81 (5.5) Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. A Describe some cycles, structures, and processes that are found in a simple system .......... S5-83 B Describe some interactions that occur in a simple system ................................................. S5-84 (5.7) Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. A Classify matter based on its physical properties including magnetism, physical state, and the ability to conduct or insulate heat, electricity, and sound (5.7).................... S5-90 B Demonstrate that some mixtures maintain the physical properties of their ingredients (5.7) ................................................................................................................. S5-93 C Identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving sugar in water (5.7) ............................................................... S5-97 D Observe and measure characteristic properties of substances that remain constant such as boiling points and melting points (5.7)................................................................ S5-101 (5.8) Science concepts. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms. A Differentiate among forms of energy including light, heat, electrical, and solar energy............................................................................................................................... S5-105 B Identify and demonstrate everyday examples of how light is reflected, such as from tinted windows, and refracted, such as in cameras, telescopes, and eyeglasses ...... S5-106 C Demonstrate that electricity can flow in a circuit and can produce heat, light, sound, and magnetic effects ............................................................................................. S5-110 D Verify that vibrating an object can produce sound........................................................... S5-113

Science Grade 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Objective 4:

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences.

(3.6) Science concepts. The student knows that forces cause change. B Identify that the surface of the Earth can be changed by forces such as earthquakes and glaciers ...................................................................................................................... S5-116 (4.6) Science concepts. The student knows that change can create recognizable patterns. A Identify patterns of change such as in weather, metamorphosis, and objects in the sky.................................................................................................................................... S5-118 (5.5) Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. A Describe some cycles, structures, and processes that are found in a simple system ........ S5-123 B Describe some interactions that occur in a simple system ............................................... S5-125 (5.6) Science concepts. The student knows that some change occurs in cycles. A Identify events and describe changes that occur on a regular basis such as in daily, weekly, lunar, and seasonal cycles................................................................................... S5-126 B Identify the significance of the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles ................................. S5-127 (5.11) Science concepts. The student knows that certain past events affect present and future events. A Identify and observe actions that require time for changes to be measurable, including growth, erosion, dissolving, weathering, and flow........................................... S5-129 B Draw conclusions about "what happened before" using data such as from treegrowth rings and sedimentary rock sequences (5.10) ...................................................... S5-131 C Identify past events that led to the formation of the Earth's renewable, nonrenewable, and inexhaustible resources (5.10)................................................................. S5-133

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(3.11, 4.11, 5.12) Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. A Identify and describe the importance of earth materials including rocks, soil, water, and gases of the atmosphere in the local area and classify them as renewable, nonrenewable, or inexhaustible resources (3.11) ............................................................. S5-134 C Identify the planets in our solar system and their position in relation to the Sun (3.11)................................................................................................................................ S5-136 D Describe the characteristics of the Sun (3.11).................................................................. S5-138 A Test properties of soils including texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support life (4.11)............................................................................................................. S5-141 C Identify the Sun as the major source of energy for the Earth and understand its role in the growth of plants, in the creation of winds, and in the water cycle (4.11)............... S5-144 A Interpret how land forms are the result of a combination of constructive and destructive forces such as deposition of sediment and weathering (5.12)........................ S5-147 C Identify the physical characteristics of the Earth and compare them to the physical characteristics of the moon (5.12) .................................................................................... S5-149

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: When entering the classroom, a student sees a lab setup. What should the student do next?

TAKS Objective: #1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. 5.1 The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to (A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations.

Picture:

Question: Taks Booklet #1 Right Answer: D Wait for the teacher to give instructions Wrong Answers: A Turn on the water faucet B Cut the leaves into small pieces to prepare for the experiment C Organize the lab equipment so everything is ready to begin Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Students should not begin to work without supervision from the teacher. Why? Students have not been given any directions as to how to proceed with the materials that are on the lab table. The students should do nothing with these materials until instructed.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should have direct instruction and knowledge about lab safety. Directions should be given by the supervisor before any lab activity is started. Following correct safety procedures can prevent accidents. This should be a standard rule of any lab setting. . Students may be ask about lab procedures and safety using a variety of lab settings, showing many different types of equipment and tools. Students need to have direct experience with the equipment as listed on the TEKS at each grade level. Texas Safety Standards should be referenced as students learn about and use safe practices in the classroom, laboratory, and field.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which of the following would be safe to do during a lab activity?

Question: 1 Right Answer: D* Following lab rules Wrong Answers: A Running in the classroom B Leaving a water spill on the floor C Touching hot surfaces Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: #1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. 5.1 Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to (A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations Essential Knowledge: Why? Students should not begin to work without supervision from the teacher. Why? Students have not been given any directions as to how to proceed with the materials that are on the lab table. The students should do nothing with these materials until instructed. Students should have direct instruction and knowledge about lab safety. Directions should be given by the supervisor before any lab activity is started. Following correct safety procedures can prevent accidents. Students may be ask about lab procedures and safety using a variety of lab settings, showing many different types of equipment and tools. Students need to have experienced the equipment as listed on the TEKS at each grade level. Texas Safety Standards should be referenced as students learn about and use safe practices in the classroom, laboratory, and field. This item requires students to determine how to improve a model. Students need to be familiar with the size of Earth relative to the sun and the moon. This item requires students not only to critique a model but also to apply content knowledge. Other items based on this student expectation may ask students to determine whether something is missing from a model or to identify what is incorrect about a model.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 5 Test Question: Which of these should the students avoid while doing this activity?

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. 5.1 Science processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. (A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations.

Picture:

Question: 5 Right Answer: D Tasting the mixture Wrong Answers: A Using a metal teaspoon B Using a plastic bowl C Stirring the vinegar Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Students should be instructed to never taste or put anything in their mouth from a lab experiment or activity. Why? Using a metal spoon, plastic bowl, or stirring the vinegar will not cause a safety problem for the students or change the reaction caused by mixing the vinegar with the baking soda. Students should have knowledge about lab safety. A general rule for any lab classroom should be to not taste, or put in your mouth any of the substances from a lab activity or experiment. Students should have many experiences in the classroom that give them the opportunity to use safe practices. Students may be asked about lab procedures and safety using a variety of lab settings and instances. Texas Safety Standards, which can be obtained through the Texas Education Agency's Office of Publications, should be referenced as students learn about and use safe practices in the classroom, laboratory, and field.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 14 Test Question: Students placed some frogs in a tank to study their behavior. What should the students do for safety reasons after feeding the frogs?

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. 5.1 Science processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. (A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations.

Picture:

Question: 14 Right Answer: G Wash their hands with soap and water

Wrong Answers: F Wash the floor with soap and water H Rinse the frog tank with cool water J Rinse the frogs with cool water Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Students should know that as a safety measure they should wash their hands after any lab activity or experiment. This is particularly important if they have handled any animals or chemicals. Why? These are not safety issues for the students that are directly related placing the frogs in a tank and feeding them. Students need to have many different experiences in the field and lab settings. They need to understand all of the different safety measures that must me made for each of the different experiences. Questions directly related to safety issues that can be found in any elementary lab or field investigation may be asked. Texas Safety Standards, which can be obtained through the Texas Education Agency's Office of Publications, should be referenced as students learn about and use safe practices in the classroom, laboratory, and field.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 35 Test Question: This laboratory symbol shows that when performing an experiment, students need to --

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. 5.1 Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. (A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations.

Picture:

Question: 35 Right Answer: B protect clothing Wrong Answers: A avoid electricity C keep away from food D protect equipment Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? This is a picture of a symbol that represents the safety rule related to protecting clothing. Why? This picture is not a symbol that represents the safety rules that deal with electricity, food, and equipment. Students should be familiar with the symbols that represent safety in the lab. The safety issues related to these symbols should be reinforced often. Teachers should reinforce any safety issue directly related to a lab before students are allowed to begin the lab. Students may be asked about lab procedures and safety issues related to a variety of different lab settings. Safety issues related to lab equipment may also be addressed. Texas Safety Standards, which can be obtained through the Texas Education Agency's Office of Publications, should be referenced as students learn about and use safe practices in the classroom, laboratory, and field.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Students placed two identical toy cars on these wooden ramps. The students let the cars roll down the ramps. This experiment most likely tests the hypothesis that --

TAKS Objective: #1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. 5.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (A) plan and implement descriptive and simple experimental investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology.

Picture:

Question: TAKS Booklet #17 Right Answer: B* the height of the ramp affects the speed of the car Wrong Answers: A ramps made of wood make cars roll faster C the speed of the car is determined by tire size D plastic cars travel faster than metal cars Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The higher the elevation of the ramp the faster the cars will roll down the ramp. Why? The ramps pictured are both made of wood, and there is not evidence that the material that the ramp or car is made of would have an effect on this particular experiment. Student should experiment with different height ramps with different types of cars to understand the relationship between ramp (incline plane) and car speed. Students need to be familiar with the scientific method. They should have many opportunities to write question and then design an experiment, with a hypothesis, procedures and a conclusion. 5.2)(A) and (3.6)(A) This cluster illustrates the importance of lab work in the elementary science classroom. Students must be familiar with manipulating variables--in this case, how different heights affect speed. Students should be able to describe gravity as a force that can cause motion.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which of these would be the best way to find whether a softball will roll down a hill faster than a basketball?

Question: 25 Right Answer: B*Observing the balls rolling down the same section of a hill at the same time Wrong Answers: A Determining which of the balls has the greater mass C Throwing the balls into the air at the same time to see which goes higher D Dropping the balls from the same height and observing which hits the ground first Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: #1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. 5.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (A) plan and implement descriptive and simple experimental investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology Essential Knowledge: Why? This simple experiment of rolling two balls down a hill will give direct observable data to answer the question. Why? These choices do not fit the experimental design required by the question. The question is asking about speed and incline.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should have hands-on opportunities to ask question about everyday object and plan and implement a simple experiment. Have the students ask and answer there own how questions. Students should frequently use the Scientific Method when doing science. Students should get practice planning and implementing descriptive and simple experimental investigations, including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses and selecting and using equipment as defined by the TEKS at each grade level. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the a primary goal of science education.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: This experiment was probably set up to answer which of the following questions?

TAKS Objective: #1 The students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. 5.2 Scientific Processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (A) plan and implement descriptive and simple experimental investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology

Picture:

Question: 37 Right Answer: B Will ants go to a dark or a light area? Wrong Answers: A What is the mass of the ants? C How many kinds of ants are there? D Where do ants get food? Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Students should observe that one side of the ant box is covered or (darkened) and the other side is brightly light. Why? These answer choices are not possibilities based on the picture.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need to know the difference between direct observation and inferences. Observation is the use of the five senses to gather data about the objects and events. Inferring is the use of a logical thought process to represent a relationship between observations or provide an explanation of an observation. Students could be ask to make inferences about the ants behavior based on the design of this box. The students could also be ask to predict an outcome using data to forecast future events based on their observations. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the a primary goal of science education.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: TAKS Objective: #1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of Which of these science. questions can be 5.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory answered from the investigations. The students is expected to: results of this (A) plan and implement descriptive and simple experimental investigations including experiment? asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology Picture:

Question: 14 Right Answer: H* Does seawater affect bean growth? Wrong Answers: F Do beans need light in order to grow? G Can beans grow faster in groups of eight? J How much water is needed for beans to grow? Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Seawater is the only item in this experiment that is different between the two set ups. Why? Both of the experimental set ups have the same number of beans, eight , and the amount of water being used appears to be the same in the droppers. The question does not tell us about sunlight. We would have to infer that these would be in sunlight.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should have opportunities to ask questions and set up experiments in the classroom. You could have students set up an experiment similar to the one pictured and have other students in the class, infer what the results might be. Prediction and inferring are two important skills that the students should practice anytime they do an experiment. Students should be familiar with controls and variables as they experiment in the classroom. Using the scientific method in the classroom is important to the students understanding experimentation. Student should also understand control and variables. This will help them identify the process of experimentation. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the a primary goal of science education.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 32 Test Question: Equal masses of paper towel were used to soak up water from a cup. Which question can be answered from the information above?

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. 5.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (A) plan and implement descriptive and simple experimental investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology.

Picture:

Question: 32 Right Answer: G Which paper towel is most absorbent? Wrong Answers: F Which paper towel is the best buy? H Which paper towel is the most colorful? J Which paper towel is safest for the environment? Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The mass of the water that was absorbed can be found from the information given in the data table. Why? Information related to the cost of the paper towel would be need to state which paper towel is the best buy. There is no information given in the data to support which paper towel is the most colorful, or which paper towel is safest for the environment. Students should be given many opportunities to use evidence to support explanations and conclusions. Students should be able to use evidence such as data they collect and communicate themselves from activities and observations made in the field or lab, as well as evidence or data that is given to them in the form of tables, graphs, or charts. Students need to have an understanding of how forces within the Earth play a role in the formation of the Earth's surface. They should understand the different forces related to volcanoes and earthquakes have played a significant role in creating many of the structures that form the Earth's surface. They should also be aware that earthquakes and volcanoes then to happen along fault lines. Students should also have and understanding of how the movement of glaciers can have an impact on the Earth's surface. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' criticalthinking skills and problem solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts ins the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: What is the mass of these rocks?

TAKS Objective: #1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. 5.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (B) collect information by observing and measuring

Picture:

Question: 39 Right Answer: B* 17 grams Wrong Answers: A 10 grams C 19 grams D 22 grams Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? That is the correct mass as shown on the three bars. Why? These values are not represented on the bars of the triple beam balance.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should have many hands-on experience finding the actual mass of objects with the triple beam balance. Most errors occur in reading the mass because the students do not understand how to place a decimal. Students can get additional experience reading a triple beam balance at www.OHAUS.com. The balances could be set with any value that the students will have to read. Be careful of numbers that require decimals. Students will be required to make precise measurements from illustrations. Students may be asked to read masses from balances, volumes, from graduated cylinders, and temperatures from thermometers. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the a primary goal of science education.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: What is the approximate diameter of this coin?

TAKS Objective: #1 The students demonstrate an understanding of the understanding of the nature of science. .5.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (B) collect information by observing and measuring.

Picture:

Question: 7 Right Answer: B* 2 centimeters Wrong Answers: A 2 millimeters C 2 meters D 2 kilometers Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The diameter of this coin measures approximately 2 centimeters. Why? Two millimeters, 2 meters and 2 kilometers are either too small or too large. These would not be accurate based on the size of the object students are being ask to measure. Students must practice measuring daily with both metric and standard measurements. This is the only way that they will have a frame of reference for the metric increments and be able to apply the appropriate label when ask to measure. The SI system is based on the number 10 and multiples of 10,such as 100 and 1,000. This makes it easy to change from one unit to another unit. Students should realize that scientists use the same measurement system, anyone can understand their experiments, no matter what part of the world they live in. Using the same measurement system is kind of like speaking the same language. The students should also have an example of an everyday object that would be approximately the size of a millimeter, centimeter etc. For example: a millimeter is approximately the thickness of a fingernail, and that a centimeter is approximately the width of the nail on there pinkie finger. Give the students practice with measuring not using a ruler. Estimating using the alternate object that is similar to the size of the actual increment. Students could be ask to measure in any metric increment. Let students predict before they do the actual measuring. This will enhance and strengthen there measurement ability. Students should have a mental image of the metric system, and be able predict more accurately as they have a better command of the metric system. Students should have practice measuring with a broken ruler (one that does not start at zero) so they can apply their knowledge with out having the zero end to always start with. This will test there knowledge of the metric system. (Be careful if making copies of a ruler, photocopying distorts the actual size of the increments on the ruler) Students should be able to collect information by observing and measuring. Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with the rulers, balances, and measuring cups. Students will be ask to make precise measurement from illustrations. They may also be asked to determine the lengths of objects using a 20-centimeter paper ruler provided as part of the test materials. Since the ends of rulers may be damaged, students should be aware that it is important not to start at the end of the ruler when measuring.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: This diagram represents water in a container. What process is taking place?

TAKS Objective: #1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. 5.2 Scientific processes. The students uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigation. The students is expected to: (C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence

Picture:

Question: 17 Right Answer: D* Evaporation Wrong Answers: A Freezing B Condensation C Melting Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Evaporation is a change of state from liquid to gas that takes place at the surface of a liquid. Why? Freezing and melting are opposites and would not cause the water to leave the container as the arrows suggest. A condensation diagram would have arrows which represent molecules coming into the container. Students need to have hands-on experiences to understand how matter changes due to the increase or decrease of heat. Molecules in liquid state move about in all directions and bump into one another while moving at different speed. Some gain kinetic energy while other lose energy. Molecules at the surface that gain kinetic energy by being bumped from below may have enough energy to break free of the liquid. Molecules at the surface that gain kinetic energy by being bumped from below may have enough energy to break free of the liquid. These molecules can leave the surface and fly into the space about the liquid. In this way they become gas molecules. Students should have practice using direct and indirect evidence . Models could be used to represent objects to large or to small to see. Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. Models can be used to represent the natural world. Models are used to study objects and events whose size and scope may make them difficult to study or explain. Students should understand that models are not perfect representation and have limitations.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 18 Test Question: This diagram shows some stages in the termite life cycle. Which of these is supported by the information in the diagram?

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. 5.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence.

Picture:

Question: 18 Right Answer: J The queen produces the eggs. Wrong Answers: F Some nymphs have wings. G Some larvae lay eggs. H Eggs develop into three kinds of larvae. Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The diagram shows that the eggs come directly from the queen. Why? The nymph illustrated in the diagram does not have wings, the larvae come directly from the eggs, and there is only one type of larva shown. These statements are not supported by the diagram. Students should be given many opportunities to use evidence to support explanations and conclusions. Students should be able to use evidence such as data they collect and communicate themselves from activities and observations made in the field or lab, as well as evidence or data that is given to them in the form of tables, graphs, or charts. Students may see questions for this student expectation that revolve around any concept that TEKS, tested and untested, cover. Students need to be familiar with supporting explanations from data that can be found in graphs, charts, diagrams, or tables.

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Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. Models are used to study objects and events whose size and scope may make them difficult to study or explain. Students should understand that models are not perfect representations and have limitations.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 20 Test Question: The graph shows air temperatures taken at noon each day for a week. What is the difference between the highest and the lowest temperature? Record your answer to the nearest degree on the answer document.

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. 5.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (C) analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence.

Picture:

Question: 20 Right Answer: 6 Wrong Answers:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The highest temperature was on Tuesday 27ºC and the lowest temperature was on Sunday 21ºC. The difference between 27 and 21 is 6. Why? Students may come up with any number of wrong answers depending on how they interpret graph. It is very important for students to get many opportunities to interpret and produce graphs, charts, tables, and diagrams. This skill should be taught and reinforced throughout curriculum along with other content that is being taught. Students may see questions for this student expectation that revolve around any concept that TEKS, tested and untested, cover. Students need to be familiar with supporting explanations from data that can be found in graphs, charts, diagrams, or tables. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts ins the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: What conclusion can be drawn from this graph?

TAKS Objective: #1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. 5.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (D) communicate valid conclusions

Picture:

Question: 33 Right Answer: A* A peach contains a lower percent of water than lettuce. Wrong Answers: B Lettuce contains a lower percent of water than bread. C A melon contains a higher percent of water than the other foods. D Bread contains the highest percent of water. Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Based on the Percent of Water in Common Foods graph the peach contains 80 % water and lettuce contains approximately 95 % water. Why? B. Lettuce (95 %) does not contain less water than the bread (40 %). C. Melon (90%) contains less water than lettuce (95%), but more water than the peach (80%), bread (40%). D. Bread (40%) contains the lowest percent of water

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should have many opportunities to read commercially and student prepared graphs. Make sure that students understand the value on the X and Y axis, and correct labeling is identified and practiced. Students should not only analyze their own collected data, but should study data that was collected indirectly (not first hand). Graph, charts and tables are evidence from an experiment, organized, and used to draw conclusions about a hypothesis. Data is used to draw inference, An inference is a reasonable conclusion based on what you observe. If students should understand about evaporation. Students could see any type of graphs, Students could be asked to analyze any type of data displayed on all different types of graphs from bar to line. If given practice making sense of data and drawing conclusions using inference students will get proficient at data analysis In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the a primary goal of science education.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 36 Test Question: Which of the following does the information in the picture support?

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. 5.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (D) communicate valid conclusions.

Picture:

Question: 36 Right Answer: J Fire needs air.

Wrong Answers: F Candles cause fire. G Corks put out fire. H Fire warms glass.

Essential Knowledge: Why? The picture supports the statement that fires needs air, by showing a flame on the candles with the glass that has space provided by the corks for air to enter and the glass that is turned so that air can enter from the top. Why? The picture does not show any evidence that candles cause fire, corks put out fire, or that fire warms glass. Student's may infer from past knowledge that fire will warm glass, however, the picture does not show any evidence that can be used to support that statement. Students should be given many opportunities in the lab or in the field where that can use data and/or observation to make a statement and use the data and/or observation evidence to support their statement. Students may see questions that require that they make conclusions for evidence given in the form of tables, charts, graphs, pictures, or diagrams. They may be given a conclusion and asked about which statement from the evidence would support that conclusion. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem solving abilities. Using criticalthinking skills to apply science concepts ins the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: An uncovered bowl of water was placed in the refrigerator. Each day the amount of water left in the bowl was recorded. Which graph probably shows the results?

Question: 29 Right Answer:

TAKS Objective: #1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. 5.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to : (E) construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools [including computers] to organize, examine, and evaluate information Essential Knowledge: Why? This graph shows that water in the bowl decreasing each day. The water level began at 10 milliliters and after 4 days the water level decreased to 4 milliliters. This graph would represent the concept of evaporation.

Wrong Answers:

Why? Graph B starts with zero water and at the end of 4 days accumulating 10 milliliters of water in the empty bowl. Graph C represents starting with 5 milliliters of water and after 4 days no evaporation has taken place in the open container. Graph D represents the water level in the uncovered bowl beginning at zero (or empty) and after one day the water level increases to 3 milliliters then drops to zero milliliters. By day 4 the empty container has 10 milliliter of water in it. The level of water in this open container would not fluctuate like this.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need prior knowledge about evaporation to determine which graph show the water leaving the container. Line graphs show change over time. Students should not only analyze their own collected data, but should study data that was collected indirectly (not first hand). Graph, charts and tables are evidence from an experiment, organized, and used to draw conclusions about a hypothesis. Data is used to draw inference, An inference is a reasonable conclusion based on what you observe. Students could be asked to analyze any type of data displayed on all different types of graphs from bar to line. If given practice making sense of data and drawing conclusions using inference students will get proficient at data analysis. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the a primary goal of science education.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 10 Test Question: A plant that was kept inside a house all winter was placed outside in full sunlight in the spring. The leaves of this plant soon died, and new leaves grew in their place. The new leaves were greener and thicker. Which hypothesis is best supported by this information? Question: 10 Right Answer: G Plants can adapt to some changes.

Wrong Answers: F Plants can learn to stay healthy. H Plants can change leaves at any time. J Plants can produce weather changes.

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. 5.3 Science processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to (A) analyze, review, (and critique) scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information. Essential Knowledge: Why? This is the best hypothesis based on the information from the question. The question discusses moving a plant from indoors to the outside where it can receive full sunlight. It goes on to discusses how the plant reacts to the change. Why? F is the wrong answer because plants do not learn, they react to stimuli in their environment. H is the wrong answer because the information in the question does not support the idea that plants can change leaves at any time. The information in the question was related to only one time where the plant changed its leaves. J is wrong because plants have no control over the weather. Students should have classroom experiences that give them the opportunity to evaluate if data or observations support a hypothesis. They should be given opportunities to make inferences and draw conclusions based on scientific evidence. They should also be asked to explain and back up their statements. Students should be asked to scientifically critique observations that make themselves as well as observations they are given. Scientific observations over any concept can be addressed in this objective. Student must have experience using critical thinking to critique observations. Students should be able to use evidence to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a scientific explanation of a given phenomenon, determine if the explanation makes sense based on the evidence, and then explain how they arrived at their conclusions.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which of these foods would be the best choice for someone on a low-fat, low-sodium diet?

TAKS Objective: #1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. 5.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to (B) draw inferences based on information (related to promotional materials) for products and services.

Picture:

Question: 5 Right Answer: C*S Wrong Answers: AQ BR DT Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? This food has the lowest fat content (1 g) and the lowest sodium (23g). Why? The other three food items have a higher fat content and higher sodium content than food S.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students can bring into the class different food package labels for analysis. Groups can compare similar foods for nutrition information. For example: cereal boxes, or there favorite afternoon snack package. Students can practice using this package information to be better informed consumers. (As the teacher you can place the box labels on the copy machine and make a transparency or copies for the students to use for product comparison.) Students should practice reading and becoming familiar with all different types of food products, as well as other promotional materials. Students should understand what is nutritional and what is not. This will enable them to apply there knowledge about any food label comparison they are ask to make. Students will draw inferences based on information [related to promotional materials] for products and services. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the a primary goal of science education.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 3 Test Question: The table indicates the amount of time that four different brands of batteries worked in a flashlight. Which of the following statements is supported by this information?

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. 5.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to (B) draw inferences based on information (related to promotional materials) for products and services.

Picture:

Question: 3 Right Answer: B Brand M lasted longer than the other brands tested. Wrong Answers: A Brand L caused the light to shine farther than the other brands tested. C Brand N gave off a stronger light than the other brands tested. D Brand O was more expensive than the other brands tested. Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The data table lists the amount of time (in minutes) that each brand of battery lasted. This is the only data listed on the table. Why? The distance the light shined, the strength of the light, and the cost of the batteries is not information listed as data on the table provided.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should have experiences in the classroom that allow them to create data tables that express information collected in experiments. Students should also be given opportunities to interpret data in tables and use the data to back up statements and hypotheses. The students may be asked questions in which they must draw an inference from data that is displayed in graphs, charts, and/ or tables. Students may be asked to use some form of data to draw conclusions, form hypothesis, or make predictions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem solving abilities. Using criticalthinking skills to apply science concepts ins the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 40 Test Question: The picture shows the label on a carton of orange juice. Which of these is supported by the information on the label?

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. 5.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to (B) draw inferences based on information (related to promotional materials) for products and services.

Picture:

Question: 40 Right Answer: G Orange juice provides vitamin C to the body. Wrong Answers: F Orange juice turns all vitamins into vitamin C. H Orange juice removes vitamin C from the body. J Orange juice causes the body to need vitamin C. Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The orange juice package says that "one serving contains 100 % of the recommended daily amount of vitamin C. Therefore, it provides vitamin C to the body. Why? The package makes no claims that the juice will turn all vitamins into vitamin C, remove vitamin C from the body, or cause the body to need vitamin C.

Students need to have experiences that allow them to make inferences from information they can find related to products and services.

Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts ins the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit. Students should be able to use evidence to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a scientific explanation of a given phenomenon, determine if the explanation makes sense based on the evidence, and then explain how they arrived at their conclusions.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: The drawing shows a model of the Earth, moon, and sun system made from foam balls. What is one way to make this model more accurate? Picture:

TAKS Objective: #1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. (5.3) The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations.

Question: TAKS Booklet #3 Right Answer: B* Make the sun larger than the Earth and the moon smaller Wrong Answers: A Use wooden blocks instead of foam balls C Move the sun closer to the Earth D Change the order of the foam balls to be moon, sun, Earth

Essential Knowledge: Why? The model that is pictured represent the correct order of the planets, the size of the sun, earth and moon proportionately adjusted would make the model accurate. Why? The materials used to produce this model would not be a factor in the accuracy of the model. Changing the distance of the foam balls will not increase accuracy of this model. The order is correct as shown in the picture; Sun, Earth, Moon. In many of the text book models, the sun is shown in the center of the solar system, with the planets orbiting around the sun. Make sure that the students understand the size of the sun, compared to the Earth, and the elliptical orbit that the planets follow. The student should have many opportunities to view models of the entire Solar System. Using the actual dimensions for the Sun, Earth, and Moon students see how large the planets are in comparisons with one another. For example the Sun is larger than the Earth, and the Moon. The Earth is larger than the Moon. The Solar System is an orderly community of one star, the sun, and nine planets, and more than 50 moons. The students should know that this item requires them to determine how to improve the model. Students need to be familiar with the size of Earth relative to the sun and the moon. The order of the planets, and other factual information should be learned using conceptual models. This item requires students to determine how to improve a model. Students need to be familiar with the size of Earth relative to the sun and the moon. This item requires students not only to critique a model but also to apply content knowledge. Other items based on this student expectation may ask students to determine whether something is missing from a model or to identify what is incorrect about a model. Models can be used to represent the natural world. Models are used to study objects and events whose size and scope may make them difficult to study or explain. Students should understand that models are not perfect representations and have limitation.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 32 Test Question: This model can be used to show how the moon moves around Earth. This model also shows all of the following EXCEPT --

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. 5.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to (C) represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations.

Picture:

Question: 31 Right Answer: A the amount of light Earth reflects Wrong Answers: B the land areas of Earth and the moon C how the moon makes a revolution D how Earth and the moon compare in size Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Light is not represented in this model. Why? The land areas of Earth and the moon, how the moon make a revolution, and how Earth and the moon compare in size are all represented in this model. Students need to be aware of how models can represent the natural world. They should also be familiar with the limitations of models. Students may be asked questions that can be answered by studying a picture or diagram of a model. They may see questions about the limitations of a given model. Models can be used to represent the natural world. Models are used to study objects and events whose size and scope may make them difficult to study or explain. Students should understand that models are not perfect representations and have limitations.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: What tool is used to find the temperature at which water boils?

Question: 4 Right Answer:

TAKS Objective: #1 The students demonstrate an understanding of the understanding of the nature of science. 5.4 Scientific processes. The students knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to (A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, microscopes, (cameras, sound recorders, computers, ) hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, compasses, balances, (hot plates), meter sticks, timing devices, magnets, collecting nets, and safety goggles. Essential Knowledge: Why? This is a thermometer. It is used to measure temperature in degrees Celsius.

Wrong Answers: F. graduated cylinder used to measure volume in milliliters. G. compass used to measure north, east, south and west directions. H. stop watch used to measure lapse time in seconds. (timing device)

Why? These are not thermometers.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should have an opportunity to use all the equipment listed for each specific grade level. Any of the equipment listed on the materials list for each grade level could be used to ask function. The items in parenthesis should not be tested on TAKS, because the students could not demonstrate on paper, the purpose and function. The use of tools, equipment, and materials included in the elementary science TEKS from first through fifth grades will be assessed in this objective. Students will be required to make precise measurements from illustrations. Students may be asked to read masses from balances, volumes from graduated cylinders, and temperatures from thermometers. The Students will collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, microscopes, [cameras, sound recorders, computers,] hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, compasses, balances, [hot plates], meter sticks, timing devices, magnets, collecting nets, and safety goggles. Texas Safety Standards manual should be referenced as students learn about and use safe practices in the classroom, laboratory, and field.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which tools are needed to find how mass affects the distance these boxes will slide? TAKS Objective: #1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. 5.4 Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to: (A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, microscopes, [cameras, sound recorders, computers,] hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, compasses, balances, [hot plates,] meter sticks, timing devices, magnets, collecting nets, and safety goggles. (Items in parenthesis will not be specifically tested on the TAKS)

Question: 9 Right Answer: B* Balance, ruler Wrong Answers: A Ramp, thermometer C Stopwatch, ruler D Balance, string Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Mass is measured with a balance scale, and distance is measured with a ruler. Why? The ramp, thermometer, stopwatch and string would not give us a mass nor a distance measurement.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students could be ask to measure in any metric increment. Let students predict before they do the actual measuring. This will enhance and strengthen there measurement ability. Students should have a mental image of the metric system, and be able predict more accurately as they have a better command of the metric system. When using a balance scale students would use grams, and when measuring distance traveled in meters. Students should have practice measuring with a broken ruler (one that does not start at zero) so they can apply their knowledge with out having the zero end to always start with. This will test there knowledge of the metric system. (Be careful if making copies of a ruler, photocopying distorts the actual size of the increments on the ruler) Students could be ask to measure in any standard metric increment. Students should understand the importance of using the same measurement system, no matter what part of the world they live in . Using the same measurement system is kind of like speaking the same language. Let students predict before they do the actual measuring. This will enhance and strengthen there measurement ability. Students should have a mental image of the metric system, and be able predict more accurately as they have a better command of the metric system. Students should have practice measuring with a broken ruler (one that does not start at zero) so they can apply their knowledge with out having the zero end to always start with. This will test there knowledge of the metric system. (Be careful if making copies of a ruler, photocopying distorts the actual size of the increments on the ruler) Students should be able to collect information by observing and measuring. Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with the rulers, balances, and measuring cups. Students will be ask to make precise measurement from illustrations. They may also be asked to determine

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Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

the lengths of objects using a 20-centimeter paper ruler provided as part of the test materials. Since the ends of rulers may be damaged, students should be aware that it is important not to start at the end of the ruler when measuring.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 33 Test Question: A diagram of an oak tree is shown below. What is the height of the tree?

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. 5.4 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to (A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, microscopes, (cameras, sound recorders, computers, ) hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, compasses, balances, (hot plates,) meter sticks, timing devices, magnets, collecting nets, and safety goggles.

Picture:

Question: 33 Right Answer: C 18 meters Wrong Answers: A 9 meters B 11 meters D 22 meters

Essential Knowledge: Why? The line measures 9 centimeters. Appling the key to the measurement 9 times 2 is 18 meters. Why? A 9 meters would be that correct answer if the key was 1 cm = 1 meter. B 11 meters would represent and incorrect measurement with and incorrect use of the key.

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Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

D 22 meters would represent and incorrect measurement. Students should be given opportunities to use the tools listed in the k-5 TEKS. It is important that students have many lab experiences that require them to use tools properly. They should also have experience making precise measurements with rulers, graduated containers, and balances. Students may see questions related to the use of any of the tools listed in the K-5 TEKS. They could also see questions that require measurements with tools. The use of tools, equipment, and materials included in elementary science TEKS from first through fifth grades will be assessed in this objective. Students will be required to make precise measurements from illustrations. Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with thermometers, balances, measuring cups, and other lab equipment. Models can be used to represent the natural world. Models are used to study objects and events whose size and scope may make them difficult to study or explain. Students should understand that models are not perfect representations and have limitations.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 38 Test Question: A balance would be the best tool for measuring which of the following?

Question: 38 Right Answer: H The mass of a rock Wrong Answers: F The texture of soil G The length of a stick J The color of a leaf Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. 5.4 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to (A) collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, microscopes, (cameras, sound recorders, computers, ) hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, compasses, balances, (hot plates,) meter sticks, timing devices, magnets, collecting nets, and safety goggles. Essential Knowledge: Why? The balance is a tool used to measure mass. Why? A balance can not be used to measure the texture of soil, the length of a stick, or the color of a leaf. Students should be given opportunities to use the tools listed in the k-5 TEKS. It is important that students have many lab and field experiences that require them to use tools properly. They should also have experience making precise measurements with rulers, graduated containers, and balances. Students may see questions related to the use of any of the tools listed in the K-5 TEKS. They could also see questions that require measurements with tools. The use of the tools, equipment, and materials included in the elementary science TEKS from first through fifth grades will be assessed in the objective. Students will be required to make precise measurements from illustrations. Students may be asked to read masses from triple-beam or double-pan balances, volumes from cylinders that are graduated, such as rain gauges, and temperatures from thermometers. They may also be asked to determine the lengths in both centimeters and millimeters of objects using a 20-*centimeter paper ruler provided as part of the test materials.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 26 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 02 ­ 2.9 TAKS Objective #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 2.9 Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs. The student is expected to A) identify the external characteristics of different kinds of plants and animals that allow their needs to be met. TEST QUESTION: Brightly colored flowers are most often pollinated by -- Right answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: J insects Why? A typical flower has a number of brightly colored petals that often have a distinctive odor. The color and odor serve to attract insects needed for cross-pollination, which is the transfer of pollen from one flower to another of the same kind. Some flowers do not require insects to carry their pollen; the wind serves this purpose. Wind-pollinated flowers make large amounts of pollen to compensate for the random method of dispersal. Some flowers are self-pollinated, the transfer of pollen taking place from the male to the female parts of the same flower. Wrong Answers: Why? F wind Of all of the available methods of plant pollination, cross-pollination G mammals with insects accounts for the majority of them. H rainfall Implications for classroom instruction: Students should have varied experiences in studying flowering plants and plant reproduction. Students can perform plant dissections to examine the structure and functions of the flowering plant's reproductive system. What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 39 Test Question: All of the characteristics listed above are useful for gathering food EXCEPT --

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 2.9 Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs. The student is expected to (A) identify the external characteristics of different kinds of plants and animals that allow their needs to be met.

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Question: 39 Right Answer: A1 Wrong Answers: B2 C3 D4 Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The colorful feathers of a hummingbird are not a characteristic that the hummingbird uses to gather food. Why? A narrow beak, a small body, and strong wings are all characteristics that hummingbirds use to help them gather food. Students need to have many experiences with plants and animals and making observations of the organisms' external characteristics. They should be aware of the basic needs of plants and animals and how their external characteristics help them to meet their needs for survival. Students may see questions related to any common organism's external characteristics and how those characteristics help the organism to survive. The questions may have plants or animals. Students need to understand how adaptations (5.9)(A) affect the survival of a species. The concept of adaptation and survival is focused not at the level of the individual organism but at the species level. In order for a species to survive, individuals of that species must reproduce and pass on their genetic traits to future generations. Reproduction will be assessed in relation to the survival of a species, not as a human body process.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: If all of the fish are removed from this food web, which animal populations will most likely decrease first?

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 2.9 Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs. The students is expected to: (B) compare and give examples of the ways living organisms depend on each other and on their environments

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Question: 15 Right Answer: D* Pelicans Wrong Answers: A Turtles B Mosquito larvae C Dragonfly larvae Implications for the Classroom:

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Essential Knowledge: Why? If the fish were removed from the food chain, the pelicans would have none of their usual food to eat, and many of them would go extinct or perish Why? . Turtles are not adapted to eating fish. Turtles are herbivores, plant eater. Mosquito larvae are adapted to eating plants, not fish. Dragonfly larvae are adapted to eating Mosquito larvae. In a food web all living things need energy to stay alive. Plants and animals get energy from food. A food chain shows energy flow among a group of organisms. An ecosystem can have many different food chains. Combined they form a food web. A food web shows how food chains in an ecosystem are related. Producers make their own food, using the Sun's energy. This energy moves through the food chain as primary consumers eat the producers and as secondary consumers eat the primary consumers. All the energy is eventually released as heat. It is important that students see the arrows which represent energy flow going in several directions, and not always going the same direction, up or always down. Food chains need to also be represented in a circular pattern. Some students will have a difficult time with this graphic if they have not had multiple experiences in arrow directions. Students could be asked about any animal that is pictured. The animal kingdom is full of examples of adaptations for getting food (sharp teeth, claws, talons, setting traps ), for protection against predators (speed, spines, armored skin,

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Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

flight, camouflage, bad odors), staying warm ( thick fur, blubber, down feathers), and for conserving water (staying in shade during the day or moving about at night in hot places, using body to gather dew). Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plants need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs change the environment. Students need to be aware that in a food chains or food web, the arrows are used to indicate energy flow. Therefore, each arrow points to the organism that is taking in, or ingesting, the energy. This item requires students to apply what they know about adaptive structures to a new situation. At the elementary level, a broad study of external features such as teeth, feet, ear length, and coloration helps students begin to understand how structures are related to function. Through the study of populations, students begin to see themselves as part of an ecosystem. Students need t o understand how adaptations affect the survival of a species. The concept of adaptation and survival is focused not at the level of the individual organism but at the species level. In order for a species to survive, individuals of that species must reproduce and pass on their DNA to future generations. Organisms do not consciously adapt to their environment. In genetic variations allow for adaptations that may or may not be an advantage when changes in the environment put selective pressure on the species. Reproduction will be assessed in relation to the survival of a species, no as a human body process. Organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer (herbivore) in a habitat where grasses are the producers ( autotrophs ). A coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 8 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 02 ­ 2.9 TAKS Objective #2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 2.9 Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms have basic needs. The student is expected to: b) compare and give examples of the ways that living organisms depend on each other and on their environments.

TEST QUESTION: Which of these would best complete this food chain? Right Answer: J Mice ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: Why? The food chain illustrates the interdependence of organisms. Of the choices listed, mice are the logical organism to support the viability of this food chain in order for the remaining organisms to be sustained. The mice represent the herbivores (plant eaters) in this food chain. Snakes and owls are carnivores (meat eaters). Without herbivores, there would be fewer animals to eat the plants. More plant life would have the opportunity to grow and thrive. After a period of time the plants might run out of room to grow. If herbivores are removed from the food chain the carnivores would have fewer animals to eat. Some carnivores would likely starve. Herbivores are a necessary link in the flow of energy in an ecosystem. Wheat plants function as the producer in this food chain. Why? The hawks are carnivores, not herbivores. Grapes are another food source that carnivores do not ingest. Toads also function as herbivores. In a food chain/food web all living things need energy to stay alive. Plants and animals get energy from food. A food chain shows energy flow among a group of organisms. An ecosystem can have many different food chains. Combined they form a food web. A food web shows how food chains in an ecosystem are related. Producers make their own food, using the Sun's energy. This energy moves through the food chain as primary consumers eat the producers and as secondary consumers eat the primary consumers. All the energy is released as heat. Student should see that the arrows show the direction that energy moves through a food web. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plants need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. Students need to be aware that in a food chain or food web, the arrows are used to indicate energy flow. Therefore, each arrow points to the organism that is taking in, or ingesting, the energy.

Wrong Answers: F Hawks G Grapes H Toads Implications for classroom instruction:

What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 30 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 02 ­ 3.8 TAKS Objective #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 3.8 Science Concepts. The student knows that living organisms need food, water, light, air, a way to dispose of waste, and an environment in which to live. The student is expected to A) observe and describe the habitats of organisms within an ecosystem The picture shows the leaf and fruit of a sycamore tree. A tree like the sycamore would have the hardest time growing in an environment that is mostly -- TEST QUESTION:

Right Answer: F cold and dark

ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: Why? Sycamore, also called buttonwood or the American Plane Tree, is considered one of the largest hardwood trees in North America -especially in diameter. It may be found throughout the state but is most abundant and grows to its largest size along streams and on rich bottomlands. American sycamore is easily recognized because of its multicolored, mottled bark. The bark on young branches is brownish. As the branch grows, this outer bark peels away in irregular patches to expose smooth inner bark, which may be green or olive but most often is white. The resulting patchy pattern of bark in the branches and upper crown is conspicuous and is characteristic of this tree. In mature trees, bark on the lower trunk is entirely brown and consists of small scales. On preferred fertile sites, the tree grows fast, reaching heights of 100 feet or more (occasionally 150 feet) and trunk diameters of 10 feet or more. The average height ranges from 80 to 110 feet; the diameter from 3 to 8 feet. The leaves usually are three- to four-lobed and are divided by broad, shallow sinuses. Leaves are 4 to 7 inches long and broad, with palmate veining and toothed edges. Twigs grow in a zigzag pattern. They are encircled by a toothed stipule at the base of each leaf, where the large, pointed bud is attached. The petiole of the leaf completely encloses the bud -- a distinctive feature of American sycamore. The fruit is a ball; about I inch in diameter, which breaks up when ripe to disperse small, elongated seeds surrounded by many fine hairs which permit them to be carried afar on the wind. Why?

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Wrong Answers:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

G warm and rainy H cold and wet J hot and cloudy Implications for classroom instruction:

The leaf, fruit, and trunk structure of the sycamore are most likely to flourish in weather that is mild, warn, and moderate. It is a fast growing species and requires a water source and rich soil conditions to thrive. Environmental conditions within an ecosystem must work to maximize potential for living organisms to thrive. Students need to carefully study leaf structures in varied plant species. Certain leaf structures maximize a plant's ability to absorb sunlight that is necessary for food production via photosynthesis. Climatic conditions within an ecosystem directly impact the viability to sustain life Recommended websites for additional background information include: www.ibiblio.org/pic/NCTrees/americansycamore.htm (sponsored by the Plant Information Center of North Carolina) www.scilinks.org Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plants need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment.

What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 11 Test Question: The top chart shows some characteristics of four habitats. In which habitat would a black bear most likely be found?

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 3.8 Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms need food, water, light, air, a way to dispose of waste, and an environment in which to live. The student is expected to (A) observe and describe the habitats of organisms within an ecosystem.

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Question: 11 Right Answer: CS Wrong Answers: AQ BR DT

Essential Knowledge: Why? Habitat S is found in the mountains and has trees and blueberry bushes as its main plant type. Why? Habitat Q is the wrong answer because it has sand dunes and no trees or fruit for the bears. Habitat R is the wrong answer because it has hills and small mammals, but no fruit or trees. Habitat T has snowdrifts, algae and mosses and no trees or fruit.

Implications for the Classroom:

Students should be able to apply Objective 1 skills, such as reading charts, graphs and tables to the concepts in the other objectives. Students should be familiar enough with habitats and the needs of organisms to draw conclusions based on data and observations that are given. They should be familiar with the basic vocabulary relate to habitats and ecosystems. Questions may relate the needs of an organism and how those needs can be met within a habitat or and ecosystem. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plants need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: The prairie region of North America was once home to large herds of grazing animals and other herbivores (plant eaters). On the prairie the herbivores would compete most for --

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 3.8 Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms need food, weather , light, air, a way to dispose of waste, and an environment in which to live. The student is expected to; (B) observe and identify organisms with similar needs that compete with one another for resources such as oxygen, water, food, or space.

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Question: 11 Right Answer: C* grass Wrong Answers: A oxygen B space D soil

Essential Knowledge: Why? Herbivores eat grass. Why? A prairie is steppe grassland. Animals on a prairie have similar basic needs that compete with one another for water, oxygen, food, and space. On a prairie the herbivores would compete most for food. An herbivore is an animal that eats mainly plants. All living organisms on the prairie compete for space, Herbivores would compete most for food. Herbivores are not adapted to eating soil. The prairie is a broad region of flat or gently rolling land covered in grasses. The North American prairie extends from central Canada down through the central states to Texas. Animals are numerous on the prairie. Weather on the prairie varies widely throughout the year, with an average rainfall of 20 + inches a year. Herbivores (plant eaters) would most likely compete for food. Bison can weigh up to 2,000lbs (900 kg), which requires a lot of food intake a day. Most prairie

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Implications for the Classroom:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

soils are rich, deep and dark. The rich soil supports thick stands of grasses. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plants need, how these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment,. Students could be asked about any animal that is pictured. The animal kingdom is full of examples of adaptations for getting food (sharp teeth, claws, talons, setting traps ), for protection against predators (speed, spines, armored skin, flight, camouflage, bad odors), staying warm ( thick fur, blubber, down feathers), and for conserving water (staying in shade during the day or moving about at night in hot places, using body to gather dew). This item requires students to apply what they know about adaptive structures to a new situation. At the elementary level, a broad study of external features such as teeth, feet, ear length, and coloration helps students begin to understand how structures are related to function. Through the study of populations, students begin to see themselves as part of an ecosystem. Students need to understand how adaptations affect the survival of a species. The concept of adaptation and survival is focused not at the level of the individual organism but at the species level. In order for a species to survive, individuals of that species must reproduce and pass on their DNA to future generations. Organisms do not consciously adapt to their environment. In genetic variations allow for adaptations that may or may not be an advantage when changes in the environment put selective pressure on the species. Reproduction will be assessed in relation to the survival of a species, not as a human body process.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Plants can survive in a clear, closed container without animals. Animals cannot survive in a closed container without plants. Why can't animals survive in a closed container without plants? Question: 18 Right Answer: G Plants produce oxygen, which animals need. Wrong Answers: F Plants and animals need water to survive. H Plants take in and give off water; animals only take in water. J Plants are stationary; most animals roam freely. Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 3.8 Science concepts. The students knows that living organisms need food, water, light, air, a way to dispose of waste and an environment in which to live. The student is: (C) describe environmental changes in which some organisms would thrive, become ill, or perish Essential Knowledge: Why? Plants produce oxygen as a by product of photosynthesis, which would go into the closed container and be available for the animals to breathe Why? Both plants and animals need water to survive, and if the container is closed the water could not evaporate. Not what the question is asking. Both plants and animals take in and give off water. In a closed container, neither plants or animals will be able to roam to far, This movement would not effect survival in this sealed container.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Most plants are able to make their own food using sunlight. Plants are the key to life on Earth. Without them many other living organisms would soon disappear. Unlike animal, most plants do not need to find food because they can make it for themselves through a process call photosynthesis, which uses sunlight and chlorophyll, which gives plants their characteristic green color. Chlorophyll helps the plant make its food. The chlorophyll is found in plant parts called chloroplasts. The chloroplasts act like tiny chemical factories. Inside these water and carbon dioxide from the air combine to make sugar and oxygen. The oxygen the plant makes goes into the air. All animals must breathe in oxygen to stay alive. At the same time animals breathe out carbon dioxide. Plants loose water from transpiration, a process which plants loose water from the leaves, which draws water up through the plant to replace it. The animal kingdom is full of examples of adaptations for getting food (sharp teeth, claws, talons, setting traps ), for protection against predators (speed, spines, armored skin, flight, camouflage, bad odors), staying warm ( thick fur, blubber, down feathers), and for conserving water (staying in shade during the day or moving about at night in hot places, using body to gather dew). This item requires students to apply what they know about adaptive structures to a new situation. At the elementary level, a broad study of external features such as teeth, feet, ear length, and coloration helps students begin to understand how structures are related to function. Through the study of populations, students begin to see themselves as part of an ecosystem. Students need t o understand how adaptations affect the survival of a species. The concept of adaptation and survival is focused not at the level of the individual organism but at the species level. In order for a species to survive, individuals of that species must reproduce and pass on their DNA to future generations. Organisms do not consciously adapt to their environment. In genetic variations allow for adaptations that may or may not be an advantage when changes in the environment put selective pressure on the species. Reproduction will be assessed in relation to the survival of a species, no as a human body process. Organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer (herbivore) in a habitat where grasses are the producers ( autotrophs ). A coyote, a secondary

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Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 1 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 02 ­ 3.8 TAKS Objective #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 3.8 Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms need food, water, light, air, a way to dispose of waste, and an environment in which to live. The student is expected to: C) describe environmental changes in which some organisms would thrive, become ill, or perish TEST QUESTION: Clearing a forest to build a shopping mall will most likely result in woodpeckers -- Right Answer: B losing habitat Wrong Answers: A Nesting on roofs C Laying more eggs D Flying slower Implications for classroom instruction: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: Why? Suburban development results in a direct loss of breeding grounds, feeding grounds and shelter for the bird population. Why? Birds in an urban setting have to compete for nesting space, food sources, water and oxygen. The behaviors listed in these answer choices are not plausible adaptations to deal with a loss of space essential for the species' survival. Woodpeckers are a specialized species of bird. Through a study of varied species students need to study specialized external features such as feet, teeth, wings, and coloration and focus on their function. In examining the vertebrate subgroups the idea of adaptation becomes essential to survival. Characteristically bird reproduction begins with internal fertilization with development is always external. Varied type of birds mate in different seasons based on the required food supply to nourish their young. A plentiful environment for nesting, food supply, and protection are key to the survival of the woodpecker population. This objective assesses students' understanding of inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. The objective also addresses the basic needs of living organisms through the study of the traits and behaviors of plants and animals in different environments. The concepts of evolution, ecology, and genetics are introduced at their most fundamental levels for the Elementary Science--Grade 5 TAKS test. Students need to understand that they are interconnected with the world around them. Awareness of this interdependence will enable them to be better informed when making decisions concerning their health, their well-being, and their environment. Through the study of populations, students begin to see themselves as part of an ecosystem. The life science concepts learned in the elementary grades provide the foundation for the biological concepts tested on the grades 8, 10, and exit level TAKS.

What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 5 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 02 ­ 3.8 TAKS Objective #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 3.8 Science concepts. The student knows that living organisms need food, water, light, air, a way ton dispose of waste, and an environment in which to live. The student is expected to: D) Describe how living organisms modify their physical environment to meet their needs such as beavers building a dam or humans building a home.

Which basic need do groundhogs meet by digging tunnels in meadow soil? Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: B Shelter Why? Groundhogs are adapted as burrowing animals. They characteristically dig tunnels to escape predators and provide shelter for their young Why? Wrong Answers: A. Water A tunnel in meadow soil will not provide water, light, or adequate air supply to the C Light groundhog. The tunneling behavior is an adaptation for this animal as a protection D Air from predators. A study of instinctive animal behaviors reveals that these are behaviors that living Implications for classroom things inherit from their parents. Learned behaviors are developed after birth. As an instruction: example, a young wolf must learn to catch a deer for food. As a pup, he learns this behavior by watching other wolves catch deer. Protective behaviors, such as the groundhog tunneling, also aid in the animals survival. This objective assesses students' understanding of inherited traits and the diversity What the TAKS of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. The Information Booklet (04objective also addresses the basic needs of living organisms through the study of the 05) says: traits and behaviors of plants and animals in different environments. Students need to understand that they are interconnected with the world around them. Awareness of this interdependence will enable them to be better informed when making decisions concerning their health, their well-being, and their environment. Through the study of populations, students begin to see themselves as part of an ecosystem.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 6 Test Question: Which diagram shows an example of metamorphosis?

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 4.6 Science concepts. The student knows that change can create recognizable patterns. The student is expected to (A) identify patterns of change such as in weather, metamorphosis, and objects in the sky.

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Question: 6 Right Answer:

Essential Knowledge: Why? This diagram shows the metamorphosis of a butterfly.

Wrong Answers:

Why? G shows the lifecycle of a tree. Although the true meaning of metamorphosis, "change" can apply to this diagram, the definition given to the students specifically states, "a change in the shape or characteristics of an animal's body as it grows." The tree is not an animal and therefore G can not be the correct answer. H is a diagram that represents a food web. J shows what happens to a fish after it dies.

Implications for the Classroom:

Students should understand that there are predictable patterns of change in the natural world. They should get many opportunities to observe, document, and explain patterns of

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Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

change that happen in nature. These opportunities should not be limited to plants and animals, but should also include weather, and objects in the sky. Patterns of change can show up as an objective 2, 3, or 4 question. Questions can represent weather, such as patterns in the seasons, or objects in the sky, such as the patterns of the moon phases. Systems, patterns, and changes are addressed in Objectives 2, 3, and 4 because these unifying themes cut across content areas. The knowledge and skills statements (5.5) "The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact" and (4.6) " The student know that change can create recognizable patterns" are repeated in Objectives 2, 3, and 4.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. In the diagram above, 5.5 Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, the label Z represents -- structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to (A) describe some cycles, structures, and processes that are found in a simple system

Question: 31 Right Answer: B* carbon dioxide Wrong Answers: A sugar C nitrogen D water vapor Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Leaves take in carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Why? The chlorophyll in the leaves reacts with the sunlight to produce sugar, oxygen, and water vapor.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should know that photosynthesis is a food manufacturing process. Leaves are important to many plants because they manufacture food through their chlorophyll. The chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, which absorbs sunlight. Carbon dioxide and water in the green chlorophyll of the leaves react with sunlight to produce sugar (glucose) , oxygen, and water. Plants also "breathe" through their leaves. In the daytime during photosynthesis they give off oxygen. In darkness their chlorophyll factories shut down but the plants still produce carbon dioxide. During this time they also use oxygen or respire as humans do. Students should know the entire process of photosynthesis. They should know the products of photosynthesis. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plants need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. This objective assess students' understanding of inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. The basic needs of living organisms through the study of the traits and behaviors of plants and animals in different environments. Students need to understand that they are interconnected with the world around them. Awareness of this interdependence will enable them to be better informed when making decisions concerning their health, their well being and their environment.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 37 Test Question: In the diagram below, which of the following is represented?

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.5 Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to (A) describe some cycles, structures, and processes that are found in a simple system.

Picture:

Question: 37 Right Answer: B Energy being transferred

Wrong Answers: A Water evaporating C The moon changing phase D Light being reflected Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The picture shows a food chain that follows the energy as it is transferred from one trophic level to another. The Grass transfers energy to the mouse when the mouse eats the grass. The mouse transfers energy to the snake when the snake eats the mouse. The snake transfers energy to the hawk when the hawk eats the snake. Only 10% of the energy that was transferred to one tropic level is available to be transferred to the next trophic level. Why? The picture does not represent water evaporating, the moon changing phase, or light being reflected. Food chains and food webs show up on the TAKS test regularly. Students should get opportunities to make their own food chains and food webs. They should have opportunities to explain their food chains and food webs to others. They should have experiences using food webs and food chains to draw conclusions and support their conclusions. Food webs and food chains show up regularly on the science TAKS tests at all levels. Questions related to food webs and food chains may require the students to draw conclusions about the relationships of the organisms listed in the food web or food chain. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plants need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. Students need to be aware that in a food chain or food web, the arrows are used to indicate energy flow. Therefore, each arrow points to the organism that is taking in, or ingesting, the energy.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 35 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 02 ­ 5.5 TAKS Objective #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.5 Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to B) describe some interactions that occur within a simple system. TEST QUESTION: Which diagram shows how energy flows through a food chain? Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: B Sun producers herbivores carnivores Why? The food chain serves as the diagram to show how energy moves from one organism to another in an ecosystem. An ecosystem includes all of the living and nonliving parts of a place and the relationships among these parts. The arrow in the food chain point in the direction that the energy moves. The arrows point from the organism being eaten to the organism that does the eating. For example, to show that snakes eat (or get energy from) mice, you would draw an arrow from the mice to the snakes. Producers in the food chain are the plants. The producers get their energy from the sun. The rest of the organisms in the food chain are consumers. They get their energy from eating other organisms. This diagram accurately labels this relationship. Wrong Answers: Why? A Producers carnivores herbivores A is incorrect because it labels carnivores (meat eater) as C Sun herbivores carnivores producers taking energy from a producer (plant). D Carnivores producers herbivores C is incorrect because it incorrectly labels herbivores (plant eaters) as taking energy from the sun. Producers are the required energy source for herbivores. D is incorrect because it places carnivores (meat eaters) at the base of the food chain. Students can determine the relationships within specific ecosystems based on the Implications for classroom model in the correct answer. As students accurately classify organism as instruction: producers and consumers these relationships become more easily identified. What the TAKS Information Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes Booklet (04-05) says: understanding what animals and plants need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. Students need to be aware that in a food chain or food web, the arrows are used to indicate energy flow. Therefore, each arrow points to the organism that is taking in, or ingesting, the energy.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 8 Test Question: Which organism in this food chain is a producer?

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.5 Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to (B) describe some interactions that occur in a simple system.

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Question: 8 Right Answer: G Grass Wrong Answers: F Fish H Grasshopper J Hawk Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The producers in the food chain are the plants. They get there energy from the sun. The rest of the organisms in the food chain are consumers. Why? All of these are consumers. They get their energy from consuming another organism within the food chain.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students can determine relationships of organisms within specific ecosystems based on information from food chains and food webs. Students should get opportunities to interpret information from food chains, and food webs. They should also have opportunities to show relationships by developing their own food webs. Students should also get the opportunity to classify organisms within a food web. Students may be asked to put a set of given organisms into the correct order to represent a food chain. They may also be asked to classify a specific organism in a food chain or web. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plants need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. Students need to be aware that in a food chain or food web, the arrows are used to indicate energy flow. Therefore, each arrow points to the organism that is taking in, or ingesting, the energy.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: The pictures show the stages in the life cycle of a beetle. What would be the correct sequence for the development of the beetle? Picture:

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. (5.6) Science concept, The student knows that some change occurs in cycles. The student is expected to (C) describe and compare life cycles of plants and animals.

Question: TAKS Booklet #5 Right Answer: B* R, T, Q, S Wrong Answers: A Q, S, R, T C S, R, Q, T D T, S, R, Q Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Egg (R ) , larva (T), pupa (Q) and adult (S) is the correct order to show metamorphosis of a mealworm.. Why? These answers are not in the correct sequence to represent the development of a beetle.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should know that many insects go through several stages of growth. Metamorphosis is a word that means to transform or change. In complete metamorphosis the insect goes through four stages. Students should have an opportunity to observe mealworms or other insects that change or go through metamorphosis. Students should have experiences sequencing the stages of the life cycle, to understand metamorphosis. Butterflies, silk worms or other insects could be used to illustrate this type of life cycle. This item requires students to sequence the life cycle of an animal. This objective assesses students understanding of inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. In order for a species to survive, individuals of that species must reproduce and pass on their DNA to future generations. NOTE: (5.6)(C) includes the description and comparison of both animal and plant life cycles.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 1 Test Question: Which part of this life cycle shows the adult organism?

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the life sciences. 5.6 Science concept. The student knows that some change occurs in cycles. The student is expected to (C) describe and compare life cycles of plants and animals.

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Question: 1 Right Answer: BR Wrong Answers: AQ CS DT Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? This represents the adult form of the lifecycle. Why? These represent the egg (S), (larva (T), and pupa (Q) forms of the life cycle.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should know that many insects go through several stages of growth. They should be able to recognize each of the four stages of complete metamorphosis. Students should have experiences that allow them to observe and communicate what happens as insects go through metamorphosis and change from one stage to another. Other types of insects could be used to illustrate the four different stages of the life cycle. Students should be able to sequence the life cycle in order using illustrations. This item requires students to sequence the life cycle of an animal. This objective assesses students understanding of inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. In order for a species to survive, individuals of that species must reproduce and pass on their DNA to future generations. NOTE: (5.6)(C ) includes the description and comparison of both animal and plant life cycles.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question The prairie region of North America was once home to large herds of grazing animals and other herbivores (plant eaters). Which part of a jackrabbit most helps it escape predators?

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.9 Science concepts. The students knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to (A) compare the adaptive characteristics of species that improve their ability to survive and reproduce in an ecosystem

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Question: 10 Right Answer: F* Long legs Wrong Answers: G Thick fur H Short tail J Small head Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Long legs are an adaptation that allow the rabbit to run fast. Why? The jackrabbit has thick fur. It is adapted to keeping it warm and/or camouflaged. The short tail is not an adaptation that helps the jackrabbit run fast to escape from predators, it acts as a target for predators, keeping them away from vital areas of the body. The jackrabbit's small head is not an adaptation for speed. Jackrabbits have fur which cover there entire body, with a short turned up tail which is used as a target for predators, keeping them away from vital areas of the body. Short front legs which are adapted to digging, and back legs which are much longer and are clearly designed for running and bounding over open ground. Rabbits can reach speeds up to 50 mph when fleeing from danger. Students could be asked about any animal that is pictured. The animal kingdom is full of examples of adaptations for getting food (sharp teeth, claws, talons, setting traps ), for protection against predators (speed, spines, armored skin, flight, camouflage, bad odors), staying warm ( thick fur, blubber, down feathers), and

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Other types of Questions you could encounter:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

for conserving water (staying in shade during the day or moving about at night in hot places, using body to gather dew). This item requires students to apply what they know about adaptive structures to a new situation. At the elementary level, a broad study of external features such as teeth, feet, ear length, and coloration helps students begin to understand how structures are related to function. Through the study of populations, students begin to see themselves as part of an ecosystem. Students need t o understand how adaptations affect the survival of a species. The concept of adaptation and survival is focused not at the level of the individual organism but at the species level. In order for a species to survive, individuals of that species must reproduce and pass on their DNA to future generations. Organisms do not consciously adapt to their environment. In genetic variations allow for adaptations that may or may not be an advantage when changes in the environment put selective pressure on the species. Reproduction will be assessed in relation to the survival of a species, no as a human body process. Organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer (herbivore) in a habitat where grasses are the producers ( autotrophs ). A coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: The African baobab tree has a huge trunk that can store as much as 100 kiloliters of water. This adaptation would be an advantage in a climate that is very --

Question: 28 Right Answer: G* dry Wrong Answers: F cold H windy J sunny

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.9 Science concept. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to. (A) compare the adaptive characteristics of species that improve their ability to survive and reproduce in an ecosystem Essential Knowledge: Why? A tree living in dry climate would need to store a lot of water to survive the heat and possible seasonal drought. Why? If this species of tree lived in a cold climate, it could freeze with that volume of water stored in its trunk. Freezeing could kill or damage the tree. A tree that has a huge trunk would not be disturbed by normal amounts of wind All plants require sun. To have a huge trunk it is a healthy tree and is evidence that it has received sunlight. Students should study different types of plants in different ecosystems. For example the desert, mountains, valleys, plains, oceans, lakes, rivers, icecaps and glaciers. Have students do a compare and contrast of the different ecosystems. Students could be asked about any animal that is pictured. The animal kingdom is full of examples of adaptations for getting food (sharp teeth, claws, talons, setting traps ), for protection against predators (speed, spines, armored skin, flight, camouflage, bad odors), staying warm ( thick fur, blubber, down feathers), and for conserving water (staying in shade during the day or moving about at night in hot places, using body to gather dew). Students will understand inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. Basic needs of living organisms through the study of the traits and behaviors of plants and animals in different environments. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plant need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. Students will analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem. The term unique niche refers to the idea that organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer herbivore ) in a habitat where grasses are the producers (autotrophs ). A coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat. The rabbit is considered both a consumer and prey. This defines the rabbits niche in the habitat.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 16 Test Question: The African clawed frog has many adaptations that help it survive. Which of these adaptations helps it survive changes in its environment?

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.9 Science concepts. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to (A) compare the adaptive characteristics of species that improve their ability to survive and reproduce in an ecosystem.

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Question: 16 Right Answer: H The ability to burrow Wrong Answers: F The ability to see color G The ability to detect waves J The ability to eat Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The ability to burrow is the only answer that is an adaptation of the African clawed frog that helps it survive environmental changes. Why? These adaptations may help a species survive. However, they are not adaptations that are directly responsible for helping the African clawed frog survive environmental changes. The ability to see color and the ability to eat are not discussed in the passage. Adaptations are inherited traits that help a species survive. Students need to be familiar with how and why adaptations occur. They should also have experiences comparing different species of animals such as birds, and comparing how their adaptations help them meet their survival needs for the ecosystem that they live. Pictures of animals with body parts that have adapted differently for different purposes may be shown. Students may be asked which adaptation is useful for a given function. Students need to understand how adaptations (5.9)(A) affect the survival of a species. The concept of adaptation and survival is focused not at the level of the individual organism but at the species level. In order for a species to survive, individuals of that species must reproduce and pass on their genetic traits to future generations. Reproduction will be assessed in relation to the survival of a species, not as a human body process.

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Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

Organisms do not consciously adapt to their environment. In stead, genetic variations allow for adaptations that may or may not be an advantage when changes in the environment put selective pressure on a species.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which group supplies food for other organisms?

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. (5.9) Science concept. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to (B) analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem

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Question: TAKS Booklet #13 Right Answer: C* Both producers and consumers Wrong Answers: A Producers only B Consumers only D Neither producers nor consumers Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Communities survive because their populations provide food for one another. Why? Producers and consumers both compete for and supply food for each other.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

The term unique niche refers to the idea that organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer (herbivore) in a habitat where grasses are the producers (autotrophs). A coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat. The rabbit is considered both a consumer and prey. Students need to become familiar with food chains, and how

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producers and consumers depend on each other in the environment for food and survival. What the TAKS Information Booklet says: (2.9)(B), (3.8)(B), and (5.9)(B) This cluster requires students to be able to use the terms producer and consumer in a new situation. Students also need to know the relationship between producers and consumers and how these organisms obtain food. Students will understand inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. Basic needs of living organisms through the study of the traits and behaviors of plants and animals in different environments. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plant need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. Students will analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem. The term unique niche refers to the idea that organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer (herbivore ) in a habitat where grasses are the producers (autotrophs). A coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat. The rabbit is considered both a consumer and prey. This defines the rabbits niche in the habitat.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which group can live without water?

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. (5.9) Science concept. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to (B) analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem (2.9)(B), (3.8)(B), and (5.9)(B) This cluster requires students to be able to use the terms producer and consumer in a new situation. Students also need to know the relationship between producers and consumers and how these organisms obtain food.

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Question: TAKS Booklet #14 Right Answer: D* Neither producers nor consumers Wrong Answers: A Producers only B Consumers only C Both producers and consumers Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? All living things have basic need of r survival; food, water and shelter.

Why? Producers and Consumers both need water to live.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

(2.9)(B), (3.8)(B), and (5.9)(B) This cluster requires students to be able to use the terms producer and consumer in a new situation. Students also need to know the relationship between producers and consumers and how these organisms obtain food. Students will understand inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. Basic needs of living organisms through the study of the traits and behaviors of plants and animals in different environments. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plant need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. Students will analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem. The term unique niche refers to the idea that organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer (herbivore ) in a habitat where grasses are the producers (autotrophs). A coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat. The rabbit is considered both a consumer and prey. This defines the rabbits niche in the habitat.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which skull belongs to an animal best adapted for catching and eating fish?

Question: TAKS Booklet #6 Right Answer:

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life cycle. (5.9) Science concept. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is to (B) analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem. . Essential Knowledge: Why? This skull has sharp pointed teeth at the front of the jaw for ripping and tearing. The nostrils are on the top of the nose, an adaptation that would help this animal hunt fish in the water.

Wrong Answers:

Why? The external features of skulls A, B, and C do not have adaptive structures that make these animals suitable for hunting and eating fish.

Implications for the Classroom:

Students must be able to identify adaptations in animals and know how this helps them to survive. An adaptation is any structure or behavior that helps a living thing meet those needs and survive in its environment.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

The animal kingdom is full of examples of adaptations for getting food (sharp teeth, claws, talons, setting traps ), for protection against predators (speed, spines, armored skin, flight, camouflage, bad odors), staying warm ( thick fur, blubber, down feathers), and for conserving water (staying in shade during the day or moving about at night in hot places, using body to gather dew). This item requires students to apply what they know about adaptive structures to a new situation. At the elementary level, a broad study of external features such as teeth, feet, ear length, and coloration helps students begin to understand how structures are related to function. Students will understand inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. Basic needs of living organisms through the study of the traits and behaviors of plants and animals in different environments. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plant need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. Students will analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem. The term unique niche refers to the idea that organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer (herbivore ) in a habitat where grasses are the producers (autotrophs). A coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat. The rabbit is considered both a consumer and prey. This defines the rabbits niche in the habitat.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which group changes light energy into food energy?

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. (5.9) Science concept. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to (B) analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem (2.9)(B), (3.8)(B), and (5.9)(B) This cluster requires students to be able to use the terms producer and consumer in a new situation. Students also need to know the relationship between producers and consumers and how these organisms obtain food.

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Question: TAKS Booklet #15 Right Answer: A* Producers only Wrong Answers: B Consumers only C Both producers and consumers D Neither producers nor consumers

Essential Knowledge: Why? Plants depend on sunlight to produce food through a process called photosynthesis. Why? Consumers depend on producers for there food. Consumer are not able to produce there own food and must depend on the producers.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need to understand that energy from the Sun, which is stored in food, passes form organism to organism in a food chain. Competition for resources causes food chains to overlap, forming food webs. Plants compete for sunlight, water, and minerals. Animals compete for the plants and animals they eat. Organisms that cannot make their own food are consumers. Consumers get energy from the food made by other organisms. Producers are able to make their own food. Student must compare and contrast the relationship that exist between plants and animals. (2.9)(B), (3.8)(B), and (5.9)(B) This cluster requires students to be able to use the terms producer and consumer in a new situation. Students also need to know the relationship between producers and consumers and how these organisms obtain food. Students will understand inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. Basic needs of living organisms through the study of the traits and behaviors of plants and animals in different environments. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plant need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. Students will analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem. The term unique niche refers to the idea that organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer (herbivore ) in a habitat where grasses are the producers (autotrophs). A coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat. The rabbit is considered both a consumer and prey. This defines the rabbits niche in the habitat.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which group depends on other organisms as a food source?

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. (5.9) Science concept. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to (B) analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem (2.9)(B), (3.8)(B), and (5.9)(B) This cluster requires students to be able to use the terms producer and consumer in a new situation. Students also need to know the relationship between producers and consumers and how these organisms obtain food.

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Question: TAKS Booklet #16 Right Answer: B* Consumers only Wrong Answers: A Producers only C Both producers and consumers D Neither producers nor consumers

Essential Knowledge: Why? Consumers cannot make their own food Why? Producers are able to make their own food, and do not need to depend on other organisms for food.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need to understand that energy from the Sun, which is stored in food, passes form organism to organism in a food chain. Competition for resources causes food chains to overlap, forming food webs. Plants compete for sunlight, water, and minerals. Animals compete for the plants and animals they eat. Organisms that cannot make their own food are consumers. Consumers get energy from the food made by other organisms. Producers are able to make their own food. Student must compare and contrast the relationship that exist between plants and animals. (2.9)(B), (3.8)(B), and (5.9)(B) This cluster requires students to be able to use the terms producer and consumer in a new situation. Students also need to know the relationship between producers and consumers and how these organisms obtain food. Students will understand inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. Basic needs of living organisms through the study of the traits and behaviors of plants and animals in different environments. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plant need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. Students will analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem. The term unique niche refers to the idea that organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer (herbivore ) in a habitat where grasses are the producers (autotrophs). A coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat. The rabbit is considered both a consumer and prey. This defines the rabbits niche in the habitat.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Some salamanders have a sticky tongue and a wide mouth lined with teeth. These animals most likely feed on --

Question: 6 Right Answer: F* insects and other tiny animals Wrong Answers: G leaves and other plant structures H algae and other microorganisms J dead and decaying materials Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.9 Science concept. The students know that adaptations may increase the survival of member of a species. The student is expected to (B) analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem Essential Knowledge: Why? The salamander's wide tooth lined mouth, and sticky tongue is best adapted to meat eating, they are carnivores. Why? The salamander are carnivores, they are not adapted to eating plants. Algae is a type of plant. They also prefer living organisms. The key to the question was the wide tooth lined mouth, and sticky tongue. These are both adaptations that assist the salamander to live in its surroundings. Students must know that a carnivore is, in general, an animal that eats meat. All salamanders are carnivores. They feed on small living animals such as insects, slugs, snails, and worms. They usually stalk their prey or lie and wait for it, then seize it in there jaws, or flick it with their sticky tongues When studying different animals make sure that students think about adaptations, The animal kingdom is full of examples of adaptations for getting food (sharp teeth, claws, talons, setting traps ), for protection against predators (speed, spines, armored skin, flight, camouflage, bad odors), staying warm ( thick fur, blubber, down feathers), and for conserving water (staying in shade during the day or moving about at night in hot places, using body to gather dew). Students will understand inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. Basic needs of living organisms through the study of the traits and behaviors of plants and animals in different environments. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plant need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. Students will analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem. The term unique niche refers to the idea that organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer (herbivore ) in a habitat where grasses are the producers (autotrophs). A coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat. The rabbit is considered both a consumer and prey. This defines the rabbits niche in the habitat.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 11 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 02 ­ 5.9 TAKS Objective #2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.9 Science concepts. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to: B) analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem Use the information below and your knowledge of science to help you answer questions 11-13.

Texas has more than 5,000 kilometers of shoreline along the Gulf of Mexico. Many families are able to visit the coast to have fun or just to relax. Many people have jobs and homes on or near the coast. TEST QUESTION: As seagulls fly over the water, they sometimes dive into the water to catch prey. Which of these senses is useful to seagulls that feed in this manner? Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: A Sight Why? Seagulls have uniquely adapted sense of sight to determine the location of prey (fish) by flying directly above the water. Wrong Answers: Why? B Smell None of these other senses will aid the seagull's food gathering skills as effectively as C Hearing strong visual acuity. D Touch An adaptation is an inherited trait that helps an organism meets its needs. Students should Implications for study and compare adaptive characteristics across all animal groups. The animal kingdom classroom reveals adaptations for food getting (sharp teeth, claws, talons, visual acuity), for protection instruction: against predators (speed, spines, flight, camouflage, repelling odors), staying warm (thick fur, down feathers) and for conserving water (staying in the shade, or moving around at night. It is important for students to realize that many species share a habitat. A seashore is an example of a habitat that is home to many varieties of plants, animals, and other organisms. Only one species can occupy a niche. A niche is what a species does within its habitat. A niche describes how the species uniquely meets its needs and how it affects other organisms. The term unique niche (5.9)(B) refers to the idea that organisms possess characteristics What the TAKS allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a Information Booklet primary consumer (herbivore) in a habitat where grasses are the producers (autotrophs). A (04-05) says: coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat. The rabbit is considered both a consumer and prey. This is one of the characteristics that defines the rabbit's niche in this habitat.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which of the following characteristics would NOT give animals an advantage in the ocean?

Question: 32 Right Answer: F* Long body hair Wrong Answers: G A smooth body H Structures that sense movement J A strong sense of smell Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.9 Science concepts. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to: (C) predict some adaptive characteristics required for survival and reproduction by an organism in an ecosystem. Essential Knowledge: Why? Long body hair would create a lot of friction, which would be a disadvantage Why? A smooth body would decrease friction (water resistance), structures for sensing and a sense of smell would be an advantage to animals that lives in the ocean. Student should study different animal body covering to understand structure and function. For example fur, scales, smooth skin, feathers, and moist skin are all adaptations that have different characteristics. Students could be asked about any kind of animal, from any ecosystem. The animal kingdom is full of examples of adaptations for getting food (sharp teeth, claws, talons, setting traps ), for protection against predators (speed, spines, armored skin, flight, camouflage, bad odors), staying warm ( thick fur, blubber, down feathers), and for conserving water (staying in shade during the day or moving about at night in hot places, using body to gather dew). Students will understand inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. Basic needs of living organisms through the study of the traits and behaviors of plants and animals in different environments. Students must demonstrate knowledge of interactions within ecosystems. This includes understanding what animals and plant need, how they meet these needs, and how meeting these needs changes the environment. Students will analyze and describe adaptive characteristics that result in an organism's unique niche in an ecosystem. The term unique niche refers to the idea that organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer (herbivore ) in a habitat where grasses are the producers (autotrophs). A coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat. The rabbit is considered both a consumer and prey. This defines the rabbits niche in the habitat.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 36 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 02 ­ 5.9 TAKS Objective #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.9 Science concepts. The student knows that adaptations may increase the survival of members of a species. The student is expected to C) predicts some adaptive characteristics required for survival and reproduction by an organism in an ecosystem.

TEST QUESTION: The type of penguin shown in the picture above lives in the icy lands of Antarctica. The male penguins huddle together in a tight group. They stay in these tight groups most likely because they are -- Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: H sharing body heat Why? Due to the extreme cold weather conditions the penguins have adapted to huddle together with the intent of sharing body heat in order to stay warm. Wrong Answers: Why? F looking for the sun These behaviors are not indicative of survival-driven G hiding from predators behaviors exhibited by penguins. J fighting over a piece of food Implications for classroom instruction: Students need to understand how adaptations affect survival of a species. The concepts of adaptation and survival are focused not at the level of the individual organism but at the species level. In order for a species to survive, individuals of that species must reproduce and pass their DNA to future generations. Organisms do not consciously adapt to their environment. In genetic variations allow for adaptations that may or may not be an advantage when changes in the environment put selective pressure on a species. Organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play their specialized roles in their ecosystem. Students need to understand how adaptations affect the survival of a species. The concept of adaptation and survival is focused not at the level of the individual organism but at the species level. In order for a species to survive, individuals of that species must reproduce and pass on their genetic traits to future generations. Reproduction will be assessed in relation to the survival of a species, not as a human body process.

What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 4 Test Question: Which of the following characteristics of a field mouse is most likely inherited from its parents?

Question: 4 Right Answer: F Brown fur Wrong Answers: G Torn ear H Scar on its leg J Chipped tooth Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.10 Science concepts. The student knows that likenesses between offspring and parents can be inherited or learned. The student is expected to (A) identify traits that are inherited from parent to offspring in plants and animals. Essential Knowledge: Why? Brown fur is the only characteristic answer that can be inherited directly from the parents. Why? All of these answers represent characteristics that happen to the field mouse after it is born. None of these represent characteristics that can be inherited directly from the parents. Students should be presented with many opportunities in the classroom where they need to decide if a given characteristic is inherited directly from the parents, a learned behavior, or simply something that has happened to the offspring since its birth. Students may be asked to compare traits of a parent to decide which trait may be possible to pass on to their offspring. They may asked to decide with of that list of traits is learned. Students should understand the difference between inherited traits and learned behavior. For example, the color of a dog's fur is an inherited trait, but retrieving a ball on command is a learned behavior.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 15 Test Question: Which of the following is an inherited trait in African clawed frogs?

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.10 Science concepts. The student knows that likenesses between offspring and parents can be inherited or learned. The student is expected to (A) identify traits that are inherited from parent to offspring in plants and animals.

Picture:

Question: 15 Right Answer: A The location of wave detectors on the frogs Wrong Answers: B The location of the frogs in a pond C The number of insects eaten by the frogs in an hour D The number of times the frogs look for insects in an hour Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? This is the only answer that has a trait that is inherited from the parents. Why? These answers are all learned behaviors or traits that the frog acquires as the frog develops into an adult.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need to be given opportunities to discuss and compare traits and behaviors of many different animals. They need to have a through understanding of the difference between a learned behavior or trait and an inherited or instinctive behavior or trait. They should also be aware that the young must be taught or shown learned behaviors, and that these behaviors can improve with practice. Questions could require students to compare learned and inherited behaviors of animals. Behaviors and traits that humans are born with or learn may also show up as a possible question. Students should understand the difference between inherited traits and learned behavior. For example, the color of a dog's fur is an inherited trait, but retrieving a ball on command is a learned behavior.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Coyotes learn some of their behaviors as they move around in their environment. Which behavior is most likely learned?

TAKS Objective: #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. (5.10) Science concept, The student knows that likeness between offspring and parents can be inherited or learned. The student is expected to (B) give examples of learned characteristics that result from the influence of the environment.

Question: TAKS Booklet #4 Right Answer: C* Avoiding cacti Wrong Answers: A Running B Drinking water D Sleeping Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The coyote has learned to avoid the cactus so it will not get stuck with a cactus needle. Why? Running, drinking water, and sleeping are not learned behaviors. These are inherited or instinct behaviors for survival.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Drinking, eating, sleeping, and breathing are types of behaviors. Behavior is the way an organism acts or what it does. Behaviors can be learned or inherited. Some types of behaviors are inherited . Inherited behaviors can be called instinctive behavior. Animals do not learn instinctive behaviors. For example: squirrels gathering nuts, or caterpillar spinning a cocoon. Animals are born with these behaviors. Students should have many opportunities to study different animals and the behaviors of that animal that might be either learned or inherited (instinct). Students should understand the difference between inherited traits and learned behavior. For example, the color of a dog's fur is an inherited trait controlled by DNA, but retrieving a ball on command is a learned behavior. This objective assesses students understanding of inherited traits and the diversity of life through a focus on the similarities and differences between organisms. The objective also addresses the basic need of living organisms through the study of the traits and behaviors of plants and animals in different environments. Through the study of populations, students begin to see themselves as part of an ecosystem.. This item represents one way to approach the ideas of learned behaviors and inherited traits. Students will not be expected to be familiar with all organisms. These items require students to apply what they have learned to new situations.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Raccoons living in cities have learned to open lids of garbage cans. This is an example of an animal --

Question: 23 Right Answer: A adapting to its environment Wrong Answers: B inheriting the ability to change its diet C being tamed by humans D becoming a plant eater

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: #2 The students will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.10 Science concept. The student knows that likenesses between offspring and parents can be inherited or learned. The student is expected to: (B) give examples of learned characteristics that result from the influence of the environment Essential Knowledge: Why? ­Raccoons have adaptations that help them survive in their environment. This is a learned behavior to increase its chances of survival Why?. Animals do not inherit the ability to change their diet, they adapt to the environment to survive, based on availability of food. Raccoons are not easily trained by humans when they have been in the wild and are only responding to a survival need. Eating out of the garbage can does not necessarily make a animal a plant eater. If they were a plant eater, they would eat vegetation, and have no need to depend on garbage for food. All living things respond to changes in their environment. They do these things in order to survive. Pulling your hand away from a hot stove to avoid being burned, or animals going into hibernation, at the beginning of winter. Some animal behaviors are inherited. Many of their behaviors are traits inherited form their parents. Some behaviors are learned. A pet learns to come when it is called. Students could be ask about any inherited or learned animal behavior in both vertebrate and non-vertebrate groups. This item requires students to apply what they know about adaptive structures to a new situation. At the elementary level, a broad study of external features such as teeth, feet, ear length, and coloration helps students begin to understand how structures are related to function. Through the study of populations, students begin to see themselves as part of an ecosystem. Students need t o understand how adaptations affect the survival of a species. The concept of adaptation and survival is focused not at the level of the individual organism but at the species level. In order for a species to survive, individuals of that species must reproduce and pass on their DNA to future generations. Organisms do not consciously adapt to their environment. In genetic variations allow for adaptations that may or may not be an advantage when changes in the environment put selective pressure on the species. Reproduction will be assessed in relation to the survival of a species, no as a human body process. Organisms possess characteristics allowing them to play specialized roles in their ecosystem. For example, a rabbit is a primary consumer (herbivore) in a habitat where grasses are the producers ( autotrophs ). A coyote, a secondary consumer (carnivore), preys on the rabbit in this habitat.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 17 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 02 ­ 5.10 TAKS Objective #2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the life sciences. 5.10 Science concepts. The student knows that likenesses between offspring and parents can be inherited or learned. The student is expected to B) Give examples of learned characteristics that result from the influence of the environment. TEST QUESTION: Which of these is an example of a learned behavior? Wrong answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: A Why? The turtle's behavior illustrated is instinctive. An instinctive behavior is a behavior that a living thing does naturally without having to learn it. For a bird, feeding her young is an example of an instinctive behavior.

B

Right Answer: Why? The seal has been trained to balance the ball on its nose. This is a learned behavior because it exhibits a behavior that is taught or learned from experience.

C

Wrong Answer: Why? A spider's web spinning is an instinctive behavior.

D

Wrong Answer: Why?

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Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

The birds' migrating behavior is instinctive.

Implications for classroom instruction:

What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says:

Students should do a comparative study to examine instinctive and learned behaviors in both the vertebrate and invertebrate groups of animals. Responding to changes in the environment fosters the survival of an organism. Studying unique learned and instinctive behaviors across varied species would clarify this distinction for students. Students should understand the difference between inherited traits and learned behavior. For example, the color of a dog's fur is an inherited trait, but retrieving a ball on command is a learned behavior.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Students placed two identical toy cars on these wooden ramps. The students let the cars roll down the ramps. What causes these cars to move down the ramps?

TAKS Objective: #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical science. 3.6 Science concept. The student knows that forces cause change. The student is expected to: (A) measure and record changes in the position and direction of the motion of an object to which a force such as a push or pull has been applied.

Picture:

Question: TAKS Booklet #18 Right Answer: B* A force that pulls Wrong Answers: A Electricity C Magnets D A force that lifts Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The ramp elevation creates a downward pull (gravity) which makes the car move down the ramp. Why? The car moving down the ramp would not be due to any of these reasons.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students must know how an inclined planes make work easier by reducing the effort force need to move an object . The push or pull needed to make something move is called force. When you make something move by using force work is being done. Students need to experiment with all types of simple machines to understand the connection between work, energy and force. 5.2)(A) and (3.6)(A) This cluster illustrates the importance of lab work in the elementary science classroom. Students must be familiar with manipulating variables--in this case, how different heights affect speed. Students should be able to describe gravity as a force that can cause motion.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: A car will skid more on a wet road than on a dry road. This happens because between the tires and the dry road, there is more --

Question: 27 Right Answer: C* friction

Wrong Answers: A gravity B magnetism D heat Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 3.6 Science concept. The student knows that forces cause change. The student is expected to : (A) measure and record changes in the position and direction of the motion of an object to which a force such as a push or pull has been applied Essential Knowledge: Why? Friction is a resisting motion usually between two solid surfaces. It is a force that slows down or stops moving objects. Friction occurs when two objects rub against each other, The dry road would produce more friction between the tires and the road causing the car to skid less. Why? A. Gravity is a property of matter. It is a force of attraction, or pull between any object and any other objects around it. B. Heat is not part of this question. Students should experiment with this concept by moving objects across different types/textures of surfaces to see how this affects the motion of the object. The rougher the surface the more friction produced between the object and this surface. For example, have the students rub their hands together, the heat that is produced from this force is due to friction. Students could be asked about movement of different objects across different surfaces, and observe the effects to the movement of the object. Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical properties. Students must recognize that change does not happen by itself. Some type of force must be present to cause change.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 18 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 03 ­ 5.5 TAKS Objective #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.5 Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to A) describe some cycles, structures, and processes that are found in a simple system. TEST QUESTION: Which force is most responsible for raindrops falling to Earth? Right Answer: J Gravity ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: Why? In simplest terms the law of gravity states: All bodies, from the largest star in the universe to the smallest particle of matter, attract each other with what is called a gravitational force. The strength of the gravitational force between two bodies depends on 1) their mass (the amount of material in them) and 2) the distance between them. The greater the distance, the weaker the force. Why? Friction exists as a resistant force. Winds are the movement of air. Winds blow because of unequal heating in the air, It is observed that warm air is pushed up by colder air. Thrust is a reaction force that when a system expels or accelerates in one direction it propels an object or vehicle in the opposite direction (illustrating Newton's Second Law (F=ma). Students could examine details of the stages of the water cycle to determine the role of gravity in processing precipitation back to earth from the clouds/upper atmosphere. The physical sciences explain the overall structure and the basic physical principles of the universe, with an emphasis on matter, energy, motion, and forces. Forces cause matter to undergo changes. These changes, such as when sugar dissolves in water or when electricity flows through a wire, involve energy and energy transformations. A basic understanding of the physical sciences learned in the elementary grades provides the foundation for a deeper comprehension of energy, machines, properties of matter, and chemical reactions.

Wrong Answers: F Friction G Wind H Thrust

Implications for classroom instruction: What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: The picture shows the process of --

TAKS Objective: #3 The Student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.5 Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to (B) describe some interactions that occur in a simple system.

Picture:

Question: 8 Right Answer: F* melting Wrong Answers: G boiling H condensing J freezing

Essential Knowledge: Why? The change of state (phase) from solid to liquid, with the addition of hear. Why? G.Boiling is the change from a liquid to a gas, with the addition of heat energy. H. Condensation is the change of state from vapor to liquid, with the addition of heat energy. J. Freezing is the change of phase from the liquid to the solid form with the reduction of heat energy, Matter is everything around us. Some matter you can touch or see. Other matter may be a gas or a single atom , which are invisible to the naked eye. All matter has properties. Properties describe physical and chemical characteristics of matter. Matter changes state when the temperature is greatly increased or decreased. At low temperatures matter moves closer together, and slows down molecular movement. At high temperature, energy is added to the particles. They are less tightly joined and they move freely. Matter can be either a solid, liquid or gas. States of matter are determined by the arrangements of particles (atoms) in each type of matter. In a solid the particles are very close together, and does not change shape when you put it into a container. In a liquid the particles are not as close together, and can take the shape of their container. A gas takes on both the shape and the volume of their container, and the particles are far apart. Students must understand that changes do not just happen by itself. Some type of force (energy) must be present to cause change. Students could be ask about any part of the water cycle. They should be familiar with all types of changes in matter. Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical properties. Students should experiment with different types of mixtures, such as liquid-liquid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid. Students must understand that changes do not just happen by itself. Some type of force (energy) must be present to cause change,

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 39 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 03 ­ 5.5 TAKS Objective #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.5 Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to B) describe some interactions that occur in a simple system.

TEST QUESTION: If the person in the middle lets go of the rope, in which direction would objects X and Y go? Right Answer: C X down, Y down ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: Why? Once the student releases the rope the weights will travel downward. This example illustrates that there in as inherent link between force and motion. A force is any push or pull. Forces set matter in motion. Some common examples of how forces can cause motion are pulling a wagon, pushing a pencil across a table, Forces can stop motion . They can change the direction of a moving object. When a student catches a basketball a force is being used to stop the ball's motion. When you hit a baseball with the bat in your hand you are using force to change the ball's direction. Students should realize that the amount of force needed to move an object depends on the amount of mass the objects has. A clear understanding of acceleration emphasizes that it is not only the speed of an object but the change in an object's speed or direction. Why? A The weights of the two objects pictured would have to have an increase in the counterweight to travel upward. B The motion of the weights will respond in a like manner based on the distribution of weights in the pictured scenario.

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Wrong Answers: A X up, Y up B X up, Y down D X down, Y up

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

Implications for classroom instruction:

What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says:

D The motion of the weights will respond in a like manner based on the pictured scenario. Experimentation with pan balances, triple beam balances, and spring scales will provide a meaningful reference for students to begin to process how weights within a system respond. Using gram weights can serve to illustrate how force, mass, and motion interact. Using readily familiar scenarios from sports activities will also help students understand how forces act on objects to increase/decrease speed, change the position, and change the direction of an object's motion. Students must recognize that change does not happen by itself. Some type of force must be present to cause change. For example, when a force is applied to a guitar string, the resulting vibration produces sound. The physical sciences explain the overall structure and the basic physical principles of the universe, with an emphasis on matter, energy, motion, and forces.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 26 Test Question: The diagram shows landfills where two communities put garbage. What is the advantage of Landfill Y?

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.5 Science concept. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to (B) describe some interactions that occur in a simple system.

Picture:

Question: 26 Right Answer: G The groundwater is safer. Wrong Answers: F The waste lasts longer. H The soil contains more nutrients. J The trucks move faster. Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The liner in landfill Y protects the groundwater from pollutants seeping into the groundwater. Why? The two diagrams have no evidence to support and of these possible answers. Students need to be aware of the functions of each part in a system. They need to understand how removing or changing one part of a system can cause changes in other parts of the systems.

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Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical properties. Students should experiment with different types of mixtures, such as liquids with liquids, liquids with solids, and solids with solids. If is important for students to realize that solutions are a type of mixture. Students should also be aware that the parts of mixtures do not chemically change and that mixtures can be physically separated into their original components.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 29 Test Question: The picture shows two bowling balls being held in position with four ropes. The box will be flipped upward if which rope is cut?

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.5 Science concept. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to (B) describe some interactions that occur in a simple system.

Picture:

Question: 29 Right Answer: BX

Wrong Answers: AW CY DZ

Essential Knowledge: Why? If X is cut the bowling ball that is attached to that rope will fall straight downward striking the board that the box is sitting on. This will cause the box to flip over. Why? W If this rope is cut the bowling ball will swing like a pendulum, but will not come in contact with the board or the box. Y If this rope is cut the bowling ball will fall downward but will not strike the box or the board that is holding the box. Z If this rope is cut the bowling ball will swing like a pendulum, but will fall just short of hitting the box. Students need to be aware of the functions of each part in a system. They need to understand how removing or changing one part of a system can cause changes in other parts of the systems. They should have experiences that teach them to evaluate parts of systems Questions related to any system that falls into the realm of physical science can be asked. The questions may ask about how different parts of the system and the function of each of the parts can be manipulated to change the system. Students must recognize that change does not happen by itself. Some type of force must be present to cause change. For example, when a force is applied to a guitar string, the resulting vibration produces sound.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which of these is a good conductor of electricity?

Question: 34 Right Answer: G Metal Wrong Answers: F Glass H Rubber J Plastic Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.7 Science concept. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to : (A) classify matter based on its physical properties including magnetism, physical state, and the ability to conduct or insulate heat, electricity, and sound Essential Knowledge: Why? Metal is a good conductor of electricity. Why? Glass, rubber, and plastic are all poor conductors of electricity.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should have experiences with different objects to see which with conduct electricity and which are insulators ( will not conduct electricity), An insulator is a material through which electric current does not pass. Poor conductors resist the flow of electricity more than good conductors. Students could be asked about many other types of material and their ability to conduct or insulate electricity. Students should have the opportunity to experiment with different forms of energy (light, electrical, solar, and heat) in the classroom, laboratory, and field. They should recognize that a circuit is a system with many parts.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which of the following can be attracted to a magnet?

Question: 38 Right Answer: H* Iron needle Wrong Answers: F Gold ring G Glass marble J Wool sock Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: #3 The student will determine an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.7 Science concept. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to: (A) classify matter based on its physical properties including magnetism, physical state, and the ability to conduct or insulate heat, electricity, and sound Essential Knowledge: Why? An iron needle is ferromagnetic and displays strong magnetic properties. Why? Gold is not a ferromagnetic metal and does not display strong magnetic properties. The glass and wool do not display any magnetic properties. Students should have hands-on experiences with what a magnet will and will not attract. All substances actually display magnetic properties, but most show them to such a very small degree, that usually these materials are considered non-magnetic. A few metallic elements such as iron, nickel, cobalt plus some of their alloys like steel and strontium ferrite display magnetic properties strongly enough to be considered magnetic . Iron and steel are made up of many magnetic domains. Each domain is a very small area with billions of atoms which face in a different direction. The domains are unaligned. When objects display strong magnetic properties these domains are aligned, or all facing in the same direction. Students also need to learn about magnetic fields. A magnetic field is the space around a magnet in which there is a concentration of magnetic force. Iron filing work well in demonstrating the concept, The stronger the magnet the greater the force field diameter. This concept needs to be directly linked to the Earth's north and south pole. Students could be asked about other types of materials/objects that are attracted to a magnet. They might also ask about magnetic field and where a magnet is strongest. Students should be familiar with the opposite poles of a magnet, and know that like poles repel, and unlike poles attracted. For example; south and south, north and north poles repel each other. North and south poles attract. Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical properties. Students must recognize that change does not happen by itself. Some type of force must be present to cause change.

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What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 6 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 03 ­ 5.7 TAKS Objective #3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.7 Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to: a) gather information including temperature, magnetism, hardness, and mass using appropriate tools to identify physical properties of matter TEST QUESTION: Matter can undergo changes. When water boils, a -- Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: H liquid becomes a gas Why? Heat is a form of energy, the energy of moving particles. Substances can change states as a result of a change in temperature. As a substance gets warmer its molecules move more vigorously; as it cools, the molecules move less vigorously. Molecules in liquid are arranged more tightly than in a gas. In the example of water boiling the increased heat speeds up the movement of particles farther apart thus resulting in a change of state (from a liquid to a gas). This response is as a result of evaporation. Water boils at 212 degrees F and 100 degrees C. Wrong Answers: Why? F liquid becomes a solid Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. G solid becomes a liquid All changes of state involve heat energy. J gas becomes a solid · When a liquid becomes a solid it is a result of freezing. · When a solid becomes a liquid it is as a result of melting. · A gas is matter that has no shape of its own. When a material is cooled, its change typically goes from gas to liquid to solid. There are some exceptions where the material will go directly from a gas to a solid. This process is named disposition. Students should have a variety of experiences to observe and analyze the Implications for classroom effects of temperature on varied types of matter to observe change states. instruction: Students can be challenged to determine the fastest way to melt an ice cube. Two websites that contain important background information on changing states of matter include: www.school-for champions.com/science/matterstates2.htm www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/statesof matter.html What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says: The physical sciences explain the overall structure and the basic physical principles of the universe, with an emphasis on matter, energy, motion, and forces. Forces cause matter to undergo changes. These changes, such as when sugar dissolves in water or when electricity flows through a wire, involve energy and energy transformations. A basic understanding of the physical sciences learned in the elementary grades provides the foundation for a deeper comprehension of energy, machines, properties of matter, and chemical reactions.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: In an experiment salt and sand are mixed together. Which of these procedures could be used to most easily separate the salt from the sand? Question: 21 Right Answer: A · stir the mixture into a glass of water · pour the mixture in the glass through a filter · evaporate the water Wrong Answers: B · · · C · · · D spread the mixture into a thin layer · look at the mixture through a magnifying glass · separate the crystals with a pin Implications for the Classroom: · put the mixture in a pan heat the pan for 10 minutes let the hot mixture cool slowly pour the mixture onto a piece of paper brush the mixture into a pile drag a magnet through the pile

TAKS Objective: #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.7 Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to: (B) demonstrate that some mixtures maintain the physical properties of their ingredients. Essential Knowledge: Why? Salt is water soluble and would dissolve in the water. The sand would not pass through the filter paper. When the water totally evaporated the salt would remain, which would form into small crystals.

Why? B Neither salt nor sand have magnetic properties, so could not be separated by a magnet. C. The sand would not melt at this low temperature, and the salt would burn. This could be a real safety hazard. D. Time would be an issue with this separation method.

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What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should have hands-on experiences dissolving and separating different solids. They should also experience stirring and heating solutions to see if there physical properties change. The teacher should provide opportunities for the students to experiment with a magnet to familiarize them with objects that are and are not magnetic. Investigate different properties of matter including different types of solids, liquids and gases. Students could be ask about any mixture. Mixtures consist of two or more substances that retain their separate identities when mixed together. Solutions result when the substance placed in a liquid seems to become part of the liquid. A solution is really a special kind of mixture, on in which the particles are all molecular in size. Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical properties. Students should experiment with different types of mixtures, such as liquid-liquid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid. It is important for students to realize that solutions are a type of mixture. Students should also be aware that the parts of mixtures do not

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Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

chemically change and that mixtures can be physically separated into their original components.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 22 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 03 ­ 5.7 TAKS Objective #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.7 Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to B) demonstrates that some mixtures maintain the physical properties of their ingredients. TEST QUESTION: Carbon powder and iron filings are both black powders. When mixed together, they look like one black powder. Which of these would be best to use to separate the iron filings from the carbon powder? Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: H. a magnet Why? When students make determinations about the properties of matter they examine mass, weight, state, melting and boiling points, ability to conduct electricity and magnetism. Magnetic substances are attracted to strong magnets. Iron filings are magnetic The magnet could be used to separate the iron filings from the carbon powder. Wrong Answers: Why? F a magnifying glass The lack of magnetic properties would prevent any of these from successfully G heat separating the substances in the mixture. J water Implications for classroom Students should have multiple opportunities to test different materials for their magnetic properties. Students can readily focus on objects in their homes to study instruction: how magnetism works. Paper clips that stick to a magnet, the mechanism on a can opener that holds the steel lid of a can in place, or a magnetic screwdriver that can be used to hold screws in place. Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical What the TAKS properties. Students should experiment with different types of mixtures, such as Information Booklet (04liquids with liquids, liquids with solids, and solids with solids. It is important for 05) says: students to realize that solutions are a type of mixture. Students should also be aware that the parts of mixtures do not chemically change and that mixtures can be physically separated into their original components.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 7 Test Question: A company collects cans for recycling. Some cans are made of aluminum, and some are made of iron. Which of the following is the best way to separate the two types of cans? Question: 7 Right Answer: C Use a magnet to pick up the iron cans Wrong Answers: A Heat the iron cans until they melt B Use scissors to cut the cans D Float the cans in water

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.7 Science concept. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to (B) demonstrate that some mixtures maintain the physical properties of their ingredients. Essential Knowledge: Why? Iron is magnetic and aluminum is not magnetic. The magnet will pick up the iron can and leave the aluminum cans behind. Why? A In order to heat only the iron cans, they would need to be separated already. If the cans were all heated at the same time, the aluminum would melt before the iron. B Using scissors to cut the cans may help to tell them apart but will not separate them by itself. D All the cans will float in water because the air in the cans will give them a density greater than the density of water. Students should have opportunities with different types of mixtures in the classroom. They should be aware of the physical properties of each component of a mixture before and after it is mixed. They should also be given the opportunity to separate mixtures using the physical properties of the components. Questions that draw on student knowledge of the physical properties of substances and how that relates to mixtures. They may be asked about what would happen to a physical property of a given substance once it becomes part of a mixture. Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical properties. Students should experiment with different types of mixtures, such as liquids with liquids, liquids with solids, and solids with solids. If is important for students to realize that solutions are a type of mixture. Students should also be aware that the parts of mixtures do not chemically change and that mixtures can be physically separated into their original components.

Implications for the Classroom:

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What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: A student places a sugar cube in a beaker of water. What change will occur?

Question: TAKS Booklet #9 Right Answer: C* The sugar cube will become smaller. Wrong Answers: A The sugar cube will not change. B More water will be formed. D The water will form crystals. Implications for the Classroom:

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What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. (5.7) Science concept. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to ( C ) identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving sugar in water Essential Knowledge: Why? When sugar is added to water, the sugar will dissolve, making the cube become smaller as it dissolves. Why? Sugar will dissolve in water, so change in the sugar cube would be observed. Water cannot form under these conditions. To form crystals of water you would need to lower the temperature of water to 0 degrees Celsius to produce freezing. A solution is a mixture in which substances are completely blended so that the properties are the same throughout and the substances stay blended. Solutions are usually transparent or evenly colored. Students need to have experiences mixing and dissolving and separating solids in a liquid, liquids in liquids, and solid in solid. This item requires students to use their knowledge of solutions and to understand that as solids dissolve, they do not "disappear" but break apart into individual particles. In this item students need to understand that as the sugar dissolves, the sugar particles move into the water and that the sugar cube therefore becomes smaller.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 31 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 03 ­ 5.7 TAKS Objective #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.7 Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to C) identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving sugar in water

TEST QUESTION: In an activity, 20 grams of salt are dissolved in 70 grams of pure water. The water is then heated on a hot plate. When the water evaporates completely, how much salt will be left? Right answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: C 20 grams Why? The solution is formed as a result of the particles of each substance being mixed evenly. The evaporation process, initiated as a result of the heating process, illustrates the change in state from a liquid to a gas. Once the water has completely evaporated over time the 20 grams of salt will remain in the container. When water evaporates from a solution, the concentration of the other material becomes greater until it reaches a saturation point, at which it will precipitate out (separate). Evaporation represents a physical change. No new substances were formed. Wrong answers: Why? A 0 grams B 18 grams D 22 grams Implications for classroom instruction: These amounts are greater or lesser than the original amount of salt introduced in the solution. Separation of a solution thorough evaporation (of the water) will not increase or decrease the amount of the other material. Students can research, prior to experimentation with mixtures and solutions, by reviewing the information on the following recommended websites: www.school-for-champions.com/science/chemixtures.htm www.school-for-champions.com/science/chemsolutions/htm www.scilinks.org www.eduplace.com Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical properties. Students should experiment with different types of mixtures, such as liquids with liquids, liquids with solids, and solids with solids. It is important for students to realize that solutions are a type of mixture. Students should also be aware that the parts of mixtures do not chemically change and that mixtures can be physically separated into their original components.

What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 34 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 03 ­ 5.7 TAKS Objective #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.7 Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to C) identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving sugar in water;

TEST QUESTION: Crystals were grown on a string in a clean glass jar containing sugar dissolved in hot water. The crystals grew on the string for several weeks. What kind of crystals are they? Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: J Sugar Why? A solution is a mixture in which particles of different substances are mixed evenly throughout. The sugar and water solution, once heated, reaches a saturation point. After that point no more of the material in solution will dissolve in the solvent. Sugar will dissolve in water until you reach its saturation point for that temperature. In this example the water was cooled over a period of days, getting to below its saturation point, and then separated to from the resulting crystals. Wrong Answers: Why? F String The string, water, and glass are not factors in successfully separating the substances G Water in solution. H Glass Implications for classroom Students can research, prior to experimentation with mixtures and solutions, by reviewing the information on the following recommended websites: instruction: www.school-for-champions.com/science/chemixtures.htm www.school-for-champions.com/science/chemsolutions/htm www.scilinks.org (keyword: solutions) www.eduplace.com This item requires students to use their knowledge of solutions and to understand What the TAKS that as solids dissolve, they do not "disappear" but break apart into individual Information Booklet (04particles. 05) says: Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical properties. Students should experiment with different types of mixtures, such as liquids with liquids, liquids with solids, and solids with solids. It is important for students to realize that solutions are a type of mixture. Students should also be aware that the parts of mixtures do not chemically change and that mixtures can be physically separated into their original components.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 27 Test Question: A teaspoon of clean, dry sand is added to a cup of warm saltwater. What is most likely to happen after the mixture is stirred and then placed on a table for five minutes? Question: 27 Right Answer: C The sand will settle to the bottom. Wrong Answers: A The amount of water will increase. B The salt will float to the top. D The cup will heat up.

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.7 Science concept. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to (C) identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving sugar in water. Essential Knowledge: Why? Sand is not soluble in water and therefore will settle out of the mixture on the bottom of the cup. Why? A Adding sand to a cup of water will increase the amount of water. It may cause the water level to rise slightly because the sand is displacing out some of the water. B Salt is soluble in water and adding sand to the saltwater will not cause the salt to settle out of the saltwater and rise to the top. D Adding sand to the saltwater does not add energy to the system. Therefore, the cup can not heat up because of the addition of sand. Students need to be given opportunities in the classroom to experiment with solutions. They should be aware of the physical properties of the ingredients in the solutions. They should be aware that the parts of mixtures do not chemically change and that mixtures can be separated using their physical properties. Questions related to the physical properties of the ingredients in a solution and ways that the solution can be separated into its parts. Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical properties. Students should experiment with different types of mixtures, such as liquids with liquids, liquids with solids, and solids with solids. If is important for students to realize that solutions are a type of mixture. Students should also be aware that the parts of mixtures do not chemically change and that mixtures can be physically separated into their original components.

Implications for the Classroom:

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Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: of the following thermometers shows the boiling point of water in a pan?

Question: 40 Right Answer:

TAKS Objective: #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.7 Science concepts. The students knows that matter has physical properties. (D) observe and measure characteristic properties of substances that remain constant such as boiling points and melting points Essential Knowledge: Why? Water boils at 100 degrees Celcius.

Wrong Answers:

Why? These thermometers do not show the temperature at which water boils. F. 0 degrees Celsius temperature at which water freezes G. 34 degrees Celsius H. 118 degrees Celsius

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should have many opportunities to read a Celsius thermometer, to become familiar with this scale. Temperature on a Celsius scale assigns the value of 0 degrees Celsius as the temperature which water freezes and 100 degrees Celsius as the temperature which water boils. Students could be asked to apply different temperatures to real life situations. For example; it is 22 degrees C, what type of clothing should you wear that day if you are going to be outside. Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical properties.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 32 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 03 ­ 5.7 TAKS Objective #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.7 Science concepts. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to D) Observe and measure characteristic properties of substances that remain constant such as boiling points and melting points. TEST QUESTION: When a chocolate bar is heated by the sun, all of the following are likely to be seen EXCEPT -- Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: F boiling Why? Matter changes state when the temperature is greatly increased or decreased. At low temperatures matter moves closer together, and slows down molecular movement. At high temperatures, energy is added to the particles. They are less tightly joined and they move freely. Matter can be classified as a solid, liquid, or gas. Students must understand that changes do not occur by themselves. Some type of energy must be present to cause this change. Boiling is defined as the rapid change of state from a liquid to a gas, with the addition of heat energy. As an example, when water is boiling, bubbles from water vapor. Wrong Answers: Why? G a liquid These are all observable changes that could be observed as the chocolate bar is H melting heated by the sun. J a change in shape Implications for classroom Students should be able to clearly classify matter according to its physical properties. The conceptual understandings around the changes of states in matter due to the instruction: inclusion of heat energy should be an instructional focus. The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid is known as its melting point. The instruction must establish that different substances have different melting points. As example tungsten, the metal used for filaments in electric lamps, can withstand temperatures of thousands of degrees without melting. Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical What the TAKS properties. Information Booklet (04The physical sciences explain the overall structure and the basic physical principles 05) says: of the universe, with an emphasis on matter, energy, motion, and forces. Forces cause matter to undergo changes. These changes, such as when sugar dissolves in water or when electricity flows through a wire, involve energy and energy transformations.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 9 Test Question: Some students were studying properties of water. One student placed a cup containing 80 mL of water in a freezer. Another student placed an identical cup containing 40 mL of water in a different freezer. Which of the following will be the same for both cups of water? Question: 9 Right Answer: A The temperature at which the water freezes Wrong Answers: B The mass of the frozen water C The time it takes the water to freeze D The volume of the frozen water Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.7 Science concept. The student knows that matter has physical properties. The student is expected to (D) observe and measure characteristic properties of substances that remain constant such as boiling points and melting points.

Essential Knowledge: Why? The temperature at which water freezes is constant regardless of the amount of water present. Why? The mass of the frozen water, the time it takes the water to freeze, and the volume of the frozen water will not be the same of each cup of water because each of these characteristics vary depending on the amount of water present. Students should be familiar with and given opportunities to explore characteristics of matter that stay constant regardless of the amount of matter present. Properties such as freezing point, boiling point, melting point, and density should all be presented to the students. Similar questions using other characteristics that are constant such as melting point, boiling point, and density. Students should be able to classify matter according to some of its physical properties. Students should experiment with different types of mixtures, such as liquids with liquids, liquids with solids, and solids with solids. If is important for students to realize that solutions are a type of mixture. Students should also be aware that the parts of mixtures do not chemically change and that mixtures can be physically separated into their original components.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 2 Test Question: What two forms of energy does a flame from a burning candle release?

Question: 2 Right Answer: H Light and heat Wrong Answers: F Electrical and mechanical G Chemical and electrical J Heat and nuclear

Implications for the Classroom:

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TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.8 Science concept. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms. The student is expected to (A) differentiate among forms of energy including light, heat, electrical, and solar energy. Essential Knowledge: Why? The candle gives off light energy that can be seen and heat energy that can be felt. Why? Electrical energy requires the transfer of electrons along a complete electric circuit. Mechanical energy is the energy related to the motion of objects Chemical energy is a form of potential energy that is generally released as heat energy in a chemical reaction. Nuclear energy has two types' fission and fusion. This energy is stored as mass in particular types of atoms and can be released as energy under the proper circumstances. Students need to be familiar with the basic forms of energy and aware that energy is constantly changing from one form to another. Students should have an opportunity to observe and discuss forms of energy in everyday life. There may be questions related to energy absorption, energy change, or comparing one type of energy to another. Students should have the opportunity to experiment with different forms of energy in the classroom, laboratory, and field. At the elementary level, students should be able to identify different forms of energy such as light, electricity, and heat. Students should also have hands-on experience with magnets. They should recognize that a circuit is a system with many parts.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: The diagram above shows a light ray approaching a mirror. Which of the diagrams below shows how the light travels after striking the mirror?

TAKS Objective: #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. (5.8) Science concept. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms. The student is expected to (B) differentiate among forms of energy including light, heat, electrical, and solar energy

Picture:

Question: TAKS Booklet #7 Right Answer:

Essential Knowledge: Why? When light strikes a highly reflective surface such as a mirror, it bounces off in a straight line at the same angle that it hit the mirror. Light waves hitting an object on an angle will reflect at that same angle.

Wrong Answers:

Why? Light does not reflect in a parallel pattern as shown in A. The angle of reflection is wrong on the other two examples.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Implications for the Classroom:

Students need to know that the angel at which a light ray is reflected from a plan mirror equals the angle at which a light ray strikes the mirror. This is the law of reflection for plane mirrors. Students will need to explore how the angle at which the flashlight beam is directed towards a plane mirror is related to the angle at which the beam is reflected off the mirror. The student should have many hands-on opportunities to experience this in the classroom. Students could use a degree compass to measure the actual angle of reflection. Light interacts with matter by transmission (including refraction), absorption, or scattering ( including reflection). Different diagrams could be used to show any of these light concepts. Students are required to determine the direction of the light ray after it strikes the mirror. Students must apply their knowledge of reflection to interpret this diagram. The concepts of light and sound tested at fifth grade are based on students' having hands-on experiences that explore reflection, refraction, and vibration. These investigations are the as is for understanding frequency, pitch wavelength, and amplitude, which will be studied at the middle school levels.

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Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Light traveling through a pair of eyeglasses is --

Question: 16 Right Answer: F* refracted

Wrong Answers: G transmitted H absorbed J reflected Implications for the Classroom:

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What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.8 Science concepts. The student know that energy occurs in many forms. The student is expected to (B) identify and demonstrate everyday examples of how light is reflected, such as from tinted windows, and refracted, such as in cameras, telescopes, and eyeglasses Essential Knowledge: Why? Eyeglass lenses are pieces of transparent materials with curved surfaces. Lenses correct vision problems by bending light rays so that the image formed falls on the retina. A convex lens bends light rays together and a concave lens bends light rays apart. The bending of light rays as they pass from one substance in to another is refraction. Why? G. Sound is transmitted. H. Objects that are opaque absorb light. For example: The plastic frames eyeglasses are made of are opaque. J. A shiny surface like a mirror reflects light. Students should experiment with a flashlight and several different types of lenses. They should track the ray of light as it passes through the lenses. Refraction results from a change in the speed and direction of the light. When light hits the boundary between two substances at an angle, the light on the side of the beam that hits first slows down or speeds up before the light on the other side of the beam hits the new material, making the light seem to bend at the boundary. Students should have knowledge of telescope lenses. Refracting telescopes use two lenses to bend light. Reflecting telescopes use mirrors in conjunction with lenses. Microscopes and cameras also use different types of lenses. Students are required to determine the direction of the light ray after it strikes the mirror. Students must apply their knowledge of reflection to interpret this diagram. The concepts of light and sound tested at fifth grade are based on students' having hands-on experiences that explore reflection, refraction, and vibration. These investigations are the basis for understanding frequency, pitch wavelength, and amplitude, which will be studied at the middle school levels.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 13 Test Question: A student holds a note card behind a jar of water. Which of the following best explains why the part of the note card seen through the jar looks different from the rest of the note card?

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.8 Science concept. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms. The student is expected to (B) identify and demonstrate everyday examples of how light is reflected, such as from tinted windows, and refracted, such as in cameras, telescopes, and eyeglasses.

Picture:

Question: 13 Right Answer: D The water bends light passing through it. Wrong Answers: A The jar reflects light hitting its surface. B The water absorbs light hitting its surface. C The jar scatters light passing through it.

Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The water in the jar acts as a lens and bends the light that passes through it. Why? A If the light was reflected it would all bounce back toward the card and the student would not see the note card. B If the water absorbed the light the jar of water would appear black because no light would be passing through the water or the jar. C If the jar simply scatters the light that was passing through it the letters on the note card would be impossible to read. Students should be given opportunities to play with and investigate all types of lenses. They should be familiar with the way different materials respond to light. They should be familiar with the concepts of reflection and refraction.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

The concepts of light and sound tested at Grade 5 are based on students' having hands-on experiences that explore reflection, refraction and vibration. These investigations are the basis for understanding frequency, pitch, wavelength, and amplitude, which will be studied at the middle and high school levels.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which of these pictures shows the way to use a battery to light a bulb?

Question: TAKS Booklet #8 Right Answer:

TAKS Objective: #3 The students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. (5.8) Science concept. The students knows that energy occurs in many forms. The student is expected to (C ) demonstrate that electricity can flow in a circuit and can produce heat, light, sound, and magnetic effects Essential Knowledge: Why? The wire runs from the battery to the bulb. Because a wire connects the bulb to the battery, it makes a complete circuit , the wire must make contact with the positive and negative end of the battery to have the bulb light. This is an example of a closed circuit

Wrong Answers:

Why? These are examples of open or incomplete circuits. The wire does not make a complete loop so the bulb will not light. In all three examples the wire is touching only one side of the battery.

Implications for the Classroom:

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Students must have hands-on experiences to understand electric current. They should be given a battery, wire that is stripped on the ends, and a light bulb, to discover for themselves what will and will not light the bulb. Students could see all different configurations of battery, wire, and bulb. This item requires students to apply their experience with simple circuits. Using their observation skill, students should be able to determine the correct illustration of a complete circuit.

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: The wires connecting the battery and the light bulb create a closed circuit. What would happen if one of these wires were cut?

TAKS Objective: #3 The students will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. (5.8) The students knows that energy occurs in many forms. The student is expected to (C ) demonstrate that electricity can flow in a circuit and can produce heat, light, sound, and magnetic effects

Picture:

Question: 2 Right Answer: H* The light would go out. Wrong Answers: F The battery would lose its charge. G The glass would crack. J The wire would become hot. Implications for the Classroom:

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Essential Knowledge: Why? By cutting or removing one end of the wire from the system, the flow of electricity would be disrupted and the circuit would be open causing the bulb to not light. Why? Cutting the wire would stop the connection with the battery and no more energy would flow from the battery. The battery would not supply enough energy to break the light bulb, or have the wire become hot. Students must have several opportunities for hands on experiences with wire, battery and light bulbs to understand what can and cannot happen with electricity in complete and open circuit Students could see all different types of configurations of wire, bulb, and battery. Have them problem solve to explain what makes up an open or closed circuit. Students should have the opportunity to experiment with different forms of energy (light, electrical, solar and heat) in the classroom, laboratory, and field. They should recognize that a circuit is a system with many parts.

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 19 Test Question: A student plans to make this lightbulb glow. All of the following objects can be used to complete the circuit EXCEPT --

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.8 Science concept. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms. The student is expected to (C) demonstrate that electricity can flow in a circuit and can produce heat, light, sound, and magnetic effects.

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Question: 19 Right Answer: B a plastic comb Wrong Answers: A a copper penny C a metal clip D an iron nail Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Plastic is an insulator and will not complete the circuit and allow the lightbulb to glow. Why? Copper, iron, and other metals are conductors of electricity and would complete the circuit and allow the lightbulb to glow. Students need to have opportunities to use a simple circuit to test many objects for the ability to conduct electricity and complete a circuit. Giving students the opportunity to build a circuit themselves will give them a better understanding of what is needed to complete a circuit. Students may be shown diagrams of different simple circuits and asked which of the diagrams will allow a lightbulb to glow or which of the diagrams will not allow a lightbulb to glow. This item requires students to apply their laboratory experiences with the construction of simple electrical circuits. Using their observation skills, students should be able to recognize the illustration that represents a complete circuit.

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Sound is made when a drumstick hits the drum. This happens because the force of the drumstick on the drum causes -- Picture:

TAKS Objective: #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.8 Science concepts. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms. The student is expected to: (D) verify that vibrating an object can produce sound

Question: 36 Right Answer: F vibrations Wrong Answers: G electrical currents H heat energy J a magnetic charge Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Sound is produced when an object vibrates. Why? The force of striking the drum with the drumsticks would not produce electricity, heat energy or magnetic charges. Students should have many experience with all different types of objects, to observe vibration and production of sound. Placing a wooden or plastic ruler partially resting on the table can be struck with the hand to produce vibration. Students should make observations, to conclude what produces pitch change. Sound is produced by objects vibrating back and forth which make sound waves. Vibrations are transmitted to anything the vibrating object touches. Sound waves move out in all directions from the source, like ripples in water. Sound can travel through solids, liquids, and gases at different speeds. Sound travels about 350 meters per second through air, 1500 meters per second through water and 4,500 meters per second through wood. Sound cannot travel through a vacuum because there is nothing there to vibrate. Pitch depends on frequency of vibration, which can produce a high or low sound. The greater the number of vibrations an object makes the higher the sound produced. Students could see all different types of objects from musical instruments to bottles filled with different level of liquid which would produce different pitches when made to vibrate. Questions about pitch, frequency, or amplitude (volume) could be included. The concept of light and sound tested at fifth grade are based on students' having hands-on experiences that explore reflection, refraction, and vibration. These investigations are the basis for understanding frequency, pitch, wavelength, and amplitude, which will be studied at the middle and high school levels.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

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Question 16 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 03 ­ 5.8 TAKS Objective #3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.8 Science concepts. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms. The student is expected to D) verify that vibrating an object can produce sound. TEST QUESTION: Blowing through a pipe can produce a sound because the -- Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: F air in the pipe vibrates Why? Sound results when an object vibrates. Strumming a guitar results in the motion of the strings. Each of the movements is a back and forth motion. This motion is called a vibration. The vibrating guitar string produces a sound wave that travel through the air. The pattern of air particles in the sound wave affect the quality of the sound produced. As the pattern of air particles in the sound wave strikes your ear, your brain then recognizes them as sound. Wrong Answers: Why? G pipe speeds up the air None of these answers supports the causal factors needed to produce H pipe cools the air sound waves. J air is absorbed by the pipe Students should have a variety of experiences with objects designed to produce Implications for classroom vibration resulting in sound. Examining a drum head that has been struck in order instruction: to study the vibrations would allow students to process conclusions based on direct observation. Sound waves move out in all directions from the source, similar to ripples in water. Sound can travel through solids, liquids, and gases at varying speeds. Pitch depends on the frequency of vibration, which can produce either a high or low sound. The greater the number of vibrations produced, the higher the sound produced. What the TAKS Information The concepts of light and sound tested at Grade 5 are based on students' having hands-on experiences that explore reflection, refraction, and vibration. These Booklet (04-05) says: investigations are the basis for understanding frequency, pitch, wavelength, and amplitude, which will be studied at the middle and high school levels Students must recognize that change does not happen by itself. Some type of force must be present to cause change. For example, when a force is applied to a guitar string, the resulting vibration produces sound.

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 17 Test Question: An insect that produces waves in the water also produces waves in the air. What can these air vibrations produce?

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the physical sciences. 5.8 Science concept. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms. The student is expected to (D) verify that vibrating an object can produce sound.

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Question: 17 Right Answer: A Sound Wrong Answers: B Light C Oxygen D Carbon

Essential Knowledge: Why? Vibrations produce waves that release energy in the form of sound. Why? B Light energy can be produced from other forms of energy. However, vibrations do not produce light. C Oxygen can not be produced. D Carbon can not be produced. Students need to be familiar with many different forms of energy and how the different forms are produced. Students should be given opportunities to experiment with different forms of energy. Musical instruments can be used in the classroom to study sound. Pictures of different types if objects that can produce sound may be shown and questions asked related to how the objects produce sound. Characteristics of sound such as amplitude, frequency, or pitch may be included in the questions. The concepts of light and sound tested at Grade 5 are based on students' having hands-on experiences that explore reflection, refraction and vibration. These investigations are the basis for understanding frequency, pitch, wavelength, and amplitude, which will be studied at the middle and high school levels.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 21 Test Question: In which of these ways can volcanoes help build up new land?

Question: 21 Right Answer: C By adding lava to Earth's surface Wrong Answers: A By adding heat to Earth's surface B By adding gases to the atmosphere D By adding water vapor to the atmosphere Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 3.6 Science concept. The student knows that forces cause change. The student is expected to (B) identify that the surface of the Earth can be changed by forces such as earthquakes and glaciers. Essential Knowledge: Why? Lava brings mass from under the Earth's surface building up new land along the area of the volcano. Why? Volcanoes release heat, gas, and water vapor, however, these will not help build up new land. Students need to have an understanding of how forces within the Earth play a role in the formation of the Earth's surface. They should understand the different forces related to volcanoes and earthquakes have played a significant role in creating many of the structures that form the Earth's surface. They should also be aware that earthquakes and volcanoes then to happen along fault lines. Students should also have and understanding of how the movement of glaciers can have an impact on the Earth's surface. Students may be asked how glaciers or earthquakes can change the surface of the Earth. They may be given a before and after picture or diagram of a part of the Earth's surface and asked what type of forces could have caused some type of change in the surface of the Earth. Students will be expected to be familiar with physical characteristics of Earth and the moon, but they will not always be expected to compare them.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 30 Test Question: The picture shows a kind of glacier that can be many meters thick. In this landscape, which of the following is most directly affected by this kind of glacier?

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 3.6 Science concept. The student knows that forces cause change. The student is expected to (B) identify that the surface of the Earth can be changed by forces such as earthquakes and glaciers.

Picture:

Question: 30 Right Answer: J The shape of the valley between the mountains

Wrong Answers: F The average height of plants on the mountainside G The shape of clouds that form above the glacier H The average mass of trees near the lake Implications for the Classroom:

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What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The shape of the valley between the mountains is in direct contact with the glacier. As the glacier moves the valley changes shape as need to accommodate the glacier. Why? The plants on the mountainside, the clouds that form above the glacier and the trees near the lake are not directly affected by this type of glacier. Students need to have an understanding of how forces within the Earth play a role in the formation of the Earth's surface. They should understand the different forces related to volcanoes and earthquakes have played a significant role in creating many of the structures that form the Earth's surface. They should also be aware that earthquakes and volcanoes then to happen along fault lines. Students should also have and understanding of how the movement of glaciers can have an impact on the Earth's surface. Students may be asked how glaciers or earthquakes can change the surface of the Earth. They may be given a before and after picture or diagram of a part of the Earth's surface and asked what type of forces could have caused some type of change in the surface of the Earth. Students will be expected to be familiar with physical characteristics of Earth and the moon, but they will not always be expected to compare them. Students must recognize that change does not happen by itself. Some type of force must be present to cause change. For example, when a force is applied to a guitar string, the resulting vibration produces sound.

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: A student saw the constellation Scorpius in the southern part of the summer sky. In the winter Scorpius was not visible at all. What causes this constellation to disappear from the winter sky? Question: TAKS Booklet #11 Right Answer: C* The revolution of Earth around the sun Wrong Answers: A The stars moving away from Earth B The solar winds covering the night sky D The orbiting of the stars in the galaxy Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: #4 The students will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. (4.6) Science concept. The student knows that change can create recognizable patterns. The students is expected to (A) identify patterns of change such as in weather, metamorphosis, and objects in the sky. Essential Knowledge: Why? The Earth takes one year to make one rotation around the sun.

Why? The stars are not in motion, it is the movement of the Earth that makes the stars appear to be moving. Solar winds would not blow the constellation away.

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The Earth moves around the sun and all the other planets spin, or rotate around the sun. At any point in time, half of a planet is facing the sun and it is daylight on that half. At the same time, half is facing away from the Sun, the half in the darkness is night. One complete trip of the Earth in its orbit around the sun takes a year. When the North Pole tilts toward the Sun, it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere and winter in the Southern Hemisphere. Without the tilt, seasons would not exist. Students must be familiar with the objects that appear in the night sky and the pattern and cycles involved with the seasonal cycles. This item requires students to be familiar with the patterns of change in the night sky. It is not essential to name specific constellations. It is necessary for students to understand that Earth moves around the sun and that.,therefore, the positions of the stars appear to change.

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: About how long does it take Earth to make a complete rotation on its axis?

Question: 35 Right Answer: A One day Wrong Answers: B One week C One month D One year Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 4.6 Science concept. The student knows that change can create recognizable patterns. The student is expected to: (A) identify patterns of change such as in weather, metamorphosis, and objects in the sky. Essential Knowledge: Why? The Earth makes a complete rotation on its axis in 24 hours or one day. Why? B The earth would make 7 rotations on its axis in one week C The earth would make 30-31 rotations on its axis in a month. D This is the length of time it takes the Earth to make one revolution around the Sun. Students should use models to understand this time/rotation relationship. Have the students act out the movement of the Earth, and the other planets in the Solar System. This is a repetitive pattern, and is constant for the Earth. Students might be asked about any of the planets in the Solar System. Different planets exhibit different lengths of time for one rotation on its axis, or one revolution around the Sun. Through the study of the physical features of Earth, the moon, and the sun. students begin to understand the universe as a dynamic system.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

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Question 10 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 04 ­ 4.6 TAKS Objective #4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 4.6 Science concepts. The student knows that change can create recognizable patterns. The student is expected to: a) identify patterns of change such as in weather, metamorphosis, and objects in the sky

TEST QUESTION: According to this information, what kind of weather is related to low air pressure? Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: Why? H Rainy By comparative analysis of the air pressures listed in the data table the lowest air pressure 756 (in mm of mercury) posted rainy weather conditions. Characteristically low air pressure results in rainy, damp climatic conditions. A low pressure area may cover an area hundreds or thousands of miles in diameter. In a low, the lowest pressure is in the center, with pressure increasing away from the center. Winds blow in a counterclockwise motion around a low in the Northern Hemisphere and veer toward the center. Lows generally move southeastward and northeastward across the country within the rest of the weather picture. Areas where pressure is higher than the surrounding air are called high pressure areas. Areas where pressure is lower than the surrounding air are called low pressure areas. Often the difference in air pressure between such areas can cause winds. Wrong Answers: Why? F Sunny Sunny, mild, and fair weather are more readily observed in a high air pressure condition. G Fair J Mild Students should have an opportunity to test how a barometer works to measure air Implications for pressure. Students can make a simple barometer made with a small coffee can, a cut up classroom instruction: balloon, plastic straw, and cardboard strip. Students can place the barometer in different locations around the school to gather barometric pressure readings in different locations over a period of time. They can then record weather observations to correlate to the barometric pressure readings. www.eduplace.com is a website that contains additional information about Earth's atmosphere and air pressure. A basic knowledge of the earth/space sciences allows students to understand how What the TAKS Earth's physical features are shaped by forces and are continually changing. These Information Booklet changes can affect the availability of resources, many of which are limited. The (04-05 ) says: earth/space sciences lend themselves to the study of many types of systems, cycles, and

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change. Through the study of the physical features of Earth, the moon, and the sun, students begin to understand the universe as a dynamic system. "Objects in the sky," listed in (4.6)(A), are defined as celestial bodies, such as planets, comets, and stars, or as weather phenomena, such as clouds or lightning.

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Question 21 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 04 ­ 4.6 TAKS Objective #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 4.6 Science concepts. The student knows that change can create recognizable patterns. The student is expected to A) identify patterns of change such as in weather, metamorphosis, and objects in the sky. TEST QUESTION: Tides on the Texas coast usually occur twice -- Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: A daily Why? Two factors are responsible for the rhythm of the tides: the gravitational pull of the moon (and, to a lesser extent, the sun) and the rotation of the earth. There are also small but measurable tides on the land surfaces of the earth. The Earth rotates on its axis and completes one rotation in 24 hours (or one day). Tides are caused primarily by the moon's gravitational pull on Earth. Ocean water is pulled toward those areas of Earth closest to the moon. Wrong Answers: Why? B weekly These answer choices do not provide accurate information that C monthly establishes the relationships between the moon's gravitational pull D yearly and sequencing of low and high tides. The moon rotates once as it revolves once. Students should be provided a variety of opportunities to investigate relative Implications for classroom position of planets through the study and analysis of models. Students should also instruction: investigate the conceptual understandings around planetary rotation, revolution, and gravitational force (and their effects on tides). NASA websites offer an excellent source for extended student research. Students can go to www.scilinks.org and enter keyword: Tides. Also, enter code: SC070402 to download an article titled "What Causes Tides?" What the TAKS Information The earth/space sciences lend themselves to the study of many types of systems, cycles, and change. Through the study of the physical features of Earth, the moon, Booklet (04-05) says: and the sun, students begin to understand the universe as a dynamic system. Students will be expected to be familiar with physical characteristics of Earth and the moon, but they will not always be expected to compare them.

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Question 23 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 04 ­ 5.5 TAKS Objective #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 5.5 Science concepts. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to A) describe some cycles, structures, and processes that are found in a simple system; TEST QUESTION: Which of these best shows the relationship between Earth, the moon, and the sun? A ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: Wrong answer: Why? This graphic incorrectly positions the moon at the center of a revolution involving the sun and earth.

B

Wrong answer: Why? This graphic incorrectly positions the Earth at the center of a revolution involving both the sun and moon.

C

Wrong answer: Why? This graphic incorrectly depicts the moon and sun revolving around the Earth.

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D

Right Answer: Why? This graphic accurately places the sun at the center of the known solar system. The position of the earth and moon accurately depicts their relative positions. While the earth is executing its yearly orbit, or revolution, around the sun it is spinning on its axis, performing this rotation almost exactly 365.25 times in this period. The moon rotates once as it revolves once. The moon circles the earth once a month.

Implications for classroom instruction:

What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says:

Students should be provided a variety of opportunities to investigate relative position of planets through the study and analysis of models. Students should also investigate the conceptual understandings around planetary rotation, revolution, and gravitational force (and their effects on tides). NASA websites offer an excellent source for extended student research. · Students will be expected to be familiar with physical characteristics of Earth and the moon, but they will not always be expected to compare them. · The TAKS science test will use the nine-planet system with the planets in their relative orbital positions from the sun.

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 22 Test Question: Before a field trip to a cave, a science class studied this picture. Which two features of this cave system were most likely formed by the slow buildup of minerals from water drops? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 5.5 Science concept. The student knows that a system is a collection of cycles, structures, and processes that interact. The student is expected to (B) describe some interactions that occur in a simple system.

Question: 22 Right Answer: J Stalagmite and stalactite Wrong Answers: F Pool of water and trench G Pool of water and stalagmite H Stalactite and trench Implications for the Classroom:

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What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Stalagmites and stalactites are both formed from the build up of minerals left behind from water drops. Why? The pool of water and the trench are not formed from the build up of minerals. The pool of water is formed from the water being left behind and finding a low area to pool together. The trench is formed by the movement of water carrying the soil away. Students should be given many opportunities to compare interactions within many different Earth's system. Students should understand how water plays and important role in many of the systems and cycles associated with Earth science. They should understand how water can play a role in construction as well as destruction. Questions can be asked about interactions within any system associated with Earth science. These questions could contain pictures, diagrams, graphs, or charts that the students must use to make an informed decision about how the interaction within a system. Students will be expected to be familiar with physical characteristics of Earth and the moon, but they will not always be expected to compare them.

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 25 Test Question: Which of these causes day and night on Earth?

Question: 25 Right Answer: C Earth rotating on its axis

Wrong Answers: A Earth orbiting the sun B The moon orbiting Earth D The moon blocking sunlight Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 5.6 Science concept. The student knows that some change occurs in cycles. The student is expected to (A) identify events and describe changes that occur on a regular basis such as in daily, weekly, lunar, and seasonal cycles. Essential Knowledge: Why? The side of the Earth facing the Sun will be in daylight and the other side of the Earth will be in darkness. The Earth rotating on its axis causes the sunlight to be on a given part of the Earth for only part of the time in a 24 hour period. Why? The earth orbiting the sun, the moon orbiting the Earth, and the moon blocking sunlight do not cause day and night on Earth. Students need to have a good understanding about how the Earth rotating on its axis, and how the Earth's tilt affect the intensity of the sunlight as it hits parts of the Earth. Students should have experiences creating and using models to help them understand how the Earth, sun, moon, and the other planets work together as a system. They should also be familiar with the role this system plays in the changes that occur in cycles such as lunar, monthly and day to night. Students may be asked questions related to any changes that occur on a regular basis that are related to the Earth sciences. Students will be expected to be familiar with physical characteristics of Earth and the moon, but they will not always be expected to compare them.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Plants take in carbon dioxide gas and use it to make sugars. Through this process they release oxygen, which animals need. Which of the following activities could decrease the amount of oxygen released into the air? Question: TAKS Booklet #10 Right Answer: C Paving more land for roads and parking lots Wrong Answers: A Making sure trees are planted with every new house built B Encouraging cities to plan for more parks D Better controls for air and water pollution Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: #4 The students will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. (5.6) Science concept. The student knows that some change occurs in cycles. The student is expected to (B) identify the significance of the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles.

Essential Knowledge: Why? This would remove additional vegetation from the environment. Reducing the amount of oxygen being produced. Why? All the suggestions made with these three answers would give us more vegetation, which would produce more oxygen.

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The carbon cycle begins with plants during photosynthesis. Plants take carbon from the air as carbon dioxide. Carbon may also be dissolved in the water plants take up in their roots. Green plants remove carbon dioxide from the air during photosynthesis. If there were fewer forests, less carbon dioxide would be removed from the air, and the level of carbon dioxide would increase. Plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and use it to make food through the process of photosynthesis. In turn plants produce oxygen which is released into the air. Students could be asked about any part of the photosynthesis process. This item requires students to have a basic understanding of the carbon cycle and to examine the relationship between plants and animals. Students should be familiar with the general interactions of the carbon cycle within the ecosystem and the effects of human activities on this cycle.

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which gas in the air would increase if a large number of trees were cut down?

Question:19 Right Answer: A* Carbon dioxide Wrong Answers: B Nitrogen C Oxygen D Water vapor

TAKS Objective: #4 The students will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 5.6 Science concepts. The student knows that some change occurs in cycles. The student is expected to: (B) identify the significance of the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles Essential Knowledge: Why? Carbon dioxide is removed from the air by trees. Why? B. Nitrogen cycle allows nitrogen gas to be used by animals and plants. Nitrogen makes up a large part of the Earth's atmosphere. But until it is converted to ammonia or nitrates in the soil, it cannot be used. C. Plants give off oxygen as part of the carbon cycle. D. Water vapor is also given off as part of the carbon cycle. The carbon cycle begins with plants during photosynthesis. Plants take carbon from the air as carbon dioxide. Carbon may also be dissolved in the water plants take up in their roots. Green plants remove carbon dioxide from the air during photosynthesis. If there were fewer forests, less carbon dioxide would be removed from the air, and the level of carbon dioxide would increase. Plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and use it to make food through the process of photosynthesis. In turn plants produce oxygen which is released into the air. Students could be ask about any part of the carbon cycle. This item requires students to have a basic understanding of the carbon cycle and to examine the relationship between plants and animals. Students should be familiar with the general interactions of the carbon cycle within the ecosystem and the effects of human activities on this cycle.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which experiment would best show how different methods of plowing fields on a hill affect erosion?

Question: 24 Right Answer:

TAKS Objective: #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 5.11 Science Concepts. The students knows that certain past events affect present and future events. The student is expected to: (A) identify and observe actions that require time for changes to be measurable, including growth, erosion, dissolving, weathering, and flow Essential Knowledge: Why? This is the only model that shows two different methods of plowing the fields on a hill (down and around the hill), with water pouring down on both models at the same time to simulate soil erosion.

Wrong Answers:

Why? The other three models do not show two different ways to plow a field on a hill, with two watering cans of water used to demonstrate the effects of erosion.

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Implications for the Classroom:

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Students should be familiar with different systems that cause changes. Erosion can be a slow or fast change depending on the amount of water flowing, or other types of weathering like freezing and thawing or wind. Erosion is the moving of weathered rocks and soil by water, wind and ice. Wind erosion can build up large piles of sand called sand dunes. Glaciers are giant sheets of ice that move downhill, moving soil and rock with them and in front of them. Erosion can build new land, as well as wash away fertile soil. People can control erosion by planting ground cover to hold soil in place. The most desired method for plowing a field on a hill would be around the hill to stop water from running downhill, or by planting trees on steep hill to hold soil in place. Students could be ask about the many different ways to control or prevent erosion. A basic knowledge of the earth sciences allows students to understand how Earth's physical features are shaped by forces and are continually changing. These changes affect the availability of resources, many of which are limited. The earth sciences lend themselves to the study of many types of systems, cycles, and change.

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 24 Test Question: The rock column below shows the layers in a rock formation. The three diagrams above show the positions of fossils in different rock layers. According to this information, which fossil is the youngest?

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 5.11 Science concept. The student knows that certain past events affect present and future events. The student is expected to (B) draw conclusions about "what happened before" using data such as from tree-growth rings and sedimentary rock sequences

Picture:

Question: 24 Right Answer:

Essential Knowledge: Why? This fossil in found in the top layer of the rock column.

Wrong Answers:

Why? F This is the oldest fossil based on the information provided because it is found in the bottom of the rock column. G This fossil is found two layers beneath the top layer making it older than J and younger than fossils G and H. H This fossil is found in the layer just beneath the top layer. That will make is older than J and younger than both F and G.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need to understand how to use evidence from sedimentary rock columns, tree rings, or other evidence of past events to predict something about the history of the area where the evidence is found, or something about what happened during the life of the tree. Understanding and using evidence to predict past history is a skill that needs to be developed. Pictures or diagrams of tree rings can lead to questions about the weather during a certain time of the tree's growth. Students may also be asked questions related to how this type of evidence supports statements about the history of the area where the evidence is found. Students will be expected to be familiar with physical characteristics of Earth and the moon, but they will not always be expected to compare them. Students will identify and describe properties of earth materials such as soil, rocks, water, and atmospheric gases. Items will be based on classroom, laboratory, and field experiences that allow students to investigate and test properties of earth materials.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 23 Test Question: Fossil fuels formed over a long period of time because heat and pressure were applied to --

Question: 23 Right Answer: B organisms buried in the ground Wrong Answers: A carbon filtered through limestone C bacteria on top of the mud D nitrogen mixed in the water

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 5.11 Science concept. The student knows that certain past events affect present and future events. The student is expected to (C) identify past events that led to the formation of the Earth's renewable, non-renewable, and inexhaustible resources. Essential Knowledge: Why? Fossil fuels are made from dead plant and animal matter that is buried deep in the ground. Why? Fossil fuels are not made from carbon (carbon makes up a good part of plant and animal matter, but fossil fuels are made from more that just carbon). Bacteria can be part of the animal matter that is used to make fossil fuels, but it would need to be buried deep in the ground. Fossil fuels are not made from nitrogen. Students need to be familiar with all different types of resources. They should be made aware of how these resources are made and what how to classify each resource. Questions that compare aspects of the different types of resources. Students must be familiar with renewable, nonrenewable, and inexhaustible resources. Lumber, a type of renewable resource, can be replaced in a relatively short period of time. Resources that can form or accumulate over a long time span, such as fossil fuels, are considered nonrenewable. Solar energy, which is so vast that it cannot be used up by human activities, is considered and inexhaustible resource.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 28 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 04 ­ 3.11 TAKS Objective #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 3.11 Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to A) identify and describe the importance of earth materials including rocks, soil, water, and gases of the atmosphere in the local area and classify them as renewable, nonrenewable, or inexhaustible resources

TEST QUESTION: Which of these best completes this chart?

Right Answer: H. Coal

Wrong Answers: F Water G Soil J Sand Implications for classroom instruction:

ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: Why? Coal is our most plentiful fossil fuel. Fossil fuels are classified as fuels made from the remains of once living things. Peat comes from the remains of ancient swamp plants. Over time and with enough pressure, peat can change into coal. Fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources. Why? Water, soil, and sand are not classified as fossil fuels.

What the TAKS Information Booklet (0405) says:

Students should conduct research along with problem-based experiences to examine the effects of the supply and demand dynamic surrounding the use of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels in use today cannot be replaced in our lifetime. Coal is more plentiful than oil or natural gas, and it's not being used up as quickly. Development of alternative fuel sources becomes more critical each year. Students must be familiar with renewable, nonrenewable, and inexhaustible resources. Lumber, a type of renewable resource, can be replaced in a relatively short period of time. Resources that can form or accumulate over a long time span, such as fossil fuels, are considered nonrenewable. Solar energy, which is so vast that it cannot be used up by human activities, is considered an inexhaustible resource.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 12 Test Question: Which of these is a renewable resource?

Question: 12 Right Answer: F Tree Wrong Answers: G Coal H Oil J Wind Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 3.11 Science concept. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to (A) identify and describe the importance of earth materials including rocks, soil, water, and gases of the atmosphere in the local area and classify them as renewable, nonrenewable, or inexhaustible resources. Essential Knowledge: Why? Trees are renewable resources because the trees that are used and be replaced with new trees in a reasonable amount of time. Why? Coal and oil are both nonrenewable. Although they are produced by geological process, it takes millions of years to produce them. Wind is inexhaustible because it is something that never gets used up. Basic vocabulary example questions. Students should understand what makes and resource renewable, nonrenewable, or inexhaustible, and be aware of the common examples o each. Students may be given and example of a resource, or characteristics or a resource and asked if that resource in renewable, nonrenewable, or inexhaustible. Students must be familiar with renewable, nonrenewable, and inexhaustible resources. Lumber, a type of renewable resource, can be replaced in a relatively short period of time. Resources that can form or accumulate over a long time span, such as fossil fuels, are considered nonrenewable. Solar energy, which is so vast that it cannot be used up by human activities, is considered and inexhaustible resource.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which two planets are closest to Earth?

Question: 13 Right Answer: D* Venus and Mars Wrong Answers: A Mercury and Saturn B Mars and Jupiter C Mercury and Venus

TAKS Objective: #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 3.11 Science concept. The students knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to: (C) identify the planets in our solar system and their position in relation to the Sun Essential Knowledge: Why? These two planets are closest to the Earth. They are positioned on opposite sides of the Earth. Why? A. Mercury is two planets away from the Earth and Saturn is 3 planets away. B. Mars is next to Earth and Jupiter is two planets away from the Earth. C. Mercury is two planets away form Earth and Venus is one planet away from the Earth. Students should be familiar with the order of the planets in the solar system. Students could be ask about the size of the planets, , length of day, length of year, or there distance from the sun and Earth. A basic knowledge of the earth science allows students to understand how Earth's physical features are shaped by forces and are continually changing. These changes affect the availability of resources. The earth sciences lend themselves to the study of many types of systems, cycles, and change. Through the study of the physical features of Earth, the moon and the sun, students begin to understand the universe as a dynamic system. Students will identify and describe properties of Earth materials such as soil, rocks, water and atmospheric gases.

Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which of these best represents Mars?

TAKS Objective: #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 3.11 Science concept. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to: (C) identify the planets in our solar system and their position in relation to the Sun

Picture:

Question: 26 Right Answer: H*S Wrong Answers: FQ GR JT Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? This is the correct position for the planet Mars. Why? None of these in the model represent the correct position for Mars.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need to commit to memory the order of the planets in the Solar System, The planets of the Solar System all revolve around the sun. The order of the planets never change, except for a brief period of time when Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune. The shape of Pluto's orbit causes this to happen. Students can use some type of pneumonic to help them memorize the order, " Mary `s Violet Eyes Make John Sit Up Near Pluto". The students could see any type of model representing the position of the planets in the Solar System in relation to the Sun. Through the study of the physical features of Earth, the moon and the sun. Students begin to understand the universe as a dynamic system.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Sunspots appear to be darker than the rest of the sun's surface because they are -- Picture:

TAKS Objective: #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 3.11 Science concept. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to: (D) describe the characteristics of the Sun

Question: 22 Right Answer: H cooler than the rest of the sun's surface Wrong Answers: F partially hidden from view G in the shadow of the sun's corona J made of dark-colored minerals Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The sunspot is cooler making that area appear darker.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Why? F .Sunspots are visible to the unaided eye, and appear directly on the surface of the sun. G. The corona is located in the outermost area of the surface of the sun. G. This is not a logical answer. Students should know that a sunspot may be five times larger than the Earth. Around the edge, thin gas streamers make a pattern of magnetic force lines. The theory is that each sunspot is the location of extremely powerful magnetic fields, several thousand times stronger than Earth's average magnetic field. Such powerful magnetic fields prevent the usual flow of energy upward, making the sun's surface cooler and thus darker in the are we call a sunspot . Sunspots contain the strong magnetic forces that ignite solar flares trigger prominences and change the shape and size of the corona . Prominences and solar flares are large streamers of glowing gas. The corona (outermost envelope of gases, form a halo around the sun. . Students should understand the sun and the properties that are unique to the sun. Solar energy, which is so vast that it cannot be used up by human activities, is considered an inexhaustible resource. Through the study of the physical features of Earth, the moon, and the sun, students begin to understand the universe as dynamic system.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Which of these would best model how the sun's energy warms Earth?

Question: 30 Right Answer: G* A heat lamp keeping food hot Wrong Answers: F A pot of water boiling H An oven baking bread J A spoon getting hot when stirring soup Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: #4 The students will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 3.11 Science concepts The students knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to (D) describe the characteristics of the Sun Essential Knowledge: Why? Radiation is the transfer of heat through space. Why? The heat from water boiling is conduction, The heat from an oven is convection. The heat that makes a spoon hot when stirring soup is conduction.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should become familiar with the different ways heat is transferred. Conductor are materials that transfer hear well. Convection is the transfer of energy by the flow of liquids and gases. Conduction is the transfer of energy caused by one particle bumping into another. Radiation is the transfer of hear through space. Students could be ask to apply any of these ways that heat is transferred to an everyday situation. Through the study of the physical features of Earth, the moon, and the sun. students begin to understand the universe as a dynamic system. Solar energy, which is so vast that it cannot be used up by human activities, is considered an inexhaustible resources.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 14 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 04 ­ 3.11 TAKS Objective #4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 3.11 Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to: d) describe the characteristics of the Sun TEST QUESTION: The surface of the sun is made of -- Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: F gases Why? The observable components of the sun are its outer layers known as its atmosphere. Because the sun is 93 million miles from earth three observable layers of the atmosphere have been identified. The brightest is the photosphere. The photosphere is seen as a gaseous, white-hot layer of the sun. Outward from this layer are the chromospheres and corona. The surface of the sun is thought to be 10,000 degrees F (or 5500 degrees C). Wrong Answers: Why? These answers do not accurately label the properties G solids of the sun's surface. The sun is the primary source of radiant energy but this is not H liquids an accurate label of the surface atmosphere. J energy Students should be involved in a comparative study of the surface and atmospheric Implications for classroom characteristics of the sun and the known planets in the solar system. instruction: What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says: A basic knowledge of the earth/space sciences allows students to understand how Earth's physical features are shaped by forces and are continually changing. These changes can affect the availability of resources, many of which are limited. The earth/space sciences lend themselves to the study of many types of systems, cycles, and change. Through the study of the physical features of Earth, the moon, and the sun, students begin to understand the universe as a dynamic system.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: Three soil samples were tested to see how much water each could hold. The same amount of water was added to each funnel of soil. Very few plants would probably grow in the clay because the water would -- Picture:

TAKS Objective: #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. (4.11) Science concept. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to (A) test properties of soils including texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support life.

Question: TAKS Booklet #12 Right Answer: A* fail to reach the roots of the plants Wrong Answers: B become too cloudy C run through the soil too quickly D become poisonous to the plants Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The water was not able to penetrate the clay.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Why? B. Soil particles, before they settle down to the bottom of the container, will make the water appear cloudy. C. Based on setup 3, the water is not running through the clay. D. The clay soil is not a poisonous substance. Students must have a hands-on experience with different types of soil to understand how water will penetrate. Years of weathering of rocks and mineral form soil. Soils are different because they form from different kinds of rock and minerals. Sand has large grains but few nutrients and does not hold water well. It is not as good for growing plants. Clay is dense, finegrained soil that holds water well. It is rich in nutrients, but it can be hard, making it difficult for plant to grow. Loam is a mixture of sand, clay and humus. It is a dark, rich soil that holds water well and contains a great deal o humus. Loam is good for growing plants. Students could be ask about soils ability to support life. If different ecosystems have different soil types that support plant growth, and how that effects life in that region. Students may describe differences in soil type and factors affecting composition and thickness of soil. They may be ask to explain why the mineral content of soils varies, and how soil is transported from on place to another. This item illustrates the importance of lab work in the elementary science classroom. Doing this exact investigation is not necessary. Students should become familiar with different types of equipment and be able to apply critical-thinking skills to new situations. This item also shows how concepts from earth and life sciences can be integrated.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: A student wants to find out which type of soil holds the most water. He uses four identical pots with holes in the bottom. He fills each pot with a different type of soil and waters the pots with the same amount of water. How can he find out how much water stays in the soil in each pot? Question: 3 Right Answer: B By measuring the amount of water that drains from each pot Wrong Answers: A By planting seeds and measuring plant growth in each pot C By observing which soil looks wettest after the water has been added to the pots D By feeling the soil before and after adding water to each pot Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. (4.11) Science concept. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to (A) test properties of soils including texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support life.

Essential Knowledge: Why? The amount of water that drained from the soil would give the student information about the type of soil that holds the most water. Why? Seed growth, and feeling the soil for wetness would not tell us how much water the soil will actually hold. Using observations will not give the students a quantity of water that drained from the pots for them to compare amount of water. Feeling the soil is too subjective.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students must have experiences with soil permeability (the rate at which water can pass through a material) .Students should have several hands-on experiences with different soil samples, and controlling the variables that might effect the outcome: such as, the amount of soil and amount of water poured on the different soils. Students must have a hands- on experience with different types of soil to understand how water will penetrate. Years of weathering of rocks and mineral form soil. Soils are different because they form from different kinds of rock and minerals. Sand has large grains but few nutrients and does not hold water well. It is not good for growing plants. Clay is dense, fine-grained soil that holds water well. It is rich in nutrients, but it can be hard, making it difficult for plant to grow. Loam is a mixture of san, clay and humus. It is a dark, rich soil that holds water well and contains a great deal o humus. Loam is good for growing plants. Students could be ask about soils ability to support life. If different ecosystems have different soil types that support plant growth, and how that effects life in that region. Students may describe differences in soil type and factors affecting composition and thickness of soil. They may be ask to explain why the mineral content of soils varies, and how soil is transported from on place to another. Students will identify and describe properties of earth materials such as soil, rocks, water and atmospheric gases. Items will be based on classroom, laboratory, and field experiences that allow students to investigate and test properties of earth materials. This item illustrated the importance of lab work in the elementary science classroom.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 27 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 04 ­ 4.11 TAKS Objective #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 4.11 Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to A) test properties of soils including texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support life

TEST QUESTION: Similar containers were filled with different types of soil. Holes were poked into the bottom of each container, and 300 milliliters of water were added. The water that dripped out was collected and measured. According to the information in the table, which type of soil retained water best? Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: A. Potting soil* Why? The most important function of soil is to support and sustain plant life. Layers of soil include topsoil, subsoil and weathered rock. A soil's ability to supply nutrients and retain water creates a viable environment for plant growth. Wrong Answers: Why? The remaining answers each lack the properties to maximize B Sandy soil plant growth. Sandy soil is too porous, gravel lacks nutrients and C Gravel porosity, and clay lacks nutrients. D Clay Students should have in-class experiences to work with stream tables to observe Implications for classroom the effects of soil erosion and deposition. Soil conservation efforts involve instruction: strategic types of plowing to prevent erosion. Also, the strategic conservation of trees and plants provide protection from soil erosion. Examining soil samples (soil profiles) from the local region give students a familiarity with the types of soils found locally. What the TAKS Information Students will identify and describe properties of earth materials such as soil, rocks, water, and atmospheric gases. Items will be based on classroom, Booklet (04-05) says: laboratory, and field experiences that allow students to investigate and test properties of earth materials.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 12 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 04 ­ 4.11 TAKS Objective #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 4.11 Science concepts The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to: c) identify the Sun as the major source of energy for the Earth and understand its role in the growth of plants, the creation of winds, and in the water cycle. TEST QUESTION: The energy that causes seawater to form water vapor comes from -- ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: Right Answer: J the sun *

Wrong Answers: F clouds G underwater mountains H chemical reactions in the sea Implications for classroom instruction:

Why? The cycle of evaporation and condensation keeps the water of the earth in constant circulation. Water evaporates from the soil, from leaves of plants, from the lungs of skin and animals, and from bodies of water. In the process of evaporation, molecules of water bounce out of their liquid surroundings to mix with other components of the air. This highly scattered, invisible form of water is called water vapor. The heat provided by the sun and the fanning by the winds hasten evaporation. Why? Clouds, underwater mountains, and chemical reactions are not viable energy-producing components within the water cycle.

What the TAKS Informational Booklet (04-05) says:

Students can visit the website provided by the Environmental Protection Agency to study the water cycle in depth. The website is www.epa.gov Additionally, it contains a helpful link titled "Build Your Own Water Cycle" involving the construction of a simple set up in a clear jar to illustrate the interactive steps of the water cycle. The publishers of The Bottle Biology publications (University of Wisconsin) provide a lab titled "TerrAqua Column" illustrating the same principle. A basic knowledge of the earth/space sciences allows students to understand how Earth's physical features are shaped by forces and are continually changing. These changes can affect the availability of resources, many of which are limited. The earth/space sciences lend themselves to the study of many types of systems, cycles, and change. Through the study of the physical features of Earth, the moon, and the sun, students begin to understand the universe as a dynamic system. Students must understand the significance of the nitrogen, water, and carbon cycles in relation to animals, plants, and ecosystems. For example, carbon dioxide is taken up by plants to be converted into sugars through photosynthesis. Some animals eat the plants and use the sugar for energy. This example is only one way to approach this student expectation. Items will not include specific details about the carbon and nitrogen cycles.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 19 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 04 ­ 4.11 TAKS Objective #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 4.11 Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to C) identify the Sun as the major source of energy for the Earth and understand its role in the growth of plants, in the creation of winds, and in the water cycle. TEST QUESTION: In order for tomato plants to make their own food, their leaves must absorb -- Right Answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: B. sunlight Why? The process of photosynthesis is dependent on the Sun's energy. Living things have the capacity to take in energy from the environment and to transform and use it. Green plants absorb light energy from the sun and store it in the food molecules that they manufacture during photosynthesis. The energy stored in these molecules is used by the plant to power its life processes and to build its structures. This energy-capturing reaction, photosynthesis, takes place in the chlorophyll-containing cells of plants. This energy releasing process, the burning of fuel, occurs in all cells and is known as cell respiration. Wrong answers: Why? A rain These are elements of things that plants need for growth but are not C oxygen energy-producing entities for the plant. D minerals Implications for classroom Students should be involved in experiences that accommodate direct and indirect observations of plant growth. Involving students in nature walks, garden plot instruction: projects, or indoor plant growth centers Allows students to raise questions, record observations, and validate hypotheses around what plants need to live and grow. Students must understand the significance of the nitrogen, water, and carbon cycles What the TAKS in relation to animals, plants, and ecosystems. For example, carbon dioxide is taken Information Booklet (04up by plants to be converted into sugars through photosynthesis. Some animals eat 05) says: the plants and use the sugar for energy. This example is only one way to approach this student expectation.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 28 Test Question: Which of these supplies the energy that drives the water cycle?

Question: 28 Right Answer: F The sun

Wrong Answers: G The planets H The oceans J The moon

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 4.11 Science concept. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to (C) identify the Sun as the major source of energy for the Earth and understand its role in the growth of plants, in the creation of winds, and in the water cycle. Essential Knowledge: Why? The sun is the source of energy found on the Earth. Solar energy from the sun plays a direct role in evaporation and condensation which keep the water in constant circulation. Why? The planets and the moon have no relationship to the water cycle. The oceans relationship to the water cycle in simple one of the many sources of water that make up the water cycle. The oceans absorb energy from the sun that ultimately drives the water cycle.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need to be made aware that energy ultimately comes from the sun. Students will need to understand that not only does the sun give the plant energy to grow, but that the energy the plants get from the sun ultimately get passed and organism that comes along and eats the plant. Questions that follow energy from the sun to sources of energy on Earth. Questions about how the energy from the sun is used by plants. Students must understand the significance of the nitrogen, water, and carbon cycles in relation to animals, plants, and ecosystems. For example, carbon dioxide it taken up by plants to be converted into sugars through photosynthesis. Some animals eat the plants and use the sugar for energy. This example is only one way to approach this student expectation. Items will not include specific details about the carbon and nitrogen cycles.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 5th Grade Test Question: The prairie region of North America was once home to large herds of grazing animals and other herbivores (plant eaters). The prairie is ideal for the growth of grasses because it has rich topsoil. All of these processes help form topsoil EXCEPT -- Picture:

TAKS Objective: #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 5.12 Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to : (A) interpret how land forms are the result of a combination of constructive and destructive forces such as deposition of sediment and weathering

Question: 12 Right Answer: J* movement of oceans Wrong Answers: F decay of trees G weathering of rocks H erosion of hills Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Oceans do not deposit topsoil on a prairie. Why? Tree decaying, weathering of rocks and erosions of hill are all ways that topsoil can be produced and deposited.

Students should study different bioregions, and examine the possible causes for weathering and erosion. There are many different causes for weathering and erosion. Any geographical location could be used as an example to evaluate cause or effect of soil removal or deposition. A basic knowledge of the earth science allows students to understand how Earth's physical features are shaped by forces and are continually changing. These changes affect the availability of resources. The earth sciences lend themselves to the study of many types of systems, cycles, and change. Through the study of the physical features of Earth, the moon and the sun, students begin to understand the universe as a dynamic system. Students will identify and describe properties of Earth materials such as soil, rocks, water and atmospheric gases.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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5th Grade, 2006, Question # 34 Test Question: Which of these can cause sharp, rough mountains to become rounded and smooth over time?

Question: 34 Right Answer: F Wind and rain Wrong Answers: G The sun's rays H Light and darkness J Earth's magnetic field Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 5.12 Science concept. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to (A) interpret how land forms are the result of a combination of constructive and destructive forces such as deposition of sediment and weathering. Essential Knowledge: Why? Wind and rain are forces that can play a role in weathering and erosion. Therefore, they can reshape rough mountains. Why? The sun's rays, light and darkness, and Earth's magnetic field do not play a role in weathering and erosion. Therefore, they can not reshape rough mountains.

Students must know about landforms and what causes them.

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Question 29 ­ 2004 TAKS Released Test ­ 5th Grade Student Expectation: 04 ­ 5.12 TAKS Objective #4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the earth sciences. 5.12 Science concepts. The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to C) Identify the physical characteristics of the Earth and compare them to the physical characteristics of the moon. TEST QUESTION: A rock is taken from the surface of the moon and brought to Earth. What is different about this rock on Earth? Right answer: ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: D Its weight Why? Weight is a measurement of the amount of gravitational force on an object. This amount of force varies based on the degree of gravitational pull realized. A scenario of examining a lunar colony, with people moving back and forth between earthly gravity and that of the moon (which is only 1/6 as strong as Earth's) between mass (which remains the same between here and the moon) and weight (which is only 1/6 as much on the moon). Because it would have six times the mass, a 10 lb sack of flour on the moon would bake 6 times as much bread as a sack weighing 10 lbs on earth. A 5 kilogram sack, on the other hand, would be exactly the same sack on as on earth. Wrong answers: Why? A. Its mass Each of the properties listed as alternative answers are physical properties B. Its shape that would not change under these conditions. C. Its length Implications for classroom instruction: The key understanding around this scenario is developing a clear distinction between weight and mass. Mass is the measure of the amount of matter something contains. The more matter an object or material contains, the greater its mass will be. Weight is the measurement of the amount of force on an object. · Students will be expected to be familiar with physical characteristics of Earth and the moon, but they will not always be expected to compare them.

What the TAKS Information Booklet (04-05) says:

Science Grade: 5 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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