Read Microsoft Word - Science - Grade 11 _2003-2006_.doc text version

Analysis of 2006 Released TAKS Tests By

John A. Crain. Ed.D. Project Coordinator

Karen Laurenzi Science Specialist, Region XIII ESC, Austin, TX

Analysis of 2004 Released TAKS Tests By

Katie Donaldson Secondary Science Instructional Support Teacher Garland ISD Jean Gill Former Science Teacher on Special Assignment Grapevine-Colleyville ISD

Analysis of 2003 Released TAKS Tests By

Laurel Dingrando Secondary Science Coordinator Garland ISD Katie Donaldson Secondary Science Instructional Support Teacher Garland ISD Cindy Gillean Science Coordinator Highland Park ISD Bill Neal Director of Science - K-2 Richardson ISD

Science: Grade 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Acknowledgements

Deanne Hullender Public Information Director Dallas County Schools Coordinated production of this publication, contributing numerous ideas to smooth the way to a finished process Rex Cole Director of Special Projects Dallas County Schools Coordinated many of the activities for this project, including the production of the video training segment Reavis Wortham Communications Coordinator Garland ISD Provided photos for cover. Judy Kriehn Communications Coordinator Garland ISD Designed the cover and did the page layout for the introductory/acknowledgement section Cathy Reaves Executive Director Dallas Schools Television Oversaw the production of the video training project Chris Morrison Technology Consultant Created/converted documentation utilizing the current testing format for primary documentation Leatha Mullins Chief Technology Officer Project manager for the project, coordinating the timeline, documentation for the analysts, website and CDs.

The Board of Trustees of Dallas County Schools and Superintendent Rick Sorrells

for their support of this project.

Science: Grade 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Table of Contents

th

Science 11 Grade

Objective 1:

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science.

Biology (1) and Integrated Physics and Chemistry (1) Scientific Processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. A Demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations .............................. S11-1 Biology (2) and Integrated Physics and Chemistry (2) Scientific Processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. A Plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology ....................... S11-5 B Collect data and make measurements with precision....................................................... S11-23 C Organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data ................... S11-31 D Communicate valid conclusions ...................................................................................... S11-46 Integrated Physics and Chemistry (3) Scientific Processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. B Draw inferences based on data related to [promotional materials for] products and services............................................................................................................................. S11-59

Objective 2:

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems.

Biology (4) Science Concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. B Investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules................................................................. S11-60 Biology (6) Science Concepts. The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. A Describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA..................... S11-67 B Explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) .................................................................................................... S11-72 C Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations and evaluate the significance of these changes ........................................................................................... S11-76

Science: Grade 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Biology (8) Science Concepts. The student knows applications of taxonomy and can identify its limitations. C Identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants, and animals ...................................................................................................................... S11-79 Biology (10) Science Concepts. The student knows that, at all levels of nature, living systems are found within other living systems, each with its own boundary and limits. A Interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune..................................................................................................... S11-82 B Compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole................................................................................................................................ S11-84

Objective 3:

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the interdependence of organisms and the environment.

Biology (4) Science Concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. C Compare the structures and functions of viruses to cells and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases and conditions such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, common colds, smallpox, influenza, and warts .............................................. S11-88 D Identify and describe the role of bacteria in maintaining health such as in digestion and in causing diseases such as in streptococcus infections and diphtheria..................... S11-92 Biology (7) Science Concepts. The student knows the theory of biological evolution. A Identify evidence of change in species using fossils, DNA sequences, anatomical similarities, physiological similarities, and embryology.................................................. S11-95 B Illustrate the results of natural selection in speciation, diversity, phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and extinction ................................................................................ S11-97 Biology (9) Science Concepts. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem. D Analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment ......................................................... S11-102

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Biology (12) Science Concepts. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem. B Interpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism ...................................................................................... S11-107 E Investigate and explain the interactions in an ecosystem including food chains, food webs, and food pyramids ....................................................................................... S11-112 Biology (13) Science Concepts. The student knows the significance of plants in the environment. A Evaluate the significance of structural and physiological adaptations of plants to their environments.......................................................................................................... S11-116

Objective 4:

The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter.

Integrated Physics and Chemistry (7) Science Concepts. The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. A Investigate and identify properties of fluids including density, viscosity, and buoyancy ........................................................................................................................ S11-118 D Relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table............................................................................................................ S11-121 Integrated Physics and Chemistry (8) Science Concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. A Distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter such as oxidation, digestion, changes in states, and stages in the rock cycle .............................................. S11-131 C Investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass............................................... S11-134 Integrated Physics and Chemistry (9) Science Concepts. The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. A Relate the structure of water to its function [as the universal solvent]........................... S11-141 B Relate the concentration of ions in a solution to physical and chemical properties such as pH, electrolytic behavior, and reactivity............................................................ S11-144 D Demonstrate how various factors influence solubility including temperature, pressure, and nature of the solute and solvent................................................................ S11-147

Science: Grade 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Objective 5:

The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy.

Integrated Physics and Chemistry (4) Science Concepts. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. A Calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines ................................................................ S11-154 B Investigate and describe [applications of] Newton's laws such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, geological processes, and satellite orbits ............................ S11-162 D Investigate and demonstrate [mechanical advantage and] efficiency of various machines such as levers, motors, wheels and axles, pulleys, and ramps........................ S11-165 Integrated Physics and Chemistry (5) Science Concepts. The student knows the effects of waves on everyday life. B Demonstrate wave interactions including interference, polarization, reflection, refraction, and resonance within various materials ........................................................ S11-174 Integrated Physics and Chemistry (6) Science Concepts. The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. A Describe the law of conservation of energy ................................................................... S11-180 B Investigate and demonstrate the movement of heat through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation ............................................................. S11-186 D Investigate and compare economic and environmental impacts of using various energy sources such as rechargeable or disposable batteries and solar cells.................. S11-191

Science: Grade 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 55 A science class is conducting an experiment that produces noxious fumes. Because of inadequate ventilation, some students begin to feel nauseated and dizzy. The first response should be to -- Question: 55 Right Answer: C* leave the room and go to an area with fresh air Wrong Answers: A neutralize the acid that is reacting to produce the noxious fumes B carry the reactants outside, away from other students D spray the reaction with a fire extinguisher Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.1 The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to (A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations. Essential Knowledge: Why? Safety is the first concern.

Why? Options A & D require that you stay in the room to carry out an action. Answer B is not a safe way to deal with the situation.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Safety is a critical obligation in the science lab. Students should be provided with safety rules and held accountable for strict adherence. Students need regular reminders prior to each laboratory investigation as to any specific hazards and safety considerations involved in that investigation. This can be achieved easily during the prelab. Safety rules learned out of context (not connected to the lab) are easily forgotten or misunderstood. Students might be expected to physically demonstrate safe lab techniques or write a safe solutions that are appropriate to an unsafe situation. All major safety issues should be tested.

·

Texas Safety Standards (www.tenet.edu/teks/science/stacks/safety/safety_manual.html) should be referenced as students learn about and use safe practices n the classroom, laboratory, and field. Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities.

·

Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with thermometers, balances and graduated cylinders in a laboratory setting. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' criticalthinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 1 The safest way to dilute concentrated sulfuric acid is to add --

Question: 1 Right Answer: B the acid to water slowly while stirring constantly Wrong Answers: A a series of small volumes of water to the acid while stirring C the acid to a small volume of water and then add more water D dilute sulfuric acid to a small volume of the concentrated acid Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.1 The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to (A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations. Essential Knowledge: Why? This is one of the basic safety rules that every chemistry student is expected to understand. Why? Students should be required to pass a minimum safety standards test before being allowed to participate in laboratory exercises. The combining of acid and water is one of the basic safety rules.

Safety is a critical obligation in the science lab. Students should be provided with safety rules and held accountable for strict adherence. Students need regular reminders prior to each laboratory investigation as to any specific hazards and safety considerations involved in that investigation. This can be achieved easily during the prelab. Safety rules learned out of context (not connected to the lab) are easily forgotten or misunderstood. Students might use a mnemonic device such as "A&W Rootbeer" or "A before W" to help remember that acid is always added to water. Students might be expected to physically demonstrate safe lab techniques or write safe solutions that are appropriate to an unsafe situation. All major safety issues should be tested. · Texas Safety Standards (www.tenet.edu/teks/science/stacks/safety/safety_manual.html) should be referenced as students learn about and use safe practices n the classroom, laboratory, and field. · Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with thermometers, balances and graduated cylinders in a laboratory setting. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.1 (A) (1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to: (A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; Question 9­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

All of these procedures must be followed when using the setup shown above except -- A putting on safety goggles Any setup involving heating a liquid over open flame would require goggles to protect the eyes. B handling the beaker with tongs Hot glassware is indistinguishable from cold glassware. Beaker tongs are always necessary. C securing loose clothing Anytime you are around an open flame, you must secure loose hair, jewelry and clothing. D wearing rubber gloves * Rubber gloves protect hands from dangerous biological substances or chemicals, but not from heat. They are not necessary in this experiment. Essential Knowledge: Students must be familiar with the safety rules mentioned above. Implications for the classroom: Safety needs to be covered in a prelab discussion before every lab. One lecture at the beginning of the year won't be remembered. Go over equipment, safety procedures, and MSDS every time you do an experiment. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Texas Safety Standards, which can be obtained through TEA's Office of Publications, should be referenced as students learn about and use safe practices in the classroom, laboratory, and field.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 19 Test Question: The label shown below contains information about some harmful effects of acetone. A group of students plans to use acetone to rinse out a glass container. A second group of students is working at the same lab table. Which of the following lab procedures should the second group of students avoid? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.1 Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to (A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations.

Question: 19 Right Answer: A Heating water with an open flame Wrong Answers: B Pouring hydrochloric acid into a beaker C Filtering precipitates from a liquid solution D Collecting oxygen from plants in a test tube

Essential Knowledge: Why? The acetone is a flammable liquid and should never be used near and open flame. Why? Pouring hydrochloric acid, filtering precipitates, and collecting oxygen are not mentioned in the question setup or picture. These procedures would not cause a safety issue with the students who were using acetone. Safety is a critical obligation in the science lab. Students should be provided with safety rules and held accountable for strict adherence. Students need regular reminders prior to each laboratory investigation as to any specific hazards and safety considerations involved in that investigation. This can be achieved easily during the prelab. Safety rules learned out of context (not connected to the lab) are easily forgotten or misunderstood. Students may expect to see safety questions related to all aspects of laboratory experiences. They may be given a picture of an experiment and asked about safety precautions that should be taken. Texas Safety Standards, which can be obtained through TEA's Office of Publications, should be referenced as students learn about and use safe practices in the classroom, laboratory, and field. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: TAKS info booklet # 2 Science can be divided into three broad groups: life science, physical science, and Earth science. Which of these topics would most likely involve a knowledge of concepts from all three branches of science? Question: 2 (TAKS info booklet) Right Answer: C* Weathering of rocks Wrong Answers: A Patterns of earthquakes B Aging of stars D Structure of water molecules Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter:

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology. Essential Knowledge: Why? Rocks are weathered biologically, chemically and mechanically. These processes include life, physical and Earth science concepts. Why? The responses, A, B & D, are narrow in scope. Each response is discussed primarily in one of the branches of science mentioned in the stem, not all three. Students must be introduced to a broad overview of the sciences. Students might be asked to list: 1) characteristics of each of the disciplines, or 2) similarities and differences of the disciplines. This item requires students to understand the different categories of science and how these science disciplines integrate. · Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities.

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

·

Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 9 This experiment probably was set up to determine --

TAKS Objective:1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Picture:

Question: 9 Right Answer: D* how much energy is converted to heat Wrong Answers: A how much mechanical energy the battery produces B the pH of water during electrolysis C the pressure created by an electric current Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The thermometer is the clue that the experiment has something to do with the production or measurement of heat. Why? To understand why these responses are incorrect the student must have had experience with similar laboratory activities. Students need frequent and diverse laboratory and field experiences, which include the selection of equipment to test variables. Teaching the components of scientific methods cannot be learned well abstractly in print or paper

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Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

and pencil type experiences. Have students develop alternative lab set-ups to measure a particular quantity. · Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. · Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. · The use of tools, equipment, and materials included in the middle and high school science TEKS is part of this objective. Students will be required to recognize these tools and know how to properly use them. Precise measurement will be necessary on test items. Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. For instance, student expectation B.2(B) states that students are expected to "collect data and make measurements with precision." Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with thermometers, balances and graduated cylinders in a laboratory setting. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 28 The table shows times required for water to evaporate from identical containers. Which of these is the best question to ask before developing a reasonable hypothesis to explain the data?

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Picture:

Question: 28 Right Answer: F Why does a lower temperature slow the rate of evaporation? Wrong Answers: G What is the boiling point of the water after both samples are heated? H Why does water exist as a solid at - 15°C and as a liquid at 25°C? J How does the rate of evaporation change when a different container is used? Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Temperature was the independent variable that influenced evaporation time, which was the dependent variable. Why? Answer G indicates that both samples are heated and answer J indicates that both samples are in different containers. The stem does not indicate that any boiling occurs and specifically says identical containers are used. Answer H is speaking to an entirely different phenomenon.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need frequent and diverse laboratory and field experiences which include stating a question based on observations. Teaching the components of scientific methods cannot be learned well abstractly in print or paper and pencil type experiences. Students could be expected to write a question based on information provided from various experiments. Students might be expected to give the necessary conditions for a question to be met.

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Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field

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·

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

activities. Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. For instance, student expectation B.2(B) states that students are expected to "collect data and make measurements with precision." Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with thermometers, balances and graduated cylinders in a laboratory setting. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using criticalthinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 36 A scientist has hypothesized that the existence of life on Mars is likely because Mars's atmosphere is 95% carbon dioxide. Which question is valid in testing this hypothesis? Question: 36 Right Answer: G Could abiotic processes account for the carbon dioxide? Wrong Answers: F Do most other scientists agree with the hypothesis? H What is the percent of argon compared to carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere? J Have the scientist's other predictions about Mars been validated? Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Essential Knowledge: Why? If the levels of carbon dioxide are abnormally high and if abiotic processes do produce carbon dioxide, then abiotic life forms may have lived on Mars at one time. Why? F is incorrect. Many scientists may agree with a hypothesis, but the results of the experiment are what is important. In response H, argon to carbon dioxide ratios are not important because they are not important to life as we know it. Response J has nothing to do with the question that was posed.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need frequent and diverse laboratory and field experiences that include stating a question based on observations. Teaching the components of scientific methods cannot be learned well abstractly in print or paper and pencil type experiences. Student reading skills cannot be overemphasized. Teach students to read for content and context. Students could be expected to write a hypothesis based on a question. Give students many opportunities to show that they really understand the question being asked and that they respond correctly. · Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. · Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. For instance, student expectation B.2(B) states that students are expected to "collect data and make measurements with precision." Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with thermometers, balances and graduated cylinders in a laboratory setting. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 46 Two science students discovered that the mass of a sample of acetone in an open beaker decreased within a few minutes. One student hypothesized that the acetone reacted with oxygen to form a gaseous compound that escaped. The other student believed that the acetone evaporated into the air. What should the students do to test these hypotheses? Question: 46 Right Answer: H Perform an experiment that attempts to identify the gas above the open beaker Wrong Answers: F Combine the hypotheses so they give valid predictions of the acetone's behavior G Conduct a study of original papers describing the experiments leading to acetone's discovery J Ask a classmate's opinion about the chemical and physical properties of acetone Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Essential Knowledge: Why? If the gas above the beaker contains acetone molecules and air molecules then the original material evaporated. If the gas above the beaker is a gaseous compound of acetone and oxygen, then the acetone in the beaker must have reacted with the oxygen. Why? F is not the correct choice because you are trying to prove one of the hypotheses. This response asks you to change the original hypothesis by combining it with another. Response G is a historical study and response J is opinion, not fact.

Students need regular opportunities to practice designing an experiment to collect the data required to validate a hypothesis. Students might be expected to write testable hypotheses for various observations and describe the design of an experiment that would adequately confirm or refute the hypothesis. · Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. · Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. For instance, student expectation B.2(B) states that students are expected to "collect data and make measurements with precision." Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with thermometers, balances and graduated cylinders in a laboratory setting.

Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' criticalthinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX S11-11

reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' criticalthinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (A) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology; Question 4­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

Which of the following was probably the hypothesis for this experiment?

A The growth of bread mold increases as temperature increases. *

This is a valid, testable hypothesis based on the experiment given. Identical plates were grown at increasing temperatures. B The type of nutrient causes bread mold to grow Since the molds were given the same types of nutrients, faster at higher temperatures. this cannot be the independent variable. C The size of the plates determines the temperature of Since the plates were identical, this cannot be the bread mold. independent variable. D The temperature of bread mold is determined by the In this hypothesis, the independent variable is growth and mold's growth. the dependent variable is temperature. This is backwards from the actual data given. Essential Knowledge: A hypothesis is a testable statement that can be clearly answered by the experiment. It does not have to be in if, then form. Implications for the classroom: Inquiry labs that allow students to select materials and form their own hypothesis are very valuable in teaching students to understand the concept of the testable hypothesis. After the first few labs of the year, take the hypothesis away and have students come up with their own. Eventually give them chances to make their own data tables and procedures as well. Use guided inquiry to teach the steps of the scientific method throughout your course. Scientific method should be practiced all year, not just given as a set of notes the first week of school. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit. Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. Classrooms, hallways, school grounds, and community resources can be used for these investigations.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 - B.2 (A) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology; Question 6­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

Which procedure is best to use when determining the density of a rock? A Place the rock in a water-filled beaker and find the height Most rocks will sink. Even if a rock does float, its at which the rock floats above the water. height won't give a correct volume measurement. Mass is also needed to calculate density. B Use a ruler to measure the rock's dimensions and then find Since a rock is asymmetrical, it is impossible to its mass using an analytical balance. calculate its volume with simple dimensions. C Measure the mass of the rock on a balance and then find The balance will give correct mass and water the volume of water it displaces in a graduated cylinder. displacement will give correct volume. Density can * accurately be calculated with this method. D Place the rock in three liquids with different known This would tell you that a rock is more or less dense densities and observe which liquid the rock floats in. than some liquids, but it would not tell you the exact density of the rock. Essential Knowledge: Density is mass/volume, so the student must know to find both. Volume of irregular objects can be taken by water displacement using a graduated cylinder. Mass is taken on an analytical balance or triple beam balance. Implications for the classroom: Students must have enough practice taking density measurements that they know what to do when presented with an irregular object. If they have experienced density labs in Biology (Ex. Bone density of Mammals vs. birds), IPC, and Chemistry, they should be familiar enough with the process to know they need to find mass and volume by water displacement. Hands-on activities are the key. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should be able to calculate density and apply it to different situations, such as buoyancy, density columns, and substance identification. Clusters will address more than one objective and integrate content areas.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (A) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology; Question 16­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

Which question could be formed based on these data? A What types of plants have increased productivity in different habitats? B Is there a relationship between productivity and bird diversity in a habitat? * C How does the number of birds in a population affect habitats?

D Do habitats display changes in productivity and bird diversity during different seasons? Essential Knowledge: Students must understand that the process of the scientific method is based on making observations, asking valid questions, and creating testable hypothesis based on them.

This data doesn't show but one set of plant productivity data. We have nothing to prove productivity increased. This is the best question for this data which compares productivity of habitats to species diversity. Since we only have one set of productivity numbers, we can't see how the birds are affecting the productivity of the habitat. We have no seasonal data to compare.

Implications for the classroom: Students need the chance to occasionally write their own problem for a lab based off of given data. Don't always hand-feed students the problem, hypothesis, procedure and conclusion. Let them have the chance to do it on their own. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit. Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. Classrooms, hallways, school grounds, and community resources can be used for these investigations.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (A) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology Question 30­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

The diagram shows different setups of an experiment to determine how sharks find their prey. Which experimental setup is the control? A Q * In a controlled experiment, the control group is set up to represent "normal" conditions. In this case, the scientist needs to know that the shark can find live prey before any experimental data is collected. If the shark in question can't catch fish under normal conditions, the whole experiment is invalid. B R R cannot be the control because the shield is an experimental variable. C S S cannot be the control because chopped bait is an experimental variable. D T T cannot be a control because the electrical insulation is an experimental variable. Essential Knowledge: Students must understand how to set up controlled experiments with only one experimental variable based on a testable hypothesis. Implications for the classroom: Inquiry must have a place in every science classroom. Many times a student must set up an experiment that isn't controlled to understand why a control is necessary. Sometimes they learn more from a botched experiment they created than a cookbook lab that never asked them to think. Teachers often feel that they

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX S11-16

lose some control in an inquiry environment, but the knowledge and experience gained in using the scientific method is invaluable to the students involved. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. Classrooms, hallways, school grounds, and community resources can be used for these investigations.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (A) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology; Question 43­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

A catapult was designed to project a small metal ball at a target. The resulting data are shown in the table. Which of these might explain the difference between the calculated and actual distances? A The ball landed short of the calculated distance Increased momentum would propel the ball forward. because of an increase in momentum. B Air resistance caused the ball to land short of the The weight of this ball is very small. (Think ping-pong calculated distance. * ball, but thin metal) Because of this, air resistance (the air pushing on the ball) shortened the distance that it was predicted to travel C Initial mass of the ball changed with each trial. The experimental set up showed that the ball was constant mass (0.066kg) throughout the experiment. D The metal ball was too small for accurate While the ball was small, we don't know how small. measurements to be made. There is no reason to believe that this would cause mistakes in gathering accurate data. Essential Knowledge: Students need to be familiar enough with the scientific method that they can troubleshoot lab results when they don't meet expectations. In this case, the experimental setup used a ball that was so light that air resistance caused unexpected results. Implications for the classroom: Although this is a question from TAK 2a, students who have experience setting up labs and calculating speed (S=D/T) in an experimental setting with different projectiles, have a much better chance of getting this correct. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. For instance, student expectation Bio/IPC (2)(B) states that students are expected to "collect data and make measurements with precision." Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work in a lab setting with equipment such as thermometers, balances, and graduated cylinders.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 5 Test Question: Which of these could be used to determine whether a substance is a base?

Question: 5 Right Answer: B Litmus paper Wrong Answers: A Thermometer C Balance D Bunsen burner

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology. Essential Knowledge: Why? Litmus paper is used to determine the pH of a substance. Why? A Thermometer is used to measure temperature. C Balance is used to measure mass. D Bunsen burner is used to add thermal energy and heat up a substance. Students must have many experiences in the laboratory that allows them to use science equipment in the proper settings. They should know how to perform basic lab skills and procedures. They should be allowed to plan their own investigations and chose equipment to perform their investigations. Students may be asked direct questions related to the uses of pieces of equipment or the parts and function of parts of equipment. Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. Classrooms, hallways, school grounds, and community resources can be used for these investigations. TOOLS

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 27 Test Question: A medical researcher hypothesizes that a newly developed medication can reduce high blood pressure. Which of these would most likely be the dependent variable in a study involving this medication? Question: 27 Right Answer: C The blood pressure of the participants in the study Wrong Answers: A The number of participants in the study B The ages of people treated for high blood pressure with other medications D The number of people treated for high blood pressure with other medications

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology. Essential Knowledge: Blood pressure is the variable that is being tested in the experiment. Why? The dependent variable is the variable that can change according to how the independent or controlled variable is changed. It is generally the variable in an experiment that is being tested. Why? A The number of participants in the study is controlled by the researcher and not dependent on the independent variable. B The ages of people treated for high blood pressure with other medications has nothing to do with this study. D The number of people treated for high blood pressure with other medications has nothing to do with this study. Students need to have a clear understanding of the overall scientific process. They need to have opportunities to plan and implement investigations that include controlling scientific variables and communicating data. Students may see questions where they must make inferences or draw conclusions from information given in the form of data tables, graphs, charts, or diagrams. The topic of the question can be about any science related item. These questions are testing the student's ability to make inferences from data that is presented to them in some scientific format. Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using criticalthinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 41 Test Question: The following hypothesis refers to iron in the topsoil found on an island formed from limestone. Which study would most likely be used to investigate this hypothesis?

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Picture:

Question: 41 Right Answer: A Tracking dust clouds with satellite photos Wrong Answers: B Determining the effects of iron on limestone C Calculating erosion rates in African limestone mines D Analyzing the content of comet dust clouds

Essential Knowledge: Why? Tracking dust clouds with satellite photos could provide evidence to support this hypothesis. Why? B The effects of iron on limestone would not be a way to investigate the hypothesis that the iron in the topsoil was carried by dust clouds. C Calculating erosion rates in African limestone mines is not a way to investigate the hypothesis that the iron in the topsoil was carried by dust clouds. D Analyzing the content of comet dust clouds would not be a way to investigate the hypothesis that the iron in the topsoil was carried by dust clouds. Students need to have a clear understanding of the overall scientific process. They need to have opportunities to plan and implement investigations that include controlling scientific variables and communicating data. Students may see questions where they must make inferences or draw conclusions from information given in the form of data tables, graphs, charts, or diagrams. The topic of the question can be about any science related item. These questions are testing the student's ability to make inferences from data that is presented to them in some scientific format. Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 43 Test Question: The picture below shows a compound microscope. What part of the microscope should be used to adjust the amount of light illuminating a prepared slide? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (A) plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology.

Question: 43 Right Answer: C Diaphragm Wrong Answers: A Eyepiece B Rotating nosepiece D Coarse-focus knob

Essential Knowledge: Why? The diaphragm of the microscope is used to adjust the amount of light. Why? A The eyepiece is used to look into the microscope. B The rotating nosepiece is the part of the microscope that holds the different lenses. D The coarse- focus knob is used to focus the lenses. Students must have many experiences in the laboratory that allows them to use science equipment in the proper settings. They should know how to perform basic lab skills and procedures. They should be allowed to plan their own investigations and chose equipment to perform their investigations. Students may be asked direct questions related to the uses of pieces of equipment or the parts and function of parts of equipment. The use of the tools, equipment, and materials included in the middle and high school science TEKS is part of this objective. Students will be required to recognize these tools and know how to properly use them. Precise measurements will be necessary on test items.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 13 Four lab groups measured the volume of acid required to neutralize a standard solution of sodium hydroxide base. Which of the groups measured the volume with the highest precision? Question: 13 Right Answer:

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (B) collect data and make measurements with precision. Essential Knowledge: Why? Precision of an instrument is dependent upon the graduated markings n the instrument. In the case of the burette, it has graduated markings at the smallest increments of the choices provided.

Wrong Answers:

Why? None of these choices have graduations at increments of volume as small as the burette. This should be readily apparent to a student familiar with the different types of equipment shown.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students must regularly use laboratory tools and equipment in laboratory or field investigations. Students should be able to select a specific tool or equipment that is appropriate for different levels of precision or types of data collection and justify the selection. Students might be asked to identify the piece of equipment most suitable to measure a specific volume. · Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. · The use of the tools, equipment, and materials included in the middle and high school science TEKS is part of this objective. Students will be required to recognize these tools and know how to properly use them. Precise measurements will be necessary on test items. Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. For instance, student expectation B.2(B) states that students are expected to "collect data and make measurements with precision." Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with thermometers, balances and graduated cylinders in a laboratory setting. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 4 The picture shows the position of a ball every 0.25 seconds on a photogram. Using a ruler, determine the velocity of the ball.

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (B) collect data and make measurements with precision.

Question: 4 Right Answer: H* 14.0 cm/s

Wrong Answers: F 3.5 cm/s G 10.5 cm/s J 28.0 cm/s Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The student is expected to measure the distance traveled (in centimeters) each .25 seconds and then determine that (s)he must multiply the distance traveled and the time (.25 sec.) by 4 to determine the velocity in cm/s. Why? The student might have measured the distance traveled incorrectly. The student might have used English units instead of metric units to measure the distance traveled. Students need to experience laboratory exercises where they make measurements in both distance and time. They should be trained to use the proper units of measurement. The student might be given the velocity and time and be asked to calculate the distance traveled. The student might be given the velocity and distance traveled and asked to calculate the time interval. · Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. · Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. · The use of the tools, equipment, and materials included in the middle and high school science TEKS is part of this objective. Students will be required to recognize these tools and know how to properly use them. Precise measurements will be necessary on test items. Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. For instance, student expectation B.2(B) states that students are expected to "collect data and make measurements with precision." Rather than just

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with thermometers, balances and graduated cylinders in a laboratory setting. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' criticalthinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (B) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (B) collect data and make measurements with precision Question 19­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

The table shows four mass readings of one object as measured by four different balances. Which balance produced the most-consistent measurements? A Q Differences of balance Q's reading ranged from .43g above the initial reading to .39g below it. B R Differences of balance R's readings ranged from .50g above the initial reading to .50g below it. C S Differences of balance S's readings ranged between 24.99 and 25.92. D T * Balance T showed the smallest range of differences, ranging from .01 below the final reading to .03 above it. Essential Knowledge: There is error involved in all measurement. Scientists want to minimize that error by taking consistent measurements. Consistent measurement should show the least variation possible. Implications for the classroom: Talk to your classes about margin of error when they do labs that involve measurement. Show them the whole classroom's results and ask how they might reduce error. Discuss large sample size and how that reduces error and provides more accurate results. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. For instance, student expectation Bio/IPC (2)(B) states that students are expected to "collect data and make measurements with precision." Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work in a lab setting with equipment such as thermometers, balances, and graduated cylinders. The use of the tools, equipment, and materials included in the middle and high school science TEKS is part of this objective. Students will be required to recognize these tools and know how to properly use them. Precise measurements will be necessary on test items.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 33 Test Question: Which of these probably served as the most useful data after Pasteur injected a group of chickens with bacteria from the older culture? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (B) collect data and make measurements with precision.

Question: 33 Right Answer: A The health and behavior of the injected chickens Wrong Answers: B The total number of cholera cases observed C The changes in the shape and color of the bacterial colonies D The recovery rate of chickens previously infected with cholera

Essential Knowledge: Why? The overall health of chickens from the experimental group as compared to the control group is the actual variable being studied in this experiment. Why? B The total number of cholera cases observed was part of the data that was used to compare the overall health of the two groups of chickens. C The changes in the shape and color of the bacterial colonies were not mentioned in the reading passage and not part of this particular experiment. D There was no mention of a recovery rate of the chickens that were previously infected with cholera. The reading passage simply states that they remained healthy. Students must be given many opportunities to collect and interpret the meaning of data. They must have experiences that allow them to use their critical thinking skills to draw viable conclusions from observations and data. They should also have experiences designing experiments to answer questions. Students may see questions that require them to draw conclusions or evaluate experimental procedures. They may be asked to make inferences from information presented to them in many different ways. Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. Classrooms, hallways, school grounds, and community resources can be used for these investigations.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' criticalthinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 55 Test Question: Three liquids were poured into a beaker and formed three layers. Which conclusion is best supported by the information below? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (B) collect data and make measurements with precision.

Question: 55 Right Answer: C The density of Liquid 3 is greater than the density of Liquid 2. Wrong Answers: A The mass of Liquid 2 is greater than the mass of Liquid 3. B The volume of Liquid 1 is less than the volume of Liquid 3. D The buoyancy of Liquid 2 is greater than the buoyancy of Liquid 1. Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Liquid 3 settled on the bottom of the beaker under liquid 2. This shows that liquid 3 is more dense than liquid 2. Why? A Mass is not a property that can be observed from the information in this question. B It appears by the markings on the beaker that the volume of liquid 1 is equal to the volume of liquid 3. However volume is not demonstrated by the layering of the liquids. D Buoyancy is not demonstrated by the layering of liquids. Students need to have a very good conceptual understanding of density, viscosity, and buoyancy. Students may see questions where they must make inferences or draw conclusions from information given in the form of data tables, graphs, charts, or diagrams. The topic of the question can be about any science related item. These questions are testing the student's ability to make inferences from data that is presented to them in some scientific format. Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. Classrooms, hallways, school grounds, and community resources can be used for these investigations.

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 47 Which graph best shows the comparison of the elements to the total composition of the copper ore?

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Picture:

Question: 47 Right Answer:

Essential Knowledge: Why? This graph clearly states the exact percentage and shows the proportionality of each of the elements found in copper ore in a visually graphic manner.

Wrong Answers:

Why? The exact percentage of each element must be estimated from the graph and proportionality is not as easily evident.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need frequent experiences reading and interpreting charts and graphs, as a regular part of the laboratory investigations and in isolation as a skill development Students might be asked to create their own graphs as well as interpret graphs that are given.

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Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities.

Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 51 At which temperature do KBr and KNO3 have the same solubility?

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (C) Organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Picture:

Question: 51 Right Answer: B 48° C Wrong Answers: A 27° C C 65° C D 80° C Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Why? This can read directly from the graph. Why? Response A is the temperature at which the solubility of NaCl and KNO3 are the same. Responses C and D are selected because of mis-reading the graph. Multiple opportunities need to be regularly presented for the students to work with graphs and their interpretation. Students should be expected to infer specific trends from data provided using deduction and/or induction.

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Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities. Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps.

Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX S11-33

the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: TAKS info booklet # 1 The graph shows the increase in a Stentor population. If this trend continues, what will be the approximate size of the Stentor population after 4 weeks?

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Question: 1 (TAKS info booklet) Right Answer: D* 454 per 100 mL

Wrong Answers: A 325 per 100 mL B 348 per 100 mL C 401 per 100 mL Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? During week one, the Stentor population increased 50; week two the increase was 70; week three the increase was 100. The student should recognize the pattern of continued increase. The most reasonable answer selection was "D", 454/100mL. Why? Selections A & B are not reasonable. Answer C could be generated by extending the curve to the right in a linear fashion. The correct response "D" is found by understanding that the curve is exponential. Students need experience in data and graph analysis. Looking for patterns and trends in data should be stressed regularly.

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Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students might: 1) Collect data from other activities to graph, or 2) Interpret graphs they find in newspaper articles. This item requires students to recognize a pattern in data and then make a prediction based on that pattern. Items of this type require students to determine changes in the slope of a line, not to draw a freehand curve.

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Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps.

Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (C) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and Question 5­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

According to the data in the table, about how far can a spring be expected to stretch when a force of 3.92 N is applied? A 10.5 cm B 13.6 cm If the force increases, the spring should stretch further. This is a plausible answer, but the spring appears to be stretching approximately 3.5cm with every 1N of force. In this answer, it only stretches 3.1cm C 14.0 cm * Since the spring appears to stretch 3.5cm per N of force, this is the correct answer. (10.5 + 3.5 = 14.0) D 17.3 cm This is a plausible answer, but the spring appears to be stretching approximately 3.5cm with every 1N of force. In this answer, it stretches 6.8cm. Essential Knowledge: Students must be able to make inferences based on data given. Implications for the classroom: Students need practice reading and making data charts and graphs as well as predicting trends and drawing inferences from them. They should be used throughout the course to provide practice. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. This item requires students to recognize a pattern in data and then make a prediction based on that pattern.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (C) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; Question 35­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

This diagram shows the biochemical pathway that produces arginine in Neurospora, a mold. Neurospora is easily grown on a simple jelly-like medium. Different substances can be added to the medium. A mutant Neurospora lacking Enzyme Y would have to have which of these added to its medium in order to survive? A Enzyme X A mold lacking enzyme Y is still making its own enzyme X. B Ornithine Enzyme X is still working and is making Ornithine, it just can't be broken down into Citrulline. C Enzyme Z Adding enzyme Z wouldn't do any good if the mold can't make any Citrulline. Remember, enzyme Y is missing. D Citrulline * In the mutant mold, Ornithine can't be converted to Citrulline because enzyme Y is missing. Adding citrulline would allow the pathway to continue on so the mold could survive. Essential Knowledge: Enzymes help speed up or slow down certain chemical reactions in organisms. In this enzyme cascade, each enzyme is necessary to reach the final product Arginine. If certain enzymes are missing, the next product can be added to the media so the reaction will continue. Implications for the classroom: Although this is an Objective 2 question, students will have a better chance of answering correctly if they are familiar with enzymes (Bio TEK 9C, not a TAK). All the TEKS in a course must be covered by state law. If only TAKS are covered in a course, students may be lacking. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit. Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. Students will not be asked to name specific types of macromolecules, such as fructose or sucrose. However, students will be expected to be familiar with carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and their role in living systems.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (C) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; Question 47­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

According to this information, what is the best prediction for the boiling point of the seven-carbon alcohol? A 169°C This would only be an increase of around 10 degrees C. Since the increase in boiling point between 5 carbons and 6 carbons appears to be approximately 20 degrees, this is not enough. B 178°C * Since the trend shows increasing distances between the boiling temperatures of chained carbon compounds, seven carbon compounds should be at least 20 degrees above the previous measurement. Since six carbon sugars boil around 20 degrees higher than five carbon sugars, the new measurement should be at least 158 degrees + 20 degrees. C 186°C This measurement is too high. It shows a 28 degree increase. D 192°C This measurement is too high. It shows a 34 degree difference. Essential Knowledge: Students must make accurate predictions based on trends they see in data. Implications for the classroom: Students need to analyze their lab data. Many times teachers are pressed for time and rush through a lab, giving the students the conclusion. Students need time to analyze their data and even predict what would happen next. Ask questions like, "What your data tell you? What if you increased the temperature 10 more degrees? If students are doing labs 40% of the time and evaluating each time, this type of question should be second nature to them. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. Students must be able to calculate percentages, determine probability, and use the slope of a line to make predictions.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (C) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; Question 49­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

According to the graph, what is the approximate half-life of carbon-14? A 5.7 years Since the graph is in thousands of years, this answer does not make sense. Students must read the information given on the axis. B 5,700 years * Half-life is the amount of time it takes for half of the mass of an isotope to undergo radioactive decay. According to the graph, half of the 10g of carbon 14 had decayed by about 5700 years. C 23,000 years At 23,000 years, 0.5g remained, but this is not consistent with the definition of half-life. D 1,000,000 years This graph does not even show numbers as high as a million years. Essential Knowledge: Although the TAK for this question asks students to make inferences and predict trends from data, they must also be familiar with the principle of half-life. (see above) Implications for the classroom: Half ­life could be covered as a TEK but not a TAK in both IPC and Chemistry (IPC 8D, Chem 9B). Although this is an Objective 2C question, students have a better chance of getting it correct if a teachers diligently covers all of the TEKS in a course, not just the TAKS. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. Students must be able to calculate percentages, determine probability, and use the slope of a line to make predictions.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (C) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and Question 53­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

This animal most likely belongs to phylum -- A Porifera This creature is bilaterally symmetrical and has obvious tissues and organs. It can't belong to phylum porifera. (Porifera are sponges.) B Annelida * Since this organism shows length, segmentation, and bilateral symmetry, it must belong to phylum Annelida. (Annelida are earthworms and other segmented worms.) C Mollusca Although this worm probably has a soft body, it doesn't have a foot, visceral mass, or mantle. Even if a student is unsure of the definition of these terms, he should see that answer B is a more logical choice. (Phylum Mollusca includes bivalves like clams and mussels, Snails, and Octopuses.) D Arthropoda Although this worm is segmented, it doesn't have jointed legs or an exoskeleton. (Arthropods are insects, spiders, crabs, lobsters, etc.) Essential Knowledge: Students must analyze and evaluate the information given to key the unknown animal above into the right category. Implications for the classroom: Students need practice using a key to identify organisms by their physical characteristics. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit. Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 2 Test Question: The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis produce protein crystals that are toxic to the digestive system of insects. How can these bacteria be used to control insects in crops? Question: 2

Right Answer: F Apply the bacteria to growing plants.

Wrong Answers: G Expose the bacteria to low levels of light. H Remove plants from areas containing the bacteria. J Treat the bacteria with a solution of the protein crystals.

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data. Essential Knowledge: The insects will need to ingest the bacteria in order for the bacteria to be used to control the insects. Why? Applying the bacteria to growing plants will cause the insects to ingest the bacteria when they eat on the plants. Once the insects have ingested the bacteria they will begin to die because they will begin to produce crystals that are toxic to the insects' digestive systems. Why? G Exposing the bacteria to low levels of light will only have a direct effect on the bacteria. It will not help control the insects. H Removing the plants from the areas containing the bacteria will not help control the insects. The insects will go to where the plants are put and the bacteria will not be there to help control the insects. J There is no need to treat the bacteria with a solution of the protein crystals because the protein crystals are produced directly by the bacteria. Students need to be given opportunities to problem solve by applying new knowledge and information to situations. They need to have experience making inferences and drawing conclusions. Students can expect to see questions that require that they apply new evidence or information and solve a problem. Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using criticalthinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 20 Test Question: The graph shows how the momentum of a given mass changes during a period of motion. According to the information, what is the momentum in kg m/s at 2.75 seconds? Record and bubble in your answer to the nearest whole number on the answer document. Picture:

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Question: 20 Right Answer: 200 Wrong Answers:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The graph can be interpreted to find the momentum of 200 kgm/s. Why? Wrong answers could be found if students do not understand how to read and interpret the graph properly. It is vital that students have many opportunities to read and interpret the meaning of graphs, charts, and tables. The best way for students to get a through understanding of graphs is for them to get opportunities to produce their own graphs from data that they collected. Students may encounter any number of different types graphs, charts, or tables that they will be asked to analyze and make inferences from. Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 24 Test Question: The graph shows how the voltage needed to maintain a constant current of 1.5 amps through a wire conductor varies with the length of the wire. If the trend continues, what is the most likely voltage needed to maintain a 1.5amp current through 80 meters of the wire? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Question: 24 Right Answer: J 400 volts

Essential Knowledge: Why? The graph shows that there is a 5:1 ratio of voltage needed to length of wire. 5 X 80 m = 400 volts Why? F This could have been chosen if the student confused the 1.5 amp with length of wire and compared it improperly on the graph. G This could have been chosen if the student confused the 80 m with volts and compared it improperly on the graph. H This could have been chosen if the student expanded the graph and made an error in the process. It may have been a guess. It is vital that students know how to analyze and interpret graphs. Students need frequent experiences reading and interpreting charts and graphs, as a regular part of their laboratory investigations. Students might be asked to create their own graphs as well as interpret graphs that are given. Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world.

Wrong Answers: F 10 volts G 18 volts H 250 volts

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 46 Test Question: According to the periodic table and the information below, which element has this electron configuration? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data.

Question: 46 Right Answer: J Argon Wrong Answers: F Sodium G Neon H Magnesium

Essential Knowledge: Why? Argon is the element in the periodic table that has a full outer shell of electrons (8) in its 3rd energy level. Why? F Sodium has only 1 electron in its 3rd energy level. G Neon only has electrons in 2 energy levels. It has a full outer shell of electrons (8) in its 2nd energy level. H Magnesium has only 2 electrons in its 3rd energy level.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

To answer this question students need to have a good understanding of electron configurations. They need to understand the concept with enough depth that they can relate the data given in the table to the electron configuration of elements. Students may see questions where they must make inferences or draw conclusions from information given in the form of data tables, graphs, charts, or diagrams. Sometimes the data may be presented in a different format than what the student was use to seeing. Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 22 The table shows environmental factors and soybean production for three regions. Which of the following probably accounts for the decrease in soybean yield in Region 1?

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (D) communicate valid conclusions.

Question: 22 Right Answer: F* High levels of ozone damaged the soybean plants, decreasing the average yield.

Wrong Answers: G Low rainfall amounts failed to meet the plants' moisture needs and inhibited growth. H Poor mineral levels found in the soil in that region limited the soybean harvest. J Higher-than-normal rainfall increased pest activity, decreasing the average yield. Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The table shows a correlation between a drop in average crop yield and an increase in ozone levels for Region 1. This correlation does not exist with annual rainfall. Students should know that O3 is the chemical formula for ozone. Why? G. Rainfall and crop yield show no correlation. (Ex. 1999 results are inverse, 2000 results are direct.) H. The table does not give data on mineral levels. J. The table does not give data on pest activity.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

Students should have ample opportunities working with the organization and interpretation of data in a variety of forms and a variety of topics. This should be an on-going experience for the students and a regular part of their laboratory activities. Student induction and deduction should be sought in providing answers. A broad understanding of plants and the factors affecting plant growth are necessary to distinguish between the answer options offered for this question. Rote memorization of numerous facts about plants and plant growth is not sufficient to ensure understanding. Students should be expected to read information and deduce/induce conclusions based on the existing data.

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

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Students need to be able to draw inferences based on information from various sources...

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Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

· ·

Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities.

Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. For instance, student expectation B.2(B) states that students are expected to "collect data and make measurements with precision." Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with thermometers, balances and graduated cylinders in a laboratory setting. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 31 An environmental-science company measured the ozone pollutant levels at two different locations in a metropolitan area. Which statement is best supported by these data? Picture:

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (D) communicate valid conclusions.

Question: 31 Right Answer: C* High summer temperatures and southerly winds contribute to high levels of ozone. Wrong Answers: A Lower fuel efficiency and northerly winds in the winter increase ozone pollution the most. B Northwest winds in the spring transport ozone pollution into the metropolitan area. D Heavy use of automobiles changes ozone levels the most. Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Data provided in table supports this response.

Why? Responses A, B & D do not address the high temperature that was indicated in response C. The only instance of unsafe levels of ozone is when there is a high temperature.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

Students should have ample opportunities working with the organization and interpretation of data in a variety of forms and from a variety of sources. This should be an on-going experience for the students and a regular part of their laboratory activities. Have students prepare their own graphs and explain the data to the rest of the class. Students may be expected to create a set of data that supports a conclusion; deduce/induce conclusions from an existing data.

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

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Students need to be able to draw inferences based on information from various sources...

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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· ·

Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities.

Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. For instance, student expectation B.2(B) states that students are expected to "collect data and make measurements with precision." Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with thermometers, balances and graduated cylinders in a laboratory setting. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 44 According to the table, which workers have the greatest chance of experiencing significant hearing loss over time? Picture:

TAKS Objective 1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of science. B.2 The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (D) communicate valid conclusions.

Question: 44 Right Answer: H* Road-construction crews Wrong Answers: F Police traffic officers G Shoe-factory workers J Library desk clerks Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Response H is the group that experiences the 90 dB or more, which is given as the level that endangers hearing. Why? Each of these responses represents a group that experiences less noise than 90 dB.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students should have ample opportunities working with the organization and interpretation of data in a variety of forms and from a variety of sources. This should be an on-going experience for the students and a regular part of their laboratory activities. Have students prepare their own graphs and explain the data to the rest of the class. Students may be expected to create a set of data that supports a conclusion and deduce/induce conclusions from an existing data. · Students need to be able to draw inferences based on information from various sources... · Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. · Students should be actively participating in laboratory and field activities.

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Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

Objective 1 is focused on the student as a scientist. The nature of science is at the heart of all sciences, K-16. In order to understand scientific processes, students must perform the activities of scientists, which include making observations, collecting data, and drawing conclusions. For instance, student expectation B.2(B) states that students are expected to "collect data and make measurements with precision." Rather than just lecturing to students on how to use lab equipment, the teacher should give students the opportunity to work with thermometers, balances and graduated cylinders in a laboratory setting. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (D) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (D) communicate valid conclusions Question 11­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

The graph shows the results of a study testing chemical pesticides on a pest species common to cotton plants. Different chemical pesticides were used in five different areas. According to these results, which of the following is the most effective chemical for controlling this pest species? A R B S C T * Pesticide R left more insects remaining than pesticide T. Pesticide S left more insects remaining than pesticide T. Pesticide T left the fewest pests per square meter when compared to the other pesticides in the test. D V Pesticide V left more insects remaining than pesticide T. Essential Knowledge: Students must be able to read, interpret, and make predictions based on graphs and charts containing scientific information. Implications for the classroom: Students need practice reading many kinds of graphs, such as pie graphs, bar graphs, line graphs and scatter plots. They also need to be asked to draw inferences and make conclusions based on what they see there. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. This item requires students to read and understand a graph and make a conclusion based on the information in the graph.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (D) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (D) communicate valid conclusions Question 34­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade A certain commercial product used for cleaning ovens must be handled with rubber gloves. The product is slippery and turns litmus paper blue. It probably contains -- A an acid An acid would also need to be handled with gloves. It, however, would turn litmus paper red. B a base * These characteristics are true for bases. C a salt They would not necessarily have these characteristics. Some salts change the color of litmus, but they would not be slippery. D an isotope An isotope is an atom with a different number of neutrons than most of the existing atoms of that element. The given characteristics do not point to a certain isotope. Essential Knowledge: Bases have a pH of greater than seven. Because of the high concentration of -OH ions they have certain characteristics. They are bitter in taste. They turn litmus blue, and universal pH paper blue to purple. They are slippery. Implications for the classroom: Although this question is designed to asses TAK 2D, it requires students to have prior knowledge of the characteristics of acids, bases, and salts. Many times questions about scientific process skills will incorporate knowledge found in untested TEKS. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students may be asked to apply science concepts to questions that assess scientific processes, such as testing a hypothesis, predicting trends in data, or communicating valid conclusions.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ B.2 (D) (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to: (D) communicate valid conclusions. Question 50­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

The graph shows metabolic rates for two types of fish at different environmental temperatures. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these data? A Fish metabolism responds to temperature changes. The graph supports this conclusion. As temperature goes * up, so does the metabolic rate of each fish. B Metabolic rates decrease as environmental The graph shows the trend to be opposite of the position temperatures increase. stated. C Fish body temperature results from high We have no data on fish body temperature to form a metabolism. conclusion. D Metabolic rates are independent of environmental The graphed results support the opposite position, that temperature. metabolic rates increase as temperature increases. Essential Knowledge: Students must be able to take data in graphical form and use it to draw conclusions about the data given. Implications for the classroom: Students need practice reading many kinds of graphs, such as pie graphs, bar graphs, line graphs and scatter plots. They also need to be asked to draw inferences and make conclusions based on what they see there. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. Students must be able to calculate percentages, determine probability, and use the slope of a line to make predictions. Students may be asked to apply concepts to questions that assess scientific processes, such as testing a hypothesis, predicting trends in data, or communicating valid conclusions.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 26 Test Question: Boiling water can be used to sanitize dishes. The data below show how sanitizing time varies in different locations. Which inference is supported by these data? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (D) communicate valid conclusions.

Question: 26 Right Answer: G The boiling point of water is affected by elevation. Wrong Answers: F The boiling point of water is constant at higher altitudes. H Water takes longer to boil at Fort Davis than at sea level. J Boiling water changes temperature at a faster rate at Corpus Christi than at higher elevations. Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The table shows a direct relationship of boiling point to elevation. Why? F The table shows that the boiling point is not constant at higher altitudes. H How long it takes water to boil is not data that can be found in this table. J The time it takes for water to change temperature is not data that can be found in this table. It is vital that students understand how to read and infer information from tables, charts, and graphs. The best way for students to understand how to read tables, charts, and graphs is for them to have many opportunities to create their own and then explain what their table, chart, or graph means. Students can see questions where they must make inferences or draw conclusions from information given in the form of data tables, graphs, charts, or diagrams. The topic of the question can be about any science related item. These questions are testing the student's ability to make inferences from data that is presented to them in some scientific format. Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps. Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 28 Test Question: What can be concluded from the relationships described below? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (D) communicate valid conclusions.

Question: 28 Right Answer: H Gas molecules collide less frequently when the volume of the gas is increased. Wrong Answers: F Gas molecules travel longer distances at greater speeds when the volume of the gas is decreased. G A gas is more likely to lose kinetic energy when its volume is reduced. J A gas is more likely to increase in momentum when its volume is increased. Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? If a given amount of gas is given more room to move around, by increasing the volume of the container, each molecule has more room and collides less frequently. Why? F When the volume of the gas is decreased the gas molecules will have a shorter distance to travel because they will be in a smaller container. G Gas molecules will continue to move and therefore will still have kinetic energy. J The momentum of the gas molecules can not be concluded from the information given. It is vital that students understand how to read and infer information from tables, charts, and graphs. The best way for students to understand how to read tables, charts, and graphs is for them to have many opportunities to create their own and then explain what their table, chart, or graph means. Students may see questions where they must make inferences or draw conclusions from information given in the form of data tables, graphs, charts, or diagrams. The topic of the question can be about any science related item. These questions are testing the student's ability to make inferences from data that is presented to them in some scientific format. Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 48 Test Question: Which of the following conclusions is supported by the information below? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (D) communicate valid conclusions.

Question: 48 Right Answer: F Trade winds help maintain some food chains. Wrong Answers: G Trade winds produce useful minerals in some oceans. H Trade winds can reverse parts of the water cycle. J Trade winds may be able to reduce greenhouse gases.

Essential Knowledge: Why? The reading passage discusses the role trade winds play in bringing nutrients up from the bottom of the ocean. These nutrients can be a viral part of food chains. Why? G Trade winds do not produce minerals; they simply bring up nutrients that are located at the bottom of the ocean. H The passage does not present any evidence about the effects the trade winds have on the water cycle. The water cycle is not directly involved in maintaining food chains. J The passage does not present any evidence about the effects the trade winds have on the greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gases are not directly involved in maintaining food chains. Students need to have many experiences where they are required to use data to make conclusions and then use the data to support their conclusions. This is a skill that students need to practice regularly when they are working on their labs. Students may see questions where they must make inferences or draw conclusions from information given in the form of data tables, graphs, charts, or diagrams. The topic of the question can be about any science related item. These questions are testing the student's ability to make inferences from data that is presented to them in some scientific format. Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 51 Test Question: A study was conducted to test the effectiveness of hearing aids. People with different types of hearing loss were included in the study. Which question would help in determining whether the conclusion below is valid? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 1 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the nature of science. B.2 Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to (D) communicate valid conclusions.

Question: 51 Right Answer: C How many people were included in the study? Wrong Answers: A What was the average age of the people in the study? B What was the most common occupation of people in the study? D How many people in the study had vision problems? Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The number of people studied has a direct relationship to the validity of the conclusion. Why? The average age of the participants, the occupation of the participants, and the number of participants that also had vision problems would have no effect on the validity of the conclusion.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need to have many experiences where they are required to use data to make conclusions and then use the data to support their conclusions. This is a skill that students need to practice regularly when they are working on their labs. Students may see questions where they must make inferences or draw conclusions from information given in the form of data tables, graphs, charts, or diagrams. The topic of the question can be about any science related item. These questions are testing the student's ability to make inferences from data that is presented to them in some scientific format. Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 01 ­ I.3 (B) (3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to: (B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services; Question 1­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

Which conclusion can reasonably be made about Glycotac based on the promotional brochure? A All people with diabetes can safely use the product. No, Glycotac is not for those with kidney problems. B Glycotac is guaranteed to lower blood sugar in No, the add only claims that it "lowers blood sugar more people without health problems. than other leading brands." C Using the product may lower blood-sugar levels. This is a reasonable inference based on the claims in this * add. D Glycotac eliminates the need to exercise to control No, the add states that if diet and exercise don't lower high blood sugar. blood pressure enough, Glycotac can help. Essential Knowledge: Students must have the skills to read advertisements and labels carefully and precisely. They will need to be educated consumers. Implications for the classroom: Practicing critical thinking skills is a must. Students need to see examples of claims made about nutritional products and drugs. Put an advertisement up on the overhead and ask questions. If a doctor and a scientist say it's great, is it? Will the product do what they say it will? How do you know? What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students need to be able to draw inferences, recognize meaningful data, and manipulate data from various sources, such as product labels, advertisements, flyers, Web pages, and brochures.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: The diagram shows the flow of energy converted during photosynthesis. From this diagram it can also be inferred that --

TAKS Objective: 2 The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to B.4 The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to (B) investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules. Picture:

Question: 5 (TAKS info booklet)

Essential Knowledge: The key here is using the information provided in the diagram. The student must be very careful not to assume more

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Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

Right Answer: B organisms depend on organic compounds to transfer energy Wrong Answers: A atmospheric gases are the source of energy for producers C ultraviolet radiation from the sun is used for photosynthesis D heat from plants and animals warms atmospheric gases Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

information than is available. It's also handy to know that organic compounds are molecules produced by living things that contain carbon molecules. Why? C6H12O6 (glucose) is the organic compound used to transfer energy from plants to animals though food. Why? A. Sunlight is the source of energy to make sugar. C. The diagram says "sunlight" not UV radiation. This is more than can be inferred from the diagram. D. In the diagram, heat is being given off, but there is no evidence for "warming atmospheric gasses".

Students need practice understanding the limitations of diagrams. They must learn to make inferences based solely on the information given. Any diagram of a complicated cellular process could be given for students to interpret. This item requires students to integrate the concepts of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. It is also important that students understand the transfer of energy between plants and animals.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: When a sea urchin egg is removed from the ocean and placed in freshwater, the egg swells and bursts. Which of these causes water to enter the egg?

TAKS Objective: 2 The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to B.4 (B) investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules Essential Knowledge: Osmosis is the movement of water from higher to lower concentration across a membrane. Osmosis is a form of passive transport. In this case a sea urchin egg is isotonic (the same concentration) to the seawater. When placed in fresh water, the water begins to move into the egg because the egg is hypertonic to the freshwater (has more things dissolved in it and less water). Why? Water is moving from higher concentration in the freshwater, to lower concentration in the egg across the cell membrane, using no energy. Why? F. Distracter: Big word to confuse students G. Sodium pump is a form of Active transport, but students may relate the sodium to salt and become confused. H. Active transport requires the cell to use energy. (pump) Learning the definition of osmosis is not enough. Students must have lab experience seeing osmosis in action in plant and animal cells. Similar kinds of questions using diffusion or active transport could occur. · Students should understand the importance of cellular processes and the cell parts that play a role in these processes.

Question: 34

Right Answer: J* Osmosis Wrong Answers: F Coagulation G Sodium pump H Active transport Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 02 ­ B.4 (B) (4) Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to: (B) investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules Question 18­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Why are photosynthesis and cellular respiration often considered opposites? A Photosynthesis produces twice as many ATP molecules as cellular respiration does. While photosynthesis does produce ATP in the light reactions, it is later used to build glucose from carbon dioxide. No net ATP is produced in photosynthesis. B Water is released during photosynthesis and No, this is backwards. Hydrogen from the electron consumed during cellular respiration. transport chain combines with the oxygen we breathe in to form water, a waste product released in cellular respiration. In Photosynthesis, water is consumed (split) to release oxygen as a waste product. C Photosynthesis occurs during the day, and cellular Not true. Respiration must be constant to fuel the cells. respiration occurs at night. The light reactions of photosynthesis must occur in the sunlight, but sugar can be built from carbon dioxide without light. D Oxygen is produced during photosynthesis and used True. Oxygen is the waste product produced by during cellular respiration. * photosynthesis. It then taken in by cells and used to burn glucose for energy in cellular respiration. Essential Knowledge: Students need to understand the relationship between respiration and photosynthesis in some detail to answer this question (See above). Implications for the classroom: Students need a working relationship of both processes to answer this question. Photosynthesis and respiration should not be considered separate reactions, but two sides of the same process as energy is converted from one form into another in an ecosystem. Help students get the "big picture" of how energy and waste flow between the environment and organisms in the ecosystem. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should understand the importance of cellular processes and the cell parts that play a role in these processes. This item requires students to integrate the concepts of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. It is also important that students understand the transfer of energy between plants and animals.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 8 Test Question: The box contains some facts about kidneys and dialysis. Which of the following best explains why dialysis works?

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate and understanding of the organization of living systems. B.4 Science concept. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to (B) investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules.

Picture:

Question: 8 Right Answer: H Dialysis filters proteins from solution. Wrong Answers: F Dialysis reduces the size of proteins. G Proteins are dissolved by urine. J Proteins transport membrane fragments.

Essential Knowledge: Why? Kidneys work to remove protein and other large molecules from the urine. The purpose of the dialysis treatment is to act as the kidney and remove the proteins from the urine solution. Why? F Dialysis does not reduce the size of the proteins; it filters out the large proteins so that they are not present. G Proteins are not dissolved by urine. It is the kidney's job to filter out the large protein molecules from the urine. J The membrane is impermeable to the large protein molecules. Students need to have a through understanding of the vocabulary associated with the cellular processes. Students should have many lab experiences that allow them to observe and understand as many of the aspects of cellular processes as possible. The student may see questions related to any of the functions of the cellular processes, Students should understand that importance of cellular processes and the cell parts that play a role in these processes. In addition, students should understand that cells form tissues and that tissues form organs with specialized functions.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 35 Test Question: Cholera-causing bacteria have a single flagellum that allows these bacteria to --

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems. B.4 Science Concept. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to (B) investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules.

Picture:

Question: 35 Right Answer: A move Wrong Answers: B reproduce C excrete water D produce sugar Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? Movement is the function of flagellum in bacteria cells. Why? Reproduction, excretion, and the production of sugar are not functions of the flagellum in a bacteria cell. Students need to be familiar with the structure and function of parts of cells including bacteria. They also need to know how cellular structure and function compare to viruses. Any diagram of a complicated cellular process could be given for students to interpret. Students may be asked about the function of any part of the cell and how that function relates to structure. Students should understand that importance of cellular processes and the cell parts that play a role in these processes. In addition, students should understand that cells form tissues and that tissues form organs with specialized functions.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 49 Test Question: Which of these best explains why a freshwater aquarium would be a dangerous habitat for saltwater fish?

Question: 49 Right Answer: D The cells of the saltwater fish would gain too much water. Wrong Answers: A The tissues of the saltwater fish would absorb too much acid. B The organs of the saltwater fish would produce too much protein. C The organ systems of the saltwater fish would consume too much energy. Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems. B.4 Science Concept. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to (B) investigate and identify cellular processes including homeostasis, permeability, energy production, transportation of molecules, disposal of wastes, function of cellular parts, and synthesis of new molecules. Essential Knowledge: Why? The cells of the saltwater fish would be much more permeable to the freshwater than they would have been to the saltwater causing them to gain too much water. Why? The fresh water environment would not cause the absorption of acid, production of protein, or the consumption of too much energy.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need to be familiar with cellular processes. They should understand how the structure of cell parts is related to its function. They should be familiar with all the vocabulary related to cellular processes. Any diagram of a complicated cellular process could be given for students to interpret. Students may be asked about the function of any part of the cell and how that function relates to structure Students should understand that importance of cellular processes and the cell parts that play a role in these processes. In addition, students should understand that cells form tissues and that tissues form organs with specialized functions.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: In DNA, which of the following determines the traits of an organism?

TAKS Objective: 2 The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to B.6 (A) describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA Essential Knowledge: DNA mRNA Protein The sequence of the nitrogen bases (A, T, G, and C) determines the amino acids. The order of these amino acids determines the structure of the protein. The structural and enzymatic proteins create the traits we inherit from our parents. Why? A,T,G, and C form the genetic code that is translated into proteins Why? F. all bases (A,T,G, and C) form the code G. The sugar ribose is part of the backbone of DNA, but it isn't involved in the code. H. Hydrogen bonds hold the two strands of the DNA together between the bases. Their strength does not affect the code. Students can't just pair A with T and G with C on a piece of paper. They must understand that the DNA is a code for proteins and that's why it is the blueprint for life. They must link structure to function! Questions about structure, which include diagrams of the DNA molecule, could occur. Mutations of the DNA are another way to link structure to function. Students must identify the structures of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, and how nucleic acids carry genetic information. Students should be familiar with the steps involved in the replication of DNA and protein synthesis. Knowledge of the causes and effects of mutations is important in understanding the role of mutations in living organisms.

Question: 38

Right Answer: H Sequence of nitrogen bases Wrong Answers: F Amount of adenine G Number of sugars J Strength of hydrogen bonds

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 02 ­ B.6 (A) (6) Science concepts. The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to: (A) describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA Question 25­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

Which of the following best describes the question this set of procedures was designed to answer? A Can a substance from dead bacteria transform living This is a valid question that could be answered using bacteria? * this procedure. B Can R bacterial cells survive heating? Since we are not heating R, we can't be asking this question. C Can dead bacterial cells confer immunity to a living host? This experiment doesn't test "immunity". The R cells weren't being killed. D Can bacterial cells be isolated from a healthy host? We have no information on where these cells originated. Essential Knowledge: In this classic experiment first preformed by Griffith, then perfected by Avery, McLeod, and McCarty, the scientists were searching for the genetic material. When dead, virulent bacteria were mixed with live harmless bacteria, bacteria of both types were found growing on the plate. Something (later found to be the nucleic acid DNA by Avery's lab) was being passed from the dead bacteria to the live bacteria that changed their physical characteristics. This process is called transformation. Implications for the classroom: Students need to be familiar with the story of the discovery of DNA. The search for the double helix from the 1920's to the 1950's and beyond can help students understand that DNA is the molecule inherited from one organism to another. It codes for the proteins that give organisms their unique characteristics. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Scientists use many methods in their research. Students should learn a variety of methods to solve problems and make sense of the world. Activities related to the TEKS of Objective 1 develop students' critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Using critical-thinking skills to apply science concepts is the primary goal of science education. To best develop these skills, scientific processes should be taught and reinforced throughout the curriculum instead of as an isolated unit.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 02 ­ B.6 (A) (6) Science concepts. The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to: (A) describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA Question 36­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Coat color in mice varies greatly, ranging from black to grizzly gray, black-and-white, spotted, or white. The nucleus from a body cell of a grizzly-gray mouse is fused with an egg from a black mouse from which the nucleus has been removed. The egg begins to divide and is then transplanted into a female white mouse. What will be the most likely coat color of the offspring? A Black The donor egg was black, but that nucleus was removed. Since DNA for black coat color is carried here, the mouse can't be black. B Black with white spots Some students might guess that genes from the black mouse egg donor and the white mouse surrogate would combine to make a spotted mouse. Since their DNA was not involved, that is not the case. C Grizzly gray * The nucleus contains the genetic material (DNA). The code in the nuclear material of the fertilized egg (or in this case a donor nucleus) is the only deciding factor in the coat color of the new mouse. D White Even though the white mouse carried the baby, they share no genetic material. The baby mouse has a different grizzly gray code on its DNA. Essential Knowledge: The nucleus carries the DNA and therefore the genetic information to give an organism its phenotype. The donor egg and the surrogate mother do not contribute nuclear genetic material, so their characteristics will not be passed on. Implications for the classroom: Teaching students about the incredible possibilities of genetic engineering and cloning is a great way to reinforce what they have learned about DNA, protein synthesis and the cell. Scientists change the bases in DNA to suit their purposes, then they rely on the cell's machinery to make the proteins they want to produce (transcription and translation). What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students must identify the structures of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They should know how nucleic acids are involved in the formation of the organism and the inheritance of traits. Students will need to be able to use Punnett squares and probability to find possible genotypes and phenotypes. Students may be asked to apply their knowledge of genetics to predict possible genotypes involving sex-linked traits and multiple alleles. Students may be required to apply their knowledge of genetics to biotechnology issues, such as genetic engineering and the Human Genome Project.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 40 Test Question: In all plant and animal cells, the nucleus contains long molecules of DNA. Which of the following best describes the function of DNA?

Question: 40 Right Answer: J DNA contains the blueprint for producing the whole organism. Wrong Answers: F DNA provides the shape and structure of the nucleus. G DNA packages materials for transport through the nucleus. H DNA carries materials into and out of the nucleus. Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems. B.6 Science Concept. The student knows that structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to (A) describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA.. Essential Knowledge: Why? DNA does contain all the information needed to produce the whole organism. Why? F DNA provides information to produce the whole organism not simply the nucleus. G DNA does not package materials for transport through the nucleus. H DNA does not carry materials into and out of the nucleus. Students must have a good understanding of the structure and function of DNA. They must understand that DNA is the blueprint for life. Questions related to structure and function of DNA and how that can lead to mutations. They may be asked questions that require the students to understand the function of all of the parts of DNA. Students must identify the structures of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They should know how nucleic acids are involved in the formation of the organism and the inheritance of traits. Students will need to be able to use Punnet squares and probability to find possible genotypes and phenotypes. Students may be asked to apply their knowledge of genetics to predict possible genotypes involving sex-linked traits and multiple alleles.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 45 Test Question: Erwin Chargaff studied the DNA of organisms within a single species. Chargaff discovered that the amount of adenine is about equal to the amount of thymine. Which of these explains why the ratio of adenine to thymine is nearly 1:1? Question: 45 Right Answer: A Adenine and thymine pair with each other. Wrong Answers: B Adenine binds with phosphates, while thymine binds with nitrates. C Adenine and thymine are identical in chemical composition. D Adenine bases contain a form of thymine.

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems. B.6 Science Concept. The student knows that structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to (A) describe components of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and illustrate how information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA.. Essential Knowledge: Why? For every adenine base there is a thymine base to pair with it. This makes a ration of 1:1. Why? B All nitrogen bases bind to the sugar group and phosphate backbone. C Each of the 4 nitrogen bases has different chemical compositions. D An adenine base is not a form of thymine. Each base has its own chemical composition. Students can't just pair A with T and G with C on a piece of paper. They must understand that the DNA is a code for proteins and that's why it is the blueprint for life. They must link structure to function! Questions about structure, which include diagrams of the DNA molecule, could occur. Mutations of the DNA are another way to link structure to function Students must identify the structures of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They should know how nucleic acids are involved in the formation of the organism and the inheritance of traits. Students will need to be able to use Punnet squares and probability to find possible genotypes and phenotypes. Students may be asked to apply their knowledge of genetics to predict possible genotypes involving sex-linked traits and multiple alleles.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Which cellular function does this model represent?

TAKS Objective: 2 The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to B.6 (B) explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA);

Question: 4 (TAKS info booklet)

Right Answer: B Protein synthesis Wrong Answers: A Respiration C DNA replication D Photosynthesis

Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Protein Synthesis (translation) occurs at the ribosome. A copy of single stranded mRNA that has been copied from the DNA is placed in a ribosome and decoded into a protein. Every three bases ("letters") of the mRNA, called a codon, code for one amino acid. This happens when complementary tRNA's carrying amino acids come to the ribosome and base pair with the mRNA. Peptide bonds form between the amino acids causing a polypeptide to form. Why? When mRNA is being read and a polypeptide is forming at the ribosome, protein synthesis is taking place. Why? A. Respiration is the process of making ATP from the chemical energy stored in food. It occurs in the Mitochondria. C. DNA replication is when an exact copy of DNA is made from an existing DNA molecule. This happens in the nucleus. D. Photosynthesis is the process of making sugar from the sun's energy. It occurs in the chloroplast. Students need to be exposed to many models of transcription, translation and replication so that they can tell one from the other. They need to know that key words like "codon" and "polypeptide" are clues that protein synthesis is occurring. Students should see many different diagrams of replication or transcription and be asked to identify the importance of these processes in a cell. If possible, have them use models or a class play (students can be the base pairs and amino acids) to visualize the process . This item requires students to understand and recognize a model of the structures and molecules involved in a physiological process, in this case protein synthesis.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: If the template of a strand of DNA is

3 5AGATGCATC

, the complementary

TAKS Objective: 2 The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to B.6 (B) explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) Essential Knowledge: When DNA is replicated, a complementary strand is formed. Its base pairs match the original strand according to the following base pairing rules: Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T) and Guanine (G) pairs with Cytosine (C). Why? This is the only choice that follows the base pairing rules and therefore is a correct match to the parent strand. Why? The first A in the parent strand must match with a T in the complementary strand.

strand will be -- Question: 24

Right Answer:

3 5

F TCTACGTAG Wrong Answers:

5 3 5 3

G CTACGTAGA

3

H AGATGCATC

5

J AGACGTCTA Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students must have practice replicating DNA, not just reading about it. Pencil and paper activities should be supplemented with 3D model building, or paper models that can be manipulated kinesthetically to act out the steps of replication. DNA-to-DNA conversions where a mutation affects the sequence. DNA to RNA conversions (transcription). Students must identify the structures of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, and how nucleic acids carry genetic information. Students should be familiar with the steps involved in the replication of DNA and protein synthesis. Knowledge of the causes and effects of mutations is important in understanding the role of mutations in living organisms.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: If a cat has 38 chromosomes in each of its body cells, how many chromosomes will be in each daughter cell after mitosis? Question: 26

TAKS Objective: 2 The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to B.6 (B) explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) Essential Knowledge: Mitosis is the process by which body (somatic) cells, after making an exact copy of their DNA during S phase of the cell cycle, divide into two identical cells. Each daughter cell contains exactly the same # of chromosomes as the parent. Mitosis is used for growth, repair, and maintenance of body cells. Why? If a cat cell started with 38 chromosomes, after mitosis, both daughter cells will be exact copies that contain 38 chromosomes. Why? Students might guess G (19) because meiosis produces sex cells with half of the genetic information as the parent cell. They could also be confused with fertilization, which would double the genetic information when two sex cells meet. In this case, they would have chosen J (76). Students must not just memorize the steps in mitosis and meiosis; they must understand the genetic and reproductive implications. They must be able to compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis. A similar question asking about meiosis, or comparing the two would be logical. Students must identify the structures of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, and how nucleic acids carry genetic information. Students should be familiar with the steps involved in the replication of DNA and protein synthesis. Knowledge of the causes and effects of mutations is important in understanding the role of mutations in living organisms.

Right Answer: H* 38 Wrong Answers: F 11 G 19 J 76 Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 02 ­ B.6 (B) (6) Science concepts. The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to: (B) explain replication, transcription, and translation using models of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA); Question 33­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

Which of these represents the DNA segment from which this section of mRNA was transcribed? A ACTAAG * When being transcribed by mRNA, a piece of the DNA sequence will bond as follows: A-U, T-A, C-G, and C-G. B TCUTTG DNA does not contain Uracil (U), therefore this code is not correct even though it seems to match. C GAAUCU This code doesn't match and it should not contain Uracil (U). D UCCTGA This code doesn't match and it should not contain Uracil (U). Essential Knowledge: When being transcribes by mRNA piece of the DNA sequence will bond as follows: A-U, T-A, C-G, and C-G. Implications for the classroom: Students need practice both replicating and transcribing DNA. Incorporate as many learning styles as possible using 3-D and paper models, video clips, and kinesthetic activities where students become the DNA or mRNA to get the idea to stick. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students must identify the structures of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They should know how nucleic acids are involved in the formation of the organism and the inheritance of traits.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 02 ­ B.6 (C) (6) Science concepts. The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to: (C) identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations and evaluate the significance of these changes Question 22­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Mutations in DNA molecules can occur when -- A replication of DNA is exact Mutations occur when replication is not exact and a mistake is made by the copping mechanism. B a DNA enzyme attaches to an RNA codon DNA enzymes are specific to DNA. This would not happen. Also, RNA is not involved in DNA mutation. C RNA codons are replaced by DNA nucleotides RNA codons are involved in transcription and translation, not replication. They are will not mutate the DNA code. D a change occurs in DNA nucleotide bases * This is the definition of a mutation. A mutation is any change in the base sequence of the DNA. It can be caused by many factors, including mistakes by the enzymes that catalyze replication, UV radiation, and certain chemicals. Essential Knowledge: Mutations are any change in the DNA sequence. Sometimes they occur through mistakes in replication, as the DNA is being copied. They can also occur when certain mutagens (like UV radiation or certain chemicals) change the DNA code. They can occur during meiosis if chromosomes, or pieces of them, are pulled to the wrong daughter cell. Any of these things can cause the cell's directions to have errors. Transcription still occurs, but in translation the new protein is faulty, or is never completed. Implications for the classroom: Students must understand the big picture! DNA mRNA Protein. Use models, video clips, concept maps, analogies...whatever it takes to get this difficult concept across to students. Revisit it in every chapter as you talk about evolution, classification, adaptations in ecology, and in human disease. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students must identify the structures of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They should know how nucleic acids are involved in the formation of the organism and the inheritance of traits.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 7 Test Question: Which of these best explains how mutation can be beneficial to an organism? Question: 7 Right Answer: A Phenotypic change may create an advantage over other organisms. Wrong Answers: B Recombined genetic material improves genotype stability. C Mitosis becomes a favored means of reproduction. D Deoxyribose sugars develop into additional nucleotides. Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems. B.6 Science concept. The student knows the structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to (C) identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations and evaluate the significance of these changes. Essential Knowledge: Why? The phenotypic change would be the physical appearance of the mutation in the organism. If this physical change may be to the organisms advantage for survival. Why? B Genotype stability will not show up as a genetic mutation. C Mitosis is not a means of reproduction of organisms. D Deoxyribose sugars form the backbone of the DNA chain. Students need to have a very good understanding of the structure and function of DNA. They need to be familiar with all the vocabulary associated with DNA. They should have an understanding of the role that DNA plays in mutation. Students can expect to see questions related to the organization of the nucleic acids in a DNA sequence. Students must identify the structures of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They should know how nucleic acids are involved in the formation of the organism and the inheritance of traits. Genetic principles will be applied to the understanding of ecology and evolution. For example, bacterial resistance to some antibiotics is a genetic trait passed on from generation to generation. Constant exposure to an antibiotic will kill the majority of individual bacteria in a population, but the few individuals that have a resistance to that antibiotic will live on to reproduce. Scientists predict that natural selection will cause a rise in antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that have been overexposed to some antibiotics.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 31 Test Question: Sickle-cell anemia is a disorder resulting from a mutation that leads to the production of an abnormal protein. Which component of the DNA molecule provides instructions for the production of the protein? Question: 31

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems. B.6 Science Concept. The student knows that structures and functions of nucleic acids in the mechanisms of genetics. The student is expected to (C) identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations and evaluate the significance of these changes.

Right Answer: C The sequence of nitrogen bases Wrong Answers: A The phosphate groups B The sugar molecules D The bonds that hold the sugars to the bases Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: DNA is made up of small subunits called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made up of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. Why? The sequence of the nitrogen bases on the DNA chain provides the instructions for proteins and the other parts of the whole organism. Why? These are all part of the DNA molecule. However, they do not function as the instructions for the production of proteins.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students can't just memorize facts about transcription and translation. They must understand how it works and take it one step further by realizing what a mutation does to the process. Hands on manipulatives are best, but pencil and paper transcription and translation using various types of charts to understand the genetic code is also a must. Hammer in: DNA (transcription) to mRNA (translation) to Protein. Questions could easily be created with DNA to mRNA. You might see translation charts that are read in DNA or in mRNA. Genetic principles will be applied to the understanding of ecology and evolution. For example, bacterial resistance to some antibiotics is a genetic trait passed on from generation to generation. Constant exposure to an antibiotic will kill the majority of individual bacteria in a population, but the few individuals that have a resistance to that antibiotic will live on to reproduce. Scientists predict that natural selection will cause a rise in antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria that have been overexposed to some antibiotics. Students must identify the structures of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They should know how nucleic acids are involved in the formation of the organism and the inheritance of traits. Students will need to be able to use Punnet squares and probability to find possible genotypes and phenotypes. Students may be asked to apply their knowledge of genetics to predict possible genotypes involving sex-linked traits and multiple alleles.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: The bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, is most closely related to the --

Question: 12

Right Answer: H* northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens Wrong Answers: F spotted chorus frog, Pseudacris clarki G Asian flying frog, Polypedates leucomystax J African bullfrog, Pyxicephalus adspersus Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: 2 The student knows applications of taxonomy and can identify its limitations. The student is expected to B.8 (C) identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants, and animals Essential Knowledge: Students must understand the order of the classification system and how it is organized from broadest to most specific. (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species) Latin names of organisms consist of a Genus name (capitalized) followed by a species name (lowercase), which is italicized or underlined. Why? Both are in the Genus Rana, so they are more closely related than the others. Why? Students might try to look at the spots in the picture and pick F, but they should be looking at the taxonomy. Students must be able to use their knowledge of taxonomy to recognize relatedness of organisms. Make sure they are getting experience in using Binomial nomenclature and classification keys. Watch out for similar questions using classification keys, DNA comparisons of related organisms, etc. TAKS will use the six-kingdom system that includes Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. Increasing knowledge of the world necessitates change. Therefore, classification of organisms can change over time.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Which of these classifications is most specific?

TAKS Objective: 2 The student knows applications of taxonomy and can identify its limitations. The student is expected to B.8 (C) identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants, and animals Essential Knowledge: Students must understand the order of the classification system and how it is organized from broadest to most specific. (Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species) Latin names of organisms consist of a Genus name (capitalized) followed by a species name (lowercase), which is italicized or underlined. Why? Organisms in the same genus are the most closely related; therefore, genus is the most specific. Why? Phylum is the broadest category given, then order, then family. None are as specific as genus. Students must have the levels of classification memorized and know the significance of the order...Most general to most specific. The opposite question, "Which category includes all the others?" is always a possibility. TAKS will use the six-kingdom system that includes Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. Increasing knowledge of the world necessitates change. Therefore, classification of organisms can change over time.

Question: 49

Right Answer: B Genus Wrong Answers: A Family C Phylum D Order Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 02 ­ B.8 (C) (8) Science concepts. The student knows applications of taxonomy and can identify its limitations. The student is expected to: (C) identify characteristics of kingdoms including monerans, protists, fungi, plants, and animals. Question 31­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade The kingdom Animalia includes all of these except -- A jellyfish Jellyfish are multicellular heterothrophs that belong to kingdom Animalia. B sponges Sponges are multicellular heterotrophs that belong to kingdom Animalia. C amoebas * Amoebas are single celled heterotrophs. They belong to kingdom Protista. D roundworms Round worms are multicellular heterotrophs that belong to kingdom Animalia. Essential Knowledge: Kingdom Animalia contains organisms that are heterotrophic, multicellular, motile at some part of their life cycle, and eukaryotic. In contrast, protista are sometimes single celled. Students must know the characteristics of the kingdoms and be able to compare and contrast them. Implications for the classroom: Let students discover the characteristics of the kingdoms themselves. Set up each lab table with examples of one of the six kingdoms (using microscopes when necessary). Let students tell you why they are grouped as they are by comparing and contrasting the groups. After the characteristics of the kingdoms are established, give students a practical in which they must name the kingdom for unknown organisms. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: TAKS will use the six-kingdom system that includes Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. Increasing knowledge of the world necessitates change. Therefore, classification of organisms can change over time. Though scientific names of organisms may be used on TAKS items, students will not be expected to memorize the scientific names.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: A portion of the human excretory system is represented in the diagram. The order in which urine flows through the system is --

TAKS Objective: 2 The student knows that, at all levels of nature, living systems are found within other living systems, each with its own boundary and limits. The student is expected to B.10 (A) interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune; and compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole

Kidney

Ureter

Bladder

Urethra

Picture: Question: 16 Labels not shown on TAKS test. Essential Knowledge: This recall questions asks students to remember the names of the major organs in the Urinary system. It goes one step further in asking students to connect the structure of the organisms to their function. The kidneys filter the blood to remove nitrogenous waste. They then collect it and it passes through the ureters to the bladder, where it is stored and eventually released through the urethra. Why? This is the correct order in which the urine flows through the system. Why? None of the other choices start with the kidneys where the urine is produced. Students must know names of the major organs of each system and how they are related to each other by function. Any system could be treated in a similar manner. Trace the flow of oxygen as it enters the lungs. Trace the flow of food through the digestive system, etc. The relationship of structure to function should be explored from the cellular level to the ecosystem level. Students need to be familiar with the functions of plant and animal systems as well as with relationships among the systems within an organism.

Right Answer: H* kidney ureter bladder urethra Wrong Answers: F urethra bladder ureter kidney G ureter kidney bladder urethra J bladder urethra kidney ureter Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 02 ­ B.10 (A) (10) Science concepts. The student knows that, at all levels of nature, living systems are found within other living systems, each with its own boundary and limits. The student is expected to: (A) interpret the functions of systems in organisms including circulatory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal, respiratory, muscular, excretory, and immune Question 3­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

The diagram illustrates the parts of this flower. Which of these parts are not directly involved in sexual reproduction? A Stigma and style The stigma is a sticky organ that captures pollen grains. A pollen tube then grows down the style, carrying the remaining pollen nucleus to fertilize female gametes (ovules) in the ovary. B Sepal and pedicel * Sepals and pedicels which support the flower have no reproductive function. C Anther and filament The anther, which is supported by the filament is the site of pollen production (male gametes). D Receptacle and ovary The receptacle supports the ovary, which is the site of the female gametes in a plant. Essential Knowledge: Flowers are the basic reproductive system of angiosperms. They often contain both male and female parts. Filament + anther =stamen (male reproductive organs) Ovary + Sigma + Style = Pistil (female reproductive organs) Petals, sepals, receptacles, and pedicels attract pollinators, and support the plant respectively, but do not have direct reproductive function. Implications for the classroom: Flower dissection, in which students identify the support and reproductive structures of a flower is a great classroom activity. Students can observe pollen under the microscope and see the ovules in the ovary with a magnifying glass or stereoscope. Many students are surprised to find that plants can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Adaptations of reproductive organs for pollination and seed dispersal should also be investigated. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should know the significance of the structures and adaptations of plants, such as the variety of leaf structures, methods of dispersing offspring, and methods of obtaining nutrients. The study of plant structures and adaptations helps students better understand the connection between plants and the survival of other life, including human life.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: On a hot summer day, a road-crew worker perspires and then feels thirsty as her body temperature increases. This response is an example of --

TAKS Objective: 2 The student knows that, at all levels of nature, living systems are found within other living systems, each with its own boundary and limits. The student is expected to B.10 (B) The student knows that, at all levels of nature, living systems are found within other living systems, each with its own boundary and limits. The student is expected to (B) compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole. Essential Knowledge: All of the body systems work together to maintain homeostasis (balance) for the body. It must maintain a constant temperature, fluid balance, pH, etc. Even a slight imbalance can cause serious problems. Why? Sweat causes water loss. This causes the brain to send a signal for thirst, which causes drinking to maintain homeostasis. Why? Though the other choices can be confusing due to complicated vocabulary, none of them are correct answers for the situation given. Knowing the functions of the individual systems is important, but a student must also understand that all of the systems work together to maintain life functions. Homeostasis is a key word. Connected functions of some systems could be explored, especially those that control other systems. Ex. (Nervous or endocrine) This item demonstrates how various systems in the body, such as the integumentary, circulatory, and nervous systems, are integrated to maintain homeostasis. Perspiration and thirst are just two responses that help maintain homeostasis.

Question: 6 (TAKS info booklet)

Right Answer: D maintaining homeostasis Wrong Answers: A releasing enzymes B decreasing respiration C assimilating proteins Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Nutrients from digested food move from the digestive system directly into the --

TAKS Objective: 2 The student knows that, at all levels of nature, living systems are found within other living systems, each with its own boundary and limits. The student is expected to B.10 (B) compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole. Essential Knowledge: Food is broken down to its building blocks (fats, proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids) by the digestive system. These nutrients are then absorbed by the circulatory system through tiny capillaries in the villi (tiny folds) of the small intestine. Why? Nutrients move from the digestive system to the circulatory system. Why? B. Integumentary system is the skin and its accessory organs C. The excretory system uses the kidneys to filter and remove nitrogenous waste (urine). Students tend to confuse this with removal of solid waste from the large intestine. D. The endocrine system produces hormones that control body systems. Learning the functions of the systems is not enough. Students must be able to connect the functions of the systems together. Many systems have functions that are intertwined. Watch out for nervous/muscular, circulatory/respiratory, muscular/skeletal, Reproductive/endocrine, etc. Organ systems are interdependent. The function of one system will directly or indirectly affect the functions of other systems. Knowledge of this interdependence will help students better understand personal health issues as well as new discoveries in medicine and veterinary science. · The relationship of structure to function should be explored from the cellular level to the ecosystem level.

Question: 29

Right Answer: A circulatory system Wrong Answers: B integumentary system C excretory system D endocrine system

Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 02 ­ B.10 (B) (10) Science concepts. The student knows that, at all levels of nature, living systems are found within other living systems, each with its own boundary and limits. The student is expected to: (B) compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole; Question 28­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade When a person is frightened by a wild animal, some organ systems immediately become active, while others are suppressed. Which of these systems is likely to be suppressed? A Muscular system A person would need muscle activity to escape a dangerous situation or to fight. B Respiratory system Increased respiration would bring needed oxygen to the muscles and brain. C Endocrine system The endocrine system (adrenal gland) sends chemical signals to the brain to increase pulse rate and respiration. D Digestive system * The digestive system would be suppressed. In an emergency situation, digestion takes second priority to the fight or flight response. Essential Knowledge: Students must understand the basic roles of all of the body systems to determine which would be necessary in a fight or flight situation. Implications for the classroom: Students need to understand how organ systems react with each other in various situations. Use questioning to get students thinking about system integrations. What will happen if this system shuts down due to disease? Which systems control the others? When and how does this happen? If this system X increases its output, what happens to system Y? Go deeper than labeling parts and naming functions. Help your students make the connections. Use concept maps to link functions of one system to functions of another. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: The study of systems requires an integration of all sciences. For example, students may apply knowledge of physics concepts to the human body (the elbow as a lever or light through the lens of an eye), chemistry concepts to cellular processes (the manufacture of carbohydrates by plants or the formation of proteins within a ribosome), and earth science concepts to ecosystems (soil composition or the nitrogen cycle). Students must be familiar with the general functions of various body systems.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 10 Test Question: How is the excretory system most likely to respond when an animal is thirsty?

Question: 10 Right Answer: G By retaining body fluids

Wrong Answers: F By relaxing the smooth muscles H By absorbing heat from lymph glands J By releasing hormones Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective: 2 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the organization of living systems. B.10 Science concept. The student knows that, at all levels of nature, living systems are found within other living systems, each with its own boundary and limits. The student is expected to (B) compare the interrelationships of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole. Essential Knowledge: Why? The main function of the excretory system is to regulate body fluids. If an animal is thirsty the excretory system will react by having the body retain fluids. Why? The excretory system is not responsible for relaxing smooth muscles, absorbing heat, or releasing hormones. Students need to be familiar with all the organ systems of the human body. They need to understand the functions of each system and how each system goes about performing their functions. The students can see questions related to functions of any of the organ systems in the body. Organ systems are interdependent. The function of one system will directly or indirectly affect the functions of other systems. Knowledge of this interdependence will help students better understand personal health issues as well as new discoveries in medicine and veterinary science.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Most viruses infect a specific kind of cell. Which of the following are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?

Question: 6

Right Answer: F* Helper T cells Wrong Answers: G Liver cells H GABA-receptor cells J Red blood cells

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: 3 The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to B.4 (C) compare the structures and functions of viruses to cells and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases and conditions such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, common colds, smallpox, influenza, and warts Essential Knowledge: HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, attacks the helper T cells of the immune system. By binding to special proteins on the outside of these white blood cells and then releasing their contents by fusing with the cell membrane, HIV enzymes and nucleic acids (RNA) enter these cells. Why? These white blood cells are the specific target of the HIV virus. Why? G. Liver cells are unharmed by HIV. H. GABA-receptor cells (a distractor that students have not encountered before.) J. HIV is passed through contact with blood, causing the common misconception that red blood cells carry HIV. Also students don't recognize helper T cells as white blood cells, so they pick this answer because it relates to blood. It is vital for students to understand how HIV is spread and how the virus is replicated. Students can graph white blood cell counts over time in people exposed to HIV. Students also should be familiar with the all of the viruses mentioned in Objective 4C. They could consider symptoms, transmission, and structures of these viruses in a group activity. Diagrams of viruses could be given while students were asked to determine target cells. Comparisons between the structures of viruses and bacteria could also be seen. Students should be aware that bacteria are not always harmful. The majority of bacteria have no direct effect on humans. Many times bacteria play a beneficial role in organisms and the environment.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 03 ­ B.4 (C) (4) Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to: (C) compare the structures and functions of viruses to cells and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases and conditions such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, common colds, smallpox, influenza, and warts; Question 44­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Viruses differ from bacteria in that all viruses -- A cause insect-borne diseases No, many insect borne diseases are caused by bacteria and protists as well. Ex. Malaria, (protist) bubonic plague (bacteria), B can be destroyed by antibiotics This distracter is a common misconception held by students. Viruses are not killed by antibiotics. C have rigid cell walls Viruses have a protein coat that is sometimes covered by a capsid made of host cell membrane. Only bacteria have rigid cell walls. D must be reproduced in living cells * Bacteria can reproduce on their own when the conditions are favorable. Only viruses must use the host cell's machinery for DNA replication, transcription and translation to be able to reproduce. Essential Knowledge: Students must be familiar with the structure and function of both bacteria and viruses to answer this question. (See above) Implications for the classroom: Students need to compare and contrast the structures of bacteria and viruses and be familiar with their ability to cause disease, be helpful to mankind, and reproduce. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should be aware that bacteria are not always harmful. The majority of bacteria have no direct effect on humans. Many times bacteria play a beneficial role in organisms and the environment. Students should learn about some of the plant and animal diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. However, students are not expected to be aware of all of them. Items that address this issue

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 14 Test Question: Which of the following cannot metabolize nutrients?

Question: 14 Right Answer:

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the interdependence of organisms and the environment. B.4 Science Concept. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to (C) compare the structures and functions of viruses to cells and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases and conditions such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, common colds, smallpox, influenza, and warts. Essential Knowledge: Why? Viruses cannot metabolize nutrients. They must receive nutrients from their host cell.

Wrong Answers:

Why? Bacteria, plant cells, and animal cells can all metabolize nutrients.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need to understand how viruses are different from other types of cells in both structure and function. They should be able to distinguish between pictures and diagrams of bacteria and virus and have a through understanding of their reproduction methods and their role in causing diseases. Students should understand that most bacteria is not harmful to humans. Diagrams of viruses could be given while students were asked to determine target cells. Comparisons between the structures of viruses and bacteria could also be seen. Students should learn about some of the plant and animal diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. However, students are not expected to be aware of all of them. Items that address this issue will be designed to provide background information on the specific disease used in the item.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 47 Test Question: Which of these does a virus need in order to multiply?

Question: 47 Right Answer: D A host cell to replicate the virus's DNA Wrong Answers: A Chloroplasts from a host cell B A host cell to provide oxygen for the virus C New ADP from a host cell Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the interdependence of organisms and the environment. B.4 Science Concept. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to (C) compare the structures and functions of viruses to cells and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases and conditions such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, common colds, smallpox, influenza, and warts. Essential Knowledge: Why? Viruses need a host cell to replicate its DNA in order to reproduce. Without the host cell the virus can not reproduce. Why? Viruses do not need chloroplasts, oxygen, or ADP from their host cell to reproduce. They need the host cell to replicate the virus's DNA.

Students must know the structures, life cycle, and impact of viruses on other organisms.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Bacteria are the only organisms that can --

TAKS Objective: 3 The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to B.4 (D) Identify and describe the role of bacteria in maintaining health such as in digestion and in causing diseases such as in streptococcus infections and diphtheria. Essential Knowledge: As part of the nitrogen cycle Nitrogen fixing bacteria that live on root nodules of legumes can take atmospheric nitrogen and make it into compounds that can be used in plant nutrition. They are the only organisms on earth that can do this. Why? Rhizobium bacteria can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by plants. Why? A.Many organisms can get energy from breaking down carbohydrates. C. Plants also can produce glucose from carbon dioxide. D. All living organisms can synthesize proteins from amino acids.

Question: 7 (TAKS info booklet)

Right Answer: B* transform atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia Wrong Answers: A obtain energy by decomposing carbohydrates C produce glucose from dissolved carbon dioxide D synthesize proteins from amino acid molecules Implications for the Classroom:

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Students need to be familiar with the nitrogen cycle. They also need to be familiar with beneficial bacteria and their roles in the environment. Other roles of bacteria in ecosystems could be explored. (Decomposers, symbiosis in digestive systems, food production by fermentation.) This item integrates two major concepts: the characteristics of kingdoms and the nitrogen cycle. Students must be familiar with the characteristics of bacteria compared to the other kingdoms and must also understand the role of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Some bacteria benefit mammals by helping with --

Question: 8

Right Answer: H* digestion Wrong Answers: F growth G defense J respiration Implications for the Classroom:

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TAKS Objective: 3 The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to B.4 (D) identify and describe the role of bacteria in maintaining health such as in digestion and in causing diseases such as in streptococcus infections and diphtheria. Essential Knowledge: E. coli bacteria live in a symbiotic relationship in the guts of mammals. In some animals they help break down cellulose (plant fiber), which is indigestible. They also produce vitamin D. Why? Helpful bacterial colonies live in the guts of mammals. Why? F. Bacteria don't help with growth G. Bacteria often do the opposite of defense, they cause disease J. Bacteria aren't involved in respiration. Pathogens shouldn't be the only examples of Eubacteria that your students see. Make sure they are also introduced to beneficial bacteria that help digest nutrients, produce food for humans, decompose waste, and provide the basis for the nitrogen cycle. Any example of beneficial bacteria could be explored. Students should be aware that bacteria are not always harmful. The majority of bacteria have no direct effect on humans. Many times bacteria play a beneficial role in organisms and the environment.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 03 ­ B.4 (D) (4) Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to: (D) identify and describe the role of bacteria in maintaining health such as in digestion and in causing diseases such as in streptococcus infections and diphtheria. Question 14­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Which of the following factors helps spread disease-causing bacteria? A Low temperatures Most species of bacteria have slower growth at cooler temperatures. That is why we refrigerate food to keep it from spoiling. B Access to new hosts * Access to new hosts through contact, food, water, or other vectors will allow a bacteria to spread and multiply. C Mutation by heat energy Heat energy will not mutate anyone's DNA. UV radiation will. It is an effective germicide for bacteria. Mutations will not spread bacteria. D Availability of light Disease causing bacteria are heterotrophic. They don't need light to grow. This would not be a factor that helped them spread. Essential Knowledge: Bacteria are spread by vectors such as contaminated water, food, or animals. This gives them access to new hosts where they can grow and reproduce. Implications for the classroom: Students need to understand how bacterial and viral diseases are spread. Teachers can use various techniques to cause a classroom "epidemic" to model how bacteria and viruses might travel. Students can then use a rainbow cooperative group strategy to become aware of several real diseases and how they are spread. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should be aware that bacteria are not always harmful. The majority of bacteria have no direct effect on humans. Many times bacteria play a beneficial role in organisms and the environment. Students should learn about some of the plant and animal diseases caused by bacteria and viruses. However, students are not expected to be aware of all of them. Items that address this issue will be designed to provide background information on the specific disease used in the item.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: The table shows a comparison of some amino acids found in cytochrome c. The two organisms in the table that are most closely related are -- Picture:

TAKS Objective: 3 The student knows the theory of biological evolution. The student is expected to B.7 (A) identify evidence of change in species using fossils, DNA sequences, anatomical similarities, physiological similarities, and embryology

Question: 53

Right Answer: C* Q and R Wrong Answers: A Q and T B R and S D Q and S Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: The evolutionary relationships of organisms can be compared by looking at physical traits, but organisms share biochemical similarities as well. Cytochrome C is an enzyme on the electron transport chain that is vital to all living things. Evolutionary biologists use similarities in these chemicals that all living organisms share, to trace relatedness of certain groups. The more similar the amino acids, the more similar the DNA, the more related the animal. Ex. A human and cow might share 65% of their amino acids for a certain protein, while a human and a sea slug would only share 35%. . Why? These share the most similar protein structure and therefore must share more of the same DNA code. They are more closely related. Why? The others have a higher % difference of amino acids in common.

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Students must understand the concept of molecular evidence for evolution. They need practice interpreting the results of gel electrophoresis and other methods of comparing the proteins and DNA sequences of organisms believed to be related. The more DNA code or % amino acids in a protein they share, the more closely related they are. Students could be asked to interpret gels showing DNA bands from related groups of animals. They could be given three animals, two more closely related than the others, and asked to determine which bands go with which animals. Students should be able to examine evidence of evolution, such as DNA sequences and homologous structures, to determine the relationship between organisms. Embryology will not be included as evidence of evolution.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 03 ­ B.7 (A) (7) Science concepts. The student knows the theory of biological evolution. The student is expected to: (A) identify evidence of change in species using fossils, DNA sequences, anatomical similarities, physiological similarities, and embryology; Question 21­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

The table shows an amino acid comparison of cytochrome c, a protein involved in cellular respiration in aerobic organisms. The two organisms in the table that are least genetically related are the -- A silkworm moth and the fruit fly These two species have more similar percentages of amino acids than others, therefore, they are more genetically related. B silkworm moth and the screwworm fly * Because these insects have the most differences in the % amino acid composition of cytochrome c, they are the least genetically related. C fruit fly and the screwworm fly These two species have more similar percentages of amino acids than others, therefore they are more genetically related. D fruit fly and the hornworm moth These two species have more similar percentages of amino acids than others, therefore they are more genetically related. Essential Knowledge: The amino acid sequences of certain proteins found in all animals (such as those found on cytochrome-c, a enzymatic protein in the electron transport chain of the mitochondria, found in all eukaryotes) can be sequenced and compared. When this is done, the sequences can be compared to determine the relatedness of organisms. Organisms that are closer to each other on a phylogenetic tree should have more similar amino acids than those that are less closely related. Implications for the classroom: Students need to be introduced to the explosion of biochemical evidence that scientists now use to understand the biological world. This incredible technology is so simple that freshmen with no experience have no problem doing an electrophoresis lab. Electrophoresis should be used in the classroom to show how DNA can be common among human families as well as among groups of organisms who are genetically related through evolution. Protein studies work the same way. This technology is inexpensive, easily performed in the classroom, and vital to an interested group of students who will be the jurors of tomorrow. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should be able to examine evidence of evolution, such as DNA sequences and homologous structures, to determine the relationship between organisms. Embryology will not be included as evidence of evolution. Students may be required to apply their knowledge of genetics to biotechnology issues, such as genetic engineering and the Human Genome Project.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Because of this animal's adaptations, it would be most successful at --

Question:2

TAKS Objective: 3 The student knows the theory of biological evolution. The student is expected to B.7 (B) illustrate the results of natural selection in speciation, diversity, phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and extinction Essential Knowledge: As a result of natural selection, camouflage is an adaptation that allows organisms to escape predators by hiding in their environment.

Right Answer: H hiding from predators Wrong Answers: F competing with birds G making its own food J running very rapidly Implications for the Classroom:

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What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Why? An insect that resembles a twig could easily survive by hiding on a bush or tree. Why? F. Birds are predators of insects. G. Only plants can make their own food. J. This is a distractor considering the long legs, which could be interpreted as an adaptation for speed. Students should be exposed to many adaptations of plants and animals to their environment. Natural selection simulations, which use camouflage to hide the "organisms" from predators (your students), make this point clearly in a valuable hands-on lab experience. Any example of adaptations to environments due to natural selection could be explored. Adaptations that ensure survival for reproduction are the key. Evolution is change over time. Students must understand natural selection as a mechanism for evolution, not as a term synonymous with evolution.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 03 ­ B.7 (B) (7) Science concepts. The student knows the theory of biological evolution. The student is expected to: (B) illustrate the results of natural selection in speciation, diversity, phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and extinction Question 15­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

Which of these conclusions can be made based on the graphs shown above? A Larger mosquitoes have migrated into the area. Since the population shows a decline in middle sized mosquitoes and an increase in both large and small ones, this statement is not supported. B Smaller mosquitoes are being eaten by larger Evidence shows the population of smaller individuals mosquitoes. increasing over the last 10 years. C A mosquito length of 2 cm has become a This statement is supported by the graph which shows a disadvantage in this environment. * decline in the 2cm mosquito population over the last 10 years. D Mosquitoes with a body length of 3 cm have the We have no data on life span to support this. longest life span. Essential Knowledge: In the case of theses graphs, it appears that diversifying selection has occurred. Both shorter and longer versions of the mosquito survived to reproduce in this environment, producing offspring that had similar characteristics. Since the medium bodies were selected against, they didn't live to reproduce offspring for the next generation. This adaptation could later lead to speciation if reproductive isolation of the short and long bodied mosquitoes occurs. Implications for the classroom: Hands-on or computer simulations can be run that show the effects of natural selection over time. Teachers can have the students select against a particular "organism" to see how an allele's frequency in a population can change due to removal of certain genes from the gene pool.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX S11-98

What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Evolution is change over time. Students must understand natural selection as a mechanism for evolution, not as a term synonymous with evolution. Students should be able to examine evidence of evolution, such as DNA sequences and homologous structures, to determine the relationship between organisms. Embryology will not be included as evidence of evolution.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 44 Test Question: Which of the following explains this phenomenon?

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the interdependence of organisms and the environment. B.7 Science Concept. The student knows the theory of biological evolution. The student is expected to (B) illustrate the results of natural selection in speciation, diversity, phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and extinction.

Picture:

Question: 44 Right Answer: J Speciation

Essential Knowledge: Why? Speciation happens when two populations of a species become isolated form each other over a long period of time and through natural selection change to fit each of the niches they find themselves in. They become two separate species and can no longer interbreed. Why? F Competition would be when two or more species compete for the same resources. G Extinction would be when a species dies off and no representatives from the species exist. H Predation is when one species preys on another. Students should be exposed to many adaptations of plants and animals to their environment. They need to be familiar with how the different aspects of a species' environment can play a role in the success of the species. They should also be familiar with the effects of humans introducing a new species into an environment to control another species. Students may see questions related to many examples of natural selection. They may see questions about how the natural selection processes can effect populations. Evolution is change over time. Students must understand natural selection as a mechanism for evolution, not as a term synonymous with evolution.

Wrong Answers: F Competition G Extinction H Predation

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 54 Test Question: The myxoma virus was used to control an overpopulation of European rabbits in Australia. When first introduced in the mid-1900s, the virus greatly reduced the European rabbit population. Today the virus is not an effective control of the European rabbit population. Fewer European rabbits are affected by the virus today because they have -- Question: 54

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the interdependence of organisms and the environment. B.7 Science Concept. The student knows the theory of biological evolution. The student is expected to (B) illustrate the results of natural selection in speciation, diversity, phylogeny, adaptation, behavior, and extinction.

Right Answer: J developed resistance to the virus

Wrong Answers: F learned to avoid the virus G moved away from infected areas H undergone a change in diet Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Natural Selection is the process by which those organisms in the population that are best adapted to the environment survive to reproduce and pass their genes on to the next generation Why? Over the years the rabbits that were the most resistant to the myxoma virus survived and reproduced. This created a population of rabbits that were resistant to the virus. Why? Learning how to avoid the virus, moving away from the infected areas, or changing their diet would not be things that would change the effectiveness of the myxoma virus on the rabbit population. Students should be exposed to many adaptations of plants and animals to their environment. They need to be familiar with how the different aspects of a species' environment can play a role in the success of the species. They should also be familiar with the effects of humans introducing a new species into an environment to control another species. Students may see questions related to many examples of natural selection. They may see questions about how the natural selection processes can effect populations. Students must know the structures, life cycle, and impact of viruses on other organisms. Evolution is change over time. Students must understand natural selection as a mechanism for evolution, not as a term synonymous with evolution

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: The marine ecosystem represented above is able to thrive with a small autotroph biomass because --

TAKS Objective: 3 The student knows metabolic processes and energy transfers that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to B.9 (D) analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment.

Picture:

Question: 9 (TAKS info booklet)

Right Answer: A autotrophs reproduce rapidly Wrong Answers: B first-order consumers are small C second-order consumers are rare D third-order consumers eat very little

Implications for the Classroom:

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What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Autotrophs are the basis of any food pyramid. They must contain more than enough energy(that they make from the sun) to support the first order consumers. Note: Autotrophs are used instead of Producers, First-order instead of primary, Second-order instead of Secondary, and Third-order instead of tertiary. See questions 30,39, and 43 of the 10th grade TAKS exam. Why? This is the only way that there would be enough energy to feed all of the first order consumers. Why? B. A food pyramid is not based on size of organisms; it is based on available energy on each level. No mater what their size, the first order consumers would die if there was not enough energy to feed them. C. Less second order consumers would only increase the number of first order consumers, making the situation more critical. D. No matter what the third-order consumers eat, the first-order consumers must have enough energy to survive. After grasping the basic concept of the energy flow of the food pyramid, challenge critical thinking skills of your students by showing them one that appears to break the rules. Also, make sure students understand both vocabulary words that are used for energy exchange. (Ex. Autotroph vs. Producer) See note on Essential Knowledge Section. Energy flow can be diagramed in may ways. Watch out for similar questions using food webs of many designs, food chains and other types of diagrams. All show the producers contain the most energy as a group and available energy for consumption decreases as you go up the food chain. This item requires students to understand the nature of different food pyramids and to understand how an ecosystem can remain stable if lower trophic levels are smaller than higher levels. It is important that students understand and apply the concepts of energy transfer and biomass to many situations and not just the traditional biomass pyramid.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Energy used by producers in a grassland food web is provided by --

TAKS Objective: 3 The student knows metabolic processes and energy transfers that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to B.9 (D) analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment. Essential Knowledge: The original energy used by all producers in any ecosystem comes from the sun. This energy is converted into ATP in the light reactions and used to make sugar (glucose) that the plant uses for energy, structure and other life processes. Why? Sunlight primary energy for producers in any food web, chain or pyramid. Why? G. Photosynthesis won't run without the sun's energy. H. Oxygen provides no energy; it is a waste product of photosynthesis. J. Carbon dioxide is used to produce sugar, not energy. Students need many opportunities to observe the energy flow in ecosystems. By constructing models such as food webs, chains and pyramids from real ecosystems such as pond water for example, students begin to see the importance of the producers and photosynthesis. Instead of a general question about food webs, specific webs could be given for students to interpret. Students should know that solar energy drives ecosystems. Food chains combine to make more complex food webs, and these webs are limited by the amount of energy that can be transferred between levels. Students need to understand the concept of biomass and relate it to food chains, webs, or pyramids.

Question: 18

Right Answer: F* sunlight Wrong Answers: G photosynthesis H oxygen J carbon dioxide Implications for the Classroom:

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Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 03 ­ B.9 (D) (9) Science concepts. The student knows metabolic processes and energy transfers that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to: (D) analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment. Question 51­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

In this food web, the bacteria probably function as -- A producers

Since bacteria are receiving their energy from other organisms, they can't photosynthetic or chemosynthetic producers. B herbivores Since bacteria are getting energy from animal food sources they cannot be herbivores. C decomposers * This is the most logical explanation, since the bacteria are placed at the bottom of the web and are getting nutrition from both plant and animal sources. They must be feeding on dead plant and animal material, recycling nutrients in the environment. D carnivores Since the bacteria are eating plants as well as animals, they can't be carnivores. Essential Knowledge: Decomposers feed off of all members of a food web, returning nutrients to the environment. (see above) Implications for the classroom: When students make food webs, they need to include decomposers like fungus and bacteria. Many times examples are given in the text for both food pyramids, webs, and chains that neglect to include decomposers and their impact on energy production and nutrient recycling in an ecosystem. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should know that solar energy drives ecosystems. Food chains combine to make more complex food webs, and these webs are limited by the amount of energy that can be transferred between levels. Students need to understand the concept of biomass and relate it to food chains, webs, and pyramids. Students should know that the arrows in a food web or chain point in the direction of energy flow through the system.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 13 Test Question: The diagram shows several phases of the nitrogen cycle. Which of the following describes the most likely effect of removing some plants from the area by using chemical herbicides? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the interdependence of organisms and the environment. B.9 Science Concept. The student knows metabolic processes and energy transfers that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to (D) analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment.

Question: 13 Right Answer: B The flow of necessary nutrients would be disrupted. Wrong Answers: A The rate of erosion of rocks on the ground would be slowed. C The ability of plants to complete photosynthesis would be increased. D The infiltration of water into the ground would be halted. Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? If the plants were gone they would not be able to decompose and break down leaving nutrients for the nitrogen cycle. Why? A With the plants gone the rate of erosion may speed up. The plants and roots of plants act to hold the soil in place. C With the plants gone they would not be there to complete photosynthesis. D The infiltration of water into the ground would still take place. After grasping the basic concept of the energy flow of food pyramids and food webs, students should be asked to follow the flow of matter through different cycles. Also, make sure students understand the vocabulary words that are used for energy transfer and metabolic processes. Energy flow can be diagramed in may ways. Watch out for similar questions using food webs of many designs, food chains and other types of diagrams. Questions can also show the flow of matter through different cycles. The cycling of nutrients is essential to maintaining the ecosystem. An understanding of this concept helps students realize why Earth's resources may be limited. Students should be familiar with the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles. They should be able to analyze how changes, caused by either humans or natural occurrences, affect the availability of these resources.

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 15 Test Question: About 10% of the energy at one trophic level is passed to the next level. What usually happens to the energy that is not passed to the next trophic level or used to carry out life processes? Question: 15

Wrong Answers: B It is stored as vitamins. C It is used in reproduction. D It is used in protein synthesis.

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the interdependence of organisms and the environment. B.9 Science Concept. The student knows metabolic processes and energy transfers that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to (D) analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment. Essential Knowledge: Why? Metabolic and other life processes that allow organisms to survive release energy in the form of heat. Why? Energy is not stored as vitamins. Reproduction and protein synthesis are part of the life processes that use up energy. The question refers to the energy that is left over after all life processes energy needs have been met. Students need to have practice interpreting food webs, food chains, and food pyramids. They should have experience creating their own food webs. After grasping the basic concept of the energy flow of the food pyramid, challenge critical thinking skills of your students by showing them one that appears to break the rules. Also, make sure students understand both vocabulary words that are used for energy exchange. Instead of a general question about food webs, specific webs could be given for students to interpret. Students may be asked to apply the 10% rule through the tropic levels of a food web or food chain and give the amount of energy that will be found at a given tropic level. Students should know that solar energy drives ecosystems. Food chains combine to make more complex food webs, and these webs are limited by the amount of energy that can be transferred between levels. Students need to understand the concept of biomass and relate it to food chains, webs, and pyramids. Students should know that the arrows in a food web or chain point in the direction of energy flow through the system.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Which of these best represents a mutualistic relationship?

TAKS Objective: 3 The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem. The student is expected to B.12 (B) interpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism; Essential Knowledge: In the symbiotic relationship, mutualism, both organisms benefit from their association. Why? C. Humming birds are benefiting from food, the plant is being pollinated. Why? A. The Bull snake is a predator of the mouse. B. The grass does not benefit from being eaten. D. Toads are the predator of the crickets.

Question: 8 (TAKS info booklet) Right Answer: C Hummingbird/blossom Wrong Answers: A Bull snake/mouse B White-tailed deer/grass D Spadefoot toad/cricket Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need practice recognizing and labeling relationships as examples of mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, or predation. Students could be given the example and asked to come up with the relationship. They could encounter any kind of relationship and be asked to relate it to energy flow in an ecosystem. This item requires students to understand the terms used to describe ecological relationships, such as mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism, and to recognize examples of those relationships. Students should realize that new scientific information might change our understanding of the interactions in these examples.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Clown fish are small reef fish that seek protection from predators by sheltering themselves among the stinging tentacles of sea anemones. Clown fish are very territorial and can potentially scare off predators of sea anemones. This relationship is an example of -- Question: 35

TAKS Objective: 3 The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem. The student is expected to B.12 (B) interpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism Essential Knowledge: Symbiosis in ecosystems falls into several categories. In mutualism both organisms benefit from the association. In parasitism, one benefits, the other is harmed, in commensalism, one benefits, the other is neither harmed nor benefited. Why? Since the clown fish is benefited by shelter and the anemones receive protection, the relationship is mutualistic. Why? A. Distractor. Not a type of symbiosis. B. Neither is harmed in this example. C. Both benefit in this example. Not only do students need to be exposed to many examples in a teacher's presentation of symbiosis, but they also need to be given examples and asked to determine into which category these examples falls. Symbiosis is easily related to food chains, energy flow in ecosystems, and adaptations to environment. This item requires students to understand the terms used to describe ecological relationships, such as mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism, and to recognize examples of those relationships. Students should realize that new scientific information might change our understanding of the interactions in these examples.

Right Answer: B mutualism Wrong Answers: A neutralism C parasitism D commensalism Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 03 ­ B.12 (B) (12) Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem. The student is expected to: (B) interpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism; Question 17­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Which situation best represents a mutualistic relationship? A A tapeworm absorbing nutrients from the intestine of a dog B An orchid being pollinated by a nectar collecting wasp * This relationship is parasitic because a the host (the dog) is harmed while the parasite (the tapeworm) benefits. In a mutualistic relationship, both species must benefit. In this case the flower is pollinated and the wasp obtains food. In this relationship, the human does not benefit. The oak tree would not benefit from this relationship.

C A human losing blood to a feeding mosquito D An armadillo rooting in the soil at the base of an oak tree Essential Knowledge: Students must be able to distinguish between mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, and other ecosystem interactions when presented with unfamiliar situations.

Implications for the classroom: Memorizing definitions is not adequate in this situation. Students need to see a variety of examples and be asked to compare and contrast them. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Organisms do not live in isolation. They rely on their environment and other species for survival. To comprehend these relationships, students must integrate concepts from environmental science, evolution, and population genetics. This item requires students to understand the terms used to describe ecological relationships, such as mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism, and to recognize examples of those relationships. Students should realize that new scientific information might change our understanding of the interactions in these examples.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 34 Test Question: Which of these is the best example of a mutualistic relationship in an aquatic environment? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the interdependence of organisms and the environment. B.12 Science Concept. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem. The student is expected to (B) interpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism.

Question: 34 Right Answer: G Some fish have bacteria living in their digestive tract that help the fish digest food. Wrong Answers: F Some fish can survive repeated infections by harmful bacteria. H Some bacteria are present in aquatic food chains in which fish are secondary consumers. J Some bacteria are aquatic decomposers that recycle nutrients useful to fish. Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? This is an example of a mutualistic relationship because both organisms receive something positive from the relationship. The fish get help digesting their food and the bacteria get food and a place to live. Why? These are all examples of relationships between fish and bacteria. However, there is not a direct benefit for the fish and bacteria in any of these relationships.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need practice recognizing and labeling relationships as examples of mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, or predation. They need to be familiar with how the relationships benefit or harm the organisms associated with each of the types of relationships. Students could be given the example and asked to come up with the relationship. They could encounter any kind of relationship and be asked to relate it to energy flow in an ecosystem. Students should be aware that bacteria are not always harmful. The majority of bacteria have no direct effect on humans. Many times bacteria play a

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Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

beneficial role in organisms and the environment. This item requires students to understand the terms used to describe ecological relationships, such as mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism, and to recognize examples of those relationships. Students should realize that new scientific information might change our understanding of the interactions in these examples.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Which of these groups of organisms would most likely have accumulated the largest concentration of a long-lasting chemical pollutant in their bodies? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 3 The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem. The student is expected to B.12 (E) investigate and explain the interactions in an ecosystem including food chains, food webs, and food pyramids

Question: 37

Right Answer: D Gulls Wrong Answers: A Phytoplankton B Zooplankton C Lake trout

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Biological magnification is a process in which toxins present in trace amounts in the producers in the food chain become concentrated as they are passed from one trophic level to another. They will be most concentrated at the top of a food chain. Why? The gulls ate many trout and smelt that had eaten lots of zooplankton that had eaten tons of toxic phytoplankton. Why? A. The phytoplankton only had trace amounts of the toxin. B. The Zooplankton had more toxin that the phytoplankton, but not the most. C. Each lake trout had more toxins than the zooplankton, but not more than the gulls who ate many trout and smelt. This concept can be confusing to students because the levels that contain the least energy (the third-order consumers) have had the highest amounts of toxins concentrated in their bodies. Students need to participate in building food webs in the lab and tracing the toxins as they move through these ecosystems. A similar question could be asked using a food chain or a food pyramid. Students also could be asked to evaluate man's impact on an ecosystem if only the producers are originally exposed to a long-term poison. This would affect the entire chain, web, or pyramid. Students should know that solar energy drives ecosystems. Food chains combine to make more complex food webs, and these webs are limited by the amount of energy that can be transferred between levels. Students need to understand the concept of biomass and relate it to food chains, webs, or pyramids.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 03 ­ B.12 (E) (12) Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem. The student is expected to: (E) investigate and explain the interactions in an ecosystem including food chains, food webs, and food pyramids Question 13­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

In this food pyramid, which level contains the greatest amount of energy? A Tertiary consumers If tertiary consumers contained the greatest amount of energy, they could not be supported by the secondary consumers. B Secondary consumers If secondary consumers contained the greatest amount of energy, they could not be supported by the primary consumers. C Primary consumers If primary consumers contained the greatest amount of energy, there would not be enough producers to sustain them. D Producers * Since producers in any ecosystem must contain enough energy to support themselves, loose energy as heat to the environment, and support the primary consumers, they contain the most energy. They also contain the greatest biomass. Their energy is produced from the sun, water, and carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. Essential Knowledge: See the information above to evaluate the energy of the various levels. Implications for the classroom: Teachers need to emphasize the concept of biomass and the food pyramid. Find a visual pyramid that shows 1000s of grass blades, 100 grasshoppers, 10 birds and 1 snake. Discuss the food pyramid in your local ecosystem. Which organisms are the most abundant and why? Which are the least abundant? Go outside and look. Do you see more herbivores or carnivores? Why? What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should know that solar energy drives ecosystems. Food chains combine to make more complex food webs, and these webs are limited by the amount of energy that can be transferred between levels. Students need to understand the concept of biomass and relate it to food chains, webs, and pyramids. This item requires students to understand the nature of different food pyramids and to understand how an ecosystem can remain stable if lower trophic levels are smaller than higher levels. It is important that students understand and apply the concepts of energy transfer and biomass to many situations and not just the traditional biomass pyramid.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 3 Test Question: Which of these is a food web based on the relationships described below?

TAKS Objective: 3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the interdependence of organisms and the environment. B.12 Science concept. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an ecosystem. The student is expected to (E) investigate and explain the interactions in an ecosystem including food chains, food webs, and food pyramids.

Picture:

Question: 3

Right Answer:

Essential Knowledge: The collared peccary is omnivorous, eating mostly roots, seeds, fruit, cacti, and occasionally insects and mice. The natural enemies of the peccary are bobcats and coyotes. Why? This food web supports the relationships of the collared peccary described in the reading passage.

Wrong Answers:

Why? A This food web shows the peccaries eating the bobcats and not eating the insects or mice. C This food web shows plants eating peccaries. D This food web shows the mice eating the peccaries and the cacti eating the plants.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need to have many opportunities interpreting information from all types of food webs. They should have experiences creating their own webs and sharing them with other students. Make sure students see food webs in many different forms. Students may be asked to interpret information from a food web. They could be asked which of the organisms found in a given food web are producers, decomposers, and/or consumers. Students should know that solar energy drives ecosystems. Food chains combine to make more complex food webs, and these webs are limited by the amount of energy that can be transferred between levels. Students need to understand the concept of biomass and relate it to food chains, webs, and pyramids. Students should know that the arrows in a food web or chain point in the direction of energy flow through the system.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Compared to annual rings of trees that have experienced years of sufficient rainfall, the annual rings of trees that have experienced a dry period will ­ Question: 52

TAKS Objective: 3 The student knows the significance of plants in the environment. The student is expected to B.13 (A) evaluate the significance of structural and physiological adaptations of plants to their environments. Essential Knowledge: Secondary growth in plant stems (tree rings) are the layers of Xylem (tubes of plant tissue that transport water and dissolved minerals.) In a drought year, less water is transported and the tubes are smaller due to limits in cell growth in a dry year. Why? Lack of water leads to less Xylem and thinner rings. Why? F. Lack of water doesn't make trunks softer. G. Faster growth doesn't make sense since the tree is receiving less water, which is essential for growth. J. You can eliminate J because photosynthesis doesn't occur in tree trunks. Students need to understand may ways that plants can adapt to their environments. If they are exposed to basic plant structure and function in normal environments, they should be able to predict what would happen in extreme conditions. Watch for examples of adaptations to water environments, dry environments, low light, poor soil, etc. Students should know the significance of the structures and adaptations of plants, such as the variety of leaf structures, methods of dispersing offspring, and methods of obtaining nutrients. The study of plant structures and adaptations helps students better understand the connection between plants and the survival of other life, including human life.

Right Answer: H Be thinner Wrong Answers: F Be softer G Grow at a faster rate J Photosynthesize at a faster rate

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 03 ­ B.13 (A) (13) Science concepts. The student knows the significance of plants in the environment. The student is expected to: (A) evaluate the significance of structural and physiological adaptations of plants to their environments; Question 2­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Species of the genus Toxicodendron, which includes poison ivy and poison oak, produce a gummy oil that causes a severe itchy rash in some animals. This substance is part of the Toxicodendron species' -- A defense mechanisms * A toxic substance that produces a rash in animals could prevent herbivores from eating the plant. This would be a defense mechanism. B nutritional processes No, ivy gets its nutrition from photosynthesis. C support system A gummy oil would not help support the plant. That is the job of roots and stems. D clinging ability Although the oil is "gummy", we have no evidence that it helps the plant cling. Essential Knowledge: Plants are adapted to their environments in many ways. Since they have few defenses against herbivores, some plants produce thorns, nettles and poisonous or irritating compounds to keep plant eaters away. Implications for the classroom: If the only plant students have seen in class is the flower parts picture from their text book, they won't understand plant adaptations. Expose them to a variety of plant adaptations. After studying plant physiology, bring in a tree branch, an ivy, a cactus, a water plant, an epiphyte (like Spanish moss) and some grass. Put each one at a lab station and ask to the students to describe how each is adapted to its environment. Go deeper by asking specifically how roots, stems, leaves and reproductive systems have been modified in each. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should know the significance of the structures and adaptations of plants, such as the variety of leaf structures, methods of dispersing offspring, and methods of obtaining nutrients. The study of plant structures and adaptations helps students better understand the connection between plants and the survival of other life, including human life.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: A block of maple wood with a volume of 405 cubic centimeters and a density

3

of 0.67 g/cm is sawed in half. The density of the two smaller blocks is now -- Question: 25

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to I.7 (A) investigate and identify properties of fluids including density, viscosity, and buoyancy Essential Knowledge: Density does not change, regardless of the size. D = M/V Density is a constant based on the substance, not how much of it there is. Why? The density of any substance is constant, no matter how much of the substance is present. Why? These all have changes of density and is should be constant.

Right Answer: D the same as the original density Wrong Answers: A one-fourth the original density B one-half the original density C two times the original density Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need hands-on experiences measuring the density of different amounts of the same substance. Any question that about a physical property that doesn't change with amount is possible. Students often have misconceptions about these properties. Ex. Melting point, boiling point, and solubility in water do not change with amount. Students should be able to calculate density and apply it to different situations, such as buoyancy, density columns, and substance identification.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 04 ­ I.7 (A) (7) Science concepts. The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to: (A) investigate and identify properties of fluids including density, viscosity, and buoyancy Question 27­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

This pipette is filled with a 20% NaOH solution. The solution is at 20°C and has a density of 1.23 g/mL. According to this information, what is the mass of this NaOH solution? A 3.88 g This is an incorrect answer. B 15.7 g This incorrect answer is 19.4ml (V) / 1.23g/ml (D) C 23.9 g * Since D = M/V, then M=DV 1.23g/ml x 19.4ml = 23.9g D 24.6 g This incorrect answer is 1.23g/ml x 20 degrees C. Essential Knowledge: Density is equal to Mass/Volume. Students must be able to solve for one unknown when given the other two. This question also requires students to be able to read the bottom of the meniscus to find volume in a pipette. Implications for the classroom: Measure, Measure, Measure. Students need hands-on practice using scientific measuring techniques. Doing a worksheet on reading graduated cylinders the first week of school will not be as effective as actually learning to take the measurements and using those skills on a regular basis. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should be able to calculate density and apply it to different situations, such as buoyancy, density columns, and substance identification. This item requires students to understand the concept of density and perform the proper calculation. The student would find the density formula on the Formula Chart.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 23 Test Question: The table shows properties of four liquids that are insoluble in water. If the four liquids are poured into an Erlenmeyer flask containing water, which liquid will form a layer below the water? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter. I.7 Science concept. The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to (A) investigate and identify properties of fluids including density, viscosity, and buoyancy.

Question: 23 Right Answer: AQ Wrong Answers: BR CS DT Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: The density of water is 1 g/mL. Why? Q is the only liquid sample given that has a density greater than water. This will cause it to settle below the water. Why? All other liquid samples given have a density less than water. This will cause them to settle on top of the water. Density is a concept that is introduced to students in elementary school. Students in high school have a very good understanding of how to use the density formula. However, they seem to fall short on understanding density conceptually. Students need to have opportunities to use the physical property of density to study matter in laboratory activities. Students may be given different variables form the density formula and asked to find the missing part. They may be given conceptual questions related to density, viscosity, or buoyancy. Students will need to understand the relative efficiency of simple machines and motors.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: The correct formula for calcium chloride is --

Question: 10 (TAKS info booklet)

Right Answer: B CaCl2

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to I.7 (D) Relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table. Essential Knowledge: When forming an ionic compound, electrons lost by the metallic ion are gained by the nonmetallic ion. How many are gained or lost can be found by looking at position on the periodic table. (metallic=cation nonmetallic= anion) Why? Calcium forms a +2 ion by loosing 2 electrons and Chloride is a ­1ion formed when chlorine gains one electron. Since the electrons lost must equal the electrons gained, two chloride ions are required to gain the electrons lost by calcium. Why? A. Charge on this molecule is +1. C. Net charge is +3 D. Net charge is +1 Net charge must always equal 0. Teachers can use building sets (like Lego) or other manipulatives like paper models to kinesthetically demonstrate this concept. Also, teaching common multiples can help students make correct formulas. Students could be asked to form any positive or negative ion. They could be asked the formula of covalent compounds. When given the name of an element, an ion, or a compound, students should be able to use the periodic table to determine the chemical formula.

Wrong Answers: A CaCl C D Ca2Cl Ca2Cl3

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Which of the following groups contains members with similar chemical reactivity? Question: 3

Right Answer: B Be, Mg, Sr Wrong Answers: A Li, Be, C C Sc, Y, Zr D C, N, O Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to I.7 (D) relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table Essential Knowledge: A group is a vertical column on the periodic table that contains the same valance electrons and has similar properties. A period is a horizontal row that has electrons entering the same outer energy level. Why? Be, Mg and Sr are all group IIA elements and have similar properties. (They are alkaline earth metals) Why? A. These are in the same period. C. Two are in a group. The third is not. D. They are in the same period. Students must understand periodic law and be exposed to activities in which they observe these similar properties. They need to match the elements and their characteristics using a periodic table. Which element will form a +2 ion? How many valence electrons will an atom have? The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to (A) investigate and identify properties of fluids including density, viscosity, and buoyancy; and (D) relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: According to TAKS Objective: 4 the periodic table, which The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its element most readily accepts components. The student is expected to electrons? I.7 (D) relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table Question: 23 Essential Knowledge: Nonmetals located on the upper right of the periodic table. These substances accept electrons. Metals are located on the left. They loose electrons. The closer nonmetals are to the right (excluding noble gasses) the more readily they accept electrons. Right Answer: Why? A Fluorine Fluorine is 7A nonmetal, the most reactive. It readily accepts electrons Wrong Answers: Why? B Nitrogen A. Nitrogen is a nonmetal, but it isn't as active. C Arsenic B. Arsenic is a metaliod D Aluminum C. Aluminum is metal. Students must be able to use the periodic table as a tool. They don't need to Implications for the memorize that Ca is a +2 ion if they know how to read the table. Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says: Who will loose electrons? Who will form a +2 ion? Who will form a negative ion? Students should be able to use and apply information from the periodic table to understand the relative reactivity of the various elements. This will help students understand the types of possible bonds and the structure and composition of many chemicals. Items will use information on atomic structure, periodic properties, and simple ionic and covalent bonding. Students will be expected to determine the formula and name for basic compounds.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 04 ­ I.7 (D) (7) Science concepts. The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to: (D) relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table Question 10­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Elements in Group 16 of the periodic table usually -- A form large molecules Being in group 16 would not necessarily be a condition for forming large molecules. They don't have the ability to form long chains like carbon atoms. B gain electrons when bonding * Elements in group 16 (such as oxygen and sulfur) are two electrons short of having a full outer shell. Because of this, when they bond, they tend to gain electrons to fill these positions. C act like metals Most elements in group 16 are non metals or metalloids. D solidify at room temperature Since the first member of this group is oxygen, students should recognize that it is a gas at room temperature. Essential Knowledge: Students must be able to predict the properties and behavior of an element based on its position on the periodic table. Implications for the classroom: Students don't need to memorize the periodic table, they need to know how to use it. Elements are in their rows and columns for a reason. Students need to understand those reasons and that they are based on how many electrons are in the outer shells of elements. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should be able to use and apply information from the periodic table to understand the relative reactivity of the various elements. This will help students understand the types of possible bonds and the structure and composition of many chemicals. Items will use information on atomic structure, periodic properties, and simple ionic and covalent bonding. Students will be expected to determine the formula and name for basic compounds.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 04 ­ I.7 (D) (7) Science concepts. The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to: (D) relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table; and Question 23­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

According to this information, what is the chemical formula for aluminum sulfate? An aluminum ion with a +3 charge will not be neutral when bonded with a sulfate ion with a -2 charge. For every positive charge there needs to be a negative charge. You need two aluminum ions 2 x (+3) = +6 to bond with Al 2 (SO4 ) 3 * B three sulfate ions 3 x (-2) = -6. This would result in an uncharged compound. This combination gives you a charge of +9 (3 x Al+3) Al 3 (SO4 ) 2 C bonding with charge of -4 (2 x SO4-2) This combination gives you a charge of +18 (6 x Al+3) Al 6 SO4 D bonding with charge of -2 (SO4-2 ) Essential Knowledge: When ions come together to form ionic compounds, charges must be balanced. A

AlSO4

Implications for the classroom: Students must be familiar with the process of making compounds from simple and polyatomic ions. While memorization of the polyatomic ions is not necessary at the IPC level, students should be able to find the charges of many simple ions based off of their placement on the periodic table. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should be able to balance simple chemical equations. They may need to choose between different equations to find the one that is balanced, or they may have to select the correct set of coefficients. When given the name of an element, an ion, or a compound, students should be able to use the periodic table to determine the chemical formula.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 04 ­ I.7 (D) (7) Science concepts. The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to: (D) relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table; Question 38­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

The chemical formula for calcium chloride is -- A Ca2Cl Two positively charged calcium ions have a net charge of +4. They will not be able to make an neutral molecule with a chlorine ion that has a -1 charge. B CaCl One positively charged calcium ion has a net charge of +2. It will not be able to make an neutral molecule with a chlorine ion that has a -1 charge. C CaCl2 * One molecule of calcium (Ca2+) will bond ionically with two chloride ions to make the compound calcium chloride. D Ca2Cl3 Two positively charged calcium ions have a net charge of +4. They will not be able to make an neutral molecule with three chlorine ions that have a -3 net charge. Essential Knowledge: When ions come together to form ionic compounds, charges must be balanced. Implications for the classroom: Students must be familiar with the process of making compounds from simple and polyatomic ions. While memorization of the polyatomic ions is not necessary at the IPC level, students should be able to find the charges of many ions based off of their placement on the periodic table. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should be able to balance simple chemical equations. They may need to choose between different equations to find the one that is balanced, or they may have to select the correct set of coefficients. Students will be expected to determine the formula and name for basic compounds. Objective 4 Sample Items 16 The correct formula for calcium chloride is -- A CaCl B* CaCl 2 C Ca 2 Cl D Ca 2 Cl 3 IPC (7)(D) When given the name of an element, an ion, or a compound, students should be able to use the periodic table to determine the chemical formula.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 9 Test Question: The bonding characteristics of oxygen are most similar to the bonding characteristics of -- Question: 9

Right Answer: D sulfur

Wrong Answers: A hydrogen B silicon C helium

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter. I.7 Science concept. The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to (D) relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table. Essential Knowledge: The bonding characteristics of atoms are similar along a vertical column of the periodic table because they all contain the same valance electrons. Why? Sulfur is the element found directly under oxygen in the same vertical column of the periodic table. They are both found in column 16. . Both atoms contain 6 valance electrons. This means that its bonding characteristics are very similar to that of oxygen Why? A Hydrogen is found in column 1 of the periodic table and has only 1 valance electron while oxygen is found in column 16 and has 6 valance electrons. B Silicon is found in column 14 of the periodic table and has 4 valance electrons compared to oxygen with 6. C Helium is found in column 18 and has 2 valance electrons compared to oxygen with 6. Students need understand how and when to use the periodic table. Students should participate in activities using manipulatives to give them a better overall understanding of all the information that can the found on the periodic table. Students may see questions related to type of atom, electrons, or ions. Students should be able to use and apply information from the periodic table to understand the relative reactivity of the various elements. This will help students understand the types of possible bonds and the structure and composition of many chemicals. Items will use information on atomic structure, periodic properties, and simple ionic and covalent bonding. Students will be expected to determine the formula and name for basic compounds.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 38 Test Question: Which of these elements is most likely to donate one electron?

Question: 38 Right Answer: G Cs Wrong Answers: F Be H Rn J He

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter. I.7 Science concept. The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to (D) relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table. Essential Knowledge: Why? Cs is in the first column of the periodic table. All elements in this column react by donating one electron. Why? Be is in the second column of the periodic table. All elements in this column react by donating two electrons. Rn & He are found in the last column of the periodic table. These elements are stable with eight electrons in their outer shell. Students need understand how and when to use the periodic table. Students should participate in activities using manipulatives to give them a better overall understanding of all the information that can the found on the periodic table. Students may see all types of questions where they will need to use the periodic table as a source of information. Students should be able to use and apply information from the periodic table to understand the relative reactivity of the various elements. This will help students understand the types of possible bonds and the structure and composition of many chemicals. Items will use information on atomic structure, periodic properties, and simple ionic and covalent bonding. Students will be expected to determine the formula and name for basic compounds.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 42 Test Question: Alpha particles are one type of radioactivity. These particles have a nucleus of two protons and two neutrons but have no orbital electrons. Based on this information, it can be inferred that alpha particles are positive ions of the element -- Question: 42 Right Answer: J helium Wrong Answers: F actinium G curium H radium

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter. I.7 Science concept. The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to (D) relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table.

Essential Knowledge: Helium has 2 protons. Why? The key piece of information in this question is that the element has 2 protons. An element with 2 protons is helium. Why? F Actinium has 89 protons. G Curium has 96 protons. H Radium has 88 protons. Students must understand the components of the atom and the role that the subatomic particles play in the way the atoms react. They must have a firm grasp of when and how to use the periodic table. Students may see questions about any aspect of an element and how that is related to its placement on the periodic table. Students should be able to use and apply information from the periodic table to understand the relative reactivity of the various elements. This will help students understand the types of possible bonds and the structure and composition of many chemicals. Items will use information on atomic structure, periodic properties, and simple ionic and covalent bonding. Students will be expected to determine the formula and name for basic compounds.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 53 Test Question: A certain atom has a nucleus containing six protons and eight neutrons and has six electrons orbiting the nucleus. This atom is a form of the element -- Question: 53 Right Answer: B carbon Wrong Answers: A silicon C magnesium D calcium

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter. I.7 Science concept. The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to (D) relate the chemical behavior of an element including bonding, to its placement on the periodic table. Essential Knowledge: Why? Only carbon atoms have 6 protons in the nucleus. Why? A Silicon always has 14 protons in its nucleus. C Magnesium always has 12 protons in its nucleus. D Calcium always has 20 protons in its nucleus. It is vital for students to understand that an element has a unique number of protons that can be used to identify the element. Students need to have a very through understanding of how properties of elements are related to their placement in the periodic table. Students may see questions about which element is most closely related to another element. They can see questions that require them to use the periodic table to predict the behaviors of elements. Students should be able to use and apply information from the periodic table to understand the relative reactivity of the various elements. This will help students understand the types of possible bonds and the structure and composition of many chemicals. Items will use information on atomic structure, periodic properties, and simple ionic and covalent bonding. Students will be expected to determine the formula and name for basic compounds.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-130

2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: The diagram shows physical changes that occur in the water cycle. Which of these show condensation? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to I.8 (A) distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter such as oxidation, digestion, changes in states, and stages in the rock cycle

Question: 21

Right Answer: DT Wrong Answers: AQ BR CS Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: In the water cycle, condensation occurs when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses to form clouds. Why? Clouds are made of condensing water vapor in the atmosphere. Why? A. Q is precipitation B. R is runoff C. S is evaporation Students need to understand the various states of water and how these physical changes are seen in the water cycle. Other changes in state could be explored by using examples from nature. Some items will integrate earth science concepts as these ideas relate to the chemical and physical concepts of IPC. For example, the weathering of limestone by rain (carbon dioxide and water react to yield carbonic acid) forms caverns. This example also illustrates that acid rain can be natural.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-131

Student Expectation: 04 ­ I.8 (A) (8) Science concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to: (A) distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter such as oxidation, digestion, changes in states, and stages in the rock cycle Question 7­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Which process in the rock cycle is most likely responsible for moon rocks being converted to lunar soil? A Metamorphism Metamorphosis uses heat and pressure to change sand, pebbles and stones back into larger rocks. B Weathering * Weathering is the process of breaking rocks into soil. It can happen by both physical and chemical means. C Sedimentation Sedimentation is caused when rivers dump sediments into large deposits that can later form rocks. This is a rock building process. Also, there is no liquid water on the surface of the moon. D Volcanism Volcanoes tend to build igneous rocks, not break them down. Essential Knowledge: In the rock cycle (also an 8th grade Earth Science TAK) weathering breaks rock into soil by either physical or chemical processes. Implications for the classroom: Earth science concepts must not be forgotten at the high school level. Make it a point to use things like volcanoes, weather, and the rock cycle as examples of physical and chemical change and energy transfer. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Some items will integrate earth/space science concepts as these ideas relate to the chemical and physical concepts of IPC. For example, the weathering of limestone by groundwater (carbon dioxide and water react to yield carbonic acid) can form caverns.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-132

11th Grade, 2006, Question # 11 Test Question: Compounds with the same chemical composition may have different densities because they -- Question: 11 Right Answer: D exist in different phases

Wrong Answers: A have differences in reactivity B are able to bond with oxygen C vary in solubility

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter. I.8 Science concept. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to (A) distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter such as oxidation, digestion, changes in states, and stages in the rock cycle. Essential Knowledge: Compounds with the same chemical composition are the same compound. Why? Ice floats in water because ice is less dense than water. The density of matter can change when there is a change in state of the matter. The density difference can be attributed to a change is the structure of the compound when it changes state. Why? A Compounds of the same chemical composition will have the same reactivity. B The ability to bond with oxygen will not change the density of the compound. C Compounds of the same chemical composition will have the same solubility.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

Students need to do many hands on activities exploring the concept of density. They should know how to use the density formula, but they should also have a conceptual understanding of density and other properties of matter. Students may see density problems where they must use data to compare the density of a number of substances. They may also be asked a question related to the fact that the density of a substance stays constant even when the amount of a substance changes.

Students should be able to calculate density and apply it to different situations, such as buoyancy, density columns, and substance identification.

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-133

2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: When a 1-kilogram log was burned, 0.05 kilogram of ash was produced. The mass of the ash is less than the mass of the log because --

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to I.8 (C) The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to (C) investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass. Essential Knowledge: In a chemical reaction, mass is conserved. In an open system gas is released to the environment, so the system appears to loose mass. Why? Since CO2 is released in a combustion reaction, it was not weighed in the remaining products. Why? A. Not a reasonable explanation. C. Matter is not converted to energy in a chemical reaction. D. Burning is combustion, not decay.

Question: 11 (TAKS info booklet)

Right Answer: B some matter was converted to gases that were released Wrong Answers: A wind carried away some matter before it burned C combustion changed some matter into energy D some matter was decomposed by organisms in the soil Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Let students see the reactions of both open and closed systems. (ex. Vinegar and baking soda, one enclosed in a two litter bottle, one not.) In an enclosed reaction, the mass of the reactants and products will remain the same. Any mass before, mass after, reaction could be given. Given the reactants and one product, find the mass of the other. This item tests students' understanding of the concept of a combustion reaction. Students may have the misconception that during combustion matter is only converted to energy. It is important for students to understand that during combustion some matter is converted into gases, such as carbon dioxide and water vapor.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-134

2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: What is the coefficient for H2O when the above equation is balanced?

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to I.8 (C) investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass

Question: 19

Right Answer: B 2 Wrong Answers: A1 C3 D4 Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: The law of conservation of mass says that in a balanced equation, you should have the same number of reactant atoms as product atoms. The equation must be balanced with coefficients. (Think of water as H0H) Why? This would balance the equation. Why? These choices would leave the atoms unequal on the sides. Students must have ample opportunity to balance equations. Students could be asked to fill in blank with the correct coefficients. The coefficients could be related to mass. Students should be able to balance simple chemical equations. They may need to choose between different equations to find the one that is balanced, or they may have to select the correct set of coefficients.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-135

2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: According to the law of conservation of mass, how much zinc was present in the zinc carbonate? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to I.8 (C) investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass

Question: 39

Right Answer: C 104 g Wrong Answers: A 40 g B 88 g D 256 g Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: The Law of Conservation of Mass states that the mass of reactants must equal the mass of the products. Why? 64 + 192 =152 + 104 Why? A 64 + 192 is not = to 152 + 40(192-152 = 40) B 64 + 192 is not = to 152 + 88 D They added 64 and 192 Lab activities that show conservation of mass help students grasp this concept. Have students weigh reactants and products for complete reactions in a closed system to prove the law. Any mass relationship based on the other masses in an equation. Any type of balancing equation question would fall in this category. Students should be able to use and apply information from the periodic table to understand the relative reactivity of the various elements. This will help students understand the types of possible bonds and the structure and composition of many chemicals. Items will use information on atomic structure, periodic properties, and simple ionic and covalent bonding. Students will be expected to determine the formula and name for basic compounds.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-136

Student Expectation: 04 ­ I.8 (C) (8) Science concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to: (C) investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass; Question 29­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

The chemical equation shows CaCO3 being heated. Which of these statements best describes the mass of the products if 100 g of CaCO3 is heated? A The difference in the products' masses is equal to the mass of the CaCO3 . B The sum of the products' masses is less than the mass of the CaCO3 . C The mass of each product is equal to the mass of the CaCO3 . D The sum of the products' masses equals the mass of the CaCO3. * No. See answer D. No. See answer D. No. See answer D.

The law of conservation of mass states that the mass of the products will equal that of the reactants. Mass cannot be gained or lost in a reaction. Essential Knowledge: Students must be familiar with the law of conservation of mass. (see above) Implications for the classroom: Students have to do more than just know how to balance equations. They need to understand why we balance them. Have students run reactions in closed systems and open systems, comparing mass of reactants and products. Show them how the law works, don't just tell them. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Knowledge of the structures and properties of matter and the ways in which matter interacts to create new substances allows students to understand the molecular structures of living organisms and nonliving objects. Students should be able to balance simple chemical equations. They may need to choose between different equations to find the one that is balanced, or they may have to select the correct set of coefficients.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-137

Student Expectation: 04 ­ I.8 (C) (8) Science concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to: (C) investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass; Question 32­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Which chemical equation supports the law of conservation of mass? A 2H2O(l) H2(g) + O2(g) This equation is not balanced and does not support the law of conservation of mass. B Zn(s) + HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) This equation is not balanced and does not support the law of conservation of mass. C Al4C3(s) + H2O(l) CH4(g) + Al(OH)3(s) This equation is not balanced and does not support the law of conservation of mass. D CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) * This is a balanced equation that does support the law of conservation of mass that states that the products must equal the reactants in a chemical equation. Essential Knowledge: When balancing equations, the number of atoms of reactants must match the number of atoms of product. I.e. There must be the same # of atoms of each element on each side of the yield arrow. Implications for the classroom: Students have to do more than just know how to balance equations. They need to understand why we balance them. Have students run reactions in closed systems and open systems, comparing mass of reactants and products. Show them how the law works, don't just tell them. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should be able to balance simple chemical equations. They may need to choose between different equations to find the one that is balanced, or they may have to select the correct set of coefficients.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-138

Student Expectation: 04 ­ I.8 (C) (8) Science concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to: (C) investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass; Question 40­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

When 127 g of copper reacts with 32 g of oxygen gas to form copper (II) oxide, no copper or oxygen is left over. How much copper (II) oxide is produced? A 32 g Students choosing (A) have the misconception that the mass of only one reactant will be evident in the product. B 95 g In this choice, the student mistakenly subtracted the masses of the reactants to get the mass of the products. C 127 g Students choosing (c) have the misconception that the mass of only one reactant will be evident in the product. D 159 g * The law of conservation of mass states that the mass of products will equal the mass of reactants. In this case the reactants are 127g of copper + 32g of oxygen. 159g of product should be produced. Essential Knowledge: The law of conservation of mass states that the mass of the products must equal the mass of reactants. Implications for the classroom: Students need to work problems that involve the law. They also need to be exposed to reactions that prove the law is true. Have students run reactions in closed systems and open systems, comparing mass of reactants and products. Show them how the law works, don't just tell them. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should be able to balance simple chemical equations. They may need to choose between different equations to find the one that is balanced, or they may have to select the correct set of coefficients.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-139

11th Grade, 2006, Question # 16 Test Question: Which additional product balances this reaction? Picture: Question: 16 Right Answer: J 2H2O(g) Wrong Answers: F 4OH(aq) G CH4(g) H H2O2(g)

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter. I.8 Science concept. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to (C) investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass.

Essential Knowledge: Why? 2H2O(g) would add the needed 4H and 2O to the right side of the equation to make the equation balanced. Why? F 4OH(aq) would add 4H and 4O. The equation only needs 2O added. G CH4(g) would add 4H and 1C. This will give and extra C to the right side and will still be missing 2O. H H2O2(g) would add 2H and 2O. The equation will still need 2H on the right side. It is important for students to understand conservation of mass including balancing equations and predicting products. Students should be given many opportunities to balance equations on paper and with manipulatives. Students could be asked to fill in blank with the correct coefficients. The coefficients could be related to mass. Students should be able to balance simple chemical equations. They may need to choose between different equations to find the one that is balanced, or they may have to select the correct set of coefficients.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-140

2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: If the properties of water were to change so that the solid form was denser than the liquid form, organisms living in a cold pond environment would be less likely to survive because water would no longer -- Question: 40

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to I.9 (A) relate the structure of water to its function [as the universal solvent] Essential Knowledge: Students must understand the physical properties of water and the implication of density in whether a substance will sink or float. Why? Frozen water is less dense than its liquid form so it will float. Why? These wouldn't matter because the ice would sink and freeze the pond solid. Students need to layer things according to density in a laboratory setting. Different densities will automatically layer. In earth science, tectonic plates float because they are less dense. All organisms are composed mainly of water, and most of Earth is covered with water. It is important for students to understand the structure of water and how that structure dictates its characteristics. Students should be able to calculate density and apply it to different situations, such as buoyancy, density columns, and substance identification.

Right Answer: J produce a floating insulating layer of ice Wrong Answers: F dissolve enough oxygen from the air G produce solutions containing vital nutrients H remain neutral, instead becoming highly acidic Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-141

Student Expectation: 04 ­ I.9 (A) (9) Science concepts. The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to: (A) relate the structure of water to its function as the universal solvent Question 26­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Fish survive through severe winters because of the property of water that allows water to -- A form chemical bonds as it freezes, raising the water temperature below the ice No chemical change occurs. No chemical bonds form. This is a physical change only. The bonds that form in ice crystals are hydrogen bonds. B increase in density while it freezes, dissolving more Ice is less dense than water due to the formation of oxygen from the air hydrogen bonds between the water molecules in the crystal. It decreases in density when it freezes. C expand when it freezes, creating a floating and True. The water on the surface is the first to freeze. When insulating layer of ice * it does, this floating, insulating layer of ice keeps the water below it protected from the cold above. D precipitate vital nutrients when it freezes, increasing Freezing water does not allow it to precipitate any the food supply nutrients. Essential Knowledge: Water has unique characteristics due to the fact that it forms hydrogen bonds with itself and other substances. Because of this property, water molecules can get very close together in the liquid from. When temperatures drop and water crystallizes, it locks water into a pattern based on those hydrogen bonds that makes it much less dense in its frozen state. This allows aquatic life to be insulted from the freezing air temperatures above the surface. Implications for the classroom: Students are familiar with the fact that ice floats. Use this as a frame of reference to help them understand how this property of water affects marine and freshwater ecosystems. If ice didn't float, it would sink, allowing oceans and lakes to freeze solid in the winter. Even though this is a chemistry based TAK, the biological implications are clear. Make connections from one branch of science to another at every opportunity. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Knowledge of the structures and properties of matter and the ways in which matter interacts to create new substances allows students to understand the molecular structures of living organisms and nonliving objects. An understanding of basic chemistry concepts helps students understand their world and enhances their lives. All organisms are composed mainly of water, and most of Earth is covered with water. It is important for students to understand the structure of water and how that structure dictates its characteristics.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-142

11th Grade, 2006, Question # 25 Test Question: Which characteristic of water best explains its ability to dissolve a great variety of materials? Question: 25

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter. I.9 Science concept. The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to (A) relate the structure of water to its function (as the universal solvent). Essential Knowledge: Water's properties are due to the fact that water is a polar molecule. +

Right Answer: D Its molecular arrangement Wrong Answers: A Its transparency in light B Its electrical conductivity C Its physical state of matter

Oxygen is electronegative, so it pulls the electrons toward itself creating a partial negative charge on the oxygen end and a partial positive charge on the hydrogen end. Why? The molecular arrangement of water has a major role in the polarity of water. This best explains its ability to dissolve a great variety of materials. Why? Transparency and electrical conductivity do not play a role in the solubility of water. The physical state of water does not explain the ability of water to dissolve a great variety of materials. Students need to be exposed to 3-D models of water. If they can kinesthetically model hydrogen bonding in different situations, they will get a better understanding of water's unique abilities. Also, laboratory experiences with water as a solvent help ensure understanding. Other properties of water could be explored like capillary action, boiling and freezing point, and their relationship to hydrogen bonding All organisms are composed mainly of water, and most of earth is covered with water. If is important for students to understand the structure of water and how that structure dictates its characteristics.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-143

2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: What is the reason that tap water will conduct electricity but pure water will not?

Question: 12 (TAKS info booklet)

Right Answer: B* Tap water has dissolved ions. Wrong Answers: A Pure water has nonpolar bonds. C Pure water has a neutral pH. D Tap water has a lower density. Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to I.9 (B) (B) relate the concentration of ions in a solution to physical and chemical properties such as pH, electrolytic behavior, and reactivity; and Essential Knowledge: Water is a covalently bonded molecule and in its pure form, it will not conduct electricity. Since it is such a universal solvent, it easily dissolves substances put in by man and dissolved minerals from nature. Why? Tap water is not pure water. It contains many ions from natural and man-made sources. Why? D. Water has polar bonds. E. PH refers to the acidity of the water. D. Tap water is denser and density has nothing to do with conductivity. Students need lab experience using conductivity meters in various solutions. Conductivity of a solid is negligible until water is added. As the ions dissolve into solution the conductivity will rise. Which of these would be the best conductor of electricity? The ionic compound that has forms the strongest electrolytic solution will be the one that produces the most ions. Ie. AlCl3 vs NaCl Students should have a basic understanding that tap water is not pure. Dissolved minerals (ionic compounds) make water hard and allow it to conduct electricity.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-144

2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: Two clear solutions are placed in separate beakers. The first solution has a pH of 4, and the pH of the second solution is unknown. If the two solutions are mixed and the resulting pH is 5, the second solution must have -- Question: 33

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to I.9 (B) relate the concentration of ions in a solution to physical and chemical properties such as pH, electrolytic behavior, and reactivity Essential Knowledge: PH deals with the concentration of H+ ions. PHs less than 7 are basic, pHs above 7 are basic. PH of 7 has equal amounts of H+ and OH- ions. H+ and OH- combine to make water. A neutralization reaction occurs when an acid and base are mixed, yielding a salt and water. Why? For pH to increase a basic solution usually containing OH- is added. Why? None of these would change the H+ ion concentration.

Right Answer: D a higher concentration of OH­ ions Wrong Answers: A fewer suspended solids B a lower temperature C more dissolved salt (NaCl) particles Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Activities where students monitor and change the pH of solutions by adding acids and bases are a must. They need to be exposed to biological buffers. Any neutralization reaction could be presented. What would happen when an acid is added to a base? Predict the pH if... Ions have an impact on all areas of the natural world, including organisms. Students need to understand how ion concentrations can affect pH and electrolytic activity. This concept is important in studying the effects of ions on physical phenomena as well as physiological processes.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-145

Student Expectation: 04 ­ I.9 (B) (9) Science concepts. The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to: (B) relate the concentration of ions in a solution to physical and chemical properties such as pH, electrolytic behavior, and reactivity; Question 24­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Bathwater normally has electrolytic behaviors even though distilled water does not. This is because bathwater -- A contains isotopes of hydrogen Isotopes are versions of atoms that have different atomic weights due to varying numbers of neutrons. Some are radioactive. B has been heated Heat would not change the electrolytic behavior of water. C is separated into H+ and OH­ ions This is a good distracter. Although water does separate into H+ and OH- ions, it only happens in every 1 X 10-7 (.0000001) molecules (i.e. pH of 7) in bath water just like distilled water. This could not be the cause of the difference. D contains dissolved minerals * When minerals dissolve, they form ions in solution. Ions are what conduct electric current in solution. This allows bath water to conduct electric current. Essential Knowledge: Normal tap water contains dissolved ions such as Cl- , Na+, K+, and F- . These positively and negatively charged ions conduct electricity. Since distilled water doesn't contain these charged particles, it will not. (see above) Implications for the classroom: Use conductivity meters to show this process to students. A simple lab that shows an increase in conductivity as solute levels increase helps students understand this property of water. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: All organisms are composed mainly of water, and most of Earth is covered with water. It is important for students to understand the structure of water and how that structure dictates its characteristics. Ions have an impact on all areas of the natural world, including organisms. Students need to understand how ion concentrations can affect pH and electrolytic activity. This concept is important in studying the effects of ions on physical phenomena as well as on physiological processes.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-146

2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: A 0.2 g crystal of gypsum dissolves very slowly in 100 mL of water while the water is stirred. Which of these would cause the gypsum to dissolve faster?

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to I.9 (D) demonstrate how various factors influence solubility including temperature, pressure, and nature of the solute and solvent Essential Knowledge: Many things increase the solubility of solutes. Increasing temperature, stirring, increasing surface area (powdering), and nature of the substances (likes dissolve likes). Why? Crushing the crystal increases the surface area and therefore increases the rate of solution. Why? F. This decreased the kinetic energy slows the process. G. Stopping stirring decreased contact, therefore dissolving slows. H. With a solid, air pressure is not a concern. Students should have laboratory experience comparing rates of dissolving for many different variables. Students could be asked to deal with solubility of gasses. They could be asked to interpret solubility curves based on temperature. demonstrate how various factors influence solubility including temperature, pressure, and nature of the solute and solvent.

Question: 10

Right Answer: J* Crushing the crystal Wrong Answers: F Decreasing the water temperature G Stopping the stirring H Lowering the air pressure

Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-147

2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: All of these can affect the rate at which a solid dissolves in water except --

Question: 17

Right Answer: A decreasing air pressure Wrong Answers: B stirring the water C increasing the temperature of the water D using larger crystals of the solid

Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to I.9 (D) demonstrate how various factors influence solubility including temperature, pressure, and nature of the solute and solvent Essential Knowledge: Students must know the factors that effect solubility based on the I.9 above. Watch for the EXCEPT... Why? Air pressure in an open system does not affect the rate at which a solid dissolves. Why? B. Stirring would increase the rate by increasing the surface area. C. Increase in temperature would increase the rate by increasing movement of molecules. D. Using larger crystals would decrease the rate the solid dissolves. Students need experience with hands-on labs that demonstrate solubility under various conditions. Students could be given an actual ionic compound and be asked similar questions about it. Students should be able to read solubility curves and be familiar with how temperature and pressure affect solubility. Students should be able to identify factors that affect solution rate.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

S11-148

2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: All of these can affect the rate at which a solid dissolves in water except --

Question: 17

Right Answer: A decreasing air pressure Wrong Answers: B stirring the water C increasing the temperature of the water D using larger crystals of the solid Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to I.9 (D) demonstrate how various factors influence solubility including temperature, pressure, and nature of the solute and solvent Essential Knowledge: Students must know the factors that effect solubility based on the I.9 above. Watch for the EXCEPT... Why? Air pressure in an open system does not affect the rate at which a solid dissolves. Why? B Stirring would increase the rate by increasing the surface area. C Increase in temperature would increase the rate by increasing movement of molecules. D Using larger crystals would decrease the rate the solid dissolves. Students need experience with hands-on labs that demonstrate solubility under various conditions. Students could be given an actual ionic compound and be asked similar questions about it. Students should be able to read solubility curves and be familiar with how temperature and pressure affect solubility. Students should be able to identify factors that affect solution rate.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 04 ­ I.9 (D) (9) Science concepts. The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to: (D) demonstrate how various factors influence solubility including temperature, pressure, and nature of the solute and solvent; Question 39­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Over time an open soft drink will lose carbonation (dissolved CO2). Which of these allows the CO2 to remain in solution the longest? A Reduced air pressure Reduced air pressure would decrease solubility of the carbon dioxide, causing it to come out of solution more quickly. B Exposure to direct sunlight Exposure to direct sunlight would heat the can, causing the carbon dioxide to become less soluble. C Increased air currents This would not affect the level of carbon dioxide. D Cooler temperatures * Cooler temperatures (like those in your refrigerator) increase solubility of gasses into solution. This condition would allow carbon dioxide to remain in solution in the drink for the longest amount of time. Essential Knowledge: High temperature and low pressure decrease the solubility of gasses. Low temperature and high pressure increase them. Implications for the classroom: Students need to have laboratory experiences that show them the basic principles of solubility in action. Teachers can then apply what was learned in the lab to real life situations such as SCUBA diving, dissolved oxygen in lakes and rivers, and carbonated beverages. If students understand to basic concepts, they should be able to apply what they know to new situations. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should be able to read solubility curves and be familiar with how temperature and pressure affect the solubility of both solids and gases. This item requires students to have a basic understanding of the solubility properties of gases.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 21 Test Question: Power plants that discharge warm water into rivers have a negative effect on aquatic life. This is because the higher water temperature --

Question: 21 Right Answer: D decreases the dissolved oxygen in the river water

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter. I.9 Science concept. The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to (D) demonstrate how various factors influence solubility including temperature, pressure, and nature of the solute and solvent. Essential Knowledge: Why? Adding warm water into a river will decrease the dissolved oxygen in the river because the solubility of dissolved oxygen goes down as the temperature goes up. Why? Adding warm water into a river will not increase the pressure of the river water, increase the pH of the river water, or decrease the sediment solubility in the river water. Students need to have lab experiences with factors that influence solubility. They need to be introduced to and have a general understanding of the solubility rules and be familiar with precipitants. Students could be asked to deal with solubility of gasses. They could be asked to interpret solubility curves based on temperature. Students should be familiar with factors that affect the rate of solution.

Wrong Answers: A increases the pressure of the river water B increases the pH value of the river water C decreases sediment solubility in the river water Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 36 Test Question: Nine groups of students dissolved as much potassium chloride as possible in water. Each group used 100 mL of water heated to a different temperature. Which graph shows the relationship between solubility and temperature for potassium chloride? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 4 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and properties of matter. I.9 Science concept. The student knows how solution chemistry is a part of everyday life. The student is expected to (D) demonstrate how various factors influence solubility including temperature, pressure, and nature of the solute and solvent.

Question: 36 Right Answer:

Essential Knowledge: Why? This graph matches the data in the table. It is also the only graph that is a good representative of a graph representing the relationship between the solubility of a salt and the temperature of the water.

Wrong Answers:

Why? These graphs do not match the data in the data table. They are also not representative of a graph representing the relationship between the solubility of a salt and the temperature of the water.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need to have experiences in the classroom with the graphing of solubility. They should experiment with the solubility of several different salts. Students may see questions related to how the nature of the solute or the nature of the solvent play a role in solubility. They may also be given the solubility rules and asked specific questions about the solubility of specific compounds. Students may be required to interpret and evaluate graphs, charts, and maps.. Students should be able to read solubility curves and be familiar with how temperature and pressure affect the solubility of both solids and gases.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: TAKS info booklet # 14 During an investigation, students accelerated boxes using different forces and then determined the masses of the boxes. What is the mass in grams of a box that requires 0.1 Newton to make it accelerate 2 m/s2? Question: 14 (TAKS info booklet) Right Answer: A* 50 g Wrong Answers: B 20 g C 0.05 g D 0.02 g Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter:

TAKS Objective 5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (A) calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines. Essential Knowledge: Why? The proper application of the equation F = ma generates the correct response if the student realizes that 1 N = 1 kg-m/s2 and makes the proper unit conversions. Why? The wrong responses are generated if one does not make the proper unit conversions or applies the equation F = ma incorrectly. Students must be taught proper unit conversion and must experience practical application problems. Students might be given force and mass and asked to calculate the acceleration. They might be given sample problems in which unit conversions are necessary before the correct answer can be discovered. This item requires students to use Newton's second law of motion (F = ma) to calculate mass. · Students will be expected to perform calculations related to motion, force, and energy. Calculations may involve the use of more than one formula and/or the conversion of SI units. For example, the item may give the force, distance, and time of a moving object, and students will be asked to calculate the power of the object. All of the formulas needed for the assessment will be listed on the formula chart. Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton's laws of motion and energy transformations.

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

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Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 42 How much work is performed when a 50 kg crate is pushed 15 m with a force of 20 N?

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (A) calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines.

Picture:

Question: 42 Right Answer: F* 300 J Wrong Answers: G 750 J H 1,000 J J 15,000 J Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The student knows and correctly applies the equation W = Fd. Why? The student used the incorrect values in the equation W = Fd or made a computational error.

Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 45 If a force of 100 newtons was exerted on an object and no work was done, the object must have --

Question: 45 Right Answer: B* remained motionless Wrong Answers: A accelerated rapidly C decreased its velocity D gained momentum Implications for the Classroom:

TAKS Objective 5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (A) calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines. Essential Knowledge: Why? If no movement has occurred, then no work was done. Why? If any of these responses is selected, it is because the student does not know the requirement for work to have been done: motion must take place.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

When introducing the concept of work, students must understand that for work to occur, motion must take place regardless of the amount of force applied. If students encounter this question, or a derivative of it, more than once, they will have a greater chance of retaining the concept. Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton's laws of motion and energy transformations.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 05 ­ I.4 (A) (4) Science concepts. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to: (A) calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines; Question 54­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

The weight lifter used a force of 980 N to raise the barbell over her head in 5.21 seconds. Approximately how much work did she do in raising the barbell? A 380 J If you divide force by distance, you get a number somewhat close to this incorrect answer. B 982 J This incorrect answer adds force and distance. C 2,000 J * Work is equal to force x distance. (W=FD) 980N x 2.04m is approximately 2000J. D 10,000 J This answer mistakenly multiplies force x distance x time. Essential Knowledge: Work is calculated by multiplying force by distance. Implications for the classroom: Giving students extra information in a problem(like the time in this instance) is a good way to see if they can overcome the distracters and use a formula correctly in a real world situation. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students will be expected to perform calculations related to motion, force, and energy. Calculations may involve the use of more than one formula and/or the conversion of basic SI units. For example, the item may give the force, distance, and time of a moving object, and students will be asked to calculate the power of the object. All the formulas needed for the assessment will be listed on the formula chart. Items may require the use of more than one formula or step. Many times the items for student expectation IPC (4)(A) require students to calculate in order to determine a correct answer. This item demonstrates that students should also be familiar with the concepts that the formulas represent. If students have used the formulas while conducting investigations, they should know the answer without having to do any calculation. However, students also could determine the correct answer by doing the calculations.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 12 Test Question: An advertisement claims that a certain truck has the most powerful engine in its class. If the engine has more power, which of the following can the truck's engine do, compared to every other engine in its class? Question: 12 Right Answer: H Perform work faster

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate and understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 Science Concept. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (A) calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines.

Wrong Answers: F Produce fewer emissions G Operate more efficiently J Accelerate longer Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Power = work/time Why? Power is the amount of work done in an amount of time. To have more power means that more work in done in a given amount of time or that work is done faster. Why? The amount of emissions, the efficiency of its operation, and the length of time that the truck accelerates are not affected by the power of the truck. Students should be familiar with all of the equations found on the formula sheet. They should have a conceptual understanding of each of the equations so that they can apply them to many different situations. Students may be given questions where that have various variable and need to apply and equation to find the answer. They may be asked to work problems that take more than one step. Students should be able to use and apply information from the periodic table to understand the relative reactivity of the various elements. This will help students understand the types of possible bonds and the structure and composition of many chemicals. Items will use information on atomic structure, periodic properties, and simple ionic and covalent bonding. Students will be expected to determine the formula and name for basic compounds. Students should be able to calculate density and apply it to different situations, such as buoyancy, density columns, and substance identification.

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 18 Test Question: What is the net force exerted on a 90.0 kg race-car driver while the race car is accelerating from 0 to 44.7 m/s in 4.50 s? Question: 18

Right Answer: J 894 N

Wrong Answers: F 9.8 N G 20 N H 201 N

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate and understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 Science Concept. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (A) calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines. Essential Knowledge: Force = mass X acceleration Acceleration = final velocity- initial velocity time Why? A = 44.7m/s ­ 0 m/s = 9.93 m/s2 4.50 s F = 90.0 kg X 9.93 m/s2 F = 894 kg·m/ s2 F = 894 N Why? The student may have used an incorrect equation, only performed the first step, placed the numerical values into the correct equation incorrectly, altered the units unnecessarily, made a mathematical mistake in the calculation, or guessed.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students need regular experience using formulae from the Formula Chart to solve mathematical applications of physics concepts. Students should also be fully cognizant of units and equalities listed in the Constants/Conversions table. Teachers should periodically ask students to explain how they solved problems. Given two of the three variables in F = ma, students should be able to solve for the remaining variable with the correct units. Students will be expected to perform calculations related to motion, force, and energy. Calculations may involve the use of more than on formula and/or the conversion of basic SI units. For example, the item may give the force, distance, and time of a moving object and students will be asked to calculate the power of the object. All the formulas needed for the assessment will be listed on the formula chart. Items may require the use of more than one formula or step.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 32 Test Question: Starting from rest at the center of a skating rink, two skaters push off from each other over a time period of 1.2 s. What is the force of the push by the smaller skater? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate and understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 Science Concept. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (A) calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines.

Question: 32

Right Answer: J 100 N

Essential Knowledge: Force = mass x acceleration Acceleration = final velocity- initial velocity time Why? A = 3.0m/s ­ 0 m/s = 2.5 m/s2 1.2 s F = 40 kg X 2.5 m/s2 = 100 kgm/s2 F = 100 N

Wrong Answers: F 16 N G 32 N H 88 N Implications for the Classroom:

Why? The student may have used an incorrect equation, only performed the first step, placed the numerical values into the correct equation incorrectly, altered the units unnecessarily, made a mathematical mistake in the calculation, or guessed Students need regular experience using formulae from the Formula Chart to solve mathematical applications of physics concepts. Students should also be fully cognizant of units and equalities listed in the Constants/Conversions table. Teachers should periodically ask students to explain how they solved problems.

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Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Given two of the three variables in F = ma, students should be able to solve for the remaining variable with the correct units. Students will be expected to perform calculations related to motion, force, and energy. Calculations may involve the use of more than on formula and/or the conversion of basic SI units. For example, the item may give the force, distance, and time of a moving object and students will be asked to calculate the power of the object. All the formulas needed for the assessment will be listed on the formula chart. Items may require the use of more than one formula or step.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 11 The frog leaps from its resting position at the lake's bank onto a lily pad. If the frog has a mass of 0.5 kg and the acceleration

2

of the leap is 3 m/s , what is the force the frog exerts on the lake's bank when leaping? Picture:

TAKS Objective 5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (B) investigate and describe applications of Newton's laws such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, geological processes, and satellite orbits.

Question: 11 Right Answer: C* 1.5 N Wrong Answers: A 0.2 N B 0.8 N D 6.0 N Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The student was able to use the formula (F=ma) correctly, using the correct units. Why? The answer options were derived using the basic math operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division on the two quantities given in the stem without rationale. Absolute values of the given quantities were used instead of the actual values. Students need to understand unit conversions. They need to apply equations to real world situations. Students need to read carefully for both content and context. They need successful experiences with solving equations. Given two of the three variables in F = ma, students should be able to solve for the remaining variable with the correct units. Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton's laws of motion and energy transformations.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 05 ­ I.4 (B) (4) Science concepts. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to: (B) investigate and describe applications of Newton's laws such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, geological processes, and satellite orbits; Question 41­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Which of these is the best description of the action ­reaction force pair when the space shuttle lifts off from launch pad? A The ground pushes the rocket up while exhaust The ground is pushing on the rocket and the rocket is gases push down on the ground. pushing back (Balanced Force). Because the rocket has mass, it is also pushing down on the ground with the same force. The exhaust is third force. B Exhaust gases push down on air while the air pushes The rocket is surrounded by air and it is pushing on the up on the rocket. rocket, and the rocket is pushing back. The exhaust is a third force. C The rocket pushes exhaust gases down while the This is the correct action and equal and opposite reaction exhaust gases push the rocket up. * for a rocket launch. D Gravity pulls the rocket exhaust down while friction The rocket exhaust is pushed down, so this is not the case. pushes up against the atmosphere. Friction is a force that opposes the original force. Friction keeps it from moving and so does gravity. Essential Knowledge: In every interaction, there is a pair of forces acting on the two interacting objects. The size of the force on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object. The direction of the force on the first object is opposite to the direction of the force on the second object. Forces always come in pairs ­ equal and opposite action-reaction force pairs. This is Newton's Third Law. Implications for the classroom: Students need to see this happen. Make sure that they see and perform activities that show the action and reaction of forces. Wear roller-skates to class, bring along a skateboard. Use real-life examples to help students visualize Newton's third law. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of energy transformations and Newton's laws of motion. The integration of biological and earth/space science concepts with the study of forces, motion, and energy may be seen in items that address ideas such as osmosis, blood pressure, muscle activity, weather, and plate tectonics This item requires that students have a strong conceptual understanding of Newton's laws and be able to apply these concepts to many different situations.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 52 Test Question: When the air is released from a balloon, the air moves in one direction, and the balloon moves in another direction. Which statement does this situation best illustrate?

Question: 52 Right Answer: G For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Wrong Answers: F What goes up must come down. H The shape and size of an object affect air resistance. J The acceleration due to Earth's gravity is 9.8 m/s 2.

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate and understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 Science Concept. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (B) investigate and describe applications of Newton's laws such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, geological processes, and satellite orbits. Essential Knowledge: Why? Newton's 3rd law of motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Why? F This is due to gravity and is not illustrated by the balloon activity. H This can affect acceleration due to gravity but is not illustrated by the balloon activity. J The acceleration due to Earth's gravity is a constant but it is not illustrated by the balloon activity. Students need to investigate all of Newton's laws in the lab. They should be asked to make and communicate observations. Students could expect to see questions related to all aspects of Newton's 3 laws. This item requires that students have a strong conceptual understanding of Newton's laws and be able to apply these concepts to many different situations.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: TAKS info booklet # 13 Which setup would require the least force to move a heavy resistance?

Question: 13 (TAKS info booklet) Right Answer: B

TAKS Objective 5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (D) Investigate and demonstrate [mechanical advantage and] efficiency of various machines such as levers, motors, wheels and axles, pulleys, and ramps. Essential Knowledge: Why? A small displacement of the effort pulley will result in a greater amount of displacement in the resultant pulley.

Wrong Answers:

Why? The other choices show inappropriate relationships between the displacements of the effort pulley and resultant pulley necessary to yield the desired result.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students must complete hands-on lab experiences to ensure learning of this objective. Students might be asked to: 1) give common examples of , or 2) provide a practical example of what each of the answer choices could be used for. This item requires students to understand the relationship between resistance force and effort force as it applies to wheels or gears. They should work with simple machines and be able to apply this information to more complex machines.

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Students will need to understand the relative efficiency of simple machines and motors.

Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton's laws of motion and energy transformations.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 48 The diagram shows an electric motor lifting a 6 N block a distance of 3 m. The total amount of electrical energy used by the motor is 30 J. How much energy does the motor convert to heat?

TAKS Objective 5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (D) investigate and demonstrate [mechanical advantage and] efficiency of various machines such as levers, motors, wheels and axles, pulleys, and ramps.

Picture:

Question: 48 Right Answer: G* 12 J

Wrong Answers: F9J H 18 J J 21 J Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The student knew to use the equation W = fd to find the total amount of energy needed lift a 6N mass as distance of 3m ( W = 3m X 6N; W = 18 J) The student knew to subtract the amount of work necessary (18J) from the amount of energy provided by the motor to find the excess (30J applied by the motor ­ 18J necessary to lift a 6N block 3m = 12J). The 12J must have been the amount of energy converted to heat. Why? This is a two-step problem. The answers in responses F and J could have been found by mis-applying the equation or mathematical error. Response H is the answer to the first step in solving the problem (the energy necessary to lift a 6N mass a distance of 3m). Have the students explain why correct are correct and why the incorrect ones are incorrect. Work the same problems several times, alternating the unknowns. Pay particular attention to unit conversions. Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton's laws of motion and energy transformations.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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Student Expectation: 05 ­ I.4 (D) (4) Science concepts. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to: (D) investigate and demonstrate mechanical advantage and efficiency of various machines such as levers, motors, wheels and axles, pulleys, and ramps. Question 46­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Which lever arrangement requires the least effort force to raise a 500 N resistance? A * When using a lever and fulcrum, the greatest efficiency can be generated by using the longest resistance arm (applying the force furthest away from the fulcrum and the load). This diagram would therefore use the least amount of resistance.

B

See answer choice A. Some students might think that if the resistance arms are balanced, that would get less resistance. This is incorrect.

C

See answer choice A. The closer the force is applied to the fulcrum, the more force must be used to raise the box.

D

See answer choice A. The further away the fulcrum is from the load, the shorter the resistance arm on your simple machine.

Essential Knowledge: Simple machines work to decrease the effort force of a system, causing greater efficiency and a mechanical advantage. Implications for the classroom : To understand the concept of mechanical advantage, students must be familiar with many simple machines. Since this is covered in a 7th grade TEK, teachers need to reinforce the concepts of how various simple machines such as levers, pulleys, and inclined planes (etc.) decrease the input force to create efficiency. It is also helpful for students to do hands-on labs to demonstrate the principle of efficiency and mechanical advantage. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students will need to understand the relative efficiency of simple machines and motors.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 22 Test Question: Which configuration of pulleys and belts shown below will result in the fastest rotation of Spindle 2?

Question: 22 Right Answer:

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate and understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 Science Concept. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (D) investigate and demonstrate (mechanical advantage and) efficiency of various machines such as levers, motors, wheels, and axles, pulleys, and ramps. Essential Knowledge: Why? Spindle 1 has the belt on the wheel with the largest diameter and spindle 2 has the belt on the wheel with the smallest diameter. This will cause spindle 2 to rotate faster than any of the other setups.

Wrong Answers:

Why? F Spindle 1 has the belt on the second to the smallest diameter wheel and spindle 2 has the belt on the second to the largest diameter wheel. This will cause spindle 2 to rotate slower than the spindle 2 in H. G Spindle 1 has the belt on the smallest diameter wheel and spindle 2 has the belt on the largest diameter wheel. This will cause spindle 2 to rotate slower than the spindle 2 in H. J Spindle 1 has the belt on the second to the largest diameter wheel and spindle 2 has the belt on the second to the smallest diameter wheel. This will cause spindle 2 to rotate slower than the spindle 2 in H.

Implications for the Classroom:

Students must participate in hands on activates working will all types

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Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

of simple machines. It is important for students to experiment and measure the effects of simple machines on work. Students can expect to see all types of questions related to the efficiency of various simple machines. This item requires students to understand the relationship between resistance force and effort force as it applies to wheels or gears. They should work with simple machines and be able to apply this information to more complex machines.

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Students will need to understand the relative efficiency of simple machines and motors.

Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton's laws of motion and energy transformations.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 29 Test Question: Which of these represents a properly balanced system?

Question: 29 Right Answer:

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate and understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 Science Concept. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (D) investigate and demonstrate (mechanical advantage and) efficiency of various machines such as levers, motors, wheels, and axles, pulleys, and ramps. Essential Knowledge: Why? The force on both sides is 144 joules. 3 m X 48 N = 144 Nm 1.5 m X 96 N = 144 Nm

Wrong Answers:

Why? A 0.75 m X 48 N = 36 Nm 1.5 m X 96 N = 144 Nm Not balanced. B 1.5 m X 48 N = 72 Nm 1.5 m X 96 N = 144 Nm Not balanced. D 4.5 m X 48 N = 216 Nm 1.5 m X 96 N = 144 Nm Not balanced.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students must participate in hands on activates working will all types of simple machines. This should include calculations related to the efficiency and how to improve the efficiency of the simple machines. Students can expect to see all types of questions related to the efficiency of various simple machines. Students will need to understand the relative efficiency of simple machines and motors Students will be expected to perform calculations related to motion, force, and energy. Calculations may involve the use of more than on formula and/or the conversion of basic SI units. For example, the item may give the force, distance, and time of a moving object and students will be asked to calculate the power of the object. All the formulas needed for the assessment will be listed on the formula chart. Items may require the use of more than one formula or step.

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 50 Test Question: Which lever requires the least effort to lift the load?

Question: 50 Right Answer:

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate and understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.4 Science Concept. The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to (D) investigate and demonstrate (mechanical advantage and) efficiency of various machines such as levers, motors, wheels, and axles, pulleys, and ramps. Essential Knowledge: Why? This lever has a long effort arm and a short load arm with the fulcrum between the two arms near the load arm making it require the least effort to lift the load.

Wrong Answers:

Why? G This lever has a short effort arm and a long load arm making it difficult to lift the load. H This lever has a short effort arm and a long load arm that are both on the same side of the fulcrum. J This lever has a long effort arm and a longer load arm that are both on the same side of the fulcrum.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Students must participate in hands on activates working will all types of simple machines. They need to be able to conceptually and mathematically compare diagrams of simple machines. Students can expect to see all types of questions related to the efficiency of various simple machines. Students will need to understand the relative efficiency of simple machines and motors Students will be expected to perform calculations related to motion, force, and energy. Calculations may involve the use of more than on formula and/or the conversion of basic SI units. For example, the item may give the force, distance, and time of a moving object and students will be asked to calculate the power of the object. All the formulas needed for

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the assessment will be listed on the formula chart. Items may require the use of more than one formula or step.

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: TAKS info booklet # 15 The image on the screen is inverted because light rays --

TAKS Objective 5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.5 The student knows the effects of waves on everyday life. The student is expected to (B) demonstrate wave interactions including interference, polarization, reflection, refraction, and resonance within various materials.

Picture:

Question: 15 (TAKS info booklet) Right Answer: B* travel through the opening in straight lines Wrong Answers: A condense as they pass through the pinhole C refract as they strike the screen D are polarized by the materials of the screen Implications for the Classroom:

Essential Knowledge: Why? This is a fundamental property of light that is stressed in optics presentations. Why? The answer options are definitions of terms that would be used repeatedly in class (condensation, refract, and polarization).

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Active, successful participation in labs is required for a complete understanding of optics. Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the actions and interactions of waves. Optics labs demonstrate the properties of light. Students need to be exposed to a variety of lab experiences. This item requires students to understand that light travels in a straight line and how images are formed. Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the actions and interactions of waves. To apply student expectation IPC (5)(B), students may be required to demonstrate their understanding of the characteristics of waves and identify relationships between wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. Students should also be familiar with how temperature and density can affect wave behavior. The technological application of different types of waves (for example, radios, microwave ovens, and X rays) should be explored as well. Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy

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transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton's laws of motion and energy transformations.

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 32 One tuning fork is struck and placed next to an identical fork. The two forks do not touch. The second tuning fork starts to vibrate because of --

Question: 32 Right Answer: H* resonance Wrong Answers: F interference G the Doppler effect J standing waves Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter:

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.5 The student knows the effects of waves on everyday life. The student is expected to (B) demonstrate wave interactions including interference, polarization, reflection, refraction, and resonance within various materials. Essential Knowledge: Why? The student understands the definition of resonance. Why? Knowing the basic definitions of terms used in waves and wave motion indicates that responses F, G, and J are incorrect.

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Knowing the content vocabulary is fundamental to understanding the material. Have students give examples of interference, the Doppler effect, and standing waves. Integrating music and physics will get the attention of some of the students. Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton's laws of motion and energy transformations.

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Student Expectation: 05 ­ I.5 (B) (5) Science concepts. The student knows the effects of waves on everyday life. The student is expected to: (B) demonstrate wave interactions including interference, polarization, reflection, refraction, and resonance within various materials; Question 55­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade The pitch of a sound made by plucking a guitar string is determined by the -- A frequency of the vibration produced * Frequency of the sound wave hitting the eardrum determines the pitch recorded in the brain. B strength of the plucking force The strength of the plucking force increases the loudness of a sound, but not the pitch. This increases the amplitude of the wave, not the number of waves per second. C distance between the strings There is no correlation between the distance between the strings and the pitch of the guitar. D shape of the guitar body There is no correlation between the shape of the guitar body and the pitch of the guitar. It affects resonance and sound quality. Essential Knowledge: Regardless of what vibrating object is creating the sound wave, the particles of the medium through which the sound moves are vibrating in a back and forth motion at a given frequency. The frequency of a wave refers to how often the particles of the medium vibrate when a wave passes through the medium. The sensations of these frequencies are commonly referred to as the pitch of a sound. A high pitch sound corresponds to a high frequency and a low pitch sound corresponds to a low frequency. Implications for the classroom: When studying waves, be sure students get a chance to experience wave interactions at work in instruments and other everyday items. Students must not only learn these definitions, they must apply them. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the actions and interactions of waves. To apply student expectation IPC (5)(B), students may be required to demonstrate their understanding of the characteristics of waves and identify relationships between wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. Students should also be familiar with how temperature and density can affect wave behavior. The technological applications of different types of waves (for example, radios, microwave ovens, and x-rays) should be explored as well.

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 6 Test Question: When a DVD is read, laser light touches the DVD surface and is then measured at location A. What allows light to return to location A after striking the DVD surface? Picture:

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.5 Science concept. The student knows the effects of waves on everyday life. The student is expected to (B) demonstrate wave interactions including interference, polarization, reflection, refraction, and resonance within various materials.

Question: 6 Right Answer: J Reflection

Wrong Answers: F Conduction G Refraction H Magnification

Essential Knowledge: Why? Reflection is the interaction of waves, generally light, where the waves are redirected back after hitting a surface. An example of reflection is the laser light returning after striking the DVD. Why? F Conduction is the transfer of some type of energy from one object to another. Not all objects make good conductors. G Refraction is the bending of light as it passes through a medium. This will not cause the laser light to return after striking the DVD. H Magnification is caused by the light bending as it is refracted through a medium. Students should have laboratory experiences with waves and how waves interact through different mediums. They should experience reflection, refraction, resonance, and interference in the lab setting. They should have a understanding of the basic vocabulary related to waves and wave interactions. Students may be shown a picture of a lens (concave, or convex) and asked questions related to how light reacts as it travels through the lens. Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the actions and interactions of waves. To apply student expectation IPC (5) (B), students may be required to demonstrate their understanding of the characteristics of waves and identify relationships between wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. Students should also be familiar with how temperature and density can affect wave behavior. The technological application of different type of waves (for example, radios, microwave ovens, and x-rays) should be explored as well. This item requires students to understand that light travels in a straight line and how images are formed.

Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 17 Test Question: An empty cup was tightly covered with plastic wrap, and a few grains of salt were sprinkled on top of the plastic. When a tuning fork was struck and placed slightly above the plastic wrap, the salt began to move. Which characteristic of waves does the movement of the salt best demonstrate? Question: 17 Right Answer: C Resonance

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate and understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.5 Science Concept. The student knows the effects of waves on everyday life. The student is expected to (B) demonstrate wave interactions including interference, polarization, reflection, refraction, and resonance within various materials. Essential Knowledge: Why? This is a good visual example of resonance. The tuning fork causes a forced vibration of the plastic wrap that becomes visual by the salt's movement. Why? All of these answers involve waves. However, they are more related to the bending of waves rather than the forced vibration transfer associated with resonance. Students need to participate in labs that demonstrate the properties of wave interactions. They should have a good understanding of all of the terms listed with this TEKS. Students can expect to see questions related to any of the different wave interactions listed in the TEKS. They may see diagrams showing reflection or refraction and asked questions related to it. Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the actions and interactions of waves. To apply student expectation IPC (5) (B), students may be required to demonstrate their understanding of the characteristics of waves and identify relationships between wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. Students should also be familiar with how temperature and density can affect wave behavior. The technological application of different type of waves (for example, radios, microwave ovens, and x-rays) should be explored as well.

Wrong Answers: A Echo formation B Diffraction D Specular reflection Implications for the Classroom:

Other types of Questions you could encounter:

What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 14 Which process best shows the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy?

Question: 14 Right Answer: G* Green plants making their own food Wrong Answers: F Prevailing winds causing windmills to spin H Uranium producing heat to make steam J Tides generating electricity Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective 5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.6 The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to (A) describe the law of conservation of energy. Essential Knowledge: Why? The student understands the process of photosynthesis. Why? Response F deals with mechanical energy, H deals with nuclear energy to heat, and J is about converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. Students need a broad understanding of the various types of energy and energy conversion. Questions specific to each of the broad areas covered in the incorrect responses could asked. Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton's laws of motion and energy transformations.

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 41 What is the potential energy of the rock?

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate and understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.6 The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to (A) describe the law of conservation of energy.

Picture:

Question: 41 Right Answer: C* 93,100 joules Wrong Answers: A 59,900 joules B 64,600 joules D 121,600 joules Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

Essential Knowledge: Why? The student is able to correctly apply the equation GPE = mgh Why? Either the student did not use the correct equation, units, or did not substitute the correct values for the variables.

Students need to practice solving problems using the equations given on the Formula Chart. Attention should be given to unit conversions and attention should be paid to what each equation on the Formula Chart means and what types of equations the students might expect to see on the test. Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton'' laws of motion and energy transformations.

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Student Expectation: 05 ­ I.6 (A) (6) Science concepts. The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to: (A) describe the law of conservation of energy; Question 12­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade Which of the following is an example of solar energy being converted into chemical energy? A Plants producing sugar during the day Plants use solar energy (light from photosynthesis) to convert carbon dioxide into sugar (a form of chemical energy used by plants and animals). B Water evaporating and condensing in the water In this case, solar energy (heat from the sun) is converted cycle to kinetic energy (evaporation of water molecules). C The sun unevenly heating Earth's surface This conversion is solar energy to kinetic energy (heat). D Lava erupting from volcanoes for many days Volcanoes don't convert solar energy. Essential Knowledge: Energy cannot be made or destroyed. It can only be changed from one form into another. Students must understand the law of conservation of energy and then be able to recognize examples of the process and describe them. Implications for the classroom: Teachers in all science subjects need to explain examples of the law of conservation of energy whenever they can. This particular example comes from the study of photosynthesis (Bio 4b and 9d). Biology teachers need to be aware that certain IPC TAKs should be covered in their classes as well, and vice versa. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of energy transformations and Newton's laws of motion. *

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Student Expectation: 05 ­ I.6 (A) (6) Science concepts. The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to: (A) describe the law of conservation of energy; Question 37­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

Why is the sum of the products' energy in this reaction less than the sum of the reactants' energy? A Energy is given off as heat. * In cellular respiration, energy is lost to the environment as heat. Therefore, the law of conservation of energy is not broken. B The products absorb available energy. This is an exothermic reaction. The products won't absorb energy. C Energy is trapped in the reactants. If glucose is completely burned, most of its chemical energy is released as heat energy. D The reactants' energy is less than the melting point No, melting point is a physical property and does not of glucose. affect the fact that the reaction is exothermic. Essential Knowledge: Energy is neither gained nor destroyed. It is just changed from one form into another. The sum of the energy of the products ­ the sum of the energy of the reactants will give you the change in energy. In this case, the chemical energy in the bonds of glucose is converted to ATP or given off as heat energy. Implications for the classroom: Chemistry and IPC teachers need to take every opportunity to apply the concepts of energy change and conservation of energy to biological processes as well as chemical ones. Students must recognize this reaction as cellular respiration to understand that organisms give off heat. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: The integration of biological and earth/space science concepts with the study of forces, motion, and energy may be seen in items that address ideas such as osmosis, blood pressure, muscle activity, weather, and plate tectonics. Students should understand the movement of heat energy through materials. Some items may not require calculations but instead will ask students to apply the ideas of specific heat, heat transfer, and phase changes.

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Student Expectation: 05 ­ I.6 (A) (6) Science concepts. The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to: (A) describe the law of conservation of energy Question 48­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade An inventor claims to have created an internal combustion engine that converts 100 kJ of chemical energy from diesel fuel to 140 kJ of mechanical energy. This claim violates the law of conservation of -- A momentum The law of conservation of momentums states that in a collision, the forces of both objects before the collision will be the same as the combined forces after a collision. Momentum is mass X velocity. B inertia Inertia causes objects to stay at rest until a large enough force is acted upon them. C energy * The law of conservation of energy states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can only be changed into other forms. D mass The law of conservation of mass states that in a chemical reaction, the mass of the reactants must equal that of the products. Essential Knowledge: This claim breaks the law of conservation of energy. (see above) Implications for the classroom: Students should have this law memorized, but do they know what it means? This type of question tests a student's ability to apply a definition. Make sure your tests contain items that are mid to high level on Bloom's Taxonomy. Students who have only been exposed to rote questions such as matching definitions will have a difficult time applying what they know on a TAKS test. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of energy transformations and Newton's laws of motion.

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Student Expectation: 05 ­ I.6 (A) (6) Science concepts. The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to: (A) describe the law of conservation of energy; Question 52­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade

Assuming the chart contains all energy transformations in the Earth system, how much solar radiation goes toward evaporating water? A 40,000 terajoules * By taking the solar radiation reaching the earth and subtracting all the other forms of radiation, you get the remaining 40,000 terajoules of energy per second that result in the evaporation of water. B 92,410 terajoules This answer subtracts only the radiation heating the landmasses, atmosphere and oceans. C 121,410 terajoules This answer subtracts only the Radiation reflected back into space. D 133,410 terajoules This answer subtracts the 40,000 terajoules left over from the original 173,410. Essential Knowledge: Energy is neither gained nor destroyed. It is just changed from one form into another. The remaining energy must go toward evaporation of water. Implications for the classroom: Chemistry and IPC teachers need to take every opportunity to apply the concepts of energy change and conservation of energy to earth science processes as well as chemical ones. Students must recognize that earth and weather systems must follow the law of conservation of energy as well. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should understand the movement of heat energy through materials. An understanding of specific heat will be needed to calculate the amount of heat energy gained or lost by a substance. Some items may not require calculations but instead will ask students to apply the ideas of specific heat, heat transfer, and phase changes.

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 43 Heat convection occurs in gases and liquids. Heat convection does not occur in solids because solids are unable to --

Question: 43 Right Answer: B* transfer heat by fluid motion Wrong Answers: A absorb heat by vibrating C emit radiation by reflecting light D exchange heat by direct contact Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.6 The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to (B) investigate and demonstrate the movement of heat through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation. Essential Knowledge: The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. Why? The student knows the definition of convection (via fluid motion) Why? Careful reading indicates that these answers are incorrect. They specifically indicate some process other than convection is causing the heat to be transferred. Careful attention to content and context need to be stressed in all assignment. Every time a problem is given, attention to what is being asked should be stressed. Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton's laws of motion and energy transformations.

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 50 A solar heater uses energy from the sun to heat water. The heater's panel is painted black to --

Question: 50 Right Answer: H* improve absorption of infrared radiation Wrong Answers: F improve emission of infrared radiation G reduce the heat loss by convection currents J reduce the heater's conducting properties Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective 5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.6 The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to (B) investigate and demonstrate the movement of heat through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation. Essential Knowledge: Why? The more infrared radiation that is absorbed, the more heat that can be transferred to the water. Why? Response F indicates emission of radiation rather than absorption. G is talking about heat loss by the convection currents, not radiation absorption increase. The heater's conducting properties need to be increased, not decreased to make the heating of water more efficient. Students need to be taught to read carefully for content and context. Students need multiple exposures to word problems. Have them justify the correct answers and explain why incorrect ones are incorrect. Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton's laws of motion and energy transformations.

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Student Expectation: 05 ­ I.6 (B) (6) Science concepts. The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to: (B) investigate and demonstrate the movement of heat through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation Question 8­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade The moon's surface becomes hot during the long lunar day because the sun transfers heat to the moon. This heat transfer is accomplished almost entirely through the process of -- A convection Convection is the movement of heat through a gas or liquid as molecules move in a current caused by different densities. There is no gas or liquid in the vacuum of space. B refraction Refraction is the bending of light. C conduction Conduction is the transfer of heat by direct contact. There is no direct contact between the moon and the sun. D radiation * Radiation is the transfer of heat through empty space in the form of infrared waves. This is the way the sun heats the moon's surface. Essential Knowledge: Students must understand the processes involved in heat transfer and be able to apply them to new situations. (see above) Implications for the classroom: Students need to see practical applications of convection, conduction and radiation. Labs will help them grasp the concepts and everyday examples will help them apply what they learn to new situations. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should understand the movement of heat energy through materials. An understanding of specific heat will be needed to calculate the amount of heat energy gained or lost by a substance. Some items may not require calculations but instead will ask students to apply the ideas of specific heat, heat transfer, and phase changes. Students will be expected to describe the movement of heat through objects in mathematical terms as well as in terms such as convection, conduction, and radiation.

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Student Expectation: 05 ­ I.6 (B) (6) Science concepts. The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to: (B) investigate and demonstrate the movement of heat through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation; Question 42­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade In which container is the substance unable to transfer heat by convection? A Convection is defined as the movement of heat through liquids or gasses by currents. Chlorine is a gas, so heat can travel through it by convection.

B

Convection is defined as the movement of heat through liquids or gasses by currents. Water is a liquid, so heat can travel through it by convection.

C

Convection is defined as the movement of heat through liquids or gasses by currents. Air is composed of various gases, so heat can travel through it by convection.

D *

Aluminum is a solid. Heat would travel though it by conduction.

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Essential Knowledge: Students must have a working definition for convection, conduction, and radiation and be able to apply them to new situations. Implications for the classroom: Students need opportunities to see examples of convection, conduction, and radiation in the lab. Once they know what to look for, they need to brainstorm to come up with everyday activities that involve these heat transfer processes in their daily lives. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students should understand the movement of heat energy through materials. An understanding of specific heat will be needed to calculate the amount of heat energy gained or lost by a substance. Some items may not require calculations but instead will ask students to apply the ideas of specific heat, heat transfer, and phase changes. Students will be expected to describe the movement of heat through objects in mathematical terms as well as in terms such as convection, conduction, and radiation.

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2003 Released Test 11th Grade Test Question: 54 Which of these activities can help conserve natural resources?

Question: 54 Right Answer: F* Recycling cardboard boxes Wrong Answers: G Washing small loads of laundry H Driving large cars J Building wooden fences Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective 5: The student will demonstrate and understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.6 The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to (D) investigate and compare economic and environmental impacts of using various energy sources such as rechargeable or disposable batteries and solar cells. Essential Knowledge: Why? The correct response comes from knowing the definitions of conservation and natural resources. Why? See above

Reading skills need to be taught at all levels.

Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of Newton's laws of motion and energy transformations.

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Student Expectation: 05 ­ I.6 (D) (6) Science concepts. The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to: (D) investigate and compare economic and environmental impacts of using various energy sources such as rechargeable or disposable batteries and solar cells; Question 45­ 2004 TAKS Released test 11th Grade In West Texas and Southern California, high winds drive turbines that generate electricity. One advantage that wind energy has over energy generated from solar cells is that wind energy -- A is plentiful everywhere B can be generated at night * High winds are not always available to generate electricity. In certain locations, wind almost continuous, both day and night. Solar cells can only convert the sun's energy during daylight hours. C produces cleaner energy Both solar and wind energy are clean forms of energy. D free of environmental hazards Neither solar nor wind energy have any serious environmental hazards associated with them. Essential Knowledge: Students need to be familiar with the different forms of renewable energy such as solar, geothermal, and wind. Implications for the classroom: The processes of creating renewable energy from different sources should be investigated and compared. Students need to understand the benefits and drawbacks of each form. For example: Solar panels don't work at night because they convert light energy into electrical energy. What the TAKS Information Book (04-05) says: Students need to understand force and motion in order to comprehend the concepts of speed, waves, and energy transformations. The study of motion, forces, and energy is necessary for understanding the physical world. Whether riding in a car, turning on lights, or listening to the radio, we are continually surrounded by examples of energy transformations and Newton's laws of motion. Students may have to evaluate the impact of technology on the environment. Students should understand that there are trade-offs when using technology. For example, rechargeable batteries can be recycled many times, but once they are no longer useful, the heavy metals they contain must be disposed of properly.

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11th Grade, 2006, Question # 37 Test Question: Which of these produces most of the compounds responsible for causing acid rain?

Question: 37 Right Answer: B Fossil fuels Wrong Answers: A Nuclear fission C Solar cells D Windmills Implications for the Classroom: Other types of Questions you could encounter: What the TAKS Information Booklet says:

TAKS Objective: 5 The student will demonstrate and understanding of motion, forces, and energy. I.6 Science Concept. The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to (D) investigate and compare economic and environmental impacts of using various energy sources such as rechargeable or disposable batteries and solar cells. Essential Knowledge: Why? When fossil fuels are burned to produce energy they release pollutants into the air. These pollutants combine with water molecules and produce acid rain. Why? Nuclear fission, solar cells, and windmills, all produce energy without releasing pollutants into the air. Students need to have a good understanding of fossil fuels and how they are Students may see questions related to the economic and environmental impacts of rechargeable batteries or disposable batteries. The integration of biological and earth/space science concepts with the study of forces, motion, and energy may be seen in items that address ideas such as osmosis, blood pressure, muscle activity, weather, and plate tectonics. Students may have to evaluate the impact of technology on the environment. Students should understand that there are trade-offs when using technology. For example, rechargeable batteries can be recycled many times, but once they are no longer useful, the heavy metals they contain must be disposed of properly.

Science Grade: 11 Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Texas Education Agency, Austin TX Copyright © 2003, 2004, 2006 Dallas County Schools, Dallas TX

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