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Using the Election of 1876 to Understand the Necessity to Compromise Nicholas Baker Kristen Taggart Margo Musgnug I. Lesson Description: Prior to this lesson, it is assumed that the student has prior background knowledge and instruction about the Elections of 1876 and 2000. In this lesson, students will understand the major issues surrounding the Election of 1876 and how political parties function during the election crisis. By examining political cartoons, election maps from various elections, primary source documents, and timeline analyses, students develop a better understanding as to how political parties change over time, show continuity, function, and interact with each other. II. Grade: 9-12, Civics III. Time Required: 5 student days, possibly more depending on length of class periods and course level. IV. Benchmark Addressed: a. Geography Standard 1: In this lesson, students will identify geographic patterns that emerge when collected data is mapped, and analyze mapped patterns through the application of such common geographical principles as hierarchy, accessibility, diffusion, and complementarity. b. History Standard 1: Students will analyze historical materials to trace the development of an idea or trend across space or over a period of time in order to explain patterns of historical continuity and change. c. Civics Standard 2a: Students will examine and analyze the extraconstitutional role that political parties play in American politics. V. Enduring Question Addressed: What extra-constitutional role did the political parties play in resolving the issues surrounding the crucial election of 1876? How do the political parties address major issues of their time? How VI. Enduring Understanding: Elections are a dynamic process pit two political parties against each other to debate and inform the public of the major issues of the time. Often, the country is divided ideologically along political beliefs and issues. Through resolution and compromise, political parties function in our democracy. Though not established by the Constitution, political parties serve to bring issues to light and promote a legislative agenda. By understanding the issues surrounding the Election of 1876, students understand the relationship between political parties, as well as how political parties function in our democracy and often seek resolution and compromise. VII. Materials: a. Chart paper, markers, strips of paper, ruler for timeline activity

b. Access to a Word Wall for difficult vocabulary when using the primary sources. c. Handout 1: Results from Election 1876 vs. Election 2000 d. Handout 2: Documentary Analysis Sheet for Political Cartoon Analysis e. Suggested Website 1: Thomas Nash Political Cartoons for the Election of 1876:

f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n.

The teacher should have overhead copies of individual cartoons, as well as student copies to be distributed to groups. Suggested Website: For timeline activity on Day 2: http:// Suggested Website: Timeline of Events: Election 2000 (used for review purposes) located at: Handout 3: Timeline of the Election of 1876 Timeline Activity and Analysis Handout 4: Samuel Tilden Concession Speech: Primary Source Handout 5: Reacting to the Reading: Tilden Speech Handout 6: Hayes Acceptance Speech Handout 7: Understanding the Reading: Hayes Speech Suggested Website: Democratic Party Platforms for 1876: Suggested Website: Republican Party Platform for 1876:

VIII. Procedures: Day 1: 1. Disclaimer: It is assumed that students have already received prior instruction about the major personalities, issues, and events leading up to the Election of 1876, as well as some background knowledge about the 2000 election. 2. Opener: Students are presented Handout 1, which include the results of the Elections of 1876 and 2000. Students are instructed to respond to the following opening questions either in their notebooks or on separate paper. a. How might the following results impact the relationship between Republicans and Democrats? Explain. b. How might the following results impact the voter? Explain. 3. The teacher reminds students to recall events surrounding the Election of 1876. This might be done by reviewing a timeline of events, consulting previous notes, or a KWL chart. 4. Students are placed into groups of two and each group receives their own, photographed copy of a political cartoon from Thomas Nash (available at

It is suggested that the teacher have overhead copies of the cartoons already

available. Also, students receive Handout 2 in order to complete an analysis of the political cartoons. 5. Students are provided time to analyze the cartoons within their groups. The teacher should give about 15 minutes to be able to present their findings to the class. Students should use the overhead copy so that other students might refer to the cartoons. 6. As groups present their analysis, students should record in their notebooks the core issues as reflected in the cartoons. Students should organize their notes accordingly: a. Key Individuals b. Significant Events c. How political parties are portrayed d. Attitudes and Impressions 7. Debriefing Question: Following student presentations, the teacher should ask students to recall the dates of the different political cartoons. How might this reflect change over time? How might the artist's point of view reflect the tension and feeling of Americans during this time? Day 2: 1. Opener: The teacher poses the following question to students: "Suppose that you are running for president, and the Electoral College count is deadlocked. What steps do you take to ensure that your interests, that of your party, and those who voted for you are considered? How do you immediately respond to a potential crisis? 2. The teacher reviews student responses, possibly maintaining a record on chart paper. 3. The teacher then distributes chart paper, markers, and rulers for students to create a timeline of events, and a copy of Handout 2. On this timeline, students should: a. Record and Plot the chronological events surrounding the Election of 1876 (either from their notes, text, or available through independent Internet research. One such valuable website is At this site, the teacher can access timelines, narratives, and other resources to better understand the events surrounding the Election of 1876. b. Students are instructed to color code their timelines: Blue with events pertaining to the Democratic Party, Red regarding the Republican Party, and Purple for examples of bipartisanship, and Black with general events. c. Students should plot, with some sort of a symbol, the appropriate Thomas Nash political cartoons that they viewed yesterday. This will offer a visual image to be associated with the timeline.

4. Upon completion of the large timelines, students should analyze the information in their working groups (Handout 2). Students should be asked to analyze: a. What are noticeable trends or patterns that you notice over time? b. What examples can be found of both parties collaborating with each other? For what reasons might these parties do this? c. Select two Republican and two Democratic events. Determine what might have motivated the party to act in this way. d. How might you evaluate the actions of either the Republican or Democratic Party during this time? 5. Homework: Finish the analysis questions if necessary. The extension assignment focuses on a timeline of events during Election 2000. Depending on accessibility to computers, encourage completion of the extension assignment. Teachers might wish to already have a copy of the timeline. A suggested website with an appropriate timeline is: a. This extension activity allows students to compare the Election of 1876 to Election of 2000. Day 3: 1. Opener: In place of an opener, the teacher should ask groups to present their findings to the analysis questions. 2. The teacher should distribute 2 large strips of paper to students. Students are then instructed to record an example of change over time between the two elections (from yesterday's activity), and an example of continuity over time between the two elections. The strips should then be posted according to "Change over Time" and "Continuity over Time" between the two elections. A discussion of student findings should follow. 3. To illustrate the geographic aspects of the elections, the teacher should distribute Handout 3. Students will analyze election results over time and complete analysis questions. 4. If time, the teacher should assign groups to present their responses to the questions, or continue this for Day 4. Day 4: 1. Opener: Based on the timeline activity yesterday, what do the Elections of 1876 and 2000 indicate about the relationship and actions of political parties during an election? How has the function of a political party changed over time? How has it remained the same? What's the importance of cooperation between political parties? 2. In pairs, students should brainstorm the following prior to discussing the settlement plan and reading concession/acceptance speeches:

e. What do you think the role of Tilden and Hayes was in resolving the crisis? f. How might political party leadership be involved in resolving the issue? g. How do you think other branches of government might be involved in this crisis? h. How might this crisis impact the voters? Might it affect the confidence that voters have in the political system? 3. The teacher reminds students about the settlement plan between the Republican and Democratic parties: a. The presidential election of 1876, pitting Republican Rutherford B. Hayes against Democrat Samuel J. Tilden, has some interesting parallels with the presidential election of 2000. b. The 1876 election involved an Electoral College dispute that was not explicitly covered by the U.S. Constitution. c. An ad hoc Electoral Commission created by Congress and consisting of 5 Supreme Court justices, 5 senators, and 5 House members ultimately resolved it. d. After 16 weeks of heated controversy, a president was finally chosen three days before the scheduled inauguration. e. By an 8 to 7 margin, the Electoral Commission awarded all of the contested 20 electoral ballots to Hayes, allowing the Republican to win the presidency by one electoral vote, 185-184. f. There are some parallels between the two elections

· · · ·

Florida and, to a lesser extent, Oregon played a central role in the controversy. The snowball effect of the dispute threatened to bring the electoral count in other states, such as Wisconsin, into question. Different candidates won the Electoral College and the popular vote. The controversy was followed closely by the public and press,

3. The teacher will begin using primary sources. It's important that the teacher uses a word wall and introduces the concepts prior to reading the documents. As an introduction to the primary sources, the teacher might ask students to reflect as to what they think the text will be like, what they can expect in the text, who might be the intended audience, and the relevance of the source and author. This should be done for the use of primary sources in Handout 4 and Handout 6 (see Day 5) 4. The teacher distributes copies of Handout 4: Tilden's Concession Speech, and Handout 5. Students should complete both of these assignments, including

the analysis questions of the document. Students should be retold that Handout 5 must be completed as the student reads the passage, and to be specific when reflecting on the reading.

Day 5: 1. The teacher should devote some time to reviewing the document from last class. This could be discussing the key content, how it related to what you initially thought about the document, main ideas, audience, interesting and major vocabulary terms. 2. Opener: a. What questions might you pose to Tilden? b. What questions do you think Tilden has for Hayes? 3. In groups designed by the teacher, students should respond back to Tilden as if they assumed the role of Hayes who is accepting the presidency. They do not have to prepare a speech, but they can indicate their main points. Students are instructed to: a. Address the election crisis b. How have the Republicans reacted? Democrats? c. Try to pacify the country as a representative of his party d. Address the main campaign issues during the election e. Assert his campaign agenda based on the Republican platform for 1876 (if students are not familiar with it, it is available at: 2. Students might present their information on chart paper. Groups are encouraged in a jigsaw format to share their major response points with other groups. 3. After discussing the main points of their acceptance speech, the teacher should distribute Handout 6. As students read the Hayes acceptance speech, they should complete Handout 7 where they compare and contrast the speech, as well as compare their main points to those of Hayes. 4. Homework assigned: Completion of Handout 8. Students assume the role of a newspaper reporter who is responsible for producing a retrospective based on the Election of 1876, as well as the documents that were read. IX. Debrief 1. What was the role of the political parties when resolving the election crisis? 2. What are examples of historical continuity and change?

3. Based on political maps of election results, what trends and patterns occur across a time-span? What does this indicate about the nature of political parties? X. Assessment Each student completes the following: 1. Cartoon Analysis 2. Map Analysis 3. Timeline of Election 1876 4. Tilden Concession Speech Analysis and Organizer 5. Hayes Acceptance Speech Analysis and Organizer 6. Article for Harper's Weekly

Handout 3

Geographic Representation: Election Results from Selected Elections

Name: ___________________________________ Date: _______________ Map Analysis ­ Electoral Results

Per: __________

Use the election results maps from 1864, 1876, 1980, and 2000 to answer the following questions. 1. Looking at the maps of 1864 and 1876, how did the Civil War affect the voting patterns of Americans? Use details from the map to support your response.

2. In 1876 the stronghold for the Democratic Party was in the southeast. These white southern democrats were known as dixiecrats, a portmanteau - refers to a word that is formed by combining both sounds and meanings from two or more words (e.g. 'dixiecrat' from 'dixie' and 'democrat'). How did the evolution of the parties alter the strongholds of Democrats and Republicans.

3. Looking at the map of 2000, one would imagine that the country was united behind the republican candidate. Based upon your knowledge of the 2000 election, is this assumption correct? Why or why not?

4. Looking at the election results from 1876 and 2000, what trends or patterns do you notice? Compare and contrast the two elections using evidence from the map.

5. What do these maps show about the nature and ideologies of political parties over time? Explain using evidence from the maps.

6. How might a campaign official use maps such as these to devise a campaign strategy for their political party? Provide examples in your explanation.

Handout 1: Election Results: 1876 Running Running Home Electoral Running Mate's Mate's State Vote Mate Home Electoral Count Percentage State Vote William New 185 Almon York Wheeler Thomas 184 Andrews Indiana Hendricks Popular Vote

Presidential Candidate


Rutherford Birchard Republican Ohio 4,034,311 Hayes Samuel Jones Tilden



New Democratic 4,288,546 York



Needed to win


Needed to win


Election Results: 2000

Presidential Candidate


Home State

Popular Vote Count Percentage 47.9%

Electoral Vote

Running Mate

Running Mate's Home State

Running Mate's Electoral Vote

George W. Bush

Republican Texas


271 Dick Cheney Wyoming Joe Lieberman


Al Gore

Democratic Tennessee 51,003,926





Handout 2

Timeline of the Election of 1876 Analysis Purpose: To analyze trends and patterns during the election of 1876 Materials: Chart paper, markers, ruler, attached reading/notes/attached website information regarding events during the Election of 1876. Timeline Instructions: a. b. Record and Plot the chronological events surrounding the Election of 1876 (either from their notes, text, or available through independent internet research.presented to you). Color code their timelines: i. Blue with events pertaining to the Democratic Party, ii. Red regarding the Republican Party, iii. Purple for examples of bipartisanship, iv. Black with general, non-political party related events. Plot, with some sort of a symbol, the appropriate Thomas Nash political cartoons that they viewed yesterday. This will offer a visual image to be associated with the timeline.


Timeline Analysis Questions: Instructions: Using the data you have plotted, record the following information. Be sure to explain your responses using evidence from the timeline. 1. What are noticeable trends or patterns that you notice over time? 2. What examples can be found of both parties collaborating with each other? For what reasons might these parties do this? 3. Select two Republican and two Democratic events. Determine what might have motivated the party to act in this way. 4. How might you evaluate the actions of either the Republican or Democratic Party during this time? Extension Assignment: Comparing to the Election of 2000 Consult the following website: Critical Thinking Question: Based on the data for your timeline of the Election of 1876 and the attached information about the Election of 2000, how might you compare and contrast the two elections? Provide specific and relevant comparisons using the data on both timelines. Topics you might consider: · What trends or patterns do you notice? · What evidence indicates change over time between the two elections? · What evidence indicates continuity among the two elections? · How do the actions of both political parties compare and contrast between the two elections?

Handout 4

Samuel Tilden's Speech to the Manhattan Club Conceding the Election of 1876

Instructions: As you read this speech, underline/highlight necessary vocabulary terms that need to be identified. Complete the TChart attached (Handout 5) New York Herald, Wed., June 13, 1877, p. 3, c. 2. MR. TILDEN'S SPEECH. Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Manhattan Club:-I accepted your invitation under the idea that this was to be a merely social meeting, the special occasion of which was the presence in this city of Mr. Hendricks and of Governor Robinson and Lieutenant Governor Dorsheimer. One of your guests, Mr. Hendricks, embarks tomorrow on a foreign excursion for rest and recreation. He will carry with him our best wishes for a prosperous voyage, pleasant visit and a safe return, and for the health and happiness of himself and family. I have been availing myself, for similar purposes, of a brief interval, and find myself now, with some reluctance, drawn away from those private pursuits. But the occasion and the apparent general expectation seem to require that I should say a word in respect to public affairs, and especially that I should allude to the transaction which, in my judgment, is the most portentous in our political history. Everybody knows that, after the recent election, the men who were elected by the people President and Vice President of the United States were "counted out," and men who were not elected were "counted in" and seated . NO PERSONAL WRONG. I disclaim any thought of the personal wrong involved in this transaction. Not by any act or word of mine shall that be dwarfed or degraded into a personal grievance, which is, in truth, the greatest wrong that has stained our national annals. To every man of the four and a quarter millions who were defrauded of the fruits of their elective franchise it is as great a wrong as it is to me. And no less to every man of the minority will the ultimate consequences extend. Evils in government grow by success and by impunity. They do not arrest their own progress. They can never be limited except by external forces. MUST NOT BE CONDONED. If the men in possession of the government can, in one instance, maintain themselves in power against an adverse decision at the

elections, such an example will be imitated. Temptation exists always. Devices to give the color of law, and false pretences on which to found fraudulent decisions, will not be wanting. The wrong will grow into a practice, if condoned-if once condoned. In the world's history changes in the succession of governments have usually been the result of fraud or force. It has been our faith and our pride that we had established a mode of peaceful change to be worked out by the agency of the ballot box. The question now is whether our elective system, in its substance as well as its form, is to be maintained. THE QUESTION OF QUESTIONS. This is the question of questions. Until it is finally settled there can be no politics founded on interior questions of administrative policy. It involves the fundamental right of the people. It involves the elective principle. It involves the whole system of popular government. The people must signally condemn the great wrong which has been done to them. They must strip the example of everything that can attract imitators. They must refuse a prosperous immunity to crime. This is not all. The people will not be able to trust the authors or beneficiaries of the wrong to devise remedies. But when those who condemn the wrong shall have the power they must devise the measure which shall render a repetition of the wrong forever impossible. BE OF GOOD CHEER. If my voice could reach throughout our country and be heard in its remotest hamlet I would say. "Be of good cheer. The Republic will live. The institutions of our fathers are not to expire in shame. The sovereignty of the people shall be rescued from this peril and be reestablished." THE TWEED RING. Successful wrong never appears so triumphant as on the very eve of its fall. Seven years ago a corrupt dynasty culminated in its power over the million of people who live in the city of New York. It has conquered or bribed, or flattered and won almost everybody into acquiescence. It appeared to be invincible. A year or two later its members were in the penitentiaries or in exile. History abounds in similar (sic) examples. We must believe in the right and in the future. A great and noble nation will not sever its political from its moral life. (Applause.) Analysis: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the tone of Tilden's Speech? Cite specific examples to support your opinion. Based on Tilden's Speech, what is the purpose of government? Explain with examples from the text. How does this speech address the main concerns of both parties in this election? Explain with examples from the text. What is the main idea or concept of this speech? What factors might cause Tilden to have his point of view? Explain.

Handout 5 Reacting to the Reading: Tilden's Speech Reaction as if you were a Republican (select 5 points) Reaction as if you were a Democrat (select 5 points)

Handout 6: Rutherford B. Hayes Letter Accepting the Republican Party Nomination for Presidency of the United States Columbus, Ohio - July 8, 1876 Instructions: As you read this speech, underline/highlight necessary vocabulary terms that need to be identified. As you read, jot down your immediate reaction to the text as if you were a Democrat in the margins. Complete the reading organizer that is attached (Handout 7) Hon. Edward McPherson, Hon. Wm. A. Howard, Hon. Joseph H. Rainey, and others, Committee of the Republican National Convention. Gentlemen: In reply to your official communication of June 17th, by which I am informed of my nomination for the office of President of the United States, by the Republican National Convention at Cincinnati, I accept the nomination, with gratitude, hoping that, under Providence, I shall be able, if elected, to execute the duties of the high office as a trust for the benefit of all the people. I do not deem it necessary to enter upon any extended examination of the declaration of principles made by the Convention. The resolutions are in accord with my views, and I heartily concur in the principles they announce. In several of the resolutions, however, questions are considered, which are of such importance, that I deem it proper to briefly express my convictions in regard to them. The fifth resolution adopted by the Convention, is of paramount interest. More than forty years ago, a system of making appointments to office, grew up, based upon the maxim, "To the victors belong the spoils." The old rule the true rule that honesty, capacity and fidelity constitute the only real qualifications for office, and that there is no other claim, gave place to the idea that party services were to be chiefly considered. All parties, in practice, have adopted this system. It has been essentially modified since its first introduction. It has not, however, been improved. At first the President, either directly, or through the heads of Departments, made all the appointments. But gradually the appointing power, in many cases, passed into the control of the members of Congress. The offices in these cases have become not merely rewards for party services, but rewards for services to party leaders. This system destroys the independence of the separate Departments of the Government; it tends directly to extravagance and official incapacity; it is a temptation to dishonesty; it hinders and impairs that careful supervision and strict accountability, by which alone faithful and efficient public service can be secured; it obstructs the prompt removal and sure punishment of the unworthy. In every way It degrades the civil service and the character of the Government.

It is felt, I am confident, by a large majority of the members of Congress, to be an intolerable burden, and an unwarrantable hindrance to the proper discharge of their legitimate duties. It ought to be abolished. The reform should be thorough, radical and complete. We should return to the principles and practice of the founders of the Government, supplying by legislation when needed, that which was formerly established custom. They neither expected nor desired from the public officers any partisan service. They meant that public officers should owe their whole service to the Government and to the people. They meant that the officer should be secure in his tenure as long as his personal character remained untarnished, and the performance, of his duties satisfactory. If elected, I shall conduct the administration of the Government upon these principles; and all the Constitutional powers vested in the Executive, will be employed to establish this reform, The declaration of principles by the Cincinnati Convention makes no announcement in favor of a single Presidential term. I do not assume to add that declaration; but believing that the restoration of the civil service, to the system established by Washington and followed by the early Presidents, can best be accomplished by an Executive who is under no temptation to use the patronage of his office, to promote his own re-election, I desire to perform what I regard as a duty, in stating now my inflexible purpose, if elected, not to be a candidate for election to a second term. On the currency question I have frequently expressed my views in public, and I stand by my record on this subject. I regard all the laws of the United States relating to the payment of the public indebtedness, the legal tender notes included, as constituting a pledge and moral obligation of the Government, which must in good faith be kept. It is my conviction that the feeling of uncertainty inseparable from an irredeemable paper currency, with its fluctuations of values, is one of the great obstacles to a revival of confidence and business, and to a return to prosperity. That uncertainty can be ended in but one way the resumption of specie payment but the longer the instability connected with our present money system is permitted to continue, the greater will be the injury inflicted upon our economical interests, and all classes of society. If elected, I shall approve every appropriate measure to accomplish the desired end, and shall oppose any step backward. The resolution with respect to the public school system, is one which should receive the hearty support of the American people. Agitation upon this subject is to be apprehended until, by constitutional amendment, the schools are placed beyond all danger of sectarian control or interference. The Republican party is pledged to secure such an amendment. The resolution of the Convention on the subject of the permanent pacification of the country, and the complete protection of all its citizens in the free enjoyment of all their constitutional rights, is timely and of great importance. The condition of the Southern States attracts the attention and commands the sympathy of the people of the whole Union. In their progressive recovery from the effects of the war, their first necessity is an intelligent and honest administration of the government, which will protect all classes of citizens in

all their political and private rights. What the South most needs is peace, and peace depends upon the supremacy of law. There can be no enduring peace, if the constitutional rights of any portion of the people are habitually disregarded. A division of political parties, resting merely upon distinctions of race, or upon sectional lines, is always unfortunate, and may be disastrous. The welfare of the South, alike with that of every other part of the country, depends upon the attractions it can offer to labor, to immigration, and to capital. But laborers will not go, and capital will not be ventured, where the Constitution and the laws are set at defiance, and distraction, apprehension and alarm take the place of peace-loving and law-abiding social life. All parts of the Constitution are sacred, and must be sacredly observed the parts that are new no less than the parts that are old. The moral and material prosperity of the Southern States can be most effectually advanced by a hearty and generous recognition of the rights of all, by all a recognition without reserve or exception. With such a recognition fully accorded, it will be practicable to promote, by the influence of all legitimate agencies of the General Government, the efforts of the people of those States, to obtain for themselves the blessings of honest and capable local government. If elected, I shall consider it not only my duty, but it will be my ardent desire to labor for the attainment of this end. Let me assure my countrymen of the Southern States that if I shall be charged with the duty of organizing an Administration, it will be one which will regard and cherish their truest interests the interests of the white, and of the colored people both, and equally; and which will put forth its best efforts in behalf of a civil policy, which will wipe out forever the distinction between the North and South in our common country. With a civil service organized upon a system which will secure purity, experience, efficiency, and economy, a strict regard for the public welfare, solely in appointments, and the speedy, thorough and unsparing prosecution and punishment of all public officers who betray official trusts; with a sound currency; with education unsectarian and free to all; with simplicity and frugality in public and private affairs; and with a fraternal spirit of harmony pervading the people of all sections and classes, we may reasonably hope that the second century of our existence as a Nation will, by the blessing of God, be pre-eminent as "an era of good feeling," and a period of progress, prosperity, and happiness. Very Respectfully, Your fellow citizen, R.B.Hayes

Handout 7: Understanding the Document

Evidence of a Compromise between Both Sides Similarities to Republican Platform Differences from the Republican Platform

How Hayes' Speech is Similar to My Main Points

Examples of Attempts to Pacify the Country

Handout 8 Extra! Extra! Read All About It! A Retrospective: Election of 1876 Task: You are going to assume the role of a reporter to Harper's Weekly, a popular magazine during the Era of Reconstruction (circa 1877). In this article, you will prepare a written retrospective of what happened surrounding the Election of 1876. letter that you prepare should include responses to the following questions: 1. What were the primary issues of both Republicans and Democrats in this election? 2. What were the problems and concerns surrounding the results of the Election of 1876? 3. How did political cartoons by Thomas Nash report the events of the election? How were political parties portrayed? 4. Throughout the election, how did Republicans and Democrats respond to the crisis? 5. What agreement ended up resolving the election crisis? Be sure to discuss the different characteristics of the agreement according to Pres.Hayes 6. What does this election tell us about how the political parties responded to this crisis? How might you characterize the relationship between Republicans and Democrats following this election?


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