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Alternative Display Technology Report: OLED Technology

Part I DisplaySearch 2003

Alternative Display Technology Report: OLED Technology

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Copyright © 2003 DisplaySearch

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Alternative Display Technology Report: OLED Technology

Table of Contents

List of Figures ............................................................................................................................ iii List of Tables ............................................................................................................................. iii List of Equations...................................................................................................................... viii 1.0 2.0 Executive Summary ............................................................................................ 1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 11 2.1 Comparison of OLEDs with LCDs ........................................................... 12 2.2 Material Positioning ................................................................................. 12 2.3 OLED Names........................................................................................... 15 2.4 OLED Intellectual Property (IP) ............................................................... 16 Theory of Organic Electroluminescence (OLED) ........................................... 21 3.1 Electrode Interfaces................................................................................. 28 3.2 Charge Injection and Charge Transport .................................................. 30 3.3 Electron­Hole Recombination and Light Emission.................................. 31 3.4 Photonic Structure Effects ....................................................................... 33 3.5 Efficiency ................................................................................................. 34 3.6 Lifetimes .................................................................................................. 34 3.7 Stability .................................................................................................... 37

3.7.1 3.7.2 Operational Stability................................................................................ 38 Storage Stability...................................................................................... 39

3.0

4.0

Material ............................................................................................................... 41 4.1 Fluorescent Small Molecule (SM) OLEDs ............................................... 41 4.2 Electrophosphorescent OLEDs ............................................................... 46 4.3 Polymer OLEDs (LEPs) ........................................................................... 49

4.3.1 4.3.2 Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) LEP Materials .................................. 51 Polyfluorene (PF) LEP Material .............................................................. 53

4.4 5.0

Dendrimers .............................................................................................. 64

OLED Driving Schemes .................................................................................... 69 5.1 Passive Matrix Architecture ..................................................................... 69 5.2 Active Matrix OLEDs................................................................................ 74 5.2 5.3 Top- vs. Bottom-Emitting Designs .................................................... 76 5.3 a-Si vs. p-Si Design Considerations ........................................................ 85

5.3.1 5.3.2 a-Si TFT Designs .................................................................................... 85 Low Temperature Polysilicon (LTPS) ..................................................... 94 Organic TFTs ........................................................................................ 104

5.4 6.0

LTPS Roadmap ....................................................................................... 99

5.4.1

Manufacturing.................................................................................................. 105 6.1 Alternative Methods for Producing Full Color Displays.......................... 106 6.2 Small Molecule Passive Matrix Manufacturing ...................................... 108

6.2.1 Color Patterning .................................................................................... 109 Linear Evaporation Tool........................................................................ 117 Alternative Vacuum Deposition Processes for Cathodes ..................... 121 2003 i

6.3

Deposition and Patterning Equipment ................................................... 115

6.3.1 6.3.2

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Alternative Display Technology Report: OLED Technology 6.3.3 Organic Vapor Phase Deposition (OVPD)............................................ 123 Ink Jet Printing ...................................................................................... 130 Laser Induced Thermal Imaging (LITI) Process for Patterning Soluble OLEDs................................................................................................... 146 Screenprinting ....................................................................................... 150 Process Temperature ........................................................................... 154 LTPS Device Variations and Process Flows ........................................ 155 LTPS Yields .......................................................................................... 161 State of the Art in Circuit Fabrication .................................................... 162

6.4

Polymer OLED (LEP) Manufacturing..................................................... 128

6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3

6.5

Active Matrix Backplanes....................................................................... 151

6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4

6.6 6.7 6.8 7.0

LTPS Array Fabrication ......................................................................... 170 Reflective Compensation....................................................................... 171 Encapsulation ........................................................................................ 174

Revenue and Unit Forecast by Applications ................................................ 179 7.1 OLED Forecast Assumptions ................................................................ 180 7.2 OLED Unit and Revenue Forecasts ...................................................... 181 7.3 OLED Market by Panel Producer .......................................................... 190 Capacity Analysis and Organic Material Utilization ..................................... 191 8.1 OLED Capacity by Type of Material and Driver Technology ................. 191 8.2 Organic Material Demand...................................................................... 198 Cost Analysis--AMOLED vs. a-Si and p-Si TFT LEDs ................................. 203

8.0

9.0

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Alternative Display Technology Report: OLED Technology

List of Figures

Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 2.1 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Figure 3.9 Figure 3.10 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Figure 4.9 Figure 4.10 Figure 4.11 Figure 4.12 Figure 4.13 Figure 4.14 Figure 4.15 Figure 4.16 Figure 4.17 Figure 4.18 Figure 4.19 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.5 Figure 5.6 Figure 5.7 Figure 5.8 DisplaySearch 2002- 2008 Revenue by Application (US$ Millions) ........................................................... 5 2003 Market Share (Revenues).......................................................................................... 6 OLED Materials Chemical Structure ................................................................................. 14 Current Density vs. Voltage and Luminance vs. Current Density (SMOLED) .................. 23 Single-Layer Diode Intensity vs. Wavelength ................................................................... 24 OLED Spectral Emission .................................................................................................. 25 Single Layer Diode Structure ............................................................................................ 25 Copolymer Structures ....................................................................................................... 26 Current-Density/Voltage/Luminance Characteristics for Polyfluorene-Based Devices .... 27 Energy Levels for Electroluminescent Diodes .................................................................. 29 Pathways for Singlet Decay as Well as Triplet Excitation and Decay. ............................. 32 IV Characteristic of a LEP with Initial Maximum Efficiency of 4.3 cd/A at 3.8 V ................. 37 Operational Stability with an Initial Luminance of 80cd/m2 ............................................... 39 Small Molecule OLED Device Structure ........................................................................... 42 Inert Gas vs. O2 Glow Discharge Treatment on Work Function........................................ 44 CIE Standard Color Coordinates for NTSC vs. Kodak Material ....................................... 46 Phosphorescent OLED ..................................................................................................... 48 LEP Stack ......................................................................................................................... 50 LEP Stack with Electron Blocking Layer ........................................................................... 51 Molecular Structure of a Typical Poly-Spiro...................................................................... 52 Molecular Structure of a Typical Poly-Spiro...................................................................... 54 Modified Suzuki process for making polyfluorenes. Ar and Ar' denote aromatic structures. ......................................................................................................................... 55 Characteristics of Green PF device with PEDOT Hole-Transport Layer and Ca Cathode. (a) Current-Luminance vs. Voltage. (b) Device Efficiency (cd/A) vs. Luminance (cd/m2); (c) Lifetime with Light Output (cd/m2) vs. Time (hours). ................................................... 57 Characteristics of PF Red Device with PEDOT as Hole-Transport Layer and Ca as cathode. (a) Efficiency-Luminance vs. Voltage. (b) Lifetime with Light Output (cd/m2) and Voltage vs. Time (hours)............................................................................................ 58 Luminance-efficiency versus voltage of Dow LUMATION Blue LEP device with PEDOT hole-transport layer and LiF/Ca cathode. ......................................................................... 59 Blue PF LEP Performance Improvement Over Time........................................................ 59 Ink Viscosity vs. Polymer Concentration for Dow's LUMATION Green 1300 Series LEP of Various Molecular Weights. .............................................................................................. 60 Model of Viscosity-Concentration-Molecular Weight Relationship for Dow's LUMATION Green 1300 Series LEPs in a Single Solvent System. ..................................................... 61 Distribution of Solvent Blends ........................................................................................... 62 Metal Ion Surrounded by Organic Ligand ......................................................................... 64 Dendrimer Structures ........................................................................................................ 65 Doped European Organolanthanide Device ..................................................................... 66 Brightness/Voltage Characteristics ................................................................................... 71 Cross Talk in a Passive Matrix OLED Device................................................................... 72 Passive Matrix Single and Dual Scan Configurations....................................................... 73 Attachment Schemes ........................................................................................................ 74 Two TFT Design................................................................................................................ 75 Four-TFT Design............................................................................................................... 75 Pixel/Brightness Uniformity ............................................................................................... 76 Bottom Emitting AMOLED Schematic............................................................................... 77 2003 iii

Alternative Display Technology Report: OLED Technology Figure 5.9 Figure 5.10 Figure 5.11 Figure 5.12 Figure 5.13 Figure 5.14 Figure 5.15 Figure 5.16 Figure 5.17 Figure 5.18 Figure 5.19 Figure 5.20 Figure 5.21 Figure 5.22 Figure 5.23 Figure 5.24 Figure 5.25 Figure 5.26 Figure 5.27 Figure 5.28 Figure 5.29 Figure 5.30 Figure 5.31 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3 Figure 6.4 Figure 6.5 Figure 6.6 Figure 6.7 Figure 6.8 Figure 6.9 Figure 6.10 Figure 6.11 Figure 6.12 Figure 6.13 Figure 6.14 Figure 6.15 Figure 6.16 Figure 6.17 Figure 6.18 Figure 6.19 Figure 6.20 Figure 6.21 Figure 6.22 Figure 6.23 Figure 6.24 Figure 6.25 Figure 6.26 Figure 6.27 Figure 6.28 Figure 6.29 Figure 6.30 iv Top-Emitting AMOLED LEP Schematic............................................................................ 78 1 × 1 mm-OLED Pixel Array made at the NRC................................................................. 79 Top Emitting Efficiency and Reflectivity by Type of Metal (Modeled)............................... 81 Angular Dependence of a C545T-doped Top Emitting Microcavity Device...................... 82 a-Si TFT Design ................................................................................................................86 Pixel Compensation Circuit and Signal Timing................................................................. 88 Simplified Pixel Compensation Circuit .............................................................................. 89 Signal Timing for Simplified Pixel Compensation Circuit .................................................. 89 Circuits Inhibiting Write Period Conduction in T3 ............................................................. 90 Luminance for Standard Voltage ...................................................................................... 92 Percentage Luminance Loss from a 2V Vt Increase......................................................... 92 Percentage Luminance Loss from a 1V Vt Increase......................................................... 93 Circuit with Top & Bottom Gate TFT ................................................................................. 93 Structure of Top & Bottom Gate TFT ................................................................................ 93 Transistor Current at Various Source Voltages ................................................................ 95 OLED Normalized Light Emission..................................................................................... 96 Pixel Brightness Uniformity for a Two-TFT Design........................................................... 97 Pixel Brightness Uniformity for a Four-TFT Design .......................................................... 98 Circuit Integration vs. Process Generation ..................................................................... 100 High Integration System Demands ................................................................................. 101 Approaches for Increasing Mobility................................................................................. 103 Grain Size vs. Mobility .................................................................................................... 103 Field Effect Mobility vs. Channel Length......................................................................... 104 Small Molecule Patterning .............................................................................................. 110 Cathode Separators ........................................................................................................ 110 Deposition Rate vs. Temperature ................................................................................... 113 Mask Alignment Control.................................................................................................. 114 ELVESS System from Tokki ........................................................................................... 116 Satella System from ULVAC........................................................................................... 116 OLED Production System ............................................................................................... 117 Schematic of Linear Source and Substrate .................................................................... 118 Deposition Rate as a Function of Position...................................................................... 119 Source Assembly in Vacuum Chamber .......................................................................... 119 Point vs. Linear Source Performance ............................................................................. 120 Schematic of the OVPD Process .................................................................................... 124 AIXTRON's Close Coupled Showerhead OVPD Technology......................................... 124 Close Coupled Showerhead and Standard VTE Configuration...................................... 126 Thickness uniformity of a 60 nm Alq3 film by OVPD ...................................................... 127 OVPD production system (AIXTRON) with cluster handler (Brooks) ............................. 128 Single-Layer Type (left) and Double-Layer Type (right) ................................................. 130 Well Structure.................................................................................................................. 131 LEP Multicolor Structure ................................................................................................. 131 Mechanical Positioning of the Ink Jet Film Forming Process ......................................... 133 LEP Fabrication............................................................................................................... 135 Drop On Demand Ink Jet Printing Technology ............................................................... 135 Piezoelectric Print Head.................................................................................................. 136 Functions of Bubble Jet Head......................................................................................... 137 PZT D-O-D Generating Device ....................................................................................... 138 PPV Solution Ink Droplets............................................................................................... 138 IJP LEP Film Analysis ..................................................................................................... 141 PEDT Film Formation Variations with Standard PEDT formulation (top), and Improved Film Flatness using Formulations with Solvent Additives (middle and bottom).............. 142 Drop Uniformity Analysis................................................................................................. 143 IJP Uniformity PL and EL Images ................................................................................... 143 2003 DisplaySearch

Alternative Display Technology Report: OLED Technology Figure 6.31 Figure 6.32a Figure 6.32b Figure 6.33 Figure 6.34 Figure 6.35 Figure 6.36 Figure 6.37 Figure 6.38 Figure 6.39 Figure 6.40 Figure 6.41 Figure 6.42 Figure 6.43 Figure 6.44 Figure 6.45 Figure 6.46 Figure 6.47 Figure 6.48 Figure 6.49 Figure 6.50 Figure 6.51 Figure 6.52 Figure 6.53 Figure 6.54 Figure 6.55 Figure 6.56 Figure 6.57 Figure 6.58 Figure 7.1 Figure 7.2 Figure 7.3 Figure 7.4 Figure 7.5 Figure 7.6 Figure 7.7 Figure 7.8 Figure 7.9 Figure 7.10 Figure 7.11 Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 Figure 8.3 Figure 8.4 Figure 8.5 Figure 8.6 Figure 8.7 Figure 8.8 Figure 8.9 Figure 8.10 Figure 8.11 DisplaySearch MicroFab's Jetlab® Test Platform................................................................................... 144 Litrex PMD 80L System .................................................................................................. 145 Litrex 140P 370 × 470 mm IJ Printer .............................................................................. 145 Schematic of the LITI Process ........................................................................................ 146 Diagram for LITI Optical Imaging System....................................................................... 148 Force Balance During LITI Transfer................................................................................ 148 Q1'01-Q4'06 LTPS Production by Generation (thousands of m2) and Y/Y Growth Rates .................................................................................................... 152 2001-2006 LTPS vs. a-Si Glass Production Share......................................................... 153 Bottom and Top Gate LTPS TFT Device Structures ...................................................... 156 9-mask Bottom Gate Process Flow ................................................................................ 158 9-mask Top Gate Process Flow...................................................................................... 160 LGE's 5-mask Buried Bus Coplanar LTPS TFT Device ................................................. 161 Contributors to LTPS TFT Yield Loss ............................................................................. 162 Initial Driver Implementation ........................................................................................... 163 Advanced Drive Circuit ................................................................................................... 164 TFT Channel Length vs. Power Consumption (Device: 2", 130,000 dots and 100 to 120 cm2/Vs)..................................................................................................................... 165 Design Rules vs. Circuit Integration................................................................................ 166 Numbers of Shots vs. Grain Size.................................................................................... 167 Switching Voltage vs. Change in Mobility ....................................................................... 168 LDD vs. Change in Mobility............................................................................................. 168 Circular Polarizing Technology ....................................................................................... 171 Circular Polarizer Reducing Reflectance ........................................................................ 172 Destructive Interference Using the Black Layer.............................................................. 173 Encapsulated OLED........................................................................................................ 175 Atomic force micrographs of PET without (top) and with Barix coating.......................... 176 SEL Cross Section of Barix Coating ............................................................................... 176 Schematic Representation of Barix Encapsulation......................................................... 177 Philips Display with Vitex Barrier Coating ....................................................................... 177 G200 Guardian Tool for Barix Encapsulation Produced by Tokki .................................. 178 OLED Roadmap.............................................................................................................. 180 OLED Unit Forecast (000) and Growth........................................................................... 182 OLED Unit Forecast by Application (000) ....................................................................... 183 OLED Revenue Forecast ($000) and Growth................................................................ 184 OLED Revenue Forecast by Application ($000)............................................................. 185 OLED Y/Y Application Growth by Shipments ................................................................. 186 OLED Application Growth by Revenue........................................................................... 187 OLED Market Share by Revenue ................................................................................... 189 OLED Market Share by Application ................................................................................ 189 2003 Market Share (Revenue)........................................................................................ 190 2003 Market Share (Units).............................................................................................. 190 2" Equivalent Capacity: Realistic .................................................................................... 194 2" Equivalent Capacity: Optimistic .................................................................................. 194 Operating OLED Fabs through Q4'04............................................................................. 195 OLED Fabs Planned to Begin Operating in 2005 ........................................................... 196 OLED Capacity by Region (Share) ................................................................................. 197 Material Revenue Realistic Case.................................................................................... 199 Material Revenue Optimistic Case.................................................................................. 199 Small Molecule Material Unit Forecast ........................................................................... 200 Small Molecule Material Revenue Forecast ................................................................... 200 Polymer Material Forecast .............................................................................................. 201 Polymer Revenue Forecast: Realistic............................................................................. 201 2003 v

Alternative Display Technology Report: OLED Technology Figure 9.1 Figure 9.2 Figure 9.3 Figure 9.4 Figure 9.5 Figure 9.6 Figure 9.7 2.2" through 5.8" Costs by Technology........................................................................... 204 2.0" Color Display Manufactured Costs .......................................................................... 205 2.2" Color Display Manufactured Costs .......................................................................... 205 3.0" Color Display Manufactured Costs .......................................................................... 206 3.5" Color Display Manufactured Costs .......................................................................... 206 5.8" Color Display Manufactured Costs .......................................................................... 207 10.4" Color Display Manufactured Costs ........................................................................ 208

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Alternative Display Technology Report: OLED Technology

List of Tables

Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.3 Table 5.4 Table 5.5 Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 6.5 Table 6.6 Table 6.7 Table 6.8 Table 6.9 Table 6.10 Table 6.11 Table 6.12 Table 6.13 Table 6.14 Table 6.15 Table 6.16 Table 6.17 Table 7.1 Table 7.2 Table 7.3 Table 7.4 Table 7.5 Table 7.6 Table 7.7 Table 8.1 Table 8.2 Table 8.3 Table 8.4 Table 9.1 Kodak Fluorescent Small Molecule Material Performance ............................................... 45 Kodak Forecasted Performance in 2004 .......................................................................... 45 Phosphorescent Small Molecule Material Performance ................................................... 47 Covion's Polymer Material Performance........................................................................... 53 Emission color and device characteristics of Dow Green, Red and Blue......................... 56 Polymer OLED (LEP) Material Performance .................................................................... 63 Fluorescent and Phosphorescent Dendrimer Material Performance................................ 67 Effect of anode metal on microcavity top-emission .......................................................... 81 Layer Structure and Performance of Optimized RGB Monochrome Microcavity Devices ........................................................................................................... 83 Layer Structure and Performance of Optimized Nonmicrocavity and Microcavity Devices .................................................................................................... 84 a-Si and p-Si TFT Characteristics..................................................................................... 94 LTPS Technology Roadmap........................................................................................... 100 Manufacturing Comparison of Active& Passive, Small Molecule & LEP Processes ...... 105 Typical Color Display Methodologies.............................................................................. 107 Material Formation .......................................................................................................... 109 Passive Matrix Small Molecule Manufacturing Process ................................................. 111 Point vs. Linear Source Performance ............................................................................. 120 Substrate Size vs. Panels/Substrate............................................................................... 121 Different Process Conditions for OVPD and Vacuum Thermal Evaporation .................. 126 Ink Jet Specifications ...................................................................................................... 132 Piezo Electric Print head Example.................................................................................. 132 LITI LEP Performance..................................................................................................... 149 LITI OLED Materials Spectrum ....................................................................................... 150 2001 - 2006 LTPS Production (000s of m2) and Y/Y Growth Rates ............................... 152 2001-2006 LTPS Production Capacity by Company (000 m2) ....................................... 153 LTPS Process Temperatures by Process Step .............................................................. 154 Advantages and Disadvantages of LTPS TFT Device Structures.................................. 155 2001 ­ 2005 LTPS Roadmap ......................................................................................... 169 LTPS TFT Equipment Count and Costs by Process Type ............................................. 171 Evaluation of Applications by Technology ...................................................................... 181 OLED Unit (000) Forecast 2001 to 2007 ........................................................................ 183 OLED Market Share by Application ................................................................................ 184 OLED Revenue Forecast by Application ($000)............................................................. 185 OLED Application Share by Revenue............................................................................. 186 OLED Y/Y Application Growth by Shipments ................................................................. 187 OLED Revenue Growth by Application........................................................................... 188 Planned and Existing OLED Manufacturing Facilities .................................................... 191 OLED Capacity Share by Region (2" equivalents) ......................................................... 197 Rules for Calculating Small Molecule Material Usage .................................................... 198 Rules for Calculating Material Usage for Polymers ........................................................ 198 Cost Model Assumptions ................................................................................................ 203

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Alternative Display Technology Report: OLED Technology

List of Equations

Equation 3.1 Equation 5.1 Equation 6.1 Internal Quantum Efficiency.............................................................................................. 27 Instantaneous Brightness ................................................................................................. 70 Total Positioning Precision (TPP) ................................................................................... 133

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