Read Microsoft Word - ATLAS ABSTRACT BOOK.doc text version

TOURISM AFTER OIL

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Department of Tourism University of Otago 3 ­ 5 December 2006

TOURISM AFTER OIL

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Hosted by: Department of Tourism University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand www.otago.ac.nz/tourism

3-5 December 2006

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

List of Papers by Author:

Beyond the Visitor in New Zealand's Public Conservation Estate Mick Abbott ...................................................................................... 6 Attraction Attributes of Selected ASEAN Destinations According to the Medium-Haul and Long-Haul Tourists Suzzaini Abdullah, Shaharuddin Tahir and Norhaslinda Zainal Abidin ................39 Architecture Tourism? Heritage Tourism? Or Coincidence? The Significance of the Victorian Whitestone Architecture for Tourism in Oamaru Julia Albrecht.................................................................................... 8 Deconstructing Plot, Constructing Entertainment: Entertaining the International Visitor at Huis Ten Bosch, Japan Ayse Collins Bas and Chris Ryan .............................................................53 Chaos Theory as an Approach to Understanding MICE in Time of Crisis Kom Campiranon ...............................................................................11 `Lighting the Lamp of Each Person's Heart': Religious Museums and the Modern World Elizabeth Carnegie .............................................................................59 The Position of Freedom within Tourism: A Conceptual Reflection Neil Carr .........................................................................................22 Tourism: Its Implications for Gender Landscapes in Thailand Yuthasak Chatkaewnapanon..................................................................16 Are Phileas Fogg and Robinson Crusoe Living in the Same Body? Second Home Tourism in Hamner Springs ­ New Zealand Uli Cloesen and David Fisher .................................................................27 Flowing Through Life; Long-Term Travel as a Lifestyle Alternative Scott Cohen .....................................................................................31 What is Wilderness? Voices from the Summit of Mt Kosciuszko Tracey Dickson................................................................................... 7 A Preliminary Investigation into Young People's Use of Leisure to Regulate a Bored Mood State Ji-Sook Han and Ian Patterson ...............................................................30 Ecotourism Accreditation, Certification and Compliance in Australia: A Critical Assessment John Jenkins ....................................................................................28

Page 1

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Whakawaewera Village ­ A Case Study of a Living Village and its Capacity to Sustain Cultural Tourism Mark Kanning ...................................................................................57 Destination Satisfaction of Group Package Tourists Martin Chung Kao, Noel Scott, Ian Patterson, Chung-kai Kary Li ......................62 Cultural Rural Tourism in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia Kalsom Kayat....................................................................................15 The Role of Hotel Design Development in Strengthening Regional/National Destination Image Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee.......................................................................38 Internal Action Versus External Reaction ­ A Community is Rebuilding Itself Teresa Leopold .................................................................................44 Living the Dream: Reflections of a Group of `Grey Nomads' About an Extended Semi-Structured Ramble Through Northern Territory and Western Australia Jillian Litster ...................................................................................32 Tourist Perception and Satisfaction of Beach-Cast Seaweed and Coral Reef at Likuri Island, Fiji Michael Lück, W. Lindsey Zemke-White and Andrea C. Alfaro .........................55 Destination Branding: Conceptualization of Collaboration within a Problem Domain Giuseppe Marzano and Noel Scott...........................................................61 Sport Tourism and Public Health: The Implications of the 4th East Asian Games for Hong Kong Yim Mei and Kiano Luk ........................................................................47 People's Perceptions of Fear in the Holiday Environment, A Theoretical Framework Paolo Mura ......................................................................................23 Travel Behaviour Among the Physically Disabled People in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Ghazali Musa, Azni Zarina Taha, Toe Chui Chui, Yong Kim Woon and Nazirah Hasnan ...........................................................................................46 Auckland as a Haven of Cultural Tourism: A Comparative Study from 2004 and 2006 as Part of the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research Group Research Project Ken Newlands, Han (Hannah) Wang, Yupeng Xu, Xuan (Shirley) Jin...................51 Of Casinos and Integrated Resorts: Tourism Development in Singapore Chin Ee Ong .....................................................................................14

Page 2

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Earthquakes and Tourism: Perceptions of Seismic Hazard by Tourism Operators in the Zone of the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand Caroline Orchiston .............................................................................54 Positioning the City Product as a Tourist Destination ­ A Comparison of Four South African Cities Girish Prayag....................................................................................51 The Use of Scenarios to Project the Impact of Global Warming on Future Visitation to the Great Barrier Reef Bruce Prideaux..................................................................................19 Research Methods for Small Tourism Business Enquiry ­ A Critique Sophie Rainford and Anne Zahra ............................................................36 Volunteer Tourism: Experiences That Make a Difference? Eliza Raymond ..................................................................................24 The Effect of Fuel Price Rises on Tourism Behaviour: An Exploratory Australian Study Brent Ritchie, Barry O'Mahony, Paul Whitelaw...........................................18 National Capital Tourism Marketing Issues: A Comparison of Three Political National Capital Cities Brent Ritchie and Sophie Peirce .............................................................49 Trouble in Paradise: The Paradox of Sustainable Tourism Development in the Maldives Regina Scheyvens...............................................................................20 The Death of the Nation State? Conceptionalising the Power of Supranational Organisations in 'Tourism Governance' Daniela Schilcher ...............................................................................42 Predator and Pest Control as a Basis for Ecotourism Product Development Eric Shelton .....................................................................................26 Tourism Destination Attitudes: What the Non-Visitors Say ­ Higher Education Students' Perspectives Tekle Shanka and Ian Phau ...................................................................40 Are You Being Served? Expectations and Perceptions of Travel Agency Customers Tekle Shanka and Claire Loh Hwee Kuen...................................................63 Evaluating Malaysia's Performance as Host to the XVI Commonwealth and the XXI South East Asia Games Shaharuddin Tahir and Abdul Razak Chik ..................................................12

Page 3

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Niche MICE Markets ­ An Investigation of Women Delegates Ruth Taylor and Shanka Tekle ...............................................................10 The Implications of Political Values and Ideology on Tourist Attitudes, a Theoretical Framework Andrea Valentin ................................................................................35 Backpacker Becoming: A Journey of Cultural Construction Neil Walsh .......................................................................................58 The Ambiguities Associated with Sustainability and New Zealand Tourism Policy Anne Zahra ......................................................................................34 Domestic Tourism in New Zealand: Public and Private Sector Initiatives over the last Twenty Five Years Anne Zahra ......................................................................................43

Page 4

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

3 December ­ 4.30 ­ 6.00 pm Room: CO.221 TOURISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT I

Chair: Eric Shelton

Beyond the Visitor in New Zealand's Public Conservation Estate Mick Abbott University of Otago What is Wilderness? Voices from the Summit of Mt Kosciuszko Tracey Dickson University of Canberra Architecture Tourism? Heritage Tourism? Or Coincidence? The Significance of the Victorian Whitestone Architecture for Tourism in Oamaru Julia Albrecht University of Otago

Page 5

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Beyond the Visitor in New Zealand's Public Conservation Estate Mick Abbott

Department of Design Studies, University of Otago [email protected] In New Zealand the Department of Conservation defines all people in the public conservation estate, which covers over 30% of New Zealand's land area, as visitors. Framed as outsiders these voyeurs of nature consume products and services whose basis is in a picturesque idea of nature that they themselves are not part of. Instead visitors are understood and "welcomed as valued guests." (DOC 1996:8) Recent theoretical work emphasises the dynamic characteristics of landscapes: of how they are continuously formed and reformed by the perceptions and behaviours of people. This paper questions the quality and depth of landscapes formed through the perspective of a visitor. It compares this with the forms of landscape that might be created through an active and unfolding participation between tourist and the conservation estate in which "the landscape becomes part of us, just as we are part of it". (Ingold 2000:191) A case study is explored in this light. A proposal to generate a landscape of participation at Sandfly Bay on New Zealand's Otago Peninsula is compared with current responses that treat people as visitors on the public conservation estate. Department of Conservation Visitor Strategy (Wellington: Department of Conservation (DOC), 1996) Tim Ingold, The perception of the environment: essays in livelihood, dwelling and skill (London: Routledge 2000)

Page 6

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

What is Wilderness? Voices from the Summit of Mt Kosciuszko Tracey Dickson

Centre for Tourism Research, University of Canberra [email protected] Four approaches to defining wilderness include: pristine, phenomenal, legislated and perceptual. This research focuses upon `perceptual' wilderness in that it explores how people define, expect, perceive and experience wilderness which is of importance for land managers, tourism organisations and tourism operators. How people perceive and experience places as wilderness may have implications for visitor and protected area management as well as in the construction, conduct and promotion of sustainable leisure and tourism activities in that area, i.e. if people experience a highly managed and controlled area as wilderness AND have high levels of reported satisfaction, then why do they need to go to `real' wilderness areas? If people experience pseudo-wilderness as `true' wilderness, is that enough? What really is wilderness? The research was conducted by surveying more than 2,500 visitors to the summit of Mt Kosciuszko (Australia's highest point) in a period from Boxing Day 2005 through to the ANZAC Day long weekend at the end of April 2006. In a previous study by the author on the summit of Mt Kosciuszko it was found that up to 92% of respondents indicated that they had experienced wilderness on Mt Kosciuszko, even though the summit area has significant human impact, high visitation during the data collection period as well being outside any legislated wilderness areas. Visitors' understandings of how wilderness differs from non-wilderness areas were explored via open-ended questions and analysed to explore themes across the responses. Visitors' perceptions (using a 5 point Likert scale) expectations of wilderness and experiences (using Yes/No responses). These questions were drawn from a prior study of back country experiences in New Zealand (Kearsley, Coughlan, Higham, Higham, & Thyne, 1998). These responses were analysed to explore statistical differences across a range of variables including age group, gender, area of residence in Australia, nationality, experience level, group size and motivation to encounter wilderness. This current research builds upon Dickson's previous study and seeks to gain further understanding of what visitors actually consider wilderness to be as well as exploring their level of place attachment. What people experience as wilderness may bear no resemblance to the views of the `experts' and may contrast with common definitions which often reflect the relative importance given to the scientific and aesthetic qualities of environments as determined and constructed by those people in positions of power and influence. This paper explores: · · · · · Some history of the Kosciuszko National Park (KNP) Who is experiencing the area around Mt Kosciuszko as wilderness How visitors consider wilderness to differ from non-wilderness areas The level of place attachment of visitors to the summit area Implications of the research findings for land managers in protected areas and leisure and tourism operators

Page 7

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Architecture Tourism? Heritage Tourism? Or Coincidence? The Significance of the Victorian Whitestone Architecture for Tourism in Oamaru Julia Albrecht

Department of Tourism, University of Otago [email protected] The Victorian Whitestone Architecture in Oamaru, built from Waitaki Whitestone, has been "discovered" as significant heritage - and therefore also potential tourist attraction - in the late 1980s. Ever since, Oamaru has increasingly developed the Victorian houses in order not only to preserve them but also to foster their attractiveness for tourism. Along with the Little Blue Penguin Colony, they are now marketed as being a significant part of the Oamaru tourist experience. The Waitaki District Tourism Strategy 2006-2011, released in February 2006, refers strongly to the Victorian precinct. By being a relic, historic buildings undoubtedly match the concept of heritage and are therefore, theoretically, can be subject to Heritage Tourism in general. The concept of Architecture Tourism is - so far - not widely discussed in tourism research. If at all, it has rather been examined in the context of Urban Tourism in general or through a marketing and/ or architectural lens (e.g., the "Bilbao effect"). Firstly, this paper looks at the significance of the Victorian precinct for tourism in Oamaru and how it is being dealt with from a tourism perspective. Then, corresponding future planning and development aims will be explored before discussing the concepts of Architecture Tourism and Heritage Tourism according to the findings of the case study Oamaru. A structured review/ content analysis will of secondary sources forms the basis of this investigation. Tourism in Oamaru with a special focus of the role and importance of the Whitestone precinct will be the centre of attention. A literature review on concepts and definitions of Heritage Tourism and Architecture Tourism will take place. Secondary sources that will be used include newspaper and magazine articles, web pages, promotional material and the current tourism strategy. In conclusion, this paper analyses the importance of the Victorian Whitestone Architecture for tourism in Oamaru. Furthermore, the findings will be discussed in the context of Architecture Tourism, Heritage Tourism and "architecture related heritage tourism".

Page 8

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Sunday 3 December ­ 4.30 ­ 6.00 pm Room: CO.219 EVENTS AND MICE

Chair: David Scott

Niche MICE Markets ­ An Investigation of Women Delegates Ruth Taylor and Shanka Tekle Curtin University of Technology Chaos Theory as an Approach to Understanding MICE in Time of Crisis Kom Campiranon University of Queensland Evaluating Malaysia's Performance as Host to the XVI Commonwealth and the XXI South East Asia Games Shaharuddin Tahir and Abdul Razak Chik Universiti Utara Malaysia

Page 9

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Niche MICE Markets ­ An Investigation of Women Delegates Ruth Taylor and Shanka Tekle

School of Management, Curtin University of Technology [email protected] There is a noted increase in the body of research in the MICE sector in terms of political, social, economic and technological impacts, destination research, and customer satisfaction and experience. However, there is a need to further add to this body of knowledge with detailed research, such as investigations into niche MICE markets of significance to the MICE sector. Therefore, this study investigates the women traveller MICE market. This study will enable the customer, the event and the destination to better plan and provide for these visitors. Women are travelling for a range of reasons including leisure travel, increased VFR travel due to family care and obligations, and also various forms of special interest travel such as association or not-for-profit organisation travel purposes. Whilst a significant growth market of women travellers has been noticed in the MICE sector attributed to the corporate or business travel market, many women travel for alumni purposes or in connection with their roles as committee or association members, voluntary care workers, or for societal work. This often requires the association or personal funding of the travel as opposed to corporate funding. The aim of this paper is to investigate the perceived needs of women travelling for association purposes. That is, it seeks to investigate women delegates' levels of satisfaction of conference attributes with regards to the conference venue and accommodation venue provisions. It also seeks to investigate intentions and travel needs. Whilst Australia is not currently a large player in this industry in terms of global volume, it is significant in terms of reputation, and thus the ability to investigate the needs of a growth high yield niche market are important to the development and maintenance of the industry. A research program was developed in conjunction with the state convention bureau to investigate the trends in conferences being staged in Perth, Western Australia. This project sought to investigate the International Federation of University Women (IFUW) conference held in on a triennial basis and staged in Perth for the first time. IFUW is an 84 country member organisation. An in situ convenience sample was conducted during the staging of the event. The three page questionnaire was exploratory in nature in that its main objective was to investigate needs specific to women travellers, and secondly to gauge delegates' perceptions of and satisfaction with conference and accommodation facilities. A total of 306 useable responses were received and these were analysed using the SPSS software package (V.13). The study concludes with implications for conference organisers and venues in their roles as decision makers in conference product development, and thus the growth and sustainability of the conference sector. Keywords: MICE, business travel, women travellers, conference destination, accommodation

Page 10

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Chaos Theory as an Approach to Understanding MICE in Time of Crisis Kom Campiranon

School of Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Queensland [email protected] MICE (meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions), has generated high foreign exchange revenue for the economy worldwide. In Thailand, MICE tourists are recognized as `quality' visitors, mainly because of their high-spending potential. Having said that, Thailand's MICE sector has been influenced by a number of crises following September 11, 2001. Consequently, professionals in the MICE sector must be prepared to deal with such complex phenomena of crisis that might happen in the future. While a number of researches have examined the complexity of crises in the tourism context, there has been little focus on such issues in the MICE sector. As chaos theory provides a particularly good model for crisis situations, it is the aim of this paper to propose a chaos theory-based approach to the understanding of complex and chaotic system of the MICE sector in time of crisis. Key words: chaos theory, crisis management, MICE, tourism,

Page 11

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Evaluating Malaysia's Performance as Host to the XVI Commonwealth and the XXI South East Asia Games Shaharuddin Tahir and Abdul Razak Chik

Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia [email protected]

Event tourism has received growing attention as a source of generating significant revenue and contributing major economic benefits to host countries. Indeed, attracting special event tourists, for instance, sport tourists - would be a good opportunity to promote tourism industry in the host country. Sport tourism will enables a country to attract a large number of diverse groups of visitors. The various roles that sports play relating to tourism include: generating tourism image and re-imaging tourism destinations, differentiation of regional tourism products, harnessing sports as a means of harnessing media attention at a destination, competitive athletes and support staff as tourists, and contribution of sport facilities and attractions to the development of urban tourism precincts. Tourists attending such events could see and experience the country better and this might influence future visits. Nevertheless, while trying to deliver a high quality program, the host sometimes overlooked the service quality, which is also essential in ensuring tourists' perception and their satisfaction. Malaysia became the host for two major sporting event, The XVI Commonwealth Games (11th -21st September, 1998) and The XXI South East Asia Games (SEA Games 2001) held from 8th ­ 17th September 2001. This paper aims to explore the management of the games, evaluation on the sports' venue, services, facilities and amenities evaluation, critical success factors and lessons learned besides profiling the sports tourist that attended these Games. A survey was conducted on 366 and 229 tourists respectively, categorized as `sport tourists' visiting the country during both events. On the whole, both Games appeared to be a success from the point of view of the organizers and the representatives of the competing countries. There were no major problems experienced, such as disturbances and obvious complaints, and most visitors seemed to be quite satisfied. Analysis of the visitor survey corroborates the conclusion that Malaysia had a lot to offer in the staging of world-class events. The country possesses natural resources; competent multi racial population, superb infrastructure such as modern international airports, good roads and ports, world-class facilities and sport venues, English speaking population, besides many types of sports and recreations venues to be utilized in organising sports tourism event-based products. However, a number of issues and potential problems, raised by the sports tourists from their comments, should be dealt with in order to improve future events. By improving on the services, proper planning and managing of the events, together with the availability of the world standard facilities and some experience, Malaysia should be able to attract future international events as well as attracting more sport tourists. Key Words: Event tourism, Commonwealth Games, SEA Games, sport tourists, Malaysia

Page 12

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Sunday 3 December ­ 4.30 - 6.00 pm Room: CO.220 TOURISM IN ASIA

Chair: Hazel Tucker

Of Casinos and Integrated Resorts: Tourism Development in Singapore Chin Ee Ong Institute of Tourism Studies Cultural Rural Tourism in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia Kalsom Kayat Universiti Utara Malaysia Tourism: Its Implications for Gender Landscapes in Thailand Yuthasak Chatkaewnapanon University of Otago

Page 13

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Of Casinos and Integrated Resorts: Tourism Development in Singapore Chin Ee Ong

Institute of Tourism Studies, Macau [email protected] This paper looks at the current and forthcoming tourism development in Singapore namely, the Integrated Resorts (with a key casino and gaming component), the spaceport and the budget terminal at Changi International Airport, in the context of rising global oil and fuel cost. The IRs and spaceport are geared towards bringing in `high-spending' and `low impact' international tourists and the budget terminal currently caters to passengers of low cost airline Tiger Airways. While these developments appear to cater to different market segments in terms of class and spending power, they seem to underline a strong reliance on still affordable oil prices and air travel. Why the emphasis on these `oil-hungry' industries in the face of rising oil-prices? Drawing upon key stakeholder interviews and content analysis of press releases and reports, I argue that the creation of the IRs, spaceport and budget terminal should be seen in the context of a broader government-directed shift towards serviceoriented industries and economy. The IRs, spaceport and budget terminal are aimed at stimulating the growth of the service industry in Singapore in ways not unlike Singapore's Bio-polis (state-funded growthpole for life sciences). These new and forthcoming tourism developments should be seen as what I term `servicepoles' ­ key nodes designed and created to stimulate and jumpstart an envisioned and intended thriving service industry. This paper concludes with a consideration of the use of such service-poles in terms of tourism sustainability, human resource training and employment and the quality of life for Singapore residents. Key Words: Tourism development, gaming, integrated resort, space tourism, budget airline and terminal, Singapore

Page 14

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Cultural Rural Tourism in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia Kalsom Kayat

Faculty of Tourism, Hospitality and Environmental Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia [email protected]

Cultural rural tourism is currently one of the emerging tourism products in Malaysia. Studies have shown that rural tourism in a community is a better option in terms of `conserving for the future' and `benefiting the present' if it is supported by its residents and if the community keeps control and ownership of, and participate in its offering (Lewis, 1998). Recently, a case study of a French Acadian region on an island in eastern Canada undertaken by MacDonald and Jolliffe (2003) revealed that 1.) cultural rural tourism provides a potential short and long-term economic tool for rural communities, 2.) cultural tourism can be a key to identify distinct communities as destinations that provide education, entertainment, and enrichment for tourists, and 3.) partnerships and networking to develop cultural rural tourism are important for achieving a community's goals. The problem is that there are no site-specific data with regard to potential impacts from the development of rural cultural tourism in Malaysia to support the above hypotheses and claims. Although MOCAT claims that rural tourism has the potential to generate RM1 billion (MOCAT Rural Tourism Master Plan, volume 1), there is no evidence of how cultural rural tourism in Malaysia translates into tourism expenditures, and if it does, how does the expenditures being spread across the main components such as accommodations, restaurants, groceries, crafts/souvenirs, and transportation. There is also no ready evidence of the social impact of cultural rural tourism on local cultures. These impacts may be indicated by residents' perceptions about the impacts and the degree of their support toward tourism development effort in their community. Thus, a study was undertaken to examine residents' perceptions about cultural rural tourism in Kampung Pelegong Homestay Programme and their support toward the development of cultural rural tourism development in their community. The study utilized open-ended, unstructured interviews among different groups of residents within Kampung Pelegong area focusing on getting respondents' view about the homestay programme (what impacts they believe were created by the programme) and their support towards the programme. The sample was not drawn in a representative manner but in a hypothesis oriented way whereby respondents were chosen based on the different types of stake that they have in the homestay programme. The findings indicate that respondents have mixed view about the homestay programme but they certainly support tourism amid their concerns on certain issues relating to the planning and operational aspects of the programme. There are some evidence that respondents' stake may play a role in influencing their view and support towards the programme. The study gives a good insight about the impacts brought by the homestay programme and the understanding that different residents who have different types of stakes in the programme may have different views about the programme. These insights and understanding are useful for further planning and development of the programme. Keywords: Rural tourism, community-based tourism, tourism impacts

Page 15

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Tourism: Its Implications for Gender Landscapes in Thailand Yuthasak Chatkaewnapanon

Department of Tourism, University of Otago [email protected] Studies on women in Thailand have been relatively contradictory. There is an acknowledgement of the issue in development in Thailand emphasizing that women are affected differently from men. Throughout the social transformation in Thai history from colonialism, industrialism, and capitalism, for example, women have long been the disadvantaged subjects in politics as well as economic activities. Moreover, modernization of gender roles has altered the division of mobility between the sexes. While male is a subject of higher mobility in terms of places and occupations, women are put to be in subordination in society. Rather, Thai literatures indicate that women are significantly in charge of household domains, which include housework, childcare, food production and subsistence of some paid employment for household income. It is important to note that even though men are recognized as being in higher social position, this does not mean that women roles are limited. In this regard, the roles of both sexes are neither equal nor fixed. In the case of tourism development, the presence of women working in the tourism industry is a well-known feature in Thailand. Women working in all aspects of the tourism industry, not only mentioning sex workers, are well witnessed in everyday life. By focusing on tourism related occupations, this paper argues that tourism has changed the gender landscapes in Thailand. The economic prosperity from tourism is a significant influence on the process of change currently apparent on Thai women both socially and geographically, and also to some extent on differentiations between men and women and their social performances. To examine the various roles that may be attached to different tourism-related occupations which Thailand can have within society, would significantly explicate the gender situation related to tourism development. Consequently, it contributes to the shifting of traditional identification of women with respect to Thailand's tourism landscape.

Page 16

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Monday 4 December ­ 9.00 ­ 10.30 am Room: CO.220 RESPONDING TO CHANGE

Chair: Michael Hall

The Effect of Fuel Price Rises on Tourism Behaviour: An Exploratory Australian Study Brent Ritchie, Barry O'Mahony, Paul Whitelaw Canberra University and Victoria University The Use of Scenarios to Project the Impact of Global Warming on Future Visitation to the Great Barrier Reef Bruce Prideaux James Cook University Trouble in Paradise: The Paradox of Sustainable Tourism Development in the Maldives Regina Scheyvens Massey University

Page 17

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

The Effect of Fuel Price Rises on Tourism Behaviour: An Exploratory Australian Study Brent Ritchie, Barry O'Mahony, Paul Whitelaw

Sustainable Tourism CRC, Canberra University and Victoria University [email protected]

Faulkner (2001) and Prideaux et al. (2003) note there are an increasing number of disasters, crises and shocks which affect the tourism industry, ranging from natural to human influenced disasters. Despite the potential influence of disasters, crises and shocks on the tourism industry, Faulkner (2001) argues that there is a lack of research on such phenomena. Coombs (1999) notes, all crises are different and crisis managers need to tailor responses to individual crises rather than try to plan for every individual situation. However, such a response requires access to information on which to base decision making. Collecting data on the potential impact of crises or shock events (such as fuel price increases) on potential tourism demand is critical to enable destination managers to respond appropriately. As Ritchie (2004: 674) suggests "problem recognition through environmental scanning and collecting data on the political, economic, social and technological environment can provide information on possible trends and their likely impacts on the organisation." Tourism is extremely susceptible to changes in economic patterns including exchange rates and levels of disposable income. In times of recession or global down turns patterns of tourism may decline and destinations and organisations may have to deal with a drop in demand and visitation. In the last 12 months the price of oil has risen in many Western countries causing some concern for the tourism industry due to potentially rising transport costs. This paper outlines an exploratory study undertaken on a random sample of 640 Australian's to examine whether fuel prices had any actual or proposed impact on travel demand and behaviour. The research was undertaken in September 2005 several months after fuel price rises began to increase. The data would suggest that the impact of fuel price rises are not as dramatic as the popular media would suggest. In terms of past holiday behaviour, ninety six of the 640 respondents (15%) took holidays recently but modified their behaviour because of the increasing price of fuel. They employed a range of spending strategies to deal with these increased prices. However, it can also be noted that 223 respondents (70% of those that recently took holidays) were not impacted in any way by changes in fuel prices in their recent holidays. The disparity between the actual behaviour (30% changed) and the forecast behaviour (1% plan to change) may be a function of either the optimism of the respondents (they don't think that the rising prices will impact them) or that they have grown accustomed to the price increases and thus have altered their mind set and travel plans accordingly. This is a critical point and will be further explored in subsequent stages of this research. It is worth noting that only 1% of respondents or 10% of those who are changing their plans are doing so explicitly because of the increasing price of fuel. Further analysis, focussing on the explicit behaviours of those intending to holiday and fuel price shocks' impact on their plans will be reported.

Page 18

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

The Use of Scenarios to Project the Impact of Global Warming on Future Visitation to the Great Barrier Reef Bruce Prideaux

School of Business, James Cook University [email protected] This paper examines the possible impacts of global warming on Cairns in North Queensland by using scenarios as the method of analysis. The anticipated impact of global warming on the Great Barrier Reef indicates increasing incidents of coral bleaching and increasing acidification of the oceans. Together these trends will reduce the size and may ultimately kill the reef. Using a visitor survey the paper identifies the likely impact on visitor numbers of the loss of the reef to the Cairns tourism industry. The paper also discusses alternative strategies that may be developed to rebuild the destination as the reef is lost. Key Words: Scenarios, Great Barrier Reef, Wet Tropics Rainforest, Climate Change, Cairns

Page 19

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Trouble in Paradise: The Paradox of Sustainable Tourism Development in the Maldives Regina Scheyvens

School of People, Environment and Planning, Massey University [email protected] The Maldives, described by some as strings of pearls scattered in the Indian Ocean, offer a small slice of paradise to hundreds of thousands of Asian and European tourists every year. For some time they have been cited as an exemplar of `sustainable tourism' because they use only uninhabited islands for tourism development and there are purportedly strong environmental standards which must be met when resorts are developed. It must have come as some surprise therefore for tourism officials in the Maldives to discover that UK tourism watchdog group, Tourism Concern, had launched a campaign which was highlighting problems with tourism in the Maldives. Among their main concerns was the fact that luxury tourism was bringing millions of dollars into the economy every year yet one quarter of the population remained in poverty. Thus for example, while tourists feast on a wide range of largely imported fruits and vegetables, 30 percent of Maldivian children under the age of 5 are malnourished. This paper will explore these contradictory interpretations concerning the nature and impacts of tourism development in the Maldives.

Page 20

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Monday 4 December ­ 9.00 ­ 10.30 am Room: CO.221 FREEDOM, PLAY AND PERCEPTION

Chair: Elizabeth Carnegie

The Position of Freedom within Tourism: A Conceptual Reflection Neil Carr University of Otago People's Perceptions of Fear in the Holiday Environment, A Theoretical Framework Paolo Mura University of Otago Volunteer Tourism: Experiences That Make a Difference? Eliza Raymond University of Otago

Page 21

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

The Position of Freedom within Tourism: A Conceptual Reflection Neil Carr

Department of Tourism, University of Otago [email protected] The concept of `freedom' of individual behaviour is generally situated as a central pillar of definitions of tourism. This occurs due to the fact that tourism is commonly defined as a component of a wider leisure experience where `leisure' is closely linked to the notion of freedom throughout the traditional leisure studies literature. This paper provides a critical, philosophical analysis of these definitions of tourism and leisure in relation to freedom. The need for this critique is based on the work of philosophers such as Kant, Stirner, and Marx that indicates society has a significant influence upon the nature of the life experiences of the individual that inhibits their freedom. Indeed, Nietzsche has gone as far as to suggest that the imposition of social values on people results in the subsuming of individuality, and consequently personal freedom, by the herd instinct. Two perspectives on leisure and, as a consequence, tourism emerge from an examination of the freedom of the individual. The first suggests that the conceptualisation of leisure as a site where individual freedom may be pursued is a myth constructed and fed upon by social and economic institutions. The sale of this mythical freedom, irrespective of whether it is labelled as absolute or perceived, to the individual by these institutions contradicts the concept that meaningful freedom can only be internally generated by the individual. Consequently, it may be argued that `tourism', as it is currently defined, can only reinforce social and economic structures and does nothing for the self-expression and enlightenment of the individual. The second perspective suggests that if personal freedom does exist then it must, by definition, be unbounded. This questions definitions of tourism based on the leisure-work divide and conceptualisations of `free-time.' Furthermore, the notion that tourists may escape social structures that inhibit personal freedom by entering the tourism environment, which has been defined as a liminal space, is questioned by the recognition that behaviour in the holiday space is at least partially constructed by cultural influences that originate in the home environment of the tourist. Although both of the perspectives developed in this paper question the position of freedom within definitions of leisure this does not mean that personal freedom is unattainable or that tourism experiences have no role to play in the search for freedom. Rather, as Kant argues, few people actively seek personal freedom and those who do will not restrict their search to a tourism context. Consequently, the ability of theorists to situate freedom within a distinct segment of the life experiences of the individual such as tourism is questionable. Keywords: Freedom, leisure

Page 22

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

People's Perceptions of Fear in the Holiday Environment, A Theoretical Framework Paolo Mura

Department of Tourism, University of Otago [email protected] This paper is an attempt to give an insight into people's perceptions of fear while on holiday. People's perceptions of fear while on holiday has been a topic scarcely investigated in the realm of tourism studies. Rather, fear has been the focus of other disciplines, such as psychology and criminology. By analysing the existing literature on fear, conceptual issues raise in terms of finding a universal definition of fear. In general terms fear has been defined as an emotion. However, a variety of different theories and diverse approaches have led to a multiplicity of definitions of emotions. Cognitive theories, such as the appraisal theory, have focused principally on the relationship between an individual and the external environment. To the contrary, other theories have looked at the physiological and behavioural response of emotions. Such a variety of approaches makes the investigation of emotions in general, and fear in particular, very complex. In tourism literature there is a relatively small number of studies that has focused on fear. Studies of people's fear of crime while on holiday have emphasised the detrimental role of fear. In particular, it has been assumed that tourists may avoid a certain destination because of the fear of being victimized. Similarly, leisure studies have referred to fear in negative terms, with the attention being mainly on women's fear of physical and psychological violent assaults in public spaces. These studies, however, show that fear may play an important and fundamental role in shaping an individual's tourism or leisure experience. Thus, a more in-depth analysis of fear is necessary in order to understand how it affects tourists' patterns of behaviour. Indeed, to comprehend the role of fear in the holiday experience may have beneficial implications for the tourism industry.

Page 23

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Volunteer Tourism: Experiences That Make a Difference? Eliza Raymond

Department of Tourism, University of Otago [email protected] There is growing debate within volunteer tourism literature regarding the potential impacts of this expanding form of tourism. The most commonly used definition of volunteer tourism suggests that it is an alternative form of tourism which benefits both the volunteers themselves as well as the host country in which they participate. However, whether volunteer tourism actually achieves such mutual benefits has also been questioned, particularly within literature on the ´gap year´. The objective of this presentation is to provide a summary of key issues in this area looking at both the potential benefits and problems associated with volunteer tourism. Impacts on the host community, environment and economy will be discussed as well as the effects on the volunteer tourists themselves. In addition, longer-term and indirect impacts will be considered. Subsequently, these ideas will be linked to preliminary findings from a study of volunteer tourism projects conducted by the author. The author is currently researching the impacts and management of a range of environmental volunteer projects in the Southern hemisphere. A number of case studies are being visited in New Zealand, South America, South Africa and Australia. At each case study, interviews are being conducted with the volunteer coordinator, local people involved with the project and other key informants. In addition, focus group discussions are being conducted with the volunteer tourists. Ideas will be drawn from these case studies to support or question existing literature through the selection of relevant quotes from interviews and focus groups. The variety and scale of the author´s research will also contribute to forming a conclusion regarding whether volunteer tourism has the potential to offer ¨experiences that make a difference¨.

Page 24

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Monday 4 December ­ 11.00 am ­ 12.30 pm Room: CO.220 TOURISM AND THE ENVIRONMENT II

Chair: Brent Lovelock

Predator and Pest Control as a Basis for Ecotourism Product Development Eric Shelton University of Otago Are Phileas Fogg and Robinson Crusoe Living in the Same Body? Second Home Tourism in Hamner Springs ­ New Zealand Uli Cloesen and David Fisher Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology Ecotourism Accreditation, Certification and Compliance in Australia: A Critical Assessment John Jenkins The University of Newcastle

Page 25

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Predator and Pest Control as a Basis for Ecotourism Product Development Eric Shelton

Department of Tourism, University of Otago [email protected] In Aotearoa/New Zealand the integrity of nature-based tourism is under constant challenge from the environmental effects of introduced predators and pests. Predator and pest control efforts include; the establishment of predator- and pestfree offshore islands and `mainland islands', long-term management of predator and pest densities and short-term intensive intervention in special circumstances. Each of these predator and pest control methods offers different opportunities for scientific research, ecosystem conservation and tourism product development. Traditionally, predator and pest control has not been presented as central to the `story' told about most products, but has been added-on, labelled as a necessary by-product of environmental protection activity. Considering nature-based products in terms of their relationship with methods of predator and pest control provides an opportunity to further diversify the product range specifically for a niche within the interactive tourist target market. In this paper a framework is presented that situates predator and pest control at the centre of nature-based tourism products. This framework allows for preservation, conservation and restoration projects of different levels of intensity and at various stages of development to be integrated. The practical implications of such a focus for product development, product marketing and optimal visitor behaviour are also discussed.

Page 26

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Are Phileas Fogg and Robinson Crusoe Living in the Same Body? Second Home Tourism in Hamner Springs ­ New Zealand Uli Cloesen and David Fisher

School of Tourism, Travel & Recreation, Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology [email protected] In many countries, second homes are an integral aspect of modern tourism and mobility. In New Zealand, purchasing an affordable holiday home is becoming more difficult. Such is the demand, prices have risen dramatically and, increasingly, the typical Kiwi bach (Fibrolite, corrugated iron, or patched together out of old army huts, with an outside toilet) is fast being supplanted by the sort of home worthy of a city dwelling. In Hanmer Springs, the second home real estate market accelerated rapidly from 1995 - 2005. This destination's success is fed by tourism trends, which impact on rural second home development. Second home vacationing is often viewed as a trivial counterpart to the otherwise serious business of doing tourism. The article argues that second home tourists can easily step out of their definitions and investigates how the concepts and typologies of second home tourism apply to the success of Hanmer Springs as a tourist destination. Introduction: This paper looks at the phenomenon of second home tourism in the current global housing bubble. Specifically, examples are drawn from Europe and Australasia before leading into investigating how current trends in tourism, together with second home tourism visitor typology match the rise of Hanmer Springs, New Zealand as a second home tourist destination.

Page 27

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Ecotourism Accreditation, Certification and Compliance in Australia: A Critical Assessment John Jenkins

Centre of Full Employment and Equity, The University of Newcastle [email protected] As many nature based areas experience increasing recreational and tourist demand and use becomes more intense, the potential for conflict between maintaining environmental quality, maximising recreational accessibility and satisfaction, and promoting regional economic development is enhanced. Government agencies and tourism industry operators have been seeking to create circumstances in which market forces, often involving non-government institutions such as industry associations, perform regulatory functions. Self-regulation via accreditation and certification in the ecotourism industry has received international exposure, with Australia widely publicised as a world leader. Although ecotourism accreditation and certification have had limited acceptance and uptake, it has been argued that they are a means to enhancing tourism product standards and contributing to environmental sustainability. Ecotourism Australia (EA) is the Australian ecotourism industry's peak representative body. One of EA's largest and most significant projects is the Nature and Ecotourism Accreditation Program (NEAP). NEAP is an industry-driven ecocertification scheme or program, which purportedly enables industry, protected area managers and consumers to identify `genuine' ecotourism products. However, assessments of ecotourism certification in Australia and overseas are far from conclusive about its potential merits and accredited operators' attitudes and perceptions of such schemes. In fact, the NEAP scheme exhibits important limitations. There is a heavy reliance on self-assessment of products by operators themselves and EA notifies operators of precisely when audits of products will take place. Audits are conducted irregularly. This paper presents the findings of an independent audit of a small sample of accredited operators. The study was based on complete participant observations conducted on six Australian NEAP accredited eco-tours. The findings provide insights into what the author assesses to be a best practice certified ecotour. The discussion then turns to observations of non-compliance during tours conducted by other operators in other Australian settings. It is concluded that NEAP certification of ecotourism product provides no guarantee of operator compliance. Further, it is argued that auditing principles and processes underpinning NEAP certification are flawed.

Page 28

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Monday 4 December ­ 1.30 pm ­ 3.00 pm Room: CO.221 TOURISM AND LEISURE EXPERIENCES AND ISSUES

Chair: Neil Carr

A Preliminary Investigation into Young People's Use of Leisure to Regulate a Bored Mood State Ji-Sook Han and Ian Patterson University of Queensland Flowing Through Life; Long-Term Travel as a Lifestyle Alternative Scott Cohen University of Otago Living the Dream: Reflections of a Group of `Grey Nomads' About an Extended Semi-Structured Ramble Through Northern Territory and Western Australia Jillian Litster Central Queensland University

Page 29

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

A Preliminary Investigation into Young People's Use of Leisure to Regulate a Bored Mood State Ji-Sook Han and Ian Patterson

School of Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Queensland [email protected] In our daily lives people experience boredom at different times, and these are also common experiences for young people. It has been widely shown that young people experience boredom both in and out of school and surprising, large numbers of youth appear to be bored, unmotivated, and unexcited about their lives. Leisure is well known to generate positive moods and this has been demonstrated in different types of leisure activities. Furthermore, it has been acknowledged by several scholars that leisure reduces negative moods that can result in depression, anxiety, and anger as well as loneliness, boredom, and stress. As a result, leisure can be seen as a prospective area of study to help young people to relieve or escape from feelings of boredom. Although there is evidence supporting the psychological benefits of leisure, to date there has been very little research that has analysed whether people use leisure in their daily encounters, and especially to counter unpleasant moods resulting in boredom. Moreover, the current findings of leisure research has only resulted in conflicting results in regard to young people's use of leisure that has often been linked with their experiencing boredom. Learning to manage unpleasant moods in a meaningful and healthy way is critical for later life and the time period of young people in life cycle as crucial because the leisure repertoire is developed between newly obtained autonomy. Therefore, understanding the use of leisure when young people are in experiencing boredom is required to examine and have implications to provide guidelines for young people. However, up to now very few studies have looked at this area of research and it is not clear how young people use leisure when alleviating their boredom. The purpose of this study is to explore the aspect of leisure usage when young people moderate a bored mood state and to find the leisure elements that provide the relief of boredom. As the inquiry is new and have not conducted in previous research, the research firstly approached in exploratory way by using qualitative method. A psychological theory, mood regulation, was adopted to provide a theoretical background to explore human behaviour which is used to moderate unpleasant moods such as a bored mood states. The data were collected from university students, aged between 18 and 21 years, in focus groups. A total of six leisure related categories were generated to show the association; (a) computer and media use, (b) eating, (c) socializing, (d) physical activity, (e) outdoor activity, (f) household chore and (g) hobby. Boredom relief leisure elements were initially explained through Mannell and Kleiber (1999)'s `keeping idle hand busy' and `pleasure-relaxation-fun' theory. Participant's opposite viewpoints on leisure benefits were found in relation to moderating their bored mood state.

Page 30

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Flowing Through Life; Long-Term Travel as a Lifestyle Alternative Scott Cohen

Department of Tourism, University of Otago [email protected] Within social psychology and leisure literature over the last three decades, Csikszentmihalyi has constructed the term `flow' in describing the particular state of being that an individual may experience while engaging in intrinsically motivated actions. While researchers have examined the concept of flow in a number of dimensions, applications within a tourism context have been limited. This may be due to flow's perceived temporality and usual association with activity. In contrast, as flow experience is characterised by increasing skill and complexity in individuals over time, it may be more valuable to view flow in an experiential light cast over an extended timeframe. For many individuals in the Western world that lack flow in their everyday lives, life satisfaction has become increasingly elusive. In reaction to this deficiency, a growing number of individuals are seeking alternative lifestyles that may be distinguished by a higher level of flow than is found in the typical, rooted world. This conceptual paper examines the concept of flow in the context of the longterm travel lifestyle. It is argued that the structure of the long-term travel lifestyle lends itself to reoccurring episodes of flow more readily than normative life in late modernity. Based on a review of the characteristics of flow and their role within the long-term travel experience, it is concluded that the drive to replicate flow experience serves as a primary motivator for individuals to continue the long-term travel lifestyle. The significance of the paper lies in both expanding flow's application past its typical temporal limitations and into tourism discourse, while at the same time, serving to explain why individuals travel as a lifestyle choice. Keywords: Flow experience, Long-term travel, Alternative lifestyle

Page 31

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Living the Dream: Reflections of a Group of `Grey Nomads' About an Extended Semi-Structured Ramble Through Northern Territory and Western Australia Jillian Litster

Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Education, Central Queensland University [email protected] The `grey nomad' is recognised as an important market segment and one that is on the increase. Frequently travelling with only minimal time constraints, taking their `homes' with them in the form of caravans and campervans, and usually travelling with friends and/or family, the grey nomad on tour can be a very independent traveller. This presentation presents qualitative findings from diaries kept by a group of `grey nomads' during their multi-destination holiday trip through the Northern Territory and Western Australia. The group fluctuated in size from 4 to 8, with people entering and leaving the journey at different times. Two couples constituted the core of the group. The travellers were on the road for over two months, travelling with caravans and camper-homes. Whilst they mostly chose to stay in commercial caravan parks, on occasion they stayed in impromptu campsites if an attraction beckoned or a destination was booked out. The initial four travellers, two couples who have been friends for many years, are all retired. Leaving from Adelaide, South Australia, these four planned to meet up with another couple in Alice Springs who were travelling from Melbourne, also long term friends. During their travels north the first four met up with and befriended another couple (also from South Australia) who ended up joining the group for the remainder of the trip. Interestingly, this later couple is now making plans to join the party on another trip in two years time. The reflections of this group capture many of the dimensions of travel by seniors. Their motivations to travel in the first place, the preparations they had to make to stay away for an extended period of time, why they chose to stay where they did and for as long as they did, and what activities they participated at each location are all explored in this presentation. In addition, the participants discuss the impact the price of petrol had on their decisions, mostly negligible, and issues of remoteness and the tourism facilities they were able to access during their travels. Mostly though, they reflect on new and old friendships and the people they met along the way as being an important part of the `grey nomad' experience.

Page 32

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Monday 4 December ­ 1.30 pm ­ 3.00 pm Room: CO.220 TOURISM, PUBLIC POLICY AND BUSINESS

Chair: Daniela Schilcher

The Ambiguities Associated with Sustainability and New Zealand Tourism Policy Anne Zahra University of Waikato The Implications of Political Values and Ideology on Tourist Attitudes, a Theoretical Framework Andrea Valentin University of Otago Research Methods for Small Tourism Business Enquiry ­ A Critique Sophie Rainford and Anne Zahra University of Waikato

Page 33

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

The Ambiguities Associated with Sustainability and New Zealand Tourism Policy Anne Zahra

Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Waikato [email protected] The New Zealand Tourism Strategy 2010 (NZTS 2010) was released in May 2001. The document recognised that for tourism to continue to play a leading role in the New Zealand economy sustainable tourism practices need to be implemented. The strategy identified what needs to be done to ensure that the industry's growth potential is maximised whilst ensuring cultural, social, environmental and economic sustainability. The strategy's central focus was on sustainable tourism development rather than fostering unbridled tourism development and growth. This government/industry document has set the tourism policy agenda for the past five years and will shape policy for the next five years. Sustainability, sustainable tourism planning and sustainable tourism development will be explored in terms of how it is used and understood in the New Zealand Tourism Strategy (NZTS) 2010 and in the wider academic literature. Sustainability and policy implementation is analysed from a multi-paradigmatic perspective given the social, interactive and political dimensions of the phenomena being investigated. The data for this qualitative investigation was based on documents published by the Tourism Strategy Group, the Ministry of Tourism and Local Government New Zealand, and through unstructured open ended interviews with key players in the tourism policy arena. The paper discusses what policies related to sustainable tourism have been implemented by a range of government agencies and private sector organisations and describes what has been achieved to date. The Green Globe 21 certification initiative by The Tourism Industry Association of New Zealand (TIANZ) was not sustained as a consequence of tourism operator's disillusionment. The Tourism Planning Toolkit has been promoted to local authorities and Regional Tourism Organisation (RTOs) to help plan for tourism, tackle specific tourism-related issues and prepare a tourism strategy and is designed for use by local authorities and RTO staff who are responsible for destination management in their area. One of the aims of the toolkits is to engage communities in planning for tourism that is socially, culturally, economically and environmentally sustainable. Sustainable Tourism Charters are another recent public/private sector initiative. The conclusion identifies the main obstacles to sustainable tourism development in New Zealand such as tourism planning not being mandatory under the Local Government Act and for many local authorities tourism is not deemed to be a priority. It recommends that the Ministry of Tourism, the tourism industry and especially RTOs need to do a lot of lobbying and educating of local authority staff and local communities about the value of sustainable tourism planning, if the Tourism Planning Toolkit is to be implemented across New Zealand. Sustainable Tourism Charters have been hailed as a success due to government funding but their foundations for continuity after government funding ceases are tenuous.

Page 34

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

The Implications of Political Values and Ideology on Tourist Attitudes, a Theoretical Framework Andrea Valentin

Department of Tourism, University of Otago [email protected] Using political psychology as a theoretical framework, this paper examines the impact of political values and ideology ­ such as classical liberalism or conservatism - on tourists' attitudes, destination image and choice. Past research within tourism and psychology has either focused on motivational approaches, travel careers or personalities. While these theories are important in understanding tourist behaviour, another key aspect from a psychological perspective is tourists' political attitudes. In trying to understand tourist's behaviour, their attitudes to the political situation of a destination are likely to influence the activities they decide to partake in. Factual knowledge on the political situation of the destination, economic and social conditions or reports of human rights violations assists tourists weighing their individual and group interests, connecting their interests to their personal belief systems and broader notions of travel and effectively expressing these ideologies through travel (non-) participation. A critical multi-disciplinary review of contemporary theories of human behaviour established that the role of political values as predictors of behaviour or behavioural intentions has largely been under-represented in the tourism literature. This paper therefore seeks to integrate present theories in tourism psychology by incorporating the dimensions of political values and ideology into an understanding of destination perception, image and choice.

Page 35

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Research Methods for Small Tourism Business Enquiry ­ A Critique Sophie Rainford and Anne Zahra

Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Waikato [email protected]

This study is a critique of current trends in tourism research methods in relation to research on small tourism businesses (STB) and sustainable tourism. Current tourism research methodology has weaknesses in understanding the dynamics STBs and their role in contributing to a sustainable tourism industry. The objective of this study is to critique tourism research methods for STB research with the intention to identify effective methodology in researching the attitudes, values and experiences of STB owner-operators in the conduct of environmental business practice. Tourism research paradigms, methodologies and methods are discussed with a focus on research in STB, sustainable tourism and environmental business practice. Underlying reasons for use of specific methodologies and tourism research paradigms in this type of research are explained from an analysis of previous studies to identify gaps in scholarly knowledge. Ontological, epistemological and methodological issues in STB tourism research are examined so too are the application and constraints of quantitative, qualitative and mixed method research methodologies. Further discourse includes ethical considerations and reflexivity for researchers and provides a critical evaluation of specific methodologies used in recent studies conducted in the area of STB and sustainable tourism. Key findings in this study identify problematic areas in current, published research and provide a clear understanding of how the choice of research methods impacts the achievement of research objectives. When combined with other factors such as sample size, researcher time availability, and resources, the main weaknesses are a theme of low response rates and an inability to provide a coherent account of research outcomes. Without thorough understanding of tourism research theories, the researcher is at risk of not being effective in their choice of research method for STB enquiry. It is important that the research paradigm adopted takes into account the nature of the tourism system under enquiry. The choice of research method for STB research should be determined by the sensitivity of topic or system undergoing enquiry. Time and cost restrictions on the research and researcher knowledge are also strong considerations. Employing mixedmethod approach has emerged as common research design in STB research as it is effective in ensuring that weaknesses of one approach are compensated by strengths of one or more other approaches. There is potential for significant advancement to be made in STB research through multi-paradigmatic research and mixed-method approaches. Enquiry into environmental business practice in STB should include a well-planned research agenda, consistent with research paradigms and an awareness of potential research limitations including sample size restrictions and time availability. There is potential to establish greater depth and breadth and STB knowledge, and coherent research outcomes in the examination of attitudes and experiences of STB owner-managers through effective use of mixed-method approach. Gaps in current knowledge of environmental business practice in STBs as an emerging subset of sustainable tourism and sustainable tourism development are evident and require evolving research design. With an awareness of this, there is greater potential to effectively uncover the underlying concerns of STB ownermanagers and subsequently, progress the development of environmental business practice in STBs.

Page 36

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Monday 4 December ­ 1.30 pm ­ 3.00 pm Room: CO.221 TOURISM MARKETING MANAGEMENT I

Chair: Richard Mitchell

The Role of Hotel Design Development in Strengthening Regional/National Destination Image Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee University of Queensland Attraction Attributes of Selected ASEAN Destinations According to the MediumHaul and Long-Haul Tourists Suzzaini Abdullah, Shaharuddin Tahir and Norhaslinda Zainal Abidin Universiti Utara Malaysia Tourism Destination Attitudes: What the Non-Visitors Say ­ Higher Education Students' Perspectives Tekle Shanka and Ian Phau Curtin University of Technology

Page 37

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

The Role of Hotel Design Development in Strengthening Regional/National Destination Image Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee

School of Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Queensland [email protected] Tourism tends to make the world look the same. There is homogeneity in the chains and franchises proliferated by the business sector. Although seeking the unique characteristics of different areas, tourists tend to reduce the individuality of the place by carrying their cultural baggage with them wherever they go. This is the paradox of tourism and therefore its design challenge. Many hotel chains develop properties across the world that are similar regardless of their location, thereby detracting from a tourist's sense of place. This paper analyses why it is that hotels tend not to reflect the image of their chosen destination, what role hotels have in strengthening a destination's image, what challenge hotels face in doing so, and what strategic opportunities a hotel can act on in order to build competitive advantage for itself, and the destination in which it is located. As an in-depth discussion of all the issues behind the development of a hotel is beyond the scope of this paper, an overview is provided of the main issues involved in designing a hotel to match the destination in which it is located. In this study, the hotel design means its physical facilities, such as the architecture and floor plan, as well as its tangible attributes, such as the interior design and visual symbols including logos, motifs and employee uniforms. To illustrate points and support the arguments of the paper, a couple of examples of hotels are discussed throughout. In summary, in an era of globalization, many hotel chains have developed and expanded, catering mass tourism, and the principles of standardization/ McDonaldization have underpinned design schemes. As a result, brand hotel properties have similar design attributes across multiple global locations. This paper has argued for design differentiation based on the destination in which a hotel is located as this will strengthen the image of the destination, which will have a positive effect on market share for both the destination and the hotel, leading to improved economic results for each. Hotel design should follow a systems approach, where marketing considerations are as important as functional and operational concerns. Keywords: Hotel design, destination image, standardization, differentiation, local identity.

Page 38

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Attraction Attributes of Selected ASEAN Destinations According to the Medium-Haul and Long-Haul Tourists Suzzaini Abdullah, Shaharuddin Tahir and Norhaslinda Zainal Abidin

Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia [email protected]

It is important to know why people travel, where and which factors play important role in their selection of vacation destination(s). For a destination to be successful, the tourists must have a clear concept of what it is about, the activities and the attractions offered. The objectives of this study were to firstly, position three destinations within South East Asia based on six attraction attributes which influence the tourists' choices of holiday destination and secondly to determine the ranking of the six attributes by two groups of tourists. The three destinations selected for this study were; Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. These destinations were selected for they have common attractions and received almost 66% of the total 43.90 million arrivals to South East Asia in 2002. Based on their country of residence, the respondents were grouped into medium-haul and long-haul tourists. The instrument of the study was adopted from one already tested by Shaharuddin (1996). Changes were made to make it appropriate for all the destinations using secondary sources of information; articles from tourism related text (Go and Jenkins, 1997), travel brochures produced by tourism board of the three countries, and brochures from travel companies promoting the region. The six attraction attributes were; "beautiful beaches and sea-sports", "historical and cultural attractions", "night-life and entertainment", "value for money", "safety", and "adventure and wilderness". To evaluate the country's attractiveness and the rankings of the six attributes, a technique called Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used. AHP is a benefit measurement (scoring) model that relies on subjective managerial inputs on multiple criteria. These inputs are converted into scores that are used to evaluate each of the possible alternatives. A survey was conducted on 300 foreign tourists visiting Malaysia at the peak of the 2004 tourism season. Only those who had visited the three destinations within the last 3 years were selected. Of these, 174 respondents had visited the three destinations at least once. One of the advantages of AHP is that it is able to detect inconsistencies in the answers given. Of the 174 respondents, only 120 were consistent with their answers. This study showed that Malaysia out-performed Thailand and Indonesia on three attributes namely "safety", "historical and cultural attractions" and "adventure and wilderness". Meanwhile Thailand performed better than Malaysia and Indonesia in the remaining three attributes. Indonesia was always ranked second or third in each of the attraction attribute. The analysis indicates that Thailand is a close competitor to Malaysia (ranked first) compared to Indonesia, which was found to be far behind. The most important attribute in determining a holiday destination by both groups of tourists was "safety". The least important attribute was "adventure and wilderness" for the medium-haul tourists and "night life and entertainment" for the long-haul tourists. However, it should be stated here that the findings of this study can be strictly generalized to the population surveyed. To obtain a much broader insights it is necessary to replicate this study in Thailand and Indonesia. Key Words: Destination attractiveness, Analytical Hierarchy Process, medium-haul and long-haul tourists, ASEAN

Page 39

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Tourism Destination Attitudes: What the Non-Visitors Say ­ Higher Education Students' Perspectives Tekle Shanka and Ian Phau

School of Marketing, Curtin University of Technology [email protected]

Mauritius, predominantly a holiday destination for beach-resort tourists, possesses a broad range of natural and man-made attractions. Considered Africa's most liberal economy was positioned at the number 14th position by the World Travel and Tourism Council as being one of the developing countries with the highest level of employment in tourism, contributing 24% to the national gross domestic product. In 2004, the island had 103 hotel establishments with a total of over 10 thousand rooms. Arrivals for the year reached 718 thousand. Although Mauritius played a prominent position in international tourism to the best of the authors' knowledge there has been very little research examining potential tourists' perception of the island as a tourist destination. In order to fill the knowledge gap about this unique destination, this paper presents the results of one section of a large survey that sought the perceptions of higher education students higher education students in the business faculty of a large university completed a six-part questionnaire and results based on 388 responses with a "No" to the question, "Have you ever visited Mauritius for a holiday?" were presented. Respondents were mainly male (56%), Single (67%), undergraduate (71%), Australian (33%), with mean age of 23.6 years. Students were asked to indicate their agreement / disagreement with a set of 33 destination-attributes about Mauritius as a tourist destination. The attributes were based on extant literature and the Mauritian tourism official promotional materials that included destination attributes. A 7-point Likert scale was used from 1 `strongly disagree' to 7 `strongly agree'. The internal consistency of these attributes was verified by the very high Cronbach alpha coefficient () of 0.95. A component analysis using the eigenvalue criteria 1.0, factor loadings of 0.5 and Varimax rotation resulted in four factors accounting for 62% of total explained variance. These included `value' consisting of twelve items with scale mean of 5.2, Cronbach's alpha () of 0.92, and a variance of 22.5%); `quality' consisting of seven items with mean of 5.4, alpha () of 0.88, and variance of 16.1%; `relaxing' consisting of five items, with scale mean of 5.3, alpha () of 0.89, and variance of 14.7%), and `cultural'' consisting of three items, with scale mean of 5.4, alpha () = 0.77, and variance of 8.7%. Whilst no significant differences were noted on the factors on the bases of gender, or level of studies (undergraduate versus postgraduate), one-way ANOVA test indicated statistically significant difference on the cultural factor with regards to age (F2,385 = 4.68; p = 0.01). The 21 year old students' mean score n this factors significantly lower (mean = 5.2) compared with that of 25 year old students (mean = 5.5) at the .05 level. Statistically significant differences were also noted on three of the four factors, namely, value (F2,385 = 9.74; p = 0.000), quality (F2,385 = 4.85; p = 0.008), and cultural (F2,385 = 5.28; p = 0.005). On the value factor, the mean score of Australian students (mean = 4.9) was significantly lower than students from Asia (mean = 5.2) or Africa/other (mean = 5.5) at the .05 level. On the quality factor, the mean score of African/other students (mean = 5.7) was significantly greater than mean scores of students from Australia or Asia (mean = 5.3) at the .05 level. Furthermore, on the cultural factor, the mean score of African/other students (mean = 5.7) was significantly greater than mean scores of students from Australia (mean = 5.2) or Asia (mean = 5.3) at the .05 level. The results indicated that students who never visited Mauritius had very favourable perception of the island on all four dimensions of value, quality, escape or cultural, regardless of some statistically significant differences on some of the factors based on age and residential region characteristics. Whilst this was based on a small student cohort in a single environment, larger research would generate a more generalisable result that could be of benefit to the the island's destination marketing organisation. Key words: Mauritius, higher education students, perception, destination marketing, nonvisitors.

Page 40

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Monday 4 December ­ 3.30 pm ­ 4.30 pm Room: CO.220 TOURISM, POLICY AND POLITICS

Chair: Andrea Valentin

The Death of the Nation State? Conceptionalising the Power of Supranational Organisations in 'Tourism Governance' Daniela Schilcher University of Otago Domestic Tourism in New Zealand: Public and Private Sector Initiatives over the last Twenty Five Years Anne Zahra University of Waikato Internal Action Versus External Reaction ­ A Community is Rebuilding Itself Teresa Leopold University of Otago

Page 41

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

The Death of the Nation State? Conceptionalising the Power of Supranational Organisations in 'Tourism Governance' Daniela Schilcher

Department of Tourism, University of Otago [email protected] This paper critically examines current conceptualisations of supranational organisation's power in shaping tourism's policy environment. As one of the more recent `buzzwords', the terms governance has been used in the tourism literature to describe the increasing importance of a variety of actors situated at multiple scales. Outside the tourism literature, `governance theory', however, is rather contested terrain. In its most extreme conceptualisation, governance implies the dwindling of national governments' power ­ to which particularly realists would strongly object. Placing `governance theory' in context with the traditional international relations theories, this paper draws attention to the concept's shortcomings. In particular, it is demonstrated that a conceptualisation of the governance of tourism needs to be combined with the concept of power. Critically examining the applicability of `governance' to tourism policy in the European Union, the paper concludes in favour of state-centric theories. Far from being `dead', the nation-state in the EU still constitutes the most powerful entity in the field of tourism. The paper concludes with a reconceptualisation of the term governance, incorporating the dimension of power.

Page 42

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Domestic Tourism in New Zealand: Public and Private Sector Initiatives over the last Twenty Five Years Anne Zahra

Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Waikato [email protected]

Domestic tourism in New Zealand is back on the policy agenda. However like most policy issues in New Zealand, policy makers have made little reference to historical antecedents related to domestic tourism or contextualised the causes behind the recent policy void and they do not seem to ask what can be learned from the past. Some of the reasons why formal public policy makers and informal private sector policy shapers operate in a historical policy vacuum is that firstly, there has been little research on tourism public policy in New Zealand generally and more specifically on domestic tourism and secondly, due to the absence of corporate memory in both the public and private sectors. The objectives of this paper are to document domestic tourism policy in New Zealand since 1980 and present a range of domestic tourism policy options. This paper adopts a qualitative research approach, snowballing key past and present players. Data was collected using reiterative unstructured interviews and document analysis, including twenty five years of government archived material which was examined to support and verify interviewees' recollections and substantiate events identified in the interviews. There was a close working relationship between the New Zealand Tourist and Publicity Department and the New Zealand Tourism Industry Federation (NZTIF) in the 1980s and more specifically in relation to domestic tourism. Both organisations worked together to establish Regional Tourism Organisation (RTOs) around the country in the early to mid 1980s with their primary objective being domestic tourism marketing. In the late 1980s national domestic tourism marketing was conducted by the NZTIF under the Great New Zealand Campaign, with financial support from central government. RTOs also conducted domestic tourism marketing campaigns with central government support through the Regional Promotions Assistance Scheme. The NZTP also provided an extensive domestic tourism research programme supporting marketing activities. With the creation of the New Zealand Tourism Board (NZTB) the focus was specifically on the growth of international tourism. It was recognised that New Zealand could not overlook the relationship between international and domestic tourism. In order for the NZTB to effectively market destination New Zealand, it is necessary to have a have a healthy domestic sector and support of local communities. The domestic market provided a base for the international market to expand upon. However domestic tourism was outside the remit of the (NZTB) and domestic tourism was the responsibility of the regions and RTOs. As the decade progressed many RTOs became primarily focused on international tourism at the expense of domestic tourism as New Zealand tourism policy was equated with international marketing and because of the dominance and vitality emanating from the NZTB. The New Zealand Tourism Industry Association (NZTIA, formally the NZTIF) in a strategy document released in 1999 drew attention again to domestic tourism. The main tenants of the NZTIA policy document were incorporated into the New Zealand Tourism Strategy 2010 with a significant emphasis on RTOs and domestic tourism. Domestic tourism policy remains problematic and unless there is central coordination and leadership by both public and private sector policy makers the policy vacuum will continue.

Page 43

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Internal Action Versus External Reaction ­ A Community is Rebuilding Itself Teresa Leopold

Department of Tourism, University of Otago [email protected]

Recent mega-disasters have shown the need for addressing complex issues involved in the prevention and recovery of disaster-prone societies and communities from a multidisciplinary perspective. A community's recovery is dependent upon internal initiatives and actions as well as external influences from various international bodies, governments, the media and the general public. It is based on short-term decisions and action taken directly after a disaster and on long-term initiatives which are aimed at rebuilding a community's economy to ensure people's livelihood and lessen their vulnerability. This paper sets out to provide an understanding of international support given to a post-disaster tourist community during the recovery, rehabilitation and mitigation processes. This will serve as a useful tool to strengthen effective disaster recovery measurements of tourist communities. The relative prosperity of a community is often built on fragile economic foundations. Especially the tourism industry along with other service economies is highly vulnerable to changes in consumer taste and natural disaster impacts. In many destinations, tourism plays an important role in the development, represents the main employer and acts as the main income earner. "While tourists are free to avoid destinations associated with risk, the consequences of disastrous events on tourist destinations are inescapable and can be profound" (Sönmez, Apostolopoulos, Tarlow 1999:13). The destruction of the tourism industry through a disaster results in increased vulnerability. A community's vulnerability can be defined as internal and external characteristics, which determine a community's ability to cope with a disaster. "If we actually can reduce the vulnerability of communities and regions, we will, in fact, reduce both the number of events that could be considered a disaster as well as reduce the scope (or magnitude of losses) of disaster events" (Nigg 1996:9). Especially, media coverage plays a crucial role in the recovery of a disaster region, with the amount of media attention directly influencing public interest in an issue (Faulkner 2001). The paper is based on PhD research conducted in the tourism community of Koh Phi Phi, Thailand, from January to March 2006. This community was hit by the tsunami in December 2004 and is relying on tourism and international interest to recover from the disaster. With the application of various research methods external interest and support in the recovery of the island is analysed in direct comparison to the recovery process that is taking place within the community. With this paper the author draws attention to, firstly, the relationship between international interest in the recovery, rehabilitation and mitigation stage of a disaster community and action taken within the community to facilitate these stages; secondly, a clearer understanding of the recovery process in a tourism-dependent community; and, thirdly, the necessity to continuously monitor the recovery process of a community and update the international community about the recovery process. Further, the author hopes to raise awareness to a more continuous and balanced rehabilitation approach of disaster-prone destination communities.

Page 44

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Monday 4 December ­ 3.30 pm ­ 4.30 pm Room: CO.221 TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY DISABILITY AND HEALTH ISSUES

Chair: Eric Shelton

Travel Behaviour Among the Physically Disabled People in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Ghazali Musa, Azni Zarina Taha, Toe Chui Chui, Yong Kim Woon and Nazirah Hasnan University of Malaya Sport Tourism and Public Health: The Implications of the 4th East Asian Games for Hong Kong Yim Mei, Kiano Luk The University of Hong Kong

Page 45

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Travel Behaviour Among the Physically Disabled People in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Ghazali Musa, Azni Zarina Taha, Toe Chui Chui, Yong Kim Woon and Nazirah Hasnan

Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Malaya [email protected] This paper is an exploratory and descriptive study with the aim to examine travel motivation, travel difficulty and destination choices among the disabled community in Kuala Lumpur. A questionnaire was derived from focus group discussions, indepth interviews and literature review. The questionnaires were distributed using convenience sampling and 176 of them returned for the analysis. The majority of respondents are young, pre-dominantly male and unemployed. They do take holidays especially to domestic destinations and most times accompanied by friends and family members. Disabled people face considerable difficulty especially in terms of accessibility, finance and the negative perception of society. The main travel motivations are to see new places and to relax, and the most preferred destination is Nature. The result reveals significant relationships between the components of destination choices with the components of travel motivation and travel difficulties. It is proposed that both government and society should intensify the present effort to raise the living standard of disabled people, to improve general accessibility, and to increase public awareness of disabled people's equal status in the society. The disabled themselves also should be out there in the public scene to further justify their needs of accessible facilities and infrastructure. Key words: disabled tourists, motivation, destinations, Malaysia

Page 46

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Sport Tourism and Public Health: The Implications of the 4th East Asian Games for Hong Kong Yim Mei, Kiano Luk

Department of Geography, University of Hong Kong [email protected]

Sport events, such as World Cup and Olympics, are important markers of our identities and have generated social and economic issues for tourism research. Explosion of SARS epidemic and avian flu have aggravated the unhealthy image of the Asian cities. Leisure sports help enhance health by motivating community residents to participate in sport exercises. The low rate of public participation in regular sport exercises has been a challenge for Hong Kong Government to enhance the community public health. This research investigates 2005 Macau 4th East Asian Games (EAG) by a case analysis in order to achieve the following objectives: · · · to examine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of health promotion initiatives implemented through the Games; to evaluate the impacts of the initiatives on the enhancement of the destination image of Macau in order to analyze the implications for Macau's tourism industry; to generate strategic insights about how Hong Kong may achieve socio-cultural and economic benefits by hosting the 5th EAG in 2009.

Three major questions are raised to facilitate the research: · · · To what extent does sport tourism serve as a catalyst for achieving the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of health promotion activities? To what extent does a sport event, such as the East Asian Games, help engage the community to improve its public health? To what extent does a sport event enhance the destination image positively so as to improve the overall tourism development?

The multidimensional models, including semi-structured questionnaire survey and focus group interviews, are employed for the research. 200 questionnaires are distributed to local residents and tourists by availability sampling in Macau while five focus group interviews are held with 50 representatives of relevant sport organizations. The data from the questionnaire survey are analyzed by SPSS using ANOVA methods while those from the focus group interviews are assessed by the informal content analysis technique so as to search for recurring themes and code the metaphors. The results from both are crossexamined. This research serves as a consolidated study into the impacts of the 4th EAG on two AsiaPacific cities--Macau and Hong Kong, has great potential for implementation in these aspects: · understanding the impacts of the 4th EAG on the enhancement of public health and destination image, so as to provide strategic insights for Hong Kong about how to engage the community to improve its health through planning and hosting the next EAG in 2009; · generating policy implications for Hong Kong about how the tourism services sectors can help achieve efficacy and cost-effectiveness of health promotion activities, while continuously perform as a top foreign exchange earner for the community; supplementing to the inadequacy of the past studies, by introducing to the world the latest principles and practices in both Macau and Hong Kong in terms of utilizing the educational values of sport tourism for promoting public health.

Page 47

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Tuesday 5 December ­ 9.00 am ­ 10.30 am Room: CO.220 URBAN TOURISM

Chair: Jan Mosedale

National Capital Tourism Marketing Issues: A Comparison of Three Political National Capital Cities Brent Ritchie and Sophie Peirce University of Canberra Positioning the City Product as a Tourist Destination ­ A Comparison of Four South African Cities Girish Prayag University of Mauritius Auckland as a Haven of Cultural Tourism: A Comparative Study from 2004 and 2006 as Part of the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research Group Research Project Ken Newlands, Han (Hannah) Wang, Yupeng Xu, Xuan (Shirley) Jin Unitec Institute of Technology

Page 48

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

National Capital Tourism Marketing Issues: A Comparison of Three Political National Capital Cities Brent Ritchie and Sophie Peirce

Sustainable Tourism CRC, University of Canberra [email protected]

Vital to the development of urban tourism are capital cities. According to Hall (2002: 235) "capital cities are an important component of the national fabric of almost every country in the world yet, surprisingly, very little has been written about their tourism significance." Capital cities provide an administrative base of government operations that create spin off effects for business travel. National capital cities also provide the setting for the nation's culture, history and democracy and can therefore attract significant numbers of school excursions for students. National capitals also hold major national institutions that are significant for tourism as well as preserving national heritage and culture (Therborn, 1996). Although a capital can be significant for tourism with respect to place promotion (Page and Hall, 2003), changing negative perceptions and images of potential visitors is difficult and time intensive and can be even more problematic for political capitals. Their political and administrative importance is often cited as their downfall for tourism. An exploratory research project was undertaken to identify the marketing issues facing political national capital cities to highlight common issues and how issues have been, or are being dealt with. A multiple case study approach was adopted for this research using Canberra, Ottawa and Washington DC. The case study locations were considered as appropriate because of their similarity as planned cities where their political functions are still largely dominant. First workshops were held with industry in Canberra on tourism marketing issues. Semi structured personal interviews were scheduled with 17 individuals from 10 different organizations who were either directly or indirectly involved in tourism in Ottawa and Washington DC. Notes were also made during the meetings and 3-4 page summaries were compiled from the tape recording and meeting notes. These summaries were provided back to respondents for clarification and any additions, helping to reduce potential bias and misinterpretation. A case study uses as many data sources as possible to systematically investigate individuals, groups, organisations and events (Beeton, 2005). Therefore, along with personal interviews in Ottawa and Washington DC, secondary documents such as reports, strategy documents and media materials were analysed based on the themes of the interviews. The results demonstrate the unique challenges and obstacles that political national capital cities face in marketing tourism. Because of their political nature and history such cities hold many tourism resources. However, potential tourists often have negative images and perceptions of these cities, they have traditionally been under funded for tourism marketing and face major challenges in developing cohesive brands because of their geographical spread and layers of government involvement. Furthermore, federal government agencies influence the development and planning of tourism often straining relationships with tourism organizations. Changing the perceptions of local residents and building pride to increase tourism and knowledge of tourism resources in all three cities has been a priority. This paper suggests that the tourism challenges facing political national capital cities are perhaps greater than other cities. Finally, more extensive research is required into how tourism issues in political national capitals can be overcome, particularly regarding image, branding, and collaboration and cooperation between stakeholders.

Page 49

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Positioning the City Product as a Tourist Destination ­ A Comparison of Four South African Cities Girish Prayag

Department of Management, Faculty of Law & Management, University of Mauritius [email protected] Increased competition among international destinations has turned many to seek tourism growth from destination branding and positioning strategies. Often national, provincial and local tourism bodies have to align their marketing strategies to create a differentiated image of the destination product. It has been well researched that positioning involves the segmentation decision, and selection of image and features of a destination to be emphasised in marketing communication campaigns. The city of Cape Town has been branded and positioned on three core concepts namely, rediscover, rejoice, and reconnect. The objectives of this study are two-fold, first to identify whether cognitive images of the city product are perceived as differentiated from those of Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria. Secondly, whether demographic and travelling characteristics of international visitors have any impact on image perceptions. A list of ten cognitive image attributes of the city was drawn from the literature and personal interviews with stakeholders. The face-to-face interviewing method was used to administer the survey instrument. A systematic sample of 384 international visitors were drawn from a random sample of tourist attractions in Cape Town, which led to a response rate of 51.8%, that is, 199 completed questionnaires. Correspondence analysis revealed that Cape Town was perceived to be similar to the other three cities on attributes such as service level, variety of accommodation, transport and infrastructure. The other three cities were rated worse than Cape Town in terms of variety of activities, attractions and scenery, and to some extent safety. Demographic variables such as age, gender, income, country of origin, and travelling characteristics such as length of stay and travelling arrangement were found to influence image perceptions of the various cities. Therefore, point of parity and point of difference associations were established for Cape Town, and the main conclusion is that brand Cape Town must still fine-tune its market segmentation and positioning strategies to attract the discerning traveller. Attributes such as nightlife, friendly people and culture could be used more effectively to differentiate the city product. There is still room for improvement for the four strategies namely, design of the place, infrastructure, basic services, and attractions to further increase the city's appeal and maintain its sustainable competitive advantage. Hence, competitiveness of specific city products or combination of products require city destinations to break even on image attributes that are perceived to be similar to other destinations, and to establish point of differences on attributes that are unique to the destination. City-marketing activities should therefore begin with reinforcement of clusters and ending with their integration on a provincial and national scale.

Page 50

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Auckland as a Haven of Cultural Tourism: A Comparative Study from 2004 and 2006 as Part of the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Research Group Research Project Ken Newlands, Han (Hannah) Wang, Yupeng Xu, Xuan (Shirley) Jin

Unitec Institute of Technology [email protected] The Cultural Tourism Research Group (CTRG) is the oldest Special Interest Group within ATLAS, having commenced operation in 1992 with 12 member states from within the EU. By 2004, when the CTRG undertook the fourth round of its cultural tourism studies, data was also collected from Asia and Australasia including Auckland for the first time. New members, including those in Auckland, contributed to the development of the survey instrument and provided translations in Asian languages. In 2006 a slightly modified survey instrument was prepared and data again collected in the Auckland War Memorial Museum during the Easter vacation. Whereas the aim of the 2004 research programme was to determine the motivations, socio-demographic profiles consumption patterns and destinational images of cultural visitors the 2006 research reduced the focus on destinational image and introduced a section on customer perception of the importance of features found at cultural sites and attractions. The sample size was 250 in 2004 rising to 300 in 2006, collected as self completed questionnaires from approximately one in ten patrons exiting the museum over a four day period during the New Zealand Autumn Easter holiday break. Participants were aged 18 and over and included locals, other New Zealanders and International visitors. Data was entered into SPSS for local analysis but also submitted to ATLAS for use in a worldwide database. To reduce the refusal rate the survey instrument was translated into Chinese, Japanese and in 2006 also into Korean.

Page 51

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Tuesday 5 December ­ 9.00 am ­ 10.30 am Room: CO.221 ENTERTAINMENT, PERCEPTION AND SATISFACTION

Chair: John Jenkins

Deconstructing Plot, Constructing Entertainment: Entertaining the International Visitor at Huis Ten Bosch, Japan Ayse Collins Bas and Chris Ryan Bilkent University and University of Waikato Earthquakes and Tourism: Perceptions of Seismic Hazard by Tourism Operators in the Zone of the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand Caroline Orchiston University of Otago Tourist Perception and Satisfaction of Beach-Cast Seaweed and Coral Reef at Likuri Island, Fiji Michael Lück, W. Lindsey Zemke-White and Andrea C. Alfaro Auckland University of Technology

Page 52

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Deconstructing Plot, Constructing Entertainment: Entertaining the International Visitor at Huis Ten Bosch, Japan Ayse Collins Bas and Chris Ryan

Bilkent University, Turkey and Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Waikato [email protected] Given that a post-modern perspective of tourism has introduced a new gaze of the destination as a construction of both visitor perception and supplier commodification, the language of cultural compression and place displacement has become commonplace. It has almost become a cliché to argue that tourism deconstructs history, fact and fantasy to re-assemble a hybrid that nonetheless can generate an experiential authenticity. Yet the tourism academic literature has been comparatively silent about the construction of theatre entertainment for visitors outside of a critique of indigenous peoples' cultural performance. This paper examines the ways in which a Japanese venture based upon Dutch architecture seeks to entertain an audience that is a mix of domestic and international visitors through an evening theatre entertainment entitled An eastern odyssey. The nature of plot and presentation is examined in an effort to develop a set of reference points to illustrate how a cast comprising primarily non-Japanese performers develop a story with a mix of reference points as diverse as Gilbert and Sullivan to Star Wars via the Japanese tradition of Kabuki in order to overcome language differences and incomprehensibilities. It is argued that constructed reference points produce a show that communicates over cultural distances by reference to a hybrid of popular cultures. Yet this hybrid is itself a package distanced from the cultures of its audiences by bridgeable nuances to develop a touristic dramatology of fantasy and spectacle. Within a trilogy of fantasies, production, the nature of Huis Ten Bosch and arguably a financial fantasy, An eastern odyssey becomes itself a metaphor for much post-modern tourism. Key Words: Tourist Gaze, dramatology, tourist theatre, Japanese tourism.

Page 53

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Earthquakes and Tourism: Perceptions of Seismic Hazard by Tourism Operators in the Zone of the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand Caroline Orchiston

Department of Tourism, University of Otago [email protected] This paper will focus on the relationship between tourism and earthquakes on the Alpine Fault in the South Island of New Zealand. The Alpine Fault marks the plate boundary where the eastern Pacific Plate is passing beneath the Australian Plate at a rate of 30mm/annum. The geology of this area is considered highly seismic, and geologically young and active on a world scale. Within the past 170 years of European history in New Zealand several large earthquakes have had devastating effects. The 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake reduced Napier and Hastings to ruins. Earthquakes will continue to be an ever-present hazard in New Zealand, and the only uncertainty is when the next major event will take place. Seismologists predict that a significant earthquake is overdue on the Alpine Fault. Such an event will have a devastating and lasting impact on the tourism industry in the zone of the Alpine Fault. The field area for this research will include the West Coast (Lewis Pass to Haast), Mt Cook, Queenstown, and Milford Sound. Stage one of this research will investigate the seismic hazards in the field area with specific emphasis on the way these hazards could impact on the tourism industry over short and long term timescales. Map overlays will be created to illustrate the relationship between seismic "hotspots" and key tourism sites within the field area, together with tourist flow data along key transport links. These overlays will provide a clear illustration of the relationship between earthquakes and tourism. Stage Two of the study will focus on the tourism industry perception of seismic risk in the field area. A quantitative survey will be used to investigate operator perception of seismic risk in the region, and whether operators have developed management strategies to deal with a major civil emergency. Interviews will be conducted with key personnel at local and regional councils, and central government agencies, to develop an understanding of government preparedness with respect to short and long term response strategies for the tourism industry in the event of a major earthquake. Key outcomes of this research will include a clear understanding of the preparedness of the tourism industry in the South Island, including local and regional councils, and tourism operators. It will also clearly illustrate the seismic hazard in relation to tourism infrastructure and resources using ArcGIS.

Page 54

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Tourist Perception and Satisfaction of Beach-Cast Seaweed and Coral Reef at Likuri Island, Fiji Michael Lück, W. Lindsey Zemke-White and Andrea C. Alfaro

School of Hospitality and Tourism and Aquaculture and Environmental Studies, Auckland University of Technology [email protected] Over fishing of herbivores and high nutrient inputs are causing an increase in seaweed biomass on coral reef ecosystems. These seaweeds can become detached and end up in the surf-zone or as beach-cast on tropical beaches, where they can deter tourists as they rot, and/or become suspended in the surf-zone. This study will focus on Likuri Island, Fiji Islands, where beach-cast seaweeds have become a considerable nuisance and are deterring resort guests. Tourist satisfaction is an important component of the tourist experience, and is defined as a congruence between needs and experiences. Satisfactory tourism and hospitality services and experiences are seen as the greatest challenge in the tourism marketplace. However, satisfaction is a very complex concept, and many factors influence an individual's satisfaction with a holiday experience. Environmental degradation has been identified as one such factor. Thus, this survey addressed the following questions: (a) (b) How satisfied are tourists with the beach and coral reef on Likuri Island? What are the possible influences of demographic data on visitor satisfaction?

This study employed two main tools: Firstly, during a pilot survey in April 2006, indepth interviews have been conducted with visitors at Robinson Crusoe Island Resort. At the same time, all guests have been handed out a questionnaire to fill in. The results of both surveys were analysed and formed the basis for the final questionnaire. This questionnaire was a web-based survey. At check-out, all guests at Robinson Crusoe Island Resort between May and October 2006 were handed a small card with basic information about the project, the web address of the questionnaire, and the invitation to participate in the survey by filling in the survey. (Results and conclusions are not known yet, since I am only in the pilot stage of the survey)

Page 55

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Tuesday 5 December ­ 11.00 am ­ 12.30 pm Room: CO.220 TOURISM AND CULTURE

Chair: Hazel Tucker

Whakawaewera Village ­ A Case Study of a Living Village and its Capacity to Sustain Cultural Tourism Mark Kanning Backpacker Becoming: A Journey of Cultural Construction Neil Walsh University of Otago `Lighting the Lamp of Each Person's Heart': Religious Museums and the Modern World Elizabeth Carnegie University of Sheffield

Page 56

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Whakawaewera Village ­ A Case Study of a Living Village and its Capacity to Sustain Cultural Tourism Mark Kanning

[email protected] The purpose of the study is to explore sustainable tourism development seeking out indicators of successful management through a case study of Whakawarewera Village, a living Maori Village located in Rotorua, New Zealand that has been receiving tourists since the late 1800's. The author's two-year immersion in the community as participant-observer resulted in an ethnography giving insight into the 'front' and 'back' stages of a community intertwined in cultural tourism. The results are complemented by the results of the 2006 ATLAS Cultural Tourism survey (n=353) conducted at the village from June through August. This case study contributes to the recent discourse in the tourism literature exploring cultural tourism.

Page 57

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Backpacker Becoming: A Journey of Cultural Construction Neil Walsh

Department of Tourism, University of Otago [email protected] This paper traces the development of the academic notion of what a backpacker actually is. From drifter to organised traveller, from something quite anathema to one becoming a symbolic variant of mass tourism, the backpackers journey is imbued with contradiction and misunderstanding. In previous literature there has been conflicting and often exclusionary definitions of backpacking, much of which has sought to determine a typology through market segmentation and demographic means. Backpackers, however, are inherently mobile and heterogeneous, and as a result have evaded definition. This paper presents an argument that demonstrates the merit of a cultural analysis of backpacking, one that elicits a more nuanced understanding of this phenomenon. It reports that a sense of what it is to be a backpacker can be found in an analysis of the culture which binds them. It introduces the idea that backpackers are culturally constructed in the discourse that surrounds them, the most prevalent of which being the major guidebooks. These guidebooks act as cultural fixatives, they infuse normative behaviours upon backpackers and in this process exert a curious amount of control over them. The paper focuses on the ways that guidebooks manage and influence this category of travel and poses questions of how to consider definitions of what it is to be a backpacker.

Page 58

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

`Lighting the Lamp of Each Person's Heart': Religious Museums and the Modern World Elizabeth Carnegie

Sheffield University Management School, University of Sheffield [email protected] `In contemporary pluralist societies, museums mark the crossroads of many cultural worlds; and appear as ambivalent centres both of cultural refuge and new modes of cultural existence. The museum stands for other worlds, which are assembled ....within them.' (L. Sullivan, Centre for the Study of World Religions, Harvard University, (2006) The above comment suggests that museums are places in which cultures come together equally to interpret, promote or reinforce ideas about societies and culture. In terms of religious museums (or museums which also include some religious artefacts) this implies a paradigm shift in the ways religion is interpreted or permitted to be interpreted within the modern world. This paper will offer arguments as to why there are very few museums of world faith with the St Mungo Museum, Glasgow, The State Museum of the History of Religion, St Petersburg and now the Museum of World Religions (MWR), Taiwan being the key sites. The most recent of these, the MWR opened in 2003 and is based in a department store in Taipei and brings together the elements of shopping and seeking faith with museum attending and actively aims to create a `supermarket of faith' with something for everyone. This paper will focus in the main on the MWR but also reflects field work at all three sites to consider how faith is experienced as a tourist activity and will question whether visitors can be deemed cultural tourists or religious seekers. This paper argues that there is a decline of formal religion as a key to shaping our identity and questions whether the absence of formal (or forced) faith results in a `gap' in people's sense of themselves as spiritual beings and if so what are the ways that people seek to address this? Academics have argued that this breakdown of the relationship between church and state will result in some people and cultures returning to older faiths restricted under certain political regimes. For some this results in `believing without belonging'. However, there is also evidence to show that some individuals are forming and shaping new religions with a faith or bits of faiths that suits their lifestyles, education and influences. This religious observance may even lead to people having `their own particular religion -- a denomination of one' (Smart 2002). This paper sets out to determine whether visitors to religious museums are really shopping for faith or simply acting as museum visitors? It will do this by determining who are the visitors to these museums and why are they there? It will question whether such museums are functioning as religious sites providing a place for tourists and local visitors to reflect on what it is to be a spiritual being in the modern and increasingly secularised society. Essentially this paper looks at the way we have become consumers of faith, and of museums, and therefore of the museums that look at faith. Key words: cultural or religious tourists, museums, identity and society

Page 59

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Tuesday 5 December ­ 11.00 am ­ 12.30 pm Room: CO.221 TOURISM MARKETING MANAGEMENT II

Chair: Richard Mitchell

Destination Branding: Conceptualization of Collaboration within a Problem Domain Giuseppe Marzano and Noel Scott University of Queensland Destination Satisfaction of Group Package Tourists Martin Chung Kao, Noel Scott, Ian Patterson, Chung-kai Kary Li University of Queensland Are You Being Served? Expectations and Perceptions of Travel Agency Customers Tekle Shanka and Claire Loh Hwee Kuen Curtin University of Technology

Page 60

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Destination Branding: Conceptualization of Collaboration within a Problem Domain Giuseppe Marzano and Noel Scott

School of Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Queensland [email protected] This paper proposes that collaboration amongst stakeholders in the process of destination branding can be represented over a continuum that opposes vertical to horizontal collaboration. When the resources that stakeholders are able to carry within a destination branding process are uniformly distributes amongst them, collaboration amongst stakeholders can be described as horizontal and stakeholders act on the domain by negotiating and sharing their resources. However, if the domain is characterized by significant power imbalances, collaboration in the process of destination branding can be characterized as vertical and collaboration emerges as a self serving strategy that the most power stakeholder uses to exert control over the domain. This research uses comparative case study methodology and compares the process of branding in two tourism regions of Queensland; South East Queensland Country and the Gold Coast VeryGC brand. In-depth interviews were conducted with 58 key stakeholders in these two branding processes. These interviews examined the way stakeholders collaborate amongst each other in the process of destination branding and analysed how both the characteristics of the destination as well as individual characteristics such authority, size, availability of financial resources, knowledge and experience in tourism impact in the way stakeholders structure their collaboration in the destination branding process.

Page 61

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Destination Satisfaction of Group Package Tourists Martin Chung Kao, Noel Scott, Ian Patterson, Chung-kai Kary Li

School of Tourism and Leisure Management, University of Queensland [email protected]

Package tours are a common travel type for tourists from Asian countries. Many studies have pointed out that the package tour has been one of the main travel modes for the tourists of Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong (Ko, 1999; Prideaux, 1998; Wang, Hsieh, & Huan, 2000; Wong & Lau, 2001; Yamamoto & Gill, 1999; You, O'Leary, Morrison, & Hong, 2000). The organization of group package tours in a foreign country is very different from individual travel because group package tours are inflexible with a predetermined itinerary (Swarbrooke & Horner, 1999). The services provided by package tours are generally provided by the host countries or destinations such as accommodation, restaurants, transportation, and visits to attractions. However, these services are generally selected by foreign travel agencies that decide on the quality of the services provided. The host country or destination has little influence on the selection decisions made by foreign travel agencies. Hence, the travel experience of package tourists is arranged or manipulated by the foreign travel agencies and not the host country. The destination satisfaction of package tourists is also dependent on the foreign travel agencies. The service quality of the package tour may influence the tourist's satisfaction with the tour and also affect the satisfaction with the host country. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effect that package tour service quality and destination satisfaction have on overall satisfaction of group tourists. This is important because previous studies of destination satisfaction have considered only destination attributes as leading to satisfaction while studies of group tourist satisfaction have ignored destination attributes (Hudson, Hudson, & Miller, 2004; Kozak, 2000, 2002; Wang, Hsieh, Chou, & Lin, in press; Wang et al., 2000; Yuksel, 2001). This study combines both these factors together as influencing overall satisfaction (see Figure 1).

Package tour service quality

Overall satisfaction

Destination satisfaction

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework A two stage quantitative methodology was adopted in this study. First, a cluster sampling method was used to select Taiwanese travel agencies that organize tours to Australia. A total of five Taiwanese travel agencies participated in this study and provided help with the distribution of questionnaires. The respondents were Taiwanese group package tourists visiting Australia. Second, a pre-test with 85 respondents was conducted using a self administered questionnaire. Finally, a large questionnaire survey was administered at Australian airports before Taiwanese tourists returned to Taiwan and 547 useful questionaries were collected. Analysis of the data was through exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, SEM, and stepwise regression. The results indicated that the quality of group package tour service affected destination satisfaction, and overall satisfaction was influenced by destination satisfaction. The results also showed that the quality of group package tour service had a stronger impact on overall satisfaction than the destination attributes. As a result, destination mangers and tourism authorities need to be more concerned with the quality of group package services that are delivered.

Page 62

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Are You Being Served? Expectations and Perceptions of Travel Agency Customers Tekle Shanka and Claire Loh Hwee Kuen

School of Marketing, Curtin University of Technology [email protected]

The purpose of this paper was to report on the findings of a pilot study undertaken in a local travel agency to gauge customers' expectations and perceptions of the travel agent's service provisions. Using survey instruments with modifications to suit the agent's needs, a total of 65 customers who visited the agency during a specific week were approached and 59 of these volunteered to complete the questionnaire. Information collected was analysed using SPSS version 12. Results indicated that customers expected the travel agency `to understand the customers' specific needs', to find the best alternative itinerary available'; `to communicate with the customer in confidence'; and `to be friendly'. However, the respondents' did not expect that the travel agency was in `comfortable and attractive surroundings' or had attractive office layout'. The survey participants perceived the travel agency's to be `friendly', with welcoming face and `devoting considerable time to each customer'. However, perception was low in regards to `documentation of transactions' and `obtaining information completing transactions over the phone'. Statistically significant differences were noted between expectations and perceptions on most of the service attributes with the exception of `finding the best options for the customers'; `immediate access to information'; and `response time when returning a calls/emails'. The Mann-Whitney U Test statistic comparing mean ranks of the expectation measures against on the basis of gender showed statistically significant differences on three items. The mean ranks for females were significantly higher compared with those for male respondents in regards to: `ability of employees to help clients', `accuracy of information', and `interest in solving client problems'. Likewise, only three perception measures showed statistically significant difference between male and female respondents in regards to: `comfortable and attractive surroundings', individual attention and information', and `quality an variety of information'. Once again, the mean ranks of females were significantly higher than that for male respondents. The 30 service attribute measures (with reliability alpha coefficient of 0.973) were factor analysed resulting in four factors with a total of 12 attributes. These included service encounter (five items; alpha = 0.941); confidence (2 items; alpha = 0.834); employees (2 items; alpha = 0.8380; and atmosphere (4 items; alpha = 0.805). The remaining 18 items were excluded from further analysis because they were below the required stringent criterion applied for the small sample size. Travel agents play a fundamental role as the most dominant intermediaries in marketing travel and tourism products. Nevertheless they are faced with the emerging challenge of globalisation, information technology, and the increasingly sophisticated, price-conscious and demanding consumer market. It is therefore prudent to examine discrepancies between expectations and perceptions through customer evaluation so that quality and timely service can be provided to customers. Although the small sample size was a limitation, the pilot survey has highlighted some areas of service provision that need special attention. Further research with larger sample size would, hopefully, lead to a more focused conclusion that can help travel agents in addressing the issue of customer expectation and perception in a coordinated manner. Key words: travel agents, expectation, perception, attributes of service quality.

Page 63

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Page 64

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Page 65

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Page 66

BOOK OF ABSTRACTS

Page 67

Information

Microsoft Word - ATLAS ABSTRACT BOOK.doc

70 pages

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

252762