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HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 1 May 7, 2012

A AASHTO STANDARDS

Policy on Use of -------------------------------------82.3

Materials and Color Selection ---------------------- 705 Noise Barrier ----------------------------------------- 1102.6 Planting ------------------------------------------------ 902.1 Retaining Walls -------------------------------------- 210.5

AGGRADATION

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

ABANDONMENT

Water Wells ------------------------------------------- 110.2

ABBREVIATIONS, OFFICIAL NAMES

----------------------------------------------------------61.1

AGGREGATE BASE

see BASE Engineering Criteria ---------------------- 663

ABRASION

----------------------------------------------------------- 855.2

AGGREGATE SUBBASE

Engineering Criteria --------------------------------- 663

ACCELERATION LANE

----------------------------------------------------------- 403.5 At Rural Intersections ------------------------------- 405.1

AGGRESSIVE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

AGREEMENTS

Drainage, Cooperative ------------------------------- 803.2 Materials ---------------------------------------------- 111.4

ACCESS CONTROL

Definition ----------------------------------------------- 62.6 ----------------------------------------------------------- 104 Alignment, Existing --------------------------------- 104.3 Alignment, New -------------------------------------- 104.3 Frontage Roads --------------------------------------- 104.3 Frontage Roads Financed by Others --------------- 104.3 General Policy ---------------------------------------- 104.1 Highways, Definition -------------------------------- 62.3 Interchanges ------------------------------------------ 504.8 Intersections ------------------------------------------ 405.6 Openings ---------------------------------------------- 104.2 Openings, Financial Responsibility ---------------- 205.5 Openings on Expressways -------------------------- 205.1 Openings in Relation to Median Openings---------- 104.5 Rights, Protection of --------------------------------- 104.4

AIR POLLUTION

Control of Burning ----------------------------------- 110.3 Control of Dust --------------------------------------- 110.3

AIR RIGHTS

----------------------------------------------------------62.6

AIRWAY-HIGHWAY

----------------------------------------------------------- 207 Clearances --------------------------------------------- 207.2 Submittal of Data ------------------------------------ 207.3

ALIGNMENT

Aesthetic Factors ------------------------------------Bridges -----------------------------------------------Channel -----------------------------------------------Consistency (Horizontal) ---------------------------Controls (Horizontal) -------------------------------Coordination (Horizontal/Vertical) ---------------Culverts -----------------------------------------------Horizontal --------------------------------------------Vertical (Grade) -------------------------------------109.3 203.9 862.2 203.3 203.1 204.6 823.2 203 204

ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS

Curb Ramps, Guidelines for -----------------------Driveways ---------------------------------------------Provisions for Disabled Persons -------------------Refuge Areas ----------------------------------------105.4 205.3 105.3 403.7

ACCIDENT DATA

Intersections ------------------------------------------ 402.2

ALLEY

Definition --------------------------------------------62.3

ACCRETION

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

ALLUVIUM

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

ACQUISITION

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.6 Partial -------------------------------------------------- 62.6 of Material and Disposal Sites --------------------- 111.5

ALTERNATIVES FOR CULVERT PIPES

----------------------------------------------------------- 857

ADT/AADT

see AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC

ALUMINUM PIPE

----------------------------------------------------------- 852.5

AESTHETIC FACTORS

Contour Grading and Slope Rounding ------------ 304.4 In Design ---------------------------------------------- 109.3

ANGLE OF INTERSECTION

----------------------------------------------------------- 403.3

Index 2 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

APPRAISAL

----------------------------------------------------------62.6

----------------------------------------------------------- 103.1

AVULSION

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 874

APPROACH SLABS, STRUCTURE

New Construction Projects ------------------------ 208.11(2) Rehabilitation Projects ------------------------------- 673

AXIS OF ROTATION

Superelevation --------------------------------------- 202.4

APPROVALS

Nonstandard Design Features ----------------------- 82.2 Proprietary Items ------------------------------------- 110.10 ----------------------------------------------------------- 601.5 Special Pavement Structural Section Designs --- 601.5

AXLE LOADS, EQUIVALENT SINGLE

see EQUIVALENT SINGLE AXLE LOADS

AREAS OF CONFLICT

Intersections ------------------------------------------ 403.2

B BACKFILL, CULVERTS

----------------------------------------------------------- 829.2 81.4 81.4

ARTERIAL

Minor, Definition -----------------------------------Principal, Definition --------------------------------

BACKWATER

Definition ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------806.2 874 821.4 864.4

AQUEDUCT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

AQUIFER

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 841.2

BAFFLE

----------------------------------------------------------- 873.4

ARCH CULVERTS

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------852.3 852.4 852.5 852.6

BANK

Definition -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Guide -------------------------------------------------Protection, Definition -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------806.2 874 873.4 806.2 874

ARMOR

----------------------------------------------------------- 873.3

BARRIER

Concrete on Walls ----------------------------------Median -----------------------------------------------Noise -------------------------------------------------Railing -----------------------------------------------210.6 305.3 1100 208.10

ARTERIAL HIGHWAYS

----------------------------------------------------------62.3

ARTESIAN WATERS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

BASE

Definitions --------------------------------------------Aggregate ---------------------------------------------Asphalt Treated --------------------------------------Asphalt Treated Permeable ------------------------Cement Treated --------------------------------------Cement Treated Permeable ------------------------Description -------------------------------------------Engineering Criteria --------------------------------Granular, Untreated ---------------------------------Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete -------------------------Lean Concrete ---------------------------------------Treated Permeable ----------------------------------62.7 662.1 662.2 662.3 662.2 662.3 602.1 663 662.1 662.2 662.2 662.3

ASPHALT CONCRETE

see FLEXIBLE PAVEMNT

ASPHALT TREATED PERMEABLE BASE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.7 Design, Asphalt Pavement ------------------------- 633.1 Design, Concrete Pavement ------------------------ 623.1 Pavement Drainage --------------------------------- 662.3

AUXILIARY LANES

----------------------------------------------------------- 62.1 Interchange ------------------------------------------- 504.5

AVAILABLE HEAD, USE OF

----------------------------------------------------------- 821.1 ----------------------------------------------------------- 821.4

BASEMENT SOIL

See SUBGRADE

BASIN CHARACTERISTICS

Elevation ---------------------------------------------- 812.7 Land Use --------------------------------------------- 812.4

AVERAGE DAILY TRAFFIC

----------------------------------------------------------62.8

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 3 May 7, 2012

Orientation -------------------------------------------Shape -------------------------------------------------Size ----------------------------------------------------Slope --------------------------------------------------Soil & Geology --------------------------------------Storage -------------------------------------------------

812.8 812.2 812.1 812.3 812.5 812.6

BEDLOAD

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874 ----------------------------------------------------------- 851.2

BENCHES

Drains -------------------------------------------------- 834.4 Slope --------------------------------------------------- 304.3

Deer Crossing ----------------------------------------- 208.8 Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.2 Embankment Slopes --------------------------------- 208.5 Equipment Crossings -------------------------------- 208.8 Falsework Clearance --------------------------------- 204.8 Flood Design ------------------------------------------ 821.3 Grade Line -------------------------------------------- 204.7 Overloads --------------------------------------------- 110.1 Slope Treatment, End -------------------------------- 707 Structure Depth --------------------------------------- 204.8 Structure, Open End --------------------------------- 208.5 Types of Structures ----------------------------------- 62.2 also see GRADE SEPARATION STRUCTURES

BROKEN-BACK CURVE

see CURVES

BERM

----------------------------------------------------------- 835 Definition --------------------------------------------- 874

BULBOUTS

see CURB, EXTENTIONS

BIKEWAY

Class I, Design Criteria ----------------------------Class II Width --------------------------------------Class III ----------------------------------------------Definitions ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Design Considerations -----------------------------Facilities ---------------------------------------------Markings --------------------------------------------Overcrossings ---------------------------------------Planning Criteria -----------------------------------Railings ----------------------------------------------Refuge Areas ---------------------------------------Standards --------------------------------------------Traffic Control Devices ---------------------------Trails -------------------------------------------------Undercrossings -------------------------------------1003 301.2 1003.3 62.1 1001.4 404.2 1002 1004 208.6 1002 208.10 403.7 1000 1004 1003.4 208.6

BULKHEADS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 874 Type ---------------------------------------------------- 873.3

BULKING

Definition ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Factors --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------806.2 874 813.8 861.2 864.3

BUSBAYS

see CURB, EXTENTIONS

BUSBULBS

see CURB, EXTENTIONS

BUSINESS DISTRICT

Definitions -------------------------------------------62.6

BITUMINOUS

Coatings On Pipes ----------------------------------- 852.4

BYPASS HIGHWAY

----------------------------------------------------------62.3

BORDER INSPECTION STATIONS

----------------------------------------------------------- 107.3

BORROW

Definition --------------------------------------------62.7

C CALIFORNIA OPERATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (CAL-OSHA)

Tunnel Safety Orders --------------------------------- 110.12

BRANCH CONNECTION

----------------------------------------------------------- 62.4 Freeway-to-freeway --------------------------------- 504.4 Interchange, Entrances and Exits ------------------ 504.2

CALIFORNIA R-VALUE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.7 Measurement of -------------------------------------- 614.3 Record Keeping -------------------------------------- 605.1

BRIDGE REPLACEMENT & REHABILITATION PROGRAM

------------------------------------------------------------ 43.3

BRIDGES

----------------------------------------------------------Alignment --------------------------------------------Approach Railing -----------------------------------Clearances --------------------------------------------208 203.9 208.10 309

CALIFORNIA ROAD SYSTEM MAP

---------------------------------------------------------81.4

CAMBER

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

Index 4 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

----------------------------------------------------------- 829.2

CANTILEVER WALLS

----------------------------------------------------------- 210.1

CAPACITY

Drainage Structure ---------------------------------Highway ----------------------------------------------Intersection ------------------------------------------Operational Features Affecting Design ---------Ramp Intersection -----------------------------------Safety Roadside Rests -----------------------------806.2 102 402.1 402.1 406 903.5

Armor ------------------------------------------------Definitions --------------------------------------------Design, Concepts -----------------------------------Design, Highwater & Hydraulics ----------------Site Considerations ---------------------------------Training -----------------------------------------------

873.3 874 873.1 873.2 872.3 873.4

CHANNELIZATION

----------------------------------------------------------Design Standards ------------------------------------Left-turn ---------------------------------------------Principles of ------------------------------------------Right-turn --------------------------------------------62.4 405 405.2 403 405.3

CAPILLARITY

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

CHANNELIZATION, PRINCIPLES OF

-----------------------------------------------------------Angle of Intersection -------------------------------Areas of Conflict -----------------------------------Major Movements ----------------------------------Points of Conflict -----------------------------------Precautions ------------------------------------------Prohibited Turns ------------------------------------Refuge Areas ----------------------------------------Signal Control --------------------------------------Speed-change Areas -------------------------------Summary --------------------------------------------Traffic Control Devices ---------------------------Turning Traffic -------------------------------------403 403.3 403.2 403.1 403.4 403.12 403.8 403.7 403.9 403.5 403.11 403.10 403.6

CAPILLARY WATER

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 841.2

CAPITAL PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE

------------------------------------------------------------ 603.3

CATCH BASIN

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 Inlets -------------------------------------------------- 837.2

CATCH POINT

Clearance to Right of Way Line ------------------- 304.2 Side Slope Standards -------------------------------- 304.1

CHECK DAM

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

CATTLE PASSES

----------------------------------------------------------- 208.8

CIENEGA

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

CEMENT TREATED PERMEABLE BASE

also see BASE Definition----------------------------62.7

CLEANOUT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 842.4

CENTRAL ANGLE

----------------------------------------------------------- 203.4

CLEAR DISTANCE

Stopping Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves - 201.6

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

Formula ----------------------------------------------- 202.1 Superelevation ---------------------------------------- 202

CLEAR RECOVERY ZONE

----------------------------------------------------------- 309.1

CHAIN LINK

Fences ------------------------------------------------- 701.2 Railings, Bridges ------------------------------------ 208.10

CLEARANCES

------------------------------------------------------------- 309 Airway-highway -------------------------------------- 207 Falsework --------------------------------------------- 204.6 Lateral, for Elevated Structures ------------------- 309.4 Minimum ----------------------------------------------- 309.1 Pedestrian Over Crossings ------------------------- 309.2 Railroad ----------------------------------------------- 309.5 Signs, Vertical --------------------------------------- 309.2 Slope to Right of Way Line ------------------------ 304.2 Structures, Horizontal ------------------------------- 309.1 Structures, Vertical ---------------------------------- 309.2 Tunnel ------------------------------------------------- 309.3

CHANNEL, OPEN

Alignment & Grade --------------------------------Changes -----------------------------------------------Characteristics ---------------------------------------Cross Section ----------------------------------------Design Consideration -------------------------------Flow Classifications -------------------------------Flow Equations -------------------------------------Linings -----------------------------------------------Unlined ----------------------------------------------862.2 865 813 863 861 864.2 864.3 873.3 862.2

CHANNEL & SHORE PROTECTION

---------------------------------------------------------870

CLIMATE

Pavement Map ---------------------------------------- 615

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 5 May 7, 2012

CLIMBING LANES

Transitions -------------------------------------------- 206.2 Sustained Grades ------------------------------------- 204.5

CONCENTRATION

Drainage, Definition --------------------------------- 806.2

CLOVERLEAF INTERCHANGE

Local Streets ------------------------------------------ 502.2 Freeway-to-freeway --------------------------------- 502.3

CONCRETE

Base, Lean --------------------------------------------- 62.7 ----------------------------------------------------------- 662.2 Gravity Walls ----------------------------------------- 210.2 Painting ------------------------------------------------ 705.1 Pavement, Rigid -------------------------------------- 620 Portland Cement Pavement (PCCP) see RIGID PAVEMENT Retaining Walls -------------------------------------- 210.2

COATINGS

Pipe ---------------------------------------------------- 852.4

COEFFICIENT OF ROUGHNESS

Channels ----------------------------------------------- 864.3 Conduit ------------------------------------------------ 851.2

CONDEMNATION

Definition --------------------------------------------Inverse ------------------------------------------------62.6 62.6

COEFFICIENT OF RUNOFF

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 819.2

CONDUIT

Cross Section ----------------------------------------Crossover, Irrigation --------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Protective Coating ----------------------------------851.2 706.4 806.2 854.3

COLLECTOR ROAD

Definition ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------62.3 81.4

COLLISIONS

----------------------------------------------------------- 402.2

CONGESTION MITIGATION AND AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM (CMAQ)

----------------------------------------------------------43.2

COLORS, SELECTION

Concrete ----------------------------------------------- 705.1 Steel Structures --------------------------------------- 705.2

CONNECTIONS

Access Openings on Expressways ----------------Branch ------------------------------------------------Branch Interchange, Entrances and Exits --------Driveways on Frontage Roads --------------------Driveways on Rural Roads ------------------------Driveways on Urban Roads ------------------------Financial Responsibility ----------------------------Freeway-to-freeway ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Freeway with Local Roads -------------------------Local Facility ----------------------------------------Private Road -----------------------------------------Roadway ---------------------------------------------205.1 62.4 504.2 205.4 205.4 205.3 205.5 62.4 504.4 106.2 203.1 205.2 107.1

COMFORT FACILITIES

Roadside Rests --------------------------------------- 903

COMFORTABLE SPEEDS

see MAXIMUM COMFORTABLE SPEED

COMMERCIAL DRIVEWAYS

----------------------------------------------------------- 205

COMMUNITY NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAM

--------------------------------------------------------- 1101.4

COMPOSITE PAVEMENT

Definition --------------------------------------------Engineering Properties -----------------------------Mechanistic-Emperical Method -------------------New Construction -----------------------------------Pavement Preservation -----------------------------Performance Factors --------------------------------Reconstruction ---------------------------------------Rehabilitation ----------------------------------------Types -------------------------------------------------62.7 642.1 606.3 643 644 642.2 643 645 641

CONSERVATION OF MATERIALS AND ENERGY

----------------------------------------------------------- 110.11

CONSTRUCTIBILITY

Pavement ---------------------------------------------- 618.2

CONTINUOSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT

----------------------------------------------------------- 621.2 also see RIGID PAVEMENT

COMPOUND CURVES

----------------------------------------------------------- 203.5 Superelevation ---------------------------------------- 202.6

CONSTRUCTION

Freeway Connections with Local Roads ---------- 106.2 Initial and Stage -------------------------------------- 106.1 Temporary Features ---------------------------------- 82.1 Temporary Pavements and Detours --------------- 612.6

CONCENTRATED FLOW

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

Index 6 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

CONTOUR GRADING

----------------------------------------------------------- 304.4 Aesthetics --------------------------------------------- 109.3

CROSS DRAINAGE

------------------------------------------------------------ 820

CROSS SECTION

City Streets and County Roads -------------------Clear Recovery Zone, ------------------------------Effects on Drainage ---------------------------------Frontage Roads -------------------------------------Geometric -------------------------------------------Grade -------------------------------------------------Multilane, All Paved -------------------------------Multilane, Divided ---------------------------------Multilane, 2R & 3R Criteria ----------------------Outer Separation ------------------------------------State Highway ---------------------------------------Two-lane, New Construction ---------------------Two-lane, 2R & 3R --------------------------------Warrants for -----------------------------------------308.1 309.1 833 310.1 62.1 204.2 307.5 307.4 307.6 310.2 307 307.2 307.3 307.1

CONTRACTORS YARDS/PLANT SITES

------------------------------------------------------------ 112

CONTRAST TREATMENT

------------------------------------------------------------ 704 Policy ------------------------------------------------- 704.1

CONTROL

Drainage, Definition -------------------------------Erosion -----------------------------------------------Traffic, Devices -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Traffic, Special Problems -------------------------806.2 110.2 62.8 403.10 110.7

CONTROL OF ACCESS

see ACCESS CONTROL

CONTROL OF POLLUTION

see POLLUTION CONTROL

CROSS SECTION, OTHER THAN STATE HIGHWAY ROADS

------------------------------------------------------------ 308 City and County Roads ----------------------------- 308.1

CONTROLLED ACCESS HIGHWAY

----------------------------------------------------------62.3

CROSS SECTION, STATE HIGHWAY

see CROSS SECTION

CONTROLLING CRITERIA

----------------------------------------------------------82.1

CROSS SLOPES

Effects on Drainage ---------------------------------- 833 Gutter ------------------------------------------------- 303.2 Median ------------------------------------------------ 305.2 Pavement --------------------------------------------- 301.2 Shoulder ------------------------------------------------- 302.2 Structures --------------------------------------------- 208.2

CONVENTIONAL HIGHWAYS

----------------------------------------------------------- 62.3 Sidewalks --------------------------------------------- 105.1

COORDINATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES

-----------------------------------------------------------Transit Loading Facilities -------------------------Divided Nonfreeway Facilities -------------------with FHWA -----------------------------------------108 108.2 108.1 108.3

CROSSINGS

Bicycle -----------------------------------------------Deer --------------------------------------------------Equestrian -------------------------------------------Equipment -------------------------------------------Pedestrian --------------------------------------------Railroad ----------------------------------------------208.6 208.8 208.7 208.8 208.6 104.3

COST REDUCTION INCENTIVE PROPOSALS

Walls -------------------------------------------------- 210.4

COUNTERFORT WALLS

----------------------------------------------------------- 210.2

CROSSOVER

Irrigation, Conduits --------------------------------- 706.3

CRASH CUSHIONS

----------------------------------------------------------- 702.1

CUL-DE-SAC STREET

----------------------------------------------------------62.3

CRIB WALLS

----------------------------------------------------------- 210.2

CULVERTS

Alignment & Slope ---------------------------------Alternative Pipes ------------------------------------Anchorage -------------------------------------------Available Head -------------------------------------Backwater -------------------------------------------Bedding & Backfill --------------------------------Box and Arch ---------------------------------------Bridges -----------------------------------------------Buoyant Forces -------------------------------------Camber -----------------------------------------------Choice of Type -------------------------------------823.4 857 829.5 821.4 825.1 829.2 852.3 821.3 826.3 823.2 851.2

CRITICAL

Depth, Definition ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Flow, Definition -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Slope, Definition ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Velocity, Definition -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------806.2 874 806.2 874 806.2 874 806.2 874

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 7 May 7, 2012

Culvert Design System -----------------------------Curvature ---------------------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Design Discharge -----------------------------------Design Flood, Definition ---------------------------Design Frequency, Definition ---------------------Design Storm, Definition --------------------------End Treatment ---------------------------------------Entrance Design -------------------------------------Entrance Riser ---------------------------------------Gradeline ---------------------------------------------Headwall ---------------------------------------------Headwater --------------------------------------------Height of Cover -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Hydrologic Considerations ------------------------Improved Inlets --------------------------------------Inlet Control -----------------------------------------Joints ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Length ------------------------------------------------Minimum Cover -------------------------------------Multiple Pipes ---------------------------------------Outlet Design ----------------------------------------Piping -------------------------------------------------Roughness --------------------------------------------Sag ----------------------------------------------------Service Life ------------------------------------------Settlement --------------------------------------------Slope --------------------------------------------------Transitions -------------------------------------------Type Selection ----------------------------------------

825.3 823.2 806.2 821.2 806.2 806.2 806.2 826.2 826 826.3 823.2 826.3 821.4 829.2 856 821.2 826.4 825.2 829.4 854.1 828.3 856.5 824.2 827 829.3 851.2 829.7 855 829.2 823.2 826.4 824

Maximum Comfortable Speeds ---------------------- 202.2 Radius ------------------------------------------------- 203.2 Ramp Widening -------------------------------------- 504.3 Reversing ---------------------------------------------- 203.6 Reversing, Superelevation Transition for --------- 202.5 Spiral --------------------------------------------------- 203.8 Superelevation ---------------------------------------- 202 Three-Center ------------------------------------------ 405.7 Vertical ------------------------------------------------ 204.4

CUT WIDENING

----------------------------------------------------------- 304.3

D D-LOAD

Cracking D-Load ------------------------------------- 856.2 Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 Reinforced Concrete Pipe --------------------------- 852.1

DAM

----------------------------------------------------------- 829.9

DEAD END STREET

Definition --------------------------------------------62.3

DEBRIS

----------------------------------------------------------Barrier, Definition ----------------------------------Basin, Definition ------------------------------------Bulking -----------------------------------------------Control Structure ------------------------------------Definition ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rack, Definition -------------------------------------Riser --------------------------------------------------813.8 806.2 806.2 813.8 822.2 806.2 874 806.2 822.2

CURB RAMPS

----------------------------------------------------------- 105.4 Guidelines for ----------------------------------------- 105.4 Policy and Procedure --------------------------------- 105.3

CURBS

----------------------------------------------------------Bridges -----------------------------------------------Design Considerations ------------------------------Extensions --------------------------------------------Frontage Roads and Streets ------------------------General Policy ---------------------------------------Grade Separations -----------------------------------Gutter Pan, Cross Slope ----------------------------Median ------------------------------------------------Position of --------------------------------------------Ramps ------------------------------------------------Returns, for City Streets ----------------------------Structures ---------------------------------------------Types and Uses --------------------------------------303 303.5 404.2 303.4 303.6 303.1 303.5 303.2 305.4 303.5 504.3 405.8 303.5 303.2

DECELERATION LANE

----------------------------------------------------------- 403.5 Left Turns ----------------------------------------------- 405.2 Right Turns --------------------------------------------- 405.3

DECISION SIGHT DISTANCE

----------------------------------------------------------- 201.7

DEER CROSSINGS

----------------------------------------------------------- 208.8

DEFENSE ROUTE

Rural and Single Interstate Routes ------------------ 309.2

DEFINITIONS

----------------------------------------------------------- 62 Drainage ----------------------------------------------- 806.2 Pavement Structural Section ------------------------ 62.7 Deflection Studies ------------------------------------ 635.1

CURVES

Broken-back -----------------------------------------Compound -------------------------------------------Compound, Superelevation of ---------------------Horizontal --------------------------------------------Length and Central Angle --------------------------Location of Ramp on --------------------------------203.7 203.5 202.6 203 203.4 504.2

DEGRADATION

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

Index 8 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

DELAY

Definition --------------------------------------------62.8

DESIGN VOLUME

see DESIGN HOURLY VOLUME

DENSITY

----------------------------------------------------------62.8

DESIGN, FACTORS AFFECTING

-----------------------------------------------------------Bicycles ----------------------------------------------Driver ------------------------------------------------Environment ----------------------------------------General -----------------------------------------------Pavement ---------------------------------------------Pedestrian --------------------------------------------Vehicle -----------------------------------------------401 401.6 401.2 401.4 401.1 611 401.5 401.3

DESIGN

Capacities ---------------------------------------------Channel & Shore Protection ----------------------Designation ------------------------------------------Discharge --------------------------------------------Discharge, Estimating ------------------------------Flood, Establishing ---------------------------------Frequency, Definition ------------------------------Geometric Standards --------------------------------Hourly Volume -------------------------------------Hourly Volume, Definition -----------------------Interchange -------------------------------------------Intersection -------------------------------------------Period ------------------------------------------------Philosophy -------------------------------------------Speed (See DESIGN SPEED) Standards, Applications ----------------------------Storm -------------------------------------------------Storm, Definition -----------------------------------102 873.1 103 811.3 819 818.2 806.2 200 103.1 62.8 504 405 103.2 81.1 80 821.2 806.2

DESIGN, OPERATIONAL FEATURES AFFECTING

-----------------------------------------------------------Accidents --------------------------------------------Capacity ---------------------------------------------Undesirable Geometric Features -----------------402 402.2 402.1 402.2

DESIGNATION, DESIGN

Design Period ---------------------------------------- 103.2 Relation to Design ----------------------------------- 103.1

DETOURS

----------------------------------------------------------- 110.7 Local Roads Used as -------------------------------- 106.2

DESIGN DESIGNATION

Design Period ---------------------------------------- 103.2 Relation to Design ----------------------------------- 103.1

DETRITUS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 874

DESIGN HOURLY VOLUME

----------------------------------------------------------- 62.8 ----------------------------------------------------------- 103.1

DHV

see DESIGN HOURLY VOLUME

DESIGN LIFE

Pavement ---------------------------------------------- 612 Relation to Design Period ---------------------------- 103.1

DIAMOND INTERCHANGE

----------------------------------------------------------- 502.2

DESIGN SPEED

-----------------------------------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Entrances & Exits ----------------------------------Freeway-to-freeway Minimum -------------------Freeway Entrances & Exits -----------------------Local Facility ---------------------------------------Scenic Values ----------------------------------------Selection ---------------------------------------------Standards --------------------------------------------101 62.8 504.2 504.4 504.2 101.1 109 101.1 101.2

DIKES

Definition, Earthen ----------------------------------Frontage Roads and Streets -----------------------General Policy --------------------------------------Guide, Earthen ---------------------------------------PCC Grouted Riprap -------------------------------Position of -------------------------------------------Ramp -------------------------------------------------Toe, Earthen -----------------------------------------Types and Uses -------------------------------------874 303.6 303.1 873.4 873.4 303.5 504.3 873.4 303.3

DESIGN VEHICLE

Definition -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Transit ------------------------------------------------California Truck ------------------------------------Offtracking ------------------------------------------STAA Truck ----------------------------------------Swept Width ----------------------------------------Tracking With --------------------------------------Turning Templates ---------------------------------Wheelbase -------------------------------------------62.10 404 404.2 404.2 404.1 404.2 404.2 404.2 404.3 404.2

DISCHARGE

Definition --------------------------------------------Design ------------------------------------------------Estimating --------------------------------------------Peak --------------------------------------------------806.2 811.3 819 811.3

DISPOSAL SITES/MATERIALS SITES

-----------------------------------------------------------Acquisition of ---------------------------------------Environmental Requirements ---------------------Information Furnished to Prospective Bidders -Investigation of Local Material Sources --------111 111.5 111.1 111.3 111.2

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 9 May 7, 2012

Mandatory, on Federal-aid Projects --------------- 111.6 Material Arrangements ------------------------------ 111.4

DISTANCE, CLEAR

Stopping Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves -- 201.6

DITCHES

Grade -------------------------------------------------Side -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Slope --------------------------------------------------834.3 303.2 834.3 834.3

Objectives of Design -------------------------------Pavement ---------------------------------------------by Pumping ------------------------------------------Roadway ---------------------------------------------Section, Duties of -----------------------------------Subsurface -------------------------------------------System, Definition -----------------------------------

801.4 650 839 830 802.1 840 806.2

DRAINS

Anchorage --------------------------------------------Benches -----------------------------------------------Entrance Standards ----------------------------------Geotextile --------------------------------------------Horizontal --------------------------------------------Outlet Treatment ------------------------------------Overside, Spacing & Location --------------------Service Life ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Slope --------------------------------------------------Subsurface Types -----------------------------------834.4 834.4 834.4 841.5 841.5 834.4 834.4 857.1 857.2 834.4 841.5

DIVERGING

----------------------------------------------------------62.8

DIVERSION

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

DIVIDED HIGHWAY

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.3 Grade Line -------------------------------------------- 204.2

DRIVEWAYS

----------------------------------------------------------Access Openings on Expressways ----------------Commercial ------------------------------------------Financial Responsibility ----------------------------Frontage Roads --------------------------------------Local Standards -------------------------------------Pedestrian Access -----------------------------------Residential -------------------------------------------Rural Areas ------------------------------------------Urban -------------------------------------------------205 205.1 205.3 205.5 205.4 205.3 205.3 205.3 205.4 205.3

DIVIDED NONFREEWAY FACILITY

----------------------------------------------------------- 108.1

DIVISION OF DESIGN

----------------------------------------------------------10

DOWEL BAR

----------------------------------------------------------- 622.4 Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.7

DOWNDRAINS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 Flume -------------------------------------------------- 834.4 Pipe ---------------------------------------------------- 834.4

DRY WEATHER FLOWS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

DUFF

Definition --------------------------------------------62.5

DRAIN

Edge System (See EDGE DRAIN)

E

806.2 819.2 803.1 861 819.6 825.3 864.4 803.2 806.2 806.2 874 802.1 891.3 806.2 806.2 801.5 841.5 806.2 834.2

DRAINAGE

Area, Definition -------------------------------------Area ---------------------------------------------------Basic Policy ------------------------------------------Channels ----------------------------------------------Computer Programs -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cooperative Projects Policy -----------------------Course, Definition ----------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Definition, Channel & Shore ----------------------Design Responsibility ------------------------------Detention Basins ------------------------------------Divide, Definition -----------------------------------Easement, Definition -------------------------------Economics of Design -------------------------------Galleries ----------------------------------------------Glossary of Terms ----------------------------------Median -------------------------------------------------

EARTH RETAINING SYSTEMS

Anchored Wall --------------------------------------Cantilever Wall --------------------------------------Concrete Gravity Wall -----------------------------Counterfort Wall -------------------------------------Crib Wall; Concrete, Steel and Timber ----------Drainage ----------------------------------------------Electroliers and Signs ------------------------------Footings ----------------------------------------------Gabion Basket Wall --------------------------------Gravity Wall -----------------------------------------L-Type Wall -----------------------------------------Masonry Wall ----------------------------------------Mechanically Stabilized Wall ---------------------Non-Gravity Cantilevered Walls ------------------Proprietary -------------------------------------------Reinforced Embankments --------------------------Rock Gravity Wall ----------------------------------210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.8 210.8 210.8 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2

Index 10 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Rock/Soil Anchors ---------------------------------Safety Railings --------------------------------------Salvaged Material Retaining Wall ---------------Secant Soldier Pile Wall ---------------------------Sheet Pile Wall -------------------------------------Slurry Diaphragm Wall ----------------------------Soil Mix Wall ---------------------------------------Soil Nail Wall ---------------------------------------Soil Reinforcement Systems ----------------------Soldier Pile Wall with Lagging -------------------Tangent Soldier Pile Wall -------------------------Tire Anchored Timber Wall ----------------------Utilities -----------------------------------------------

210.2 210.6 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.2 210.8

Head, Definition ------------------------------------- 806.2 Loss, Definition -------------------------------------- 806.2

ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

Transit Loading Facilities -------------------------Contractor's Yard and Plant Site ------------------FHWA -----------------------------------------------Material Sites and Disposal Sites -----------------Median Width ---------------------------------------Project Development -------------------------------Special Considerations -----------------------------108.2 112 108.3 111 305.1 81.1 110

EQUALIZER

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 826.3

EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS

----------------------------------------------------------- 110.6

EQUESTRIAN TRAILS

see TRAILS, MULTIPURPOSE

EASEMENT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.6 Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

EQUESTRIAN

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.10 Undercrossing and Overcrossing ------------------ 208.7

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

see LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS

EQUIPMENT CROSSINGS

----------------------------------------------------------- 208.8

EDDY LOSS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

EQUIVALENT SINGLE AXLE LOADS

Definition --------------------------------------------Conversion ESAL to Traffic Index ----------------ESAL Constants ------------------------------------Lane Distribution Factors -------------------------Projections, Truck Traffic -------------------------62.7 613.3 613.3 613.3 613.3

EDGE DRAIN

----------------------------------------------------------- 606.3 System, Definition ---------------------------------- 62.7

ELECTROLIERS AND SIGNS

Walls -------------------------------------------------- 210.7

EROSION

And Accretion, Definition ------------------------Control, Channel & Shore -------------------------Control, Planting ------------------------------------Control, Water Pollution --------------------------Definition -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Vegetative Control ---------------------------------806.2 871.1 902 110.2 806.2 874 62.5

EMBANKMENT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.7 Side Slope Standards --------------------------------- 304 Slopes at Structures --------------------------------- 208.5 Structure Approach Embankment ----------------- 208.11

EMINENT DOMAIN

Definition --------------------------------------------62.6

EVAPORATION

Definition --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------806.2 812.8 814.4 819.2

ENCROACHMENT

Definition --------------------------------------------62.6

END OF FREEWAY

Connections with Local Roads -------------------- 106.2

EXITS

Freeway Interchange -------------------------------- 504.2

ENDWALL

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

EXPRESSWAY

----------------------------------------------------------62.3

ENERGY

Dissipator, Definition ------------------------------Dissipator --------------------------------------------Grade Line, Definition -----------------------------Head, Definition ------------------------------------806.2 827.2 806.2 806.2

F FAA

Abbreviation ----------------------------------------- 61.1 Notice Requirements -------------------------------- 207.3

ENTRANCE

Design (Hydraulic) ----------------------------------- 826 Freeway Interchange -------------------------------- 504.2

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 11 May 7, 2012

FACTORS AFFECTING INTERSECTION DESIGN

see DESIGN, FACTORS AFFECTING

FLARED END SECTION

----------------------------------------------------------- 826.3 ----------------------------------------------------------- 834.4

FALSEWORK

----------------------------------------------------------Grade Line -------------------------------------------Vertical Clearance ----------------------------------Width of Traffic Openings -------------------------Worker Safety ---------------------------------------204.8 204.8 204.8 204.8 204.8

FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

Definition --------------------------------------------Aged Residue (AR) ----------------------------------Analytical Depth ------------------------------------Transit Pads ------------------------------------------California R-value ----------------------------------Climate Region --------------------------------------Cold in-Place Recycled Asphalt ------------------Concrete Overlay ------------------------------------Data Collection --------------------------------------80th percentile Deflection -------------------------Deflection Studies -----------------------------------Emperical Method ----------------------------------Engineering Analysis Software -------------------Full Depth Hot Mix Asphalt -----------------------Gravel Equivalent -----------------------------------Gravel factor (Gf) -----------------------------------Grouping ---------------------------------------------Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) ---------------------------Hot Mixed Asphalt Base ---------------------------Hot Recycled Asphalt ------------------------------International Roughness Index (IRI) -------------Intersections -----------------------------------------Lean Concrete Base (LCB) ------------------------Lime Treated Subbase ------------------------------Mainline ----------------------------------------------Mill and Overlay ------------------------------------Open Graded Friction Course (OGFC) -----------Park & Ride Facilities ------------------------------Pavement Condition Report -----------------------Pavement Preservation -----------------------------Percent Reduction in Deflection ------------------Percent Reduction in deflection required at the Milled depth ----------------------------------Performance Factors --------------------------------Performance Graded (PG) -------------------------Polymer modified binders -------------------------RAC-G -----------------------------------------------RAC-O -----------------------------------------------Ramp Termini ---------------------------------------Reflective crack retardation ------------------------Remove and Replace -------------------------------Rich-Bottom Concept ------------------------------Ride Quality -----------------------------------------Roadside Facilities ----------------------------------Safety Roadside Rest Areas -----------------------Rubberized Asphalt Concrete ---------------------SAMI-F -----------------------------------------------SAMI-R ----------------------------------------------Shoulders ---------------------------------------------Smoothness ------------------------------------------Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayers (SAMI) Structural Adequacy --------------------------------Subgrade Enhancement Fabrics -------------------Test Sections -----------------------------------------Tolerable Deflection at the Surface (TDS) ------62.7 632.1 635.1 636.4 633.1 632.1 635.1 635.1 635.1 635.1 635.1 633.1 637 633.1 633.1 633.1 635.1 631 633.1 635.1 635.1 636.3 635.1 633.1 636.1 635.1 631.2 636.4 635.1 634 635.1 635.1 632.2 632.1 632.1 631.3 631.3 636.1 635.1 635.1 633.1 635.1 636.4 636.4 631.3 631.5 631.5 636.2 632.1 631.5 635.1 633.1 635.1 635.1

FAN

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

FEDERAL-AID

----------------------------------------------------------Funding Determination -----------------------------Programs (see also PROGRAMS) ----------------System ------------------------------------------------40 44 43 42

FEDERAL LANDS PROGRAM

----------------------------------------------------------43.4

FENCES

----------------------------------------------------------Approval ---------------------------------------------Barbed Wire, Type BW ----------------------------Chain Link -------------------------------------------Exceptions to Standard Types ---------------------Freeways and Expressways ------------------------Location of -------------------------------------------Locked Gates ----------------------------------------Median ------------------------------------------------on Other Highways ---------------------------------Policy and Purpose ----------------------------------Retaining Walls -------------------------------------Safety Roadside Rests ------------------------------Standard Types --------------------------------------Vinyl-clad --------------------------------------------Weathering Type Steel -----------------------------Wire Mesh, Type WM -----------------------------701 701.1 701.2 701.2 701.2 701.2 701.2 701.2 701.2 701.3 701.1 210.6 903.5 701.2 705.1 705.1 701.2

FETCH

Definition --------------------------------------------- 874

FHWA

Approval of Locked Gates -------------------------- 701.2 Approval of Mandatory Sites ----------------------- 111.6 Coordination With ----------------------------------- 108.3 Federal-aid -------------------------------------------- 40 Liaison With ------------------------------------------ 11.2

FILTER FABRIC

----------------------------------------------------------- 841.5

FLAP GATES

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 821.6 ----------------------------------------------------------- 838.5

Index 12 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Tolerable Deflections ------------------------------Traffic Index (TI) -----------------------------------Traveled Way ---------------------------------------Treated Permeable Base (TPB) -------------------Wearing Course ------------------------------------Whitetopping -----------------------------------------

635.1 633.1 636.1 633.1 631.2 635.1

FREEWAY-TO-FREEWAY INTERCHANGES

----------------------------------------------------------- 502.3

FRENCH DRAINS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 841.5

FLOOD

Base --------------------------------------------------Control Projects ------------------------------------Design ------------------------------------------------Design Criteria, Recommended ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Greatest of Record ---------------------------------Magnitude --------------------------------------------Maximum Historical -------------------------------Measurement ----------------------------------------Plain, Definition ------------------------------------Plane, Definition ------------------------------------Stage, Definition -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Waters, Definition ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------818.1 803.2 818.1 821.3 831.3 821.3 817 818.1 817.2 806.2 806.2 806.2 874 806.2 874

FRICTION FACTORS

----------------------------------------------------------- 202.1

FRONTAGE ROADS

Definition --------------------------------------------Cross Section Standards ----------------------------Access Control --------------------------------------Cross Section ---------------------------------------Curbs -------------------------------------------------Driveways -------------------------------------------Financed by Others ---------------------------------Headlight Glare -------------------------------------Horizontal Clearance ------------------------------Outer Separation ------------------------------------Railroad Crossings ---------------------------------Sidewalks --------------------------------------------62.3 310 104.3 310.1 303.6 205.4 104.3 310.3 309.1 310.2 104.3 105.1

FLOW

Channel ----------------------------------------------Critical -----------------------------------------------Definition -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Line ---------------------------------------------------Subcritical -------------------------------------------Supercritical -----------------------------------------816.6 864.3 806.2 874 806.2 864.3 864.3

FUNDING

-----------------------------------------------------------Federal-Aid Eligibility -----------------------------Federal Participation Ratio ------------------------44 44.1 44.2

FUNNELING

----------------------------------------------------------- 403.1

FREE

Outlet, Definition ------------------------------------ 806.2 Water, Definition ------------------------------------ 806.2

G GALLERIES

Drainage ---------------------------------------------- 841.5

FREEBOARD

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 866

GEOMETRIC CROSS SECTIONS

------------------------------------------------------------ 300 Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.1

FREEWAY

----------------------------------------------------------- 62.3 Entrances and Exits at Interchanges -------------- 504.2 Landscape -------------------------------------------- 62.5 ------------------------------------------------------------ 900

GEOMETRIC DESIGN

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.4 Structure Standards ---------------------------------- 200 Undesirable Geometric Features, Intersections -- 402.2

FREEWAY CONNECTIONS WITH EXISTING ROADS

----------------------------------------------------------- 106.2

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN REPORT

-----------------------------------------------------------Content -----------------------------------------------Local Materials Sources ---------------------------Policy ------------------------------------------------Side Slope Standards -------------------------------Submittal and Approval ---------------------------113 113.2 111.2 113.1 304.1 113.3

FREEWAY-TO-FREEWAY CONNECTIONS

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Branch Connections ---------------------------------Grade Line ------------------------------------------Grades -------------------------------------------------Lane Drops -------------------------------------------Metering --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Shoulder Width --------------------------------------62.4 504.4 504.4 204.2 504.4 504.4 504.3 504.4 504.4

GORE

----------------------------------------------------------- 62.4 Contrasting Surface Treatment -------------------- 504.2 Paved Gore ------------------------------------------- 504.2

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 13 May 7, 2012

GRADE

Cross Section, Position with Respect to ---------to Drain, Definition ---------------------------------Freeway Entrance Standards -----------------------Freeway Exit Standards -----------------------------Freeway-to-freeway Connection Standards -----General Controls ------------------------------------Horizontal Alignment, Coordination with -------Ramps ------------------------------------------------Rolling Profile ---------------------------------------Safety Roadside Rests ------------------------------Separate Lines ---------------------------------------Separation --------------------------------------------Separation Structures -------------------------------Separation, Pedestrian ------------------------------Standards ---------------------------------------------Stopping Sight Distance at Crests ----------------Stopping Sight Distance at Sags ------------------Structures ---------------------------------------------Sustained Grades ------------------------------------Vertical Curves --------------------------------------204.2 806.2 504.2 504.2 504.4 204.1 204.6 504.2 204.1 903.5 204.7 62.4 208 105.2 204.3 201.4 201.5 204.8 204.5 204.4

GROUND WATER

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 841.2

GUARDRAIL

Bridge Approach Railings -------------------------- 208.10 References -------------------------------------------- 702

GUIDE BANK

----------------------------------------------------------- 873.4

GUTTER PAN

Cross Slope -------------------------------------------- 303.2 General Policy ---------------------------------------- 303.1 Uses, Curb Types ------------------------------------ 303.2

GUTTERS, SIDE

----------------------------------------------------------Capacity ----------------------------------------------Grade -------------------------------------------------Intersection, at ---------------------------------------Types -------------------------------------------------Valley -------------------------------------------------834.3 836.2 836.2 836.2 836.1 836.2

GRADE LINE

Bridge Decks ----------------------------------------Depressed, Under Structures ----------------------General -----------------------------------------------Separate ----------------------------------------------Structures ---------------------------------------------204.8 204.8 204.1 204.7 204.8

H HAULING

Overloaded Material/Equipment , Design for ----- 110.1

GRADE SEPARATION STRUCTURES

----------------------------------------------------------Cattle Passes, Equipment, and Deer Crossings -Cross Slope ------------------------------------------Curbs --------------------------------------------------Equestrian Undercrossing --------------------------Median ------------------------------------------------Open End Structures --------------------------------Pedestrian --------------------------------------------Pedestrian Overcrossings and Undercrossing ---Railings -----------------------------------------------Railroad Underpasses and Overheads ------------Sidewalks --------------------------------------------Widths ------------------------------------------------208 208.8 208.2 303.5 208.7 208.3 208.5 105.2 208.6 208.10 208.9 208.4 208.1

HEAD

Available ---------------------------------------------- 821.4

HEADLIGHT GLARE

----------------------------------------------------------- 310.3

HEADLIGHT SIGHT DISTANCE

Grade Sags -------------------------------------------- 201.5

HEADWAY

----------------------------------------------------------62.8

HIGH SPEED RAIL

Definition ---------------------------------------------- 62.10 Clearances --------------------------------------------- 309.1

GRADIENT (SLOPE)

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

GRADING PLANE

Definition --------------------------------------------62.7

HIGHWAY

----------------------------------------------------------- 62.3 Capacity ----------------------------------------------- 102 Context ------------------------------------------------ 81.6 Controlled Access ------------------------------------ 62.3 Conventional ------------------------------------------ 62.3 Federal Lands Program ------------------------------ 43.4 Interstate, Definition --------------------------------- 81.4 Landscape Architect Definitions ------------------- 62.5 Major -------------------------------------------------- 62.3 National Highway System --------------------------- 42 Parkway ----------------------------------------------- 62.3 Pedestrian Facilities ---------------------------------- 105 Planting ------------------------------------------------ 62.5

GRATED LINE DRAIN

------------------------------------------------------ 837.2

GRAVEL EQUIVALENT

----------------------------------------------------------- 604.3

GRAVITY WALL

----------------------------------------------------------- 210.2

GROIN

----------------------------------------------------------- 873.4

Index 14 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Radial ------------------------------------------------- 62.3 Route Numbers -------------------------------------- 21.2 Scenic ------------------------------------------------- 62.3 State System ------------------------------------------ 81.4 Structures, Definitions ------------------------------ 62.2 Structures, Grade Line ------------------------------- 204.8 Through ----------------------------------------------- 62.3 Types, Definitions ----------------------------------- 62.3

Statistical Methods ---------------------------------- 819.3 Summary of Methods ------------------------------- 819.1

HYDROGRAPH

Definition ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SCS Triangular -------------------------------------Synthetic ---------------------------------------------Unit ---------------------------------------------------806.2 816.5 819.4 819.4 819.4

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL STANDARDS

----------------------------------------------------------82.1

HYDROGRAPHY

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENT

Aesthetic Factors -----------------------------------Alignment Consistency ----------------------------Bridges -----------------------------------------------Broken Back Curves -------------------------------Compound Curves ---------------------------------Curve Length and Central Angle -----------------General Controls -----------------------------------Grade, Coordination with -------------------------Radius ------------------------------------------------Reversing Curves -----------------------------------Standards for Curvature ---------------------------Spiral Transition ------------------------------------109.3 203.3 203.9 203.7 203.5 203.4 203.1 204.6 203.2 203.6 203.2 203.8

HYDROLOGIC DATA

Basin Characteristics --------------------------------Federal Agencies -----------------------------------Field Investigations --------------------------------Precipitation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rainfall ----------------------------------------------Sources -----------------------------------------------Stream Flow -----------------------------------------Surface Runoff --------------------------------------Transfer of Data ------------------------------------812 815.3 815.3 815.2 815.3 815.5 815.3 815.4 815.2 819.5

HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS

Gumbel Extreme Value Distribution ------------Log Normal Distribution --------------------------Log Pearson Type III Distribution ---------------Objectives -------------------------------------------Rational Methods -----------------------------------Regional Analysis Methods -----------------------SCS Triangular Hydrograph ----------------------Synthetic Hydrograph -----------------------------Unit Hydrograph -----------------------------------819.3 819.3 819.3 811.2 819.2 819.2 819.4 819.4 819.4

HORIZONTAL CLEARANCE

Bridges -----------------------------------------------Between Elevated Structures ---------------------Clear Distance --------------------------------------Noise Barriers ---------------------------------------Off-track Maintenance -----------------------------Railroad Walkway ---------------------------------Railroads, Adjacent to -----------------------------Retaining Walls -------------------------------------Structure ---------------------------------------------Tunnels ----------------------------------------------309.1 309.4 201.6 1102.2 309.5 309.5 309.5 309.1 309.1 309.3

HYDROLOGY

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 811.1

HORIZONTAL DRAINS

----------------------------------------------------------- 841.5

HYDROPLANING

Definition --------------------------------------------- 831.4

HOT MIX ASPHALT CONCRETE BASE

also see BASE Engineering Criteria ---------------- 663

HOT MIXED ASPHALT

----------------------------------------------------------- 631.1 also see FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

I INFILTRATION

----------------------------------------------------------- 606.3 ----------------------------------------------------------- 819.2 Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

HYDRAULIC

Gradient, Definition --------------------------------Jump, Definition ------------------------------------Mean Depth, Definition ---------------------------Mean Depth -----------------------------------------Radius, Definition ----------------------------------806.2 806.2 806.2 864.3 806.2

INITIAL CONSTRUCTION

and Stage --------------------------------------------- 106.1

HYDRAULIC DESIGN DISCHARGE

Empirical Methods ---------------------------------Field Investigation ---------------------------------Hydrograph Methods ------------------------------Rational Methods -----------------------------------Regional Analysis ----------------------------------819.2 815.3 816.5 819.2 819.2

INLETS

Combination ----------------------------------------Curb Opening ---------------------------------------Grate -------------------------------------------------Hydraulic Design -----------------------------------Location and Spacing ------------------------------837.2 837.2 837.2 837.4 837.3

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 15 May 7, 2012

Pipe Drop ---------------------------------------------Time, Definition -------------------------------------Transition --------------------------------------------Types -------------------------------------------------Use of --------------------------------------------------

837.2 806.2 826.4 837.2 837.1

INSPECTION STATIONS, BORDER

----------------------------------------------------------- 107.3

INTERCHANGES

Access Control --------------------------------------Aesthetic Factors ------------------------------------Approval of Design ---------------------------------Auxiliary Lanes -------------------------------------Cloverleaf --------------------------------------------Concepts ----------------------------------------------Data Required for Design --------------------------Definition ----------------------------------------------Design, Procedure -----------------------------------Design, Standards -----------------------------------Diamond ----------------------------------------------Elements ----------------------------------------------Freeway Entrances and Exits, Design ------------Freeway-to-freeway --------------------------------Freeway-to-freeway Connections, Definition ---Freeway-to-freeway Connections, Standards ---Freeway-to-freeway, Minimum Design Speed --Freeway-to-freeway Omission of Movements --Grade Separations -----------------------------------Grades Exits/Entrances -----------------------------Lane Reduction --------------------------------------Local Streets -----------------------------------------Parallel Street Systems -----------------------------Ramps ------------------------------------------------Reviews ----------------------------------------------Sight Distance for Planting ------------------------Single Point Interchange ---------------------------Spacing -----------------------------------------------Traffic ------------------------------------------------Trumpet ----------------------------------------------Two-quadrant Cloverleaf --------------------------Types -------------------------------------------------Warrants ----------------------------------------------Weaving Sections -----------------------------------also see RAMPS 504.8 109.3 503.2 504.5 502.2 501.1 503.1 62.4 503 504 502.2 62.4 504.2 502.3 62.4 504.4 504.4 502.3 62.4 504.2 504.6 502.2 502.2 504.3 503.2 902.2 502.2 501.3 500 502.2 502.2 502 501.2 504.7

Design, Operational Features Affecting ---------Design, Standards -----------------------------------Design Vehicle ---------------------------------------Driver, Affecting Design of -----------------------Environment, Affecting Design of ----------------General, Factors Affecting Design ---------------at Grade -----------------------------------------------Grade Separations -----------------------------------Left-turn Channelization ---------------------------Major Movement, Preference to ------------------Median Openings -----------------------------------Operational Features --------------------------------Pedestrian, Affecting Design of -------------------Points of Conflict -----------------------------------Precautions -------------------------------------------Prohibited Turns -------------------------------------Public Road ------------------------------------------Ramp --------------------------------------------------Refuge Area ------------------------------------------Returns and Corner Radii, City Street ------------Right-turn Channelization -------------------------Right-turn Lanes at Off Ramp ---------------------Roundabout, Definition ----------------------------Sight Distance ---------------------------------------Signal Control ---------------------------------------Speed-change Areas --------------------------------Traffic Control Devices ----------------------------Traffic Islands ---------------------------------------Turning Traffic --------------------------------------Types -------------------------------------------------Undesirable Geometric Features ------------------Vehicle, Affecting Design of ----------------------Widening at Signalized Intersections --------------

402 405 404 401.2 401.4 401.1 400 62.4 405.2 403.1 405.5 402 401.5 403.4 403.12 403.8 405.7 406 403.7 405.8 405.3 405.3 62.4 405.1 403.9 403.5 403.10 405.4 403.6 401.5 402.2 401.3 405.9

INTERSTATE

Definition --------------------------------------------Funding -----------------------------------------------Numbering -------------------------------------------81.4 42.2 21.2

INUNDATE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

INVERSE CONDEMNATION

Definition --------------------------------------------62.6

INVERT

Definition --------------------------------------------Paving, Definition -----------------------------------Paving --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Protection ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------806.2 806.2 852.1 852.4 853.6 852.4 852.5

INTERMODAL SURFACE TRANSPORTATION EFFICIENCY ACT (ISTEA)

----------------------------------------------------------40

INTERSECTION

Access Control --------------------------------------Accidents ---------------------------------------------Angle of Intersection -------------------------------Areas of Conflict ------------------------------------Bicycle, Affecting Design of ----------------------Capacity ----------------------------------------------Capacity, Ramps ------------------------------------Channelization ---------------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Design, Factors Affecting --------------------------405.6 402.2 403.3 403.2 401.6 402.1 406 403 62.4 401

INVERTED SIPHON

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 829.7

IRRIGATION SYSTEM

Crossover Conduits ---------------------------------- 706.4

Index 16 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

ISLAND

----------------------------------------------------------- 62.4 Traffic ------------------------------------------------- 405.4

K-RAIL

----------------------------------------------------------- 204.8

ISOHYETAL

Line, Definition -------------------------------------- 806.2 Map, Definition -------------------------------------- 806.2

L L-TYPE WALL

----------------------------------------------------------- 210.2

ISOVEL

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 874

LAG

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

ISTEA

------------------------------------------------------------- 41.1 ------------------------------------------------------------- 42.2

LAMINAR FLOW

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

LANDSCAPE J JACK

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 874 Aesthetic Factors ------------------------------------- 109.3 Architecture ------------------------------------------ 62.5 ------------------------------------------------------------ 900 Highway ---------------------------------------------- 62.5

LANE

Addition ---------------------------------------------Addition on Ramps ---------------------------------Auxiliary -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Climbing --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Deceleration ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Definitions -------------------------------------------Distribution Factors --------------------------------Drops -------------------------------------------------Drops on Freeway-to-freeway Connectors -----Drops on Ramps ------------------------------------Express Toll Lanes ---------------------------------High-Occupancy Vehicle -------------------------High Occupancy Toll ------------------------------Left Turn --------------------------------------------Managed, Definition -------------------------------Median, Definition ---------------------------------Multiple, Definition --------------------------------Numbering ------------------------------------------Passing -----------------------------------------------Reductions -------------------------------------------Reduction at Interchanges --------------------------Right Turn -------------------------------------------Separate Turning -----------------------------------Speed Change ---------------------------------------Speed Change, Definition -------------------------Traffic, Definition ----------------------------------Two-way Left-turn Lanes --------------------------Width -------------------------------------------------Width on Curves ------------------------------------Width of Opening for Falsework -----------------Width, Ramps ---------------------------------------206.2 504.3 62.1 504.5 204.5 206.2 405.2 405.3 62.1 602.3 206.3 504.4 504.3 62.8 62.8 62.8 405.2 62.8 62.1 62.1 62.1 204.5 206.3 504.6 405.3 403.6 403.5 62.1 62.1 405.2 301.1 504.3 204.8 504.3

JACKING OPERATIONS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

JETTY

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 874 Types -------------------------------------------------- 873.4

JOINT

Longitudinal ------------------------------------------ 62.7 Pavement --------------------------------------------- 622.3 Seals --------------------------------------------------- 62.7

JOINT BANK PROTECTION COMMITTEE

----------------------------------------------------------- 802.3

JOINT PLAIN CONCRETE PAVEMENT

----------------------------------------------------------- 621.1 also see RIGID PAVEMENT

JOINTS

Culverts ----------------------------------------------- 829.4 ----------------------------------------------------------- 854.1

JUNCTION STRUCTURES

----------------------------------------------------------- 838.5

K KINEMATIC WAVE EQUATION

----------------------------------------------------------- 816.6

KIRPICH EQUATION

----------------------------------------------------------- 816.6

LATERAL

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 838.4

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 17 May 7, 2012

----------------------------------------------------------- 838.5

LOG OF TEST BORINGS

----------------------------------------------------------- 210.8

LEAN CONCRETE BASE

See BASE Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.7 Engineering Criteria --------------------------------- 663 Design, Flexible (Asphalt) Pavement ------------- 633.1 Design, Rigid (Concrete) Pavement --------------- 623.1

M MAINTAINABILITY

Pavement ---------------------------------------------- 618.1

LEFT-TURN CHANNELIZATION

----------------------------------------------------------- 405.2

MAINTENANCE

Definitions -------------------------------------------62.7

LEFT-TURN REFUGE

----------------------------------------------------------- 403.7

MAINTENANCE VIHICLE PULLOUT

Definition --------------------------------------------62.3

LEGISLATION

----------------------------------------------------------ISTEA ------------------------------------------------41 41.1

MAINTENANCE YARDS

On Freeways ------------------------------------------ 107.2

LEVEE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

MAJOR STREET/MAJOR HIGHWAY

Definition --------------------------------------------62.3

LEVEL OF SERVICE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.8 ----------------------------------------------------------- 102

MANDATORY MATERIAL SITES

Federal-aid Projects ---------------------------------- 111.6

LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS (LCCA)

----------------------------------------------------------- 619

MANDATORY STANDARDS

----------------------------------------------------------82.1

LIME

Treatment Definition -------------------------------- 614.4 Use of -------------------------------------------------- 633.1

MANNING

Equation ----------------------------------------------- 864.3 Roughness Coefficient ------------------------------ 851.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 864.3

LIME TREATED SUBBASE

see SUBBASE

MARKERS

----------------------------------------------------------- 702.1 Contrast Treatment ----------------------------------- 704.1

LININGS

Channel ------------------------------------------------ 873.3

MATERIALS

Availability, Pavement -----------------------------Color Selection for Steel Structures --------------Conservation of --------------------------------------Hauling, Overloaded Design ----------------------Information Furnished to Prospective Bidders --Plants -------------------------------------------------Recycling, Pavement -------------------------------Report (see MATERIALS REPORT) Sites ---------------------------------------------------Sites, Acquisition -----------------------------------Sites, Arrangements --------------------------------Sites, Environmental Requirements --------------Sites, Investigation of Local Sources -------------Sites, Mandatory ------------------------------------Special Treatment -----------------------------------617.1 705.2 110.11 110.1 111.3 112 617.2 111 111.5 111.4 111.1 111.2 111.6 705.1

LOAD TRANSFER DEVICE

See DOWEL BAR

LOADING FACILITIES

Transit ------------------------------------------------- 108.2

LOCAL STREETS/ROADS

Cross Section ----------------------------------------- 308.1 Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.3 ----------------------------------------------------------- 81.4 Design Speed ------------------------------------------ 101.1 Driveways --------------------------------------------- 205.3 Grade ---------------------------------------------------- 204.1 Horizontal Alignment --------------------------------- 203.1 Interchanges ------------------------------------------ 502.2 Returns and Corner Radii --------------------------- 405.8 Superelevation ---------------------------------------- 202.7

MATERIALS REPORT

Content -----------------------------------------------Local Materials Sources ----------------------------Policy -------------------------------------------------Preliminary -------------------------------------------Requesting -------------------------------------------114.3 111.2 114.1 114.4 114.2

LOCKED GATES

----------------------------------------------------------- 701.2

Index 18 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Retention of Records -------------------------------- 114.5 Reviews ----------------------------------------------- 114.5

Mailboxes --------------------------------------------- 702 Markers ------------------------------------------------ 702

MAXIMUM COMFORTABLE SPEED

Chart -------------------------------------------------- 202.2 Superelevation --------------------------------------- 202.2

MUD FLOW

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

MULTILANE CROSS SECTIONS

All Paved --------------------------------------------- 307.5 Divided ----------------------------------------------- 307.4

MAY

Definition and Usage ------------------------------82.1

MEAN VELOCITY

----------------------------------------------------------- 864.3

MULTIPLE LANES

Definition --------------------------------------------62.1

MECHANISTIC-EMPERICAL

----------------------------------------------------------- 606.3

MULTIPLE PIPES

----------------------------------------------------------- 824.2

MEDIAN

Definition --------------------------------------------Aesthetic Factors -----------------------------------Barriers ----------------------------------------------Cross Slope ------------------------------------------Curbs -------------------------------------------------Decking on Bridge ---------------------------------Fencing ----------------------------------------------Grade -------------------------------------------------Lane --------------------------------------------------Left-turn Lane --------------------------------------Openings ---------------------------------------------Paved -------------------------------------------------Position -----------------------------------------------Separate Roadways --------------------------------Standards ---------------------------------------------Width -------------------------------------------------62.1 109.3 305.3 305.2 305.4 208.3 701.2 834.2 62.1 405.2 405.5 305.5 303.5 305.6 305 305.1

N NATIONAL HIGHWAY SYSTEM

----------------------------------------------------------42.1

NAVIGABLE WATERS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

NEGATIVE PROJECTING CONDUIT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

NOISE ABATEMENT

----------------------------------------------------------By Others --------------------------------------------Objective --------------------------------------------Prioritizing ------------------------------------------Terminology ----------------------------------------1100 1101.2 1101.2 1101.5 1101.3

MERGING

Definition --------------------------------------------62.8

NOISE BARRIERS

Aesthetics --------------------------------------------Alternate Designs ----------------------------------Clearances -------------------------------------------Design Criteria --------------------------------------Design Procedures ---------------------------------Drainage Openings ---------------------------------Emergency Access ---------------------------------Heights -----------------------------------------------Lengths ----------------------------------------------Location ---------------------------------------------Maintenance Considerations ----------------------Pay Quantities --------------------------------------Planting ----------------------------------------------Preliminary Site Data ------------------------------Sight Distance Requirements ---------------------1102.6 1102.5 1102.2 1102 1102.5 1102.9 1102.8 1102.3 1102.4 1102.2 1102.7 1102.5 1102.6 1102.5 1102.2

METEOROLOGY

Evapo-transpiration --------------------------------Rainfall ----------------------------------------------Snow -------------------------------------------------Tides and Waves -----------------------------------Tsunami ----------------------------------------------814.4 814.2 814.3 814.5 814.5

METERING

----------------------------------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Freeway-to-Freeway Connections ---------------Lane Merges ----------------------------------------Ramp Lane Drops ----------------------------------504.3 62.8 504.4 206.3 504.3

MINIMUM TURNING RADIUS

Definition --------------------------------------------62.4

NONFREEWAY FACILITIES

Conversion to Divided ------------------------------ 108.1

MINOR ARTERIAL

Definition --------------------------------------------81.4

NONMOTORIZED TRAFFIC

Provisions for ---------------------------------------- 104.3

MISCELLANEOUS STANDARDS

------------------------------------------------------------ 700 Fences -------------------------------------------------- 701 Guardrail ----------------------------------------------- 702

NORMAL DEPTH

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 19 November 2, 2012

----------------------------------------------------------- 864.2

OVERLOADS

Design for --------------------------------------------- 110.1

O OFFICE OF

State Landscape Architecture ----------------------- 901.1

P PAINTING

Concrete ----------------------------------------------- 705.1 Steel ---------------------------------------------------- 705.2

OFF-SET LEFT-TURN LANE

Definition --------------------------------------------62.4

OFF-SITE DRAINAGE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

PARALLEL STREET SYSTEMS

Interchanges ------------------------------------------ 502.2

OFFTRACKING

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.4 Design Considerations ------------------------------- 404.1

PARK AND RIDE LOTS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.5 Pavement Structural Section Design -------------- 604.7

ON-SITE DRAINAGE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

PARKWAY

Definition --------------------------------------------62.3

ON-STREET PARKING

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.1 ----------------------------------------------------------- 402.3

PARTIAL ACQUISITION

Definition --------------------------------------------62.6

PASSING LANE

----------------------------------------------------------- 204.5

OPEN CHANNEL

Alignment and Grade -------------------------------Changes ----------------------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Design Consideration -------------------------------Discharge Computations ---------------------------Flow Characteristics --------------------------------Linings ------------------------------------------------Unlined -----------------------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------862.2 865 806.2 865.2 864.3 864.2 873.3 862.2 62.8

PASSING SIGHT DISTANCE

----------------------------------------------------------- 201.2

PAVEMENT/PAVEMENT STRUCTURE

Capital Preventive Maintenance ------------------Composite see COMPOSITE PAVEMENT Condition Survey ------------------------------------Cross Slopes -----------------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Design Life, Definition -----------------------------Design Life -------------------------------------------Detours -----------------------------------------------Drainage, Impact of ---------------------------------Flexible see FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT Joints --------------------------------------------------Layers -------------------------------------------------New ---------------------------------------------------Performance see PAVEMENT SERVICE LIFE Portland Cement Concrete -------------------------Preservation ------------------------------------------Reconstruction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Reductions -------------------------------------------Rehabilitation, Pavement --------------------------Rehabilitation, Roadway ---------------------------Rehabilitation, Definition --------------------------Rigid see RIGID PAVEMENT Safety Edge -------------------------------------------Serviceability, Definition --------------------------Service Life, Definition ----------------------------Structure ----------------------------------------------Surface Course --------------------------------------Temporary -------------------------------------------603.3 603.8 301.2 62.7 62.7 612 603.6 651.1 622.3 602 603.1 62.7 603 603.3 603.5 602.2 206.3 603.3 603.4 62.7 302.3 62.7 62.7 62.7 62.7 603.6

OUTER SEPARATION

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.1 ----------------------------------------------------------- 310.2

OUTFALL

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

OUTWASH

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

OVERFLOW

Channel ------------------------------------------------ 861.5 Definition --------------------------------------------- 874

OVERLAND FLOW

----------------------------------------------------------- 816.6

OVERLAYS

Asphalt On Structure Decks ------------------------ 607.6 Definitions -------------------------------------------- 62.7

Index 20 November 2, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Transitions --------------------------------------------Transitions for Freeways, Temporary -----------Type Selection --------------------------------------Types of Projects ------------------------------------Widening --------------------------------------------Width --------------------------------------------------

206 206.4 611.2 603 603.2 301.1

PEAK FLOW

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 874 ----------------------------------------------------------- 811.3

PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES

------------------------------------------------------------ 105 Accessibility Requirements ------------------------ 105.3 Bridges ------------------------------------------------ 208.4 Conventional Highways ---------------------------- 105.1 Crosswalk, Definition ------------------------------- 62.4 Curb Ramps, Guidelines --------------------------- 105.4 Design Considerations ------------------------------ 404.2 Freeway Facilities ----------------------------------- 105.1 Frontage Roads -------------------------------------- 105.1 Grade Separations ----------------------------------- 105.2 Pedestrian, Definition ------------------------------- 62.10 Overcrossings ---------------------------------------- 105.2 Overcrossing/Undercrossing, Standards --------- 208.6 Railings ----------------------------------------------- 208.10 Refuge, Definition ----------------------------------- 62.4 Refuge Areas ----------------------------------------- 403.7 Replacement in Kind -------------------------------- 105.1 School Walkways ----------------------------------- 105.1 Sidewalks --------------------------------------------- 105.1 Sidewalks, Definition ------------------------------- 62.1 Sidewalks, Structures ------------------------------- 208.4 Trails -------------------------------------------------- 1003.4 Undercrossings -------------------------------------- 105.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 208.6

Corrugated Aluminum Pipe and Arch, Strength Requirements ---------------------------------------Corrugated Steel Pipe and Arch, Strength Requirements ---------------------------------------Culverts --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Minimum Cover ------------------------------------Minimum Diameter --------------------------------Multiple ----------------------------------------------Plastic, Strength Requirements -------------------Protective Coatings --------------------------------Reinforced Concrete, Strength Requirements --Standards for Drain --------------------------------Structural Metal Pipe and Arch, Strength Requirements ----------------------------------------

852.5 852.4 828.2 828.3 856.5 838.4 824.2 852.7 852.4 852.1 838.4 852.6

PIPING

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 829.3

PLACE TYPES

Definition --------------------------------------------Rural Area -------------------------------------------Suburban Area --------------------------------------Urban Area ------------------------------------------81.3 81.3 81.3 81.3

PLANT SITES/CONTRACTOR'S YARD

------------------------------------------------------------ 112

PLANTING

Aesthetic Factors -----------------------------------Design -------------------------------------------------Guidelines -------------------------------------------Highway ---------------------------------------------Irrigation ---------------------------------------------Replacement ----------------------------------------Restoration ------------------------------------------Safety Requirements -------------------------------Safety Roadside Rests -----------------------------Sight Distance --------------------------------------Trees -------------------------------------------------Vista Points -----------------------------------------Water Supply ---------------------------------------109.3 902 902.3 62.5 902.4 62.5 62.5 902.2 903.5 902.2 902.3 904.3 706.5

PENETRATION TREATMENT

----------------------------------------------------------- 604.6

PERCHED WATER

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 841.4

PLASTIC COATINGS

----------------------------------------------------------- 852.4

PERCOLATING WATERS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

POINT OF CONCENTRATION

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

PERMEABILITY

----------------------------------------------------------- 606.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 841.2 Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

POINTS OF CONFLICT

Intersections ------------------------------------------ 403.4

PHYSICALLY DISABLED PERSONS

See ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS

POLICE FACILITIES

----------------------------------------------------------- 107.2

PIPE

Alternative Pipe Culvert Selection Procedure Using AltPipe ---------------------------------------- 857.2 Cast in Place Concrete ------------------------------ 852.2 Concrete Box and Arch, Strength Requirements - 852.3

POLLUTION CONTROL

Air ----------------------------------------------------- 110.3 Water -------------------------------------------------- 110.2

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 21 May 7, 2012

PONDING

----------------------------------------------------------- 821.4

PROJECTING ENDS

----------------------------------------------------------- 826.3

PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE

Channel Linings -------------------------------------- 872.2 Pavement see RIGID PAVEMENT

PROPRIETARY ITEMS

----------------------------------------------------------- 110.10 Earth Retaining Systems ---------------------------- 210.2

POSITIVE PROJECTING CONDUIT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

PROTECTION OF ACCESS RIGHTS

----------------------------------------------------------- 104.4

POTAMOLOGY

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

PROTECTION OF WETLANDS

see WETLANDS

PRECAST PANEL CONCRETE PAVEMENT

----------------------------------------------------------- 621.3 also see RIGID PAVEMENT

PROTECTIVE COATINGS

----------------------------------------------------------- 852.4

PUBLIC ROAD INTERSECTION

----------------------------------------------------------- 405.7 Sight Distance --------------------------------------- 405.1

PRECIPITATION

Area, Definition -------------------------------------Definition ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mean Annual ----------------------------------------Point, Definition -------------------------------------806.2 806.2 874 819.2 806.2

PULL OUTS

see TURNOUTS

PUMPING

Definition --------------------------------------------62.7

PRELIMINARY HYDRAULIC DATA

----------------------------------------------------------- 805.1

PUMPING PLANT

----------------------------------------------------------- 839.1

PRESENT WORTH

see ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

PRIORITY NETWORK

42 000 km ---------------------------------------------- 309.2

R R-VALUE

62.3 see CALIFORNIA R-VALUE

PRINCIPAL ARTIRIAL

Definition ---------------------------------------------

PRIVATE ROAD

Definition --------------------------------------------62.3

RADIAL HIGHWAY

Definition --------------------------------------------62.3

PRIVATE ROAD CONNECTIONS

----------------------------------------------------------- 205.2 Financial Responsibility ----------------------------- 205.5 Sight Distance ---------------------------------------- 405.1

RADIUS

Curb ---------------------------------------------------- 405.8 Horizontal Alignment ------------------------------- 203.2

RAILINGS

Bicycle ------------------------------------------------Bridge -------------------------------------------------Bridge Approach ------------------------------------Cable --------------------------------------------------Chain Link -------------------------------------------Earth Retaining Systems ---------------------------Guardrail -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Pedestrian --------------------------------------------Vehicular ---------------------------------------------208.10 208.10 208.10 210.6 208.10 210.6 208.10 702.1 208.10 208.10

PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS

----------------------------------------------------------82.4

PROGRAMS, FEDERAL-AID

Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program -- 43.3 Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ) ------------------------------ 43.2 Federal Lands Program ------------------------------ 43.4 Special Programs ------------------------------------- 43.5 Surface Transportation Program (STP) ----------- 43.1

PROHIBITED TURNS

----------------------------------------------------------- 403.8

RAIL

Clearances --------------------------------------------- 309.2 Structures Adjacent to ------------------------------- 309.5 Commuter, Definition ------------------------------- 62.10 Conventional, Definition ---------------------------- 62.10 Crossings ---------------------------------------------- 104.3

PROJECTING BARREL

----------------------------------------------------------- 826.3

Index 22 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Grade Line of Structures --------------------------High Speed, Definition ----------------------------High Seed, Clearances -----------------------------Light, Definition ------------------------------------Overheads -------------------------------------------Slope Treatment, Structures -----------------------Underpasses ------------------------------------------

204.8 62.10 309.1 62.10 208.9 707 208.9

REACH

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 874

RECORD KEEPING

Documentation, Type of Pavement --------------- 605.1 Revisions --------------------------------------------- 605.2

RAINFALL

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 Sources of Data -------------------------------------- 815.3

RECOVERY AREA

----------------------------------------------------------- 309.1

RAIN GAGE

----------------------------------------------------------- 819.5

RECYCLING, ASPHALT CONCRETE

General ------------------------------------------------ 110.11 Hot, Definition --------------------------------------- 62.7

RAINWASH

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 874

REFUGE AREAS

----------------------------------------------------------- 403.7

RAMPS

Curbs on ---------------------------------------------- 504.3 Curb Ramps ------------------------------------------ 105.4 Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.4 Dikes -------------------------------------------------- 504.3 Distance Between Exits ---------------------------- 504.3 Distance Between On-Ramps ---------------------- 504.3 Entrance and Exit ------------------------------------ 504.2 Grade -------------------------------------------------- 504.2 Grade Line ------------------------------------------- 204.2 Grade, Standards ------------------------------------ 204.3 Hook --------------------------------------------------- 502.2 Intersection Capacity -------------------------------- 406 Intersections on Crossroad, Location of ---------- 504.3 Lane Drops -------------------------------------------- 504.3 Loop --------------------------------------------------- 504.3 Metering (see METERING) ---------------------Pavement, Flexible ---------------------------------- 636.1 Pavement, Rigid ------------------------------------- 626.1 Pavement, Traffic Considerations ----------------- 613.5 Pavement Transitions -------------------------------- 206 Single Lane ------------------------------------------- 504.3 Structural Design ------------------------------------ 602.3 ----------------------------------------------------------- 603.5 ----------------------------------------------------------- 604.5 Superelevation --------------------------------------- 504.3 Tapers ---------------------------------------------------- 206.3 Termini, Flexible Pavement ----------------------- 636.1 Termini, Rigid Pavement --------------------------- 626.1 Transitions ---------------------------------------------- 504.3 Two-lane Entrance ---------------------------------- 504.3 Two-lane Exit ---------------------------------------- 504.3 Width -------------------------------------------------- 504.3 Widening for Trucks -------------------------------- 504.3

REGIME

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 874

REHABILITATION, CULVERTS

General -----------------------------------------------Caltrans Host Pipe Structural Philosophy -------Problem Identification and Coordination -------Alternative Pipe Liner Materials -----------------Cementitious Pipe Lining -------------------------Invert Paving with Concrete ----------------------Structural Repairs with Steel Tunnel Liner Plate --------------------------------------------------853.1 853.2 853.3 853.4 853.5 853.6 853.7

REHABILITATION, PAVEMENT

Capital Preventive Maintenance, part of --------Definitions -------------------------------------------Design Life ------------------------------------------Composite --------------------------------------------Flexible Pavement -----------------------------------Rigid Pavement --------------------------------------603.3 62.7 612.4 645 635 625

REHABILITATION, ROADWAY

----------------------------------------------------------Definitions -------------------------------------------Design Life ------------------------------------------Composite Pavement -------------------------------Flexible Pavement -----------------------------------Rigid Pavement --------------------------------------603.4 62.7 612.4 645 635 625

REINFORCED EARTH SLOPES

------------------------------------------------------------ 210

RELICTION

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

RATIONAL METHOD

----------------------------------------------------------- 819.2

RELINQUISHMENT

Definition --------------------------------------------62.6

RAVELING

Definition --------------------------------------------62.7

REPLACEMENT IN-KIND

Sidewalks --------------------------------------------- 105.1

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 23 May 7, 2012

REPLACEMENT PLANTING

Aesthetic Factors ------------------------------------- 109.3 Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.5

RIGHT OF WAY

Definitions -------------------------------------------- 62.6 Through Public Domain ----------------------------- 306.2 Width -------------------------------------------------- 306.1

RESEARCH/SPECIAL DESIGNS

Research, Experimentation ------------------------- 606.1 Special Designs --------------------------------------- 606. 2 Mechanistic-Empirical Design --------------------- 606.3

RIGHT-TURN CHANNELIZATION

----------------------------------------------------------- 405.3

RIGID PAVEMENT

Catalog -----------------------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Design Procedure for -------------------------------Engineering Properties -----------------------------Joints --------------------------------------------------New Construction -----------------------------------Mechanistic-Empirical Procedures ---------------Pavement Preservation -----------------------------Performance Factors --------------------------------Reconstruction ---------------------------------------Rehabilitation ----------------------------------------Texturing ---------------------------------------------Types -------------------------------------------------also see CONCRETE 623.1 62.7 623 622.1 622.5 623 606.3 624 622.2 623 625 622.7 621

RESOURCES

Other, Pavement -------------------------------------- 604.2

RESTORATION PLANTING

Aesthetic Factors ------------------------------------- 109.3 Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.5

RESURFACING

Definition --------------------------------------------see PRESERVATION, PAVEMENT see REHABILITATION, PAVEMENT see REHABILITATION, ROADWAY 62.7

RETAINING WALLS

----------------------------------------------------------Aesthetic Considerations ---------------------------Construction Methods and Types -----------------Guidelines for Plan Preparation -------------------Safety Railing, Fences, and Concrete Barriers --210 210.5 210.2 210.8 210.6

RIPARIAN

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

RIPRAP

Definition --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------806.2 874 827.2 873.3

RETARD

Types -------------------------------------------------- 873.4

RETARDING BASIN

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

RISER

Culvert Entrance ------------------------------------- 822.2 Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

RETENTION BASIN

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

RETROGRESSION

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

RISK ANALYSIS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 818.2

RETURN WALLS

----------------------------------------------------------- 210.8

ROADBED

Definition ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------62.1 62.7

RETURNS, CITY STREET AND CORNER RADII

----------------------------------------------------------- 405.8

ROADSIDE

Definition --------------------------------------------62.1

REVEGETATION

----------------------------------------------------------- 62.5 Aesthetic Factors ------------------------------------- 109.3

ROADSIDE INSTALLATIONS

----------------------------------------------------------Border Inspection Stations, Location of ---------Define Roadside -------------------------------------Maintenance Yards and Police Facilities --------Roadway Connections ------------------------------107 107.3 62.1 107.2 107.1

REVERSING CURVES

----------------------------------------------------------- 203.6 Superelevation Transitions -------------------------- 202.5

REVETMENT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

ROADSIDE RESTS, SAFETY

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.5 Design Standards ------------------------------------- 903 Facilities and Features ------------------------------- 903.5 Fencing ------------------------------------------------ 903.5

RIGHT OF ACCESS

Definition --------------------------------------------62.6

Index 24 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Grading ----------------------------------------------Minimum Standards -------------------------------Pavement Design -----------------------------------Pavement, Flexible ---------------------------------Pavement, Rigid ------------------------------------Planting and Irrigation -----------------------------Site Feasibility --------------------------------------Size and Capacity ----------------------------------Water Supply ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

903.5 903.1 613.5 636.4 626.4 903.5 903.4 903.5 110.2 706.6 903.5

Median Standards ----------------------------------- 305.1 Outer Separation ------------------------------------- 310.2 Weaving Section ------------------------------------ 504.7

RURAL AND SINGLE INTERSTATE ROUTING

----------------------------------------------------------- 309.2

RUTTING

Definition --------------------------------------------62.7

S SAFETY

Planting ----------------------------------------------Planting and Irrigation -----------------------------Railings on Walls -----------------------------------Reviews ----------------------------------------------Roadside Rests ---------------------------------------Tunnel Safety Orders ------------------------------Worker -----------------------------------------------Worker, Falsework Clearance --------------------902.2 902.1 210.5 110.8 903 110.12 110.7 204.8

ROADSIDE TREATMENT

Irrigation Crossover Conduits --------------------Roadside Management -----------------------------Topsoil -----------------------------------------------Vegetation Control ---------------------------------Water Supply ---------------------------------------706.4 706.1 706.3 706.2 706.5

ROADWAY

Connections ------------------------------------------ 107.1 Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.1 Drainage ----------------------------------------------- 830 Structural Elements --------------------------------- 601.2

SAFETY ROADSIDE RESTS

Definition --------------------------------------------Design Standards ------------------------------------Facilities and Features -----------------------------Fencing ----------------------------------------------Grading ----------------------------------------------Minimum Standards -------------------------------Planting and Irrigation -----------------------------Sewage Facilities -----------------------------------Site Feasibility --------------------------------------Size and Capacity ----------------------------------Water Supply ---------------------------------------Water Supply ---------------------------------------62.5 903 903.5 903.5 903.5 903.1 903.5 903.5 903.4 903.5 706.6 903.5

ROCKFALL RESTRAINING NETS

----------------------------------------------------------- 703.2

ROUNDABOUT

See INTERSECTION

ROUNDED INLET

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

ROUNDED LIP

----------------------------------------------------------- 826.3

RRR CRITERIA

Design Period ---------------------------------------Left-Turn Lanes ------------------------------------Multi lane Cross Section --------------------------Pavement Design Life -----------------------------Two-lane Cross Section ---------------------------103.2 405.2 307.6 612.5 307.3

SAG CULVERT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 829.7

SCENIC

Highway ---------------------------------------------- 62.3 Values -------------------------------------------------- 109 Values, Safety Roadside Rests -------------------- 903.4

RUNNING

Speed -------------------------------------------------Time --------------------------------------------------62.8 62.8

SCENIC VALUES IN PLANNING AND DESIGN

-----------------------------------------------------------Aesthetic Factors -----------------------------------Basic Precepts --------------------------------------Design Speed ---------------------------------------109 109.3 109.1 109.2

RUNOFF

-----------------------------------------------------------Drainage, Definition -------------------------------Factors Affecting -----------------------------------Superelevation Transition -------------------------816 806.2 811.5 202.5

SCHOOL PEDESTRIAN WALKWAYS

----------------------------------------------------------- 105.1

RURAL

Acceleration Lane at Intersection ----------------Access Control --------------------------------------Area, Definition ------------------------------------Design Speed ---------------------------------------Driveway Connection ------------------------------Interchange Spacing -------------------------------405.1 504.8 81.3 101.2 205.4 501.3

SCOUR

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 874 ----------------------------------------------------------- 827.2

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 25 May 7, 2012

SEAL

Fog ----------------------------------------------------- 604.6 Slurry -------------------------------------------------- 603.2

Structures ---------------------------------------------- 208.5 Transition Slopes ------------------------------------- 304.1 Widening ---------------------------------------------- 304.3

SEDIMENTATION

Definition ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------806.2 874 823.2 862.2 865.2

SIDEWALKS

See PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES

SIGHT DISTANCE

Clear Distance (m) ----------------------------------Corner ------------------------------------------------Decision ----------------------------------------------Decision at Intersections ----------------------------Exit Nose ---------------------------------------------General -----------------------------------------------Headlight, at Grade Sags ---------------------------Intersection -------------------------------------------Passing ------------------------------------------------Planting -----------------------------------------------Ramp Intersections ----------------------------------Standards ---------------------------------------------Stopping ----------------------------------------------Stopping at Grade Crests ---------------------------Stopping at Grade Sags -----------------------------Stopping on Horizontal Curves -------------------Stopping at Intersections ---------------------------201.6 405.1 201.7 405.1 504.2 201.1 201.5 405.1 201.2 902.2 504.3 201.1 201.3 201.4 201.5 201.6 405.1

SEPARATE ROADWAY

----------------------------------------------------------- 305.6

SERVICEABILITY

Definition --------------------------------------------62.7

SETTLEMENT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.7 Structure Approach ---------------------------------- 208.11

SEVERANCE DAMAGES

Definition --------------------------------------------62.6

SHALL

Definition and Usage -------------------------------82.1

SIGNAL CONTROL

----------------------------------------------------------- 403.9

SHEET FLOW

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION

Widening ---------------------------------------------- 405.9

SHOALING

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

SIGNS

Vertical Clearance ----------------------------------- 309.2

SHOULD

Definition and Usage -------------------------------82.1

SILT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

SHOULDER

Cross Slope ------------------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Design Considerations ------------------------------Pavement, Flexible ----------------------------------Pavement, Rigid -------------------------------------Standards, Geometric -------------------------------Standards, Pavement --------------------------------Superelevation Transitions -------------------------Transitions (Widen, Reduction) -------------------Width -------------------------------------------------Width, Right Turn Channelization ----------------Width, Two-lane Roads, New Construction -----302.2 62.1 404.2 636.2 626.2 302 613.5 202.5 206 302.1 405.3 307.2

SILTATION

----------------------------------------------------------- 110.2

SIPHONS

----------------------------------------------------------- 829.7

SKEW

Angle -------------------------------------------------- 62.4 Angle of Intersection -------------------------------- 403.3 Definition (Hydraulic) ------------------------------- 806.2

SIDE GUTTERS/DITCHES

----------------------------------------------------------- 834.3

SLIDE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

SIDE SLOPES

----------------------------------------------------------Benches and Cut Widening ------------------------Clearance to Right of Way Line ------------------Contour Grading and Slope Rounding -----------Standards ---------------------------------------------Stepped -----------------------------------------------304 304.3 304.2 304.4 304.1 304.5

SLIPOUT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

SLOPE

Aesthetic Factors ------------------------------------- 109.3 Cross --------------------------------------------------- 301.2

Index 26 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Crown ------------------------------------------------Definition (Hydraulic) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rounding --------------------------------------------Paving ------------------------------------------------Protection --------------------------------------------Shoulder Cross Slopes -----------------------------Side ----------------------------------------------------Side, Benches and Cut Widening ----------------Standards, Side Slopes -----------------------------Stepped -----------------------------------------------Treatment Under Structures -------------------------

301.2 806.2 874 304.4 873.3 873.3 302.2 304 304.3 304.1 304.5 707

SPECIAL DESIGNS

See RESEARCH/SPECIAL DESIGNS

SPECIAL STRUCTURES AND INSTALLATION

------------------------------------------------------------ 703

SPECIFIC ENERGY

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 864.3

SPEED

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.8 Comfortable (see MAXIMUM COMFORTABLE SPEED) Design (See DESIGN SPEED) High, Defintion -------------------------------------- 62.8 Low, Definition -------------------------------------- 62.8 Operating --------------------------------------------- 62.8 Posted ------------------------------------------------- 62.8 Running - ---------------------------------------------- 62.8 Speed Change Areas -------------------------------- 402.5

SLOPE TREATMENT UNDER STRUCTURES

-----------------------------------------------------------Guidelines -------------------------------------------Policy ------------------------------------------------Procedure --------------------------------------------707 707.2 707.1 707.3

SLOTTED DRAINS

----------------------------------------------------------- 837.2

SLOUGH

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 874

SPEED-CHANGE LANES

----------------------------------------------------------Intersections -----------------------------------------Left-turn Channelization --------------------------Pavement Transitions -------------------------------Right-turn Channelization -------------------------Speed Change Areas -------------------------------62.1 403.5 405.2 206 405.3 402.5

SLUG FLOW

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

SNOW PACK

----------------------------------------------------------- 812.8 ----------------------------------------------------------- 814.3

SPILLWAY

Paved -------------------------------------------------- 834.4

SOFFIT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

SPIRAL TRANSITIONS

----------------------------------------------------------- 203.8

SOIL

Characteristics for Pavements --------------------- 614.1 Imported Topsoil, Definition ---------------------- 62.5 Local Topsoil, Definition ---------------------------- 62.5 Soil Horizon "A" ------------------------------------ 62.5 Soil Horizon "O" ------------------------------------- 62.5 Topsoil ------------------------------------------------ 706.3 Unified Soil Classification System --------------- 614.2

STABILIZATION TRENCHES

----------------------------------------------------------- 841.5

STAGE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

STAGE CONSTRUCTION

----------------------------------------------------------- 106.1 Freeway Connections with Local Roads --------- 106.2

SPACING

Drainage Pipes --------------------------------------- 824.2 Vehicle ------------------------------------------------ 62.8

STANDARDS

-----------------------------------------------------------Advisory ---------------------------------------------Approval for Nonstandard Design ---------------FHWA and AASHTO -----------------------------Mandatory -------------------------------------------Other Approval -------------------------------------Permissive -------------------------------------------80 82.1 82.2 82.3 82.1 82.1 82.1

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

-----------------------------------------------------------Air Pollution, Control of --------------------------Control of Noxious Weeds -------------------------Earthquake Consideration -------------------------Overloaded Material Hauling, Design for ------Safety Reviews -------------------------------------Traffic Control Plans -------------------------------Water Pollution, Control of -----------------------Wetlands Protection --------------------------------110 110.3 110.5 110.6 110.1 110.8 110.7 110.2 110.4

STATE HIGHWAY, CROSS SECTIONS

------------------------------------------------------------ 307 also see CROSS SECTIONS

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 27 May 7, 2012

STEEL STRUCTURES

Colors -------------------------------------------------- 705.2

Tunnel ------------------------------------------------- 309.3 Vertical ------------------------------------------------ 309.2

STEPPED SLOPES

----------------------------------------------------------- 304.5

STRUCTURES, SLOPE TREATMENT UNDER

See SLOPE TREATMENT

STOPPING SIGHT DISTANCE

see SIGHT DISTANCE

STRUTTING

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

STORAGE

----------------------------------------------------------Basin, Definition ------------------------------------Definition ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Depression -------------------------------------------Detention ---------------------------------------------Interception ------------------------------------------Left-turns ---------------------------------------------Retention, Definition -------------------------------Right-turns -------------------------------------------838.4 806.2 806.2 874 819.2 812.6 812.6 405.2 806.2 405.3

SUBBASE

Definition ---------------------------------------------Description -------------------------------------------Engineering Criteria --------------------------------Lime Treated -----------------------------------------Treated ------------------------------------------------62.7 602.1 663 662.2 662.2

SUBCRITICAL FLOW

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 864.3

SUBDRAIN

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 841.5

STORM

Definition ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Design, Establishing --------------------------------Design, Recommended Criteria -------------------Drain, Definition ------------------------------------806.2 874 818.2 821.2 806.2

SUBGRADE

----------------------------------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Description -------------------------------------------Engineering Considerations -----------------------Enhancement Fabrics -------------------------------614 62.7 602.1 614.1 614.5

STP

see SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM

STREAM WATERS

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

SUBSEAL

----------------------------------------------------------- 607.6

SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE

----------------------------------------------------------- 840

STREETS

Definitions -------------------------------------------62.3

SUBURBAN

----------------------------------------------------------81.3

STREET FURNITURE

Definitions -------------------------------------------62.5

SUMP

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 831.3

STRUCTURAL PLATE

Arches ------------------------------------------------- 852.6 Vehicular Underpasses ------------------------------ 852.6

SUPERCRITICAL FLOW

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 864.3

STRUCTURAL SECTION

see PAVEMENT STRUCTURE

STRUCTURE APPROACH

Design Responsibilities ----------------------------Foundation: Embankment Design -----------------Pavement Systems ----------------------------------Slab-New Construction Projects ------------------Slab-Rehabilitation Projects -----------------------601.3 208.11 672 208.11 673

SUPERELEVATION

Axis of Rotation -------------------------------------- 202.4 Basic Criteria ----------------------------------------- 202.1 Bridge --------------------------------------------------- 203.9 Channels ----------------------------------------------- 866.2 City Streets and County Roads --------------------- 202.7 Comfortable Speeds --------------------------------- 202.2 Compound Curves ----------------------------------- 202.6 Ramps ------------------------------------------------- 504.3 Relationship to Speed on Curves ------------------ 203.2 Reversing Curves ------------------------------------ 203.6 Runoff ------------------------------------------------- 202.5 Standards ---------------------------------------------- 202.2

STRUCTURE CLEARANCE

----------------------------------------------------------Elevated Structures ----------------------------------Horizontal --------------------------------------------Railroad ----------------------------------------------309 309.4 309.1 309.5

Index 28 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Transition --------------------------------------------- 202.5

SURFACE

Course, Definition -----------------------------------Course, Description --------------------------------Runoff, Definition ----------------------------------Water, Definition -----------------------------------Water -------------------------------------------------62.7 602.1 806.2 806.2 831.1

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM

----------------------------------------------------------43.1

SWALE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

SWEPT WIDTH

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.4 ----------------------------------------------------------- 404.1 Design Considerations ------------------------------ 404.2

Control Plans, Special Problems ------------------ 110.7 Definitions -------------------------------------------- 62.8 Engineering ------------------------------------------ 82.7 Index, TI ---------------------------------------------- 613.3 Interchanges ------------------------------------------- 500 Islands ------------------------------------------------- 405.4 Lane --------------------------------------------------- 62.1 Markings ---------------------------------------------- 62.8 Noise Abatement ------------------------------------ 1100 Pedestrian Refuge ----------------------------------- 405.4 Ramp Intersection Flow ----------------------------- 406 Sign ---------------------------------------------------- 62.8 Signals ------------------------------------------------ 62.8 Specific Loading Considerations ------------------ 613.5 Volume Projections --------------------------------- 613.2 Volumes ---------------------------------------------- 102.1

TRAILS

Multipurpose ---------------------------------------- 1003.5

T TAPERED INLET

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 826.4

TRANSIT

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) --------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Design Vehicle -------------------------------------Factors Affecting Design --------------------------Loading Facilities ----------------------------------Turning Templates ---------------------------------62.10 62.10 404.3 401.6 108.2 404.5

TEXTURING

Rigid Pavement -------------------------------------- 622.7

TRANSITIONS

General Standards, Pavement ---------------------Lane Additions -------------------------------------Lane Drops ------------------------------------------Pavement ---------------------------------------------Spiral -------------------------------------------------Superelevation --------------------------------------Temporary Freeway --------------------------------206.1 206.2 206.3 206 203.8 202.5 206.4

THREE-CENTER CURVE

Intersections ------------------------------------------ 405.7

TIME OF CONCENTRATION

Channel Flow ---------------------------------------Combined Flow -------------------------------------Culvert Flow ----------------------------------------Kinematic Wave Equation ------------------------Kirpich Equation -----------------------------------Overland Equation ---------------------------------Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Equation -----Upland Method -------------------------------------816.6 816.6 816.6 816.6 816.6 816.6 816.6 816.6

TRANSPIRATION

----------------------------------------------------------- 812.8 ----------------------------------------------------------- 819.2

TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT AREA

Definition --------------------------------------------- 81.3 Interchange Spacing -------------------------------- 501.3

TOLL ROAD, BRIDGE OR TUNNEL

----------------------------------------------------------62.3

TRASH RACK

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 822.2

TOPSOIL

Roadside Treatment --------------------------------- 706.3

TRACKING WIDTH

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.4 ----------------------------------------------------------- 404.1 Design Considerations ------------------------------ 404.2

TRAVELED WAY

Definition --------------------------------------------- 62.1 Design Considerations ------------------------------ 404.2 Standards ----------------------------------------------- 301

TRAFFIC

Axle Load Spectra ----------------------------------Considerations --------------------------------------Considerations in Pavement Engineering --------Control Devices ------------------------------------Control Devices ------------------------------------613.4 401.3 613 62.8 403.10

TREATED BASE AND SUBBASE

----------------------------------------------------------- 662.2

TREATED PERMEABLE BASE AND SUBBASE

----------------------------------------------------------- 662.3

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 29 May 7, 2012

TREES

Conventional Highways ----------------------------- 902.3 Freeways and Expressways ------------------------- 902.2

TWO-QUADRANT CLOVERLEAF INTERCHANGE

----------------------------------------------------------- 502.2

TRUCK

Critical Lengths of Grade --------------------------Design Vehicle --------------------------------------Escape Ramps ---------------------------------------Turning Templates ----------------------------------Turns --------------------------------------------------Weighing Facilities ---------------------------------204.5 404.3 702.1 404.5 404.5 703.1

TWO-WAY LEFT-TURN LANES

----------------------------------------------------------- 405.2

U UNDERCUT

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874 ----------------------------------------------------------- 865.2

TRUMPET INTERCHANGE

----------------------------------------------------------- 502.2

TRUNK LINE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 838.4

UNDERDRAINS

Design Criteria --------------------------------------Installations ------------------------------------------Open Joint --------------------------------------------Perforated Pipe --------------------------------------Pipe ---------------------------------------------------Selection of Type -----------------------------------Service Life ------------------------------------------842.4 842.2 842.5 842.5 842.5 842.7 842.6

TUNNEL

Classification ----------------------------------------Clearances --------------------------------------------Liner Plate --------------------------------------------Projects -----------------------------------------------Structural Repairs with Steel Tunnel Liner Plate ---------------------------------------------------110.12 309.3 852.6 110.12 853.7

UNDERFLOW

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

TURBULENCE

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 874

UNDERPASS

Railroad, Grade Line -------------------------------- 204.8 Railroad ----------------------------------------------- 208.9

TURBULENT FLOW

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

UNDIVIDED HIGHWAYS

Axis of Rotation -------------------------------------- 202.4 Grade Line -------------------------------------------- 204.2

TURNING LANES

Left-turn Channelization ---------------------------Right-turn Channelization -------------------------Separate ---------------------------------------------Traffic ------------------------------------------------Two-way Left-turn ----------------------------------405.2 405.3 62.1 403.6 405.2

UNTREATED GRANULAR BASE

see BASE

URBAN/URBANIZED

Access Control --------------------------------------Corner Radii -----------------------------------------Definition --------------------------------------------Design Speed ----------------------------------------Drive way --------------------------------------------Horizontal Clearance -------------------------------Interchange Spacing --------------------------------Median Standards -----------------------------------Outer Separation ------------------------------------Position of Curbs and Dikes -----------------------Weaving Section ------------------------------------504.8 405.8 81.3 101.2 205.3 309.1 501.3 305.1 310.2 303.5 504.7

TURNING RADIUS

Minimum ---------------------------------------------62.4

TURNING TEMPLATES

----------------------------------------------------------- 404.3 Truck and Transit ------------------------------------ 407

TURNOUTS

----------------------------------------------------------- 204.5

TURNS, PROHIBITED

Intersections ------------------------------------------ 403.8

UTILITIES

at Walls ------------------------------------------------ 210.8

TWO-LANE CROSS SECTIONS

New Construction ------------------------------------ 307.2 RRR Projects ----------------------------------------- 307.3

V VACATION

Definition --------------------------------------------- 110.9

Index 30 May 7, 2012

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

VALUE ANALYSIS

----------------------------------------------------------- 110.9

WAVE

Height ------------------------------------------------- 873.2 Run-up ------------------------------------------------ 873.2

VEGETATIVE EROSION CONTROL

----------------------------------------------------------62.5

WEAVING

----------------------------------------------------------- 62.8 Sections ----------------------------------------------- 62.4 Sections, Interchange ------------------------------- 504.7

VELOCITY HEAD

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ----------------------------------------------------------- 864.3

WEED CONTROL

Noxious, Control of ---------------------------------- 110.5

VERTICAL CLEARANCE

see CLEARANCES

WEEPHOLES

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2 ------------------------------------------------------------ 874 ----------------------------------------------------------- 872.2

VERTICAL CURVES

----------------------------------------------------------- 204.4 also see SIGHT DISTANCE

VISTA POINTS

Definition --------------------------------------------Aesthetic Factors -----------------------------------Design Standards ------------------------------------Features and Facilities -----------------------------General -----------------------------------------------Minimum Standards -------------------------------Site Selection ---------------------------------------Water Supply ---------------------------------------62.5 109.3 904 904.3 904.1 904.1 904.2 706.6

WEIGHING FACILITIES

Truck -------------------------------------------------- 703.1

WEIR

Definition --------------------------------------------- 806.2

WELLS

----------------------------------------------------------- 841.5 Water, Abandonment ------------------------------- 110.2

VOLUME

----------------------------------------------------------- 62.8 Design Hourly Volume ----------------------------- 103.1 Design Volume -------------------------------------- 62.8

WETLANDS PROTECTION

----------------------------------------------------------- 110.4

WHEELBASE

Definition --------------------------------------------62.4

W WALKWAYS

see PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES

WHEELCHAIR RAMPS

see CURB RAMPS

WIDENING

Pavement ---------------------------------------------Ramps, for Trucks ----------------------------------Pavement Design Life -----------------------------Pavement, Project Type ---------------------------Signalized Intersections ---------------------------Slope Benches and Cut Widening ----------------206.2 504.3 612.3 603.2 405.9 304.3

WALLS

Head --------------------------------------------------- 826.3

WALLS, RETAINING

see EARTH RETAINING SYSTEMS

WATER

Course, Definition ----------------------------------Definition ---------------------------------------------Pollution, Control of -------------------------------Quality Control Boards ----------------------------Shed --------------------------------------------------Table, Definition -----------------------------------Way, Definition ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wells, Abandonment -------------------------------806.2 874 110.2 110.2 819.2 806.2 806.2 874 110.2

WIDTH

Driveway, Access Openings on Expressways --Driveway, Urban -----------------------------------Lane --------------------------------------------------Lane, on Curves ------------------------------------Left Turn Lanes -------------------------------------Median -----------------------------------------------Opening for Falsework ----------------------------Pavement --------------------------------------------Right of Way -----------------------------------------Shoulder ---------------------------------------------Structures --------------------------------------------Swept, Definition -----------------------------------Swept, Design Considerations --------------------Tracking, Definition -------------------------------Tracking, Design Considerations ----------------205.1 205.3 301.1 504.3 405.2 305.1 204.8 301.1 306 302.1 208.1 62.4 404.2 62.4 404.2

WATER SUPPLY

Roadside Rests --------------------------------------- 903.5 Roadside Rests and Landscaping ----------------- 706.6 Vista Points ------------------------------------------ 706.6

HIGHWAY DESIGN MANUAL

Index 31 May 7, 2012

Y YARDS

Maintenance ------------------------------------------ 107.2 Plant Sites, Contractors ------------------------------ 112

Information

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