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COMPARATIVE RESEARCH ON CROSS BORDER PASTORAL CONFLICTS IN THE EAST AFRICAN REGION-CASE STUDIES FROM ETHIOPIA, KENYA, SUDAN AND UGANDA. WORKSHOP REPORT

Rapporteurs: Nuur Mohamud Sheekh (Lead); Nena Thundu (Assistant) 2nd and 3rd October 2006, UNECA, Addis Ababa This two day workshop was organised by Development Policy Management Forum (DPMF) and was financially supported by the Canadian International Development Research Centre (IDRC). The objective was primarily to understand the nature and dynamics of pastoral conflicts using a comparative approach from case studies in the Horn of Africa and East Africa. This workshop brought together an experienced group of researchers from within East and the Horn of Africa with practical experience of researching and finding solutions to the problems associated with violent and politically unstable contexts. Participants also included academics, Members of Parliament, community members, representatives from the media, African Union and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO's). Over two days, eight sessions were held that explored key issues pertaining to the nature, dynamics and root causes, of conflicts and local perspectives on conflict and conflict resolution. Also deliberated on were local level developments surrounding trade/marketing, resource use and development, political prospects and policy directions. The workshop was structured to ensure adequate time for discussion and debate and most participants contributed enthusiastically. The workshop concluded with an evaluation session where the majority of participants were enthusiastic about the workshop and keen to develop a network to continue work in this area. It was agreed that an edited book will be prepared and that researchers on the project should submit their final drafts by 15 November 2006. It was also agreed that action and policy briefs will be published and be shared with all the stakeholders. The following report summarises each of the eight sessions. Please note that the report does not offer a verbatim record of individual presentations but rather it seeks to offer a general outline of each session. DAY ONE: 2 October 2006. DPMF's Professor Abdalla Bujra opened the workshop by welcoming all the participants to the workshop. He ran through what transpired during the previous workshops especially with regards to the process of formulating the research methodology and the mid-term progress workshop. He expressed that most research projects do not employ this kind of exhaustive process and coordination to enable researchers to learn from each other, deepen their analysis and place their findings in a comparative framework. For the final reports, it was expected that the researchers would cover all issues developed in the original proposal and in the methodological and mid-term workshops. They were also expected to have related their works to both the policy and comparative frameworks; and policy and regional frameworks.

Other issues, which were not adequately addressed, were addressed by Dr Getachew Kassa of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies at Addis Ababa University and Dr Paul Goldsmith, an anthropologist and independent consultant on resource conflicts. These included issues on; the role of the state and economy; linkages with other conflicts, international dynamics and various actors, impacts on traditional institutions, policy issues, and market forces. Ms. Njeri Karuru of the IDRC said that her organisation was interested in funding research that can inform and influence policy and hoped that this particular work can go towards achieving that objective. It is expected that DPMF will develop linkages with regional security institutions such as IGAD so that they can feed their research into security mechanisms that are being developed by IGAD. IDRC has various security projects with organisations in the region that include; regional security architecture with the Africa Peace Forum; the role of the security sector in conflict management with the Institute for Security Studies; and capacity building for small arms research with the same organisation (ISS). Ms Karuru has advised organisations working in the field of security research to interact more, with the aim of complimenting each other's work thus leading to the development of a regional security strategy/architecture. She also emphasised the important role of dissemination strategy so that research work becomes effective. She suggested country specific dissemination workshops in order to reach more policy makers. The opening address of the workshop was delivered by Mr. Mohamed Habib, Vice President of Addis Ababa University. The Vice-President of Addis Ababa University, Mr. Mohammed Habib, delivered the Opening Address, which gave a general perspective on pastoral life. Mr. Habib affirmed that pastoralists are a significant population in Africa, particularly in the Horn sub-region due to its demography and landscape. These groups of people he said add significantly to the wealth of their countries, producing most of the raw materials. Unfortunately, he added, they also suffer from a presumed situation of injustice whereby historically they been victims of mal-administration, discrimination, and neglect by their governments and researchers who have the capacity to influence policy. Mr. Habib added that the study of pastoralists is also a study of people to people relationships because of their trans-border lifestyle, and he expressed the hope that the outcome of the project would not portray pastoralists as conflict prone, but address and prescribe ways of preventing conflicts within and around pastoral communities. He concluded by saying that the project could be useful to all stakeholders, including pastoralists, national governments and policymakers, as well as regional and continental organizations such as IGAD and the African Union.

RESEARCH PRESENTATIONS Conflicts and Pastoral Livelihoods in the Kenya-Ethiopia-Somalia Borderlands. Dr. Hussein Mahmoud and Abdi Nur Elmi Dr Mahmoud started by giving an overview of the study area, and went on to discuss what he sees as the key points in sources of conflict along the borders of Kenya-Ethiopia-Somalia. Dr Hussein's analysis stems from a decade of investigative scholarly research experience with academic institutions and humanitarian organisations. One of his key considerations was the question of the impact of conflicts on livelihoods and trading. Major concerns in trading included banditry, militias (Somalia) taking livestock

until cash is paid, inter-clan clashes across the border, rivalry among businessmen e.g. Kismayo Port, government harassment in Ethiopia and Kenya. Major sources of conflicts identified by Dr. Mahmoud included; feelings of clan supremacy, grazing and water, droughts, presence of militia, cross-border conflict in Ethiopia and Somalia which has replicated itself in Kenya since the same clans/tribes live on each side of the border, land ownership and territorial expansion, and business rivalry. The issue of conflict resolution and adaptation was discussed as well, which the involved elders, governments of Kenya and Ethiopia, religious leaders, and the use of conflict to settle conflict. There is a presence of peace committees in many conflict prone areas especially in the Somali areas of Kenya and southern Ethiopia. Despite various attempts to come up with a policy document, governments have failed to come up with clear approaches to attain these goals as such policies are not clearly articulated. Abdi Nur Elmi, Coordinator of the Wajir Sustainable Development Association (WASDA) identified trigger factors such as; droughts, migration from within and without, mismanagement of resources, livestock diseases, bad politics that preach hatred and business rivalry. The cumulative effect of these are: economic decline, diversion of resources to the security sector rather than development, loss of human and animal lives, IDP's, poverty, collapse of traditional conflict resolution institutions, increase in female headed households, and abuse of human rights. At the local level, perceptions of lack of government representation and lack of access to resources were followed by problems with law and order. Discussion Following Dr. Mahmoud's and Mr Abdi Nur's presentation, the floor was opened for questions and comments. The following points were made: Lack of linkages; problem of using such terminologies such as, militias and bandits can be confusing. Gaps within policy need to be further elaborated e.g. attitude of government towards conflict is needed for policy advice. Community attitude towards government for example, to what degree do they complement each other. Further clarification was also sought on linkages with regional organisations/countries of the region. It was also suggested that policy components need to look critically at policy regimes with emphasis on community participation. Distinguishing between conflict settlement and resolution is important. What are the changes in trade routes and conflict since the start of the project? What influence is the unfolding Somalia situation having on conflict and trade? Dr Mahmoud's response: -Terminologies such bandits and militias are context specific -Policies with regard to pastoral/ASAL areas ambiguous -The likely scenario if government starts functioning in Somalia is that livestock markets in northeastern Province of Kenya will decline - The current situation in Somalia is producing refugee situation in Kenya ETHIOPIA STUDY: The Dynamics of Inter Group Pastoral Conflicts and their links with Livestock Trade. Presenter: Mr. Hailu Woldemichael, Institute of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa University.

Mr. Woldemichael spoke on the roots of conflict between Degodia of Filtu District that lie in the Liban Zone of the Somali Regional State and the Borena-Oromo of Liban woreda (Guji zone of Oromiya). According to him, the roots of conflict in this part of Ethiopia encompass several factors that include; o Raiding and counter raiding between the two groups and competition over pasture and water. Ethnic federalism, in other words the regions that emerged did not take into account ethnic differences thus triggering conflicts over boundaries. The exploitation of pastoralists by middlemen who have formed a `cartel' to make sure that livestock marketing cannot be carried out without them; The issue of the Ethiopian army encroaching on grazing land and therefore denying pastoralist's access to much needed pasture land. The army is also accused of benefiting by selling pasture to the pastoralists. Shrinking of pastoral grazing areas due to the encroachment by agriculturalists thus leading to farmer-herder conflicts.

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Mr. Woldemichael went on to discuss attempts by various groups to address this conflict. He pointed out that traditional institutions, government, and civil society organisations have each tried to address the problem but with varying successes. Organisations like the PCAE, RCCHE, and Save the Children USA have joined hands in organising and facilitating peace conferences. In his recommendation, Mr Woldemichael suggested that among other things, a permanent mechanism for promoting dialogue and resolving disputes between these two groups could be found. He also recommended the re-demarcation of the boundary and a model for cooperation between traditional and formal conflict resolution institutions should be provided. Two members from the local community present at the workshop made the following observations: Private ranching has taken up a lot of pasture land and reduced trekking routes. This has also led to the shrinking of the livestock holding areas thus making animal population compete for space with humans. It also means diseases can easily spread among the livestock. Discussion Some issues that emerged from this presentation were: Livestock marketing improving in Ethiopia but at the expense of Kenya because animals are culled and fattened in Ethiopia and then exported to the Middle East; Ethiopia has provided investors with large tracts of land in pastoral areas (some of these investors from Middle East), this has successfully managed to commoditise the pastoral economy and increase demand for Ethiopian meat in the Middle East; To what extent have the impact of traders and the shrinking of pasture land changed clan relationships? What is the role of the state in this whole matter? To what extent are pastoralists consulted on issues that concern them? Professor Bujra asked Hon. Abdulkadir Sheikh Mah, the Federal MP attending the workshop to look into some of the issues raised.

SUDAN: Resource Conflict in Gedarif State of, Eastern Sudan: A time bomb in the absence of effective land use planning. Presenter: Dr. Mustapha Babiker Chair: Njeri Karuru

Dr Babiker noted that this conflict is not large scale but sporadic encounters occur between different groups. The Sudan government dismissed all armed groups as bandits in the 80's and local and regional boundaries have been continuously changing as the government tries to manipulate ethnic groups in the name of state security. Dr Babiker gave a geographical set-up and demography of the study area: 2 rivers provide water resources; presence of natural vegetation and forestry; economy and land use; and local administration. Among the issues he raised as pertinent were: a) policy maker's lack of local land-use knowledge b) different land use systems c) the regulation of pastoral resources by traditional leaders until recently d) wells used only by local people and not other migrating groups e) farmers encroaching on traditional pastoral lands thus creating a conflict situation. According to Dr Babiker, major sources of conflict are: a) conflict between farmers and herders over land b) conflict over water points c) Conflict over Dinder National Park d) Ethio-Sudan border disputes and trans-boundary conflicts e) links to other conflicts f) Prevalence of small arms and light weapons Conflicts have led to the erosion of customary institutions especially in the area of conflict resolution; it has also created a situation where there is supply and demand of arms; and now decisions involving conflicts are made by the young. Dr Babiker questioned the Sudan government's policy towards pastoralism as it tended to put aspirations on mobile pastoralism and advocated sedentarisation. Furthermore there is a lack of pasture and range management. Mr Hassan Abbo, a Sudanese participating in the workshop added that Park guards engage in banditry by ambushing pastoralists and robbing them Discussion: The issue of sedentarisation needs further discussion How do non-pastoralists claim to own more land in such a pastoral setting? Why do people migrate to Gedarif if ecology not is conducive? Response Mustafa pointed out that it is difficult to carry out a meaningful research in Gedarif as the Sudanese intelligence/security personnel tend to keep an eye on researchers and respondents. Conflict is also a sensitive issue and people avoid talking about it. People move to Gedarif because it is comparatively better in vegetation than neighbouring areas and mechanised farming also acts as a pull factor. KENYA: Conflict between the Pokot and Turkana in NW Kenya Presenter: Sam Kona This session explored conflict in northwest Kenya, with particular focus on the Pokot and Turkana areas and, their reasons for engaging in conflict and strategies for conflict

resolution. For these groups, fighting is recurrent and not necessarily based on ecological resources. Mr Kona went on to explain the complex processes involved in organising raids by these groups and the main actors involved. The Pokot for instance are organised into 4 agegroups: -The first group is Arts men - The second group are the Karachuna which is a group that move/transport the raided animals - The third group is the most active; they act as spies/intelligence by identifying animal location and movements and assessing the strength of the opposition. - The fourth group is that of retired warriors but who may be called upon if larger raids are to be carried out. He pointed out five major causes of conflict between the Pokot and Turkana; a) Failure in governance, that has led to increased poverty and delayed development b) Border between the Pokot and Turkana not properly demarcated c) Conflict in order to acquire wealth d) Entrenched hatred/enmity between the two tribes that is characterised by revenge etc e) Availability and accessibility of small arms which sometimes entails loaning of arms to young men. Ironically, conflict is said to decrease during droughts because communities have to share scarce pasture and water resources. According to Mr Kona, there were many attempts at reconciliation by both the communities and the government. There was a government border commission, peace committees, and 29 attempts at disarmament but to no avail. Other peace processes were supported by MPs, IGAD (pilot project) None of the above-mentioned measures worked since the youth were not actively engaged. Mr Kona is of the view that due to the central role of the youth in conflicts, any attempt to sideline them would be futile. But since December 2005, peace is holding as a result of the involvement of the youth in the process. Mr Kona concluded by outlining a number of policy options that included; -Creation of an institution for peace where an obligated person in government has to be answerable on issues pertaining to conflict and peace; -Mainstreaming of issues of peace and development; -Equitable development -Enhancing the role of traditional institutions and involvement of the youth in peace processes; -The State has to play its role of protecting its citizens without fear or favour especially when there are cross border incursions; -Improving literacy levels in pastoral areas is crucial especially as it may help in diversification of livelihoods and poverty eradication; -Role for NGO's in peace facilitation is important Discussion Is the Minister for Internal Security not the person responsible for security issues? Conflict is perpetuated by various actors some of whom are very educated, so the question is how effective is education in this process? Other discussants felt that what matters is not only education, but more the type of education. It was also pointed out that Mr Kona's report was not very strong on the causes of conflict and impact of conflict on traditional institutions. Another issue that required more detail was that of the peace processes, -one discussant noted that these should be put

chronologically and descriptively in order to clearly show who undertook them and why; their successes and failures; their limitations and inadequacy etc. Clarification on the significant role of the youth appreciated but reasons sought as to what factors precipitated this. Also, the issue of the division among leaders should be put in the national context so as to understand why they are operating at loggerheads. Pokot-Turkana presentation was void of market forces and Mr Kona was asked to shed light on this. The question of state and its policies, especially with regards to its conception of security was missing in the presentation. Finally, a question was raised as to what entails sustainable livelihoods in pastoral context. Mr Kona's Response On the question of who a designated person shall be, Mr Kona expressed that this should be a non-political office with terms of tenure and guaranteed by the constitution. Education is essential for peace, in that apart from raising income levels, it helps people to question the actors' motives and helps entrench transparency and accountability. On the question of the state and its conception of security, Sam pointed out that the state is taking security issues seriously as is shown by the proposal document on Kenya National Policy on Peace and the establishment of Kenya Commission of Peace. Commissioners will represent regions and it is also gender inclusive.

DAY II

03 October 2006

Sam Kona played a DVD to the workshop participants that was made by the World Vision on the Pokot-Turkana conflict. Much of what was on the DVD was narrated the previous day but nevertheless the DVD did generate some discussions. One participant noted the contradiction in this conflict especially with regards to arms sales among these warring tribes. He wondered how people exhibiting such a profound animosity against each other could trade in weapons of destruction to the other party.

General Report on the Progress of the Research Project by Dr Getachew Dr. Getachew gave an overview of the progress on the research project since its inception and looked at whether the research objectives have been realised. He stressed that the project set out to among other things fill the gap on pastoral conflicts and help inform policy on development. It also aimed at helping stakeholders and development agencies in appropriate intervention and peace making in pastoral areas. Another objective of importance was to garner detailed knowledge of the communities under study by collecting data at local, national, and trans-boundary levels. This was hoped to generate a comprehensive knowledge on conflict and conflict resolution and help in informing post-conflict reconstruction. Finally, the project aimed at understanding the patterns and dynamics of conflict and its impact on human and state security in the Horn and Eastern Africa. (HOA and EA countries)

All the case studies were on HOA and EA countries. The study was necessary as there was no known similar project that looked at pastoral conflict in comparative perspective and inter-linkages on conflict and market forces across local and national boundaries. The study employed an integrated approach to understanding conflict and people to people relations. The project employed experienced researchers who not only hail from the region but also conducted previous research on pastoral human security in the areas they studied on regular basis. The research project by and large succeeded in meeting its objectives except where some researchers failed to meet deadlines. All the papers addressed salient issues on types and dynamics of conflict, inter-community relations, cross-border dimensions, market forces and impact of conflicts on both human and national security. However, some crucial issues such as gender, the role of the state in shaping conflict dynamics, showing negative aspects of international boundaries were not given enough coverage in some of the research papers. Dr. Getachew asked Sam Kona and Peter Otim to adhere to observe deadlines and submit their reports as per their contractual obligations. In summation, he thanked all the researchers for their hard work and quality of data that was presented. He particularly commended Dr. Hussein, Dr. Mustafa, and Mr. Woldemichael for adhering to methodologies devised and for meeting all the expectations related to the research project.

An Overview of DPMF Regional Conflict Project: Case Studies and Comparative Framework for Their Analysis. Dr. Paul Goldsmith Chair: Njeri Karuru

Dr. Goldsmith examined the degree to which the study helped generate policy/knowledge, and tried to bring out the commonalities and differences in the case studies. He observed that while in Sudan there is strong alliance between the state and capital, the situation in NW Kenya was different in that despite the presence of a strong state, there is almost zero economic activity (economic stagnation) and lack of capital. He also noted that banditry is more common in Kenya and Uganda as compared to Ethiopia and Sudan. Dr. Goldsmith came up with a model that showed linkages between state-society-economy and how different actors and institutions bring these together. According to him, these linkages were not well developed in the papers. Much as the papers brought out pertinent issues with regards to conflict causality, they failed to bring out the decision-making processes involved in conflicts. Discussion Capital has penetrated some pastoral areas like in the case of Sudan, Ethiopia and Somali areas but not in the regions inhabited by the Turkana and Pokot. A discussant stated that the impact/trickle down effect of investment capital on society and communities is evident in a strong state like Ethiopia. Linking economic development especially of capital into pastoral areas and economy can lead to a change of attitude by the state and policy makers.

The research project is important in as far as highlighting the plight and marginalisation of pastoral areas is concerned. This can help policy makers take note of the potential in these areas and help change their attitude and come up with policies that address sustainable livelihoods. Discussion on Policy Briefs Facilitator: Sam Kona Chair: Hon. Abdulkadir Sheikh Mah

In opening this discussion, Prof. Bujra outlined the importance of Policy Briefs (PBs). He noted that PBs were not harmonised in terms of structure, as individual researchers did not work together. He therefore recommended the harmonisation of the Briefs in terms of format and general content so that it is readable and understandable by policy makers. He went on to say that policy making in a government is a process; a discipline in itself and that, findings from this project would be useful to governments as they do not normally carry out this kind of research. He is hopeful that governments will act on the research recommendations. After a lengthy discussion, it was agreed that the title of the Brief shall be `Action and Policy Brief'. Format: a) Abstract/synopsis that points out what the PB is about; b) Key issues: diagnosis of the problem (why is this issue important), key findings and their implications. c) Policy recommendations: midterm/short term/long term etc d) Conclusion: futuristic conclusions and scenario development (what is likely to happen if implemented) It was agreed that the font should be Times New Roman 12, 1.5 space (one column) and Length 5-6 pages. Dissemination Audience: Governments; Local Communities; NGOs; Political Parties; Regional Organisation (e.g. AU, IGAD, EAC); Parliamentary Pastoral Committees; Legislators; Development Partners; and the Media. Dissemination Strategies: Media; Launching of the Book and Briefs; DPMF to send Briefs and Book to respective researchers so that they may disseminate these in study areas; Feed back workshop Brief Discussion on Project Outputs Prof Bujra started by outlining the history and objective of the project. The five studies examined the causes and context in which they operate and the border situations. The studies came out with findings that will help scientific knowledge and help inform policy. The project proposal was done in consultation with the researchers and a methodological workshop was convened. After that, mid term workshops to discuss reports and research reports were conducted and were very much appreciated by the researchers as it helped them exchange notes, learn from each other and add value to their research. This particular workshop is the last in the series of workshops. The project was greatly enriched by intensive interaction among the researchers and with other stakeholders, which generated a lot of ideas and has led to quality scientific research.

Another central idea was to put the project within the regional framework and the five studies should more or less represent region wide pastoral conflicts. Issues of commonality and differences within different societies were explored. The next stage will involve harmonising what has come out of the process with a view to advancing policy and knowledge. This shall involve disseminating/sharing the project findings with communities/local/national and international stakeholders. The final reports are expected to be of high intellectual and scientific quality and will be published. (It was agreed that the deadline for submitting these reports to DPMF shall be 15th of November 2006. They should be no more than 20-25 pages). After editing, the Briefs will be given to the stakeholders to be launched. If funding permits, they shall also be translated into languages that can be understood by communities from the study areas. The book format: Introduction; Case Studies; and General Framework at the end. Editors will be Dr. Paul Goldsmith, Dr Getachew Kassa, Dr Mustafa Babiker, and Mr Sam Kona. Ms. Njeri Karuru of the IDRC stated that the research area/project was very important in contributing to knowledge on human security in pastoral areas. She reminded the researchers to produce research of high intellectual and scientific quality. She promised that IDRC will publish the reports and will also evaluate this particular project after a few years. She thanked the researchers for enduring a long process that at times conflicted with their other schedules. The workshop was brought to a close by Prof. Bujra, who thanked all the participants including the elders, government officials, researchers, the media, diplomatic staff, and the AU. He passed his thanks to the Commissioner of the AU, and asked the embassy staff present to convey his gratitude to the Ambassadors. On behalf of everybody, he thanked the elders for attending despite travelling from far and language difficulties. He also thanked Hon. Abdulkadir for taking time off his busy schedule to attend and actively participate in all the workshops.

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