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Educational Structures and Education Systems for Vocational Training and Adult Education in Europe Belgium - Flemish Community - 2009

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Chief Editor: Gaby Hostens Flemish Ministry of Education International Relations Office Koning Albert II-laan 15 B-1210 Brussel Original text in Dutch: Rob De Vries Co-ordination: Ilse Scheirlinckx Printed by: Flemish Ministry of Education Printery Besides this brochure, the Flemish Ministry of Education and Training publishes many other publications. You can find the entire list of publications at the website www.ond.vlaanderen.be/publicaties A paper version of the catalogue can be obtained from the Flemish Ministry of Education and Training, Agency for Education Communication, Cel Education Publications, Koning Albert II-laan 15, 1210 Brussel, tel: +32-(0)2-553.66.53 ­ fax: +32-(0)2-553.66.54 ­ email: [email protected] You can find a list of all Eurydice publications at www.eurydice.org

D/2009/3241/180

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organisation of the education system in the flemish community, 2008-2009 _______________2 1. RESPONSIBILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION _______________________________________3

1.1 Background___________________________________________________ 3 1.2 Basis of the education system: principles - legislation_______________ 4 1.3 Distribution of responsibilities for the organisation and administration of the education & training system _______________________________________ 5 1.4 Quality assurance _____________________________________________ 7 1.5 Financing_____________________________________________________ 8 1.6 Advisory and consultation bodies ________________________________ 9 1.7 Private sector ________________________________________________ 11

2. Pre-primary education ______________________________________12

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Organisation _________________________________________________ 12 Programme of activities _______________________________________ 12 Assessment ___________________________________________________ 13 Teachers _____________________________________________________ 13 Statistics _____________________________________________________ 14

______________________________________15

3. COMPULSORY EDUCATION

3.A Primary education______________________________________________ 15 3.A.1 Organisation of the school _____________________________________ 16 3.A.2 Curriculum _________________________________________________ 16 3.A.3 Assessment/certification_______________________________________ 17 3.A.4 Progression / guidance / transition arrangements ____________________ 17 3.A.5 Teachers ___________________________________________________ 18 3.A.6 Statistics ___________________________________________________ 18 3.B Compulsory secondary education__________________________________ 19 3.B.1 Organisation of the school _____________________________________ 20 3.B.2 Curriculum _________________________________________________ 20 3.B.3 Assessment/certification_______________________________________ 21 3.B.4 Progression / guidance / transition arrangements ____________________ 22 3.B.5 Teachers ___________________________________________________ 22 3.B.6 Statistics ___________________________________________________ 23

4. Post-compulsory GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL secondary education _________________25

Fourth stage vocational secondary education_______________________________ 25 Higher vocational education (hoger beroepsonderwijs - HBO) _________________ 25

5. Initial vocational education and TRAINING IN alternance ____________________________27

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3

Organisation _________________________________________________ 27 Vocational/initial training establishments _________________________ 28 Access requirements__________________________________________ 28 Financing____________________________________________________ 28 Curriculum___________________________________________________ 29 Assessment/Qualifications _____________________________________ 30 Guidance ____________________________________________________ 31 Teachers/trainers_______________________________________________ 32 Statistics _____________________________________________________ 32

______________________________________33

6. tertiary education

Admission requirements _______________________________________ 33 Fees / Financial support for students ____________________________ 34 Academic year _______________________________________________ 34

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6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 7.5.3 7.5.4 7.5.5 7.5.6 7.6 7.7 7.8

Courses ____________________________________________________ Assessment/qualifications_____________________________________ Teachers ___________________________________________________ Statistics____________________________________________________ Policy & legislative framework _________________________________ Management/Organisations involved ___________________________ Funding ____________________________________________________ Human resources ____________________________________________ Organisation ________________________________________________ Types of training institutions___________________________________ Access requirements _________________________________________ Objectives of the programmes__________________________________ Main principles of the organisation of time and venue_______________ Curriculum ________________________________________________ Quality assurance ___________________________________________ Guidance/counselling services_________________________________ Assessment, accreditation & recognition ________________________ Statistics____________________________________________________

35 36 37 37 39 40 41 42 43 43 43 44 45 45 49 50 52 54

7. continuing education & TRAINING FOR ADULTS __________________________________ 39

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ORGANISATION OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE FLEMISH COMMUNITY, 2008-2009

Organisation of the education system in the Flemish Community of Belgium, 2006/07

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

BE nl

KLEUTERONDERWIJS

LAGER ONDERWIJS

SECUNDAIR ONDERWIJS

ALGEMEEN SECUNDAIR ONDERWIJS

UNIVERSITEIT

HOGESCHOOL TECHNISCH / KUNST SECUNDAIR ONDERWIJS BEROEPSSECUNDAIR ONDERWIJS DBSO

Pre-primary education ­ ISCED 0

(for which the Ministry of Education is not responsible)

Pre-primary ­ ISCED 0

(for which the Ministry of Education is responsible)

Primary ­ ISCED 1 Lower secondary general ­ ISCED 2

(including pre-vocational)

Single structure ­ ISCED 1 + ISCED 2

(no institutional distinction between ISCED 1 and 2)

Lower secondary vocational ­ ISCED 2 Upper secondary vocational ­ ISCED 3

Upper secondary general ­ ISCED 3 Post-secondary non-tertiary ­ ISCED 4 Tertiary education ­ ISCED 5A Allocation to the ISCED levels: Compulsory full-time education ISCED 0

Tertiary education ­ ISCED 5B ISCED 1 ISCED 2

Compulsory part-time education Additional year Study abroad

Part-time or combined school and workplace courses

-/n/-

Compulsory work experience + its duration

Source: Eurydice.

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1. RESPONSIBILITIES AND ADMINISTRATION

1.1 Background

Belgium is a federal state with a constitutional monarchy, founded in 1830. It is a double federation of · · 3 communities (the Flemish, French and German-speaking Communities) who are amongst others responsible for cultural matters, education and person-related issues; 3 regions (the Flemish Region, the Walloon Region and the Brussels Capital Region) amongst others in charge of economy, transport and public works.

Belgium has 4 language regions: the Dutch-speaking Region, the French-speaking Region, the German-speaking Region (the 9 East-canton municipalities) and the bilingual Region Brussels Capital (the 19 Brussels' municipalities). The Flemish Community consists of the Flemish Region and the Dutch-language institutions within the territory of the Brussels Capital Region. Flanders has 5 provinces and numbers 308 cities and municipalities. The Brussels Capital Region is the bilingual area Brussels Capital, which consists of 19 municipalities. Belgium has 10 666 866 residents who all live within an area of 30 528 km²; the Flemish Region is home to 6 161 600 people living in an area of 13 522 km²; the Brussels Capital Region accommodates 1 048 491 residents within an area of 168 km² (1/1/2008 data SVR). In 2007, the employment rate of 25-64 year olds in the Flemish Region was 73.6%, while the employment rate for people in the 55-64 year age bracket amounted to 31.4 %. According to the State Register, Flanders numbered 968 926 people of school age on 1/10/2006 (birth year 1989-2000). Level of education of the Flemish Region population (25-34 year olds) in %

Highest diploma obtained 2004 1990 45.0 30.5 13.0 11.5

Maximum lower secondary 16.6 Higher secondary University-college level University level 41.5 22.7 19.2

(Source: http://aps.vlaanderen.be, 2006)

The Belgian constitution guarantees the separation of Church and State. The `recognized' religions are Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism, Anglicanism, Islam and the Orthodox Church. The Flemish Community's only official language is Dutch, which is also the teaching language. French is taught as a second (foreign) language from the fifth grade of primary education onwards (in the Brussels Region from the third grade of primary education on). English is taught from secondary education onwards. Depending on the educational options chosen, pupils can also learn other languages (including German) at school.

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1.2 Basis of the education system: principles - legislation

The constitutional freedom of education is one of the principles of Belgium's education legislation (art. 24 of the Belgian Constitution). It stipulates: · each natural person or legal entity has the right to set up schools and organise education; these initiators are called the `organising bodies' or (in elementary education) `school boards' (schoolbesturen); the right of orientation, i.e. schools may be founded on the basis of a specific philosophy of life or on specific pedagogical or educational principles; the right of organisation and the right for parents and pupils to register in a school of their own choice.

· ·

The constitution also guarantees that all primary and secondary-school pupils are entitled to 2 teaching periods a week of philosophy-of-life education as part of the core curriculum. Public education must respect the choice of all parents in this regard and must offer a choice between religion and non-confessional ethics. Flanders' education system has been organised into three distinct, main "educational networks" (onderwijsnetten) · GO! Flemish community education (www.gemeenschapsonderwijs.be) is public education financed by the Flemish Community . In contrast to the French and German-speaking Communities, the GO! organising bodies are the (central) Board and the 28 school groups (scholengroepen) (composed of elementary and secondary schools and not to be confused with the school clusters (scholengemeenschappen) discussed in 1.6). Go! is attended by 14.4% of all elementary-school pupils and by 16.5% of all secondary-school pupils. Subsidised public education (gesubsidieerd officieel onderwijs) is organised by cities and municipalities (www.ovsg.be) and by provinces (www.pov.be) and is subsidised by the Flemish Community. It caters for 22.3 % of all elementary-school pupils and for 7.8 % of all secondaryschool pupils. In the Brussels Capital Region, The Flemish Community Commission acts as the organising body for its metropolitan Flemish schools (www.bop.vgc.be). Subsidised free education (gesubsidieerd vrij onderwijs) is organised by a large number of private-law organising bodies, based on a specific denomination (Catholicism http://ond.vsko.be, Judaism, Protestantism) or a non-confessional philosophy of life or even on a specific pedagogical or educational principle (the so-called alternative schools (methodescholen) http://users.skynet.be/fopem). These schools are recognised and subsidised by the Flemish Community and are attended by 63.3 % of all elementary-school pupils and by 75.7 % of all secondary-school pupils. The overall majority of these schools belong to the catholic educational network.

·

·

There are various types of alternative schools within the different educational networks based on methodologies such as Freinet, Steiner, Montessori, Jenaplan etc, but there are also a number of independent schools. To qualify for subsidies/financing, schools must abide by the decretally-established educational structure, follow a curriculum containing which unambiguously features the final and developmental objectives (see 2.2, 3.A.2, 3.B.2) (where pupils must attain the final objectives and pursue the developmental objectives), facilitate inspections by the inspectorate, participate at local-

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consultation-platform level (LOP - lokaal overlegplatform) and engage in decretally laid down participation (see1.6). Public-education schools (Flemish Community and subsidised public-education schools) must use the curricula developed by the public bodies or educational networks. The right to equal educational opportunities is also a basic principle of Flanders' education policy. The equal educational opportunities policy (gelijkeonderwijskansenbeleid - GOK www.ond.vlaanderen.be/gok) embeds the basic right to register in a school and geographical location of choice, regardless of skin colour, nationality or ethnic background, religion or sex. On condition at least that the school has spaces available, that the pupil was not expelled during a previous school year and that the parents underwrite the pedagogical project and the school regulations. Local consultation platforms (lokale overlegplatforms - LOPs) (see 1.6) must see to the implementation of the equal educational opportunities policy at local level. Consequently, education is in principle mixed. The full legislation and regulations are available on http://www.ond.vlaanderen./edulex/

1.3 Distribution of responsibilities for the organisation administration of the education & training system

Federal level

and

The constitutional revision dd. 15 July 1988 transferred all responsibilities regarding education to the communities, with the exception of three items which remain under federal authority: setting the beginning and end of compulsory education, the minimum requirements for diploma conferrals and the pension system. Paid Educational Leave (betaald educatief verlof) also remains a federal responsibility which comes under the remit of the Federal Minister of Work (see 7), together with a number of vocational-education programmes: military training which comes under the remit of the Federal Minister of Defence and police training which resorts under the joint authority of the Federal Minister of the Interior and the Federal Minister of Justice.

Flemish Community

Flanders' legislative body is the Flemish Parliament (www.vlaamsparlement.be), which is the parliament of the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region. The executory is in hands of the Flemish government (www.vlaanderen.be). The policy area `Education and Training' comprises: · The Department of Education and Training, (DOV-Departement Onderwijs en Vorming) headed by the Secretary-General, in charge of policy implementation (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/wegwijs/organogram) · 4 internal autonomous agencies (intern verzelfstandigde agentschappen) who look after policy implementation under the guidance of a general administrator: · AgODi, (Agency for Educational Services - Agentschap voor Onderwijsdiensten) (elementary, secondary and part-time artistic education, pupil guidance centres, inspectorate and guidance) · AHOVOS, Agency for Higher Education, Adult Education and Study Allowances ­ (Hoger Onderwijs, Volwassenenonderwijs en Studietoelagen) · AOC, Agency for Education Communication (Agentschap voor Onderwijscommunicatie) (information & communication, Klasse [monthly magazine]) Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe 5/60

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· AGIOn Agency for School Infrastructure (Agentschap voor Infrastructuur in het Onderwijs), an IAA with corporate personality · the Governing Council, where strategic consultation takes place between the minister and the 5 leading officials · VLOR, The Flemish Education Council (Vlaamse Onderwijsraad) (www.vlor.be), which acts as a strategic advisory body Education is regulated by decrees, (federal) laws, Decisions of the Flemish government (Besluiten van de Vlaamse Regering - BVR), Royal Decrees (Koninklijke Besluiten - KB) and ministerial circular letters. Prior to ratification, all decrees must first be submitted to the Flemish Education Council (Vlaamse Onderwijsraad ­ VLOR), and in general, they are also presented to the Council of State for legal advice and, if necessary, also to Flanders' Social and Economic Council (SociaalEconomische Raad van Vlaanderen ­ SERV) which assesses their socio-economic impact. Education comes under the remit of the Flemish Minister for Education and Training, who, in the current government, also holds the office of Flemish Minister for Work. In contrast to the French and German-speaking Communities, the minister does no longer have the function of organising body of Flemish-Community education. The minister is assisted by a cabinet of education specialists. He is responsible for: · · · employment policy, vocational retraining and advanced training (see also 7.1) education, pre-school non-formal education, post and para-scholar training, socialadvancement education and adult basic education policy coordination regarding the Flemish Periphery around Brussels.

Local level

Local civil services, i.e. the provincial and municipal councils only act as organising bodies for their own provincial and urban/municipal education. However, as a result of the metropolitan education issues (especially the disadvantage issue) a number of large cities have taken some cross-network initiatives over the past few years to ensure a more successful implementation of the equal educational opportunities policy (see 1.6). To counter learning lags, the 'complementary education policy' supports structural projects in 13 cities with regional services and 14 cities without regional services. The organising bodies have the autonomous right to draw up curricula, to develop a pedagogical project, to lay down the school rules, though always on condition that the final and developmental objectives, the statutory directives and the principles of democracy are respected. The organising bodies are also free to choose their own didactical methods, to decide how pupils will be assessed and to issue official certificates. They also select their own teachers and recruit and promote their own support, administrative and management staff, once again, always in accordance with statutory legislation. To support their schools and to represent them in consultative and advisory bodies (such as VLOR ­ Flemish Education Council ­ Vlaamse Onderwijsraad) the organising bodies have set up umbrella organisations. Until the end of the 70s the organisation of education was very much a central affaire. But since then, the local educational organisations have been given increased administrative autonomy and

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responsibility (one example of this is the lump-sum (puntenenveloppe) system where the lump sums are determined on the basis of a credit system). The school head, the principal, is in charge of school management and school policy. He decides which teacher will be assigned to which class and is entitled to attend classes, issue advice and provide support and to assess the pedagogical and didactical skills of his teachers. He is also in charge of drawing up the timetables and the organisation of classes and of internal and external communication and relations. A budget has been provided for the continuing training of school principals, members of the organising bodies and the schools' secretarial staff.

1.4 Quality assurance

There are various quality-assurance methods in place: · · · · · an external evaluation of schools / full inspections (doorlichtingen) by the inspectorate of the Flemish Community internal school evaluations the development and implementation of final and developmental objectives (eindtermen en ontwikkelingsdoelen) for all schools periodical education surveys (onderwijspeilingen) in which pupils and students are assessed to see whether final objectives in certain areas are attained external reviews and accreditation of programmes in higher education.

The inspectorate (www.onderwijsinspectie.be) of the Flemish Community has the task to supervise the quality of education in all schools and at all levels (with the exception of the universities and the 2-cycle programmes organised by university colleges). The Decree dd. 17 July 1991 lays down the structure and the activities of the inspectorate which has been organised into 5 corps: elementary education (subdivided by region), secondary education (divided into departments), adult education and adult basic education, part-time artistic education (divided by course of study) and Pupil Guidance Centres (Centra voor leerlingenbegeleiding). The board of inspectors, chaired by the senior chief inspector and composed of the chiefinspectors Elementary and Secondary Education and the coordinating inspectors steers the inspectorate's activities. Moreover, the government wishes to reinforce the inspectorate's operational autonomy in the near future. In addition there is a separate philosophy-of-life-course (levensbeschouwelijke vakken) inspectorate under the administrative control of the senior chief-inspector. The inspectors-advisors are appointed by the recognised bodies of the recognised denominations and the recognised association of the non-confessional community. They have established a consultation cell, the Philosophy-of-Life Courses Commission, (Commissie Levensbeschouwelijke Vakken - CLBV). The inspectorate checks whether the schools fulfil their social task and use the funds of the community wisely by means of pre-announced full school inspections (conducted by a team of inspectors) which have been prepared in advance with the school in question. For these inspections, it operates the CIPO-model (context, input, process, output). They opted for the CIPOmodel because it implies that the inspectorate sees the functioning of teachers and the principal within the overall functioning of the school and the functioning of the school within the local context. The full inspection reports are public reports and can be consulted on the education website. Every Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe 7/60

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year the inspectorate publishes an `Onderwijsspiegel' (Education Mirror) on the basis of these full-inspection reports (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/overzichten/onderwijsspiegel.htm); this report also investigates specific themes. Furthermore, a number of organising bodies of the large educational networks have also retained their own inspectorate advisers. The full school inspections concentrate very much on the realisation of the final and developmental objectives (see 2.2, 3.A.2, 3.B.2). These are developed by the Curriculum Entity (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/dvo) within the Department of Education and Training. Once they have been positively assessed by VLOR, these objectives are ratified in a decree and must then be incorporated into the curricula. Furthermore, the government wants to give more recognition and see more value put on the schools' self-evaluation projects and to this end it stimulates the development and implementation of new tools and methodologies. The pedagogical counselling services (pedagogische begeleidingsdiensten - PBDs), support this internal quality-assurance system. These counselling services are organised by the network-related umbrella organisations and were set up to assist teachers and schools within the respective networks with the development of their pedagogical project (Decree dd. 17 July 1991). The Department of Education has been organising education surveys since 2002 to check to what extent the final objectives in certain areas are being attained (a.o. for mathematics, biology, information acquisition and processing). These are conducted at the end of the 6th grade of elementary education and at the end of every stage in secondary education (2nd, 4th and 6th grades). But these results are also used to evaluate the final terms in se. As from 2007, twiceyearly education surveys will be carried out. Schools which have not been included in this sample survey can use parallel versions of the survey to check and compare their own performance. Quality assurance in higher education involves 3 stages: 1. The decretal internal self-evaluation. 2. An external assessment of a particular programme (or cluster of programmes), starting from those self-evaluation reports, carried out by external assessment panels which are coordinated by the Council of Flemish University Colleges, (Vlaamse Hogescholenraad - VLHORA) (www.vlhora.be) and the Flemish Interuniversity Council (Vlaamse Interuniversitaire Raad VLIR) (www.vlir.be). Accreditation by the Dutch-Flemish Accreditation Organisation (Nederlands-Vlaamse Accreditatieorganisatie - NVAO), which starts from the assessment carried out by the qualityassurance agency. When positively assessed, programmes are accredited for a period of eight academic years. However, when the NVAO issues a negative decision, institutions may apply for temporary accreditation which is valid for a period of one year and which can be extended twice (www.nvao.be).

1.5 Financing

Every year, the Communities receive a fixed financial contribution for education from the Federal State. In addition, the Flemish government also has other forms of revenue, such as regional taxes and their own income, part of which is allocated to education. Under the new compulsory-education financing system, all networks receive the same basic funding for operational resources, though with due consideration for the different levels of education, the education forms and the areas of study. A 3% advance budget levy is used to 8/60 Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe

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guarantee the free choice for neutral education within GO! (Flemish-Community education). Another 4.5% is allocated to official schools (GO! schools and subsidised official schools) offering a choice in philosophy-of-life education (between one of the recognised religions and nonconfessional ethics). And finally, part of the budget is distributed beforehand on the basis of the social composition of the schools' pupil populations. The pupil characteristics operated in this respect are: the mother's level of education, the language spoken at home, whether the pupil qualifies for a grant and the school's neighbourhood. In 2008-2009, the 'social' budget item for elementary education amounts to 14 %, for secondary education to 10 %. As from 1/1/2008, universities and university colleges are also financed in a new manner. This will encourage them to provide more intensive support for their students (output-financing is built in), to attract more disadvantaged groups and to rationalise and optimise the programmes offered. Students suffering from function disabilities will also carry more weight in the resource-allocation process. AGIOn, the Agency for School Infrastructure (Agentschap voor Infrastructuur in het Onderwijs) (www.agion.be) subsidises and finances the purchase, construction and the renovation of school buildings in compulsory and university-college education. A catch-up operation on school construction has been launched, in which a private company (yet to be selected by the government) shall design, build, finance and maintain these projects. The Flemish Government Architect will co-assess the designs. These new buildings will have to be highly energy efficient and will have to meet stringent insulation standards (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/energie/default.htm). The main Flemish education budget items are apportioned as follows: 2008

Salaries (*) Operations Investments Various Total

6.006.350 2.402.442 475.208 358.702 9.242.702

(Statistical Yearbook of Flemish Education, 2007-2008)

1.6 Advisory and consultation bodies

VLOR, The Flemish Education Council (Vlaamse Onderwijsraad) (www.vlor.be), has the status of strategic advisory body within the policy area education and training. VLOR has decretal competences regarding study, concerted action and consultation on all the educational issues under the authority of the Flemish Community. VLOR must issue prior advice on all the draft education decrees, policy reports and documents to be presented to the Flemish Parliament. The various VLOR councils are composed of representatives from the educational-network umbrella organisations, VLIR (universities) and VLHORA (university colleges), the parents' associations umbrella organisations, students' and pupils' umbrella organisations, the teachers' unions, the socio-economic world (The Flemish Social and Economic Council (Sociaal-Economische Raad van Vlaanderen - SERV)) and the socio-cultural organisations, as well as representatives from continuing-education course participants, experience experts and directly-elected principals from Elementary, Secondary and Part-time Artistic Education, Centres for Adult Basic Education and Centres for Adult Education. Often, important education decrees are first submitted to the Council of State (Raad van State) for legal advice, and to SERV (www.serv.be), the Flemish Social and Economic Council, for advice regarding the relationship between education and the labour market. Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe 9/60

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Social consultative bodies, which vary according to educational network and educational sector, were created at various levels to facilitate negotiations on labour conditions within the educational sector. And there has always been a tradition of concluding long-term central CAOs, collective labour agreements (collectieve arbeidsovereenkomsten) and a separate CAO for higher education. As regards the link with the labour market there are various bodies which facilitate consultation and issue advice. · · Specifically for technical and vocational education, so-called sector committees have been set up within VLOR for all large segments of the labour market (metallurgy, textile, food ...). For adult education in particular, permanent working groups have been established within the Recognized Regional Collaborations (Erkende Regionale Samenwerkingsverbanden ERSVs), the former Sub-regional Employment Committees (subregionale tewerkstellingscomités - STCs). These have a consultative function and formal advisory powers regarding the planning of new training programmes in adult education. (http://www2.vlaanderen.be/werk/ersv_index"ERSV") The Regional Technological Centres (Regionale Technologische Centra - RTCs) must facilitate the educational institutions' access to hi-tech equipment and also promote cooperation with VDAB (Flemish Public Employment and Vocational Training Service), Syntra and the sector funds. (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/rtc). To provide students with a homogenous training offer and to ensure enhanced attunement between the institutional training providers the Training and Alignment Information Service (Dienst Informatie Vorming en Afstemming - DIVA) was set up on 31 March 2003. DIVA was repositioned as a non-profit association (vereniging zonder winstbejag - vzw) during 2006 and now seats the Flemish Public Employment and Vocational Training Service (Vlaamse Dienst voor Arbeidsbemiddeling en Beroepsopleiding), VDAB (www.vdab.be), the Flemish Agency for Entrepreneurial Training (Vlaams Agentschap voor Ondernemersvorming - SYNTRA Vlaanderen), SYNTRA-Flanders (www.sytnra.be) and the Support Centre for non-formal adult education (Steunpunt voor Sociaal-cultureel Volwassenenwerk), SoCiuS, (www.socius.be), the Federation of Centres for Adult Basic Education (Federatie Basiseducatie) as well as the adulteducation umbrella organisations (Community education, GO!, the Flemish Secretariat of Catholic Education (Vlaams Secretariaat van het Katholiek Onderwijs), VSKO, Organising municipal education (Gemeentelijk onderwijs organiseren), OVSG, and Provincial Education Flanders (Provinciaal Onderwijs Vlaanderen), POV). (http://www2.vlaanderen.be/diva/Site/index.html).

·

·

To facilitate the implementation of the equal educational opportunities policy at local level and to guarantee pupils' right to register in a school of their choice, 41 Local Consultation Platforms, (Lokale Overlegplatforms - LOPs) were set up for elementary education and 19 for secondary education (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/gok/lop). These LOPs are composed of education providers and local actors such as representatives from ethnic minorities and disadvantaged indigenous communities, the integration sector, socio-economic partners etc. As research assignment they chart the local situation and carry out an environmental analysis on unequal educational opportunities. At the same time, they fulfil an advisory task at local, provincial and regional level. To tackle metropolitan education issues, combat social discrimination and shape the equal educational opportunities policy, a number of cities with regional services have taken crossnetwork initiatives, developed cross-network services and set up a steering committee. These projects were given a decretal base in 2007 (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/lokaalbeleid).

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Participation (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/participatie) within elementary and secondary education is regulated by the Decree of 2 April 2004. Schools must set up a pedagogical council, a parents' council and a pupils' council with advisory powers and the right to information and access to documents. In addition, they must set up a school council composed of parents' and staff representatives and co-opted representatives from social, economic and cultural groups. The principal attends the meetings and has an advisory vote. School councils enjoy the right of access to information and documents and have an accountability and communication obligation as regards their own activities. Moreover, school councils also have advisory and consultative powers in matters like course provision, the principal's profile, the organisation of school transport, school regulations, the financial contributions parents are asked to make (a.o. for para-scholar activities) and any relevant derogations thereto. When participation problems arise, a mediation commission may be called upon by any one party. Serious complaints are filed with the Careful Management Commission (Commissie Zorgvuldig Bestuur) (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/zorgvuldigbestuur). At school-cluster (scholengemeenschap) level (a voluntary cooperation between various schools providing the same level of education within one of the 44 geographically-demarcated school zones), all the school councils affiliated to a particular school cluster must have a seat on the representative advisory board (medezeggenschapscollege). This board must be consulted on any decisions concerning the affiliated members. Decisions regarding rationalisation of educational provision and pupils' orientation and guidance can only be taken after due consultation and discussion. (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/gidsvoorleraren/1indienst/scholengemeenschap.htm). In secondary education, all teachers teaching a particular class normally have a seat on the class council (klassenraad). The class council fulfils three functions, i.e. one of admissions committee, one of guidance committee and one of deliberation committee. Participation of staff, students and the socio-economic and cultural sectors is also regulated in higher education. The Decree on participation (participatiedecreet) dd. 19 March 2004 created a choice between an open-forum model (where students can issue policy advice) and a jointmanagement model (in which bodies taking decisions on a number of decretal matters must have a minimum student representation of 10%) (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/nieuws/2004pers/0312_participatie.htm). The network-related Pupil Guidance centres, (Centra voor Leerlingenbegeleiding ­ CLBs) (the former PMS-centres) are in charge of pupils' guidance and orientation within compulsory education. (see also 3.A.4).

1.7 Private sector

68.4 % of elementary and secondary-school pupils attend subsidised private education which is subsidised, recognised and inspected by the government. The overall majority of these schools appertain to the Catholic educational network (see 1.2 & 1.5). Flanders has very little commercial private education. In fact, commercial private education is neither recognised nor subsidised. 0.03% of elementary-education pupils and 0.07% of secondaryeducation pupils receive home education (provided by the persons exercising parental authority). It is accepted in terms of complying with compulsory education, provided it meets a number of minimum requirements and is monitored by the inspectorate. Home education does not entitle pupils to recognized proofs of study, however. To obtain official certificates, children must pass an exam in a designated school or before one of the examination boards. During 2007-2008, 279 pupils availed of home education at elementary-school level and 321 pupils at secondary-school level. (Statistical Yearbook of Flemish Education) (http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/infolijn/faq/leerplicht/huisonderwijs/default.htm). Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe 11/60

2. PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION

The Elementary Education Decree dd. 25 February 1997 integrated the legislation concerning preprimary education (kleuteronderwijs) and primary education (lager onderwijs) (Elementary education (basisonderwijs) should not be confused with adult basic education (basiseducatie) (cf. 7). Autonomous nursery schools or primary schools may continue to exist but since 2003 all new schools have been compelled to adopt the pre-primary cum primary-education structure. Infants may be registered in a nursery school from the age of 2.5 years, and always on the day after the next school holidays. Once infants are three years old they can be registered and accepted at any time. 99% of all 5-year olds attend pre-primary education. However, an active policy is being pursued to encourage all infants to follow pre-primary education. In principle, preprimary education lasts until children have turned 6 years of age. Pre-primary education is mixed and free. Besides mainstream pre-primary education, Flanders also provides separate special preprimary education for infants with learning difficulties. To ensure a continuous learning process, the objectives of pre-primary and primary education are in line. Pre-primary education focuses on the child's broad personal development from an intellectual, moral and attitude point of view. Each child should be able to acquire the basic skills required for daily life which then in turn can form the basis for further studies. Active teaching methods and coherence between the various areas of learning are central. Schools must stimulate social integration and help children to develop patterns of behaviour and skills so that they can play an active role in society.

2.1 Organisation

Pre-primary education usually consists of 3 grades. In pre-primary education infants are generally divided into groups according to age: children from 2.5 to 4 years of age; from 4 to 5 years of age and from 5 to 6 years of age. However, the organising bodies are free to decide how they divide the different groups. Normally the teacher does not stay with the class group when it moves on to the next grade. Schools with too few pupils to organise different grades sometimes operate a temporary or permanent vertical-division system, which means that pupils of different ages are catered for within one and the same group. The school boards are free to set class sizes. The school year starts on 1 September and ends on 30 June. Classes run from Monday to Friday and start at 8 a.m., at the earliest, and finish at 3 p.m., at the earliest, and at 5 p.m., at the very latest. Wednesday afternoons are off. Pre- and after-school care is organised by the schools.

2.2 Programme of activities

The Curriculum Entity (the former DVO) has formulated developmental objectives for pre-primary education (Decree of 25 February 1997). These are minimum objectives regarding knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes which the educational authorities consider to be desirable for a particular pupil population. Since 1 September 1998 these have been compulsory for all schools. Developmental objectives have been formulated for five areas of learning which jointly constitute the common core curriculum. · · · physical education (subjects: motor skills, a healthy and safe lifestyle, self-concept and social functioning), art education (subjects: Visual arts, music, drama, dance, media and attitudes), Dutch (subjects: listening, speaking, reading, writing, linguistics),

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· ·

world studies (wereldoriëntatie) (subjects: nature, man, society, technology, time and space), Mathematical Initiation (subjects: numbers, measuring and space) (http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/dvo/basisonderwijs/index.htm) All schools must offer their pupils activities in all these areas of learning. The inspectorate checks whether the developmental objectives are being pursued. On the basis of the developmental objectives the school boards or the educational umbrella organisations draw up a development plan (curriculum). Objectives and activities are mapped out for all the various age groups in a continuous line towards primary education. The timetable is drawn up by the school board.

Pre-primary school activities usually centre on a particular theme or point of interest. These themes are often linked to the year calendar but they may also be subjects the infants bring up themselves. Children learn through play in multi-functionally organised and equipped classrooms and an outdoor playground. The curriculum stimulates projects which tie in with the children's environment and interests. Infants are given the opportunity, either independently or with the help of other children (and adults), to experiment, discover and discuss. In elementary education, ICT is seen as a means to support this learning process. Precisely for that reason, infants as young as 4 years of age have been included in the target groups of the ICT infrastructure programme (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/ICT/infrastructuur/default.htm).

2.3 Assessment

Assessment in pre-primary education is chiefly based on observation and gauges the level of development the infants have attained, their prospects for a smooth further school career and, where appropriate, diagnoses the reasons for any lag in development. Pre-primary education usually comes to an end in the month of June of the year in which the child turns 6 years of age. Parents may decide that their child will stay on in pre-primary education for one extra year or that he/she will go on to primary education one year early. The class council of the pre-primary school concerned and the head of the CLB, Pupil Guidance centre, will issue their advice but the final decision lies with the parents. If the child stays on in pre-primary school for one more year, he/she is of school age.

2.4 Teachers

Like primary school teachers, pre-primary school teachers are trained through integrated teachertraining programmes, organised by the university colleges. Teachers are not civil servants but have their own specific teacher status (see further under 3.A.5 & 3.B.5). Since school year 2001-2002, pre-primary education has been given a separate time package for childcare workers (kinderverzorgers) (Decree of 13 June 2001). Moreover, also supplementary physical education teaching periods have been available since 1 September 2002. Resources for special-needs coordination (zorgcoördinatie) have also been provided to facilitate the appointment of special-needs coordinators. Since school year 2007-2008 the number of extra entry teaching periods for infant support has been increased and schools who are unable to find nurseryschool teachers will exceptionally be allowed to appoint childcare workers for this purpose during the next two school years.

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2.5 Statistics

School year 2007-2008 (Statistical Yearbook of Flemish Education)

Number of pupils in mainstream pre-primary education 14.2% in Flemish Community education, 22.9% in subsidised public education, 62.9 % in subsidised free education Number of educational institutions (pre-primary education only) Number of autonomous nursery schools Management and teaching staff in elementary education (pre-primary and primary) Teacher-pupil ratio in mainstream pre-primary education (2202-2003) 2 130 169

237 530

53 778

17

For further statistical data, please consult: · · · · · · The Statistical Yearbook of Flemish Education, 2007-2008 A portrait of Flemish education 2007-2008 & Flemish education in figures 2007-2008 (available in English) (all this information is also available on: http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/onderwijsstatistieken/) The statistics of the Study Service of the Flemish government (Studiedienst van de Vlaamse Regering ­ SVR): http://aps.vlaanderen.be The statistics of the federal Directorate General Statistics and Economic Information (Algemene Directie Statistiek en Economische Informatie): http://statbel.fgov.be/home_nl.asp Study and School Career Centre (Steunpunt SSL): http://www.steunpuntloopbanen.be/voorstelling.html

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3. COMPULSORY EDUCATION

Belgium does not operate a system of compulsory school attendance (schoolplicht) but compulsory education (leerplicht) which spans a period of 12 years and starts the school year children reach the age of 6 and ends at the latest as soon as the young adult has become 18 years old. So, it basically comprises both primary (6 years) and secondary education (6 years). Compulsory education is full-time for pupils attending general, technical or artistic secondary education. In vocational secondary education, full-time education is compulsory until the age of 16. Anyone who has successfully completed the 1st stage of secondary education can opt for part-time compulsory education. Compulsory education consists of the following stages:

Primary education Secondary education 1 stage ­ 1 grade A ­ 1 grade B -2

rd nd st st st

From 6 to 12 years of age From 12 to 18 years of age From 12 to 14 years of age From 14 to 16 years of age From 16 to 18 years of age

grade ­ 2nd pre-vocational year

2 stage ­ general ­ technical ­ artistic ­ vocational secondary education 3 stage ­ general ­ technical ­ artistic ­ vocational secondary education or part-time vocational secondary education

nd

Elementary and secondary schools are not allowed to charge any direct fees. Only a limited number of expenses may be passed on. In secondary education, these expenses must be fixed after they have been discussed at school-council level and all the interested parties must be advised of them in writing at the start of the school year (e.g. through the school regulations). The equal educational opportunities policy (GOK) embeds the basic right to register in a school and geographical location of choice, regardless of skin colour, nationality or ethnic background, religion or sex. On condition at least that the school has spaces available, that the pupil had not been expelled during a previous school year and that the school's pedagogical project and school regulations are underwritten. LOPs, local consultation platforms, must see to the implementation of the equal educational opportunities policy at local level (see 1.6).

3.A Primary education

Elementary education (basisonderwijs) comprises both primary (lager onderwijs) and pre-primary (kleuteronderwijs) education (see 2.B). The Elementary Education Decree (25 February 1997) has abolished grades and stages, but, in practice, primary education is usually organised into grades. It usually consists of 6 grades. Based on their pedagogical project, schools must create an education and learning environment where pupils can experience a continuous learning process. This environment is adapted to the progression and development of the pupils. Primary education must see to the pupils' wider personality development and must lay the foundations for further education and social integration. In this regard, knowledge, attitudes and values are paramount. Active learning processes are encouraged and coherence between areas of learning is underlined. Elementary education must provide all the pupils with an education and must continue to support as many pupils as possible through continuous attention and by extending special-needs provision in mainstream schools (Elementary Education Decree 25 February 1997 art. 8). Pupils can enter primary school if they have reached the age of 6 years the 1st of January of a particular school year. Subject to an assessment by the class council and the CLB in charge, children can start primary education one year early or stay on in pre-primary education for one year longer provided their parents agree.

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Access to primary education is free. The authorities wish to curb school costs inasmuch as possible. School necessities (e.g. copybooks, folders, school diary, school books) required to attain a final objective or aimed at a particular developmental objective must effectively be free of charge. For all other costs (magazines used in class, one-day extramural activities) a strict maximum invoice has been implemented; less stringent invoices apply to longer trips (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/schoolkosten).

3.A.1 Organisation of the school

The school year starts on 1 September and officially ends on 31 August, though, in practice, it usually ends on 30 June. The school holidays consist of an autumn mid-term break, i.e. one week around All Saint's Day (Halloween), two weeks around Christmas, a spring mid-term break, i.e. one week around Shrovetide, two weeks of Easter holidays and two months of summer holidays. In elementary education, pupils have 28 or 29 teaching periods of educational and pedagogical activities of 50 minutes each. In secondary education, the minimum is 28 teaching periods of 50 minutes, the maximum 36 but in practice most people follow at least 32 teaching periods. Classes are evenly spread from Monday to Friday and Wednesday afternoons are off. School starts at 8 a.m., at the earliest, and ends between 3 p.m. and 5 p.m. Pupils get a lunch break of no less than 50 minutes. Schools are free to decide how they group classes. Pupils are usually divided according to age (however, this structure is broken up by the different progression rates of the pupils). In elementary education, the authorities do not impose minimum or maximum class sizes. Here, classes are taught by one form teacher but physical education and philosophy-of-life education are always taught by separate teachers. In secondary education, the various subjects are taught by specialist teachers.

3.A.2 Curriculum

Final objectives for primary education have been laid down in the decree of 15 July 1997. Final objectives are minimum objectives. The government deems the area-of-learning related final objectives regarding a minimum level of knowledge, understanding and skills to be peremptory and attainable for a specific pupil population. Area-of-learning related final objectives regarding attitudes, on the other hand, must only be aspired to by each school in all pupils. In addition, there are also cross-curricular final objectives which do not specifically appertain to one area of learning but which can be aspired to by several areas of learning or educational projects. A well-argued derogation from the final objectives in function of a specific pedagogical project can only be granted after a weighty procedure is gone through and then only subject to decretal ratification. "Developmental objectives for pre-primary education and special elementary education" are minimum objectives to be pursued. The common core curriculum comprises the areas of learning 'physical education', 'artistic education', 'Dutch', 'French', 'world studies', 'mathematics' and the cross-curricular themes `learning to learn' and `social skills' and ICT (in respect of which serious investments have been made in hardware, software and in-service training). In addition, under the terms of the constitution, schools must set aside two teaching periods of the common core curriculum for philosophy-of-life education (see 1.2). Public education must guarantee a choice between non-confessional ethics and religion. On the basis of the final objectives, school boards draw up their own curriculum. In practice, however, this is usually done by the educational network umbrella organisations. With a view to 16/60 Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe

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guaranteeing the standard of education the curricula must be approved by the inspectorate. Public education must implement the curricula drawn up by the public-education umbrella organisations. Timetables are drawn up by the school boards who also specify the teaching methods and the school books to be used.

3.A.3 Assessment/certification

In primary education, the form teacher organises tests on small and larger subject-matter units, on a very regular basis. Regular, individual school reports provide pupils and parents with information on the child's results, his/her progress, learning behaviour and personal development. Both the results of the formative tests and the summative tests organised in December and June can be used. Often, tools such as child or pupil monitoring systems are used to follow the developments of pupils. In elementary education, the form teacher, often in consultation with the principal and possibly even with other members of the education team, decides on the pupil's transition to the next grade. The certificate of elementary education can be obtained at the end of: the 6th grade of primary education, the 1st grade of secondary education, as well as at the end of the pre-vocational year (i.e. the 2nd grade of secondary education for pupils who have completed the 1st grade B, where an equivalent certificate is presented). This certificate allows pupils to enter 1st grade A of secondary education; pupils who are not in possession of this certificate enter 1st grade B of secondary education, unless the pupil receives a favourable advice from the admissions committee and the CLB, Pupil Guidance Centre, in charge.

3.A.4 Progression / guidance / transition arrangements

The class council decides whether or not a pupil has successfully completed the school year in question and whether or not he/she will progress to the next grade. Repeating in primary education is a considerable problem for pupils from ethnic minorities. To cater for pupils with special educational needs various projects have been set up. Integrated education, (geïntegreerd onderwijs - GON) is a joint project between mainstream and special education (buitengewoon onderwijs). It has been set up so that pupils suffering from a disability and/or learning and behavioural difficulties can attend all or a number of classes or activities in a school for mainstream education either on a temporary or permanent basis. To that end, mainstream schools are assisted by a special school which is given supplementary teaching periods and/or supplementary hours (GON-package) and an integration allowance via the operational budget (Elementary Education Decree dd. 25 February 1997) (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/gidsvoorouders/specifiekesituaties/geintegreerd). Inclusive education, (Inclusief onderwijs - ION), is a project which is geared towards the guided inclusion of (maximum 100) (Decree of the Flemish Government dd. 12 December 2003) (www.inclusiefonderwijs.be). Thanks to the equal educational opportunities policy (GOK Decree dd. 28 June 2002) schools catering for a relative high number of disadvantaged pupils can receive additional support for periods of three consecutive years at a time. This allows them to work on the prevention and combating of developmental and learning lags, on providing language-skills education, intercultural education, enhanced progression and orientation, social-emotional development and pupil and parent participation. Ze kunnen daarmee ook GOK-leraren aanstellen. To qualify, schools must Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe 17/60

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cater for at least 10% of the target-group pupils in elementary education and in the 1st stage of secondary education, while in secondary education, the 2nd and 3rd stages must accommodate 25% of target-group pupils based on at least one of the disadvantage indicators. They can also use these to appoint GOK teachers. Moreover, all mainstream elementary schools can bank on an integrated 'care' lump sum (puntenenveloppe) (which can also be used to boost infant participation) with extra special-needs hours to be distributed via the school clusters. These funds and resources can be used to appoint a special-needs coordinator, in charge of policy coordination, guidance for pupils and teachers and communication and cooperation between all the bodies concerned. Pupils can receive guidance from the network-related Pupil Guidance Centres, (centra voor leerlingenbegeleiding - CLBs). These also provide information on the structure and organisation of the Flemish education system, the courses of study available, the relationship between education and the labour market and on welfare and health provisions. Other points of particular interest are health, enhanced success rate, the reduction and prevention of risk behaviour and truancy (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/clb/).

3.A.5 Teachers

Pre-primary and primary-school teachers are generalists and form teachers. For information on their training, see 3.B.5. Throughout their career, teachers follow further training although this has not been structurally organised. Teachers are also supported by network-related pedagogical counselling services. Teachers are not civil servants but they have a specific status which varies according to whether they are teaching in community education or in subsidised education (though these status differences are gradually being erased). The career of a primary school and secondary-school teacher involves three important steps: 1) temporary appointment with a fixed duration, 2) temporary appointment with an unlimited duration, 3) permanent appointment. Teachers receive a monthly salary which is paid directly by the authorities. They can work both fulltime or part-time.

3.A.6 Statistics

Number of pupils in mainstream primary education Number of pupils in special primary education Management and teaching staff in mainstream elementary education (number of full-time budgetary equivalents) Management and teaching staff in special elementary education (number of full-time budgetary equivalents) Teacher-pupil ratio in mainstream elementary education Teacher-pupil ratio in special elementary education Cost price per mainstream elementary-education pupil Cost price per special elementary-education pupil Number of mainstream primary-education schools Number of autonomous primary-education schools Education budget mainstream elementary education (2008) 384 557 27 140 53 778 6 493 13.48 5.04 4 239.40 12 411.39 2 140 179 2 536 274 000

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3.B Compulsory secondary education

Full-time secondary education is subdivided into 3 stages (graden) of two grades (leerjaren) each (Decree dd. 31 July 1990). Vocational secondary education also offers a 4th stage (see 4). The first stage has a common education form for all pupils, save for those preparing for vocational education. The second and third stages offer four education forms (onderwijsvormen), all further subdivided into areas of study (studiegebieden) within which pupils can choose a specific course of study (studierichting): · · General Secondary Education, (Algemeen Secundair Onderwijs - ASO) is geared towards a broad theoretical education and prepares pupils for higher education; Technical Secondary Education, (Technisch Secundair Onderwijs - TSO) mainly focuses on general and technical-theoretical subjects combined with practical lessons and prepares pupils for a future career or for higher (technical) education; Artistic Secondary Education, (Kunstsecundair Onderwijs - KSO) combines a general and broad education with active artistic practice and prepares pupils for a future career or for higher (artistic) education;· Vocational Secondary Education, (Beroepssecundair Onderwijs - BSO) teaches pupils specific vocational skills in combination with a general education. Transition to higher education is possible but rather rare.

·

·

Not all educational institutions offer all stages and all education forms. As there is a myriad of different combinations available, the range of educational institutions is extensive. Pupils can enter first grade A once they are in possession of a certificate of elementary education or with their parents consent and a favourable advice from the Pupil Guidance Centre (CLB) and the admissions class council. A lower entrance threshold applies for first grade B. Transition from 1st grade B to 1st grade A is possible until 15th November and from 1st grade A to 1st grade B until 15th January, provided the pupil's parents give their consent and the class council of 1A issues such recommendation. Throughout secondary education, pupils may transfer between education forms on condition that the advice from the admissions committee and the transition requirements for the various courses of study are observed. Transfers in the third stage of general, technical and artistic education are rather more restricted. At the age of 16, pupils may enter the third year of vocational education, whatever their previous school career provided the admissions committee so advises. No direct or indirect fees may be charged. However, certain expenses for educational activities and teaching aids may be passed on but only after these have been discussed at school-council level and on condition that the parents have been informed of them in writing at the start of the school year.

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3.B.1 Organisation of the school

The school year starts on 1 September and ends in practice on 30 June (see also 3.A.1). Within full-time secondary education the school week consists of a minimum of 28 teaching periods (36 teaching periods a week for nursing). Though, in practice, most pupils follow at least 32 teaching periods a week. The maximum number of weekly teaching periods which qualify for government financing and subsidies ranges between 32 and 36 (Royal Decree no. 2 dd. 21 August 1978). Classes run from Monday to Friday. Schools are free to decide when they take their half-day but like elementary education they usually opt for the Wednesday afternoon. Classes start at the earliest at 8 a.m. and end between 3 p.m. and 5 p.m. Lunch breaks are at least 50 minutes long. In practice, secondary education operates a year-group system (jaarklassensysteem) whereby pupils of the same age form one class. However, due to school failure and repeating, classes are often rather more heterogenic (especially in vocational education). Each subject is taught by a specialist teacher who has specialized in the subject he/she teaches. The teacher's teaching qualification (onderwijsbevoegdheid) depend on his/her skills certificate (bekwaamheidsbewijs) Teachers teach several grades and pupils are taught by different teachers.

3.B.2 Curriculum

The 1st grade of Secondary Education (SO) is not yet subdivided into education forms (see also 3). · · · In 1st grade A and 1st grade B one differentiates between the core curriculum (basisvorming) and an optional part. Aside from the core curriculum (basisvorming), pupils in 2nd grade A also follow basic optional subjects (basisopties) and an optional part (keuzegedeelte). In the pre-vocational year there are, aside from the core curriculum, occupational fields (beroepsvelden) and an optional part.

In the 1st grade, 27 teaching periods (out of 32) must be allocated to common subjects, though in the 2nd grade only 24 teaching periods are dedicated to common subjects. The 2nd and 3rd grades of SO are subdivided into 4 education forms: general, technical, artistic and vocational secondary education. Every education form offers common courses and besides the core curriculum (basisvorming) and the core courses (fundamenteel gedeelte) each one of them also offers a complementary part (complementair gedeelte). The compulsory subjects in the 1st and 2nd stages are: 'Philosophy-of-life education', 'Dutch', 'French' (except in the vocationally-oriented grades), 'English' (from the second grade, except in vocationally-oriented grades), 'mathematics', 'natural sciences' or 'physics' or 'biology', 'history' and 'geography' (in the vocationally-oriented grades, pupils can choose between the latter two or opt for 'community studies'), 'artistic, visual or music education' (only in the 1st stage), 'physical education' and 'technological education' (only in the 1st stage and not in the pre-vocational year). Per stage and per education form (as is the case in elementary education, see 3.A.2.) subject-related and cross-curricular final objectives have been laid down for the core curriculum which the authorities use to exercise quality control. Subject-related final objectives in terms of knowledge, understanding and skills entail an obligation of result for the schools. Whether or not these are attained will be assessed when the school is inspected and will be considered in light of the school context and the characteristics of the pupil population. They must always feature in the curricula.

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The ICT final objectives for the 2nd and 3rd stages are subject-related final objectives. Attitudinal subject-related final objectives do not have to be attained but should be pursued. For the 1st stage, cross-curricular final objectives were formulated regarding `learning to learn', `social skills', `civic education', `health education', `environmental education' and ICT, while for the 2nd and 3rd stages, these have been supplemented by `artistic-creative education' and `technicaltechnological education' (the latter only for ASO). The cross-curricular final objectives entail an obligation of effort for the schools. Therefore, they do not need to be incorporated into the curricula.. Only in respect of the core curriculum of 1st grade B and the pre-vocational year of the 1st stage, subject-related and cross-curricular developmental objectives have been formulated instead of final objectives. For the core courses, specific final objectives have been developed. These are objectives regarding skills, specific knowledge, understanding and attitudes a pupil in full-time secondary education must have to embark on further education and/or to function as a beginning professional. Currently there are only specific final objectives in place for ASO. The authorities do not formulate final or developmental objectives for the optional part, the basic optional subjects or the occupational fields of the first stage of secondary education and for the complementary part of the second and third stages. The specific final objectives for the pool `top sports' also apply to TSO. The authorities do not formulate final or developmental objectives for the optional part, the basic optional subjects or the occupational fields of the first stage of secondary education and for the complementary part of the second and third stages. All the final and developmental objectives are developed by the Curriculum Entity (ex-DVO), submitted to VLOR, the Flemish Education Council, and subsequently ratified by the Flemish Parliament (Decree dd.24 July 1996 concerning final and developmental objectives for the 1st stage; Decree dd. 18 January 2002 concerning final objectives for the 2nd and 3rd stages). As is the case in elementary education, it is possible to deviate from the final and developmental objectives laid down provided the schools go through a weighty procedure (Decree of 15 July 1997). Curricula appertain to the freedom of the organising bodies. They must be approved by the inspectorate, which assesses them on the basis of the established criteria and the final and developmental objectives.

3.B.3 Assessment/certification

Pupils are assessed by means of tests and examinations, organised by the individual specialist teacher under the ultimate responsibility of the school's organising body (Decision of the Flemish Government dd. 19 July 2002). Continuous assessment is also an option. In secondary education, the class council (klassenraad) acts as the central assessment body. The guidance and deliberation class council consist of the principal or his representative and all the members of the education team teaching a pupil in a specific grade. In secondary education, the deliberation class council jointly decides on the pupil's transition and on the conferral of an orientation certificate (oriënteringsattest) (A: pass, B: selective transition whereby some education forms or courses of study are excluded, C: repeat). A diploma of secondary education may be conferred at the end of:

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· ·

the 3rd stage: 2nd grade of ASO, TSO, KSO and the 3rd grade of BSO organised as a specialisation year the 4th stage of BSO: The first or last grade.

At the end of the other stages certificates (getuigschriften) may be issued. In a number of grades and education forms pupils have to pass an integrated test (geïntegreerde proef - GIP). The 3rd stage: the 3rd grade of ASO, KSO, organised as a preparatory year for higher education results in a certificate of regular attendance (attest van regelmatige lesbijwoning). Pupils can obtain a certificate (getuigschrift) of basic knowledge of business administration in every course of study of the 2nd and 3rd grades of the 3rd stage of every education form, and in every grade of the 4th stage BSO. This certificate can also be conferred in part-time vocational secondary education, provided the pupil has spent at least 4 years in secondary education (or in an apprenticeship), the 1st stage not included. On 1 September 2008, a new businessadministration programme, based on competences, was launched in all secondary-education schools (Circular letter SO/2008/01)

3.B.4 Progression / guidance / transition arrangements

For information on guidance within the framework of integrated education, inclusive education and the equal educational opportunities policy as well as support by the Pupil Guidance Centres, see 3.A.4.

3.B.5 Teachers

September 2007 saw the launch of new teacher-training programmes (Decree dd. 15 December 2006). Henceforth, aspiring teachers have two options: 1) Integrated teacher training which is organised by university colleges (hogescholen) and which leads to a Bachelor's in pre-primary, primary and secondary education, respectively. The training programme takes 3 years and comprises 180 credits, including 45 for teaching practice. 2) Students who have already obtained another diploma of higher education or adult education or who have relevant professional experience and only need to get additional pedagogical/teaching training can follow a specific teacher-training programme. This training programme involves a 60-credit study load of which 30 credits are specifically allocated to teaching practice. These programmes are organised by universities, university colleges and Centres for Adult Education, (Centra voor Volwassenenonderwijs ­ CVOs). They may be organised to dovetail with a subjectrelated programme, or as a built-in programme or even as an autonomous programme for people who want to embark on a teaching career. The practical component cannot only be acquired through pre-service training, i.e. teaching practice, but also through in-service training, a Trainee Teacher (Leraar-in-Opleiding - LIO) position, which is a 500-hour a year teaching assignment. The trainee teacher receives a salary (that of teacher without a pedagogical skills certificate) and is supported by a staff member of the centre, the institution or the school where he/she is employed which is in charge of mentoring and also receives support from the teacher-training college. All the different teacher-training programmes will be equivalent and will be based on the same basic teacher competences. Prior qualifications (eerder verworven kwalificaties - EVK) and 22/60 Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe

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accreditation of prior learning (erkennen van verworven competenties - EVC) will also be taken into account, and will all lead to the same diploma of teacher. Moreover, the same quality-assurance system, i.e. external assessments, will apply to all the various routes. Tutors, experienced teachers, will be in charge of trainee, trainee-teacher and beginning-teacher guidance and support. Tutors will also be able to follow a training programme. As all the programmes are equivalent, it goes without saying that all the institutions providing teacher training will pull together. To boost cooperation between the institutions even further, the government finances the expansion of Networks of Excellence (expertisenetwerken - ENW) (created within an association of a university and university colleges, see 6) and regional platforms (which operate in a cross-association fashion). For status, career and further training, see 3.A.5.

3.B.6 Statistics

Number of pupils in mainstream secondary education Number of pupils in special secondary education Management and teaching staff in mainstream secondary education (number of full-time budgetary equivalents) Management and teaching staff in special secondary education (number of full-time budgetary equivalents) Teacher-pupil ratio in mainstream secondary education Teacher-pupil ratio in special secondary education Cost price per mainstream secondary-education pupil Cost price per special secondary-education pupil Education budget mainstream secondary education (2007) School year 2007-2008 (Statistical Yearbook of Flemish Education); more sources: see 2.5. 438 315 18 263 62 578 6 085 7.86 3.4 7 572.44 16 658.44 3 688 610 000

Number of pupils in mainstream secondary education

Secondary education 4th stage nursing modular education: 4th stage: 2 and 3 stages modular education: 3rd stage: 2

nd st nd rd

general

technical

artistic

vocational

Total

Boys 598 Girls 3 789 Total 4 387

301 3 156

4 387

301 3 156

53 979 64 607

2

nd

47 803 46 138

3 294 2 729

12 933

40 645 31 661

Prevocational year 1st grade B 8 818

145 721 145 135 137 942

stage:

1 stage:

grade 56 842

1st grade A 59 349

Reception class for non-Dutch speaking newcomers

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438 315

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4. POST-COMPULSORY GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL SECONDARY EDUCATION

In Flanders, education is compulsory until the age of 18. However, from the ages of 15/16 (see 3) pupils may opt for part-time education combined with alternating part-time work. Only within vocational secondary education a 4th stage has been developed which is open to people who have completed compulsory education (Decree dd. 31 July 1990, Decision from the Flemish government (Besluit van de Vlaamse Regering - BVR dd. 19 July 2002, Circular letter SO 64).

Fourth stage vocational secondary education

This 4th grade forms part of the secondary-education structure and is open to holders of a diploma of secondary education or a proof of study of the 2nd grade of the 3rd stage of secondary education. It offers 3 courses of study in 3 areas of study. At the end of their studies students must pass an integrated test (geïntegreerde proef - GIP) if they wish to obtain a certificate. Throughout the 4th stage, students can obtain a certificate of basic knowledge of business administration.

Area of study Decoration Fashion Caring Course of study Visual arts Fashion design Nursing Duration of studies 2 years 2 years 3 years Number of students 2007-2008 149 78 74 Number of institutions 2007-2008 1 3 2

Nursing is also offered in modular form and is attended by 4 387 students. Due to the specificity of the programme, official public education does not enforce a common core curriculum or a philosophy-of-life course.See further under 3.B secondary education.

Higher vocational education (hoger beroepsonderwijs - HBO)

The educational provision between the 6th grade of secondary education and the Bachelor and Master degree studies will be reformed in line with the proposed subdegrees of the Bologna process so that the labour-market demand for medium-skilled workers in the many technical and administrative shortage occupations can be met. A decree on this issue has essentially been approved by the Flemish government and should come into effect on 1 September 2009. This higher vocational-education system, HBO, shall offer programmes which tie in with secondary education, are labour-market oriented and will result in a level-4 and level-5 qualification of the European Qualification Framework; they shall have a study load ranging between 60 and 120 credits in the case of a level-4 qualification (short-type vocationally-oriented programmes) and of between 90 and 120 credits for a level-5 qualification (so that they will conform with the `Short Cycle' definition of the European Higher-Education Area). This is the case for the existing higher vocational-education programmes in adult education, the programmes of the 4th stage BSO and the 7th TSO and KSO specialisation years but not for the ASO and KSO preparatory years to higher education or for the 7th years BSO. Both secondary-education schools and centres for adult education, CVOs, can organise level-4 HBO programmes. Level-5 HBO programmes will be offered by centres for adult education, CVOs, and university colleges (hogescholen).

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5. INITIAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN ALTERNANCE

Pupils can follow part-time compulsory education from the age of 16 or even from the age of 15 provided they have completed the 1st stage of secondary education; it comes to an end when pupils turn 18 years of age. The reformed alternance-training system henceforth requires youngsters' full-time commitment for no less than 28 hours a week (just like in full-time secondary education) and comprises a component 'learning' and a component 'on-the-job earning'. This fulltime commitment has meanwhile also been entered into the federal compulsory-education act. This full-time commitment will also apply to the 18+ year olds who register for these programmes. A supplementary offer will be organised for them, once the job component remains unfilled for 30 days in the one school year. The monitoring of this full-time commitment will be driven by the policy area Education and Training in the form of a uniform data-registration system (which should be in place by 1 September 2009) and pathway follow-up. Youngsters registering for alternance training are screened, are given a pathway-to-work-guidance schedule and receive systematic pathway-to-work-guidance. All prior learning is compiled in a portfolio, updated during the next stage of the pathway-to-work process and subsequently passed on to VDAB. · Youngsters who do not yet have any clear career perspectives and remain indecisive about the training programme they wish to pursue can follow a preparatory pathway (of up to 312 hours). Youngsters who are prepared to work but still need to develop their work attitudes and skills can avail of a bridging project to get 40 weeks' work experience (800 hours maximum) with a public administration or a non-profit association. Socially-vulnerable youngsters who are not yet able to work in a labour-oriented fashion are offered a personal-development pathway by a Centre for Part-time Training (Centrum voor Deeltijdse Vorming).

·

·

5.1 Organisation

Part-time education (Deeltijds Onderwijs - DO) offers a comprehensive range of programmes. At macro level, the list is drawn up by the Flemish government. On the basis of this list, the board of the centre for part-time education, or the micro level, programmes their course provision. The local provision of any CDO is steered at the intermediate, or meso level (school cluster, regional consultation platform). DO does not operate a system of stages, grades or areas of study but one of training programmes. By 2012, DO will be fully modular. Every training programme will then consist of one or more modules. One module can feature in various training programmes. Until such time as the switchover is complete, CDOs will continue to operate the linear system in which training programmes begin at the start of the school year and run over one or several school years. Part-time secondary education is provided during 40 weeks a year and comprises 15 weekly teaching periods of 50 minutes each, dedicated to general and vocationally-oriented training. CDOs can make their own general-education and vocationally-oriented training-roster arrangements (in practice, often 1 day of 7 teaching periods is dedicated to general education and 1 day of 8

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teaching periods to vocational training). In function of the local situation, certain derogations may apply. Personal-development pathways are flexible pathways, and may comprise the following combinations:

· · · a personal-development pathway totalling 28 (50-minute) periods, comprising the components 'learning' and 'on-the-job learning' (no labour-market participation). a personal-development pathway totalling 15 (50-minute) periods, comprising the component 'learning' in combination with a bridging project or a preparatory pathway; a personal-development pathway totalling 13 (50-minute) periods, comprising the component 'on-thejob learning' (no labour-market participation) in combination with part-time education at a Centre for Part-time Education, CDO.

Apprenticeships are organised by the Flemish Agency for Entrepreneurial Training ­ SYNTRA Flanders (see 7).

5.2 Vocational/initial training establishments

Part-time Education is organised in centres for part-time vocational secondary education, (centrum voor deeltijds beroepssecundair onderwijs - CDO) (which may or may not be connected to an educational institution providing mainstream technical secondary education, TSO or vocational secondary education, BSO). Flanders numbers 47 CDOs. Personal-development pathways can only be organised by a centre for part-time training (centrum voor deeltijdse vorming - CDV) but youngsters do have to register with a CDO. In addition, CDVs can also provide general education within part-time education and support pupilspecific activities in CDOs (e.g., welcoming newcomers or organising time-out activities for youngsters who are at risk of dropping out). There are 21 CDVs, organised by 6 training organisations. Pupils in apprenticeships, receive their general theoretical education and vocational-technical training in one of the 24 training centres for the self-employed and SMEs, located at a SYNTRA campus while their employer sees to their practical training. As of 1 January 2009, CDOs, CDVs and SYNTRA campuses will have to take part in the activities of the action-oriented regional consultation platform, set up within every Regional Socio-Economic Consultation Committee area (Regional Sociaal-Economisch Overlegcomité - RESOC) (Flanders numbers 15 RESOC areas, see also 7.15.1.). Every school cluster will be compelled to maintain contact with at least one regional consultation platform.

5.3 Access requirements

Alternance training is available to all youngsters who qualify for part-time compulsory education and may be followed until the end of the school year in which the person turns 25 years of age. Youngsters cannot qualify for a personal-development pathway unless they have registered for a particular training course with a CDO and then only until the end of the school year in which their compulsory education comes to an end.

5.4 Financing

Youngsters who are getting work experience under a bridging project with a local administration or non-profit organisation can receive a monthly apprentice allowance of 230 euro minimum;

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youngsters working under a part-time employment contract are entitled to a minimum wage and those governed by an industrial apprenticeship contract qualify for an apprentice allowance. As of the 2008-2009 school year, pupils attending centres for part-time education, centres for parttime training and those in apprenticeships can also receive a school allowance, up and until the school year in which they turn 22 years of age. Apprentices are entitled to an apprentice allowance, paid for by the company they follow training in. This allowance is linked to their age and their professional experience. Pupils in possession of a recognised apprenticeship agreement are placed on the same footing as school-going pupils. This means that they continue to qualify for a child allowance up and until the age of 25. However, from 1 September of the year in which the pupil turns 18 years of age, the apprentice allowance may not exceed the child-allowance limit. As of 1 May 2008, the minimum apprentice allowance amounts to: Apprenticeships -18 years 1rd year 280.57 2rd year 374.10 3rd year 467.63

+ 18 years 374.10 420.86 467.63

The company must also contribute to the pupil's home-work travel expenses. This usually fluctuates around 60% of the actual fare price. To a certain extent, travel expenses incurred by pupils following vocational technical training can also be reimbursed. The company must also provide the necessary work and protective clothing. As of course year 2008-2009, pupils following an apprenticeship can also qualify for a school allowance, until they become 22 years of age. In cases where an apprenticeship contract is in place before the pupil's part-time compulsory education has come to an end, the pupil receives a starting premium and the entrepreneur-trainer a work-experience placement premium.

5.5 Curriculum

When youngsters are following pathways which do not lead to a certificate of the second stage of secondary education, a proof of study of the second grade of the third stage of secondary education or a diploma of secondary education, one must simply ensure that their general education and their vocationally-oriented training are to a certain extent integrated, so that the contents-related conditions, which are based on the frames of reference for vocationally-oriented training, also implicitly relate to their general education. To guarantee an equivalence between the levels of education in youngsters following either parttime education or full-time secondary education, the general-education component for youngsters who, as a result of their talents and capacities follow pathways which do lead to the aforementioned proofs of study, must also meet the terms and conditions governing the final objectives and curricula. The subject-related final objectives operated are the final objectives of the core curriculum subjects used within BSO, with the exception of physical education. In terms of cross-curricular final objectives, the prevailing final objectives of the second, respectively, third stage of BSO regarding 'learning to learn', 'social skills', 'civic education', 'health education', 'environmental education', and 'artistic-creative education' apply. In consultation with the vocational sectors, SERV and VLOR, the Flemish government determines the frames of reference from which the vocationally-oriented training objectives of courses organised in modular form are derived. Any objectives developed by SERV also contain vocational Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe 29/60

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(competence) profiles. The same frame of reference applies in cases where a particular training programme can be followed either through part-time education or through an apprenticeship. On-the-job work experience can be acquired under various contracts: an industrial apprenticeship contract, a part-time employment contract, an individual-vocational-training contract (VDAB), a vocational-initiation contract (with the authorities), a temping contract from a temping agency, a home-help contract. Apprenticeships comprise theoretical training for a minimum of 30 weeks per school year which includes general education (minimum 4 hours a week) and vocational-technical training (minimum 4 hours a week) which may be supplemented by other courses such as language courses or remedial classes for pupils who have fallen behind in their education. They also include 4 days a week practical training.

5.6 Assessment/Qualifications

In part-time education the following proofs of study may be obtained: · Certificate of acquired competences (attest van verworven competenties): if the youngster either failed to successfully complete a module of a modular course or a non-modular training course. Modular certificate (deelcertificaat): if the youngster successfully completed a module of a modular course. Certificate (certificaat): if the youngster successfully completed a modular or non-modular course. A certificate (getuigschrift) of the second stage of secondary education: if the youngster obtained at least one certificate (certificaat) and adequately attained the objectives of the curriculum. A proof of study (Studiegetuigschrift) from the second grade of the third stage of secondary education: if the youngster obtained at least one certificate (certificaat) and adequately attained the objectives of the curriculum. A diploma of secondary education: if the youngster is in possession of a certificate (getuigschrift) of the second stage of secondary education, has obtained at least one certificate (certificaat) and has duly reached and met the objectives of the curriculum. A certificate (getuigschrift) of basic knowledge of business administration: if the youngster has followed a minimum of 4 school years of secondary education, the first grade not included, or has spent 4 years in an apprenticeship programme, and meets all the terms and conditions of basic knowledge of business administration.

· · ·

·

·

·

Youngsters who successfully complete an apprenticeship receive a recognised certificate (getuigschrift) which gives them access to entrepreneurial training. Once this certificate has been obtained, they automatically meet the licensing conditions regarding professional knowledge for the majority of the regulated vocations. As a result of the new decree of 10 July 2008 regarding the system of alternance training, new arrangements will come into effect from 2009-2010. · · Certificate (certificaat): if the youngster completed his training successfully. Apprenticeship certificate (getuigschrift leertijd): if the youngster successfully completed a training pathway. Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe

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In addition (as is the case in part-time education), the certificate of the second stage of secondary education, the proof of study of the second grade of the third stage of secondary education and the diploma of secondary education can also be conferred to pupils who have passed their general education and on condition that they have obtained at least 1 certificate (certificaat). Youngsters who have followed a personal-development pathway are presented with a personaldevelopment pathway certificate (attest) of acquired competences by the CDV. This certificate gives a detailed description of the various steps of the personal-development pathway that were completed successfully.

5.7 Guidance

Before pupils can embark on a personal development pathway, a well-reasoned report must be written by a member of the pupil guidance centre, CLB, of the CDO in question; this report is basically a compilation of the results from the intake and screening, the CLB data and, as the case may be, may also contain details furnished by the class council. Subsequently, a bi-monthly (at least) case meeting is held. The case meetings are attended by one member of staff from the CLB, one from the CDV and by the CDO pathway counsellor. Pathway-to-work counsellors guide the pathway-to-work of pupils in apprenticeship contracts. They also provide guidance for employers. Pathway-to-work counsellors enter into an agreement with the SYNTRA Flanders Commission of Practical Training and are in turn recognised and monitored by the Commission. The SYNTRA Flanders pedagogical counsellors coordinate the pupils' pedagogical and didactical guidance. So pupils can bank on the support from an entire guidance team composed of the pathway-to-work counsellor, the trainers in charge of their general education and vocationallyoriented training, the director of the centre or his representative, staff from the CLB and the SYNTRA Flanders pedagogical counsellor. This team follows up the pupils throughout their apprenticeships. Guidance by the pupil-guidance cells is provided on a monthly basis. Problem cases are discussed by guidance teams. Any appeal or complaint procedures end up with the apprenticeship counsellor and/or the Commission of Practical Training though, increasingly, the sectors themselves also fulfil a supervisory role where in-company training in their individual sectors is concerned. Since 2007, SYNTRA Flanders has been working on a sector-oriented guidance system. The Flemish government has taken a number of initiatives to tighten the link between education and the labour market and especially to enhance the opportunities of disadvantaged pupils and pupils from ethnic minorities, so that they also get the opportunity to gain work experience. To that end, all the sector covenants were renewed at the end of 2006. These covenants specify, for instance, how many places will be available for work experience in part-time education, how many apprenticeships in full-time education and how many training programmes will be offered and www.ond.vlaanderen.be/nieuws/2006p/0602how many jobs will be created. sectorconvenants.htm). The start-job projects (startbanenprojecten) are specifically aimed at poorly educated, disadvantaged youngsters or youngsters from ethnic minorities who have dropped out of school early or who discontinued their studies after secondary education and are unable to find work. The objective is two-fold: on the one hand, it wants to give these youngsters the opportunity to gain work experience and encourage them to follow further training and find employment, while, on the other hand, it wishes to give them socially-relevant tasks. For instance, they were assigned to Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe 31/60

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secondary schools dealing with high numbers of problem children to create a positive school environment and to enhance contact between teachers and disadvantaged families or families from ethnic minorities; they were also given maintenance and renovation jobs in school clusters or were deployed as school spotters by local administrations to create a traffic-safe school environment and to improve road safety around schools. (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/veve/schoolspotters/situering.htm). Cross-network Regional Technical Centres (Regionale Technische Centra - RTCs), look after the inter-attunement between educational institutions, VDAB, SYNTRA Flanders, the Association of Independent Entrepreneurs (Unie van Zelfstandige Ondernemers - UNIZO), the Flemish Network of Enterprises (Vlaams Netwerk van Ondernemingen - VOKA), sectors of industry and enterprise in relation to the supply and demand of high-tech infrastructure, apparatus and equipment for technical and vocational education.

5.8

Teachers/trainers

Part-time vocational secondary education forms part of secondary education (see 3 B). Only one non-profit association receives subsidies to provide advanced training to pathway counsellors and the apprenticeship counsellors employed by SYNTRA Flanders. This advancedtraining centre will have to open its doors to all the centres operating within the alternance-training system. SYNTRA Flanders organises 120 hours of initial advanced training for its trainers which mainly focuses on pedagogical and didactical matters. Moreover, advanced training is organised periodically and focuses on technical elements or on specific aspects of the pedagogicaleducational approach. Employers (who provide 4 day/week apprenticeship training) are given sequential training (Estafette-opleidingen). These training programmes focus on issuing instructions to apprentices, their coaching and conflict management. All the CDV staff appointments are contractual appointments

5.9 Statistics

1)

DBSO Number of pupils Number of CDOs, Centres for Part-time Education

School year 2007-2008 (Statistical Yearbook of Flemish Education); more sources: see 2.5.

6 687 47

2)

Syntra ­ Apprenticeships - number of courses, teaching periods and course participants (across 20 campuses) Community studies Professional knowledge

Course year Courses Teaching periods Course participants Courses Teaching periods Course participants 2007-2008 287 34 232 4 799 1 235 95 311 5 085

Apprenticeship contracts and supervised agreements: 4 037

School year 2007-2008 Statistical Yearbook of Flemish Education

3) The 21 CDVs, Centres for Part-time Training, catered for 303 students.

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6. TERTIARY EDUCATION

The Flemish higher-education system consists of university colleges (hogescholen), universities and associations of university colleges with one particular university. The Higher Education Decree dd. 4 April 2003 reorganised the entire structure of higher education and created one legal framework for university colleges and universities.. Pursuant to the Bachelor's-Master's structure the following types of programmes are organised: · · Professional Bachelor's programmes (ISCED 5B) are professionally oriented and are only organised by university colleges. They are a continuation of secondary education. Academic Bachelor's programmes (ISCED 5A) offered by university colleges within an association or by universities are geared towards the transition to Master's programmes. They also tie in with secondary education. Master's programmes are offered by universities and university colleges (within the framework of an association). For further in-depth-study students can follow Advanced Bachelor's, Advanced Master's and Postgraduate programmes. The highest level of scientific specialisation is the doctoral programme. Doctorates are based on original scientific research and culminate in the candidate defending his/her doctoral dissertation in public.

· · ·

University colleges and universities organised themselves into 5 associations, i.e., institutional cooperations between one university and one or several university colleges.

6.1 Admission requirements

Bachelor's programmes are open to holders of a diploma of secondary education, a diploma of higher social-advancement education (with the exception of the former proof of pedagogical competence (getuigschrift pedagogische bekwaamheid - GPB), or a foreign diploma or certificate which is recognized as being equivalent. Only the areas of study `medicine' and `dentistry' require prospective students to sit an admission exam. However, Higher Artistic Education also organises entrance exams for the areas of study `audiovisual and visual arts', `music' and `performing arts'. Passing a language exam may also be a prerequisite. An academic Bachelor's programme gives direct access to a Master's programme. Though, holders of a professional Bachelor's degree must first follow a bridging programme (schakelprogramma) if they wish to register for a Master's programme. Students may also be asked to follow a preparatory programme (voorbereidingsprogramma). A Bachelor's degree is a prerequisite for students wishing to follow an Advanced Bachelor's programme. However, access may be restricted to graduates of specific Bachelor's programmes only. So, graduates of other Bachelor's programmes wishing to register for an Advanced Bachelor's programme must first follow a preparatory programme. Advanced Master's programmes are only open to holders of a Master's degree. However, institutions may further restrict access to graduates from Master's programmes with specific programme characteristics.

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Doctoral programmes can only be followed by holders of a Master's degree.

6.2 Fees / Financial support for students

Students who register for a number of credits enter into a study contract with the institution. The decree on flexibilisation (flexibiliseringsdecreet) creates three types of study contracts. · A degree contract (diplomacontract) is geared towards obtaining a degree in a specific programme or is also concluded for full bridging or preparatory programmes with several possible itineraries. A credit contract focuses on a credit certificate for one or several course components. Students entering into an exam contract exclusively register to sit the exams for a specific degree or credit certificate.

· ·

Tuition fees are regulated by the decree dd. 30 April 2004 concerning flexibilisation of higher education (amended by the decree dd. 20 May 2005). The level of fees depends on whether the student is eligible for a grant or not, on the programme (Bachelor's, Master's, bridging programme...), whether or not the student is an EEA citizen and on the number of credits. As an indication, hereafter some (non-index-linked) figures: the minimum cost to register for programmes ranging between 54 and 66 credits is 445, the maximum cost is 505, (non-grant-rate students), when registering for an exam contract a fixed amount of 50 is charged plus a variable amount of 3 per credit. The Decree of 08 June 2007 regulates all study allowances in an integrated fashion. There are nationality conditions (specific conditions for non-nationals), pedagogical conditions (following a recognised programme at a recognised institution under a degree contract and in possession of a study allowance credit and credits) and financial conditions which take the student's `family conditions' and income into consideration. Scholarships are granted by public bodies, private organisations and foundations and also within the framework of European exchange programmes. They are also available to students wishing to study abroad and for scientific research. Students suffering from function disabilities can avail of financing for special learning tools. Some private organisations and foundations also grant study loans. Doctoral students may be financed by the university as university assistants or as PhD researchers or by the Research Foundation ­ Flanders (Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek) and related trusts. Students can also fund their own studies but this is rather rare. (www.ond.vlaanderen.be/studietoelagen/).

6.3 Academic year

The academic year normally commences between 1 September and 1 October and runs for one year. The organisation of the academic year ­ including the students' holiday periods ­ is specified in the educational institution's regulations, drawn up by the board of the institution. Most university colleges and universities operate a semester system, which divides the academic year into two separate course terms. The 2nd semester is followed by a summer recess which precedes the second examination period consisting of a number of weeks of exams.

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6.4 Courses

University colleges mainly organise higher professionally-oriented education, but can also offer academic programmes within the framework of an association. Universities organise academic education. Initial programmes include the professional and academic Bachelor's programmes as well as Master's programmes which tie in with an academic Bachelor's degree. Their study loads are expressed in credits (a minimum of 180 credits for Bachelor's programmes, and a minimum of 60 credits for a Master's programme). Advanced programmes dovetail with initial programmes and comprise a minimum of 60 credits: the Advanced Bachelor's and Advanced Master's. As regards teacher training, see 3.B.5. Within the framework of further professional training, universities and university colleges may also organise short-itinerary programmes of at least 20 credits. These are ratified by a postgraduate certificate. Students in doctoral programmes do not only follow a specialised programme but must complete an original research project and defend their dissertation in public. University colleges can offer the following types of programmes: · professional Bachelor degree studies and academic Bachelor and Master degree studies within the framework of an association in the following areas of study: architecture / audiovisual and visual arts / biotechnology / health care / commercial and management sciences / industrial sciences, technology and nautical sciences / music and performing arts; only in the form of professional Bachelor degree studies: education / social-agogic work only in the form of academic Bachelor and Master degree studies within the framework of an association: product development / applied linguistics

· ·

An overview of the higher-education programmes currently being phased out is available on http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/onderwijsaanbod/ho/richtingen.asp

Universities may offer academic education (Bachelor's and Master's programmes) in the following areas of study: Archaeology and Arts Economics and Applied Economic Sciences History Theology, Religious Studies and Canon Law Physical Education, Rehabilitations Sciences and Physiotherapy Political and Social Sciences Psychological and Pedagogical Sciences Law, Notaryship and Criminology Social-Health Sciences Philosophy and Ethics Biomedical Sciences Veterinary Pharmaceutical Sciences Medicine Linguistics and Literature Dentistry Applied Biological Sciences Applied Sciences Transport Studies Sciences

An integrated overview of all programmes is available from the Higher Education Register (hogeronderwijsregister - HOR) see http://www.hogeronderwijsregister.be/ Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe 35/60

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The choice of teaching methods and teaching aids appertains to the freedom of the institutions. Professional Bachelor's programmes normally include theoretical and practical classes as well as work experience. Work experience does not usually feature in academic programmes which put the emphasis on theory and research. The use of electronic learning platforms is becoming more and more widespread. Syllabuses and study materials must be funded by the students themselves.

6.5 Assessment/qualifications

The decree on flexibilisation dd. 30 April 2004 allows for more flexible learning paths, with increased opportunities for switching between programmes and institutions, enhanced differentiation, a.o., in the area of the types of programmes on offer, and more opportunities for lifelong learning. To that end it operates the following principles, within which universities and university colleges can fill in the itineraries at their own discretion: · Henceforth a programme shall consist of one well-ordered unit of course components, i.e. defined units of educational, learning and assessment activities aimed at acquiring welldescribed (sub)competences regarding knowledge, understanding, skills and attitudes. These units are expressed in ECTS credits in which one credit represents a study load of 25-30 hours. One course component comprises a minimum of 3 credits with a maximum of 12 components per 60 credits. Every student is entitled to register at least twice for every course component and has the right to sit at least two exams per registration. Students pass a course component if they obtain 10 out of 20. This results in a credit certificate, regardless of the results obtained in any of the other components. In theory this certificate is valid indefinitely but, after 5 years, the institutions are entitled to impose a type of 'refresher's course' if the students wish to valorise the earlier obtained credit certificate with a view to receiving a degree. Institutions may grant students exemptions on the basis of previously acquired qualifications (eerder verworven kwalificaties - EVK) and/or accreditation of prior learning (eerder verworven competenties - EVC). For study-progress monitoring purposes institutions may enforce binding conditions upon their students at the time of registration such as interim assessments or a minimum level of study performance and high-risk students may be denied access if several attempts have been unsuccessful.

· ·

·

·

Once the Bachelor's or Master's programmes have been completed successfully, students receive the degree of Bachelor or Master. The title of `doctor' is obtained once the candidate has defended his/her dissertation in public. Only holders of a degree may use the corresponding title of bachelor, master or doctor. The board of the institution issues a credit certificate if the student has passed a course-component exam. Together with their degree, students automatically receive a European Diploma Supplement (Higher Education Reform Act (Structuurdecreet) dd. 4 April 2003). NARIC-Vlaanderen (het National Academic (& Professional) Recognition and Information Centre) is in charge of the academic recognition of foreign higher-education degrees and the professional recognition of the regulated profession of teacher on the basis of the prevailing European Directive (2005/36/EC). It also acts as the European National Information Centre of Flanders within the framework of the Council of Europe and UNESCO. http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/NARIC/default.htm

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6.6 Teachers

There are no specific initial teacher-training programmes for the teaching staff of university colleges or the academic staff of universities. The legal framework for the labour conditions of the teaching staff at university colleges is regulated by the Decree dd. 13 July 1994. The positions of junior practical lecturer and senior practical lecturer require a diploma of 1-cycle higher education while for the positions of lecturer, senior lecturer, assistant and senior research assistant a university diploma or a diploma of a 2cycle higher-education programme is needed; a degree of doctor is the prerequisite for the positions of doctor-assistant, lecturer, senior lecturer, professor and professor ordinarius. The legal framework for the labour conditions of academic staff at universities is regulated by the Decree dd. 12 June 1991 and the Decree of the Flemish government dd. 1 December 1998.To be appointed as a member of the academic teaching staff the degree of doctor is needed while people who wish to become a member of the academic support staff must be holders of a university diploma of licentiate. To be appointed as practical assistant, candidates must either have a diploma of the second cycle of long-type higher education or a diploma which is recognised as being equivalent under European Union directives or under a bilateral agreement. From a contractual point of view, teaching staff and academics are employees of the subsidised institutions for higher education and a type of civil servant if they are employed by financed institutions. However, the difference between both statuses is small. The board of these institutions may temporarily or permanently appoint candidates to any vacancies that arise. Only assistants are always appointed on a temporary basis. Academic staff are paid by the universities. Academic support staff are appointed on a temporary basis, while the academic teaching staff are appointed on a permanent basis with the exception of professors extraordinarii who hold a part-time university position.

6.7 Statistics

University colleges Number of students in university colleges (2007-2008) - Professional Bachelor's programmes + 1-cycle programmes - Academic Bachelor's programmes + master's + 2-cycle programmes Number of university colleges Teaching staff-student ratio Cost price per student (2006) Management and teaching staff in higher education (number of full-time budgetary equivalents) (january 2008) Universities Number of registrations in initial academic programmes (2007-2008) Number of universities Teaching staff-student ratio Cost price per student (2005) Academic teaching staff (zelfstandig academisch personeel - ZAP) (full-time units) (1/2/2008) Academic support staff (assistered academisch personeel - AAP) (full-time units) (1/2/2008) 64 372 7 7.1 14 326.61 2 556.6 1 730.0 80 010 24 164 22 13.6 6 666.06 7 637

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Belgium ­ Flemish Community (2009) Administrative and technical staff, (administratief en technisch personeel - ATP) (fulltime units) (1/2/2008) Associations Number of university and university-college associations Higher-Education Budget (2008 policy funds) 5 1 610 935 000 3 887.9

School year 2007-2008 (Statistical Yearbook of Flemish Education); for more sources: see 2.5.

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7. CONTINUING EDUCATION & TRAINING FOR ADULTS

Diverse systems offer continuing education in Flanders: · Adult education, which now consists of adult basic education (organised by Centres for Adult Basic Education (centra voor basiseducatie - CBEs), secondary adult education and higher vocational education (organised by Centres for Adult Education (centra voor volwassenenonderwijs ­ CVOs)). Vocational education, organised by the VDAB at its own competence centres Entrepreneurial training, organised by SYNTRA Flanders, at their own campuses Part-time artistic education (deeltijds kunstonderwijs - DKO), organised by academies for visual arts and music, word craft and dance. Training in agriculture, organised by centres for agriculture Non-formal socio-cultural adult work, organised by various types of socio-cultural institutions.

· · · · ·

7.1 Policy & legislative framework

Since 2005 a structural basis has been developed for an integrated policy on education, training and employment, geared towards stimulating lifelong and lifewide learning and towards tightening the link between education, training and non-formal education, on the one hand, and the labour market, on the other hand. The chief responsibility for this integrated policy lies with the Minister for Work, Education and Training while the responsibility at a socio-cultural level lies with the Minister for Culture. Since 2005, both ministers jointly form the coordinating ministerial Committee Education, Training and Work. For policy-preparation purposes, a Policy Coordination O, V and W (O: Onderwijs - Education, V: Vorming - Training, W: Werk - Work) Body was set up which seats representatives from the Department of Education and Training, the Agency for Higher Education, Adult Education and Study Allowances, the non-profit Training and Alignment Information Service, DIVA, the Employment Administration and the Culture Administration. A Strategic Education and Training Policy Project, geared towards stimulating lifelong and lifewide learning and towards tightening the link between education, training and non-formal education, on the one hand, and the labour market, on the other hand also saw the light of day. Policy implementation is ensured by: · · · The vzw Training and Alignment Information Service, DIVA (Dienst Informatie, Vorming en Afstemming) (see 1.6) (http://www2.vlaanderen.be/diva/Site/index.html) Vzw EPOS which coordinates the European "Lifelong Learning Programme" (LLP) (www.eposvlaanderen.be/) The vzw ESF agency Flanders which manages the European social fund Flanders (www.esfagentschap.be).

Adult education has been reformed completely. Distance learning is no longer organised by the Ministry of Education and Training but has been embedded into the new adult-education provisions. Core legislation

Adult education Decree dd. 15 June 2007

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Belgium ­ Flemish Community (2009) - CVOs, centres for adult education - Adult-education consortiums - CBEs, centres for adult basic education Proofs of experience Decision of the Flemish government dd. 21 September 2007 Decision of the Flemish government dd. 12 October 2007 Decision of the Flemish government dd. 12 October 2007 Decree dd. 30 April 2004 Decision of the Flemish government dd. 23 September 2005 Decision of the Flemish government dd. 5 October 2007 Dutch-language houses Vocational education VDAB SYNTRA Flanders - entrepreneurial training - continuing training DKO, Part-time Artistic Education Training in agriculture Socio-cultural adult work Decree dd. 7 May 2004 Decision of the Flemish government dd. 22 July 2005 Decree dd. 7 May 2004 Decree dd. 7 May 2004 Decision of the Flemish government dd. 23 February 1999 Decision of the Flemish government dd. 04 April 2003 Decree dd. 31 July 1990 Decree dd. 3 March 2004 Decree dd. 4 April 2003

7.2 Management/Organisations involved

The Flemish Minister for Education and Training is responsible for adult education and DKO, part-time artistic education, the only continuing-education system which does not only cater for adults but also for youngsters. Adult education is organised into 13 working areas, boasting one (pluralistic) Centre for Adult Basic Education (Centrum voor Basiseducatie - CBE) and network-related Centres for Adult Education (Centra voor Volwassenenonderwijs - CVOs). Within every working area, an adulteducation consortium sees to the inter-attunement of programmes, the cooperation between the centres and other public adult-education providers. It also provides an ombudsman service for course participants. The Flemish Support Centre for all of Adult Education (Vlaams Ondersteuningscentrum voor het Volwassenenonderwijs - VOCVO) supports all the CBEs and CVOs which do not receive any support from the network-related pedagogical counselling services. The VOCVO and the pedagogical counselling services will have to use 20 % of the resources allocated to them for joint knowledge and expertise development within adult education. To that effect, a steering committee will be set up which will be composed of representatives from the boards and teachers of the CBEs (3) and the CVOs (3) ­ appointed by their representative associations ­ the VOCVO (2) and the pedagogical counselling services (4). As the Minister for Education and Training is also the Minister for Work in the current government he also has vocational education by the VDAB under his remit which is geared towards the unemployed and employees and organised by the VDAB agency (www.vdab.be/english/) as well as entrepreneurial training, aimed at the self-employed and SMEs and organised by the Flemish Agency for Entrepreneurial Training, SYNTRA Flanders (www.syntra.be). Training in agriculture, geared towards the agricultural sector and hobby agriculture is the responsibility of the Flemish Minister for Agriculture, Sea Fisheries and Rural Policy. The competent administration is the Department for Agriculture and Fisheries > Division Sustainable Agricultural Development. This is in charge of recognising the organisers (the recognised centres), the registration of trainers, the subsidising of training activities, the in situ inspections, the initialling of the certificates and the payment of the social-promotion allowances to participants (www2.vlaanderen.be/ned/sites/landbouw/vorming). 40/60 Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe

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Socio-cultural adult work focuses on non-formal education and comes under the remit of the Minister for Culture, Youth, Sports and Brussels Affairs. The competent administration is: · · the Department for Culture, Youth, Sports and Media which is responsible for policy preparation, follow-up and evaluation. The Agency Socio-cultural work for youth and adults > Division Local Cultural Policy and Socio-cultural Adult work sees to policy implementation.

The Support centre is SoCiuS (www.socius.be).

7.3 Funding

The CVOs, centres for Adult Education will henceforth be financed/subsidised on the basis of course-participant numbers, the duration of the course and pedagogically-justified group sizes. From school year 2008-2009, course participants will have to pay 1 per teaching period. For NT2 (Dutch-as-a-second-language) courses a standard rate of 50 cent will apply. Disadvantaged groups will be fully or partially exempt from course fees. Course participants who obtain a diploma of secondary education in second-chance education will get their course fees refunded. The 13 Centres for Adult Basic Education, CBEs, and the Centres for Adult Education, CVOs are subsidised on the basis of course-participant hours. This amount covers all the salaries and organisational expenses of the centres for the number of recognised course-participant hours. Centres can only charge their participants the cost of course materials. Within the framework of training vouchers, these centres have been recognised by the VDAB (www.basiseducatie.be). The 13 adult-education consortiums receive a subsidy for staff expenses, operational expenses and investments, based on the total volume of teaching periods/course participants generated by the centres affiliated to them. The VOCVO, Flemish Support Centre for all of Adult Education, receives an annual subsidy for staff costs, operational expenses and investments. Employees working in the private sector can avail of paid educational leave and training vouchers (for up to maximum of 250 per calendar year, half of the cost to be covered by the employee). For training and advice, SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises and the liberal professions) can avail of "SME-portfolio support" (KMO-portefeuille-steun). Companies cover 50% of the service provision themselves, with a maximum of 5000. Vocational training is organised by the VDAB, an External Autonomous Agency which is chiefly financed by the Flemish government but also receives funds from the European Union and derives some of its revenue from invoices to employers. For unemployed job-seekers all VDAB training programmes are free. This also applies to e-courses though other categories of unemployed people may also qualify for a fee exemption. VDAB also provides a number of allowances for jobseeking course participants such as an incentives premium for job-seekers from single-income families, travel expenses, a childcare allowance, an accommodation allowance. There are also a number of allowances for `on-the-job learning' both for individual vocational in-company training and for induction training. SYNTRA Flanders, the agency which organises entrepreneurial training receives subsidies but does also generate its own revenue. It recognises and subsidises 5 regional centres which each receive operational and investment subsidies. The registration fees course participants must pay depend on the programme they follow. Apprentices are entitled to an apprentice allowance and onthe-job trainees are entitled to a work-experience allowance (minimum from 467 to 778 ). Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe 41/60

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DKO, part-time artistic-education, academies receive a teaching-periods package based on the number of pupils registered on 1 February of the previous school year. In addition, the Flemish Community also pays operational resources. Some pupils may qualify for a reduction in registration fees. During 2008-2009, youngsters will be charged a fee of 55 (reduced rate: 36) while adults shall have to pay 179 (reduced rate: 104 ). Each year, the recognised training centres for agriculture must submit a year programme specifying the number of hours they would like to see subsidised. The minister approves these programmes in function of the budgetary resources available. Centres apply for subsidies per individual training programme. They only receive a fixed subsidy per teaching period, subdivided into a trainer allowance and an operational allowance. The centres set their own registration fees. Course participants are given a social-advancement allowance. Institutions for socio-cultural adult work receive a lump sum (puntenenveloppe) from the government. They must top up this lump sum with their own revenue (such as contributions from participants and donations) and with subsidies from their own province (each province has its own regulations), subsidies from other Flemish or federal ministers (if the theme or the target group qualifies under a separate policy area) and European project subsidies.

7.4 Human resources

The staff of the CVOs, Centres for Adult Education, are governed by the decrees `legal status of teaching staff' (27 March 1991). As adult education must become fully modularised by 2012 this legislation will be adapted to the modular structure. There will be a considerable increase in administrative staff and a lump sum (puntenenveloppe) will be allocated for the appointment of management and support staff. Staff of the Centres for Adult Basic Education henceforth resort under Education but have the status of Contractual staff members who come under the Department of Education and Training (contractuele personeelsleden ten laste van het department Onderwijs en Vorming -CODO-statuut) and are employed on a contract basis. However, a separate CAO has been concluded to regulate their conditions of service. In September 2007, 5 CVOs, Centres for Adult Education, launched an OOV training programme, i.e. a training programme for adult education trainers (Opleidingen voor Opleiders van volwassenen). This offers professional training to VDAB and SYNTRA trainers and to other organisers of continuing education and adult education. VDAB has its own training service which, for instance, looks after initial and continuing training of their instructors who are, more often than not, professionals who have been recruited from the world of enterprise. Furthermore, VDAB also employs trainers who have followed teacher training. SYNTRA Flanders organises 120 hours of initial advanced training for its trainers which mainly focuses on pedagogical and didactical matters. It also organises periodical advanced training on a regular basis. All DKO teachers must be holders of a specific required qualification. For most of the subjects taught within DKO these required qualifications have been specified. They are specific basic qualifications of artistic programmes, supplemented by teacher training. Since 1 September 2002 holders of acceptable qualifications are also allowed to teach in DKO (see 3.B.5). Training for people providing training in agriculture is subsidised by the Flemish Region in the form of completion days. And aside from that centres also call on trainers with a teaching degree. The Division Sustainable Agricultural Development carries out on-site inspections. 42/60 Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe

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Educational staff members at the institutions for socio-cultural adult work do not have to hold a specific diploma. SoCiuS, the Support Centre for Non-formal Adult Education in Flanders, offers advanced training and organises consultation meetings, meetings for colleagues and workshops. Special attention is paid to the themes `interculturalisation' and `community building and social activation'. In conjunction with the quality-assurance cell Kwasimodo, the Support Centre also supports the implementation of quality assurance within the sector.

7.5 Organisation 7.5.1 Types of training institutions

Each training system has its own centres, educational institutions or training institutions (see also 7.3). These centres are spread right across Flanders.

Types and number of institutions CVOs, Centres for Adult Education (social-advancement education), of which: - Courses of study at secondary-education level - Programmes at higher-education level CBEs, Centres for Adult Basic Education SYNTRA Flanders campuses (5 regional umbrella organisations) VDAB training centres (vocational training) Academies for part-time artistic education, of which: - Visual arts - Music, word craft and dance Centres for training in agriculture (5 general centres, 28 regional centres and 12 centres providing training for hobby agriculturalists) Socio-cultural associations Socio-cultural movements Folk high schools Recognised rural training institutions 113 107 61 13 24 68 167 66 101 45 57 31 13 26

School year 2007-2008 (Statistical Yearbook of Flemish Education)

7.5.2 Access requirements

Adult basic education courses are open to anyone who has complied with part-time compulsory education (i.e. who is 18 years of age). To qualify for Dutch-as-a-second-language literacy education, Dutch-as-a-second-language or language courses, course participants must have fulfilled full-time compulsory education, i.e. they must have turned 15 or 16 years of age at the time of registration and they must have completed the first two grades of full-time secondary education. However, Dutch-as-a-second-language courses will henceforth also be open to pupils between the ages of 12 and 16 who are attending full-time compulsory education but then only outside of school time. For those pupils, this supplementary course is free. To qualify for secondary adult education, course participants must have fulfilled full-time compulsory education (with the exception of the course Hebrew). For general-education programmes, course participants must have complied with part-time compulsory education.

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Only the Dutch-Languages-Houses (Huizen van het Nederlands) can organise and coordinate the intake, testing and referrals of Dutch-as-as-second-language (NT2) course participants in the area of study Dutch-as-a-second-language who have not obtained a NT2 proof of study. Programmes hosted by higher vocational education are open to those who have complied with part-time compulsory education, on condition that they have obtained one of the following proofs of study: · · · · a proof of study from the second grade of the third stage of secondary education; a certificate (certificaat) of: a course of study from secondary social-advancement/adult education comprising a minimum of 900 teaching periods; a diploma/degree of: secondary education / higher social-advancement education / higher vocational education / short-type higher education with full curriculum / Bachelor / Master; a proof of study which is recognised as being equivalent to the above diplomas/degrees under a statutory norm, European directive or international agreement.

However, course participants who cannot furnish these proofs of study may also be accepted provided they sit an entrance exam organised by the centre in question. VDAB vocational training programmes are open to all adults regardless of nationality. By means of incentives and guidance, especially the disadvantaged groups are encouraged to follow training. For certain programmes higher admission requirements apply and selection tests must be passed. Since the 2007-2008 school year, schools and their pupils have also been able to avail of the competence-centre facilities at the rate of 72 hours per pupil and within a pre-arranged schedule. Youngsters who wish to follow entrepreneurial training with SYNTRA Flanders must either have sufficient previous education (e.g. through an apprenticeship) or must have sufficient professional experience in the vocation they wish to follow entrepreneurial training for. If these conditions have not been met they can gain practical experience through supplementary practical training or on-thejob training via an apprenticeship. However, certain programmes do set higher admission requirements in terms of prior education. DKO, part-time artistic education, has been organised into various hierarchic levels; it is for instance impossible to register for a specialisation course if one has not received sufficient training at a lower level. On condition that the minimum age requirement for a specific course of study has been met, pupils normally enter the first grade of their chosen option. Pupils can only move onto the next grade if they have passed the tests of the grade they are in. To qualify for training in agriculture course participants may no longer be of school age. There are no specific admission requirements in socio-cultural adult work.

7.5.3 Objectives of the programmes

On the one, hand adult education is geared towards equipping the course participants with the knowledge, skills and attitudes required for personal development, social functioning, further education, practising a vocation or proficiency in a language and, on the other hand, to give the course participants the opportunity to obtain recognised proofs of study. Vocational training provided by VDAB focuses on three pivotal objectives with a view to lifelong and sustainable labour market participation:

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·

Stimulating, organising and enhancing the development and recognition of competences in job seekers specifically through the establishment of competence centres, accreditation of prior learning and the organisation of training programmes; Hosting, organising and facilitating vocational training and the accompanying guidance for job seekers and employees in training centres and/or on the shop floor; Granting allowances (especially training vouchers) for training programmes.

· ·

As a result of the existing management agreement, VDAB must, through its offer, reach an overrepresentation of the following target groups: ethnic minorities, people suffering from an employment impairment, older citizens, and the poorly-educated. This implies that the competence centres will adapt their methodological processes to these new clients and will focus on a suitable channel mix. Through its entrepreneurial training, SYNTRA Flanders seeks to organise high-quality and specific vocational training for youngsters and adults who intend to become self-employed or who are seeking a career in the small and medium-sized enterprise sector and therefore foster entrepreneurship as an essential factor of socio-economical development. At various levels, these vocational-training programmes are organised in a modular fashion where work alternates with training so that participants can compile the package most suited to them. DKO, part-time artistic education, fosters pupils' general interest in arts, facilitates artistic creation, teaches people how to discern art and prepares youngsters for higher artistic education. Training in agriculture focuses on all those employed in agriculture and horticulture and employees of organisations for the management of agricultural and horticultural businesses (selfemployed owners, their collaborating family members, employees, contractors), florists and garden contractors, employees of public-park departments, recognised sellers and users of phytocides and recognised users of biocides for agricultural use and also beekeepers. Training for beginners is available to all those wishing to find employment in any of these sectors. Hobby agriculturists can register for short training activities. Socio-cultural adult work focuses on the balanced development of each individual, the development of competences, people's sense of meaning and emancipation, with a view to enhanced cultural development and social integration so that people can live in a genuine and strong democratic society.

7.5.4 Main principles of the organisation of time and venue

Full-time daytime entrepreneurial training takes 1 to 2 years. Entrepreneurial training takes 2 - 3 years, and includes an internship of no less than 6 months. In this form of training, theoretical professional-knowledge and business-administration training is provided in a training centre for the self-employed and SMEs located on one of the SYNTRA campuses. Candidates then follow practical training in a company. Internship agreements form part of entrepreneurial training.

7.5.5 Curriculum

Adult basic education offers courses at primary-education level and at the level of the first stage of secondary education: Dutch (NT1 Dutch-as-a-first-language) (6.3 % of course-participant hours in 2006-2007), ICT (8.9%), community studies (6.7%), mathematics (2.2%), languages (step-up courses French and English). Henceforth, not only the same final objectives as those used in primary education will apply to these areas of learning but also the same final and developmental

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objectives as those in force in the first stage of full-time secondary education. They will be laid down for all the courses of study. Moreover, the centres also organise courses in the areas of study Dutch-as-a-second-language literacy education (NT2) (23.2 % of the overall offer) and Dutch-as-a-second-language (NT2) (48 % of the offer), at orientation-grade level 1 of the European Framework of Reference for foreign languages. For these areas of learning, basic competences will be laid down which course participants will have to attain. Final objectives or basic competences regarding attitudes must be aspired to by all the centres. Centres can always submit their own curriculum to the inspectorate for approval. Since February 2006, all programmes are offered in modular form. Open-learning centres (2% of the offer) train course participants in information acquisition and information processing. Course participants who are unable to attend the courses at the centre on a regular basis have the option of following combined education. This involves a minimum of 25 % face-to-face instruction in combination with distance learning. At the request of third parties, CBEs can also provide tailor-made training. Although this form of education is subsidised, it is not-recognised and does not lead to valid proofs of study. Secondary adult education (the former Secondary Social-Advancement Education) comprises all courses of study organised at full-time secondary-education level other than the first stage. At secondary level, there are 31 areas of study, available both in linear and modular form. However, all programmes will have to become modular by 1 September 2012, at the latest. The areas of study `languages' and `Dutch-as-a-second-language' and the courses specified by the Flemish government within the area of study `special educational needs' in secondary adult education are subdivided into four orientation stages. The area of study `general education' also includes the former second-chance education (tweedekansenonderwijs - TKO) which is aimed at adults from the age of 18 upwards who still wish to obtain a diploma of secondary education (ASO/TSO/BSO) but it also caters for adults who wish to follow one or more subjects and do not wish to obtain a diploma. Classes are taught both during the day and/or at night. The programme has a general and social-educational aspect which translates itself into contents of learning and approach. Special attention is also paid to social skills. For the courses of study in the area of study `general education' in secondary adult education, the same final or specific final objectives apply as those for the corresponding courses of study offered by full-time secondary education. For the courses of study in the other areas of study in secondary adult education the same specific final objectives apply as those for the corresponding courses of study which can be followed through full-time secondary education. The final objectives for secondary adult education are specified per course of study. The specific final objectives apply to the specific part of the courses of study which are brought into harmony with the corresponding course of study organised by full-time secondary education. Basic competences per course of study have been laid down for secondary adult-education courses of study which have not been harmonized with corresponding courses of study in full-time secondary education and for those for which no specific final objectives have been specified. The final objectives, specific final objectives or basic competences regarding knowledge, understanding and skills must be achieved in all the course participants. Final objectives, specific final objectives or basic competences regarding attitudes must be aspired to by all the centres. 46/60 Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe

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HBO, higher vocational education comprises vocationally-oriented training programmes organised at higher-education level which do not lead to a Bachelor's or Master's degree. HBO is subdivided into the areas of study `biotechnology', `health care', `commercial and management sciences', `industrial sciences and technology', `education' and `social-agogic work'. Within the area of study `education', the CVOs organise specific teacher-training programmes which lead to the diploma of teacher. The Centres for Adult Education organise pre-service training in conjunction with the centres, institutions or schools. Pre-service training is supported by a member of staff from the Centre for Adult Education, the so-called training counsellor, and a member of staff from the school, the centre or the institution in charge of tutoring. However, teacher training may also be followed through in-service training in the form of a trainee-teacher position (LIO-position, leraar in opleidingsbaan ­ LIO-positie) at one or several institutions for secondary education, part-time artistic education and adult education. The trainee teacher is supported by a member of staff from the school, the centre or the institution charged with tutoring. Exceptionally, specific teacher-training course participants who have obtained a Master's in physical education can also hold a LIO position in elementary education (see further under 3.B.5). VDAB organises hundreds of practically-oriented vocational training programmes in almost all vocational fields and also offers Dutch-as-a-second-language and ICT-courses. These courses are taught both during working hours and at night time and even on Saturdays and may be organised in various ways such as courses in VDAB training centres or with third parties, work experience in companies, training in recognised centres, individual vocational in-company training or individual training at an educational institution, open learning, distance learning and e-learning. On-the-job learning is available through: · Work-experience placements as a permanent feature of any regular training programme offered by a competence centre. The distinction between perfecting-work-experience placements and alternance work-experience placements has been abandoned. Individual vocational in-company training (Individuele beroepsopleiding in de onderneming - IBO). Here, the course participants are trained and guided by the company they work for. Induction training. This puts the finishing touches to vocational training or a vocationaltraining programme (for school-leavers) and is company-oriented. Induction training lasts 2 months and must commence within 4 months of the end of vocational training (organised or recognised by the VDAB) or education (for school-leavers with a diploma or proof of study of the first stage of ASO, the second stage of TSO, BSO, KSO, entrepreneurial training, DBSO, alternance vocational education).

· ·

Once the IBO or induction training has been completed, the host company must offer the course participants an indefinite employment contract. Vocational education employs several teaching methods depending on the type of training programme. · Group training, under the guidance of an instructor, operates a fixed-time schedule and uses a common learning pathway for all the course participants. So, it is in fact class education (at one of the VDAB centres or within the company). In the case of open learning, participants go through the entire course package on their own, either at a VDAB centre or in the company itself. Besides the support of an instructor, course participants can avail of a whole range of learning tools (CD-ROM, video, self-instruction packages). So, this is in fact self-instruction with instant support, by appointment, whenever it suits the course participant. 47/60

·

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· · ·

Course participants who opt for e-learning get support and feedback from an on-line coach. In the case of on-the-job learning, the course participant can call on an in-house coach. In this regard, VDAB has even compiled an on-the-job learning handbook which is available on-line. Blended learning is a mixture of different forms of educational provision, e.g. e-learning combined with group learning.

SYNTRA Flanders organises various types of entrepreneurial training: · · Apprenticeships, (see 5); 'Entrepreneurial training' takes 1 to 3 years and comprises theoretical training (vocationaltechnical training and business administration) which may be combined with an internship of no less than 6 months in which the course participant receives his practical training in a company, either on a full-time or part-time basis. The course 'business administration' takes 1 year and leads to the certificate (getuigschrift) 'business administration basics', a prerequisite for anyone seeking to obtain a business licence; the course 'business management for SMEs' is aimed at managers and people in senior positions and requires a higher level of prior education. Certified advanced training programmes which lead to a specific Flemish government diploma or certificate (getuigschrift). There are well over 350 different uncertified advanced training programmes , aimed at the self-employed, SME managers and their senior staff. Tailor-made training programmes where training consultants develop an overall training plan on a step-by-step basis which dovetails as closely as possible with the personal needs and ambitions of the (head of) the company.

·

· · ·

Part-time artistic education offers a very broad and diverse range of courses:

Visual arts Y Lower stage Starting age Number of grades Minimum number of teaching periods Options 6 6 2 2 A Music Y 8 ­ 14 4 3.5 1 from nd the 2 grade 18 12 3 2 or 3 8 15 3 2 12 1 immediately A 15 3 Word craft Y 8 4 1 1 A Dance Y 6 6 1/2* 1 A 15 2 2 1

Intermediate stage

Starting age Number of grades Minimum number of teaching periods Options

12 6 4 5 18 4 or 5

12 3 2 5 15 3 2 4

15 3 2 5

12 3 2 3 15 3 2 4

Higher stage

Starting age Number of grades Minimum number of teaching periods Options

10 (4 y.) or 8 (5 y.) 29

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Specialisation stage

Starting age Number of grades Minimum number of teaching periods Options

After the higher level 2 8 29

Y= youngster, A= adult (*) minimum 1 teaching period/week during the first 2 years, minimum 2 the 4 following years

The organising bodies are free to choose their own teaching methods. Thus, there are no official guidelines. In practice, pupils work in small groups and even receive individual training and support. Training in agriculture offers courses for beginners, training courses of at least 20 hours, work experience placements, short training activities and completion days to provide advanced training for its trainers. The theoretical classes consist of a theoretical exposition by a trainer which may be followed by a discussion or a practical demonstration given by the trainer to the course participant. During the practical lessons, the course participants practise the practical aspect of the subject, under the guidance of a trainer, where necessary, after a brief theoretical introduction. Work experience consists of 8 hours on-the-job learning. Training in agriculture may also include panel discussions, guided farm/business tours, discussion groups etc., provided they are headed by a moderator who then acts as `trainer'. The course provision within socio-cultural adult work is extremely wide-ranging. The courses on offer can be checked via the data base http://www.prettiggeleerd.be. In Socio-cultural Adult Work, the methods are determined by the intervention strategy employed. The main ones are: · establishing a context in which course participants can learn in an informal manner through interaction with others and/or through self-reflection, and the non-formal guidance of course participants (i.e. forms of learning-process guidance which are not linked to pre-set programmes and final objectives specified by third parties); activating people socially on various collective issues and themes with a view to social integration and/or participation; stimulating community-building and social contact; creating a context in which culture, interpretation and the creation of symbols is facilitated and encouraged.

· · ·

The emphasis of socio-cultural adult work lies on informal and non-formal learning. It fosters both incidental and intentional learning. In socio-cultural adult work interventions and guidance are not interpreted as transference of information from trainer to individual. Quite the opposite in fact, the participant is an active partner who helps to determine both the contents of and the approach to the programmes, projects and activities in some form or other.

7.5.6 Quality assurance

Each Centre for Adult Basic Education and Centre for Adult Education develops its own internal quality-assurance system but they can all rely on support from the VOCVO, Flemish Support Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe 49/60

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Centre for all of Adult Education, and the pedagogical counselling services. A steering committee shall see to knowledge and expertise development within adult education (see 7.2.). Whether or not the final objectives or the basic competences have been achieved will be considered by the inspectorate in the course of their full inspections, against the context of the centre and the characteristics of the course-participant population. As regards specific teacher training organised by the CVOs, Centres for Adult Education, and for higher vocational education of adult education, the same quality control system will apply as that for university colleges, i.e. the system of external reviews (see 3.B.5). Quality control within VDAB vocational education is organised by VDAB itself. SYNTRA Flanders also looks after the quality of apprenticeships and entrepreneurial training itself. Apprenticeship counsellors and apprenticeship advisors will be called on to check the quality of apprenticeships. Aside from that, a self-evaluation tool will be used. The self-evaluations are assessed by a quality-assessment agency. Quality control in training in agriculture, is ensured by the Division Sustainable Agricultural Development from the Department for Agriculture and Fisheries which is in charge of the recognition of organisers (the recognized centres), the registration of trainers, the subsidising of training activities, the on-site inspections, the initialling of the certificates and the payment of the social-promotion allowances of the participants (see also 7.2.). Within DKO, part-time artistic education, it is the Flemish Community inspectorate who is in charge of quality control (see also 1.4). SoCiuS, the Support Centre for Non-formal Adult Education, offers advanced training and organises consultation meetings, meetings for colleagues and workshops. Special attention is paid to the themes `interculturalisation' and `community building and social activation'. SoCius also supports quality assurance within the sector. Organisations which are subsidised under the decree concerning socio-cultural adult work are expected to take the principles of integrated quality assurance into consideration in the course of their activities and to ensure professionalization and professionalism. The manner in which this is done forms part of the evaluation of their activities by the administration.The Agency Socio-cultural work for Youths and Adults assesses the activities of the organisations, amongst others through external reviews carried out by a mixed commission. SoCiuS assists with quality assurance within the sector.

7.6 Guidance/counselling services

The government has taken several initiatives which are specifically aimed at disadvantaged target groups. · The `Strategic Literacy Plan' contains 35 actions which involve quite a number of partners: the training providers (VDAB, SYNTRA, Centres for Adult Basic Education (CBEs) and Centres for Adult Education and compulsory education), employees and employers as well as welfare organisations. Their actions include a.o an in-depth literacy screening and detection of literacy risks, the development of integrated-training projects which take the course participant's literacy risks into account and differentiated actions aimed at various risk target groups. In each province and in the cities of Antwerp, Ghent and Brussels `Dutch-language houses' were established as hubs for Dutch-as-a-Second-Language (NT2). Their objective is to optimise services for non-Dutch speakers who have completed full-time compulsory education and who wish to learn Dutch for social, professional or educational purposes. They do not only chart the full educational provision for Dutch-as-a-second-language within their working area but also the needs of non-Dutch speakers in search of a course. Once candidates have gone through a Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe

·

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professional and uniform intake procedure (a.o. a cognitive skills test, COVAAR, (cognitieve vaardigheidstest) and NT2-entrance tests) they direct non-Dutch speakers towards the most suitable courses Dutch. Thanks to a specially designed course-participant registration system they advise the government on existing needs, possible waiting lists, progression and drop-out rates. All Centres for Adult Basic Education, Centres for Adult Education, VDAB centres, Syntra, university language centres, provincial authorities, the Flemish Community Commission and the city councils of Antwerp and Ghent sit as partners on the board of the Dutch-language Houses. Every Dutch-Language House has concluded a cooperation agreement with the Adult-Education Consortiums within their working area. During 2004, the Flemish naturalisation policy for nonDutch speaking newcomers was launched. People who wish to obtain Belgian citizenship are given priority when they registering for Dutch-as-a-second-language literacy education and Dutch-as-a-second-language; they are also exempt from registration fees. Within adult education, the Flemish Support Centre for All of Adult Education (Vlaams Ondersteuningscentrum voor het Volwassenenonderwijs - VOCVO) supports all the Centres for Adult Basic Education (Centra voor Basiseducatie - CBEs) and the Centres for Adult Education (Centra voor volwassenenonderwijs - CVOs) who do not receive any support from the networkrelated pedagogical counselling services (pedagogische begeleidingsdiensten - PBDs). The VOCVO and the PBDs will have to use 20 % of the operational resources allocated to them for joint knowledge and expertise development within adult education. On the basis of the basic adult education course participant's needs, an individualised plan is drawn up in consultation between the course participant and the training counsellor. This plan contains a set of final objectives or basic competences from one of the programmes offered by adult basic education. CBE course participants who improve only marginally or who stagnate (temporarily) in the course of the learning process can follow a specific programme allowing them to maintain the knowledge they have acquired. CBEs can only allocate 10% of the recognised course-participant periods to individual support of course participants within the framework of remedial or logopaedic support or within an openlearning centre. This is a specially-equipped area within a centre where course participants can learn independently, either with or without support. To investigate the educational needs of course participants, to give people an introduction to the contents and methods of the programmes and to stimulate further specialisation of course participants, CBEs may also organise activation and selection-guidance activities. Adult basic education works in conjunction with VDAB on training programmes for basic on-the-job skills or for remedial arithmetic in vocational training. They also cooperate and network with the Centres for Adult Education, the Public Centres for Social Welfare (Openbaar Centrum voor Maatschappelijk Welzijn - OCMWs), the local authorities and other services. As of 1 January 2008, centres for adult education (CBEs and CVOs) will be given special learning tools (speciale onderwijsmiddelen - SOL), more specifically, interpreters for the deaf and speciallyadapted teaching resources for the visually impaired. In matters of vocational training, VDAB offers career guidance services at its competence centres, for people who wish to take charge of their own career. In these centres, VDAB careerguidance counsellors help people with career choices and provide assistance with drafting a personal development plan. Often this form of career guidance is provided at the request of an employer so that this VDAB advice and guidance contributes to optimum inter-attunement between the needs and competences of staff and the needs of the company in question. Employees can also contact these competence centres at their own initiative.

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For those in search of employment, VDAB offers pathway-to-work guidance or "tailor-made job guidance" which involves various steps: · · · · · · Pathway-to-work diagnosis and setting (qualifying intake, screening, orientation, psychological assessment and medical check-up, profile setting, information sessions, previous education), Application training and guidance Training at a centre, Personal development, labour-market guidance, On-the-job training and support Pathway-to-work guidance and further follow-up of the job seeker's progress.

Since 1 January 2006, VDAB has been calling on non-commercial and commercial counselling organisations to provide guidance, training and/or work experience placements for the long-term unemployed. In pathway-to-work tendering, the entire pathway-to-work guidance process is handed over to external organisations. VDAB only looks after pathway setting. Course participants who go out on work experience as part of their entrepreneurial training with SYNTRA Flanders receive guidance from a pathway-to-work counsellor. Representatives of the representative organisations of employers and employees, the self-employed and agriculture affiliated to SERV have a seat on the board of SYNTRA Flanders and on the board of the supporting Commission of Practical Training (for entrepreneurial training). Within part-time artistic education, DKO, guidance initiatives are left to the academies. Training in agriculture leaves the initiative up to the centres. Likewise, the initiative within socio-cultural adult work is left to the organisers.

7.7 Assessment, accreditation & recognition

During 2004, `certificates of vocational competence', now proofs of experience were brought into being. · These are certificates which are issued by a competent body after it has been ascertained via a recognition, assessment and accreditation procedure that the person in question has acquired the pre-set competences required to practise a particular vocation or sub-vocation. Each recognized proof of study which comprises the pre-set competences for a particular vocation or sub-vocation is accepted as a proof of experience. Diplomas which were conferred on the basis of the person meeting the specific final objectives of a particular professional profile are always considered to at the least include the competences specified for that particular vocation or sub-vocation. Under the terms specified by the Flemish government, these proofs of experience are also taken into consideration when people register for a course of study or training programme or as a job-seeker with VDAB.

· ·

·

Adult education confers various types of proofs of study: · · A modular certificate (deelcertificaat) ratifies one course module, A certificate (certificaat) ratifies one entire course Educational structures and education systems for vocational training and adult education in Europe

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· ·

A certificate (getuigschrift) ratifies the course `business administration' within the area of study `commerce'. A diploma ratifies: · the programmes `economics-modern languages', `economics-mathematics', `human sciences ASO3', `modern languages-sciences', `modern languages-mathematics' and `sciences-mathematics' within the area of study `general education'; · the course of study `supplementary general education', in combination with a certificate from a course of study from a different area of study within secondary adult education, as specified by the Flemish government; · a course of study from a different area of study other than general education in secondary adult education, as specified by the Flemish government, if the course participant is the holder of a diploma of secondary education at the time of registration.

· ·

A diploma of teacher ratifies a programme within the area of study `education'. A diploma of graduate ratifies a course of study from higher vocational education comprising a minimum of 900 teaching periods.

CBEs, Centres for Adult Basic Education, assess their course participants per module. This can be done either through continuous assessment and/or an examination. In the modular system, CVOs, Centres for Adult Education, must organise at least one examination at the end of each module. In the linear system, centres must organise at least one examination on every subject at the end of the school year. Course participants following VDAB vocational training are continuously followed-up and assessed throughout their (modular) training. Participants can obtain a certificate (attest) for certain courses they have attended. In the case of e-learning, the course participant receives a certificate (getuigschrift) once he/she has been positively evaluated by his/her coach. These types of certificates (attesten) do not have any formal or legal value and they are not recognised as being equivalent to the recognised proofs of study issued by the actual educational sector. However, they enjoy de facto recognition from the world of enterprise. Moreover, within VDAB, there are various forms of certification: · · · · Certificates (getuigschriften) which specify the contents of the course components the course participant has successfully completed; Certificates (getuigschriften) with an additional sector or company certificate (certificaat) which backs up the first certificate as proof of acquired competences; Certificates (getuigschriften) with a supplementary legal certificate (getuigschrift) which allows students to prepare for an examination organised outside of VDAB; Proofs of experience.

Also entrepreneurial training, organised by SYNTRA Flanders, issues various types of certificates. · Course participants who successfully complete their entrepreneurial training receive a diploma which meets the Business-Licensing Act conditions in terms of adequate professional knowledge and in terms of basic knowledge of business administration. Certified advanced training which dovetails with entrepreneurial training results in an official Flemish Community certificate. 53/60

·

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·

Uncertified advanced training (topical themes, language courses, business administration and management themes, new legislation...) lead to a SYNTRA Flanders certificate (attest).

In DKO, part-time artistic education, each pupil receives a written evaluation report twice during the school year and this is forwarded to the pupil and/or parents. The school board decides how assessments are conducted. The Visual-Arts Academies organise final exams during the last grades of the intermediate stage, the higher stage and the specialisation year. They organise transition exams at the end of the lower stage, at the end of the fifth grade of the intermediate stage and at the end of each grade (except the last one) of the other stages; these take place between 1 June and 30 June. Music, Word Craft and Dance Academies hold transition and final exams between 15 May and 30 June. These academies organise final exams in the last grade of every level while transition exams are held in all the other grades. After each grade which has been successfully completed the pupil receives a certificate (attest or getuigschrift). This certificate has no `civic force' but merely shows that the pupil in question has acquired the competences of a particular level. Training in agriculture leaves the initiative of assessment to the centres. All courses are concluded with a course test and the students who pass the test receive a certificate (getuigschrift). Students who have successfully completed an agricultural or horticultural course for beginners receive a certificate for establishing a business, which allows the beginner to establish him/herself as a farmer or horticulturist with the assistance of the Flemish Agricultural Investment Fund (VLIF - Vlaams Landbouwinvesteringsfonds). Course participants of socio-cultural adult work receive proofs of learning, which is a certificate of training and non-formal education experience. A proof of competence shows that a coherent section of competences has effectively been mastered. Since 2006, also function proofs have been introduced in socio-cultural adult work. A function proof is a certificate which proves that certain competences have been acquired through voluntary work or other forms of commitment.

7.8

Statistics

38 219 293 577 270 820 22 757 168 066 58 503 109 563

Pupils and course participants Number of course participants at CBEs, Centres for Adult Basic Education (2007-2008) Number of course participants at CVOs, Centres for Social Advancement Education (1/9/2007-31/3/2008) - of which in secondary education - of which in higher education Number of pupils attending DKO, part-time artistic education (2008) - visual arts - music, drama and dance Institutions see 7.5.1. cost price Cost price per Part-time Artistic-Education student (2008) Cost price per student attending social-advancement education (2007) Staff 2007 1 111.62 755.21

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Belgium ­ Flemish Community (2009) OSP-SO management and teaching staff (number of full-time budgetary equivalents) OSP-HO management and teaching staff (number of full-time budgetary equivalents) DKO management and teaching staff (number of full-time budgetary equivalents) Education budget 2007 DKO, part-time artistic education OSP, social advancement education School year 2007-2008 (Statistical Yearbook of Flemish Education); more sources: see 2.5. 183 592 000 299 939 000 4 147 723 3 885

VDAB vocational training (number of training programmes completed in 2005) Module 4: Vocation-specific training at VDAB centres Module 5: Personal training at VDAB centres Module 2: Orientation training at VDAB centres Module 3: Application training and guidance at VDAB centres Vocationally-oriented programmes for employees, at the request of companies and institutions Vocationally-oriented programmes at the request of individual employees Source: VDAB key figures 2007

employees 50 828 76

Job-seekers 56 714 9 202 17 020

274 48 522 2 656

10 098

VDAB pathway-to-work completion 2007 Number of finished pathway-to-work projects Number of people who found employment Completion percentage 81 322 57 852 71.1 %

Completion target group Ethnic minorities Occupational-disabled persons People without a diploma of higher secondary education Senior citizens > 1 year unemployed

Number of finished pathway-to-work projects 15 121 8 674

Number of people who found employment 7 480 3 899

% of people who found employment 49.5% 45.0%

37 319 2 868 19 181

19 302 1 345 9 408

51.7% 46.9% 49.0%

Source: VDAB 2007 key figures Fout! De hyperlinkverwijzing is ongeldig.

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SYNTRA Entrepreneurial training 20072008 Number of courses Number of course participants Teaching periods Supervised apprenticeship agreements and undertakings: 803 Business administration 597 6 303 40 364 Professional knowledge 4 021 25 535 305 457

(School year 2007-2008 (Statistical Yearbook of Flemish Education); more sources: see 2.5.

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