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Contents

Introduction

Teaching English Language Learners ............................1

Lesson Plans for Theme 6: Animal Encounters

Selection 1: The Grizzly Bear Family Book ............208 Selection 2: The Golden Lion Tamarin Comes Home..........................................218 Selection 3: My Side of the Mountain ......................228

Using This Handbook

Overview........................................................................8 Lesson Walkthrough ....................................................10

Lesson Plans for Theme 1: Nature's Fury

Selection 1: Earthquake Terror ..................................18 Selection 2: Eye of the Storm ......................................28 Selection 3: Volcanoes..................................................38

Lesson Plans for Theme 2: Give It All You've Got

Selection 1: Michelle Kwan: Heart of a Champion....50 Selection 2: La Bamba ................................................60 Selection 3: The Fear Place..........................................70 Selection 4: Mae Jemison: Space Scientist ..................80

Lesson Plans for Theme 3: Voices of the Revolution

Selection 1: And Then What Happened, Paul Revere? ............................................92 Selection 2: Katie's Trunk..........................................102 Selection 3: James Forten ..........................................112

Lesson Plans for Theme 4: Person to Person

Selection 1: Mariah Keeps Cool ................................124 Selection 2: Mom's Best Friend ................................134 Selection 3: Yang the Second and Her Secret Admirers ......................................144 Selection 4: Dear Mr. Henshaw..................................154

Lesson Plans for Theme 5: One Land, Many Trails

Selection 1: A Boy Called Slow..................................166 Selection 2: Pioneer Girl ..........................................176 Selection 3: Black Cowboy, Wild Horses ..................186 Selection 4: Elena ......................................................196

Resources

Blackline Masters

Theme 1: Nature's Fury

Selection 1: Earthquake Terror ..........................ELL 1­1 Selection 2: Eye of the Storm ..............................ELL 1­4 Selection 3: Volcanoes ........................................ELL 1­7

Assessment

Tips for Assessment ....................................................R1 Student Profile ............................................................R2 Student Assessment Checklist ....................................R3

Guide to Language Transfer Support

Consonant Sounds ......................................................R5 Grammar Features........................................................R8 Vowel Sounds ............................................................R12 Writing Systems ........................................................R15

Theme 2: Give It All You've Got

Selection 1: Michelle Kwan: Heart of a Champion........................................ELL 2­1 Selection 2: La Bamba ........................................ELL 2­4 Selection 3: The Fear Place ................................ELL 2­7 Selection 4: Mae Jemison: Space Scientist ........ELL 2­10

Theme 3: Voices of the Revolution

Selection 1: And Then What Happened, Paul Revere? ....................................ELL 3­1 Selection 2: Katie's Trunk ..................................ELL 3­4 Selection 3: James Forten ..................................ELL 3­7

Theme 4: Person to Person

Selection 1: Mariah Keeps Cool ........................ELL 4­1 Selection 2: Mom's Best Friend ..........................ELL 4­4 Selection 3: Yang the Second and Her Secret Admirers ..............................ELL 4­7 Selection 4: Dear Mr. Henshaw ........................ELL 4­10

Theme 5: One Land, Many Trails

Selection 1: A Boy Called Slow ..........................ELL 5­1 Selection 2: Pioneer Girl ..................................ELL 5­4 Selection 3: Black Cowboy, Wild Horses ............ELL 5­7 Selection 4: Elena ............................................ELL 5­10

Theme 6: Animal Encounters

Selection 1: The Grizzly Bear Family Book ......ELL 6­1 Selection 2: The Golden Lion Tamarin Comes Home ..................................ELL 6­4 Selection 3: My Side of the Mountain ................ELL 6­7

Introduction

Teaching English Language Learners

by Kathryn H. Au, Gilbert G. Garcia, Claude N. Goldenberg, and MaryEllen Vogt

The Challenge Faced by Teachers

Today's classrooms include an increasing number of English Language Learners (ELL), or students who speak a home language other than English and who have limited knowledge of English. Nearly two-thirds of English language learners, over 2.1 million, are in the age range from preschool through grade 6, and this ELL population is extremely diverse. Even among Spanish speakers, who make up more than three-fourths of the English language learners in the United States, there is great diversity in terms of birthplace, country of family origin, rural/urban background, socio-economic status, parent and grandparent education, and reasons for immigration to the United States. When we consider that other ELL groups come from Asian, Middle Eastern, Caribbean, and European countries, we can see how complex and diverse the school-age population is in many parts of the country. Teachers face the challenge of bringing all students, including English language learners, to high levels of literacy. The task is made difficult by several factors. One is the sheer complexity of learning to write and read in a language one does not yet understand. In many situations teaching reading in the native language is not an option, so teachers of English language learners must confront the dual challenge of helping children learn to read and write English while learning to speak and understand it. Research with English learners suggests that they need high-quality, direct instruction from the start. That includes authentic encounters with written texts that focus on meaning and communication. But they also need explicit teaching and guidance in those aspects of English oral and written language with which they might not be familiar--word identification skills, vocabulary and idiomatic expressions, syntax, and English spelling patterns and the sounds represented by English spellings. Such instruction will prevent English language learners from falling farther and farther behind their mainstream peers.

Testing, Placement, and Teaching

School personnel often test English language learners for proficiency both in English and in their primary language before placing them in classes. Many schools use at least one of several different English proficiency tests that are commercially available (e.g., Bilingual Syntax Measure (BSM), Language Assessment Scales (LAS), Idea Proficiency Test). In addition to proficiency in English, teachers should pay particular attention to students' literacy levels in their home language. English learners who can read and write in their first language present different instructional needs than English learners who have little or no literacy in their home language.

Nearly two-thirds of English Language Learners, over 2.1 million, are in the age range from preschool through grade 6, and this ELL population is extremely diverse.

INTRODUCTION

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Here are some profiles of English language learners:

Type of ELL Description Approach

Sole speaker of a foreign language at the school

Assessing primary language skills or teaching in the primary language is probably not an option.

Teachers will need to adapt their teaching style, using "sheltered" techniques to make lessons more accessible. (Echevarria & Graves, 1998) Maintaining and drawing upon the student's native language literacy competencies is likely to promote the student's academic development. As with most students, these learners will respond positively to a caring teacher who shows interest in their cultural background. Studies have suggested that non-English-speaking children can learn beginning reading skills as well as or almost as well as their native English-speaking peers. (Geva, Mack, Merbaum, Lam, & Wade-Woolley, 1998; Siegel, 1999)

Student who is literate and well-educated in home language but has been in the U.S. a relatively short time Student who was born in the U.S. and hears English and another language at home Non-English-speaking beginning reader

This student is certain to have skills and understanding that will facilitate English language development and English literacy. Some students in this group may need much encouragement to achieve their potential. Young child in an "English immersion" class where beginning reading skills are being taught.

How Students Acquire a Second Language

Teachers often observe that it does not take long for English language learners to gain the everyday language needed to communicate with peers at recess or in the lunchroom. Most students gain this kind of proficiency in about two years. However, students may require five years or more to learn the academic language necessary to keep up with the demands of school (Cummins, 1979; Collier, 1989). Academic language includes the terms associated with literature and language arts (character, vowel, punctuation, exclamation, context clues, etc.), as well as the vocabulary needed to learn the content-area subjects. Relatively little time and effort are required when students already know a concept through their primary language. In this case, their task is simply to attach new English words to that concept. But it is much more difficult for a student to learn a concept through the medium of English rather than their primary language.

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INTRODUCTION

The Role of Students' Primary Language

Research suggests that English language learners who can already read and write in their first language will have a relatively easy time learning to read and write in a second language. In essence, students need to learn to read and write only once, because many concepts are readily transferred from one language to another (Snow, 1990). This includes literacy concepts, such as letter-sound correspondences and reading strategies, as well as concepts in the content areas. But not all concepts transfer, particularly those related to the specifics of the language. For example, although many letters have similar sounds in Spanish and English, some do not, and students must "unlearn" the sound in the primary language when reading in English. Similarly, syntax differs in languages. In English, an adjective typically goes before the noun it modifies. This is not so in many other languages. Direct instruction is important in helping English learners understand important differences between speaking, writing, and reading in their home language as opposed to English. Here are three ways teachers can support students' primary languages: · Ensure that environmental print reflects students' first languages. · Encourage bilingual students to publish books and share their stories in languages other than English. · Have bilingual students read and write with aides, parents, or other students who speak their first language.

Second Language Acquisition: Instruction and Interaction

English language learners need instruction and interaction. Much language learning can and does take place through naturally occurring conversation; this is true of the classroom as well as of the home. We acquire language when we receive what Krashen calls "comprehensible input," or understandable messages, either oral or written. As long as we understand most of what we read or hear, we will continue to gain in language proficiency. The best opportunities for language development occur when most, but not all, of the language is familiar to us. Because most of the input is familiar, we can understand the content of the message. Being challenged by a few new features at a time (e.g., some new vocabulary or a new sentence structure) gives us the opportunity to grow as language users without feeling overwhelmed. However, English language learners need to be explicitly taught the structure of English. At the same time, they need to know that they are in a safe environment in which their efforts to speak, read, and write will be positively received. Students will learn English more quickly if they are willing to take risks by engaging in conversation and by sharing their reading and writing. Allowing English language

INTRODUCTION 3

English language learners need to be explicitly taught the structure of English.

learners to work with their classmates and to use English in non-threatening situations will do more to promote language learning than calling on students to respond in front of the whole class, having them read individually, or giving tests.

Research-Based Guidelines for Instruction

Provide explicit instruction in the structure of English. (August and Hakuta, 1997; Goldenberg, 1994) · Lessons should include the sounds of English, grammar, writing, and phonics and structural analysis. (See the Guide to Language Transfer Support in the back of this Handbook for a listing of English structures that may present problems for speakers of other languages.) Build students' background knowledge for texts to be read. (Garcia & Pearson, 1995) · Use photos, illustrations, examples, demonstrations, videos, and modeling to develop students' background. · Incorporate a variety of instructional techniques to develop background, such as brainstorming, KWL charts, quick writes, and discussion. · Help students survey the text prior to reading. In the text, preview the photos, illustrations, graphs, charts, key vocabulary, and so on. · Explicitly connect new learning to previously learned concepts and vocabulary ("Yesterday, we learned ...; today, we'll learn about . . ."). Build students' English vocabulary. (Garcia, 1991, 1996; Saville-Troika, 1984)

Students will learn English more quickly if they are willing to take risks by engaging in conversation and by sharing their reading and writing.

· Select key terms that are critical to understanding the lesson's most important concepts. Introduce and teach key vocabulary words only. · Introduce key vocabulary orally and in writing. Define the words, using examples, illustrations, modeling, demonstrations, context clues, and so forth. Link the words directly to the key content concepts as you teach. · Use Vocabulary Self-Selection (VSS). After reading a text, students may select vocabulary words essential to understanding key concepts. Students discuss their words and enter them in a word study notebook. · Use a variety of vocabulary building approaches, such as Word Walls (Cunningham, 1995), personal dictionaries, cloze sentences, word sorts (Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 2000), and graphic organizers. · Develop English learners' academic language. This vocabulary includes words related to processes (predict, categorize), following directions (pass papers to your right), and routines (morning message, recess).

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INTRODUCTION

Provide frequent opportunities for discussion and encourage elaborated responses about lesson concepts. (Echevarria, 1995; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000; Goldenberg, 1992­1993; Ramirez, Yuen, Ramey, & Pasta, 1991; Saunders & Goldenberg, 1999, 2002) · Have students talk frequently with each other and with the teacher. Decrease the amount of "teacher talk." · Have students use English in conversation groups and discussion circles. Have them share ideas with buddies or small groups. · Encourage elaborated responses about lesson concepts. Use phrases such as "Tell me more about that...;""What else?" · Overcome the temptation to speak for English learners or to complete their sentences. Be patient; let the students formulate what they want to say. Have students report back after a cooperative activity to allow for language use. If students are already literate in another language, encourage them to transfer existing strategies to English. (Jimenez, et. al, 1995, 1996; Nagy, et. al, 1993) · Help students who have had schooling in their home country make connections; compare English terms with terms in their primary language. · Incorporate cognates whenever possible, especially if students' first language has a Latin base. For example, the English term calculate has a Spanish cognate: calcular. Provide comprehensible input, which means that you will include speech appropriate for the student's proficiency level as well as give clear explanations of academic tasks. (Krashen, 1985; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000) · Try to adjust your speech for students' proficiency rates (such as speaking at a reasonable rate; clearly enunciating). Speak naturally, but pause often so that English learners can process what you are saying. · Provide clear explanations of academic tasks (explain what is meant by terms like discuss, share with your partner, summarize). Model how to do routine classroom procedures such as turning in homework or completed assignments, sharing ideas with a partner, and so on. · Use a variety of techniques to make concepts clear: modeling, visuals, handson activities, real objects, gestures, body language, and so forth. · Rather than repeat what you've said, paraphrase, using clear language and vocabulary.

The best opportunities for language development occur when most, but not all, of the language is familiar to us.

INTRODUCTION

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In essence, students need to learn to read and write only once, because many concepts are readily transferred from one language to another.

[Snow, 1990}

· Use the overhead, white board, or chart paper to illustrate (in words and in pictures) what you're saying and explaining. · As often as possible, encourage students to share concepts, ideas, and directions with each other; circulate to check for accuracy of information. · For students in early stages of English acquisition, ask an aide or other student who speaks the same language to reinforce key concepts and to check for understanding. · Avoid jargon and idiomatic speech as much as possible. Regularly assess and monitor student progress. (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000; McLaughlin & Vogt, 1996; O'Malley & Pierce, 1996;Valencia, Hiebert, & Afflerbach, 1994) · Honor students' levels of English proficiency, encouraging responses that tell you how well they are learning the key concepts. For example, an emergent speaker may be able to point to pictures to show you he or she understands rather than tell you an answer in a complete sentence. · Support students' oral approximations, allowing them to experiment with English in a risk-free environment. · Use authentic, multidimensional assessment measures such as observation, teacher-to-student and student-to-student conversations, written pieces, oral responses, and so on.

References

Anderson, L., Evertson, C., & Brophy, J. (1979). An experimental study of effective teaching in first-grade reading groups. The Elementary School Journal, 79, 193­223. Bear, D., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2000). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary and spelling instruction (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: MerrillPrentice-Hall. Collier, V. (1989). How long? A synthesis of research on academic achievement in a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 23(3), 509­532. Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49, 22­51.

Cummins, J. (1996). Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society. Ontario, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education. Cunningham, P. M. (1995). Phonics they use: Words for reading and writing. New York: Harper-Collins College Press. Dermody, M., & Speaker, R. (1995). Effects of reciprocal strategy training in prediction, clarification, question generation, and summarization on fourth graders' reading comprehension. In K.A. Hinchman, D. Leu, & C.K. Kinzer (Eds.), Perspectives on literacy research and practice. Chicago: National Reading Conference. Echevarria, J. (1995). Interactive reading instruction: A comparison of proximal and distal effects of instructional conversations. Exceptional Children, 61, 536­552.

Echevarria, J., & Graves, A. (1998). Sheltered content instruction: Teaching English-language learners with diverse abilities. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Echevarria, J., Vogt, M.E., & Short, D. (2000). Making content comprehensible for English language learners: The SIOP model. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Fitzgerald, J. (1995). English-as-a-second-language reading instruction in The United States: A research review. Journal of Reading Behavior, 27, 115­152. Gersten, R. & Jimenez, R. (Eds.) (1996). The language-minority students in transition. [Entire issue] Elementary School Journal, 96, 227­244. Getting reading right from the start (pp. 171­199). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Macias, R. F. (2000). Summary report of the survey of the states' limited English proficient students and available educational programs and services, 1997­98.

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INTRODUCTION

Encourage wide and free reading in English for language and literacy development. (Elley & Mangubhai, 1983) · Have a wide variety of books, articles, stories, and poetry available for selfselected reading. · Model how to select free reading materials according to interests and reading levels. · Encourage students to share what they are reading on a regular basis. · Use language experience (dictated stories) to build confidence and fluency in English. · Read aloud to students every day from a variety of texts.

In many situations, teaching reading in the native language is not an option, so teachers of English language learners must confront the dual challenge of helping children learn to read and write English while learning to speak and understand it.

Geva, E., Mack, A., Merbaum, C., Lam, M., & WadeWoolley, L. (1998). Learning to read in a second language (L2): Does L2 oral proficiency matter? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, San Diego, CA. Gibbons, Pauline. (1993), Learning to learn in a second language. Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH. Goldenberg, C. (1992-93). Instructional conversations: Promoting comprehension through discussion. The Reading Teacher, 46 (4), 316­326. Goldenberg, C. (1994). Promoting early literacy development among Spanish speaking children: Lessons from two studies. In E. H. Hiebert & B. M. Taylor (Eds.). Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. New York: Longman. McLaughlin, M., & Vogt, M.E. (1996). Portfolios in teacher education. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

O'Malley, J.J., & Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. O'Malley, J.M., & Pierce, L.V. (1996). Authentic assessment for English language learners: Practical approaches for teachers. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Ramirez, J., Yuen, S.I., Ramey, D., & Pasta, D. (1991). Executive summary: Final Report. Longitudinal study of structured English immersion strategy, early-exit transitional bilingual education programs for language-minority children. U.S. Department of Education. Ruddell, M. R. (1997). Teaching content reading and writing (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Snow, C. E. (1990). Rationales for native language instruction: Evidence from research. In A. M. Padilla, H. H. Fairchild, & C. M. Valadez (Eds.), Bilingual education: Issues and strategies (pp. 60­74). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Siegel, L. (1999). Presentation of Linda Siegel. In Effective instruction for English language learners: A discussion sponsored by California Education Policy Seminar and the California State University Institute for Educational Reform (pp. 3­6). Sacramento, CA: CSU Institute for Educational Reform. Valencia, S., Hiebert, E., & Afflerbach, P. (Eds.). (1994). Authentic reading assessment: Practices and possibilities. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Washington DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education. Snow, C., & Griffin, M. (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

INTRODUCTION

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Using This Handbook

Overview

The lessons in this handbook provide teachers with materials and approaches designed to help English language learners develop English proficiency and fluency, while supporting instruction in Houghton Mifflin Reading. A more detailed walkthrough (pages 10­15) of these lessons follows this introduction.

comprehension. Instruction includes previews and reviews of Structural Analysis, Vocabulary, Grammar. and Writing skills.

Literature Focus Lessons

These lessons allow students to orally develop literary response, analysis, and comprehension strategies through the use of picture-walks and guided literature previews and reviews. Students practice retelling stories, engage in shared and guided reading activities, and develop listening and speaking strategies.

Preteach/Reteach

Skills and literature taught in Houghton Mifflin Reading are previewed and reviewed in this handbook, giving students exposure to informal English and instruction in patterns of formal academic English. Comprehension of the program's literature is supported by the preteaching of vocabulary and language patterns. Additional key skills are previewed and reviewed throughout the week. Specific lesson language is planned for the teacher to maximize language learning.

If Needed . . . Lessons

Students at the Beginning/Preproduction level will benefit from rhythmic and rhyming language development activities designed for them. These lessons draw from the selection-opener songs and chants and provide opportunities for students at this level to engage in lowrisk, high-interest activities. Simple texts provide repetition, while accompanying lessons allow students to perform gestures and movements that help them internalize vocabulary, language structures, and English language patterns.

Language Development

A variety of original songs, poems, and chants function as openers for each week's lessons. Songs and poems activate prior knowledge, create a common experiential base, and generate interest in the topic presented. The accompanying lessons help prepare students by concretely illustrating the topics through movement, visual aids, realia, role-play, drawing, and so on. Oral language development techniques include total physical response, songs and dialogues, shared storytelling, role-plays, language experience stories, use of realia, environmental print, visual aids, and simulations.

Proficiency Levels

English language learners typically pass through a series of predictable stages as they acquire English and progress toward fluency in the language. This handbook supplies comprehensive guidance for teachers providing differentiated instruction to students at the following stages of English language proficiency:

Beginning/Preproduction Students at the

Beginning/Preproduction stage may comprehend limited amounts of English instruction, such as simple repeated sentences, but will rely on visual and other clues for understanding. They can be expected to respond nonverbally, by pointing, gesturing, and by imitating sounds and actions. Students will follow shared readings and will rely on illustrations and graphic clues to attach meaning to printed material. Students may illustrate characters, objects, and actions to convey meaning.

Skill Focus Lessons

Targeted language skills are directly taught and practiced in a series of preview and review lessons. Activities cover the range of proficiencies and desired outcomes from a focus on sounds and letters, through word-level skills to sentence level proficiency. Academic language is explicitly identified and used as a component of reading

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USING THIS HANDBOOK

Overview

Teachers should · provide opportunities for active listening, incorporating props, visual aids, and real objects into presentations · pair or group students with more proficient speakers of English · conduct shared and guided readings that incorporate prior knowledge and involve the use of visual and graphic supports · use and involve students in physical movement and expression · involve students in literacy activities and provide students with exposure to written English · have students label and manipulate real objects and photographs or illustrations

· ask open-ended questions · model, restate, and extend language for students

Intermediate/Advanced Students at the

Intermediate/Advanced stage continue to build receptive vocabulary, but are able to respond to prompts and questions in more extended form. They speak fluently in conversations and group discussions, and appropriately use English idioms. These students may engage in independent reading according to their level of oral fluency and prior experiences with print. They are able to write in greater detail, in a wide variety of genres, and for a wide variety of purposes, including creative and analytical writing. Teachers should · structure group discussion · provide real texts such as trade books, magazines, newspapers, and reference materials for conceptual development · provide opportunities for students to create oral and written narratives · structure a variety of realistic writing experiences and include opportunities for journal writing, student-authored stories and newsletters, and language experience activities

Early Production/Speech Emergent Students at

the Early Production/Speech Emergent stage are actively developing receptive vocabulary, but are ready to voluntarily produce from one- and two-word answers to short phrases or short sentences, and can recite and repeat poems, songs, and chants. They can also retell simple stories using pictures and objects, and can engage in dialogues, interviews, or role-plays. They comprehend simple passages and can follow text during group reading. They are able to use simple sentences and details in their writing, write from dictation, and write using a variety of genres. Teachers should · continue to provide opportunities for contextually supported active listening · model processes expected of students while verbally guiding students through tasks · use scaffolding techniques throughout lessons, assisting and supporting student comprehension · expose students to patterned or predictable books · provide opportunities for expression in speech and print for a variety of purposes and audiences

ResourcesBlackline Masters and additional resources for assessment and language transfer support appear at the back of this handbook. Assessment resources include ideas for ongoing assessment of students' progress, a student profile matrix, and a Student Assessment Checklist to help monitor each student's transition from level to level. Resources for language transfer include a guide to some common problem areas as well as charts showing where specific sounds and features of the English language are taught and reinforced.

OVERVIEW

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Lesson Walkthrough

To the Teacher

This sample lesson walkthrough will familiarize you with the five-day lesson plan for English language development that is provided for each major selection in this level of Houghton Mifflin Reading. Annotations in this walkthrough introduce the major parts of each lesson and explain some of the strategies and activities that are most helpful to English language learners.

Preteach/Reteach; Time

These labels suggest when to use each section of the day's lessons and an approximate amount of time to spend on each one.

Language Development

This section introduces background information and vocabulary and supports students' acquisition of basic English vocabulary. The lessons draw on students' prior experiences and provide opportunities for student participation as well as teacherdirected instruction. The lessons are appropriate for all levels of English language proficiency.

THEME 1/SELECTION 1

Earthquake Terror

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

20­25 MINUTES

Describing Earthquakes

Master ELL 1­1

Vocabulary

shake, rattle, roll, earthquake

Master ELL 1­1

Earthquake Terror

Name

Shake, Rattle, and Roll

Materials

· · · · · chart paper markers plastic bottle of water paper clips poster board

Shake, shake, rattle, and roll Rattle and roll and shake. Could it be? Oh yes! Oh no! Look up! Look out! Earthquake! Shake, shake, rattle, and roll Rattle and roll and shake. Plates are moving far below-- Look up! Look out! Earthquake!

This week we are going to read a story called "Earthquake Terror." To get ready to read it, let's talk about earthquakes. Have any of you been in an earthquake? What did you see? hear? feel? Have students describe or demonstrate what happens in an earthquake. Elicit responses about the sights, sounds, and sensations of an earthquake and record them in a chart like the one shown.

SPE A

K

Blackline Master

A Blackline Master accompanies the first Language Development lesson of the week. Each Master contains a poem or chant that introduces related vocabulary. A full-size copy of the master can be found in the Resources section of this book.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

SEE books fall

Grade 5 Theme 1: Nature's Fury Language Development ELL 1­1

HEAR glass breaks

FEEL ground shakes

Get Set for Reading CD-ROM

Earthquake Terror

Additional Resources

The Get Set for Reading CD-ROM provides background building, vocabulary support, and story summaries for each selection. Students can also log on to www.eduplace.com for more activities related to the Anthology selection and use the audio CD to improve their listening and comprehension skills.

Education Place

www.eduplace.com Earthquake Terror

Audio CD

Earthquake Terror Audio CD for Nature's Fury Show how a building shakes in an earthquake. Show how the ground rolls. Where is a good place to be if an earthquake happens when you are at school? Why? Which is more dangerous: an earthquake in a city or an earthquake in the forest? Why?

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THEME 1: Nature's

Fury

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USING THIS HANDBOOK

LISTEN

Now let's read a poem about an earthquake. Listen and watch as I read. Display the poem "Shake, Rattle, and Roll" and read it aloud, pantomiming the motions. Then have students read along with you, using the same motions. Once they are familiar with the poem, ask students a few questions. To demonstrate the movement of an earthquake, place several objects, such as a pencil, a plastic bottle of water, and paper clips, on a piece of poster board. Push in the sides of the poster board and make it roll to simulate an earthquake. Then have students describe what they see and hear. Add their responses to the chart.

Check It Out

Lesson Walkthrough

Literature Focus

This section provides opportunities for students to preview and review the Anthology selection. The selection preview on Days 1 and 2 includes a picture walk with questions geared toward all proficiency levels. The selection review on Day 4 includes a summary of the selection and questions to assess students' comprehension. See page 15 as well.

LITERATURE FOCUS

10­20 MINUTES

Get Set to Read

Buildup to a Shakeup, pages 26­27

Have students open their Anthology to pages 26­27. Let's read the title together. What do we do when we shake? Demonstrate for students. What happens when the earth shakes? Look at the illustration on page 26. When the earth shakes, it moves, and a big piece of land can be broken into smaller pieces, as we see in the photography on page 27. When the earth shakes it is called an earthquake. Have students look at the map on page 27. Explain that it is a map of part of California. Ask different students to read the names of the cities indicated on the map. Explain that the story they will be reading takes place in California.

Skill Objective

Students read words that have base words and suffixes.

Academic Language

· base word · prefix · suffix

Suggestions for grouping and classroom management, including planning and managing small-group instruction, can be found in the Classroom Management Handbook that accompanies Houghton Mifflin Reading.

Earthquake Terror

Segment 1, pages 28­35

Lead students on a picture walk, using these prompts. Pages 28­31: Show whom the story is about. How do you think the children feel? How can you tell? What do you see on page 31? Why do you think they are following their dog? Pages 32­35: What do you think the boy in the illustration on page 33 is doing? What is happening on page 34? How can you tell?

Get Set to Read

The Get Set to Read, found in the Anthology, develops background and vocabulary for the Anthology selection. It is especially appropriate for English language learners due to its focus on background building. Prompts help students activate prior knowledge.

SKILL FOCUS: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

10­15 MINUTES

Base Words

Write unhitching on the board. Underline the prefix un- and the suffix -ing.

Hitch is the base word. Base words are those that can stand alone. Hitch is a verb that means "to connect" or "to attach."

Anthology, Segment 1

This is a picture walk through the selection, targeted at the day's reading in the core program. It is designed to introduce the selection and develop concepts and vocabulary.

Explain that the prefix un- changes the meaning of the base word hitch to "not connect" or to "not attach." The suffix -ing changes the verb tense of the base word. It usually means that the action of the verb is in the present. Write several additional words from the selection such as faster and suddenly on the board. Have students identify the base words.

Skill Focus

SELECTION 1: Earthquake

Terror DAY 10

19

This section provides preview and/or review of selected skills taught each week in the core instruction. The skill areas included at Grades 3­6 are Structural Analysis, Grammar, Vocabulary, and Writing.

SAMPLE LESSON WALKTHROUGH 11

Vocabulary and Materials

This is a brief list of vocabulary that students will use in the language development lesson. Materials are sometimes suggested for the lessons, since real life objects are useful and helpful for English language learners. The Picture-Word Cards are found in the Resources section of this book.

THEME 1/SELECTION 1:

Earthquake Terror

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

20­25 MINUTES

Graphic Organizers

Graphic organizers provide visual reinforcement of language and concepts. They promote active student involvement. Various kinds of graphic organizers are included in the lessons, such as charts, word webs, and diagrams.

Vocabulary

camping, unhitch, camping trailer

Camping

Have students read the first sentence of the selection on Anthology page 29. Read it aloud with students: In his mind, Jonathan could see his father unhitching the small camping trailer. Yesterday we talked about earthquakes and began to read a story about an earthquake that happens when a family is camping. How many of you have gone camping? What things do you need when you are camping? As students respond, display the Picture-Word Cards and write the words on the board. Then help students group the words in a chart with headings such as "Things you use for meals,""Things you use for sleeping," and so on. Have students practice saying the words after you.

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Materials

· Anthology · Picture-Word Cards campsite, tent, sleeping bag, saucepan, fire (See Master ELL 1­3.)

Organize It

If Needed . . .

This section gives additional support targeted to English language learners at beginning levels. It focuses on repetition and enhancement of the language and vocabulary on the Language Development Blackline Master.

Beginning/Preproduction

See Master ELL 1­1.

Things you use for meals

Things you use for sleeping

Display the poem "Shake, Rattle, and Roll" and read it with students, using the motions from Day 1. List on the board: shake, rattle, roll. Ask students to say each word several times. Say: Find

Multi-Level Response

The Multi-Level Response feature gives each student an opportunity to respond to the lesson according to his or her English proficiency level. This section includes oral exercises aimed at assessing the students' listening and speaking comprehension. Drawings or other responses produced here may be saved and reviewed as part of ongoing assessment.

the word shake in the poem. Show what shake means. Find the word roll in the poem. Show what roll means. Have partners write the words shake, rattle, and roll on index cards. Partners

can take turns saying and acting out each word.

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Check comprehension. When you are camping, what do you sleep in? What do you use to cook food? Which things do you really need? Which things are good to have, but not necessary?

Have students draw a picture of a campsite. Make sure they include things they use for meals and things they use for sleeping.

Do you like to go camping? Why or why not? Would you prefer sleeping in a tent or in a trailer? Why?

Have students work in small groups to talk about camping trips they have taken or would like to take. Then ask group members to work together to plan a camping trip. Have them make a list of things to take. Ask them to share their plan and list with the class.

20

THEME 1: Nature's

Fury

12

USING THIS HANDBOOK

Lesson Walkthrough

Anthology, Segment 2

This is a continuation of the picture walk from Day 1. It introduces concepts and vocabulary from the second segment of the Anthology selection.

Skill Objective and Academic Language

The skill objective summarizes the language objectives and purpose of the lesson. The academic language used in the lesson is listed, since these terms are often unfamiliar to English language learners. Writing the objectives and academic language on the board will reinforce students' recognition and comprehension of these words.

LITERATURE FOCUS

10­20 MINUTES

Earthquake Terror

Segment 2, pages 36­44

Lead students on a picture walk, using these prompts. Pages 36­37: Why is Jonathan sitting on the ground and covering his head? Pages 39­41: What is happening on pages 39 and 41? Page 44: What is happening in the illustration? How can you tell?

Skill Objective

Students review and write four kinds of sentences.

Academic Language

SKILL FOCUS: GRAMMAR

15­20 MINUTES · · · · declarative interrogative imperative exclamatory

Multi-Level Practice

This feature gives each student an opportunity to practice the skill according to his or her own English proficiency level. Both written and oral practice are provided throughout each theme. These practice opportunities involve students in a variety of individual, partner, and small-group situations. You may want to save students' written work to assess their progress.

Kinds of Sentences

Write the following sentences from the Anthology election on the board: It's an

earthquake. Where could he hide? Stay where you are. I want Mommy! Remind students that there are four kinds of sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory.

Say each of the sentences aloud to model the correct intonation. Have students

repeat. Point out the punctuation for each type. Ask for more examples.

Tell students that declarative is the same as statement, interrogative is the same

as question, imperative is the same as command, and exclamatory is the same as exclamation.

Language Transfer Support

Students may be aware that punctuation varies in other languages. For example, Spanish uses an inverted question mark or exclamation point at the beginning of a sentence. Ask students to compare English punctuation with what they know about punctuation in their first languages.

Have students go back through the selection to find one additional example of each kind of sentence. Students write and label each type of sentence.

Have partners go back through the selection to find additional examples of each kind of sentence. Then they take turns saying each of the sentences to one another using correct intonation.

How does each kind of sentence help to tell a story like Earthquake Terror?

Language Transfer Support

The Language Transfer Support notes help identify areas where attempts to transfer knowledge from one language to another may lead to errors in English or difficulties in comprehension. For a more comprehensive list of language transfer errors, see the charts in the Resources section of this book.

SELECTION 1: Earthquake

Terror DAY 20

21

SAMPLE LESSON WALKTHROUGH

13

Quote from Anthology

Each Language Development lesson on Days 2­5 begins with a reference to the Anthology selection. Students return to the selection they are reading in class. The context from the story is used as the starting point of the lesson.

Learning Modalities

These icons point out the different learning modalities that occur during the lessons. The various modalities allow students of developing abilities to participate in different ways. The modalities include Speak, Listen, Write, Move, and Look.

THEME 1/SELECTION 1:

Earthquake Terror

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

20­25 MINUTES

Units of Time

Vocabulary

estimate, time, units of time, minute, hour

Have students find and read the last three sentences in the second paragraph on Anthology page 31: It was hard to estimate how much time had passed since his parents waved good-bye and walked away. Forty minutes? An hour? Ask students how many minutes are in an hour. Write on the board one hour = 60 minutes. Elicit from students how many minutes are in a half-hour, and a quarter hour. Record their responses on the board. Then check students' comprehension of units of time. How long is reading class? lunch? recess? Write this cloze frame on the board: ___ is ___ minutes long. Have students copy and complete cloze sentences to tell about classes and activities during the school day. If necessary, provide a simple schedule on the board.

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Materials

· · · · Anthology index cards paper plates pencils or crayons

Interactive Activity

Each Language Development lesson includes an interactive activity, such as games, role-play, pantomime, speaking, and writing. This allows students at all levels to work together and learn from each other in a variety of directed and active ways.

Time It

Beginning/Preproduction

See Master ELL 1­1.

Write the poem "Shake, Rattle, and Roll" on oaktag strips. Display it and read it chorally. Then give each student one sentence strip and say: Listen as I read the poem. When you hear the line on your sentence strip, stand up and read it out loud. Finally, have students hold up their sentence strips, arrange themselves in the order of the poem, and read their lines in sequence.

Have students make clocks out of paper plates. Have them practice moving the hands to show one minute going by and to show how long it takes them to do their daily activities.

Distribute index cards to pairs of students, and have them work together to write or draw pictures of different daily activities on the cards. Students take turns choosing a card and asking and answering questions about the topic, for example, How much time do you spend eating breakfast?

Ask students to create a list of activities they enjoy doing on the weekend along with the amount of time they spend doing each activity. Then have them tell a classmate about how they like to spend their time.

24

THEME 1: Nature's

Fury

14

USING THIS HANDBOOK

Lesson Walkthrough

Selection Summary

This summary provides a retelling of the Anthology selection in straightforward language. Vocabulary, sentence structure, and narrative structure have been simplified to make the summary accessible and readable for English language learners. The summary can be used as a preview, a review, or for reading practice at any time during the week. The Blackline Master for each summary can be found in the Resources section of this book.

Strategies for Comprehensible Input

As students read the selection summary, use these strategies to clarify any phrases that they may not understand: Explain, Restate, Show, and Model. Explaining terms or unfamiliar idioms, restating a difficult phrase in more familiar words, showing an illustration or object, and modeling or demonstrating an action are all way to assure that English language learners comprehend, absorb, and enjoy each story.

LITERATURE FOCUS

10­20 MINUTES

Selection Review

Master ELL 1­2

Master ELL 1­2

Earthquake Terror

Strategies for Comprehensible Input Use the Selection Summary and suggested strategies to support student comprehension.

Name

Earthquake Terror

In Earthquake Terror, Jonathan and his sister Abby are camping with their parents on an island. When their mother breaks her ankle, their father must rush her to the hospital. Jonathan stays behind with Abby, who uses a walker. Their dog Moose keeps them company. Soon Moose starts barking and pacing as if he knows something scary is about to happen. The forest becomes very quiet. Suddenly, there is a loud noise in the distance. The earth jolts. Jonathan falls forward. He feels the ground moving beneath him. It's an earthquake! Jonathan and Abby fall. She loses her walker. Jonathan tells his sister to put her hands over her head. He tries to reach her but can't keep his balance. Everything is moving, Abby is screaming, Moose is barking. A falling tree misses Jonathan by a few feet. Jonathan, Abby, and Moose find shelter near the fallen tree. Suddenly, the earthquake stops. Everything becomes quiet again. Brother and sister are both fine, except for a few cuts. They know they are lucky to be alive.

Explain: walker frame used to support someone while walking when recovering from an injury Explain: jolts shakes violently; moves suddenly Model: can't keep his balance

Demonstrate for students by tripping and hitting a desk while you try to walk following an imaginary straight line on the floor.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Questions

These questions can be used to assess students' understanding of the selection. Some are based on the comprehension skill taught with the selection in the core program; others have students retell the story, locate answers in the text and illustrations, or offer a personal response to the selection.

ELL 1­2 Selection Summary

Grade 5 Theme 1: Nature's Fury

Comprehension Questions for the Anthology Selection

1. Look at the illustration on Anthology page 34 and read the first paragraph on page 35. Why is this an important part of the story? (It tells that the children

are in trouble, that Jonathan is in charge, and that he is having a hard time.)

2. Retell the story to a partner. Use the pictures to help you. Tell what happens at the beginning, middle, and end of the story. (Answers will vary.) 3. Tell about one time when you helped someone in trouble. What happened? What did you do to help? (Answers will vary.)

SKILL FOCUS: GRAMMAR APPLICATION

10­15 MINUTES

Subjects and Predicates

Write on the board the following sentence from the selection: Abby walked in front of him. Draw a circle around the word Abby. Tell students that this first part of the sentence is called the subject. The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about. The rest of the words are called the predicate. The predicate tells what the subject does or is. In this case, it tells what the subject did: walked in front of him.

SELECTION 1: Earthquake

Terror DAY 40

25

SAMPLE LESSON WALKTHROUGH

15

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