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Study Guide Quiz # 4

1. This Quiz covers exercises on skeleton, Exercise 7, 8 and 9. Exercise 7 ­ Overview of Skeleton 2. Study the study guides on Overview-skeleton, Axial skeleton and Appendicular skeleton. 3. Definitions ­ axial skeleton, Appendicular skeleton; compact and spongy bone; long, short, flat, irregular bones with common examples; table 7.1 Bone marking with examples. 4. Gross anatomy of a typical bone Fig 7.2 5. Microscopic structure of a bone ­ Osteon- central canal = haversian canal, lamellae, lacunae, canaliculi. Fig 7.3 6. Ossification is the transformation of other tissues into bone. Osteogenesis is formation of new bone tissue and is done by Osteoblasts. Ossification has 2 types. 1. Endochordal Ossification ­ Bones form due to internal transformation of cartilage to bone, femur, humerus, tibia; Intramembranous Ossification ­ bones form in the dermis of skin and settle deeper, most skull bones and clavicles; Sesamoid bone ­ develop from other connective tissue like a tendon, patella = knee cap. 7. Location and basic structure of Skeletal Cartilages ­lab manual. 8. Hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage. Exercise 8 - Axial Skeleton 9. Total # of bones in axial skeleton is 80. 10. Axial skeleton includes skull, vertebral column and bony thorax. 11. Bones and sutures of cranium ­ 8 bones. 12. Review questions covered during lab. 13. Study the study guide and lab manual. 14. Bones of Face ­ 14 bones 15. Sinuses in skull bones ­ 4 bones ­ maxilla, sphenoid, ethmoid and frontal. 16. Hyoid bone, location and function. 17. 4 curvatures of vertebral column. Cervical-concave; thoracic-convex; lumbar-concave; sacral-convex. 18. Structure of a typical vertebrum

19. Atlas ­ C1, Axis ­ C2 has a special process = Dens, typical cervical, typical thoracic and a typical lumbar vertebra, fig ­ 8.11 lab manual; sacrum and coccyx. 20. Parts of Sternum ­ manubrium, body and xiphoid process; structure of a vertebral rib, head and tubercle for articulation with body and transverse process of vertebrum, Costal cartilage. 21. True ribs (1-7), false ribs (8-12), floating ribs (11-12) Exercise 9 ­ Appendicular Skeleton 22. # of bones in different parts of appendages, girdles and total # of bones. 23. Clavicle, scapula in Pectoral girdle, humerus, radius, ulna and their bone markings trochanter, tuberosity, tubercle, head, spine, fossa, glenoid cavity etc. 24. Arm has 1 bone Humerus. Humerus has large head and a neck. On the lateral side of head is Greater tubercle. The diaphysis has a deltoid tuberosity. The distal end has a condyle and a pulley like Trochlea is part of it. 25. Forearm has radius and ulna in it. In anatomical position radius is lateral (thumb side) and ulna is medial. Most of the wrist joint is made by radius. On the other hand Ulna has a notch for trochlea of ulna and makes a hinge joint with it. 26. 8 Carpals, 5 metacarpals and 14 phalanges. 27. Pelvic girdle, 2 coxal bones, acetabulum ­ the socket for head of Femur, ilium bones articulate with vertebral column through auricular surfaces with sacrum. 28. Thigh has a single bone Femur. It has a spherical head and a narrow neck. Greater and lesser trochanters are present on proximal end. The distal end has 2 condyles and their epicondyles. 29. Leg has 2 bones thicker Tibia and thinner Fibula. Tibia is medial and Fibula is always lateral in position. Tibia has 2 articular facets for 2 condyles of femur. Distal end of tibia form medial malleolus and distal end of fibula makes lateral malleolus the protruding ankle bones. 30. 2 rows of Tarsals, 2 important tarsals calcaneum forms heel bone and talus is superior tarsal and articulates with Tibia, importance of arch in foot base, position of ankle joint. 31. Differences in female and male pelvis Table 9.1 32. Study guides on websites and figures in lab manual. 33. I will upload the study guides for skeleton on website tonight or tomorrow.

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