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The following pages in the Grade 4 Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Reading Treasures Grammar Practice Book have been updated.

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Published by Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, of McGraw-Hill Education, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Two Penn Plaza, New York, New York 10121. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, network storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 066 13 12 11 10 09

Unit 1 · Growing Up Making a Move

My Diary from Here to There

Contents

Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Test: Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Subjects and Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Subjects and Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Test: Subjects and Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Simple and Compound Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Simple and Compound Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Test: Simple and Compound Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Complex Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Complex Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Test: Complex Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Run-On Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Run-On Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Test: Run-On Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Changing

The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein

Kids at Work

Time for Kids: "Kid Reporters at Work"

Mentors

The Astronaut and the Onion

Friends of All Ages

Because of Winn-Dixie

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

iii

Unit 2 · Making a Difference Civil Rights

My Brother Martin Common and Proper Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Common and Proper Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Test: Common and Proper Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Singular and Plural Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Singular and Plural Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Test: Singular and Plural Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Irregular Plural Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Irregular Plural Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Test: Irregular Plural Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Possessive Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Possessive Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Test: Possessive Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Plurals and Possessives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Plurals and Possessives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Test: Plurals and Possessives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Inspiring Women

Mighty Jackie

Facing Challenges

Time for Kids: "Making a Splash"

Saving Animals

Wild Horses

Courage

Mystic Horse

iv

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Unit 3 · The Power of Words Letters

When I Went to the Library Action Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Action Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Test: Action Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Verb Tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Verb Tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Test: Verb Tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Main and Helping Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Main and Helping Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Test: Main and Helping Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Linking Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Linking Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Test: Linking Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Irregular Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Irregular Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Test: Irregular Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

The Art of Persuasion

Dear Mrs. LaRue

From Words to Action

Time for Kids: "Words Add Up to Success"

Keeping Promises

Ranita, The Frog Princess

Expression Through Art

Me and Uncle Romie

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Unit 4 · Working Together Value of Friendship

The Cricket in Times Square Pronouns and Antecedents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Pronouns and Antecedents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Test: Pronouns and Antecedents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Types of Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Types of Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Test: Types of Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Pronoun-Verb Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Pronoun-Verb Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Test: Pronoun-Verb Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Possessive Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Possessive Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Test: Possessive Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Pronouns and Homophones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Pronouns and Homophones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Test: Pronouns and Homophones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

Animal Teams

The Life and Times of the Ant

Energy

Time for Kids: "The Power of Oil"

Teaming Up

Ima and the Great Texas Ostrich Race

Family Teams

My Brothers' Flying Machine

vi

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Unit 5 · Habitats Deserts

A Walk in the Desert Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Test: Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Using a and an Correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Test: Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Adjectives that Compare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adjectives that Compare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test: Adjectives that Compare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 112 113 114 115

Desert Animals

Roadrunner's Dance

National Parks

Time for Kids: "Animals Come Home to Our National Parks"

Oceans

At Home in the Coral Reef

Comparing with More and Most . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Comparing with More and Most . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Test: Comparing with More and Most . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Comparing with Good and Bad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Comparing with Good and Bad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Test: Comparing with Good and Bad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

Ocean Animals

Adelina's Whales

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

vii

Unit 6 · Problem Solving Working Together to Find Solutions

Leah's Pony Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Test: Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Comparing with Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Comparing with Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Test: Comparing with Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Negatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Negatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Test: Negatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Test: Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Sentences Using Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Sentences Using Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Proofreading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Test: Sentences Using Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

Finding Out About the Past

The Gold Rush Game

Improving Lives

Time for Kids: "Taking the Lead"

Step by Step

Snowflake Bentley

Invent It

How Ben Franklin Stole the Lightning

viii

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice

Name

Grammar: Sentences

· A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought. · A sentence fragment is a group of words that does not express a complete thought. · All sentences begin with a capital letter and end with a period or question mark.

Write sentence or fragment for each group of words. Write each group of words as a sentence with the correct punctuation. 1. the cat feeds her kittens 2. is very hungry today

The cat feeds her kittens. The cat is very hungry today. We traveled a great distance. Did you bring your lunch? He ate a tuna fish sandwich. He drank a glass of juice. What else do you think he likes?

sentence fragment sentence sentence sentence fragment sentence sentence

3. we traveled a great distance 4. did you bring your lunch

5. he ate a tuna fish sandwich 6. with a glass of juice

7. what else do you think he likes

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

8. they learned new things

They learned new things.

My Diary from Here to There

Grade 4/Unit 1

1

Practice

Name

Grammar: Sentences

· A statement is a sentence that tells something. It ends with a period. . · A question is a sentence that asks something. It ends with a question mark. ? · A command tells or asks someone to do something. It ends with a period. . · An exclamation shows strong feeling. It ends with an exclamation mark. ! Write each sentence with the correct punctuation. 1. Are you sure you brought your homework 2. Maybe you tucked it in your backpack 3. Class, stay in your seats

Are you sure you brought your homework? Maybe you tucked it in your backpack. Class, stay in your seats. Or: Class, stay in your seats! Don't you dare say I stole it! Or: Don't you dare say I stole it. Have you written in your diary today? I asked him how to spell his name. This was the hardest day of school ever! Or: This was the hardest day of school ever. Do you think we should play outside today?

4. Don't you dare say I stole it

5. Have you written in your diary today 6. I asked him how to spell his name

7. This was the hardest day of school ever

8. Do you think we should play outside today

2

My Diary from Here to There

Grade 4/Unit 1

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice

Name

Grammar: Sentence Punctuation

· · · ·

Every sentence begins with a capital letter. A question ends with a question mark. A statement or a command ends with a period. An exclamation ends with an exclamation mark.

Read each sentence. Rewrite it with the correct capital letters and punctuation. 1. I'm starving

I'm starving! Or: I'm starving.

2. are you allergic to peanuts

Are you allergic to peanuts? Who made this delicious soup? Let me know if you find out who made it. I often copy recipes into my diary.

3. who made this delicious soup

4. let me know if you find out who made it 5. i often copy recipes into my diary

6. that was absolutely the most awesome dessert ever

That was absolutely the most awesome dessert ever! Who brought the fruit salad? Wow, this was a great meal!

7. who brought the fruit salad

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

8. wow, this was a great meal

My Diary from Here to There

Grade 4/Unit 1

3

Practice

Name

Grammar: Sentences

· Asentenceisagroupofwordsthatexpressacompletethought. · sentence fragmentisagroupofwordsthatdoesnot A expressacompletethought. · Astatementisasentencethattellssomething. · Aquestionisasentencethataskssomething. · llsentencesbeginwithacapitalletterandendwithaperiod, A aquestionmark,oranexclamationmark. Read the passage. Think about what type of sentence each one is. Then rewrite the passage using the correct punctuation. when our cat had her kitten, we did not know what we would do a grown-up cat can be left by itself a baby kitten needs someone to watch her who could we get to care for her all day long I go to school all day Mom and Dad go to work all day could Grandpa take the kitten Grandpa said he could now the kitten lives with Grandpa We visit them every weekend It's wonderful

When our cat had her kitten, we did not know what we would do. A grown-up cat can be left by itself. A baby kitten needs someone to watch her. Who could we get to care for her all day long? I go to school all day. Mom and Dad go to work all day. Could Grandpa take the kitten? Grandpa said he could. Now the kitten lives with Grandpa. We visit them every weekend. It's wonderful!

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

4

My Diary from Here to There

Grade 4/Unit 1

Practice

Name

Grammar: Sentences

A. Decide if each sentence is a statement, a question, a command, or an exclamation. Write the type of sentence each is on the line. 1. His favorite city is New Orleans. 2. Can you lend me a dollar? 3. Don't forget your ticket. 4. The kittens are hiding. 5. What a funny story!

statement question

command statement exclamation statement

6. That cloud looks like an alligator.

B. Write each sentence with the correct punctuation. 7. I sent a letter to my friend

I sent a letter to my friend. Did you ever forget to put a stamp on a letter? Hamsters are my favorite pets. I don't have any money. Wow, I can't believe our team won that game! Bring the trophy to my office.

8. Did you ever forget to put a stamp on a letter 9. Hamsters are my favorite pets 10. I don't have any money

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

11. Wow, I can't believe our team won that game 12. Bring the trophy to my office

My Diary from Here to There

Grade 4/Unit 1

5

Practice

Name

Grammar: Subjects and Predicates

· The subject of a sentence is the person, place, or thing the sentence tells about. · The complete subject includes all the words in the subject. · The simple subject is a noun--the main word in the complete subject. · A compound subject has two or more nouns that make up the subject.

Turn these sentence fragments into complete sentences by adding a subject. Write each complete sentence on the line. 1. are fun to play.

Possible answers are given. Hopscotch and jacks are fun to play. Lightning scares me more than anything! Bats and mosquitoes come out at night. The pirates went looking for treasure. Cathy is reading an adventure novel. The star player caught the touchdown pass. Hammers and drills are useful tools for building. Touching wild animals is dangerous.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

2. scares me more than anything! 3. come out at night.

4. went looking for treasure.

5. is reading an adventure novel. 6. caught the touchdown pass. 7. are useful tools for building. 8. is dangerous.

6

The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein · Grade 4/Unit 1

Practice

Name

Grammar: Subjects and Predicates

· The predicate tells what the subject does or did. · The complete predicate includes all the words in the predicate. · The simple predicate is the verb--the action word or words in the complete predicate. · A compound predicate has two or more verbs.

Possible answers provided.

Turn these fragments into complete sentences by adding a predicate. Write each complete sentence on the line. 1. The children in school 2. My first name

The children in school like story time best. My first name is also my grandmother's first name. Flocks of birds fill the trees each evening. My best friend listens closely. Hungry animals hunt for food. The last book I read had three talking animals. On their field trip, the students watched tortoises. The greatest adventure starts with a mystery.

3. Flocks of birds 4. My best friend

5. Hungry animals

6. The last book I read

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

7. On their field trip, the students 8. The greatest adventure

The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein · Grade 4/Unit 1

7

Practice

Name

Grammar: Punctuate Types of Subjects and Predicates

· The subject of a sentence tells whom or what the sentence is about. · The predicate of a sentence tells what the subject does or is. · You can sometimes correct a sentence fragment by adding a subject or a predicate.

Read each sentence. Rewrite it with the correct punctuation. 1. The desert and beach are sandy

The desert and beach are sandy. Grant can walk, run, or skip a long way. Maria ate, read, and played the piano. The hound on the hill was pacing and howling. Sara, Jack, and John were very thirsty. What kinds of movies do Clint, Jo, and Amy like? The kids and their parents did not lose their way. Tito and I looked for water.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

2. Grant can walk run or skip a long way. 3. Maria ate read and played the piano.

4. The hound on the hill was pacing and howling 5. Sara Jack, and John were very thirsty.

6. What kinds of movies do Clint Jo and Amy like

7. The kids and their parents did not lose their way 8. Tito and I Looked for water

8

The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein · Grade 4/Unit 1

Practice

Name

Grammar: Subjects and Predicates

· A complete sentence contains both a subject and a predicate. · You can sometimes correct a sentence fragment by adding a subject or a predicate. Rewrite the advertisement. Correct the sentence fragments, punctuation, and capitalization. A brand new video game. "Desert Adventure." must find water in the desert. Bandits and animals will be after you. is there water hidden behind the dunes. Watch out. A slithering Snake. can you escape the sand traps! Enjoy the excitement of. The best game ever!

Possible response provided. There is a brand new video game called "Desert Adventure." You must find water in the desert. Bandits and animals will be after you. Is there water

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

hidden behind the dunes? Watch out for the slithering snake! Can you escape the sand traps? Enjoy the excitement of "Desert Adventure." It may be the best game ever!

The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein · Grade 4/Unit 1

9

Practice

Name

Grammar: Subjects and Predicates

A. Draw a line separating the complete subject from the complete predicate in each sentence. Then write the simple subject and the simple predicate on the line. example: A cactus | stores water. cactus, stores 1. The boy next door|changed his name. 2. 3. 4. 5.

boy, changed teacher, knows Our new teacher|knows how to sing. band, performed My favorite band|performed last night. song, was Their very first song|was my favorite. price, rose The price of movie tickets|rose last year.

B. Write the simple subject and simple predicate in each sentence below. 6. John packed some snacks and drank lots of water. Subject: Predicate: Subject: Predicate: Subject: Predicate: Subject: Predicate: Subject: Predicate:

John packed, drank

7. Our class wrote and performed a new play.

class wrote, performed students disliked

8. The students disliked the boy's pranks.

9. The teacher and principal met with the parents.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

teacher, principal met friends, I cooked, ate

10. My friends and I cooked and ate some pasta.

10

The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein · Grade 4/Unit 1

Practice

Name

Grammar: Simple and Compound Sentences

· A simple sentence contains one subject and one predicate. It contains one complete thought. · Two simple sentences may be joined to form a compound sentence, which contains two subjects and two predicates. It contains two complete thoughts. · A conjunction is used to combine the two sentences. And, but, and or are conjunctions. Add a comma followed by and, but, or or to combine each pair of simple sentences into one compound sentence. 1. Darien wrote the story. Elsie took the photographs.

Darien wrote the story, and Elsie took the photographs.

2. The paper comes out next week. You can see it online tonight.

The paper comes out next week, but you can see it online tonight. Visitors like the flowers in the park, but they should not pick them.

3. Visitors like the flowers in the park. They should not pick them.

4. You could ask the mayor about the plan. We could both talk to the senator instead.

You could ask the mayor about the plan, or we could both talk to the senator instead. I love hiking in mountains, but my brother prefers the beach. My aunt came with me, and she said it was beautiful.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

5. I love hiking in mountains. My brother prefers the beach.

6. My aunt came with me. She said it was beautiful.

Kid Reporters at Work

Grade 4/Unit 1

11

Practice

Name

Grammar: Simple and Compound Sentences

· A simple sentence has one independent clause. The sky was clear and sunny. · A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses. The faucet kept running, and the sink overflowed. · You can combine two independent clauses by joining them with a coordinating conjunction, such as or, but, or and.

Decide whether each sentence is simple or compound. Write simple or compound on the line. 1. Some articles require a great deal of research.

simple

2. The game lasted hours, but the score never changed.

compound compound simple

3. The day was sunny, and the beach was crowded. 4. My family and I dressed for warm weather. 5. I will write about our trip in my journal tonight.

simple

6. The weather report said rain, but no clouds appeared.

compound compound compound

7. I wrote a review of the film, and the paper published it. 8. My dad likes camping, but my sister does not.

12

Kid Reporters at Work

Grade 4/Unit 1

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice

Name

Grammar: Punctuation in Compound Sentences

· Use a comma before and, but, or or when you join two sentences to form a compound sentence. · Do not use a comma before and when you combine two subjects or two predicates.

Use and, or, or but to combine two sentences into a compound sentence. Or, use and or or to combine subjects or predicates. 1. My family loves camping. I prefer reading indoors.

My family loves camping, but I prefer reading indoors. A reporter does research and interviews people.

2. A reporter does research. A reporter interviews people. 3. Mom likes to watch the news. I discuss it with her.

Mom likes to watch the news and I discuss it with her. We could write about the fire or the robbery.

4. We could write about the fire. We could write about the robbery. 5. The fire burned some buildings. Other buildings were untouched.

The fire burned some buildings, but other buildings were untouched. Karen went hiking, and I'm going with her next time. I wrote the story, but I forgot to put my name on it. Serena is counting votes, and Maria will post the results.

6. Karen went hiking. I'm going with her next time.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

7. I wrote the story. I forgot to put my name on it.

8. Serena is counting votes. Maria will post the results.

Kid Reporters at Work

Grade 4/Unit 1

13

Practice

Name

Grammar: Simple and Compound Sentences

· You can combine two sentences by using and, but, or or. · You can combine two sentences by joining two subjects or two predicates with and or or. Read the passage. Think about how two sentences are joined. Then rewrite the passage using the correct punctuation. I enjoy travel magazines, and hope to write for one some day. I could fly around the world. And people could read about my adventures. can you imagine what fun it would be. I like tasting new food I like meeting new people. They would tell me stories and I would write them in my journal. There's only one Problem. I don't like airplanes, But I guess I'll just have to get over it!

Possible answer is given. I enjoy travel magazines and hope to write for one some day. I could fly around the world, and people could read about my adventures. Can you imagine what fun it would be? I like tasting new food and meeting new people. They would tell me stories, and I would write them in my journal. There's only one problem. Airplanes

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

scare me, but I guess I'll just have to get over it!

14

Kid Reporters at Work

Grade 4/Unit 1

Practice

Name

Grammar: Simple and Compound Sentences

Combine each pair of simple sentences with and, but, or or. 1. The storm continues. Rivers begin to flood.

The storm continues, and rivers begin to flood. The mayor says to leave, but some people stay. We might go to a hotel, or some friends might take us in. Kyle forgot to pack a toothbrush, and Susan forgot to bring soap.

2. The mayor says to leave. Some people stay.

3. We might go to a hotel. Some friends might take us in.

4. Kyle forgot to pack a toothbrush. Susan forgot to bring soap.

5. Mom wants to head east. Dad wants to go west.

Mom wants to head east, but Dad wants to go west. I take notes about the storm, and Kyle takes pictures.

6. I take notes about the storm. Kyle takes pictures.

7. I talk to the neighbors. They tell me their plans.

I talk to the neighbors, and they tell me their plans. People can drive to safety, or buses can take them there. Dad packed the knapsack, but he forgot to take it with him. I will publish my story, and some day my own children might read it.

8. People can drive to safety. Buses can take them there.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

9. Dad packed the knapsack. He forgot to take it with him.

10. I will publish my story. Some day my own children might read it.

Kid Reporters at Work

Grade 4/Unit 1

15

Practice

Name

Grammar: Complex Sentences

· dependent clausecannotstandaloneasasentence. A · dependentclauseoftenbeginswithaconjunction. A · omeconjunctionstellwhere,when,why,how,orunder S what condition. where when why how although as before because asif if assoonas after since asthough unless Combine each pair of sentences using the given conjunction. 1. Thenightbecameverydark.Acloudhidthemoon.(when) The night became very dark when a cloud hid the moon. 2. Graciereadsbooksaboutthemoon.Shecomeshome.(assoonas) Gracie reads books about the moon as soon as she

comes home.

3. Peopleweighlessonthemoon.Gravityisweakerthere.(because) People weigh less on the moon because gravity is

weaker there.

4. I'vestudiedstarsandplanets.Iwaseightyearsold.(since) I've studied stars and planets since I was eight

years old.

5. Ialwaysputonmyspacesuit.Ileavetheship.(before) I always put on my spacesuit. I leave the ship. You can't breathe on the moon unless you bring an

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

6. Youcan'tbreatheonthemoon.Youbringanoxygentank.(unless)

oxygen tank.

7. Astronautsvisitedthemoon.Themoonisover250,000milesaway. (although) Astronauts visited the moon although the moon is

over 250,000 miles away.

The Astronaut and the Onion

Grade 4/Unit 1

16

Practice

Name

Grammar: Complex Sentences

· sentencethatcontainstworelatedideasjoinedbya A conjunctionotherthanand,but,oror iscalledacomplex sentence. To form a complex sentence, combine these ideas using the given conjunction. Be sure that the new sentence makes sense. 1. Theastronauteatshismeal.Hefloatsaroundintherocket.(as) the rocket. The astronaut eats his meal as he floats around in 2.Lightleavesastar.IttakesthousandsofyearstoreachEarth.(after) to reach Earth.

After light leaves a star, it takes thousands of years 3.Eatsomefreeze-driedsnacks.Youworkatthecomputer.(while)

Eat some freeze-dried snacks while you work at the computer.

4.Hegoestothelibrary.Hereadsbooksaboutspace.(where)

5. Momdoesn'twantmetocomealong.Itisdangerous.(since) 6.Fastenyourseatbelts.Theshiptakesoff.(before)

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

He goes to the library where he reads books about space.

Mom doesn't want me to come along since it is dangerous. Fasten your seatbelts before the ship takes off.

7. Hebroughtachunkofmoonrock.Hecamehomefortheholidays.(when) He brought a chunk of moon rock when he came home for the holidays. 8.Theywatched.Therocketblastedoffintospace.(as)

They watched as the rocket blasted off into space.

The Astronaut and the Onion

Grade 4/Unit 1

17

Practice

Name

Mechanics: Punctuate Clauses and Complex Sentences

· complexsentencefeaturesanindependentclauseandone A ormoredependentclauses. · tdoesnotalwaysneedacomma. I Rewrite this paragraph using complex sentences.

I was a little girl I have wanted to be an astronaut. I would read books about space. I felt like getting right into a rocket ship. I want to see the Red Planet, Mars, most of all. It represents action and energy. Red is my favorite color. I want to try to make my dream come true I grow up. I plan to go to college and I can major in astronomy. I can train in a space program. Possible answers are given.

Ever since I was a little girl, I have wanted to be an astronaut. After I would read books about space, I felt like getting right into a rocket ship. I want to see the Red Planet, Mars, most of all, since it represents action and energy. Red is also my favorite color. I want to make my dream come true when I grow up. I plan to go to college, where I can major in astronomy. Then I can train in a space program.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

18

The Astronaut and the Onion

Grade 4/Unit 1

Practice

Name

Grammar: Complex Sentences

· ememberthatsomeconjunctionstellwhere,when,why, R how,orunder what condition. Rewrite the letter below. Fix any spelling, punctuation, and grammar mistakes. Mr.andMrs.Rhodes 39SunshineDrive BaltimoreMD21286 DearMr.andMrs.Rhodes, Iwouldliketobeanastroknot.Becauseitwouldbeexciting.Youwerethefirst peopletotraveltoMars.Ibetyouknowalotaboutspacetravel.Iwouldliketo learnmoreaboutouterspace?IwanttotraveltoMarssomeday.Ialsoplanto visitJupiterandVenus.doyouknowwhichschoolsIcouldgoto! Sincerely, DianaSmith 678SaturnRoad Baltimore,MD21204 July112010

Mr.andMrs.Rhodes 39SunshineDrive Baltimore,MD21286 DearMr.andMrs.Rhodes, Iwouldliketobeanastronautbecauseitwouldbe exciting.YouwerethefirstpeopletotraveltoMars,so Ibetyouknowalotaboutspacetravel.Iwouldliketo learnmoreaboutouterspace.IwanttotraveltoMars someday.IalsoplantovisitJupiterandVenus.Doyou knowwhichschoolsIcouldgoto? Sincerely, DianaSmith

The Astronaut and the Onion

Grade4/Unit1

6 78SaturnRoad Baltimore,MD21204 July11,2010

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

19

Practice

Name

Grammar: Complex Sentences

Choose the best conjunction to combine each pair of sentences.

c 1. Itwastheyear1969__________thefirstpersonwalkedonthemoon.

a b c d e f g h until asif when since before unless as assoonas

e 2. Amonthwillpass__________weseeafullmoonagain.

b 3. Youneedtowearaspacesuit__________thetemperaturesare extreme.

a b c d e f g h a b c d although because after why how before asif until if after asthough although

g 4. Hejumpedhighofftheground_________hisbodywereweightless.

d 5. Iwouldnotmovetothemoon__________itisabeautifulplace.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

20

The Astronaut and the Onion

Grade 4/Unit 1

Practice

Name

Grammar: Run-On Sentences

· A run-on sentence joins together two or more sentences that should be written separately. The boy found the raft the raft floated down the river. · You can correct a run-on sentence by separating two complete ideas into two sentences. Each sentence should have a subject and a verb. The boy found the raft. The raft floated down the river.

Correct the run-on sentences by separating them into two sentences. Each sentence should have a subject and a verb. Possible answers 1. I'm bored at Grandma's house she doesn't have a TV.

are given. I'm bored at Grandma's house. She doesn't have a TV. We're going shopping. You can bring your friend along. The dog trotted by. We wondered where it came from.

2. We're going shopping you can bring your friend along.

3. The dog trotted by we wondered where it came from. 4. The shoppers are fascinating I will try drawing them.

The shoppers are fascinating. I will try drawing them.

5. I played with the neighbors they let me stay for lunch.

I played with the otters. They let me stay for lunch.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

6. I bought my dog a collar he wore it for years.

I bought my dog a collar. He wore it for years.

7. We teach the dog tricks he plays with us all day.

We teach the dog tricks. He plays with us all day. My dog sits still. I draw his picture. I hang it on the wall.

Because of Winn-Dixie

Grade 4/Unit 1

8. My dog sits still I draw his picture I hang it on the wall.

21

Practice

Name

Grammar: Run-On Sentences

· You can correct a run-on sentence by rewriting it as a compound or a complex sentence.

Correct these run-on sentences by rewriting them as compound or complex sentences. Be sure that the new sentence makes sense. 1. I thought the visit would be boring I had a fun time. 2. I woke up the birds started chirping.

Possible answers are given.

I thought the visit would be boring, but I had a fun time. I woke up as the birds started chirping. She looked at the dog and wondered why he started barking. She told him to be quiet, but he didn't listen. My sister likes animals and has a cat.

3. She looked at the dog wondered why he started barking.

4. She told him to be quiet he didn't listen. 5. My sister likes animals she has a cat.

6. My aunt is allergic to cats my uncle is too.

My aunt and uncle are allergic to cats. We like to swim, but we like to surf even more. We have to be careful because the water is deep.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

7. We like to swim we like to surf even more. 8. We have to be careful the water is deep.

22

Because of Winn-Dixie

Grade 4/Unit 1

Practice

Name

Grammar: Correcting Fragments and Run-Ons

· You can correct a run-on sentence by separating two complete ideas into two sentences. Make sure each sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a period. · You can correct a run-on sentence by rewriting it as a compound or complex sentence. Be sure to use a comma before and, but, or or.

Correct the following run-on sentences. Separate the parts into two sentences, or join the parts into one compound or complex sentence. 1. The workroom is messy there are books, sketches, and fishing poles Possible answers are given. everywhere.

The workroom is messy. There are books, sketches, and fishing poles everywhere. We want to camp out, but it is too cold outdoors. It's hard to photograph animals. They get frightened and run away. Hal likes his raft, but the dog barks at it. I wear a life jacket. I can't swim well. The dog jumped into the raft and tipped it over.

2. We want to camp out it is too cold outdoors.

3. It's hard to photograph animals, they get frightened and run away.

4. Hal likes his raft the dog barks at it.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

5. I wear a life jacket I can't swim well.

6. The dog jumped into the raft tipped over.

Because of Winn-Dixie

Grade 4/Unit 1

23

Practice

Name

Grammar: Run-On Sentences

· run-on sentencejoinstogethertwoormoresentences. A · oucancorrectarun-onsentencebyseparatingtwo Y completeideasintotwosentences. · oucancorrectarun-onsentencebyrewritingitasa Y compoundorcomplexsentence. Rewrite the journal entry below, correcting any punctuation and grammar mistakes. Be sure to fix any run-on sentences. April 10, 2010 Mom, Dad, Dave, and I went rafting on Foamy River today we had so much fun! We were worried about the water being cold it is only April. We brought extra sweaters. Of course, we also brought our lifejackets? Dave and I wanted to steer the raft we were too little. The current was very strong. The raft went up and down we got splashed a few times. We passed the woods my brother saw a deer. At the end of the day we were tired we want to go again soon. Possible answers are given.

April 10, 2010 Mom, Dad, Dave, and I went rafting on Foamy River today. We had so much fun! We were worried about the water being cold since it is only April. We brought extra sweaters. Of course, we also brought our lifejackets.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Dave and I wanted to steer the raft, but we were too little. The current was very strong. The raft went up and down, and we got splashed a few times. We passed the woods where my brother saw a deer. At the end of the day, we were tired, but we want to go again soon.

24

Because of Winn-Dixie

Grade 4/Unit 1

Practice

Name

Grammar: Run-On Sentences

A. Correct these run-on sentences by separating them into two sentences. Possible answers are given. 1. Have you ever been to the zoo it's lots of fun.

Have you ever been to the zoo? It's lots of fun. My grandfather is a painter. He paints animals. I looked up. A huge elephant was standing there. Beavers are so funny-looking. Have you ever seen one? I drew the fawn. I showed it to my classmates.

2. My grandfather is a painter he paints animals.

3. I looked up a huge elephant was standing there.

4. Beavers are so funny-looking have you ever seen one? 5. I drew the fawn I showed it to my classmates.

B. Rewrite the following run-on sentences as compound or complex sentences. Be sure that the new sentences make sense. 6. My older sister trains animals they appear in films. 7. She teaches them tricks they behave like people.

Possible answers are given.

My older sister trains animals that appear in films. She teaches them tricks, and they behave like people. One dog has to whimper as if he is sad. Sometimes he cries on cue, but sometimes he barks. She says dogs are easy to train, but cats are a challenge.

Because of Winn-Dixie

Grade 4/Unit 1

8. One dog has to whimper he is sad.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

9. Sometimes he cries on cue sometimes he barks.

10. She says dogs are easy to train cats are a challenge.

25

Practice

Name

Grammar: Common and Proper Nouns

· A noun names a person, place, or thing. · A common noun names any person, place, or thing. Examples: teacher city dog · A common noun does not begin with a capital letter. · A common noun does not name a particular person, place, or thing. These words are not common nouns: Mr. Smith, Chicago, Spot. Underline the common nouns in each sentence. 1. Baseball is my favorite sport. 2. Our team's pitcher is from Japan. 3. My father says the New York Yankees are a great team. 4. Listen to the noise of the crowd sitting in the bleachers. 5. New players come from around the world. 6. Alex and Daniel play baseball in the backyard. 7. My sister uses a wooden bat. 8. Don't throw the ball in the house! 9. The batter has two strikes. 10. John lost his mitt. 11. Your foot has to touch the base. 12. Let's watch the game together. 14. Did you bring your cleats?

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

13. That ball is a foul.

26

My Brother Martin

Grade 4/Unit 2

Practice

Name

Grammar: Common and Proper Nouns

· A proper noun names a particular person, place, or thing Examples: Ms. Brown San Francisco Atlantic Ocean · A proper noun begins with a capital letter. · Some proper nouns contain more than one word. Each important word begins with a capital letter. Examples: Statue of Liberty New England Patriots · The name of a day, month, or holiday begins with a capital letter. Read the list of nouns below. Decide whether each noun is common or proper and write it in the correct column. Capitalize the nouns in the Proper column. independence day barack obama airplane weekend COMMON summer museum dr. king movie birthday super bowl speech firefighter PROPER san francisco july mount shasta georgia

summer birthday museum airplane speech weekend movie firefighter

Independence Day San Francisco Barack Obama Super Bowl July Dr. King Mount Shasta Georgia

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

My Brother Martin

Grade 4/Unit 2

27

Practice

Name

Grammar: Capitalizing Proper Nouns

· Some proper nouns contain more than one word. Each important word begins with a capital letter. · The name of a day, month, or holiday begins with a capital letter. · Capitalize proper nouns that name historical events or documents, languages, races, or nationalities.

Capitalize the proper nouns found in each sentence. 1. I like to go to movies with my brother matt and his friends.

I like to go to movies with my brother Matt and his friends. Last Saturday, we saw a double feature. The first movie starred an actress named Rita Khan.

2. Last saturday, we saw a double feature.

3. The first movie starred an actress named rita khan. 4. The second film took place in atlanta.

The second film took place in Atlanta.

5. Next week we will plant trees on arbor day.

Next week we will plant trees on Arbor Day.

6. Some of the trees come from a canadian nursery.

Some of the trees come from a Canadian nursery.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

7. I didn't know that the rocky mountains went that far north.

I didn't know that the Rocky Mountains went that far north.

8. Some canadian movies we've seen were in french.

Some Canadian movies we've seen were in French.

28

My Brother Martin

Grade 4/Unit 2

Practice

Name

Grammar: Common and Proper Nouns

· omepropernounscontainmorethanoneword.Each S importantwordbeginswithacapitalletter. · henameofaday,month,orholidaybeginswithacapital T letter. Rewrite the invitation below. Fix any spelling, punctuation, and grammar mistakes. Remember to capitalize each important word in a proper noun. Use a separate page if you need more space. westfield little league invites you to attend our 2009 most valuable player awards ceremony at five o'clock on sunday, january 25 westfield town hall 501 central avenue, westfield, virginia Please contact sally and jim smith at 555-1212 if you plan to attend. We hope you will join us!

Westfield Little League invites you to attend our 2009 Most Valuable Player Awards Ceremony at five o'clock on Sunday, January 25 Westfield Town Hall

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

501 Central Avenue, Westfield, Virginia Please contact Sally and Jim Smith at 555-1212 if you plan to attend. We hope you will join us!

My Brother Martin

Grade 4/Unit 2

29

Practice

Name

Grammar: Common and Proper Nouns

A. Find the two nouns in each sentence and write them on the lines. 1. Halle Berry is a famous actress. Halle Berry 2. Ms. Berry won an Oscar.

actress

Ms. Berry

Oscar

3. The award was a great achievement.

award

achievement

4. Dr. Zed talked to my mom. 5. 6. 7. 8.

mom Monday Her appointment was on Monday. appointment assistant test His assistant scheduled a test. mother vacation My mother needs a vacation. trip Our trip is scheduled for Martin Luther King Day. Martin Luther King Day Dr. Zed

B. Use the nouns in the box to complete each sentence in a way that makes sense. Don't forget to capitalize any proper nouns. jill beach dog february auditorium florida speaker .

9. We drove from Nebraska to 10. Our

Florida beach . February .

dog

stayed in the back seat.

11. I had never set foot on a 12. I've been waiting since 13. Ask

Jill to come with us. 14. We sat in the auditorium . speaker ? 15. Where is today's

30

My Brother Martin

Grade 4/Unit 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice

Name

Grammar: Singular and Plural Nouns

· A singular noun names one person, place, or thing. Examples: teacher, city, dog · A plural noun names more than one person, place, or thing. Examples: teachers, cities, dogs · Add -s to form the plural of most singular nouns.

Decide whether each underlined word is a singular or plural noun. Then write singular or plural on the line. 1. There are no games here. 2. My family is going to the city. 3. We're going to stay with my grandparents. 4. They sent us a ticket. 5. Grandpa is meeting us at the bus station. 6. We're waiting to take our seats. 7. This trip is taking forever! 8. It's been weeks since I've seen them. 9. The pages of my diary are filling up. 10. I miss the park I used to go to. 11. I had to sell my bike. 12. The stadium is crowded. 13. The pitcher threw two strikes.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

14. We bought some new clothes. 15. We learned several new cheers.

plural singular plural singular singular plural singular plural plural singular singular singular plural plural plural

Mighty Jackie

Grade 4/Unit 2

31

Practice

Name

Grammar: Singular and Plural Nouns

· Add-s toformthepluralofmostsingularnouns. · dd-estoformthepluralofsingularnounsthatendins, sh, A ch,orx. · oformthepluralofnounsendinginaconsonantandy, T changeytoiandadd-es. · Toformthepluralofnounsendinginavowelandy,add-s.

Write the correct plural form of each noun in parentheses. 1. Wesaw(foxs)

foxes

runningacrosstheprairie.

2. Manypeoplefromother(countrys) theUnitedStates. 3. (Massies)

countries havecometo

Masses

4. Sometravelerskeep(diarys)

diaries . 5. Gatherafew(branchs) branches sowecanbuildafire. bushes . 6. Shecaughtarabbitthatwashidinginthe(bushs) boys tohelpmemilk 7. Iaskedtheneighbor'stwo(boyes)

thecow. 8. Somepeopleusedtheoldtrail,butafewfoundnew(pathway)

ofpeopletraveledtothewestinthe1800s.

pathways

.

32

Mighty Jackie

Grade 4/Unit 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

scratches . babies 10. Pleasefeedthe(babys) . boxes 11. Weneedmore(boxs) thanthat! pages 12. Iwillwritetwomore(pagies) today.

9. Thatchesthasmany(scratchs)

Practice

Name

Grammar: Using Commas in a Series

· A comma tells the reader to pause between the words that it separates. · Use commas to separate three or more words in a series. Example: We enjoyed the mountains, the trees, and the clouds in the park. · Do not use a comma after the last word in a series. Rewrite the sentences below by adding commas where they belong. 1. He fed milked and groomed the cows.

He fed, milked, and groomed the cows. Go to the store and get flour, eggs, and sugar. Mexico, Canada, and Spain are three countries I have visited. Bring wood, nails, and a hammer. I like running, swimming, and biking in the summer.

2. Go to the store and get flour eggs and sugar.

3. Mexico Canada and Brazil are three countries I have visited. 4. Bring wood nails and a hammer.

5. I like running swimming and biking in the summer. 6. This city feels dirty strange and lonely.

This city feels dirty, strange, and lonely. Mosquitoes, spiders, and ants annoyed us. I brought my checklist, my pencil, and an eraser. My mother, father, and brother are coming along. The pitcher, catcher, and umpire are talking.

7. Mosquitoes spiders and ants annoyed us.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

8. I brought my checklist my pencil and an eraser.

9. My mother father and brother are coming along. 10. The pitcher catcher and umpire are talking.

Mighty Jackie

Grade 4/Unit 2

33

031_035_A4GR_TXNA_U2W2_RD11.indd33 33

1st Pass

1/21/11 7:42:40 PM

Practice

Name

Grammar: Singular and Plural Nouns

· Add-stoformthepluralofmostsingularnouns. · dd-estoformthepluralofsingularnounsthatendins, sh, A ch,orx. · oformthepluralofnounsendinginaconsonantandy, T changeyto iandadd-es. · Toformthepluralofnounsendinginavowelandy,add-s. Rewrite the radio advertisement below. Fix any spelling, punctuation, and grammar mistakes. Use a separate page if you need more space. Looking for quick fixs for bath and shower time? Dr. Minty's Amazing 3-in-1 Gel is the answer! Use it to clean minor cuts and scratchs. It also works to soothe any itchs rashs or irritations of the skin. Lastly, it's a gentle cleansing alternative to harsh soaps and body washs. It's safe for adultes kids and even babys. The 3-in-1 Gel is available in boxs containing eight twelve or sixteen ounces. It's one of our best buyes--each box lasts for monthies!

Lookingforquickfixesforbathandshowertime? Dr.Minty'sAmazing3-in-1Gelistheanswer!Useit tocleanminorcutsandscratches.Italsoworksto sootheanyitches,rashes,orirritationsoftheskin. Lastly,it'sagentlecleansingalternativetoharsh

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

soapsandbodywashes.It'ssafeforadults,kids, andevenbabies.The3-in-1Gelisavailableinboxes containingeight,twelve,orsixteenounces.It'soneof ourbestbuys--eachboxlastsformonths!

34

Mighty Jackie

Grade4/Unit2

Practice

Name

A. Read each sentence. Find the noun that is singular. Circle your answer. 1. The players practiced before the big game. a. players a. coach a. outfielders a. Our b. practiced b. fans b. raced b. team c. big c. cheer c. catch c. three d. game d. louder d. ball d. innings 2. The coach wants the fans to cheer even louder. 3. Two outfielders raced over to catch the ball. 4. Our team scored three runs in two innings.

Grammar: Singular and Plural Nouns

B. Read each sentence. Find the correct plural form for the nouns in parentheses. Circle your answer. 5. The blue (sky) over the mountains seem so vast and clear. a. skys a. days a. marshs a. citys

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

b. skyes b. dayes b. marshes b. cityes

c. skies c. daies c. marshies c. cities

d. skyies d. dayies d. marshys d. cityies

6. We spent many (day) on our vacation. 7. Be sure to avoid the swamps and (marsh). 8. I've lived in several (city), but I prefer the country.

Mighty Jackie

Grade 4/Unit 2

35

Practice

Name

Grammar: Irregular Plural Nouns

· Some nouns have special plural forms.

calves gentlemen mice lives

lice leaves wives men

children potatoes thieves women

feet knives heroes oxen

geese halves tomatoes teeth

Lookintheaboveboxforthepluralformofeachsingularnoun. Writeitonthelineprovided.

men children 2. child women 3. woman lives 4. life calves 5. calf thieves 6. thief potatoes 7. potato geese 8. goose oxen 9. ox wives 10. wife

1. man

feet heroes 12. hero teeth 13. tooth 14. gentleman gentlemen knives 15. knife 16. tomato tomatoes mice 17. mouse lice 18. louse leaves 19. leaf halves 20. half

11. foot

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

36

Making a Splash

Grade 4/Unit 2

Practice

Name

Grammar: Irregular Plural Nouns

· Afewnounshavethesamepluralandsingularform. · odeterminewhetherthenounissingularorplural,lookat T therestofthesentence.

Read the sentences below. Then decide whether the underlined noun is singular or plural. Write your answer on the line.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

singular plural 2. Aherdofbuffalotrampledacrosstheland. plural 3. Mooseliveincoldplaces,likeCanada. singular 4. Thisspeciesofinsectonlylivesfortwodays. plural 5. Iateclamsandshrimpatdinner. singular 6. Bequietoryoumightscarethatdeeraway. plural 7. Wecaughtfivefishtoday. singular 8. Wesawamooseatthezoo. singular 9. Hedippedeachshrimpintothecocktailsauce. plural 10. Sheepproducewoolforsweaters. plural 11. Werakedtheleavestoday. singular 12. Iamnotafraidofthemouse. plural 13. Sheisgettingherteethcleaned. plural 14. Severaloxenpassedtheranch. singular 15. Hewantedabakedpotato.

1. TherewasnotonesheeponPapa'sfarm.

Making a Splash

Grade 4/Unit 2

37

Practice

Name

Grammar: Irregular Plural Nouns

· Some nouns have special plural forms. · A few nouns have the same singular and plural forms.

Read each sentence. Draw a line under the word in parentheses that is the correct plural form. 1. Chinese (factoryes, factories) produced lots of paper. 2. Some farmers plow with horses and some use (oxes, oxen). 3. We saw many kinds of (fish, fishes) at the aquarium. 4. The first kites floated through the air like (leafs, leaves). 5. I wonder who first realized it's a good idea to brush your (tooths, teeth)? 6. Warm soup filled the (bellys, bellies) of the cold workers. 7. Scientists are working to invent a machine to predict (earthquakes, earthquaks). 8. Hikers rely a great deal on their (compassies, compasses). 9. I think of inventors as (heroes, heros). 10. What different (specieses, species) of animals come from Africa? 11. These inventions have changed many people's (lives, lifes). 12. (Tomatoes, Tomatos) come with the meal.

38

Making a Splash

Grade 4/Unit 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice

Name

Grammar: Irregular Plural Nouns

· Afewnounshavethesamepluralandsingularform. · odeterminewhetherthenounissingularorplural,lookat T therestofthesentence. Rewrite the narrative below. Fix any spelling, punctuation, and grammar mistakes. Be sure to correct the 11 incorrectly formed plural nouns. I want to be a chef who invents new, delicious dishs for people to enjoy! I decided this after visiting a new restaurant a few days ago. All of the mens, womans, and childs there watched the chef with great excitement. I watched him handle his long, sharp knifes carefully. Effortlessly, he diced potatos and tomatoeies into halfs and quarters. The shrimpses and fishies sizzled as he cooked them on the hot grill. When our excellent meal arrived, we really sank our toothes into it. That's when I decided cooking must be a fun way to be creative.

Iwanttobeachefwhoinventsnew,delicious dishesforpeopletoenjoy!Idecidedthisaftervisiting anewrestaurantafewdaysago.Allofthemen, women,andchildrentherewatchedthechefwithgreat excitement.Iwatchedhimhandlehislong,sharpknives carefully.Effortlessly,hedicedpotatoesandtomatoes

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

intohalvesandquarters.Theshrimpandfishsizzledas hecookedthemonthehotgrill.Whenourexcellentmeal arrived,wereallysankourteethintoit.That'swhenI decidedcookingmustbeafunwaytobecreative.

Making a Splash

Grade4/Unit2

39

Practice

Name

Grammar: Irregular Plural Nouns

A. Write yes if the noun below has the same singular and plural forms. Write no if the noun does not have the same singular and plural forms. 1. ship 2. deer 3. calf 4. species 5. moose 6. ox 7. half 8. shrimp

no

yes no yes yes no no yes

B. Complete each sentence with the plural form of the singular noun in parentheses. 9. Two baby (calf)

calves

were born last night.

children 11. It is easier for (child) is for adults to learn one.

13. There were a few (mouse) kitchen. 14. The (thief) 15. My (foot)

10. Which of the inventors were (woman)

women

?

to learn a new language than it

12. The married men thanked their (wife)

wives

mice

.

under the stove in the

16. That dog has plenty of (louse)

lice

.

40

Making a Splash

Grade 4/Unit 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

thieves feet

were soon caught. are so tired.

Practice

Name

Grammar: Possessive Nouns

· A possessive noun is a noun that shows who or what owns or has something. · A singular possessive noun is a singular noun that shows ownership. · Form a singular possessive noun by adding an apostrophe (') and -s to a singular noun.

Write the possessive form of each underlined singular noun. 1. My mother e-mails are very funny to read. 2. The book is the library, so please return it.

mother's library's

3. People rang the church loud bells when there was a fire.

church's

4. The inventor fame spread throughout the nation. 5. Have you seen Mary bifocals?

inventor's

Mary's

6. The President is one of America best-known citizens.

America's

7. This old book pages are torn. 8. 9. 10. 11.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

12.

book's doctor's My doctor advice is to exercise more. kite's We used a ribbon to make the kite tail. battery's The battery power is running low. lawyer's The lawyer advice was quite helpful. person's One person work is not enough today. car's office's

13. The car fender is dented. 14. I created the office design.

Wild Horses

Grade 4/Unit 2

41

Practice

Name

Grammar: Possessive Nouns

· A plural possessive noun is a plural noun that shows ownership. · To form the possessive of a plural that ends in s, add an apostrophe. · To form the possessive of a plural noun that does not end in s, add an apostrophe and -s. A few nouns have the same plural and singular form. Write the plural possessive form of each underlined noun. 1. Those experiments purpose was to teach us more about nutrition.

experiments'

2. For the first time, the post office delivered mail directly to people 3. The mayor honored the firefighters heroism. firefighters' houses.

people's

horses' 5. Several countries athletes ran in the race. countries' bells' 6. The church bells ringing woke me.

4. The four horses hooves pounded the dirt. 7. Most limes skins are green, but one kind of lime is yellow.

limes'

8. The children book was very interesting. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Airplanes' objects' 14. Those objects tags are missing.

13. Airplanes tires are fully inflated.

42

Wild Horses

Grade 4/Unit 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

children's workers' That is the workers break room. bulbs' The bulbs shoots will sprout flowers. sinks' Twelve sinks drains must be cleaned out. insects' The insects habits inspired my work.

Practice

Name

Grammar: Punctuating Titles

· Capitalize the first and last words and all important words in the titles of books and newspapers. · Underline titles of books, newspapers, magazines, and TV series. · Put quotation marks around the titles of short stories, articles, songs, poems, and book chapters. · Remember to use apostrophes to form possessive nouns. Rewrite each sentence, making sure the titles are written correctly. 1. One of my favorite books about horses is black beauty.

One of my favorite books about horses is Black Beauty.

2. Nicholas Evans published a book called the horse whisperer in 1995.

Nicholas Evans published a book called The Horse Whisperer in 1995.

3. I learned how to tie things together from an article called nuts about knots.

I learned how to tie things together from an article called "Nuts about Knots."

4. The article was published in the magazine science for kids.

The article was published in the magazine Science for Kids. My friend is writing a short story titled "A Ride to Remember." He hopes to get his story published in his local newspaper, the Miami Herald.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

5. My friend is writing a short story titled a ride to remember.

6. He hopes to get his story published in his local newspaper, the miami herald.

Wild Horses

Grade 4/Unit 2

43

Practice

Name

Grammar: Possessive Nouns

· A singular possessive noun is a singular noun that shows ownership. · A plural possessive noun is a plural noun that shows ownership.

Rewrite the book review below. Fix any spelling, punctuation, and grammar mistakes. Be sure to correct any mistakes in titles or possessive nouns. I enjoyed Spencer MacDonalds new novel, range racers, more than any of his other books. Tyler Robbins is the stories main character. He helps his father train horses in Montana. Tyler also takes care of the horses food and water. One summer, the neighbors's daughter Amelia challenges Tyler to a race. At first they don't tell anyone about it, but then a reporter from the local paper, the prairie post, writes a story about them called two teens race across the range. The authors description of the actual race pumps up the readers excitement. It rivals the horse race in his other book, a second wind for wendy.

I enjoyed Spencer MacDonald's new novel, Range Racers, more than any of his other books. Tyler Robbins is the story's main character. He helps his father train horses in Montana. Tyler also takes care of the horses' food and water. One summer, the neighbors' daughter Amelia challenges Tyler to a race. At first they don't tell anyone about it, but then a reporter from the local paper, The Prairie Post, writes a story about them called "Two Teens Race Across the Range." The author's description of the actual race pumps up the reader's excitement. It rivals the horse race in his other book, A Second Wind for Wendy.

44

Wild Horses

Grade 4/Unit 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice

Name

Grammar: Possessive Nouns

A. hoosethecorrectsingularpossessiveformtocompleteeach C sentence. 1. a. Edisons a. fire' a. oceans a. king's 2. The 3. The 4. The inventionchangedtheworld. b. Edison' b. fire's b. oceans' b. kings c. Edison's c. fires' c. ocean c. kings' d. Edisons' d. fires d. ocean's d. king' effectwasdevastating. temperatureiswarmerinsomeplaces. laughterlastedalongtime.

B. hoosethecorrectpluralpossessiveformtocompleteeach C sentence. 5. These a. people inventionswereamazing! b. peoples c. peoples' d. people's righttotakeoutpatentswas c. inventors' c. workers c. children's c. book's c. experiment' d. inventor' d. worker's d. childrens d. book d. experiments'

6. African-American recognizedaftertheCivilWar.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

a. inventors a. worker a. childs' a. books

b. inventor's b. workers' b. childrens' b. books'

7. Themany 8. The 9. Allofthe 10. These

effortsledtoanewcreation. amazementshowedontheirfaces. coversweretorn. purposesmustbemadeclearer.

a. experiments b. experiment's

Wild Horses

Grade 4/Unit 2

45

Practice

Name

Grammar: Plurals and Possessives

· A plural noun names more than one person, place, or thing. · Add -s to most nouns to form the plural. Do not use an apostrophe. · To form the plural of most nouns that end in y, change the y to i and add -es.

Write the plural form of the noun in the parentheses on the line provided. 1. The two girls rode their (bike)

bikes up the hill. drinks into the library. 2. You're not allowed to bring (drink) Libraries are good places to go to find information. 3. (Library) copies of this 4. We are not allowed to make (copy)

photograph. 5. I bet the (person) movies.

people

who work in theaters see many

6. The museum has a special section just for (child) 7. I want to look up some (fact) 9. These (map) lived.

children

.

facts

.

about horses.

8. I am also checking out a book of folk (tale)

tales

maps

show where Native Americans once

11. There are many (mystery)

46

Mystic Horse

Grade 4/Unit 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

mysteries to read about. stops are nature trails. 12. My favorite (stop) 13. I found some great history (magazine) magazines . museums in the city. 14. We like the (museum)

10. I like to watch television shows about (animal)

animals

.

Practice

Name

Grammar: Plurals and Possessives

· A plural noun names more than one person, place, or thing. · Add -s to most nouns to form the plural. Do not use an apostrophe. · A possessive noun shows who or what owns or has something. · Add an apostrophe (') and -s to a singular noun to make it possessive.

Write a plural noun or a possessive noun to complete each sentence. Use the singular nouns in the box to help you. box picture horse story grass pony home

1. Marika didn't like the 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

9. 10.

story's ending. homes during the storm. Many people lost their stories about the Great Plains. I want to read some ponies look somewhat similar. Horses and grasses on the lawn. We planted several kinds of grass's coolness. We enjoyed lying down in the boxes to see what's inside? Will you help me open those picture's color. We used the computer to adjust the box's lid is moving! Oh no, that horse's legs are longer than a pony's. A

Mystic Horse

Grade 4/Unit 2

47

Practice

Name

Grammar: Punctuation in Letters

· Beginthesalutationandclosingofaletterwithacapitalletter. · Useacommaafterthesalutationandclosinginaletter. · Useacommabetweenthenamesofacityandstate. · Useacommabetweenthedayandtheyearinadate. · sethefollowingabbreviationsforpeople'stitles:Mr., Mrs., U Ms., Dr. (Doctor),Jr.(Junior),Sr. (Senior) · seU.S.Postalserviceabbreviationsforthestatename. U Correctly rewrite the letter below. DearDoctorMitchell, Thankyousomuchforcomingtospeaktoourclasslastmonth.We allreallyenjoyedyourslideshowaboutreptiles.Ourteacher,Mister Nelson,taughtawholeunitaboutreptilesthatweek. Yourfriend BobbyHernandez 506CedarLane albany,NewYork10965 February22010

DearDr.Mitchell,

506CedarLane Albany,NY10965 February2,2010

Thankyousomuchforcomingtospeaktoour classlastmonth.Weallreallyenjoyedyourslide showaboutreptiles.Ourteacher,Mr.Nelson,taughta wholeunitaboutreptilesthatweek. Yourfriend, BobbyHernandez

48

Mystic Horse

Grade4/Unit2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice

Name

Grammar: Plurals and Possessives

· A plural noun names more than one person, place, or thing. · A possessive noun shows who or what owns or has something. Correctly rewrite the letter below. December 9, 2010 Ms Margaret Wilson History Department University of Georgia Atlanta, GA 33560 Dear ms Wilson: Thank you for answering our class'es questions about Native American tribes. The maps you brought helped a great deal. The mapses colors really made the boundarys between nations clear. Have you read Louise Erdrich books? They are some of my families favorites. Yours truly, Kevin Andrews, Junior

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Ms. Margaret Wilson History Department University of Georgia Atlanta, GA 33560 Dear Ms. Wilson: Thank you for answering our class's questions about Native American tribes. The maps you brought helped a great deal. The maps' colors really made the boundaries between nations clear. Have you read Louise Erdrich's books? They are some of my family's favorites. Yours truly, Kevin Andrews, Jr.

December 9, 2010

Mystic Horse

Grade 4/Unit 2

49

Practice

Name

Grammar: Plurals and Possessives

A. Decide whether each underlined word is a plural noun or a possessive noun. Then write plural or possessive on the line provided.

plural 3. The teacher's science lesson was very interesting. possessive

2. The horses left clear tracks in the sand. 4. Some reptiles change color to match their surroundings.

1. This spider's bite is not poisonous. possessive

plural

5. We went to see the museum's display. possessive

plural plural 7. The facts are very important. 8. That cat's fur is shiny. possessive

6. I decided to write down some notes.

B. Choose the plural or possessive noun that best completes each sentence. Write it on the line provided. 9. Shawna grew up in midwestern (states, states').

states tribes 10. She met Native Americans from several (tribe's, tribes).

11. The (farmers, farmer's) crops were harmed by the insects.

farmer's colors

12. The (colors, color's) of the nation's flag were red, black, and gold. 13. The (magazines, magazine's) articles were very helpful. magazine's 15. Several (people, people's) stopped by the exhibit.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

14. Don't touch those (animals, animals') skeletons!

animals' people

50

Mystic Horse

Grade 4/Unit 2

Practice

Name

Grammar: Action Verbs

· A verb tells what the subject does or is. · A verb can include more than one word. There may be a main verb and a helping verb.

Read each sentence. Write each verb on the lines provided. 1. The children race across the auditorium. 2. He pauses near the playing field. 3. A ball is bouncing down the stairs. 4. The students look out the window. 5. They are staring at the storm clouds. 6. The rain is falling again.

race

pauses is bouncing look are staring

is falling jumps is blowing shakes cancels

7. A bird jumps from branch to branch. 8. The wind is blowing the leaves around. 9. Thunder shakes the entire building. 10. The coach cancels the afternoon game.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

When I Went to the Library

Grade 4/Unit 3

51

Practice

Name

Grammar: Action Verbs

· An action verb tells what a subject does, did, or will do. · Action verbs have different tenses. They can show action in the past, present, or future.

Read each sentence. On the lines provided, write present, past, or future to name the tense of each underlined verb. 1. The diver stretched out against the sky. 2. The water flashes silver in the hot sun. 3. The wet dog swished his long tail.

past present past present

4. A squirrel scurries away when it hears the dog bark. 5. A small mouse will crawl away.

future past

6. The waves reached the edge of the rock. 7. A bee buzzes past the blossom. 8. The girl hurries down the trail.

present present future

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

9. She will quickly pass by a cold, shaded area. 10. She approached the river with caution.

past

52

When I Went to the Library

Grade 4/Unit 3

Practice

Name

Grammar: Punctuation in Dialogue

· Use quotation marks at the beginning and end of a speaker's exact words. Begin a quotation with a capital letter. · Commas and periods always go inside quotation marks. · Do not use quotation marks when you do not use the speaker's exact words.

Rewrite each sentence correctly by putting capital letters and quotation marks where they belong. 1. Roberto asked me, have you ever eaten enchiladas?

Roberto asked me, "Have you ever seen a rattlesnake?" "No, I never have," I answered. Roberto told me that rattlesnakes are his favorite animal. Our science teacher said, "We will continue our work in the library." "Choose a new topic for research," she explained. "I will find books about reptiles," Andrea said. "You might also check out amphibians, Andrea," replied Ms. Giordello. "How do I know where to look?" asked Hakim.

2. no, I never have, I answered.

3. Roberto told me that enchiladas are his favorite meal.

4. Our science teacher said, we will continue our work in the library.

5. choose a new topic for research, she explained.

6. I will find books about reptiles, Andrea said.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

7. you might also check out amphibians, Andrea, replied Ms. Giordello.

8. how do i know where to look asked Hakim.

When I Went to the Library

Grade 4/Unit 3

53

Practice

Name

Grammar: Action Verbs

· Action verbstellwhatthesubjectdoes,did,orwilldo. · Actionverbshavetensesthatcanshowactioninthepresent, past,orfuture. Proofread the dialogue below. Look for mistakes in action verb tenses and quotations. Rewrite the dialogue, action verbs, and quotations correctly. I am so excited! Tomorrow we arrived in Taos, New Mexico! Carla says. Dad will reply, Yes, we should be there in about a day. Mom points to the mountains in the distance. She will say, stop the car so we can take some pictures. Carla remarks, I will see a strange bird in the distance. Dad explained, the bird was a roadrunner. Carla watched the speedy bird. It passes close enough to see its feathers.

"I am so excited! Tomorrow we will arrive in Taos, New Mexico!" Carla says. Dad replies, "Yes, we should be there in about a day." Mom points to the mountains in the distance. She says, "Stop the car so we can take some pictures." Carla remarks, "I see a strange bird in the distance."

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Dad explains, "The bird is a roadrunner." Carla watches the speedy bird. It passes close enough to see its feathers.

54

When I Went to the Library

Grade 4/Unit 3

Practice

Name

Grammar: Action Verbs

A. Read each sentence. Circle the letter of the sentence that has a present-tense action verb. 1. a. The author signs his new book in the library. b. He wrote it four years ago. c. The illustrator will be here tomorrow. d. They visited our class and answered questions. 2. a. The snake will slither past the sidewalk. b. The goat galloped into the gulley. c. The wind was whipping through the willows. d. The flocks of birds fly far, far away. B. Read each sentence. Fill in the blank with an action verb. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Possible responses provided. runs across the field. The athlete watches the sky for signs of rain. The weather reporter glides across the ice. The skater feeds her babies. The mother bird

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

When I Went to the Library

Grade 4/Unit 3

55

Practice

Name

Grammar: Verb Tenses

· A verb in the past tense tells about an action that already happened. · Add -ed to most verbs to show past tense. · If a verb ends with e, drop the e and add -ed. · If a verb ends with a consonant and y, change y to i and add -ed. Write the verb in parentheses in the past tense. 1. We celebrated my birthday last month. (celebrate) 2. People

stayed

home from school for the holiday. (stay)

3. The students in our school health fair. (learn) 4. We prepared (prepare) 5. Today my class (perform) 6. James 7. He 8. He

learned

about nutrition before the

a program of events about world cultures.

performed a play about American history.

the lead in the show. (play) his lines before going onstage. (practice) his Aunt Betty to come to the play. (ask)

played asked

practiced

10. We all

tried

our best to make the show a success. (try)

56

Dear Mrs. LaRue

Grade 4/Unit 3

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

9. Our teacher, Mrs. Clark, started. (wish)

wished

us good luck before the play

Practice

Name

Grammar: Verb Tenses

· A verb in the future tense tells about an action that is going to happen. · To write about the future, use the helping verb will. Underline the action verb in each sentence. Rewrite the sentence so it tells about the future. 1. The teachers assign a project about important laws.

The teachers will assign a project about important laws.

2. The students work in pairs.

The students will work in pairs.

3. All of the classes go to the library.

All of the classes will go to the library.

4. Cordell and Janine find out about voting.

Cordell and Janine will find out about voting.

5. Yvonne and Frank learn about educational rights.

Yvonne and Frank will learn about educational rights.

6. The librarians show us the right books and magazines.

The librarians will show us the right books and magazines.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

7. Juan and Patricia give an oral report.

Juan and Patricia will give an oral report.

8. Josie and Emmett create a poster.

Josie and Emmett will create a poster.

Dear Mrs. LaRue

Grade 4/Unit 3

57

Practice

Name

Grammar: Subject-Verb Agreement

· The present tense must have subject-verb agreement. Add -s to most verbs if the subject is singular. Do not add -s if the subject is plural or I or you. · Add -es to verbs that end in s, ch, sh, x, or z if the subject is singular. Do not add -es when the subject is plural or I or you.

Pick the correct form of the verb in each sentence below. Underline your answer. 1. Ms. Harkner's class (take, takes) a field trip today. 2. The students (visit, visits) a historic site. 3. The class (hurry, hurries) to the buses at 9:00 a.m. 4. The buses (reach, reaches) their destination at 10:00 a.m. 5. Tour guides (show, shows) us through the exhibits. 6. A guide (teach, teaches) us about various documents and artifacts. 7. She (say, says) there are many more at the university. 8. The house that stands there (remain, remains) a landmark. 9. My parents and I (discuss, discusses) the trip often. 10. My sister's class (will tour, will tours) the site next week.

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Dear Mrs. LaRue

Grade 4/Unit 3

Practice

Name

Grammar: Verb Tenses

· A verb in the past tense tells about an action that already happened. · A verb in the future tense tells about an action that is going to happen. Rewrite the poem below. Change the underlined verbs to the past tense. Then circle the verb in the future tense. Just History? To me, it's a mystery -- Why do people think heroes are history? They stand on the brink of change. They dream of better days. They speak with calm strength. Our world may seem cold, but they seek to warm it. Heroes, we will follow your lead.

Just History? To me, it's a mystery -- Why do people think heroes are history? They stood on the brink of change.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

They dreamed of better days. They spoke with calm strength. Our world may seem cold, but they seek to warm it. Heroes, we will follow your lead.

Dear Mrs. LaRue

Grade 4/Unit 3

59

Practice

Name

Grammar: Verb Tenses

A. Rewrite each underlined verb, using the correct past-tense form. 1. Gordon help Ms. Morrison decorate the classroom.

helped copied

2. The students copy quotes from famous poets onto banners. 3. Gordon place a banner on the wall.

placed fluttered pushed

4. The corner of the banner flutter in the breeze.

5. The teacher push a pin into each corner of the banner.

B. Choose a verb from the box below to complete each sentence. Write the correct future-tense form of the verb.

fix

invite

tape

wish

worry

6. I

will tape

the sign to the wall. people to our local arts celebration. that the sign isn't straight. the sign for us. everyone welcome as they walk

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

7. The sign 8. Anna

will invite will worry

9. Ms. Morrison

will fix

will wish 10. Our class into the room.

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Dear Mrs. LaRue

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Main and Helping Verbs

· Themain verbinasentenceshowswhatthesubjectdoes oris. · Ahelping verb helpsthemainverbshowanactionormake astatement. · Have, has,andhad canbehelpingverbs. · Is, are, am, was, were,andwill canbehelpingverbs. Write a main verb or helping verb to complete each sentence. 1. Charlie 2. Hehas 3. Charlie help. 4. He

has, had studied, looked at was, is will

searchedforaplacetovolunteer. listsofgroups.

Sample answers provided.

worryingaboutchoosingtherightplaceto

chopping, cutting, eating 5. Thepeopleinthesoupkitchenare vegetables.

6. Manypeople

visitdifferentgroups.

have

donatedclothestothisgroup.

7. ThisafternoonCharlieis leavetheirhomes.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

shopping

forpeoplewhocouldn't

8. Hehas 9. Charlie

mopped, cleaned will

floorsattheanimalshelter. pitchinwhereverhecan.

10. Theleadersofthegroupsare he'sdoneagreatjob.

thanking

himandtellinghim

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Main and Helping Verbs

· The main verb in a sentence shows what the subject does or is. · A helping verb helps the main verb show an action or make a statement. · Have, has, had, is, are, am, was, were, and will are helping verbs. · Is, are, am, was, and were can be used with a main verb ending in -ing. A verb in the past tense tells about an action that already happened. · Will is a helping verb used to show an action in the future. Draw one line under each helping verb. Draw two lines under each main verb. 1. Lorette always has liked to help others. 2. Next year, she will volunteer at the homeless shelter. 3. The shelter workers have decided to train student volunteers. 4. Lorette has considered other ways to help. 5. She is starting her own group. 6. Lorette and her group are collecting things for flood victims. 7. As of last week, they had gathered jackets, school supplies, and backpacks. 8. I am thinking of joining the group. 9. Yesterday we were talking about the group. 10. My friends will definitely help, too.

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Punctuation in Contractions

· A contraction is a shortened form of two words. · A contraction can be made by combining certain verbs with the word not. · An apostrophe (') shows that the letter o has been left out. · Examples of contractions: is + not = isn't, did + not = didn't Read each sentence. Write the contraction for each set of underlined words. 1. Annie has not finished sorting the bags of donated clothes.

hasn't

2. Chris is not making cookies for himself but will sell them at the bake sale.

isn't

3. Gina does not use these toys anymore, so she will donate them.

doesn't

4. Stacy and Steven will help, too, because they are not selfish.

aren't

5. Sam could not make it to the bake sale, but he raked leaves at the 6. We should not bring toys to the hospital after 8 p.m.

shouldn't 7. Carlos enjoyed his work so much, he did not want to leave. didn't don't

park.

couldn't

8. Amy and Alex do not work at the animal shelter on Thursdays.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

9. Karen and Stanley have not decided yet where to volunteer.

haven't weren't

10. The volunteers were not needed at the nursing home today.

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Main and Helping Verbs

· Themain verb inasentenceshowswhatthesubjectdoesoris. · Ahelping verb helpsthemainverbshowanactionormakea statement.Add-edtomostverbstoshowpasttense. · Have, has,andhadcanbehelpingverbs. · Is, are, am, was, were, and will canbehelpingverbs. Rewrite the paragraphs below. Be sure to correct any main verbs, helping verbs, or contractions that are used incorrectly. Everyone should volunteering to help others. It does'nt matter what you do. Any way you can help will makes a difference. You don'ot have to give up all of your free time. You can help even by volunteering just a few hours a week. Many local organizations are count on volunteers. One way you can help is by working at a soup kitchen. Starting on Wednesday, I will work at the soup kitchen on Fifth Street. I am look forward to it. If you take time to help others, you will knowed that you has made your community a better place.

Everyoneshouldvolunteertohelpothers.Itdoesn't matterwhatyoudo.Anywayyoucanhelpwillmake adifference.Youdon'thavetogiveupallofyourfree time.Youcanhelpevenbyvolunteeringjustafew hoursaweek.Manylocalorganizationsarecounting onvolunteers. Onewayyoucanhelpisbyworkingatasoupkitchen. StartingonWednesday,Iwillworkatthesoupkitchen onFifthStreet.Iamlookingforwardtoit. Ifyoutaketimetohelpothers,youwillknowthat youhavemadeyourcommunityabetterplace.

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Words Add Up to Success

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Main and Helping Verbs

A. Read each sentence. Draw one line under the helping verb and two lines under the main verb. 1. The class has planned a pancake breakfast. 2. They are hoping to strengthen community spirit. 3. The students have invited everyone in town. 4. Casey and Jerome are mixing milk, eggs, and butter. 5. Scott is pouring batter on the griddle. B. Choose the correct helping verb to complete each sentence. Write it on the line. 6. Anya a. am b. are c. was

was

flipping pancakes like an expert.

7. Gordy and Fred their seats. a. was b. are c. is 8. The class probably a. will b. have c. has

are

pitching in by showing people to

has

succeeded in its goal.

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Linking Verbs

· A linking verb does not show action. It connects the subject to the rest of the sentence. · Is, are, am, was, and were are often used as linking verbs. · Look, seem, appear and become can also be linking verbs. Read each sentence. Underline the linking verbs. 1. The story we read was "Fifi's Talking Flower Farm." 2. It is about a girl who can talk to plants. 3. My classmates were not very happy with it. 4. They are bigger fans of talking animals. 5. The next story on our list is "Barker's Bakery." 6. The first picture is a poodle in a chef's hat. 7. I am eager to find out what happens. 8. The pictures are helpful in making predictions.

66

Ranita, The Frog Princess

Grade 4/Unit 3

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Linking Verbs

· A linking verb does not show action. It connects the subject to the rest of the sentence. · Is, are, am, was, and were are often used as linking verbs. · Some linking verbs link the subject to a noun or pronoun in the predicate. Other linking verbs link the subject to an adjective in the predicate.

Complete each sentence by writing the correct linking verb on the line. Then, underline the complete subject of the sentence. 1. Our social studies project 2. I

is

an interesting assignment.

am

eager to get started on it.

3. The history of fairy tales 4. Ranita, the Frog Princess 5. My classmates and I 6. Many stories 7. The author

is was

the subject of my project. my favorite book last year.

were

unfamiliar with the story.

are was

versions of tales passed down through time. clever and changed the names and setting.

8. Many books about history library.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

are

available located in the school

9. The library

is

so big that I can't always find what I need.

10. Our librarian, Ms. Kribble,

is

helpful to students.

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Subject and Linking Verbs

· UseamorwaswithI.Useaminthepresenttense.Usewas inthepasttense. · Useisorwaswithsingular subjectsorwithhe,she,orit. Useisinthepresenttense.Usewasinthepasttense. · Useareorwerewithplural subjectsorwithyou,we,or they.Useareinthepresenttense.Usewereinthepast tense. · Usewill beforallsubjectsinthefuturetense. A. Write am, is, or are to complete each sentence. 1. Mr.Hernandez 2. I

is

ateacheratourschool.

am

inhishistoryclass.

3. Ithinkhe 4. Hiswords 5. They

is are

agreatteacher. agreatinspirationtome.

are

wordstolistentoandlearnfrom.

B. Write was, were, or will be to complete each sentence. 6. Yesterday,ourlesson 7. He

was

aboutAbrahamLincoln.

was

thesixteenthpresidentoftheUnitedStates. onespeechthathegave.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

8. TheGettysburgAddress 9. Thewordshespoke 10. Inthefuture,I andequality.

was

were

simple,butverymeaningful.

will be readytospreadhismessageofhope

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Ranita, The Frog Princess

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Linking Verbs

· A linking verb does not show action. It connects the subject to the rest of the sentence. · Is, are, am, was, and were are often used as linking verbs. · Some linking verbs link the subject to a noun in the predicate. · Some linking verbs link the subject to an adjective in the predicate. Rewrite the lines of this play. Correct any linking verbs that are used incorrectly. Be sure to use proper punctuation for a play. T.J.: I need an idea for my social studies project. I can't think of anything. (T.J. paces the room nervously.) CARA (confidently): My project are about classic folk tales. T.J.: "That's a good idea, Cara." CARA opens the book and points to a picture. CARA: Other cultures is very interesting to read about. T.J. (excitedly): This were a great idea.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

T.J.: I need an idea for my social studies project. I can't think of anything. (T.J. paces the room nervously.) CARA (confidently): My project is about classic folk tales. T.J.: That's a good idea, Cara. (CARA opens the book and points to a picture.) CARA: Other cultures are very interesting to read about. T.J. (excitedly): This was a great idea.

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Linking Verbs

A. Find the linking verb in each sentence. Write it on the line. 1. The college my sister Sharon attends is in California. 2. Sharon and her friends were hard workers in high school.

is

were

3. Even as a girl, she was interested in world history.

was

4. Foreign languages are part of what she studies in college.

are

B. Find the noun or adjective in the predicate that is linked to the subject by a linking verb. Write the noun or adjective on the line. 5. Pedro's favorite book is now a movie.

movie

6. The lives of our grandparents were different from ours.

different

7. Dr. Gonzalez and Dr. Lasser are experts on the family histories.

experts

8. Pedro's report on his family tree was very detailed.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

detailed

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Ranita, The Frog Princess

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Irregular Verbs

· Anirregular verbisaverbthatdoesnotadd-edtoformthe pasttense. · Theverbsbeandhavealsohaveirregularspellingsforthe presenttense.

Write the correct past-tense form of the underlined verb on the line provided. 1. Thesnowbegin 2.Thesunlightmake 3.Aniciclebreak 4.Ifind

began made broke

tofall. thesnowandiceglitter. offoftheroof.

found

theicicleontheground.

5. Thefirstsnowcome 6.Wego

came

earlierthanusualthisyear.

went

tothepondtoice-skate.

7. ElijahandIdo

did

leaps,twists,andturnsontheice.

flew 8.Hefly bladesofhisskates.

9. Ninadraw

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

throughtheairandlandedsafelyonthe apictureofthefrozenpond.

drew

10.Wedecidedtogohomewhenwesee dark.

saw

itwasgetting

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Irregular Verbs

· Some irregular verbs have special spellings when used with the helping verbs have, has, or had. Read each sentence and the verb choices in parentheses. Underline the verb choice that correctly completes the sentence. 1. Alice has (did, done) many drawings and photographs of the city. 2. She had (make, made) it a hobby by the time she was ten years old. 3. For the past four years, her parents have (given, gave) her a photo album each year for her birthday. 4. Alice has carefully (put, putted) all of her pictures in the albums. 5. Today, the surface of the pond has (frozen, froze). 6. Alice took pictures of the tree because she had (saw, seen) icicles on it. 7. She has (lay, laid) her camera aside while she sketched. 8. By the end of the afternoon, the icicles have (shrunk, shrank) in the sun. 9. Before she went home, Alice had (taken, took) more than 40 pictures.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

10. The next morning, she saw that more snow had (fell, fallen).

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Me and Uncle Romie

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Irregular Verbs

· An irregular verb isaverbthatdoesnotadd-edtoformthe pasttense. · Someirregularverbshavespecialspellingswhenusedwith thehelpingverbshave, has,orhad. Rewrite each sentence with the correct past-tense form of the underlined verb. 1. Wegooutsideanhourago. We went outside an hour ago. 2.Itgrowcolderafterwewentoutside. It grew colder after we went outside. 3.Iknowitwasagoodideatowearmygloves,hat,andscarf. I knew it was a good idea to wear my gloves, hat, 4.Thesnowandiceleavethetreesglisteningandwhite.

and scarf.

The snow and ice left the trees glistening and white. 5. Thepathleadusstraighttotheforest. The path led us straight to the forest. 6. Ikeepmyhandsinmypockets. I kept my hands in my pockets.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

7. Wechoosethefirstdayofwintertotakepicturesoftheforest. We chose the first day of winter to take pictures of 8.Thewindsblowdriftsofsnowagainstthebaretrees.

the forest.

The winds blew drifts of snow against the bare trees.

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Irregular Verbs

· An irregular verb is a verb that does not add -ed to form the past tense. · Some irregular verbs have special spellings when used with the helping verbs have, has, or had. Rewrite the character sketch below. Be sure to correct any mistakes in the use of irregular verbs. Margaret Margaret getted up early. She bringed her notebook to the park. She speaked with the people who had showed up there. She writed down their stories. Ever since she were a little girl, Margaret had know she wanted to write about other people's lives. By the age of 20, she had winned three journalism awards. Now in her thirties, Margaret has began to write a history of the city's oldest residents. She feels it is the best decision she has ever maked.

Margaret Margaret got up early. She brought her notebook to the park. She spoke with the people who had shown up there. She wrote down their stories. Ever since she was a little girl, Margaret had known

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

she wanted to write about other people's lives. By the age of 20, she had won three journalism awards. Now in her thirties, Margaret has begun to write a history of the city's oldest residents. She feels it is the best decision she has ever made.

74

Me and Uncle Romie

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Practice

Name

A. Circle the letter before the irregular verb that correctly completes each sentence. 1. Kevin a. find b. finded c. found d. founded 2. Laurie has a. draw b. drew c. draw d. drawn his catcher's mitt and picked it up.

Grammar: Irregular Verbs

some portraits of family members.

B. Circle the letter before the correct irregular verb and helping verb that completes each sentence. 3. The weather a. has become b. have become c. has became d. have became colder and windier since this morning.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

4. Before she retired, the professor studying family relationships. a. has maded b. has make c. had make d. had made

a career out of

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronouns and Antecedents

· A pronoun is a word that takes the place of one or more nouns. · A pronoun must match the noun it refers to. · Singular pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, me, him, and her. · Plural pronouns are we, you, they, us, and them. · Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject of a sentence and the object of the verb are the same: myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. Underline the incorrect pronoun in each sentence. Then write the correct pronoun on the line provided. 1. There was no sugar left because the ants ate them. 2. Kendra says her cats are angels, but he are not. 3. Why doesn't he enroll her children in kindergarten?

it they she

4. Ask the neighbors to please be quiet because he am trying to sleep.

I

5. My brother and I hope that us can travel to the city. 6. Carl said that him wanted to come home. 7. Our mother said that her would like to see a show. happy.

we she

he

8. When Edward and Sandra were together again, them were very

they

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The Cricket in Times Square

Grade 4/Unit 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

himself myself 10. I pride meself on my excellent writing skills.

9. Nicholas checked hisself in the mirror.

Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronouns and Antecedents

· A pronoun is a word that takes the place of one or more nouns. · A pronoun must match its antecedent, or the noun it refers to. · Singular pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, me, him, and her. · Plural pronouns are we, you, they, us, and them. Write the pronoun that correctly replaces the underlined noun in each sentence. 1. At first, Stefan didn't want to go to the city because Stefan thought it was dangerous.

he

2. Lila said Lila found out that bus fares had gone up. decided to bring Caleb. brought a friend today."

she

3. Joshua knew Grandpa would be happy to see Caleb, so Joshua

him

4. The receptionist at the office said to Joshua, "I see Joshua

you

5. Tammy said, "Tammy lost my keys this morning."

I

6. Mr. Woodsum said, "I'm glad you brought the supplies to Mr. Woodsum."

me

7. Tammy asked her friends to give Tammy a ride to the mall.

her

8. Diego said the movie gave Diego the chills.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

him

9. We would take the bus if we knew how much the bus cost.

it

10. Stefan said that Stefan might take the train.

he

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronoun Capitalization and Clarity

· Apronounisawordthattakestheplaceofoneormore nouns. · Apronounmustmatchthenounitrefersto,oritsantecedent. · SingularpronounsareI, you, he, she, it, me, him,andher. · ThepronounImustalwaysbecapitalized. · Pluralpronounsarewe, you, they, us,andthem. Write the pronoun that correctly completes each sentence. 1. Isaid,"

I

thinkImusttakemycattothevet."

2. ItooktheleashbecauseIwouldneed 3.IambrushingmydogTrixie'scoatbecause inashowtomorrow. 4.MydogEdwardneedsmedicine.Igiveitto morning. 5.Janice'sbrothergave

it

she him

toholdthedog. willbe every

her

apictureoftheirdogBuddy.

6.Fidoburiedhisboneintheyard,butnowhecan'tfind

it

.

7. Mysisterand backtous.

I

threwthestick,andourdogbroughtit

8.Fran'smothertoldusthat little. 9. Mycousinscalled,and kittens.

she they

hadacatwhenshewas toldmetheircatjusthad showed

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

10.Mylittlebrotherwantedtofeedthedog,so himhowtodoit.

I

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Grade 4/Unit 4

Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronouns and Antecedents

· · · · ·

A pronoun is a word that takes the place of one or more nouns. A pronoun must match its antecedent. Singular pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, me, him, and her. The pronoun I must always be capitalized. Plural pronouns are we, you, they, us, and them.

Read the following paragraphs. Circle all the incorrect pronouns. Then rewrite the paragraph, making sure all pronouns are correct and match their nouns. Yesterday i took the bus downtown to see a movie with my friend, Sheila. I told her I would meet him at the theater. She asked me, "What do i want to see?" "I thought us both wanted to see that new animated movie." The ticket seller told us the show was about to begin. We gave him our money and they gave us our tickets. Sheila enjoyed the movie better than we did. We also bought popcorn and soda. It cost as much as the tickets!

Yesterday I took the bus downtown to see a movie with my friend, Sheila. I told her I would meet her at the theater. She asked me, "What do you want to see?" "I thought we both wanted to see that new animated movie." The ticket seller told us the show was about to begin. We gave him our money and he gave us our tickets. Sheila enjoyed the movie better than I did. We also bought popcorn and soda. They cost as much as the tickets!

The Cricket in Times Square

Grade 4/Unit 4

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79

Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronouns and Antecedents

A. Write the pronoun that can replace the underlined word or words in each sentence. 1. The witness led the police to the suspect. 2. My sister told my brother to wash the dishes. 3. Sally and her friend tried to bake a cake.

them him she

4. Fido had the ball in his mouth but he wouldn't give the ball to me.

it

5. Edgar and I lifted weights all morning. He and I were both tired afterward. outside.

We

6. If the cats don't stop scratching the couch, we'll have to keep the cats

they

7. We saw our neighbors across the street.

them her

8. I told my sister not to watch the scary movie alone.

B. Write the correct pronouns to complete these sentences. 9. I bought my friends some gum, but

they

didn't like it.

10. Last year my little brother was a baby, and now weighs thirty pounds. 11. My sister didn't believe me when the crossing guard was.

he

I

told her how mean for 16 years. loves

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

12. The Ungers' grandfather has lived with them both equally.

them she 13. My friend Mary has both fish and birds, and her

14. Gertrude has grown up and become a senator. Her family is proud of . 15. We brought my aunt to the beach, but the water. 16. The broken stove has bothered

she us

wouldn't go in for many years.

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Types of Pronouns

· Use a subject pronoun as the subject of a sentence. · I, you, he, she, it, we, and they are subject pronouns. · Use an object pronoun after an action verb or after a word such as for, at, of, with, or to. · Me, you, him, her, it, us, and them are object pronouns.

Underline the incorrect pronouns and write the correct pronouns on the line. 1. Our neighbors loved the mail carrier, and them all missed him when he moved away. garden.

they

2. Everyday when the man woke, him went to work in his

he

She and I We 4. Us are the only ones who could sing the song. They 5. Them are the people we met last year.

3. Her and me went to the store to buy clothes. 6. The young man feared the police officer would be unkind to he.

him

7. Her grandmother gave she a special gift. 8. This is a secret between you and I.

her me them her

9. The tourists used a map to help they get around. 10. The bugs are a bother to she and Grandpa.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

11. My father handed the hammer to I. 12. Don't forget to call we.

me

us

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Types of Pronouns

· Useareflexive pronouninsteadofanobjectpronounif thesubjectofthesentenceisdoingtheactiontohimselfor herself. · Myself,yourself,himself,herself,itself,ourselves,and yourselvesarereflexivepronouns.

Fill in the blanks in the sentences below with the correct reflexive pronoun. 1. Becarefulanddon'thurt

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The Life and Times of the Ant

Grade 4/Unit 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

yourself . myself withatowel. 2.AfterIgoswimming,Idry herself . 3.Yourbabysistercan'tfeed himself dizzybyspinningaroundandaround. 4.Hemade 5.Let'sgive ourselves abreakandtryagainlater. itself inthepuddle. 6.Thebirdwashed 7. Boys,pleaseget yourselves readyfordinner. himself intheshed. 8.Thegardenershutthedoorandlocked himself . 9. Mygrandfatheralmostfell,buthecaught yourself !You'recoveredinmud! 10.Lookat myself 11. Itriedtoreachthetowel . himself 12.Helookedat inthemirror. 13.Wecanplantthattree ourselves . herself 14. Mysistercannotdress withoutsomehelp. yourself tosomecookies. 15.Youcanhelp

Practice

Name

Grammar: Using Subject and Object Pronouns

· Use a subject pronoun as the subject of a sentence or to replace a noun that follows a form of the verb to be. · Use an object pronoun after an action verb or after a preposition--a word such as for, at, of, with, or to.

Read the sentences below. Then write the correct pronouns on the lines provided to complete each sentence. 1. My friend and toward us. 2.

I

saw a female clown walking

She

was holding on to dozens of balloons.

3. When people saw her pass.

her

coming, they moved over to let

4. Does the woman know how funny 5. Then again, being funny-looking is 6. She asked 7. Of course 8. After all, 9. Why do

she her

looks? job.

me I it you

if I knew how to get to 79 Kendall Street. knew. is where I live. think she wanted to know?

10. My brother likes balloons, so maybe she was delivering

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

them you 11. "Do I 12. He

13.

to him. know Zach Huffman?" she asked me. laughed and said it was my brother. was celebrating his birthday that day.

14. This was going to be an interesting day for all of

us

.

The Life and Times of the Ant

Grade 4/Unit 4

83

Practice

Name

Grammar: Types of Pronouns

· Useasubject pronounasthesubjectofasentenceorafter aformoftheverbto be. · I,you,he,she,it,we,andtheyaresubjectpronouns. · Useanobject pronounafteranactionverborafteraword suchasfor,at,of,with,orto. · Me,you,him,her,it,us,andthemareobjectpronouns. A. Circle every pronoun that is not used correctly. Someone gave I directions to the museum You and me need to walk to Maple Street. Then turn right at Oak Street. Mr. Exeter lives there. Him and me go on walks sometimes. If him is in his yard, he will give a big wave to you and I. When we got to the museum, we saw Mrs. Peters. Her and my dad went to school together. Them often like the same paintings B. Rewrite the passage above. Use the correct forms of the pronouns. Be sure to use capital letters and end punctuation correctly.

Someone gave me directions to the museum. You and I need to walk to Maple Street. Then turn right at Oak Street. Mr. Exeter lives there. He and I go on walks sometimes. If he is in his yard, he will give a

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

big wave to you and me. When we got to the museum, we saw Mrs. Peters. She and my dad went to school together. They often like the same paintings.

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Types of Pronouns

A. irclethepronouninparenthesesthatcorrectlycompletes C eachsentence. 1. (He,Him)andtheoldermanwentonajourney. 2.Ihurt(me,myself)whilewalkinginthewoods. 3.Igave(them,they)fivefeathersfrommycollection. 4.(Him,He)andIaregoinghunting. 5. Myparentshelped(we,us)withthearrows. 6.Mybrotherfoundthestones(him,himself). 7. (Them,They)areolderthanwhatIhave. 8.Ithought(we,us)weregoingtheotherway. B. Writethepronounthatcompleteseachsentence. 9. Heshowed 10.Wesent

me them

howIshouldplanttheseeds. amessage,andtheysentoneback.

11. Shelikestowatchbirds.It'sfunfor 13.He'swiseandeveryonerespects

her

12.Weneedtomakebreakfast--theeggswon'tcook

him she 14. Let'saskherandfindoutwhere yourself . 15.Youmustlearntorespect

themselves !

. isgoing.

.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

The Life and Times of the Ant

Grade 4/Unit 4

85

Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronoun-Verb Agreement

· Apresent-tenseverbmustagreewithitssubjectpronoun. · Add-sor-estomostactionverbswhenyouusethe pronounshe, she,andit. · Donotadd-sor-estoanactionverbinthepresenttense whenyouusethepronounsI, we, you,andthey.

Write the correct form of the underlined action verb to complete each sentence.

uses lessgasthanyours. make energyfromthewind. 2. Theymake buys anewtruck. 3. Everyfewyearsshebuy pollute theenvironment. 4. Theypollute look 5. Scientistshelppeoplebecausetheylook

1. Ituse waystomakeenergy. 6. Sheput

fornew

86

The Power of Oil

Grade 4/Unit 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

puts upsolarpanelsatherjob. designs hybridcars. 7. Shealsodesign knows agreatdealaboutelectricity. 8. Heknow get energyfromtheriver. 9. WhereIlive,weget works 10.Hework inanoilfield. rides 11.Heride abiketowork. sends 12.Whencoalburns,itsend sootintotheair. need 13.Weneed moretwigstostartthefire. hike 14.Youhike inthemountains.

Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronoun-Verb Agreement

· Theverbshaveandbehavespecialformsinthepresent tense. Have Be Ihave Wehave Iam Weare Youhave Youhave Youare Youare He/She/Ithas Theyhave He/She/Itis Theyare

Writethecorrectformoftheunderlinedverbtocompleteeach sentence. 1. Ihas 3.Wehas

have

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

have hadthemsincelastyear. are helpingussaveenergy. 4.Theybe have alreadysavedussomemoney. 5. Theyhas am tryingtogetmyfriendstousesolarpanels. 6.Ibe are goingtobuysome. 7. IthinkFredandElliotbe is helpingprotecttheenvironment. 8.Billbe are goodwithtools. 9. Youis has 10.Shehave abigtruckthatsheusesonthejob. are 11. Webe buildinganadditiontoourhouse. has 12.Dadhave tonailthebeams. are 13.Webe puttingintwowindows. have 14. Nowyouhas agooddesign.

2.Yourhousehave

has

awaytotellwhichhouseisyours. sixsolarpanelsonitsroof.

The Power of Oil

Grade 4/Unit 4

87

Practice

Name

Grammar: Parentheses

· Useparentheses ( )aroundmaterialthatisaddedtoa sentencebutnotimportanttothemeaningofthesentence. · Putpunctuationinsidetheparentheseswhenitgoeswiththe informationinside. · Putpunctuationoutsidetheparentheseswhenitgoeswith themainpartofthesentence.

Proofread the sentences. Add parentheses ( ) once in each numbered item. 1. ThestudentsatmyschoolPaysonParkaremakingamural. ( ) 2.ThemuralwilltakeuponewholewallWow!. ( ) 3.MaraasksMrs.Langourteachertohelphermixpaint. ( ) 4.Ourmuralwon'thavewordsYeah!. ( ) 5.Itwillbeallpictureswhichisgoodforme. ( ) 6.ThemuralwillshowAreyousurprised?thingsthatwedoatschool. ( ) 7. Eachgradeofthefivegradesatmyschoolwilldoonesection. ( ) 8. LookatmysketchfoundbelowofwhatIwanttodraw. ( )

88

The Power of Oil

Grade4/Unit4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronoun-Verb Agreement

· Apresent-tense verbmustagreewithitssubjectpronoun. · Add-sor-es tomostactionverbswhenyouusethe pronounshe, she,andit. · Donotadd-sor-es toanactionverbinthepresenttense whenyouusethepronounsI, we, you,andthey. · Theverbshaveandbehavespecialformsinthepresenttense. Rewrite the story. Be sure all verbs agree with their pronouns. Working on the North Slope Right now, I is far from my family. I is now working in a place called the North Slope, way up in Alaska. I has only been here about a month, but my friends has been here about two years. We is here to build an oil pipeline. A few years ago, they found oil north of here. Now we is building a pipeline. When it is done, they will be able to put the oil on ships. It will be at least two years before we finish the job and it are over. I am glad to be working, but I will be happy to see my family again.

Right now, I am far from my family. I am now working in a place called the North Slope, way up in Alaska. I have only been here about a month, but my friends have been here about two years. We are here to build an oil pipeline. A few years ago, they found oil north of here.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Now we are building a pipeline. When it is done, they will be able to put the oil on ships. It will be at least two years before we finish the job and it is over. I am glad to be working, but I will be happy to see my family again.

The Power of Oil

Grade 4/Unit 4

89

Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronoun-Verb Agreement

A. ritethecorrectformoftheunderlinedactionverborverbs W ineachsentence. 1. MysisterandIlove 2.Whenshegrow beanelectrician. 3.Iknow 5.Sheread 7. Wedesigns 8.Youhelps

love grows

learningaboutelectricity. up,shewant

wants

to

know reads

howtouseallkindsoftools.

4.Sheandourdadfixes

fix

thingsaroundthehouse. onprojectstogether.

booksabouthowthingswork.

6.Sometimestheyworks

work

design help

asimplelamp. Dadwithprojects,too.

B. ritethecorrectformofhaveorbetocompleteeach W sentence. 9. I 10.It

have is

afriendwhoworksonawindfarm. ontopofahill.

11. Thewindmillstherearenew,andthey 12.Eachwindmill 13.They 14. I 15. We 16. It

are

has

verytall.

have averysimpledesign. am goingtovisithimthisweekend. are takingatourofthewindfarm. has milesandmilesofland.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

threeblades.

90

The Power of Oil

Grade 4/Unit 4

Practice

Name

Grammar: Possessive Pronouns

· A possessive pronoun takes the place of a possessive noun. It shows who or what owns something. · Some possessive pronouns are used before nouns (my, your, his, her, its, our, their). Rewrite the underlined parts of the sentences using possessive pronouns and nouns. 1. Hannah's father works on a ranch and the grandfather of Hannah does, too. her grandfather 2. The rooms in Hannah's house are small. world.

her

3. The ranch is busy, and the ranch's visitors come from all over the

its Their their

4. Her family's job is to teach people how to ride horses. 5. The horses know how to listen to the horses' riders. job is, too.

6. Hannah's grandfather's stories are fascinating, and the grandfather's

his

7. If you go to the ranch, be sure to bring the camera that belongs to you. your camera 8. Robert learned about the ranch from Robert's friend Melissa.

his

9. Robert and I went there for the vacation we had last winter.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

our vacation

10. I took a lot of pictures for the photo album that belongs to me.

my photo album

Ima and the Great Texas Ostrich Race

Grade 4/Unit 4

91

Practice

Name

Grammar: Possessive Pronouns

· Somepossessive pronounscanstandalone(mine,yours, his,hers,its,ours,theirs). In each sentence, replace the underlined incorrect possessive pronoun with the correct one on the line provided.

mine Yours 2.Your'sisthesmallerlife-vest,theblueone.

1. Thatisyourboat,butthisoneismy's. 3.Idon'thavemyown,butmybrotherletmeusehe's. 4.Youhaveyouroars.Wherearemy?

his

mine

5.IwantedtoaskMercedesifIcoulduseher's,butshewasn'tathome.

hers

6.Weareoff,andthewholedayisour! 8.Iforgotmylunch,sowillyoushareyour? 9. Isthatcoolerher's?

ours theirs yours

7. PacoandPepesaythisbeachisthey's,butit'snot.

hers

92

Ima and the Great Texas Ostrich Race

Grade 4/Unit 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

his yours 11. Shouldwegotohisfishingshackoryour? ours 12.Thattackleboxisnotour. Its 13.It'shandleisbroken. mine 14. Thatprettyhatismy. hers 15.Thoseshoesareher's.

10.Thefishingshackontherightishe's.

Practice

Name

Grammar: Possessive Nouns and Pronouns

· Add an apostrophe and -s to a singular noun to make it possessive. · Add an apostrophe to make most plural nouns possessive. · Add an apostrophe and -s to form the possessive of plural nouns that do not end in -s. · Possessive pronouns do not have apostrophes. Read the sentences below. Replace the underlined incorrect possessive nouns and pronouns in each sentence with the correct one on the line provided. 1. My friends cousin was a fisherman. 2. 3. 4. 5.

friend's A fishermans life is not always easy. fisherman's He must wake with mornings first light. morning's waves' Sometimes the waves power tosses his boat. The captains' crew must be strong and able. captain's cousin's

6. My cousins boat was once lifted nearly forty feet high. 7. It's wooden sides creaked and groaned. 8. Water splashed all the crew member's faces.

Its members'

9. The boat dropped back into the seas foamy waters.

sea's

10. Theirs job sounds harder than life on dry land!

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Their

Ima and the Great Texas Ostrich Race

Grade 4/Unit 4

93

Practice

Name

Grammar: Possessive Pronouns

· Some possessive pronouns are used before nouns (my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their). · Some possessive pronouns can stand alone (mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs). Rewrite the following paragraph. Be sure all possessive nouns and pronouns are used correctly. Me name is Robert, and this is mine wife, Florence. That's her' given name, but she prefers to be called Fluffy. Let us show you around our's home. Down the hall we have our's offices. The one on the left is mines, and the one on the right is Fluffy's. My office is where we keep our's jewels. They were my mother's. My father bought them for her on he's many trips abroad. He used to travel a lot to take pictures of exotic animals. On his's trips, he photographed rhinos, zebras, and ostriches.

My name is Robert, and this is my wife, Florence. That's her given name, but she prefers to be called Fluffy. Let us show you around our home. Down the hall we have our offices. The one on the left is mine, and the one on the right is Fluffy's. My office is where we keep our jewels. They were my mother's. My father

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

bought them for her on his many trips abroad. He used to travel a lot in order to take pictures of exotic animals. On his trips, he photographed rhinos, zebras, and ostriches.

94

Ima and the Great Texas Ostrich Race

Grade 4/Unit 4

Practice

Name

Circle the letter before the possessive pronoun that correctly completes each sentence. 1. Belinda's hometown was small, and only a few houses. a. b. c. d. his our its their breakfast and main street had

Grammar: Possessive Pronouns

2. People walked to the diner to have chat. a. b. c. d. their your my her

3. Although year I'm going in January. a. b. c. d. his's theirs my her

first trip to visit Belinda was in June, this

4. Belinda likes the town because first to settle there. a. b. c. d. my their our her

family was one of the

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

5. In fact, the town gets grandmother. a. b. c. d. hers their its my

name from her great-great-

Ima and the Great Texas Ostrich Race

Grade 4/Unit 4

95

Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronouns and Homophones

· Homophones are words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings. Two, to, and too are homophones. · Its, their, and your are possessive pronouns. · It's, they're, and you're are contractions for it is, they are, and you are. · Be careful not to confuse possessive pronouns with contractions that sound the same. A. Read each sentence below. Then circle the correct word in parentheses to complete each sentence. 1. If we don't protect certain species, (their, they're) likely to die. 2. If you visit a museum, (your, you're) likely to learn something new. 3. When you go, remember to bring (your, you're) camera. 4. (Its, It's) important to take notes about what you've seen. 5. (Their, They're) stories kept us on the edge of our seats. 6. If it's after four o'clock, (its, it's) time for us to go. 7. (Its, It's) strange to be at school on a Saturday. 8. Surely (your, you're) amazed that we finished the project on time. 9. I hope that the teacher appreciates (its, it's) size and quality. 10. (Your, You're) going to be happy with the grade we got. B. Write two, too, or to to complete each sentence. 12. We have visited shoe store 13. Next time we hope you can come,

two

too

times. .

96

My Brothers' Flying Machine

Grade 4/Unit 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

11. You don't have

to

join us at the mall.

Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronouns and Homophones

· Homophones sound alike but have different meanings and spellings. · Its, their, and your are possessive pronouns. It's, they're, and you're are contractions for it is, they are, and you are. · The word there means "in that place." It sounds just like their and they're. Write the homophone that correctly completes each sentence. 1. their 2. Its 3. their they're It's not uncommon to wake up late on weekends. they're there there Go to Florida and explore the warm, clear waters

there

.

It's

My parents came from Asia, and there. 4. Its 5. its

their

relatives still live

It's

It's an adventure to travel to foreign countries. it's

The town plunged into darkness when down. 6. their they're there

its

power lines went

The state capital is a busy place, and many politicians live

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

there

. you're

7. your Which one is 8. their

your

favorite: the pie or the cake? there

they're

No matter which one is your favorite, the counter.

they're

both available at

My Brothers' Flying Machine

Grade 4/Unit 4

97

Practice

Name

Grammar: Contractions and Possessives

· An apostrophe takes the place of letters left out of a contraction. · Possessive pronouns do not have apostrophes. · Be careful not to confuse possessive nouns with contractions. A. Read the pairs of sentences below. Then write the correct form of the underlined incorrect contraction or possessive pronoun on the line. 1. Their about to start boarding the flight to Boston.

They're

2. I checked my bags and my parents put there's in the overhead bins.

theirs

3. Its almost time for our flight to take off.

It's

4. My suitcase has a green tag on it's handle. What's on you're luggage?

its, your

5. Your going to enjoy having a window seat.

You're

B. Read each sentence below. Then decide if the underlined word in each sentence is a possessive noun or a contraction. Write your answer on the line provided. 6. The world's oceans are home to millions of creatures.

possessive noun

7. The world's filled with wonders.

contraction

8. Some people think that my sister's a wonderful singer.

contraction

10. We asked the neighbors if their plans had changed.

possessive noun

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My Brothers' Flying Machine

Grade 4/Unit 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

9. My sister's singing lifts our spirits. possessive noun

Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronouns and Homophones

· Its, their, and your are possessive pronouns. · It's, they're, and you're are contractions for it is, they are, and you are. · The word there means "in that place." It sounds just like the homophones their and they're. Rewrite each sentence in the following short essay. There are six homophone mistakes. Airplanes can be a scary way to travel for some people. Their afraid to be so high off the ground. Some people feel cramped in the plane's small space, two. Luckily, there are programs that can help. In one, travelers take short trips and learn to overcome there fears over time. In another, they learn ways to ignore the plane's noises or it's sudden movements. Some fliers like too think of peaceful places. Others listen to soothing music. Its up to you to decide which way works best.

Airplanes can be a scary way to travel for some people. They're afraid to be so high off the ground. Some people feel cramped in the plane's small space, too. Luckily, there are programs that can help. In one, travelers take short trips and learn to overcome their fears over time. In another, they learn ways to ignore

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

the plane's noises or its sudden movements. Some fliers like to think of peaceful places. Others listen to soothing music. It's up to you to decide which way works best.

My Brothers' Flying Machine

Grade 4/Unit 4

99

Practice

Name

Grammar: Pronouns and Homophones

Read each sentence. Choose either the possessive pronoun or the contraction to complete the sentences. its it's

Our school's Great Paper Airplane Race is about to begin! Since

it's

raining outside, we've moved the event into the

gym. I think my plane will win for best design. I have painted colorful designs on good flyer, too! your "When you're

its

wings. I hope that

it's

a

you're ready to launch," the teacher said, "raise your you're hand. And remember that not

they're there

allowed to step over the starting line." their

There's a landing zone on the other side of the gym. I hope my plane can make it

there

their

. Three other students couldn't fly

planes more than ten feet. Now

they're

ever going

asking if they can try again. I don't think to get their planes

they're

there

their

. They put too many stickers on

paper planes.

its

it's

event. For others, the contest hasn't lived up to name. No matter how far they flew, the airplanes on display at the end.

its

it's

fun to see all

100

My Brothers' Flying Machine

Grade 4/Unit 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

The race is over. For some of us,

it's

been a great

Practice

Name

Grammar: Adjectives

· Adjectives are words that describe nouns or pronouns. For example, adjectives may tell what a noun or pronoun looks, sounds, smells, tastes, or feels like. They may also describe something's purpose (for example, sleeping bag). · Adjectives may be placed before a noun or pronoun. · Adjectives may come after the words a, an, and the. · Adjectives may follow a linking verb. Read the sentences below. Write each adjective on the line provided. Some sentences may have more than one adjective. 1. The park has big mosquitoes. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

13. 14. 15.

big little, many My mother wanted a little house with many books. short, smart That short, smart woman is the doctor. late She feared that she would be late for the meeting. long, difficult This book is long and difficult. large, strong The large pot had a strong smell. dangerous The waves looked dangerous. clean, sharp The chef had clean, sharp knives. rich Our neighbor was rich. When she saw the dog, she let out a loud, high scream. loud, high friendly, clean The dog was friendly and clean. high The bookshelves are high. loud, scratchy Her father had a loud, scratchy voice. steep The road was not steep at all. frying They cooked the eggs in a frying pan.

A Walk in the Desert

Grade 4/Unit 5

101

Practice

Name

Grammar: Adjectives

· Proper adjectives are formed from proper nouns. A proper adjective begins with a capital letter. · Some proper adjectives describe languages, races, or nationalities. · Brand names are often proper adjectives. · Common adjectives are not formed from proper nouns. Do not capitalize common adjectives. On the line, rewrite each proper adjective correctly. 1. Today I sat and read in the thomas jefferson room library.

Thomas Jefferson

2. I understand many spanish words and phrases.

Spanish

3. Many students at the school are hispanic.

Hispanic Chinese Asian

4. I read about a chinese custom of having brides wear red at weddings. 5. The room had a shelf of books about asian countries. 6. This library has more books than both springfield libraries put together.

Springfield

7. I won't miss the chill of minnesota winters. 8. I lived near the canadian border, where it got very cold.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Minnesota Canadian

102

A Walk in the Desert

Grade 4/Unit 5

Practice

Name

Grammar: Punctuation

· sequotationmarksatthebeginningandendofaperson's U exactwords. · seacommabeforetheopeningquotationmarkifthe U sentencebeginsbeforethequote.Useacommabefore theclosingquotationmarkifasentencecontinuesafterthe quote. · sequotationmarksbeforeandafterthetitlesofshortworks. U Rewrite each sentence correctly by adding commas and quotation marks where they belong. 1. Ourclassjustfinishedreadingagreatstory,TheLionandtheQueen. Our class just finished reading a great story, "The Lion and the Queen." 2. Mr.Petersonasked,Didyoulikethestory? Mr. Peterson asked, "Did you like the story?" 3. Welikeditverymuchthestudentssaid. "We liked it very much," the students said. 4. Thenlet'sputonaplayaboutit,theteachersaid. "Then let's put on a play about it," the teacher said. 5. Mr.PetersonlookedaroundandsaidJames,youcanplaythelion.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Mr. Peterson looked around and said, "James, you can play the lion." 6. That'sgreat!I'mreallyexcited,"saidJameswithagrin. "That's great! I'm really excited," said James with a grin. 7. GraceraisedherhandandaskedCanIplaythequeen? Grace raised her hand and asked, "Can I play the queen?"

8. Mr.PetersonsaidSure,aslongastherestoftheclassdoesn'tmind. Mr. Peterson said, "Sure, as long as the rest of the class doesn't mind."

A Walk in the Desert

Grade 4/Unit 5

103

Practice

Name

Grammar: Adjectives

· Proper adjectivesareformedfrompropernouns.Aproper adjectivebeginswithacapitalletter. · ommon adjectivesarenotformedfrompropernouns. C Donotcapitalizecommonadjectives. · sequotationmarkstobeginandenddirectquotations. U Rewrite each sentence in the paragraph below. Remember to punctuate quotations correctly. Capitalize proper adjectives. Use a separate page, if necessary. The spanish bookstore on the corner is different from the huge japanese bookstore nearby. Both stores have lots of interesting, exciting books. But that's the only way they are alike. The small store on the corner is warm and dim. It is filled with old and unusual books. The japanese store is bright and cool and Big. We carry some korean and chinese books and all the latest Japanese graphic novels," said Ms. Yamada. She gives new customers a copy of her eassay "The Joys of asian Novels.

TheSpanishbookstoreonthecornerisdifferentfrom thehugeJapanesebookstorenearby.Bothstores havelotsofinteresting,excitingbooks.Butthat'sthe onlywaytheyarealike.Thesmallstoreonthecorner iswarmanddim.Itisfilledwitholdandunusual

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

books.TheJapanesestoreisbrightandcoolandbig. "WecarrysomeKoreanandChinesebooksandallthe latestJapanesegraphicnovels,"saidMs.Yamada. Shegivesnewcustomersacopyofheressay"The JoysofAsianNovels."

104

A Walk in the Desert

Grade4/Unit5

Practice

Name

A. Complete each sentence with an adjective from the box below. Remember to capitalize any proper adjectives.

Grammar: Adjectives

reddish 1. My dog gets

atlantic

british

lonely

ohio

lonely

when he's by himself.

2. I gathered shells on the sandy 3. My cousin's hair is long and 4. We live in a little

Atlantic shore. reddish .

town.

Ohio

5. The announcer's voice sounded

British

.

B. Choose the group of words that best completes each sentence. Circle the letter of your choice. 6. I brought home a a. Fluffy, white, b. fluffy, white 7. The house was a. warm and cozy b. warm and Cozy 8. Her hamster is

b

kitten.

a

.

a

.

a. large, brown, and shy b. large Brown and shy

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

9. This book contains a. common spanish b. common Spanish 10. The car had

b

words.

a

tags.

a. yellow New Jersey b. yellow New jersey

A Walk in the Desert

Grade 4/Unit 5

105

Practice

Name

Grammar: Articles

· narticleisatypeofadjective.Thesewordsarearticles: A a, an, the. · narticlecomesbeforethenounitdescribes.otherwords A sometimescomebetweenthearticleandthenounit introduces. Read each sentence. Put one line under each article. Put two lines under the noun that each article points out. 1. Thesnakebaredhisfangs. 2. Fatherandhisfamilytookadifferentpathhome. 3. Manyvillagerswenttospeaktotheelders. 4. TheywenttoseeDesertWomantoaskafavor. 5. SheplacedanoisyrattleonSnake'stail. 6. Rattlesnakecontinuedtothreatentheanimals. 7. TheyneededananimalthatwouldmakeRattlesnakebehave. 8. DesertWomanmoldedastrangenewbirdfromclay. 9. Roadrunnerpracticeddancinguntilhecouldtwirllikeatwister. 10. RoadrunnerraceddowntheroadtofindRattlesnake. 11. Rattlesnakeletoutanangryhiss. 12. Hestruck,butRoadrunnerhoppedoutoftheway. 13. RoadrunnerdancedaroundRattlesnakelikeawhirlwind. 15. AllthechildrenthankedRoadrunnerforhelpingthem. 16. Nowtheroadwassafeforeveryonetouse.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

14. Rattlesnakemadeapromisenottofrighteneveryoneanymore.

106

Roadrunner's Dance

Grade 4/Unit 5

Practice

Name

Grammar: Using a and an correctly

· The words a, an, and the are special adjectives called articles. · Use a and an with singular nouns. Write the article in each sentence on the line provided. 1. Carson was a spoiled child. 3. His mother told him not to throw a fit. 4. Carson wanted to go away on a trip. 6. She had promised to attend a wedding. 7. He was hoping to get a piece of cake. 8. Everyone complained about the weather. 10. The couple looked forward to a dance. 11. Her father gave her a beautiful necklace. 12. Carson forgot to sign the guest book. 13. His mother told him a story about elves. 14. Carson thought Glenn looked like an elf.

a

2. He was upset because he had missed the program.

the

a a

5. His mother tried to think of an excuse not to go.

an a a the a a

9. Mother thought Glenn would make a good husband.

a the a an

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Roadrunner's Dance

Grade 4/Unit 5

107

Practice

Name

Grammar: Using a and an correctly

· · · ·

Use a and an with singular nouns. Use a if the next word starts with a consonant sound. Use an if the next word starts with a vowel sound. Use the with singular nouns that name a particular person, place, or thing. · Use the before all plural nouns that name particular people, places, or things. Each sentence is missing two articles. Add the articles and write the sentences correctly. 1. Who is boy who lost front tooth? 2. He told doctor it was accident.

Who is the boy who lost the front tooth? He told the doctor it was an accident.

3. Tennis ball hit his mouth during game.

A tennis ball hit his mouth during the game.

4. Tooth had been loose for week anyway.

The tooth had been loose for a week anyway.

5. Thank goodness doctor said new tooth would take its place.

Thank goodness the doctor said a new tooth would take its place.

6. Now boy makes whistling sound when he speaks.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Now the boy makes a whistling sound when he speaks.

7. He sang song way that way at school assembly.

He sang a song that way at the school assembly.

8. Teacher said he should become entertainer.

The teacher said he should become an entertainer.

108

Roadrunner's Dance

Grade 4/Unit 5

Practice

Name

Grammar: Articles

· seaandanwithsingularnouns. U · seaifthenextwordstartswithaconsonantsound. U · seanifthenextwordstartswithavowelsound. U · sethewithsingularnounsthatnameaparticularperson, U place,orthing. · sethebeforeallpluralnouns. U Rewrite each sentence in the poster below. Remember to use a, an, and the correctly. Add articles where they are missing. VICEROY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ANNOUNCES A THIRD ANNUAL ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOW! show will take place on Saturday, March 28. If you have a art project or an craft project to display, please let fourth-grade art teacher know. Gift card worth $30 will be awarded to artist who wins first place.

VICEROY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ANNOUNCES THE THIRD ANNUAL ARTS AND CRAFTS SHOW! The show will take place on Saturday, March 28. If you have an art project or a craft project to display, please let the fourth-grade art teacher know.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

A gift card worth $30 will be awarded to the artist who wins first place.

Roadrunner's Dance

Grade 4/Unit 5

109

Practice

Name

Grammar: Articles

A. Circle the letter before the sentence that uses articles correctly. 1. a. Our dog is not allowed to eat from my plate. b. Our dog is not an very obedient pet. c. I would not share my dinner with our dog. 2. a. They made movie out of the book. b. There was an actor in it whom I liked. c. Some day I would like to be a actress. 3. a. I liked the character of Voltrina, the sassy robot. b. Voltrina is funniest character in the film. c. It's hilarious to hear robot talk that way. 4. a. What is moral of story? b. I enjoyed the story. c. Tell me a important event from the story. B. Circle the letter before the article that correctly completes each sentence. 5. Which of a. a b. an c. the 6. There wasn't a. a b. an c. the 7. Did a. a b. an c. the

the

characters did you like best?

a

happy ending for the evil twins.

the

mayor present the award at the ceremony?

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8. At first they hid the award behind a. a b. an c. the

an

orange curtain.

110

Roadrunner's Dance

Grade 4/Unit 5

Practice

Name

Grammar: Adjectives That Compare

· Add -er to most adjectives to compare two people, places, or things. · Add -est to most adjectives to compare more than two. Read each sentence. Underline the adjective in parentheses that correctly completes the sentence. 1. Have you ever imagined exploring the (deeper, deepest) waters of the ocean? 2. The sun looks (brighter, brightest) on the water than it does on land. 3. The Pacific Ocean looks (bluer, bluest) than the Atlantic Ocean. 4. The blue whale is the (larger, largest) mammal of all. 5. The deep water is (colder, coldest) than the shallow water by the shore. 6. This shell is the (prettier, prettiest) shell I found today. 7. This seaside park is the (larger, largest) one in the country. 8. It is so much (quieter, quietest) under water than it is on the surface. 9. The colors of this fish are the (stranger, strangest) I have ever seen. 10. Andrea is a (faster, fastest) swimmer than Eric. 11. Which of the waves do you think is (higher, highest)? 12. My towel is (sandier, sandiest) than yours. 13. This fish is (smaller, smallest) than the other one. 14. My shell collection is (better, best) than Ralph's.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

15. This rock is the (heavier, heaviest) of them. 16. Andrea can stay afloat (longer, longest) than Cyril can.

Animals Come Home to Our National Parks Grade 4/Unit 5

111

Practice

Name

Grammar: Adjectives That Compare

· Add -er to most adjectives to compare two people, places, or things. · Add -est to most adjectives to compare more than two. · The comparative form of good is better. The superlative form of good is best. · The comparative form of bad is worse. The superlative form of bad is worst. Rewrite the sentences below, correcting the form or spelling of the underlined adjective. 1. After the sun went down, the air felt chilliest than before. 2. I think the trails are gooder than they were last year. 3. Dad climbed the bigger tree in the forest.

After the sun went down, the air felt chillier than before. I think the trails are better than they were last year. Dad climbed the biggest tree in the forest. I wonder which mountain is the tallest one of all.

4. I wonder which mountain is the taller one of all. 5. The park rangers are the smarter people in the park.

The park rangers are the smartest people in the park. The water is calmer than it was yesterday. The winds are worse than they were this morning. That weekend was our best vacation ever!

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

6. The water is calmest than it was yesterday.

7. The winds are badder than they were this morning. 8. That weekend was our better vacation ever!

112

Animals Come Home to Our National Parks Grade 4/Unit 5

Practice

Name

Grammar: Introductory Phrases and Interjections

· nintroductory phrasecomesatthebeginningofa A sentence. · seacommatoseparatelongintroductoryphrasesfromthe U restofthesentence. · ninterjectionisawordoraphrasethatshowsemotion. A · seacommatoseparateinterjectionsfromtherestofa U sentence. · ftheinterjectionshowsaverystrongemotion,usean I exclamationmark. Fix the sentences. Add commas after the introductory phrases or interjections. 1. verthepasthundredyearsmanyplantsandanimalshave O disappearedfromournationalparks. 2. hdidyouknowthatelkhavebeenreintroducedtotheGreatSmoky O MountainsNationalParkinNorthCarolina? 3. Formorethan150yearstherehadbeennoelkinNorthCarolina. 4. ithoutalltheelkaroundtherewerefewerplantsforsmallanimalsto W eatandfewersmallanimalsforbiganimalstoeat. 5. Well28elkwerereintroducedintothenationalpark. 6. Eversincethenresearchershavebeenstudyingtheelk. 7. ystudyingsignalsfromspecialcollarsresearcherscantellhowtheelk B aredoing.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

8. Intheveryfirstyearofthestudy11babyelkwereborn. 9. Wowthatiswonderful! 10. Yestheresearchersarehopingthatthenaturalbalancewillberestored tothepark.

Animals Come Home to Our National Parks Grade 4/Unit 5

113

Practice

Name

Grammar: Adjectives That Compare

Rewrite the title and each sentence in the response to literature below. Remember to use -er and -est endings correctly with adjectives. Be sure to capitalize proper nouns, names, and titles. Response to "helping our National parks" I enjoyed reading this article. After learning about national parks, I think that they are some of the goodest places to visit in our country. Now I know how we can make them cleaner and prettyer. Litter is one of the baddest problems facing our parks. Visitors to places like yellowstone and big bend should not leave a spot dirtiest than it was when they arrived. Biger signs may help. It's also important to make finding trash cans more easy. We can all do a gooder job keeping america clean!

Response to "Helping our National Parks" I enjoyed reading this article. After learning about national parks, I think that they are some of the best places to visit in our country. Now I know how we can make them cleaner and prettier. Litter is one of the worst problems facing our parks. Visitors to places like Yellowstone and Big Bend should not leave a spot dirtier than it was when they arrived. Bigger signs may help. It's also important to make finding trash cans easier. We can all do a better job keeping America clean!

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

114

Animals Come Home to Our National Parks Grade 4/Unit 5

Practice

Name

Grammar: Adjectives that Compare

A. Read each sentence. Write yes if the underlined adjective is the correct form or the correct spelling. Write no if it is not the correct form or the correct spelling. 1. The top of the mountain was the windyer place I had ever been!

no

2. The river had a stronger current after the rains.

yes

3. The hole in our tent grew badder as the wind blew.

no

4. This backpack has the brightest colors of all.

yes

5. It's warmest in this water than over there.

no

6. That is the best looking view of all.

yes

B. Read each sentence. Use the correct form of the adjective in parentheses. Write it on the line. 7. This wolf has the (long)

longest

tail I have ever seen!

8. Compared to this morning, the sun is (bright) before. 9. That boat is the (safe)

brighter

than

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

safest of all. worst months for hurricanes. 10. September is one of the (bad) better than the other one. 11. This sandwich tastes (good) faster than I do. 12. You swim (fast)

Animals Come Home to Our National Parks Grade 4/Unit 5

115

Practice

Name

Grammar: Comparing with More and Most

· For long adjectives, use more and most to compare people, places, or things. · Use more to compare two people, places, or things. · Use most to compare more than two. Write more or most to complete each sentence correctly. 1. Your brownie delight is the 2. The pastry chef had an even my father. 3. He made the 4. New York City is

most more

delicious dessert of all. enormous belly than

most more

interesting cakes I have ever seen. exciting than my hometown.

5. But for me, North Carolina will always be the comfortable place in the world. 6. Their kitchen was the seen!

most

most

glorious mess I had ever

7. I thought my birthday would be friends could be there. 8. This birthday turned out to be the ever. 9. My friend Doug was I was.

more most

pleasant if all of my special birthday

more

familiar with party games than enjoyable than last

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

10. This summer vacation was year's vacation. 11. Could this get 12. This is the

more

more most

exciting than yesterday? fun I've ever had.

116

At Home in the Coral Reef

Grade 4/Unit 5

Practice

Name

Grammar: Comparing with More and Most

· For long adjectives, use more and most to compare people, places, or things. · Use more to compare two people, places, or things. · Use most to compare more than two. · For some common two-syllable adjectives, such as happy and healthy, use the ending -er or -est instead. Rewrite each sentence. Use the correct form of the adjective. 1. The shore is the more excitingest place I've ever been.

The shore is the most exciting place I've ever been. The sounds of the boats outside made me feel more awake than at home.

2. The sounds of the boats outside made me feel more awaker than at home.

3. At first, my aunt seemed more caringer than my uncle.

At first, my aunt seemed more caring than my uncle. My visit to their house is the happiest time I can remember.

4. My visit to their house is the most happier time I can remember.

5. My friends are most importanter to me than they used to be.

My friends are more important to me than they used to be.

6. My little sister is the most artisticest person I know.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

My little sister is the most artistic person I know.

7. I was more carefuller with this project than I usually am. I was

more careful with this project than I usually am. My mother makes the most excellent smoothies I have ever tasted.

At Home in the Coral Reef

Grade 4/Unit 5

8. My mother makes the more excellentest smoothies I have ever tasted.

117

Practice

Name

Grammar: Combining Sentences

· Adjectivescanbeusedtocombinetwosentencesintoone longersentence. · ppositivescanbeusedtocombinetwosentencesintoone A longersentence. · ommasareusedtosetoffmanyappositivesfromtherest C ofthesentence. Combine each pair of sentences. Write the new sentence.

Possible responses provided.

1. Acoralreefismadeupoftinyanimalscalledcoralpolyps.Acoralreefis ahometomillionsoflivingthings. A coral reef, home to millions of living things, is made up of tiny animals called coral polyps. 2.Somecoralpolypshaveskeletonsthatmovebackandforthinthewater. Theseskeletonsaresoft. Some coral polyps have soft skeletons that move back and forth in the water. 3.Othercoralpolypshaveskeletonsthatmakeupthecoralreef.These skeletonsarehard. Other coral polyps have hard skeletons that make up the coral reef. 4.Allcoralpolypscatchfoodwiththeirtentacles.Tentaclesarebodyparts thatlooklikelittlearms. parts that look like little arms.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

All coral polyps catch food with their tentacles, body 5.Coralpolypseatplankton.Planktonaretinyplantsandanimalsthatfloat inthewater. Coral polyps eat plankton, tiny plants and animals that float in the water.

118

At Home in the Coral Reef

Grade 4/Unit 5

Practice

Name

Grammar: Comparing with More and Most

· For long adjectives, use more and most to compare people, places, or things. · Use more to compare two people, places, or things. · Use most to compare more than two. Rewrite each sentence in the introduction speech below. Remember to use more and most correctly with adjectives. I would like to introduce our most new snorkeling guides, Mitch and Annabelle. They are two of the intelligentest divers in the state. Even though Annabelle is most experienced than Mitch, they share the same love of the ocean. Mitch knows where to find the most unusualer fish in the sea. Annabelle has explored the island caves and their mysticaler underwater caverns. Swimming along the reef with them is more safe than swimming in a pool. Together they will show you some of the more amazing sights you've ever seen!

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

I would like to introduce our newest snorkeling guides, Mitch and Annabelle. They are two of the most intelligent divers in the state. Even though Annabelle is more experienced than Mitch, they share the same love of the ocean. Mitch knows where to find the most unusual fish in the sea. Annabelle has explored the island caves and their more mystical underwater caverns. Swimming along the reef with them is safer than swimming in a pool. Together they will show you some of the most amazing sights you've ever seen!

At Home in the Coral Reef

Grade 4/Unit 5

119

Practice

Name

A. In each sentence, find the adjective that compares. Circle your answer. 1. My sister is more musical than my brother is. a. sister b. more musical c. musical than d. brother is 2. Chicago is one of the most popular of all cities to visit. a. Chicago b. the most c. most popular d. all cities 3. My guidance counselor is the most generous person I know. a. most generous b. guidance c. generous person d. I know B. Choose the correct adjective to complete each sentence. Circle your answer. 4. My sister was a. curious b. curiouser c. more curious d. most curious 5. John is the a. responsible b. responsiblest c. more responsible d. most responsible 6. That is the a. original b. originalest c. more original d. most original

At Home in the Coral Reef

Grade 4/Unit 5

Grammar: Comparing with More and Most

about my trip than my brother was.

of all three children.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

idea I ever heard.

120

Practice

Name

Grammar: Comparing with Good and Bad

· The adjective good becomes better or best when it is used to compare. · Use better to compare two people, places, or things. · Use best to compare more than two. Write better or best to complete each sentence correctly. 1. The aquarium is one of the tropical fish. 2. The new theater has 3. The comedy was a 4. He thought the film. 5. This theater has

best

places to see sound than the old one.

better

better movie than the action film. best choice would be the award-winning better

snacks than the one downtown.

better 6. I had a documentary. best

understanding of whales after the

7. My friend Milo thought the animals were the people. 8. The 9. We had the

better

actors than

best seats in the entire theater. better grade when I retake the exam. 10. I'm sure I'll get a best way to study for it. 11. Watching the film was the better books on the subject. 12. I will visit the library to find

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

way to see the movie is in 3-D.

Adelina's Whales

Grade 4/Unit 5

121

Practice

Name

Grammar: Comparing with Good and Bad

· The adjective bad becomes worse or worst when it is used to compare. · Use worse to compare two people, places, or things. · Use worst to compare more than two.

Write worse or worst to complete each sentence correctly. 1. Rough seas from the storm created swimming. 2. During the ten feet high. 3. Some of the 5. Things got even

worse

conditions for

worst

part of the storm, the waves were flooding occurred along the coast. damage than ours. when the power went out.

worst worse

4. Our neighbors' house had

worse

6. The thought of falling down the stairs in the dark was Noreen's

worst

7. The thunder made a worse 8. The cold felt outside. 9. This is the 10. We had 12. She has a

fear.

worse

noise than the rushing water. than the rain for the rescue workers

worst worse worse

disaster to ever hit our area. weather last month, but not for so long.

11. Gloomy Glenda always focuses on the

worst

outlook.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

personality than my bitter cousin Kevin.

122

Adelina's Whales

Grade 4/Unit 5

Practice

Name

Grammar: Combining Sentences with Adjectives and Participial Phrases

· Adjectivescanbeusedtocombinetwosentencesintoone longersentence. · articipial phrasescanbeusedtocombinetwosentences P intoonelongersentence. · seacommaaftertheparticipial phrasewhenitcomesat U thebeginningofthesentence. Combine each pair of sentences. Write the new sentence.

Possible responses provided.

1. Agraywhalehasabrainthatisthesizeofacar'sengine.Itsbrainislarge. A gray whale has a large brain that is the size of a car's engine. 2.Graywhalescommunicatewitheachother.Theyuselowrumblesand loudclicks. rumbles and loud clicks.

gray whales communicate with each other using low 3.Flukingiswhenagraywhaleraisesitstailupintheairandthendives. Thetailiswideandflat. up in the air and then dives.

Fluking is when a gray whale raises its wide, flat tail 4.Agraywhaleisbreaching.Itisleapingoutofthewaterandsplashing backin. Leaping out of the water and splashing back in, a

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

gray whale is breaching.

5. Graywhalesswimnorthintheearlyspring.Theyareheadedtotheir summerhomes. north in the early spring.

Headed to their summer homes, gray whales swim

Adelina's Whales

grade 4/Unit 5

123

Practice

Name

Rewrite each sentence in the scientific observation below. Remember to use forms of good and bad correctly. QUESTION: What is the bestest way to approach a wild animal? OBSERVATIONS: Calm animals have relaxed muscles, heads, and necks. Frightened animals may raise their heads and tense their muscles. Flattened ears are the most worst signs of fear in some animals. When wild animals may be present, it is always more good to have an adult to call for safety. Animal control officers say the more better plan of action is sometimes to take no action. They don't want to make a bad situation even more bad by startling the animal. CONCLUSION: Approaching a wild animal is never a good idea. The most good thing you can do is to prevent the situation from getting worser.

Grammar: Comparing with Good and Bad

QUESTION: What is the best way to approach a wild animal? OBSERVATIONS: Calm animals have relaxed muscles, heads, and necks. Frightened animals may raise their heads and tense their muscles. Flattened ears are the worst signs of fear in some animals. When wild animals may be present, it is always better to have an adult to call for safety. Animal control officers say the best plan of action is sometimes to take no action. They don't want to make a bad situation even worse by startling the animal. CONCLUSION: Approaching a wild animal is never a good idea. The best thing you can do is to prevent the situation from getting worse.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

124

Adelina's Whales

Grade 4/Unit 5

Practice

Name

Grammar: Comparing with Good and Bad

A. Read each sentence. Write yes if the underlined adjective is the correct form of good. Write no if it is not correct. 1. I think the carnival would be the better place in the world to work.

no

yes yes 3. Summer is the best of all seasons. no 4. I remember this story the better of all.

2. This ride is better than that one. 5. Cotton candy is a best snack than caramel corn. 6. This amusement park is the better of them. 7. My throwing arm is better than yours. 8. This prize is best than the other one.

no no

yes no

B. Read each sentence. Decide if the missing adjective is worse or worst. Write it on the line. 9. Chocolate is one of the 10. Chocolate is much 11. I had a

worse worst 12. This is the

14. This show is the

worst foods you could give to pets. worse for animals than it is for humans.

sore throat than my sister. flu I have ever had in my life.

13. Last year's weather was bad, but this year's weather is

worse

worst one I've seen. worse shape than the others. 15. Illness left our team in worst 16. We played the game of the season so far!

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

.

Adelina's Whales

Grade 4/Unit 5

125

Practice

Name

Grammar: Adverbs

· Adjectives and adverbs should not be confused. · An adjective describes nouns. It gives information about a person, place, or thing. · An adverb tells more about the verb, such as how, when, or where an action takes place. Read each sentence and look at the underlined word. Then tell if the word is an adjective or an adverb. 1. People quickly moved to the exit when the alarm rang.

adverb

2. The inventors hoped to become rich men. 3. I like to read interesting stories about animals.

adjective adjective

4. Show your father the jewelery that you found recently.

adverb

5. The boy dug deeply into his pocket to reach the last dime.

adverb

6. I do not think that this ring is made of real gold.

adjective

7. On our field trip, our guide led us through a dark tunnel.

adjective

8. The two cows were standing by a muddy road. neighborhood used to look.

adjective

9. Dad always wanted to travel back in time to see how his old

adverb

10. They eagerly waited for the delivery truck to arrive.

126

Leah's Pony

Grade 4/Unit 6

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

adverb

Practice

Name

Grammar: Adverbs

· An adverb is a word that tells more about a verb. · Some adverbs tell how an action takes place. These adverbs may describe how completely an action is performed. · Some adverbs tell when an action takes place. These adverbs may describe how often an action takes place. · Some adverbs tell where an action takes place. Underline the adverb in each sentence. Then write if the adverb tells how, when, or where the action takes place. 1. My mother and I went to the library together for new recipes.

how

2. Tomorrow we will visit our local museum of natural history.

when

3. Were they traveling far in search of a discount? 4. Did Marcia first find the dress on sale?

where

when where how how how how when

5. The dairy built a new ice cream parlor nearby.

6. We patiently waited for the team roster to be posted. 7. Our uncle examined the newspaper thoroughly. 8. He carelessly threw the coins into the toll booth.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

9. That crossing guard looked at them suspiciously. 10. We then found the key to reach the next level.

Leah's Pony

Grade 4/Unit 6

127

Practice

Name

Grammar: Good vs. Well

· Goodisanadjectiveandisusedtodescribenouns. · ellisanadverbthattellshowaboutaverb. W · onotconfusetheadjectivegoodwiththeadverbwell. D · sewellasanadjectivewhenyourefertosomeone'shealth. U Complete each sentence by writing the word good or well on the line. 1. Todayourteamdid

well

intheclasstreasure-huntgame.

2. Ourteacherhidthetreasurepiecesso wereveryhardtofind. 3. Itwasa year.

well

thatthey

good

experiencetowinthegameforasecond

4. Theotherteamalsodid fasterthantheydid. 5. ThoughIdidn'tfeel treasurepiece. 6. Thisriverisa

well well

,butwefoundthepieces ,Ihelpedfindthelast,hidden

good

placetolookforgoldpieces.

7. Grandfather,woulditbea theriver?

good

ideatolookforgoldin

8. Ifwepanforgoldalldayandnight,weshoulddo 9. Wecanhavea notfindanything. 10. Isyourfatherfeeling

well

.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

good well

timeswimminginthewaterifwedo enoughtocomewithus?

128

Leah's Pony

Grade 4/Unit 6

Practice

Name

Grammar: Adverbs

· An adverb is a word that tells more about a verb. · Some adverbs tell how an action takes place. · Most adverbs that tell how end in -ly. They are formed by adding -ly to an adjective. The adverb well also tells how. A. Read the magazine article below, and circle the six incorrect adverbs. Then write the words correctly on the lines below. Raising horses and ponies as pets is different from having a cat or dog join the household. Families frequent encounter problems they hadn't expected at first. Perhaps because these animals spend most of their time outside, the new owners mistaken think, "Out of sight, out of mind." What might start off as a small challenge may quick become a huge nightmare. First, check the animal's health history good. Make sure that it is up to date on any treatments or vaccines. Having a veterinarian inspect the animal is a good idea. Next, consider where you'll keep the animal. Most people don't usual have spaces large enough to fully exercise a large animal. Lastly, understand the budget. Large animals eat large amounts of food, which can cost a great deal. If you plan careful enough, you enjoy many fine years with your new companion! 1. 2.

frequently mistakenly

3. 4.

quickly well

5. 6.

usually carefully

B. Rewrite the above article with the correct adverbs on the lines.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Leah's Pony

Grade 4/Unit 6

129

Practice

Name

Read each sentence. Then using the clue in the parentheses, circle the letter of the correct adverb that completes each sentence. 1. After the new apartments were built, many people moved (where?) a. there b. well 2. Our family packed a. today b. outside 3. My mother shouted a. well b. next c. briefly d. quietly to avoid any breakage. (how?) c. carefully d. ahead when she saw the beautiful view. (how?) c. around d. gleefully . (where?) .

Grammar: Adverbs

4. Her shouting was so loud, it could be heard a. outside b. first 5. (when?) a. Forcefully b. Wisely 6. c. Eagerly d. Soon c. often d. silent

people came from everywhere to ask what was happening.

they realized it was good news, not bad. (when?)

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

a. Unhappily b. Excitedly

c. Immediately d. Nearly

130

Leah's Pony

Grade 4/Unit 6

Practice

Name

Grammar: Comparing with Adverbs

· nadverbcancomparetwoormoreactions. A · dd-ertoshortadverbstocomparetwoactions.Add-estto A shortadverbstocomparemorethantwoactions. · semoreormost tocompareadverbsthatarelongorthat U endin-ly. · semore tocomparetwoactionsandmost tocomparemore U thantwoactions. A. Add -er or -est to each boldfaced adverb to complete the sentences below. 1. fast 2. close 3. hard Mybrotherruns

faster

thanIdo. toMars

T hespaceshiptraveled thanVenus. Ithinksheworks intheclass.

closer

hardest

ofanystudent

B. Complete each sentence using more or most. 4. Doyouusethecomputer oratschool? 5. Whichswimmerstarted 6. DoesCraigorAnawrite

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

more most more

oftenathome quicklyofall? neatly?

The Gold Rush Game

Grade 4/Unit 6

131

Practice

Name

Grammar: Comparing with Adverbs

· Use more or most to form comparisons with adverbs that end in -ly or with longer adverbs. Use more to compare two actions. Use most to compare more than two actions. · To make comparisons using the adverb well, use better and best. · To make comparisons using the adverb badly, use worse and worst. A. Use more or most with the underlined adverb in each first sentence to complete the two sentences that follow. 1. The car that Heinrich drove shook harshly as it hit the bump.

more harshly as it rumbled past. But the old pickup truck shook most harshly of all.

The next car shook 2. The police officer moved speedily toward the accident. The firefighter ran the

most speedily of all toward the scene. The firefighter reacted more speedily than the police officer.

B. Use better or best or worse or worst to replace the underlined adverb in the two sentences that follow. 3. Carla sings well when she is by herself. Carla sings

better when she rehearses with the band. best of all when she is on stage. But Carla sings worse worst

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

4. He sings badly when it is very hot. He sings He sings when he is sick than when he is healthy. of all when he has a cold.

132

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Practice

Name

Grammar: Punctuation and Capitalization

· verysentencebeginswithacapitalletter. E · sethecorrectendmarkforeachsentence. U · apitalizepropernounsandproperadjectives,suchasAsia. C · apitalizethefirstwordinthetitleofabookorthenameofa C historicalevent,aswellaseachimportantwordafterthat. · apitalizethefirstwordinaquotationthatisafullsentence. C · seacommatoseparatethreeitemsinaseries,aswell U asbeforecoordinatingconjunctionsthatjoincompound sentences. Rewrite each sentence correctly by adding commas and quotation marks where they belong. Luis: sara,arecarpenterantsatypeofamericanant? "Sara, are carpenter ants a type of American ant?" Sara: abookIread,the world of ants,saysthatcarpenterantsdigwood! "A book I read, The World of Ants, says that

carpenter ants dig wood!" Luis: yes,aftertheydigthewood,theyliveinthecavernstheymade. "Yes, after they dig the wood, they live in the caverns they made." Sara: Threekindsofantsarethequeenthemalesandtheworkers. "Three kinds of ants are the queen, the males,

Luis: Sara: Luis: Sara:

and the workers."

theotherantstakespecialcareofthequeen. whatarethoselittlewhitethings,luis?

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

"The other ants take special care of the queen."

"What are those little white things, Luis?" are lots of eggs, but only the queen produces them." "They must be very strong, and some look very big!"

The Gold Rush Game

Grade 4/Unit 6

thosearelotsofeggsbutonlythequeenproducesthem. "Those theymustbeverystrongandsomelookverybig!

133

Practice

Name

Grammar: Comparing with Adverbs

A. Read the magazine article below and circle six incorrect uses of adverbs. Last week, a baby bird was lucky found in a nest near school. The winds blew coldly than the bird could stand, so it chirped loud and hid inside the nest. Then a boy and his uncle heard it chirping frantically than it had earlier. It was the tiniest bird they had ever seen. They kind took the bird to the zoo. Because the workers there are taking good care of it, the bird is doing much more well than before. B. Rewrite the above article with the correct adverbs on the lines below.

Lastweek,ababybirdwasluckilyfoundinanest nearschool.Thewindsblewmorecoldlythanthebird couldstand,soitchirpedloudlyandhidinsidethe nest.Thenaboyandhisunclehearditchirpingmore franticallythanithadearlier.Itwasthetiniestbirdthey hadeverseen. Theykindlytookthebirdtothezoo.Becausethe workerstherearetakinggoodcareofit,thebirdis doingmuchbetterthanbefore.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

134

The Gold Rush Game

Grade4/Unit6

Practice

Name

Grammar: Comparing with Adverbs

A. For each of the adverbs below, write the form you would use to compare two things. Then choose one of the adverbs you formed and use it in a sentence. 1. cute

cuter 2. curiously more curiously more carefully 3. careful sooner 4. soon 5. gloomily more gloomily taller 6. tall younger 7. young 8. Sentences will vary.

B. For each of the following adverbs, write the form you would use to compare more than two things. Then choose one of the adverbs you formed and use it in a sentence.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

most playfully poorest 11. poor 12. heavily most heavily hardest 13. hard 14. sweetly most sweetly saddest 15. sad 16. Sentences will vary.

10. playfully

9. graciously most graciously

The Gold Rush Game

Grade 4/Unit 6

135

Practice

Name

Grammar: Negatives

· negativeisastatementthatmeans"no."Moststatements A canbechangedtoanegativeform:I like chess.Idonot like chess. Rewrite each sentence by changing it to a negative form. 1. Hakeemwantstostudyscience. Hakeem does not want to study science. 2.Helikestobeneardirtandbones. He does not like to be near dirt and bones. 3.Histeacherthoughthewouldpassherclass. 4.Heishappywhenscienceclassbegins. 5. Hakeemhadseenapieceofamber. 6.Hisopinionofsciencehaschanged.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

His teacher thought he would not pass her class. He is not happy when science class begins. Hakeem had not seen a piece of amber. His opinion of science has not changed. 7. Hakeemdoesgetboredinclassnow.

Hakeem does not get bored in class now. 8.Thereisabetterwaytothankhisteacherforwhatshedid. what she did.

There is not a better way to thank his teacher for

136

Taking the Lead

Grade 4/Unit 6

Practice

Name

Grammar: Negatives

· A negative is a word that means "no." · Many verbs with not can be made into contractions. Rewrite each sentence by replacing the verb and not with a contraction. 1. Imagine if we did not know anything about eating well.

Imagine if we didn't know anything about eating well. What if there wasn't any information on product labels? A long time ago, people weren't as careful about what they ate.

2. What if there was not any information on product labels?

3. A long time ago, people were not as careful about what they ate.

4. There was not any effort made to make foods more healthful.

There wasn't any effort made to make foods more healthful.

5. We did not have ways to do research and experiments.

We didn't have ways to do research and experiments. There weren't as many laboratories as there are today.

6. There were not as many laboratories as there are today.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

7. Years ago, there was not as much emphasis on good nutrition.

Years ago, there wasn't as much emphasis on good nutrition.

Taking the Lead

Grade 4/Unit 6

137

Practice

Name

Grammar: Correcting Double Negatives

· Do not use two negatives in the same sentence. · You can fix a sentence with two negatives by removing one. · You can correct a sentence with two negatives by changing one negative to a positive word. Rewrite each sentence below by dropping a negative or Possible responses changing one negative to a positive word. 1. I haven't found nothing in this area yet.

are given.

I haven't found anything in this area yet.

2. Our team didn't waste no time finding the answer.

Our team didn't waste time finding the answer.

3. Don't never go out in the bright sun without putting on a hat.

Don't ever go out in the bright sun without putting on a hat. There isn't any place to find a good price on furniture.

4. There isn't no place to find a good price on furniture.

5. I wouldn't never want to see a wild lion in real life.

I wouldn't want to see a wild lion in real life.

6. Doesn't no one know about the new contest online?

Doesn't anyone know about the new contest online?

7. The team couldn't find the hidden clues nowhere. 8. The slow runner didn't win no trophy for finishing last.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

The team couldn't find the hidden clues anywhere. The slow runner didn't win any trophy for finishing last.

138

Taking the Lead

Grade 4/Unit 6

Practice

Name

Grammar: Negatives

A. Read the personal essay below. Underline the sentences that contain two negatives. The New Kid in Class Last month, I started going to a new school. I didn't know nobody at this school. At first, I thought there wasn't no way I would be comfortable here. The teacher introduced me to the class. I had to tell them a little about myself. Everyone was laughing at me. I didn't have no idea what to say. I told the class about how I'd seen a real bear far off in the woods. Instead of laughing at me, the students were all listening to me. They asked me lots of questions. I still don't know if I'll get used to this new school, but my first day didn't turn out so bad. B. Rewrite the personal essay, correcting the sentences that contain two negatives.

Lastmonth,Istartedgoingtoanewschool.Ididn't knowanybodyatthisschool.Atfirst,Ithoughtthere wasnowayIwouldbecomfortablehere. Theteacherintroducedmetotheclass.Ihadtotell themalittleaboutmyself.Everyonewaslaughingat me.Ididn'thaveanyideawhattosay.Itoldtheclass abouthowI'dseenarealbearfaroffinthewoods.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Insteadoflaughingatme,thestudentswereall listeningtome.Theyaskedmelotsofquestions.Istill don'tknowifI'llgetusedtothisnewschool,butmy firstdaydidn'tturnoutsobad.

Taking the Lead

Grade4/Unit6

139

Practice

Name

Grammar: Negatives

A. Each numbered sentence contains two negatives. Circle the answer choice that best revises it. 1. Sue can't think of nothing more exciting than flying overseas. a. Sue can think of anything more exciting than flying overseas. b. Sue can't not think of anything more exciting than flying overseas. c. Sue can't think of anything more exciting than flying overseas. d. Sue can think of nothing no more exciting than flying overseas. 2. No one nowhere had found a cheaper ticket than this one. a. No one never had found a cheaper ticket than this one. b. No one anywhere had found a cheaper ticket than this one. c. Not no one anywhere had found a cheaper ticket than this one. d. Nobody nowhere had found a cheaper ticket than this one. 3. Isn't the sunset not always a golden color? a. Isn't any sunset always a golden color? b. Is the sunset never no golden color? c. Is the sunset always no golden color? d. Isn't the sunset always a golden color? 4. That new stadium isn't nowhere near here. a. That new stadium is anywhere near here. b. That new stadium isn't not nowhere near here. c. That new stadium isn't nowhere ever near here. d. That new stadium is nowhere near here. 5. The tourists didn't have no maps to find the city park. a. The tourists didn't have any maps to find the city park. b. The tourists did have no maps to find the city park. c. The tourists didn't never have maps to find the city park. d. The tourists did have none maps to find the city park. 6. Nobody never knew that the tunnel was right under them. a. Nobody not never knew that the tunnel was right under them. b. Nobody didn't never know that the tunnel was right under them. c. Nobody ever knew that the tunnel was right under them. d. No one never knew that the tunnel was right under them.

140

Taking the Lead

Grade 4/Unit 6

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice

Name

Grammar: Prepositions

· A preposition comes before a noun or pronoun and relates that noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence. · Common prepositions are about, above, across, after, around, at, before, behind, by, down, during, for, from, in, into, near, of, on, over, to, under, and with. Complete each sentence by adding a preposition. 1. Papa brought home a little treat 2. Mama never complained

Possible responses below. for

the kids. the children's messes. their father's plans.

about with

3. The two brothers did not agree 4. Only the family knew 5. There was no place cash the check. 6. Driving

of near

the safe's location. their home where they could

over

the rickety old bridge was not a good idea.

7. The model airplane flew

over

the ground.

8. Katherine took her first train ride almost six years the baby was born. 9. Riding

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

after

in in

the fire truck was an adventure. my hair.

10. I like the wind

11. The farmer parked his tractor 12. He left the plans

near

the floor.

the field.

on

Snowflake Bentley

Grade 4/Unit 6

141

Practice

Name

Grammar: Prepositions

· A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. Prepositional phrases can convey location, time, or direction. · When a pronoun follows a preposition, it should be an object pronoun, such as me, you, him, her, it, us, or them.

A. Underline the prepositional phrases in the following sentences. 1. Last summer, my parents went on a camping trip. 2. The birds flew over a group of boys. 3. Ruth helped her parents by managing their shop. 4. In their letters, they told her everything they were doing. 5. Brent said that the state park was a safe place for campers. 6. The campfire smoke drifted in the air. 7. The boys gathered more firewood from the ground. 8. They came home to the city with a new idea. 9. Our parents worked from day to night. 10. Together we drew up designs for their new store. B. Write an object pronoun on the line to complete each sentence. 11. The crowd applauded the actress and gave roses to 12. The role was difficult, but had prepared for

her

.

it

well.

142

Snowflake Bentley

Grade 4/Unit 6

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice

Name

Grammar: Review Using Quotations

· sequotationmarksatthebeginningandendofaperson's U exactwords.Beginaquotationwithacapitalletter. · eginanewparagrapheachtimeanewpersonspeaks. B · sequotationmarksforthetitlesofshortworks. U Rewrite this passage correctly. Add quotation marks and capital letters where needed. Begin new paragraphs whenever necessary. what are you making, Rashid? I'm making a paper airplane, Papa, but I can't get it to fly, said Rashid. it looks good, but maybe you need to make the wings longer, his father answered. okay, Papa, what else? well, your grandmother used to open a little space in the middle of the plane for air to travel through. now, let's see what happens. Hey, it's flying, Papa! yelled Rashid.

"Whatareyoumaking,Rashid?" "I'mmakingapaperairplane,Papa,butIcan'tget ittofly,"saidRashid. "Itlooksgood,butmaybeyouneedtomakethe wingslonger,"hisfatheranswered. "Okay,Papa,whatelse?"

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

"Well,yourgrandmotherusedtoopenalittlespace inthemiddleoftheplaneforairtotravelthrough.Now let'sseewhathappens." "Hey,it'sflying,Papa!"yelledRashid.

Snowflake Bentley

Grade4/Unit6

143

Practice

Name

Grammar: Prepositions

Read the interview below. Then rewrite each line by switching the preposition in each phrase with the correct one from another sentence. 1. "CaptainReilly,whatdoyoulikemostinsideexploringspace?"

"Captain Reilly, what do you like most about exploring space?"

2."IlikethefeelingthatIamaboutanotherworld.It'sexciting."

"I like the feeling that I am in another world. It's exciting." "What is your job inside the space shuttle?"

3."Whatisyourjobtothespaceshuttle?"

4."Ihelptheothercrewmemberswithrepairsfromtheship."

"I help the other crew members with repairs to the ship." "What can kids learn from exploring space?"

5."Whatcankidslearnforexploringspace?"

6."Exploringspacecanhelpkidsabovetheirscienceandmathclasses."

"Exploring space can help kids with their science and math classes."

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

7. "Doyouhaveanyadviceinouraudience?"

"Do you have any advice for our audience?" "Yes. There is a whole world above you, kids. Discover it!"

8."Yes.Thereisawholeworldwithyou,kids.Discoverit!"

144

Snowflake Bentley

Grade 4/Unit 6

Practice

Name

A. Complete each sentence below by writing the missing preposition. 1. Quentin tossed the game controller 2. Polly looked down

Grammar: Prepositions

in; into

the air.

on; upon

his new hobby.

3. Quentin sold videogame secrets to kids 4. Polly's character wandered

at; in

the maze.

school.

inside

5. She asked Quentin how to get back 6. He posted his suggestions 7. She grew bored and moved

outside

the building.

to; on onto

her Web page. a different game.

B. Underline the prepositional phrase in each of the sentences below. 8 We spent weeks preparing for the season's first snowstorm. 9. On December 14, the first storm rushed up the coast. 10. At first the snowflakes danced lazily above the ground. 11. Soon you could hardly see beyond your hand. 12. We shoveled a path to the street.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

13. On the television, the reporter listed school closings. 14. The cars were buried beneath the snow. 15. Luckily we had stored away plenty of food.

Snowflake Bentley

Grade 4/Unit 6

145

Practice

Name

Grammar: Sentences Using Prepositions

· wosentencescanbecombinedbyaddingaprepositional T phrasetoonesentence. Combine the pairs of sentences below by adding a prepositional phrase. Then underline the words you added to join the two sentences. 1. Todayourclasswentbird-watching.Wewereatthepark. Today our class went bird-watching at the park. 2. Thereweremanybirdstosee.Theywereinthetrees. There were many birds to see in the trees. 3. Icouldseeababybird.Itwasinsideasmallnest. I could see a baby bird inside a small nest. 4. Thebabybirdwascrying.Itwascryingwithitsmouthopen. The baby bird was crying with its mouth open. 5. Therewasamotherbird.Shewasabovethebaby. There was a mother bird above the baby. 6. Themotherfedthebaby.Shefedthebabybygivingheraworm. The mother fed the baby by giving her a worm. 7. Thebabybirdhid.Shehidinsidethenest.

The baby bird hid inside the nest.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

8. Themotherbirdflewacross.Sheflewtoanothertree.

The mother bird flew across to another tree.

146

How Ben Franklin Stole the Lightning Grade 4/Unit 6

Practice

Name

Grammar: Sentences Using Prepositions

Two sentences can be combined by adding a prepositional phrase to one sentence. If the prepositional phrase begins the sentence, a comma is often inserted at the end of the phrase. A. Rewrite the pairs of sentences below, using the prepositional phrase to combine them into one sentence. 1. The weather service issued warnings. They were about the storm.

The weather service issued warnings about the storm.

2. The rain started to fall. It started after midnight.

The rain started to fall after midnight. Lightning struck the tree near the house. The river rose up above its banks. We piled up sandbags along the river.

3. Lightning struck the tree. The tree was near the house.

4. The river rose up. It rose up above its banks.

5. We piled up sandbags. We piled them along the river.

B. Combine each pair of sentences below. Begin the new sentence with a preposition. Add a comma at the end of the prepositional phrase.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

6. The sun came out. It came out after the storm.

After the storm, the sun came out. In the eastern sky, a rainbow appeared.

7. A rainbow appeared. It was in the eastern sky.

How Ben Franklin Stole the Lightning Grade4/Unit 6

147

Practice

Name

Grammar: Combining Sentences

· Adverbs can be used to combine two sentences into one longer sentence. · Prepositional phrases can be used to combine two sentences into one longer sentence.

Possible responses provided.

Combine each pair of sentences. Write the new sentence. 1. Vonda got a new computer game. The game was about electricity.

Vonda got a new computer game about electricity.

2. Vonda pressed a button, and lightning filled the screen. It happened suddenly.

Vonda pressed a button, and lightning suddenly filled the screen.

3. She had to stop the lightning. She had less than a minute.

She had to stop the lightning in less than a minute.

4. She won the first game. She won it easily.

She easily won the first game.

5. She played the game again. She played after dinner.

She played the game again after dinner.

6. Lightning zapped her houses. The houses were on the computer screen.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Lightning zapped her houses on the computer screen.

148

How Ben Franklin Stole the Lightning Grade 4/Unit 6

Practice

Name

Grammar: Sentences Using Prepositions

Read the passage below. Combine each pair of underlined sentences into one sentence by adding a prepositional phrase. Write the combination sentences on the lines below. I read an interesting book. It was about cyclones. The book says that cyclones are the most powerful kinds of storms. These storms turn around. They turn in a circle. They absorb energy and concentrate it in a small area. Scientists study how they develop. They can develop into tornadoes and hurricanes. These storms can cause great damage. This damage comes from high winds, heavy rains, and severe lightning. In fact, scientists measure storms by how much damage they cause. Now I understand a lot more when I watch the weather report on television. The pictures in the book show you what the storms look like from outer space. Some of them are quite beautiful even though they are dangerous! 1. I read an interesting book about cyclones. 2. These storms turn around in a circle. 3.

Scientists study how they develop into tornadoes and hurricanes.

4.

These storms can cause great damage from high winds, heavy rains, and severe lightning.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

How Ben Franklin Stole the Lightning Grade 4/Unit 6

149

Practice

Name

Grammar: Sentences Using Prepositions

Study the sentences below. Then circle the choice in which the sentences are combined correctly. 1. They saw the kite flying. It was flying in the western sky. a. They saw a flying kite the western sky. b. They saw the western kite flying in the sky. c. They saw the kite flying in the western sky. 2. The kite soared and dipped. It was above the trees. a. Above the trees, the kite soared and dipped. b. The kite soared and dipped the trees. c. Above the kite, the trees soared and dipped. 3. Storm clouds gathered. They gathered along the horizon. a. Storm clouds gathered the horizon. b. Along the storm, the horizon gathered. c. Storm clouds gathered along the horizon. 4. The man pulled the kite down. He pulled it out of the sky. a. The man pulled the kite and the sky down. b. The man pulled the kite down out of the sky. c. The man out of the sky pulled the kite down. 5. We raced to our cars. Our cars were near the entrance. a. We raced our cars to the entrance. b. We raced to our cars were near the entrance. c. We raced to our cars near the entrance. 6. The storm knocked down two trees. The trees were in the park. a. The storm knocked down trees in two parks. b. The storm knocked down two trees in the park. c. The storm knocked down two in the park trees.

150

How Ben Franklin Stole the Lightning Grade 4/Unit 6

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

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