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OUR PLAN

We will approach this problem in the same way that reservoir characterization teams approach complex oil and gas reservoirs. This works because the targets are essentially the same. We will look at sequence stratigraphy, porosity and permeability, mechanical stratigraphy (fracture distribution), hydrothermal dolomite and depleted oil reservoirs. Porosity and Permeability- Use cores and logs to identify formations with porosity and permeability and correlate within sequence stratigraphic framework Hydrothermal Dolomite- Use variety of methods (seismic, wells tests) to identify "wet" hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs and use them as injection reservoirs Depleted Reservoirs- Identify depleted oil Devonian oil reservoirs and determine if the economics of converting to brine injection are good Sequence Stratigraphy- Use cores, logs and seismic to map high frequency stratigraphic sequences in potential brine reservoirs across New York

A B C

Log Analysis- Use understanding of cores and outcrops to better interpret and correlate logs Mechanical Stratigraphy- Use existing knowledge, FMIs and outcrop characterization to identify beds most likely to be fractured and correlate within sequence stratigraphic framework Rock Mechanics- Identify rock types that can best be "fraced" and correlate within sequence stratigraphic framework

22766-00

GAMMA RAY 0 200 RHOB 2 3 0

NEW YORK'S POTENTIAL DISPOSAL FORMATIONS

POROSITY/ PERM. OIL OR GAS RESERVOIR TYPE CURRENTLY USED FOR STORAGE POTENTIAL AS BRINE DISPOSAL RESERVOIR

QUEENSTON FORMATION

The Queenston Formation is a thick sequence of shale, siltstone and fine- to medium-grained sandstone ranging in color from red brown, gray to green. In the eastern and central portions of central western New York the Queenston is predominantly siltstone and sandstone; westward it grades into a slightly calcareous, brown to green, gray and red silty shale. Farther south in Chemung county the Queenston is predominantly sandstone, that is medium to finegrained. The Queenston Formation was laid down a part of a sequence of detrital clastic deposits that formed a large deltaic complex. In general the clastic material comprising the Queenston becomes coarser from west to east as you get nearer to its source the Taconic uplands. The Queenston-Oswego section is the stratigraphic equivalent of the Juniata-Bald Eagle Formations of Pennsylvania (Kreidler, 1975; COSUNA, 1985; Chenoweth and McBride, 1984). The Queenston Formation which crops out just south of Lake Ontario (Kreidler, 1975) is roughly 700-1000 ft (244-274 m) thick in most of western New York. Exposures of the Queenston are limited both by the non-resistant nature of the formation and by a thick cover of Pleistocene sediments (Hughes, 1976). Patchen (1966) reported several bedrock exposures of the Queenston area surrounding the towns of Oswego and Fulton, along the Oswego River and Lake Ontario.

Niagara Falls Area Central New York East Central Pennsylvania

PERIOD

GROUP

UNIT

WEST RIVER ITHICA

LITHOLOGY

ENVIRONMENT

22768-00

22768GR 200 2 RHOZ 3

22765-00

22765-00GR 0 200 RHOB 2 3

21703-00

21703-00GR 0 200 RHOB 2 3

22871-00 22841-00

GR1

9100

SHALE WITH MINOR SILTSTONE AND LIMESTONE

DEEP MARINE BASIN

GR 0 200 2

RHOZ 3

UPPER

0

200

RENWICK

NO

7800

6200

6600

6500

5800

7900

Seq. T4

Trenton

GENESEE

6100

6500

6400

5700

9200

SHERBURNE PENN YANN GENESEO

6300

6700

6600

5900

8000

6400

6800

6700

6500

6900

DEVONIAN

9600

Seq. T1

6800

6100

8200

9500

Seq. T2

6000

8100

Seq. T3

9400

9300

7000

8300

LIMESTONE WITH MINOR

LOW ENERGY TULLY

7

6600

6900

6200

YES, 1, GILBERT

6

6700

SILTSTONE AND LIMESTONE

7100

7000

6300

8400

MAYBE

6800

7200

7100

6400

8500

9900

9800

9700

7300

8600

6900

7200

10000

Seq. Br T4

6500

MOSCOW DEEP BASIN, UNDERWATER

GAS

SHALE WITH MINOR

MIDDLE

Black River

8800 8900

10100

7100

7500

LUDLOWVILLE

DELTA CHANNELS, TIDAL FLATS,

MAYBE

7000

7400

7300

6600

8700

N

Sandstone Siltstone Sodus Shaley Siltstone

6700

HAMILTON

SKANEATELES MARCELLUS

7400

10200

SANDSTONE

OFFSHORE BARS

7600

PINE HILL

COVERT 623222 GLODES CORNERS ROAD

WISE #1 MUCK FARM

RADIGAN #1 GLODES CORNERS ROAD

SRA 2 #1 SUGAR HILL

HENKEL 1359 QUACKENBUSH HILL

AND CONGLOMERATE

DEEP BASIN, POOR CIRCULATION OF OXYGEN

With our new digitized logs (LAS), we can make cleaner, better resolution sequence correlations. This example is a NW-SE transect through the Black River Fields West of Kueka Lake. New equipment and personnel will allow us to have even better coverage, with more logs, for the entire state.

Oswego

NW

GAS, REEF AND FAULT GENERATED FRACTURES

6

SE

Shale Not to Scale Dip exaggerated Canadaigua

sto n ee n Qu

ONONDAGA

FOSSILIFEROUS LIMESTONE & REEFS

SHALLOW MARINE, MEDIUM- LOW ENERGY NEAR SHORE, SHALLOW

YES, 2, FRACTURED LS AND PINNACLE REEF YES, AT lEAST 9

1

DEVONIAN

MAYBE

76

Auburn Senca Falls

617

1mm

9787.5

1529

SIURIAN

1.6mm

Porosity and Permeability are the keys to a successful brine disposal well. Though New York is known to have tight rocks, the above photos show that this is not always the case. Photo A shows well developed intercrystalline porosity in an algal fabric within the Beekmantown. Photo A is from well 74NY-1 located in the Mohawk Valley region of NYS. Photo B shows an open vug in a filled fracture. This image was taken of the Trenton-Black River section of the Matejka#1, Chemung County. Photo C is the Queenston Formation from the Delaney A-124-5 well in Cayuga County, New York.

In general the work can be broken into 2 phases. During the first phase we will define our study area, that is the area having salt usable for cavern development (or usable salt). This initial step will allow our group to focus later research only to viable localities. Once we have defined our study area we will use its boundaries to limit the research conducted in phase 2. Research conducted in Phase 2 will allow us to delineate which areas are "better" suited for cavern development. While primary goal of Phase 2 will be to locate reservoirs capable of accepting the large quantities of brine, other criteria necessary for developing salt-cavern storage facilities will be considered in the site suitability determination. After the completion of Phase 2, we will generate a map that will graphically illustrate the ranking and spatial distribution of site suitability within the study area

LOWER

TRISTATES HELDERBERG

ORISKANY

QUARTZ SANDSTONE

MARINE, HIGH ENERGY TIDAL, SHALLOW MARINE SHALLOW MARINE, HIGH SALINITY

-ave. 9% 4,1 -open fractures, 200800 md

GAS, FORMATION PINCHES OUT LOCALLY 2 FORMING TRAPS, ANY CLOSED STRUCTURALLY HIGHER POSITION

6

MAYBE

Os

Lo r

RONDOUT

AND DOLOSTONE

NO

6

rai n

Dip ~ 3o

e

MANLIUS

LIMESTONE

we g

o

AKRONCOBLESKILL

DOLOSTONE AND LIMESTONE

SHALLOW MARINE, NORMAL SALINITY

< 5% < 1md

1

1

Queenston Formation

OIL AND GAS, BASS ISLAND TREND, STRUCTURAL TRAPS, FRACTURES

YES

MAYBE

High velocity fluvial sandstones and conglomerates Low velocity fluvial sandstones and slitstones

BERTIE SHALLOW SHELF, HIGH SALINITY

Beach, barrier and coastal complex sandstones

YES, 1- LPG, 1 OPERATIONAL AND SEVERAL PROPOSED NAT. GAS, CENTRAL NY

Oswego Formation Entrapped Gas Lorraine Group Permeability Barrier

SALINA

UPPER

CAMILLUS

SHALE, DOLOSTONE, ANHYDRITE AND HALITE

RESTRICTED MARINE PLAYA OR LAKE

NO

Shallow marine shales

SYRACUSE

VERNON

COASTAL PLAIN, SHALLOW SHELF

LIMESTONE AND

LOCKPORT

LOCKPORT

DOLOSTONE STROMATALITE MOUNDS

GAS, PINNICALE REEF, NO MAJOR PRODUCTION

SHALLOW SHELF TO CARBONATE FLATS

6

NO

Schematic of lateral distribution of depositional environments in the Oswego-Queenston sequence (Adapted from Saroff, 1987 and Hughes 1976).

Model of gas entrapment Gas migrated updip adn was subsequently trapped within the sandstone facies and against a permeability barrier within the the Queenston Formation, a silty shale, lies directly above the Queenston in this area, and forms a caprock (From Saroff, 1987).

ROCHESTER

SHALE SANDSTONE

OPEN MARINE SHELF

GAS, STRATIGRAPHIC

IRONDEQUOIT

LIMESTONE

WARM, CLEAR, SHALLOW SHELF

NO

Legend

SAND/SHALE & SILT 8 4

WILLOWVALE

SHALE SANDSTONE AND SHALE

CLINTON

SAUQUOIT

LIMESTONE

Ut

ica

N

0 20 40 60 Kilometers

Ca na da U. S.

WOLCOTT

NEAR SHORE, SUBTIDAL QUIET

1 1/4 1/8

DISPOSALRESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS

Brine is typically injected into formations that are known to have levels of porosity and permeability to allow for the free flow of fluids. Brine disposal wells are usually completed into porous saltwater aquifers, which are well below and isolated from any potable freshwater aquifers (Friedman et al., 2002). For cavern development to be economical, potential disposal reservoir must be capable of accepting brine at the volumes and rates necessary for cavern development. This capability is a combination of several characteristics of the disposal reservoir, the viscosity of the brine, injection pressure, thickness and aerial extent of the reservoir and porosity and permeability of the formation

SHALE

WATER TO SHALLOW SHELF

LOWER

SILURIAN

SODUS

Toronto

. ONT NY

Lake Ontario

To be considered for disposal a formation should have:

BEAR CREEK SHALLOW MARINE IN DEPRESSIONS

ORDOVICIAN

MIDDLE

-matrix porosity of at least 10% -ground water salinity similar to the injected brine -must be hydraulically separated from sources of potable water -either good matrix permeability or be a candidate for fracing -in the case of bedded salt a disposal formation can be above or below the salt layer

HEMATITE & IRON ORE

FURNACEVILLE

BETWEEN NEAR SHORE RIDGES OF SAND

1 mm

Syracuse

Isopachous lines (50 meter intervals dashed where inferred and/or restored)

KODAK GRIMSBY

SANDSTONE

DELTAIC - SHALLOW TURBULENT WATER

MEDINA

UPPER

SANDSTONE AND SHALE

WHIRLPOOL

GAS, SAND DOMINATED CHANNEL DEPOSITS, PRODUCED FROM FRACTURES

AS HIGH AS 15% /1-.01md

1

1

10 GAS STORAGE FIELDS IN WESTERN NEW YORK

3

25

0

it Extent of Un

Buffalo

VT.

MAYBE

1

Albany

Lake Erie

30 0 35 0 40 0

QUEENSTON

SANDSTONE AND SHALE

DELTAIC, BRAIDED STREAM NEAR SHORE AND BEACH

GAS, UP DIP FACIES CHANGE

POTENTIAL GAS STORAGE

YES

MASS. NY PA

45 0 50 0 0 55

OSWEGO

SHALEY SANDSTONE SHALE WITH

LORRAINE

SHALLOW AND MODERATELY DEEP MARINE

UTICA

SANDSTONE AND SILTSTONE FOSSILIFEROUS LIMESTONE

DEEP BASIN

PORPOSED GAS, GAS SHALE

6

NO YES

OHIO PA

0 60 0 65 70 0

80 0

Scranton

0

CONN.

TRENTONBLACK RIVER BEEKMANTOWN

TRENTON

SHALLOW MARINE, TIDAL FLATS AND SLOPE SHALLOW SHELF

DOLOSTONE AND

BLACK RIVER

GAS, VUGGY HYDROTHERMAL DOLOMITE, FRACTURES-TUG HILL AREA

HYDROTHERMAL DOLOMITE

LOWER

Upper Ordovician Oswego and Queenston Formations Isopachous and Sand/Shale ratio map (Modified from Saroff, 1987 and Yeakel, 1978).

TRIBES HILL

ORDOVICIAN

DOLOSTONE, LIMESTONE AND SILSTONE

Numerous porous zones in upper portion of L.F.

4

Lake Shore

Well Sapinos

05116-00 05114-00 06719-00 05095-00 10893-00 17559-00 04715-00 04768-00 22907-00 04203-00 22762-00 22761-00 22763-00 06395-00 20446-00 22828-00 22791-00 22776-00 22796-00 22795-00 22774-00 22773-00 22746-00 22750-00 21726-00 21725-00 22799-00 21704-00 20417-00 19692-00 04467-00 22841-00 22829-00 22830-00 22942-00 22839-00 22901-00 22908-00 22771-00 22825-00 22814-00 22852-00 22853-00 22831-00 22885-00 22871-00

Schematic North-South Cross Section Finger Lakes Region of New York State

Prepared by : Courtney Lugert

Pennsylvania

South

North

LITTLE FALLS

TROPICAL

YES

GAS, vuggy dolomite, STRUCTURAL CLOSURE OF FRACTURE SYSTEM

5 6

DOLOSTONE SANDSTONE AND SANDY DOLOSTONE

UPPER

2000 Canadaway Genesee

Onondaga

Westfalls Sonyea Canadaway

Canadaway Westfalls Sonyea Genesee Tully Hamilton Onondaga Oriskany Helderberg

Devonian

1000

Hamilton

Tully

0 Feet

Scale:

20000 40000 0

-1000

Medina

Feet

Clinton

Lockport

Salina

Helderberg

Oriskany

-2000

Legend: Shale Sand Sand and Shale Limestone Dolomite Evaporites Grenvillian Basement Vertical Exaggeration: 20x

Prepared by : Courtney Lugert, NYSM

Lake Erie

-3000

Salina

Silurian

-4000

Approximate Location of Cross Section

New York State Lake Ontario

Lockport Clinton Medina

Beekmantown Black River Trenton Lorraine Queenston

-5000

Queenston

-6000

-7000

Data used was taken from this area.

Potsdam

Galway

Lorraine

Little Falls

Ordovician

Precambrian Complex

Scale In Miles

Trenton Black River Beekmantown Little Falls Galway (Theresa) Potsdam

-8000

-9000

Cambrian -10000

N

20

0

20

40

After a search and evaluation of available literature on brine disposal and the stratigraphy of central and western New York, our group has selected several formations that we believe offer the best opportunity for brine disposal. The formations we will be exploring for the remainder of this study are the Devonian Oriskany Formation, the Silurian Medina Group, the Ordovician Queenston Formation and the Cambro-Ordovician Sauk Sequence. Above is a Composite Paleozoic Stratigraphic Section for Central New York, the sections of interest are highlighted.

COASTAL COMPLEX

THERESA (GALWAY)

POTENIAL STORAGE RESERVOIR

POTSDAM

QUARTZ SANDSTONE

Basal Potsdam extremely porous and permeable

4

PRECAMBRIAN

MARBLE QUARTZITE etc>

METAMORPHIC AND IGNEOUS ROCKS MODIFIED FROM ISACHSEN ET AL., 2000

1 FREIDMAN ET AL., 2002 2 DEECHIO ET AL., 1984

NO

3 SAROFF, 1987 4 MC CANN ET AL., 1968 5 GOU ET AL., 1996 6 BESTEDO & VAN TYNE, 1990 7 DEC ANNUAL REPORTS

The description presented in this poster is of 342 feet (104 m) of 4 in. core taken from the Delaney #A-124-5 well (API #31-011-13645) from the West Auburn field in Cayuga County, New York. Three general rock types were observed in the core. A medium- to fine-grained quartz rich sandstone, a thinly bedded siltstone and 0.5 in. to 6 in. thick conglomeratic sections where pebble sized clasts of ripped up siltstone have been incorporated into the sandstone (both matrix and clast supported conglomerates were observed). Several sections of sandstone exhibit visible porosity. In these sections and others, intergranular porosity was also observed in thin section (blue stain was added to the slides and shows through at pores). Both the visible porosity in the core and the intergranular porosity observed in the thin sections are often found in linear, horizontal bands associated with horizontal fracturing. Production from the Queenston has occurred at the West Auburn Field for over sixty years (since 1940). Because of the economic benefit, the Queenston formation's petrophysical and geological attributes have been studied in the vicinity of this field. Ward, 1988 stated that there are 3 primary gas sands in the Queenston here and that together they have an average porosity of 13% and a permeability of roughly 0.2 md and that extreme examples show peak porosities approaching 20% and permeabilities over 5.0 md. In 1987 and 1988 Saroff reported on his study of 111 wells from the West Auburn field. Saroff's study revealed that the Formation contained several intervals of various thicknesses where the sand content is over 75% and intervals where the apparent porosity is over 10%. Saroff also stated that other authors had reported permeabilities of 0.1-1 md for the Queenston in this area. Both authors (Ward, 1988 and Saroff, 1987 and 1988) discuss the importance of the regional and local structure on the productivity of the field. Saroff noted that the better producing wells were located in areas with higher sand content, though he felt that it was more important that these wells were found in zones of increased fracturing focused along trend with Precambrian basement faults, recognized in Bouger gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic maps. Ward (1988) also commented that the natural fracture occurrences are associated with gentle folding within the field and contributed to production of the low permeability reservoir.

FROM VANTINE AND COPLEY, 1984

The table above is a compilation of information from several sources. By bringing this information together we were able to identify formations with potential as brine disposal reservoirs. Potential brine disposal reservoirs were chosen based on Lithology, coverage in south central New York and production and storage potential and history. Formations with potential were designated as YES or MAYBE. Formations that have produced gas were designated YES based on the similar characteristics necessary for both production and disposal. The MAYBE designation was used when a formation is commonly used for storage. This becomes necessary because economically an operator would probably profit more form getting online quickly with a storage facility that will continually operate rather than the possible slow, onetime disposal that would occur with the brine disposal use.

N.

75

NJ

J.

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