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VYBRANÉ PÍSTUPY K VÝZKUMU SPOLUPRÁCE PESHRANICNÍ SPOLUPRÁCE

LITERATU DATABÁZ ÁZE V MEZINÁRODNÍ LITERATUE (DLE BIBLIOGRAFICKÉ DATABÁZE KNOWLEDGE) ISI WEB OF KNOWLEDGE) Ceské pohranicí po Schengenu: území svébytné, oscilacní a/nebo tranzitní? GAAV CR Projekt IAA311230901

Univerzita Jana Evangelisty Purkyn v Ústí nad Labem Univerzita Karlova v Praze Západoceská univerzita v Plzni

Obecné otázky integrace, politické a geopolitické aspekty, národnostní otázky

Klícové slovo: Borderland + Europe

D27(2):190Balibar,E. 2009. Europe as borderland. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space 27(2):190-215. Abstract: The discussion in this paper moves through three stages. In the first the relation of political spaces and borders to citizenship is interrogated; in the second, notions of deterritorialization and reterritorialization are examined in relation to ideas of the material constitution of Europe; and, in the third section it returns to the issue of citizenship and its relation to cosmopolitanism. Rather than being a solution or a prospect, Europe currently exists as a 'borderland, and this raises a number of issues that need to be confronted. ThirkellThirkell-White,B. 2008. On global order: power, values and the constitution of international society. 84(4):829International Affairs 84(4):829-830. Abstract: Book reviewed in this issue. International Relations theory On global order: power, values and the constitution of international society. By Andrew Hurrell. Between war and politics: international relations and the thought of Hannah Arendt. By Patricia Owens. William E. Connolly: democracy, pluralism and political theory. Edited by Samuel Chambers and Terrell Carver. The realist tradition and contemporary international relations. Edited by W. David Clinton. Nations, states and violence. By David D. Laitin. Human rights and ethics Killing civilians: method, madness and morality in war. By Hugo Slim. Purify and destroy: the political uses of massacre and genocide. By Jaques Semelin. Human rights and the WTO: the case of patents and access to medicines. By Holger Hestermeyer. International law and organization The Oxford handbook on the United Nations. Edited by Thomas G. Weiss and Sam Daws. Defending the society of states: why America opposes the International Criminal Court and its vision of world society. By Jason Ralph. Reparations for indigenous peoples: international and comparative perspectives. Edited by Federico Lenzerini. The international judge: an introduction to the men and women who decide the world's cases. By Daniel Terris, Cesare P. R. Romano and Leigh Swigard. Foreign policy China-India relations: contemporary dynamics. By Amardeep Athwal. Conflict, security and armed forces Culture in chaos: an anthropology of the social condition in war. By Stephen C. Lubkemann. UN peacekeeping in Lebanon, Somalia and Kosovo: operational and legal issues in practice. By Ray Murphy. Biosecurity in the global age: biological weapons, public health and the rule of law. By David P. Fidler and Lawrence O. Gostin. Uniting against terror: cooperative nonmilitary responses to the global terrorist threat. Edited by David Cortright and George A. Lopez. War on terror, inc.: corporate profiteering from the politics of fear. By Solomon Hughes. Politics, democracy and social affairs What democracy is for: on freedom and moral government. By Stein Ringen. Political economy, economics and development Escape from empire: the developing world's journey through heaven and hell. By Alice H. Amsden. Everyday politics of the world economy. Edited by John M. Hobson and Leonard Seabrooke. Global governance reform: breaking the stalemate. Edited by Colin I. Bradford, Jr and Johannes F. Linn. Ethnicity and cultural politics The politics of Englishness. By Arthur Aughey. Cultural contestation in ethnic conflict. By Marc Howard Ross. Energy and environment Peace parks: conservation and conflict resolution. Edited by Saleem H. Ali. Greening Brazil: environmental activism in state and society. By Kathryn Hochstetler and Margaret E. Keck. History The Reagan diaries. Edited by Douglas Brinkley. From bloodshed to

hope in Burundi: our embassy years during genocide. By Ambassador Robert Krueger and Kathleen Tobin Krueger. Europe Europe's global role: external policies of the European Union. Edited by Jan Orbie. Democratic politics in the European Parliament. By Simon Hix, Abdul G. Noury and Gerard Roland. Middle East and North Africa Der unerklarte Weltkrieg: Akteure und Interessen in nah und Mittelost. By Bahman Nirumand. Sub-Saharan Africa Big African states. Edited by Christopher Clapham, Jeffrey Herbst and Greg Mills. After the party: a personal and political journey inside the ANC. By Andrew Feinstein. One hundred days of silence: America and the Rwanda genocide. By Jared Cohen. Asia and Pacific Reconciliation: Islam, democracy and the West. By Benazir Bhutto. Dancing in shadows: Sihanouk, the Khmer Rouge and the United Nations in Cambodia. By Benny Widyono. Rivals: how the power struggle between China, India and Japan will shape our next decade. By Bill Emmott. The battle for China's past: Mao and the Cultural Revolution. By Mobo Gao. China rising: peace, power and order in East Asia. By David C. Kang. Reluctant restraint: the evolution of China's nonproliferation policies and practices, 1980-2004. By Evan S. Medeiros. Frontier of faith: Islam in the Indo-Afghan borderland. By Sana Haroon. North America The long war: a new history of US national security policy since World War II. Edited by Andrew J. Bacevich. The mighty Wurlitzer: how the CIA played America. By High Wilford. Latin America and Caribbean Panama lost ? US hegemony, democracy, and the canal. postTunander,O. 2008. Geopolitics of the North: Geopolitik of the weak - A post-cold war return to Rudolf 43(2):164Kjellen. Cooperation and Conflict 43(2):164-184. Keywords: Baltic Sea Region/Barents Region/constructivism/geopolitics/Kjellen/Nordic countries/regionalism/EUROPE Abstract: After the Cold War, the Nordic states turned to the south, to the European Union. They established borderland regions to handle practicalities and relax the tension between east and west. Now, the Nordic states were free from Cold War bloc politics. The Nordic foreign policy elite amalgamated with Nordic constructivist scholars to reshape the political landscape of the North by re-inventing the pre-nation-state regional ties. However, the Nordic states also came to adapt to a new geometry of power, the Kjellenean power triangle. This return to Kjellenean geopolitics was not based on the power politics of the 'US victory school', but, paradoxically enough, on European and Scandinavian relative weakness: a Geopolitik of the weak. Even more paradoxical, this return to geopolitics took place in Norway, Finland and to some extent in Denmark, not in Kjellen's home country of Sweden, i.e. as if the Swedish geopolitical taboo still made this impossible. GermanRobert,C. 2007. The bridge, geopolitical metaphor of new German-Polish relations. Etudes Germaniques 62(1):23762(1):237-247. Abstract: Since its reunification Germany has constantly defined itself as a bridge in the centre of the new Europe. The bridge metaphor, also applied to the borderland between Germany and Poland and to former German territories lost in 1945, is the geopolitical instrument that has, since 1990, helped to construct new mental maps. It helped to soften the Drang nach Osten cliche and to go beyond the fatal Mittellage. Looking back on the historical and geographical evolution of Prussia/Germany and Poland one nevertheless becomes aware of how problematic this apparently innocent image is, for until the end of World War H bridges and bridgeheads had always been interpreted as the signs of German expansion. Aligica,D. 2003. East Central Europe in the modern world: The politics of borderland from pre- to post precommunism. East European Politics and Societies 17(1):131-137. 17(1):131-

Klícové slovo: Schengen

32(3):673[Anon]. 1995. Schengen - the Pros and Cons. Common Market Law Review 32(3):673-678. Curtin,D. and Meijers,H. 1995. The Principle of Open Government in Schengen and the European Union Review 32(2):391- Democratic Retrogression. Common Market Law Review 32(2):391-442. Barett,G. 1999. Schengen, judicial cooperation and policy coordination. Common Market Law Review 36(5):111136(5):1111-1113. Kapteyn,P. 1991. Civilization Under Negotiation National Civilizations and European Integration - TheTheTreaty-Of-Schengen. 32(2):363Treaty-Of-Schengen. Archives Europeennes de Sociologie 32(2):363-380. Kolliker,A. 2001. Bringing together or driving apart the union? Towards a theory of differentiated 24(4):125integration. West European Politics 24(4):125-151. Keywords: COMPETITION Abstract: This contribution develops a theory of the impact of differentiation on integration and unity among EU member states and discusses empirical evidence from four policy areas. According to the theory, the centripetal effects of closer co-operation among willing EU members on initially unwilling non-participants are strongly influenced by the character of the respective policy area in terms of public goods theory. The eventual participation of initially reluctant member states, which leads to the re-establishment of long-run unity despite short run differentiation, is most likely in policy areas involving excludable network effects, and most unlikely in areas dealing with common pool resource problems (the four remaining types of goods ranking in between these two extremes). The theoretical conclusions are supported by empirical evidence from four EU-related policies: the successful three show strong characteristics of excludable network goods (EMU, Schengen and the Dublin Convention), while the one which has proved extraordinarily difficult so far involves a common pool resource problem (tax harmonisation).

Klícové slovo: Cross-border cooperation

Perkmann,M. 2007. Policy entrepreneurship and multilevel governance: a comparative study of crossC25(6):861European cross-border regions. Environment and Planning C-Government and Policy 25(6):861879. Keywords: Cooperation/Globalization/CONTEXT Abstract: The author addresses the recent proliferation of cross-border regions, or 'Euroregions', in Europe. It is argued that EU multilevel governance patterns generate opportunities for entrepreneurial policy organisations to attract policy tasks and resources. This is conceptualised as policy entrepreneurship and applied to a comparative case-study analysis of three Euroregions: EUREGIO (Germany-Netherlands), Viadrina (Poland-Germany), and Tyrol Euroregion (Austria-Italy). The analysis focuses on the ability of these initiatives to establish themselves as autonomous organisations. It finds considerable variation across the cases in this respect. Following on from this, the paper shows how administrative and institutional environments in different EU member states affect the ability of Euroregions to engage in policy entrepreneurship. It is concluded that it is premature to perceive Euroregions

as new types of regional territorial entities; rather, they are part of the policy-innovation scenario enabled by EU multilevel governance. Sidaway, J.D. 2001. Rebuilding bridges: a critical geopolitics of Iberian transfrontier cooperation in a Environment D19(6):743European context. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space 19(6):743-778. Keywords: INTERNATIONALRELATIONS/UNION/STATE/POSTMODERN/governance/community/MODERNITY Abstract: In the context of approaches to understanding the European Union (EU) and 'critical geopolitics' which traces the construction of geopolitical narratives, the author writes about the imaginations of European society and space as harmonised and networked which are associated with visions of governance for 'an ever closer union'. This is done through a critical examination of the European Commission's project of sponsoring cross-border cooperation. Drawing on a case study from the Portuguese-Spanish frontier, he examines contradictions that have arisen and are mediated through an unresolved dispute concerning the demarcation of a short section of what is the longest, poorest (in terms of material underdevelopment), and oldest (in terms of relative stability) border between two EU member states. Focusing on the EU-funded (re)construction of a ruined bridge across the border, he examines the way in which the boundary dispute (and attendant Portuguese irredentism) has become enfolded within and disrupts the strategic visions of the EU. Working with a mixture of historical and contemporary documents, media accounts, archival records, and interviews relating to this case study, the author reflects on and elaborates broader understandings of the spatiality of power in the EU. Mitchell,S.M. and Hensel,P.R. 2007. International institutions and compliance with agreements. American 51(4):721American Journal of Political Science 51(4):721-737. Keywords: TREATY COMPLIANCE/SELECTION BIAS/Cooperation/CONFLICT/ORGANIZATIONS/democracy/SETTLEMENT/ISSUES/COMMITMEN T/POLITICS Abstract: The ultimate litmus test of compliance theories occurs in situations where states' interests are directly opposed, such as competing interstate claims over territory, maritime areas, and cross-border rivers. This article considers the extent to which the involvement of international institutions in the settlement of contentious issues between states bolsters compliance with agreements that are struck. Institutions may influence the prospects for compliance actively and passively. Active institutional involvement in the conflict management process increases the chances for compliance with agreements, particularly for binding institutional activities, relative to the active involvement of noninstitutional third parties. More passively, joint membership in peace-promoting institutions enhances the likelihood that states will comply with peaceful agreements to resolve contentious issues. Empirical analyses demonstrate the relevance of international institutions for resolving contentious interstate issues both actively and passively, although the results suggest that institutions are more effective conflict managers when they choose binding settlement techniques. Tannam,E. 2007. The European Commission's evolving role in conflict resolution - The case of Northern 198942(3):337Ireland 1989-2005. Cooperation and Conflict 42(3):337-356. Keywords: cross-border cooperation/European Commission/Northern Ireland/peace process/preferences/Republic of Ireland/borders/UNION/NEOFUNCTIONALISM/SOCIALIZATION/INTEGRATION/EU Abstract: The main aim of this article is to examine the role-perception and operation of European Commission officials towards Northern Ireland and the peace process. A relative gap in the theoretical literature, until recently, on the Commission's endogenous preferences is

highlighted. The main conclusion is that the European Commission's preferences towards conflict resolution in Northern Ireland have altered since 1994 and that Commission officials exhibit a greater analytical understanding and proactive approach to Northern Ireland. The cause of this change has not been socialization into 'European' supranational norms, but instead has reflected the impact of British and Irish cooperation and agreement. Rocha,R.S. 2009. The Impact of Cross-Border Mergers on the Co-Decision-Making Process: The Case of CrossCo-DecisionIndustrial 30(4):484a Danish Company. Economic and Industrial Democracy 30(4):484-509. Keywords: co-decision making/corporate governance/Institutions/mergers and acquisitions/multinational corporations/US MULTINATIONALS Abstract: The present article investigates changes over time in the patterns of co-decisionmaking in a Danish multinational company that has grown through cross-border mergers and acquisitions. The findings show the difficulties that trade union representatives and management face when firms try to introduce a governance regime based on shareholder value ideology. The Danish tradition of cooperation between management and labour was especially affected, since the changes in co-decision-making processes destroyed more than top management understood or realized. The article argues that hybrid forms of governance are unlikely to emerge due to historically embedded governance institutions, which create distinct expectations about how a firm must be governed and who has the right to participate in this governance. The spread of the Anglo-Saxon model of governance in Europe is likely to have negative effects on co-decision-making processes and established patterns of organizational cooperation. crossHelsinkiPikner,T. 2008. Reorganizing cross-border governance capacity - The case of the Helsinki-Tallinn European 15(3):211Euregio. European Urban and Regional Studies 15(3):211-227. Keywords: cross-border governance/governance capacity/Helsinki-Tallinn Euregio/REGIONAL SPACES/POLITICS/EUROPE/STATE/Cooperation/networks/GERMANY Abstract: Different forms of regional politics and network-type coordination are present within European cross-border initiatives. The purpose of the article is to study the changing organizational configurations of interregional governance in the context of the Helsinki-Tallinn Euregio (HTE), and how these new forms of coordination influence cross-border institutional capacity and policy outcomes. The basic empirical material consists of official public documents and eight semi-structured theme interviews conducted with the key actors of the HTE in June-July 2004. 'Governance capacity' is used here as a theoretical tool to understand and interpret the reorganization process of cross-border governance. The case-study about the HTE shows the possibility that governance may be practised through dynamic social networks and partly shifting territorial configurations according to interregional interests. The HTE agency creates a flexible intervention frame for the cross-border governance capacity to support regional competitiveness through the policy instruments of the European Union. There are already some results, but several challenges remain for the HTE to create additional scale effects between the Helsinki and Tallinn regions. CrosscoChurch,A. and Reid,P. 1999. Cross-border co-operation, institutionalization and political space across across 33(7):643the English Channel. Regional Studies 33(7):643-655. Keywords: CROSS-BORDER/institutionalization/southern England/northern France/DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES/Cooperation/GOVERNMENT/networks Abstract: Cross-border initiatives are based on flexible co-operative networks and have many of the characteristics which the institutionalist perspective argues are often present in regions that have developed effective institutional forms. Transfrontier programmes involving local authorities in northern France and southern England are examined. The paper explores the

significance of cross-border strategies for the development and restructuring of the role of local governance in institutional arrangements and territories. It also considers the interaction between cross-border spaces, the transnational spatial planning regions promoted by the European Commission and the emerging regional politics of South East England. Bach,D. and Newman,A.L. 2010. Transgovernmental Networks and Domestic Policy Convergence: Evidence from Insider Trading Regulation. International Organization 64(3):505-528. 64(3):505Keywords: INTERNATIONAL-ORGANIZATIONS/NATIONSTATE/DIFFUSION/Cooperation/POLITICS/WORLD/Institutions/MARKETS Abstract: Cross-border cooperation among domestic regulators and public officials has become a defining feature of global governance. While a number of studies have tracked the emergence and institutionalization of such transgovernmental networks, less is known about their effect on domestic policy. This study explores this link for the important case of insidertrading regulation in original data for I 16 countries between 1977 and 2006. It offers quantitative evidence that transgovernmental cooperation is related to domestic policy convergence but that the relationship is more complex than often assumed. Direct ties to powerful regulators increases a jurisdiction's likelihood of adopting internationally promoted policies such as insider-trading rules. Separately, membership in the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO), a forum designed to diffuse best practices among regulators, increases a jurisdiction's likelihood of subsequently enforcing newly adopted policies. The findings in this study suggest that different network components are associated with distinct aspects of domestic policy convergence. The results are directly relevant for current public policy debates about the reregulation of global financial markets as transgovernmental networks among domestic regulators have assumed a critical role. Lefevre,M. CrossLefevre,M. 2009. Periphery and Cross-Border As Categories of Political Actions. Representations, Sud(28):31Speeches and Strategies of Local Authorities. Sud-Ouest Europeen (28):31-43. Keywords: GEOPOLITICS/REPRESENTATION/PERIPHERY/CROSS-BORDER/LOCAL AUTHORITIES Abstract: PERIPHERY AND CROSS-BORDER AS CATEGORIES OF POLITICAL ACTIONS. REPRESENTATIONS, SPEECHES AND STRATEGIES OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES. The local authorities have been engaged for over two decades in politics of cross-border cultural cooperation in the name of a Catalan identity sometimes made use of at all levels of power in a context of parallel development. On a department territory left out on the scale of the country and the region, their national and rural vision is opposed to an urban and European vision of the authorities of the great neighbouring region, shared by the urban mayor of Perpignan. The European logic of a territory cross-region and cross-border dynamics tends to alter their representations. International 17(4):685Lowenheim,O. and Heimann,G. 2008. Revenge in International Politics. Security Studies 17(4):685-724. Keywords: PUNISHMENT/STATES/TERRORISM/VICTIMS/JUSTICE/WAR/Cooperation/ HUMILIATION/Reciprocity/DETERRENCE Abstract: This paper conceptualizes the phenomenon of revenge in international politics and seeks to specify the conditions that increase or diminish the tendency of states to take revenge against enemies. We situate the discussion of revenge within the broader context of emotions in IR. We argue that whether or not a state will take revenge depends on the combinations of three interrelated and mutually constitutive variables: (1) the degree to which a state emotionally experiences harm against it as morally outrageous, (2) the extent of humiliation the harmed state feels, and (3) the degree to which international retaliation is institutionalized by rules and laws that govern the use of cross-border force. We examine the Second Lebanon War (July 2006) as a case of revenge in international politics.

crossregions? Hall,P. 2008. Opportunities for democracy in cross-border regions? Lessons from the Oresund Region. 42(3):423Regional Studies 42(3):423-435. Keywords: democracy/accountability/cross-border regions/Oresund Region/Interreg/governance/networks/SPACES Abstract: This article critically assesses the democratic character of cross-border regions within the European Union. Cross-border cooperation could be an experimental field for the project of making the Union more democratic through transnational partnerships, especially since large parts of cross-border policy formation are done by the local and regional authorities. The article analyses the democratic state of the Oresund Region around the Sound between Sweden and Denmark. The study demonstrates that, rather than bringing spearhead ideas of democratic organization, cross-border cooperation in the Oresund Region tends to perpetuate the problem of citizen participation within the Union. The Oresund project - and comparative evidence suggests the same pattern in other cross-border cooperations within the EU - is characterized by a relatively closed network of public agencies, chaired by a few leading politicians and senior public officials. Their strategies of regional integration emphasize individual consumption instead of public participation, and their formal representative position is unsettled. Odowd,L., Corrigan,J., and Moore,T. 1995. Borders, National Sovereignty and European Integration Britishthe British-Irish Case. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 19(2):272-285. 19(2):272Keywords: Cooperation/networks/REGIONS Abstract: This paper uses a case study of the British-Irish border region to explore the relationship between European integration and national sovereignty. Drawing on interview material and survey research, it examines the interaction between ethno-national conflict, the progress towards cross-border economic cooperation, and the policies of two rather different, if highly centralized, EU states. In particular, it examines two issues, the operation of the EU's INTERREG Initiative for border areas, and the strengthening of the Irish border via road closures and fortifications. The conclusions suggest that EU membership, the economic strategies of both states and their management of the Northern Ireland conflict provide little evidence that national sovereignty and the salience of national boundaries are being undermined. National sovereignty may even be strengthened where economic peripherality interacts with high degrees of state centralization and ongoing conflict. Finally, the paper supports the view that nation-states emphasize economic rationality less than political and security objectives in the administration and development of border regions.

Vnjsí hranice Evropské unie

Klícové slovo: Borderland + Europe

Fortress HansKopp,K. 2007. Reconfiguring the border of Fortress Europe in Hans-Christian Schmid's 'Lichter'. 82(1):31Germanic Review 82(1):31-53. Keywords: aesthetics of dislocation/contemporary German film/Fortress Europe/German-Polish borderland/globalization/global vs.local/Hans-Christian Schmid/Lichter (Distant Lights)/Poland/transnational space Abstract: On 1 May 2004, the external border of "Fortress Europe" was shifted to the east to bring Poland into the fold of the European Union. Hans-Christian Schmid's 2003 film Lichter (Distant Lights) is a contemporary Germain film produced at the cusp of this development. It presents a shift away from the dominant mode of depicting the German-Polish borderlands guiding discourse in Germany during the decade prior to the EU enlargement. Throughout the 1990s, the German-Polish border had been depicted as a barrier protecting the German (European) self from a non-European other defined by endemic economic underdevelopment, social malaise, and criminal propensities. Schmid's film transcends this East-West divide by shifting the categories of spatial identity to global vs. local. Lichter generates a new portrait of the German-Polish borderland as a transnational but nonetheless local space situated at the disenfranchised margins of a new global order-one in which Warsaw joins Berlin as a privileged seat of wealth, power, and mobility. Lichter constructs this cross-border symmetry through both its narrative structure and its visual and aural aesthetics, both of which are treated at length in the article. These film strategies work together to inhibit the viewer's ability to correlate the films elements (individual scenes, agents, and emotional affects) with particular (national) spaces. On the one hand, this aesthetics of dislocation allows for the transcendence of the EastWest dichotomy and an erasure of the stereotypes through which it had been structured. On the other hand, it has led many reviewers of the film to appeal to precisely such stereotypes of East and West to locate those elements spatially estranged by this aesthetic strategy. The article thus questions whether viewers are prepared to engage with the critique of globalization the film presents. Saarinen,H. 2005. From a "Russian borderland" to a Nordic state. The perception of Finland during the 53(3):364Weimar Republic. Jahrbucher fur Geschichte Osteuropas 53(3):364-383. Abstract: During the 19th century Finland was incorporated as an autonomous Grand Duchy in the Russian Empire. Prior to this it had been a part of Sweden for several centuries. Looking at a country from outside often induces observers to see it in a broader regional context. Where did Finland belong, seen from the German perspective? To eastern or western Europe? After Finland had gained its independence in 1917, publications in German dealing with Finland gradually began shifting the country into a more western context. Culturally and politically the country was now connected with Scandinavia and mostly described as a Nordic country. This coincided with the policy of the German Foreign Ministry. This meant that Finland was seen as something other than simply one of the newly born so-called "border states" on the Baltic Sea.

Klícové slovo: Schengen

Saeter,M. 1995. The Schengen Convention and Norway - How to Face the Intersection Between Frameworks. 53(2):229European and Nordic Frameworks. Internasjonal Politikk 53(2):229-241. Abstract: The Schengen Convention raises the question of whether or not, or, in case, under what circumstances the Nordic passport union can continue its existence. For the Nordic EU members, Schengen participation means that European requirements take precedence over Nordic ones. What about Norway (and Iceland) as non-member(s)? Can the Nordic rules be adapted so as to be compatible with the EU rules? And would it be possible for the Schengen states to let Nordic non-member states participate in the system? In practice, the Schengen system is not very unlike the Nordic one. Participation in the Schengen system does not mean great changes in the policy of the Nordic countries, even if the Nordic framework has to be replaced by a European one. As long as the Schengen rules do not require supranational enaction, no institutional changes are required at the national level. The main practical problem will be the outer border control. But this problem will probably be still more difficult to solve if the Norwegian borders to Sweden and Finland are to be defined as outer EU borders. The future EU-Russia relationship is also of significance in this kontext. selfEUProzorov,S. 2007. The narratives of exclusion and self-exclusion in the Russian conflict discourse on EU26(3):309Russian Relations. Political Geography 26(3):309-329. Keywords: Russia/European Union/integration/geopolitics/liberalism/conservatism/conflict/discourse Abstract: The article focuses on the interplay of the narratives of 'exclusion' and 'self-exclusion' in the Russian discourse on EU-Russian relations. Since the late 1990s, this discourse has acquired an increasingly conflictual orientation, whereby the official foreign policy objectives of 'strategic partnership' with the EU and Russia's 'integration with Europe' are increasingly problematised across the entire Russian political spectrum. In the analysis of the Russian conflict discourse we shall identify two at first glance opposed narratives. Firstly, the EU enlargement has raised the issue of the expansion of the Schengen visa regime for Russian citizens, travelling to Europe. Particularly acute with regard to Kaliningrad Oblast', this issue has also generated a wider identity-related discourse on the EU's exclusionary policies towards Russia. Secondly, the perception of Russia's passive or subordinate status in EU-Russian cooperative arrangements at national, regional and local levels resulted in the problematisation of the insufficiently reciprocal or intersubjective nature of the EU-Russian 'partnership" and the increasing tendency towards Russia's 'self-exclusion' from integrative processes, grounded in the reaffirmation of state sovereignty that generally characterises the Putin presidency. This article concludes with the interpretation of the two conflict narratives in the wider context of debates around the project of European integration. EUPotemkina,O. 2003. Some ramifications of enlargement on the EU-Russia relations and the Schengen 5(2):229regime. European Journal of Migration and Law 5(2):229-247. Grabbe,H. 2000. The sharp edges of Europe: extending Schengen eastwards. International Affairs 76(3):51976(3):519-+. Abstract: The EU's external security concerns have caused it to encourage regional integration at all levels in central and east Europe. However, its emerging internal security policies (contained in the newly integrated Schengen Convention, and in justice and home affairs cooperation) are having contrary effects by reinforcing barriers between countries in eastern Europe. The goals of regional integration and good-neighbourly relations between applicants and non-applicants are still present in the Union's enlargement strategy, but border policies

are also being developed that run counter to them. EU border policies are raising new barriers to the free movement of people and goods that inhibit trade and investment between candidates and their non-applicant neighbours. There is a risk that the EU could end up giving the central and east European (CEE) countries the benefits of westward integration with their richer neighbours at the high cost of cutting ties with their poorer neighbours in the east. This bargain is still acceptable overall to most political leaders in central Europe; however, acceptance of the EU's terms has been accompanied by great unease about its unintended consequences for intra-regional relations. Moreover, this is not just a problem for CEE countries: the overall security of Europe depends on preventing the isolation of countries left at the edges of an enlarged Union. Ward,I. 1997. Law and the other Europeans. Journal of Common Market Studies 35(1):79-96. 35(1):79Keywords: FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS/citizenship/PROTECTION/UNION Abstract: The purpose of this article is to emphasize the role that the law plays in determining who is 'European' in the new Europe, and who is not. The first part of the article introduces a critical commentary on the present state of EC law with regard to non-EC nationals. Necessarily, this also includes a discussion of the role of the European Court of Justice, and such instruments as the Schengen Convention. Having discussed the situation of those who are excluded once 'in' the Community, it then moves to discuss the fate of those excluded from the Community itself. It suggests that the procedures for controlling immigration flows are essentially extra-legal, and themselves in breach of Community and international law. The second part of the article introduces a theoretical framework for a discussion of 'otherness', applying the writings of such as Julia Kristeva and Hannah Arendt to the particular European situation. It suggests that such writings strike a chord with a number of themes common in critical legal studies literature on exclusion and inclusion. In conclusion, the article suggests that the new Europe must adopt a distinctively post-modern approach to 'otherness', which moves away from established theories of citizenship and human rights, and which is instead based on the kind of 'humane' human rights recently advocated by such as Richard Rorty and Joseph Keller.

Kulturní a sociální aspekty, identita a historie peshranicních území

Klícové slovo: Borderland + Europe

Michaels,D.L. and Stevick,E.D. 2009. Europeanization in the 'other' Europe: writing the nation into 'Europe' 'Europe' education in Slovakia and Estonia. Journal of Curriculum Studies 41(2):225-245. 41(2):225Keywords: citizenship education/civics/democracy/Estonia/Europeanization/nationalism/Slovakia Abstract: How is the tension between renewed nationalist and European narratives of belonging being unfolded in the curricula, discourse, and practice of civic education in Slovakia and Estonia. As two postsocialist territories that were 'reborn' as independent nation-states in the 1990s, Slovakia and Estonia were confronted with pressure to 'Europeanize'. 'Europeanization' is intended to challenge doctrines of ethno-cultural citizenship, and is expected to play a significant role within civic education. One might expect nationalists in these contexts to reject Europeanization and those with a more tolerant or cosmopolitan bent to embrace it. These different case studies show, however, that educators, curriculum developers, and textbook authors at the national level do not simply dismiss conceptions of Europe. Rather, two trends emerge: First, Europe is redefined geographically, allowing Estonia and Slovakia to assert that they are inherently European (as the borderland and the centre, respectively). Second, the meaning of Europe is contested through counter-narratives about what constitutes Europeanness, and the concept of Europe is sometimes appropriated not to advance civic citizenship, but rather for exclusionary and nationalist dnes. Kaiser,R. and Nikiforova,E. 2006. Borderland spaces of identification and dis/location: Multiscalar Estoniannarratives and enactments of Seto identity and place in the Estonian-Russian borderlands. Ethnic 29(5):928and Racial Studies 29(5):928-958. Keywords: place/identity/borderland/scale/MEMORY/cultural politics/POLITICALGEOGRAPHY/NATIONAL IDENTITY/diaspora/SECURITY/MONUMENT/HISTORY/REGION/POWER Abstract: This article explores the cultural politics of memory and the reconfiguration of commemorative landscapes as one of the principal arenas within which the interiority and exteriority of place and identity are being re-narrated, contested, and re-enacted by actors and institutions representing a wide range of scalar stances. We treat place and identity as mutually constituted, dynamically interactive discursive and practical categories of becoming, and identify borderlands as multiscalar sites of imminence, where the interiority and exteriority of place and identity are re-narrated and re-enacted. Using a multiscalar network approach, we focus on the actors engaged in the cultural politics of memory in the southern Russian-Estonian borderlands. We conclude that borderlands are central multiscalar nodes where power, place and identity intersect, where the interior and exterior not only of Setomaa and Seto-ness, but also of Estonia and Estonian-ness, Russia and Russian-ness, and Europe and European-ness are reconfigured. Minnich,R.G. 2005. Culture and cooperation in Europe's borderland; European studies - An interdisciplinary series in European culture, history and politics. European History Quarterly 35(2):33735(2):337-341.

Spironelli,C. 1700Spironelli,C. 2003. History of Cuneo, 1700-2000. A borderland and Europe. Risorgimento 55(2):315-319. 55(2):315Hametz,M.E. 2000. On the periphery/at the frontier: The Triestines in the northeastern borderland. 5(3):277Journal of Modern Italian Studies 5(3):277-293. Keywords: Trieste/Central Europe/Italy/commerce/NATIONAL IDENTITY Kaplan,D.H. 2000. Conflict and compromise among borderland identities in Northern Italy. Tijdschrift 91(1):44Voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 91(1):44-60. Keywords: nationalism/Italy/borderlands/identity/TERRITORIAL CLAIMS/DISCOURSE/ geopolitics/GEOGRAPHY/frontiers/REGION/EUROPE/SPACE/STATE Abstract: Borderlands are dominated by the interplay, overlap and competition of larger national identities. This paper examines the interaction of separate national, regional and local identities in two borderland regions of Northern Italy: the Alto-Adige/Sudtirol region and the Julian region (which includes the city of Trieste). The main argument is that the histories of these two borderland regions have rendered a mixture of incompatible identities. While these identities continue to rival one another, there is a possibility that changes in ethnic attitudes and macro-developments, including the strengthening of the European Union, may allow for the creation of a distinct borderland identity. This identity would exist in conjunction with the identities that exist at larger and smaller spatial scales. Marszalek,M. and Schwartz,M. 2004. An imagined Ukraine - Cultural topography in polish and Russian Osteuropa 54(11):75literature. Osteuropa 54(11):75-+. Abstract: During the last decade, Ukrainian themes have been undergoing a revival in Polish and Russian literature. Ukraine has once again become a place that serves as a surface onto which cultural self-definitions can be projected. This process takes up cultural topographies from Romanticism, which imagined Ukraine as a much fought-over and dangerous borderland on the edge of imperial territory. This highly poeticized region, which is now situated beyond the state borders of both Poland and Russia, is ideally suited for the purposes of postmodern diversification and playful regionalization. In Polish literature, the Western Ukraine frequently appears in the context of an intertextual appeal to the myth of a multicultural Galicia and the revived idea of Central Europe. In Russian literature there is an aestheticization of the Orientalized Crimea as a new "training ground for world culture", and of rural Ukraine as a mystical setting for grotesque and supernatural experiences. 2007. Nielsen,N.K. 2007. Borderland identities. Territory and belonging in north, Central and east Europe. 32(4):416Scandinavian Journal of History 32(4):416-418. SzmagalskaSzmagalska-Follis,K. 2008. Repossession: Notes on restoration and redemption in Ukraine's western Anthropology 23(2):329borderland. Cultural Anthropology 23(2):329-360. Keywords: ruins/borderland/postsocialism/welfare/political critique/Ukraine/POSTSOVIET/nationalism/RESISTANCE/ACTIVISM/ECONOMY/EUROPE Abstract: This essay is an ethnographic account of the use of post-Soviet military ruins in western Ukraine. I describe an encounter with the founder of a commune for persons released from prison, victims of human trafficking, and asylum seekers established in a former nuclear base in Ukraine's western borderland. The commune is an unusual restoration project that is carried out in the interstices of the postsocialist state and of the changing European border regime. As such, it is a compelling site for rethinking dispossession and the possibility of redemption some 15 years after the USSR ceased to exist. The protagonist of this account redeems ruins left behind by the collapse of an empire he was glad to see go, and reproduces

precisely that which has been lost in the process of the unmaking of Soviet life, that is the allembracing domain of collective work and life.

Klícové slovo: Schengen

Sirok,K. 2010. Narrating the Past in Border Regions: the Case Study of Gorizia/Nova Gorica. Acta 18(1-2):337Histriae 18(1-2):337-358. Keywords: Goriska/collective memory/1918-1947/borders/Gorizia Abstract: The article focuses on the consequences of tensions and conflicts between the individual and collective memory of the population inthe regionof Gorizia/Nova Gorica. In particular, it attepmts to understand and analyze differences in the construction and narration of memory. It shows how, especially on important present-day occasions, such as the entry of Slovenia into the EU or into the Schengen area, the media on both sides emphasized the reunion of one city. Articles mainly focussed on the idea of a),divided( city, striving to be reunited after the Cold War frost. As elaborated upon by various journalists, the borderline between the two cities was the last Iron Curtain in the EU, the final barrier separating the West from the East. What made these narratives even more interesting was the fact that thirty years before, public opinion regarding the same border was that it was one of the most liberal borders in Europe. Analyzing the media discourse, 1 focus on invented traditions, interpretations which suit ideological and national discourse constructions in the function of shaping the new story of re-opened, liberal European borders. Such types of narration about the border and city's past strive to establish a memory of the last divided city in Europe identifying Gorizia as the second Berlin, an ideologically separated (but once united) town. From the media, as I show, these types of explanations of the past are mutually adopted in political and public discussions about the exclusiveness of the locality, about the relations between the inhabitants of the two towns and the Iron Curtain in between, the symbolic significance of the area within the EU, reinforcing a fairy tale of a divided city waiting for reconciliation. This well constructed myth about the two ideological systems and a wall through the city, dividing the free population from the ideologically blind ones, not only shows the geographical division, but also separate interpretations of the past, different constructions and meanings of the duty to remember as well as ways of identity building in the border region. Erjavec,K. and Kovacic,M.P. 2009. New Configuration of Borders - New Division of Europe? Media Representation of Slovenia'S Accession to the Schengen Regime. Drustvena Istrazivanja 18(6):95718(6):957-975. Keywords: border/media representation/European Union/Schengen regime/Slovenia Abstract: The article's goal is to present media representation of the new regime of the Slovenian borders, introduced In December 2007. Critical discourse analysis of news items, published by all major Slovenian media between the beginning of December 2007 and the end of January 2008, reveals that there was no single homogeneous representation of the border included by all the media. Instead, there are four discourses: discourse of borderlessness, discourse of the Iron Curtain, discourse of the Schengen fortress, and discourse of everyday life problems. All discourses are fragmented, neglecting political and social contexts, but only the lost one, which appeared in the regional media only, critically represented the new regime on the Schengen border. The elite Slovenian media also have thoroughly changed the dominant representation of the Slovenian borders. What used to be "an Iron Curtain" was reconfigured into "borderlessness", and what used to be "borderlessness" was reconfigured into "a fortress" and "a problematic border". They also reproduced a clear division, with Europe/Europeans and

Slovenia/Slovenians on one side and the region and people behind the southern Schengen border on the other. AnnalesBufon,M. 2009. Upper Adriatic: A Site of Conflict Or Coexstence? Annales-Anali Za Istrske in Studije19(2):457Mediteranske Studije-Series Historia et Sociologia 19(2):457-468. Keywords: Upper Adriatic/political geography/trans-border relations Abstract: When considering the Upper Adriatic, the meeting point of three countries Italy, Slovenia and Croatia at this point in tinge, ail important fact creeds to he acknowledged - the historic late of this area has basically been determined by the relationship between the ethnical and political border. In this particular area the two borders normally do not coincide and had beers perpendicular or parallel to one another in different historical periods. Several contradictory tendencies towards the adapting of social structure and social systems to the current political organization of space call be discerned in the process of politicallygeographical transformations in the area discussed. Oil one hand, particularly oil the local scale, there are tendencies to normalize and functionally organize the trails-border communication and socially-cultural and socially-economic structures. On the other (land, particularly oil the scale of state relations, there are tendencies to preserve the state of tension and the air of restriction around the border This has lead to a considerable discrepancy between the intensity of functional transborder connections, which have gradually developed between the two sides, and the scarcity and reservedness of institutional trails-border associations, which have only started to develop after the Treaty of Osimo was signed in 1975. The fact that "the spirit of Osimo" did riot develop and strengthen alter the proclamation of independence of Slovenia in 1991, its entry into the EU in 2004 and the acceptance among the Schengen countries in 2007 is rather unusual. Despite the existence of intensive and functional trails-border associations of the population residing clear the border, the neighboring countries in the area of Upper Adriatic did riot manage to devise any new initiatives concerning institutional integration. Furthermore, along with the break ill communication between Slovenia and Italy, a deterioration of relations between Slovenia and Croatia occurred because of unresolved petty disputes concerning the border. However, the rather unfavorable state of relations between the states is not reflected in the actual situation in the field. The research performed so far indicates that there is a quite distinct trails-border interdependence of the population residing clear the border. Nevertheless, the current politically-geographical transformations have generated certain differences between the Slovene-Italian border and the Slovene-Croatian border, particularly in the scope of lowering expectations with respect to further development of traps-border relations and lower level of functional traps-border association characterizing the western border sector of the Slovene-Croatian border where compared to the Istrian-Karstic border section of the Slovene-Italian border. This fact reflects the negative effects of transformations ill this formerly unified or correlated socially geographical area and the consequential differentiation of border sectors regardless of the relatively high level of socially-cultural affinity, which still characterizes both border regions. This provides grounds for understanding the simultaneous occurence of tendencies towards social and spatial divergence, characterizing the relationship of past and present-day stateoriented politicians in relation to their neighboring countries, and tendencies towards social and spatial convergence, originating primarily from the socially-cultural affinity and sociallyeconomic interdependence of the population residing clear the border. The above demonstraes that border regions should be granted all institutional and legal status that will enable the population of these regions to successfully resolve their own developmental problems while considering the complex social structure of the Upper Adriatic in the perspective of renewing or improving the spatial integration or reducing the level of potential conflict. Developmental history and the current social structure suggest that this region is indeed much easier to interconnect than to divide.

blues 49(189):87Miklosi,G. 2008. Schengen blues (Imre Kertesz). Hungarian Quarterly 49(189):87-91. nonBilcik,V. and Buzalka,J. 2006. The non-existent community - Slovakia and Germany. Osteuropa 56(10):65-+. 56(10):65Abstract: German-Slovak relations are not burdened by historical conflicts. However, they suffer from the asymmetry between the two states. Slovakia is nowhere near as important to Germany as Germany is to Slovakia. On the basis of its economic strength and political influence as well as its membership in the Schengen area of free movement and the eurozone, Germany is an important EU partner and protege for Slovakia. By contrast, divergences in interests predominate when it comes to opening up the EU-internal market to workers from Eastern-Central Europe and bringing EU tax rates into line with one another. The internal EUsplit into fully entitled and not yet fully entitled members as well as fundamental questions of European policy such as the constitutional treaty are also igniting internal Slovak conflicts. 'Schengenland': Samatas,M. 2003. Greece in 'Schengenland': blessing or anathema for citizens' and foreigners' rights? 29(1):141Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 29(1):141-156. Keywords: Greece/Schengen Information System/Fortress Europe/immigrants/asylum-seekers Abstract: This paper is a case-study of the actual impact of Schengen implementation by the Greek state security apparatus, and its implication for basic and new rights of Greek citizens and foreigners, vis-a-vis European integration. It is based upon an analysis of special data records, including surveillance of national and alien suspects, asylum and deportations, 'border repulsion of undesirable persons', etc. provided to the press by the Greek Schengen Bureau. Some comparisons are made with other Schengen counterparts. The analysis illustrates those particular geopolitical and sociopolitical control imperatives that actually affect the efficiency of the Schengen Agreement in Greece. Based also on other documented evidence, I conclude that Schengen's impact is a mixed blessing for Greek and European citizens as regards both their free movement, and also potential violations of their privacy and civil liberties. It is clearly an 'immigration anathema' to build a 'Fortress Europe', especially as regards Third World immigrants' and refugees' rights and life chances in the EU. 17(2):151Debeljak,A. 2003. European forms of belonging. East European Politics and Societies 17(2):151-165. Keywords: citizenship/national identity/multiple identities/nationalism/EU enlargement Abstract: The article questions collective identities of "imagined communities" involved in the process of European Union (EU) enlargement. Focusing on issues of citizenship, unity and diversity, nationalism, and patriotism, the author explores the process of EU enlargement from the viewpoint of the "other Europe" in general and Slovenia in particular. It presents the dilemmas of "new democracies" of Central and Eastern Europe and their reluctance to hand over their only recently won national sovereignty to a transnational entity of the EU. The author approaches the question of exclusivism and inclusivism through the scope of modern citizenship and the need of multiple identities that provide not only tolerance but also understanding and possible respect for the Other. On the other hand, it presents the strategies of both sides, the nationalism of candidate states, and the gethoisation (Schengen) of member states as they outline the possibility of a dim scenario of enlarged but internally divided Europe.

Klícové slovo: Cross-border cooperation

Petrat,A., Rippl,S., Petrat,A., Kindervater,A., and Boehnke,K. 2009. Transnational social capital: are border regions 19(1):79a laboratory of social integration in Europe? Berliner Journal fur Soziologie 19(1):79-103. regions/Trust/Eastern Keywords: Social integration/Social capital/Border regions/Trust/Eastern europe Abstract: The article focuses on transnational relations in border regions. Social capital theory assumes that in border regions special opportunity structures exist for the social integration of the population of old and new member states of the European Union based on the specific possibilities for cross-border cooperation. Border regions may be seen as "laboratories of social integration". The article discusses whether "transnational social capital" actually develops and to what extent it adds to the social integration of the regions and of Europe. Representative survey data from the German-Polish, German-Czech, and German-French border regions - gathered on both sides of the border - serve as the basis of the analysis. Results show that currently - especially on the old outer borders of the EU - the accumulated transnational social capital adds very little to social integration at the regional and European level. European Skrabec,K. 2007. Ethnic, regional and national identities in the context of European cross border cooperation opportunities: A case study of Italian ethnic community in Slovene Istria. Dve Domovini(25):249Domovini-Two Homelands (25):249-270. Keywords: cross border cooperation/identities/EUROPE/Italian ethnic community/Slovenia/Italy/European Union Abstract: The article proceeds from the main research question about the effects of EU integration and cross border cooperation initiatives on the border region of Slovene Istria as a whole and Italian ethnic community in particular in terms of its socio-economic and cultural activity and identity issue. The authoress tries to expose the historical review of the cross border cooperation between Slovenia and Italy prior to the EU programmes and afterwards and the activity of the Italian ethnic community in the latter. Klemencic,V. and Bufon,M. 1994. Cultural Elements of Integration and Transformation of Border 13(1):73Regions - the Case of Slovenia. Political Geography 13(1):73-83. Abstract: Even before the recently accomplished process of independence, Slovenia was known to be one of the most typical of the border countries in Central Europe. This article deals with some basic theoretical and methodological problems on up-to-date border-research studies in this country, especially concerning topics of general political and regional geography and the specific features of the cultural geography of borderlands. In contrast with the changeability of the international-political framework and the dynamic of regional transformations, cultural elements seem to be much more persistent and stable, thus contributing to the maintenance and strengthening of cross-border cooperation. From the perspective of this situation, the role of national minorities on both sides of the border is considered. Buckenborders: Bucken-Knapp,G. 2002. Testing our borders: Questions of national and regional identity in the Oresund 33(2):199region. Journal of Baltic Studies 33(2):199-219. Keywords: SPACE Abstract: Drawing upon current debates as to whether or not cross-border cooperation projects pose a threat to the maintenance of national identity, this article explores the attitudes that inhabitants in the Danish-Swedish region of Oresund hold towards their respective nation-states and the emerging cross-border region. Analysis shows that there are sharp differences between Danes and Swedes when it comes to support for the Oresund

region, with Swedes far more likely to identify with the cross-border region. These findings are then used to suggest how discussions of identity construction and potential identity trade-offs need to involve significantly greater nuance. Malova,D. and Vilagi,A. 2006. European integration and ethnic minorities: a case study of Hungarians in 38(6):507Slovakia. Sociologia 38(6):507-532. Keywords: European Union/conditionality/EU funds/minority policy/minority rights/identity/power-sharing/ethnic Hungarians Abstract: European Integration and Ethnic Minorities: A Case Study on Hungarians in Slovakia. This paper examines the influence of European integration on the political and economical status of the Hungarian minority in Slovakia. Our study tests (and partially challenges) the dominant trend in the current scholarship in European and transition studies that claims the decisive influence of the European Union on minority policy and ethnic relations in Slovakia. These studies looked only at the national political elite level and usually neglected the local elite level. Moreover, they examined only "political conditionality" as the core strategy of the EU to promote "respect for and protection of minorities". Such an approach neglected a possible impact of the accession process on the economic status and the political mobilization of the ethnic minority in mixed regions that could be stimulated by access to the EU accession (structural) funds. Therefore, we interviewed 31 political and social actors, representing ethnic Hungarians and Slovaks at the national and regional/local level (Kosice region), which had professional dealings with EU institutions, funds or representatives. The main aim of these indepth, semi-structured interviews was to reveal their perceptions to get deeper understanding of possible changes induced by the EU accession process on majority-minority relations in Slovakia. The paper generalizes respondents' perception of "the EU impact" on: majorityminority relations, ethnic identity and socio-economic status. It argues that given the lack of an EU agenda and a special policy on minority protection beyond the vague Copenhagen criteria, effects of EU political conditionality in this field depends mostly on the organizational and political strength of respective minority, its articulation of demands, and on the coordinated action of other international organizations. In Slovakia it empowered the Hungarian political elite and promoted the power-sharing arrangement at the national level (1998-2006) that used to be the most conflicting arena. Paradoxically, access to EU funds has also promoted cross border cooperation among ethnic Hungarians in both Hungary and Slovakia, and did not (yet) affects the traditional patterns of cooperation and competition among ethnic Slovaks and Hungarians in Slovakia.

Migracní a vízová politika, ekonomické a sociální aspekty migrace, migrace, trh práce

Klícové slovo: Schengen

Maraspin,I. 2009. Labour Migration - A New Thinking Pattern Or Model of Economic Accommodation? SloveneAnnales lesStudijeCase Study of the Slovene-Italian Border Area. Annales-Anali Za Istrske in Mediteranske Studije19(1):187Series Historia et Sociologia 19(1):187-204. Keywords: Economic migrations/migrations of labour force/illegal migrations/unregistered migrations/accommodation to the labour market/economic globalization Abstract: Recently, the migration phenomenon has acquired such dimensions and exhibited Such implications on various social spheres that it has turned into riot only a global phenomenon giving shape to a transnational area, but a real state of mind of new generations - it offers an equal option within the array of possibilities for success in (or better quality of) daily life; in short, it has turned into a thinking pattern giving rise to the "culture of migration". Formal and informal sources indicate that both registered and unregistered tabour migrations are on the increase in the Slovene-Italian border area. It is largely due to the specific nature of the tabour market and the abolishment of physical borders within the Schengen area that there is a constant increase in the number of not only daily and temporary economic migrations from Slovenia to the Italian tabour market in the province of Trieste, but also medium-term migrations to more remote Italian regions. In the Slovene-Italian area, daily commuting to the Italian tabour market has turned into a local tradition as over the past few decades a number of Slovene women have been commuting to Trieste to do housework. In addition to these "traditional" illegal female labour migrations to Italy in the field of housework, the past few years witnessed the emergence of new forms of migration: labour migrations of educated young people (legal or illegal brain drain to Western European states) and illegal male migrations of uneducated and vocational tabour force (largely to Italy and Austria). The present Study was part of research conducted within the extensive applied project "Minorities and Border Social Realities as Factors of Integration Process. Case Study of the Slovene-Italian Contact Area" (Sedmak, M. et al., 2008), with its aim being to investigate why individuals decide on such labour migrations, where they get information, how they establish contacts, and what factors and conditions influence their choice of work. Special emphasis was placed on the dynamics of unregistered economic migrations at local level that had transformed from occasional undeclared work undertaken by the senior segment of the female population of Slovene Istria into the general model of accommodation to the labour market. In addition to secondary analysis of data, the Study took into account primary data collected through ethnographic fieldwork mostly based on observation and participation and through informants' life stories that provided an insight into the broader Cultural context influencing their decisions. The goals of the study were: (1) To compare the current migration dynamics in the Slovene-Italian border area with those in the past and to envisage their potential development, (2) To present typical experiences and determine possible behaviour patterns of economic migrants who job hunt at home and abroad, (3) To confirm the hypothesis on positive self-selection of economic migrants according to which more successful young people with higher education choose migration as their life style, thus creating the Culture of migration. The research involved 32 half-structured qualitative interviews with legal

(9) and illegal (77) economic migrants and their employers (6). In order to obtain official publicly-accessible data on the issues addressed, 6 consultations and conversations with representatives of local organizations and public institutions in charge of migration issues were held. The research results confirm migration trends envisaged by Castles (1998): their globalization, increase, differentiation, feminization and politicization. They also provide an insight into the differentiation of the phenomenon of economic migration in relation to the level of education of economic migrants - as mentioned above, less educated labour force has consented to the form of flexible accommodation to the labour Market, while the more educated labour force has developed a new thinking pattern. in both cases, we witness the process of positive self-selection in more enterprising and competent workers. Mozetic,P. 2009. Illegal migrations and the transformation of the concept of privacy in societies of 60(1):3control. Revija Za Kriminalistiko in Kriminologijo 60(1):3-15. Keywords: illegal migrations/border control/Schengen area/protection of privacy/societies of control/borders Abstract: Slovenia formally became part of the Schengen area in December 2007. While checks at internal common borders have been abolished, some new forms of intensive control over illegal migrations have been introduced, such as the exercise of strict security checks at external borders. Together with the slogan "Europe without Borders", there has been a radical change in the level of protection of privacy in state parties, due to the introduction of these measures. Although checks at common physical borders are no longer made, internal border control has not actually disappeared, but has rather become deterritoralized, unpredictable and dispersed. Such a form of the exercise of border controls, which radically changes the current concept of privacy, can be an important signal of the transition to societies of control. Elrick,T. and Ciobanu,O. 2009. Migration networks and policy impacts: insights from Romanian-Spanish RomanianNetworks9(1):100migrations. Global Networks-A Journal of Transnational Affairs 9(1):100-116. Keywords: MIGRATION NETWORKS/MIGRATION POLICY/ROMANIAN MIGRATION/SPAIN Abstract: Migration networks are now generally recognized as a means of adapting to or circumventing states' migration policies, but little research has been carried out on quite how they work. In this article, we analyse migrant networks between Romanian and Spain over the last 20 years. We contrast two villages to reveal how different reactions to policy changes depend on the level of development of migration networks. Among these policy changes are regularizations of irregular migrants in Spain, the visa-free entry of Romanians into Schengen countries enacted in 2002, EU enlargements in 2004 and 2007, and a bilateral agreement on labour recruitment between Romania and Spain. We conclude that networks can help migrants circumvent restrictive policies, foster the effective take-up of permissive policies or even impede them, depending on the development of the migration networks of the communities. Lax,V.M. 2008. Must EU Borders have Doors for Refugees? On the Compatibility of Schengen Visas and Carriers' Sanctions with EU Member States' Obligations to Provide International Protection to 10(3):315Refugees. European Journal of Migration and Law 10(3):315-364. Keywords: Schengen visa/carrier sanctions/access to international protection Abstract: Whereas the EU is developing a highly protective Common European Asylum System in purported compliance with the Geneva Convention,(1) it is also displaying growing reluctance to provide unhindered access to it to those in need.(2) The question of physical access to protection is ambiguously dealt with within EU law. On the one hand, it appears that entry to the Schengen zone has been designed disregarding refugees'(3) entitlement 'to special protection'.(4) Prior to admission, refugees seem to have been assimilated to the broader class

of (potentially illegal) immigrants and thus required to submit to general immigration conditions,(5) including visa.(6) On the other hand, some isolated EU law rules give the impression that refugees are to be exonerated from normal admittance requirements.(7) This article intends to show how, 'in the light of present day conditions,'(8) a contextual,(9) dynamic(10) and teleological(11) interpretation of Articles 31 and 33 of the Geneva Convention as well as of Articles 3 ECHR and 2(2) of Protocol 4 ECHR require that the second set of EU rules be appropriately furthered. Trauner,F. and Kruse,I. 2008. EC Visa Facilitation and Readmission Agreements: A New Standard EU Foreign Policy Tool? European Journal of Migration and Law 10(4):411-438. Policy 10(4):411Keywords: EU/EC visa facilitation and readmission agreements/European Neighbourhood Policy/Stabilisation and Association Process/Justice and Home Affairs/COUNTRIES Abstract: This article offers an analysis of the objective, substance and political implications of EC visa facilitation and readmission agreements. These agreements have gained increasing importance in EU foreign policy making because the EU has started to view visa facilitation regimes not only as a necessary incentive for the signing of a readmission agreement, but also as a means for mitigating the negative side-effects of the Eastern Enlargement. In offering more relaxed travel conditions in exchange for endorsement of an EC readmission agreement and reforms in domestic justice and home a. airs, the EU found a new way to pressure for reforms in neighbouring countries while meeting a major source of discontent in these countries. The analysis considers the broader implications of these agreements and argues that even if the facilitated travel opportunities are beneficial for the citizens of the target countries, the positive achievements are undermined by the Schengen enlargement which requires that the new member states tighten up their borders to their neighbours. SeaMonzini,P. 2007. Sea-border crossings: The organization of irregular migration to Italy. Mediterranean 12(2):163Politics 12(2):163-184. Abstract: The arrival of rotting boats crowded with hundreds of individuals exhausted by a difficult crossing in wretched conditions is a powerful image too often seen in the Italian newspapers. In the majority of cases, the sea crossing is only a small part of a long and eventful journey. The cross-Mediterranean flow of migrants without papers originates on the southern and eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, but it includes migration from several continents. Many Mediterranean countries have become transit routes as the main objective of the sea journey is to cross the most protected border, that of the Schengen area. In these countries migrants become clients of illegal organizations: they pay,for a service and subject themselves to rough treatment, with high risk for their personal safety. The article reconstructs the routes and the organization of the travels which irregularly cross the Mediterranean Sea to reach Italy. Different migration flows and their evolution are presented: the case of short crossings from Albania at the beginning of the 1990s; the departures from Turkey, Syria and Lebanon at the end of the 1990s; the passage from the Suez Canal; the longdistance journeys from West Africa; and finally the landings in Lampedusa, from Libya, which is currently the most favoured route. Focus is placed on the organizations that run the illegal entry routes, and on the institutional reactions at play to stop these irregular movements, considering both the Italian and the international Aires. Pijpers,R. and van der Velde,M. 2007. Mobility across borders: Contextualizing local strategies to circumvent visa and work permit requirements. International Journal of Urban and Regional 31(4):819Research 31(4):819-835. Abstract: This article focuses on the structuring capacities of mobility strategies that are oriented towards, and seek to challenge, institutional borders. Positioned within the debate on

the role of context in the 'new' economic geographies, and tempted to adopt elements of the Marxist-inspired strategic-relational approach to the geographical study of institutions, it emphasizes the creative entrepreneurial ability of mobile and immobile actors to influence prevailing border contexts. It further aims to continue work on the 'primitive' mobility typical of the early years of post-Iron Curtain economic restructuring by discussing two timely cases. The first is that of the larger bazaars, or open-air markets, in the Polish city region of Lodz. The functioning of these bazaars very much depends on the openness of Poland's eastern border, since many buyers and sellers come from such countries as Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. The prospect of Poland's admission to the Schengen area has had major consequences for its eastern border, and hence for the visa circumvention strategies of the protagonists in the bazaar economy. The second case concerns Polish migrant workers in the Dutch-German Lower Rhine border region. Until recently, the Netherlands denied free movement of labour to citizens of new EU member states, and Germany still does. However, due to a strong demand for cheap migrant labour in the region, Polish workers are able to enter thanks to circumvention strategies at the margins of accounting and labour law. It is argued that the local strategies oriented towards Schengen and the restrictions on free movement are far from 'primitive'. Instead, they imply creative, sophisticated legal and negotiating techniques of a kind that may indeed have structuring effects. 57(2-3):273Szymborska,A. 2007. Friendly EU border - Claims and reality of EU visa policy. Osteuropa 57(2-3):273-+. Abstract: The European Union is always quick to appear on the scene with avowals of sympathy for democracy movements in Eastern Europe. The friendship stops with visa policy, however. Monitoring carried out by the Warsaw-based Stefan Batory Foundation shows that, despite relaxations on paper, visa policy is being used to place enormous hurdles in the way of the citizens of Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova and Russia when it comes to visas for the Schengen area. The new EU member states, first and foremost Poland, see themselves forced to adjust their liberal visa policy vis-a-vis eastern neighbours, so as to conform with the more restrictive Schengen legislation. Even a new agreement between the EU and Ukraine on relaxing visa regulations brings only questionable progress Broeders,D. 2007. The new digital borders of Europe - EU databases and the surveillance of irregular new 22(1):71migrants. International Sociology 22(1):71-92. Keywords: databases/European Union/irregular migration/social sorting/surveillance/IMMIGRATION Abstract: This article analyses the development of three EU migration databases and their significance for the internal control of irregular migrants. Because borders and immigration policy alone cannot stop irregular migration, many governments turn to internal migration control on settled irregular migrants. Surveillance of this group is aimed at their exclusion from key societal institutions, discouraging their stay and ultimately, the deportation of apprehended irregular migrants. These are policies in which identification of irregular migrants is crucial. In this age, registration and identification mean computerized and networked databases. The member states of the EU are currently developing a network of databases in the field of (irregular) immigration. The Schengen Information System (II), the Eurodac database and the Visa Information System are vast databases, often including biometric data, aimed at controlling migration flows and identifying and sorting legal and irregular migrants. These systems are able to 're-identify' parts of the population of irregular migrants on the basis of digital traces of their migration history. It is argued that the digital infrastructure that is now growing past its infancy is developing into a formidable tool for the surveillance of irregular migrants in Europe.

Perrin,D. 2005. North Africa under control the new legal frame of trans-Saharan migrations. MaghrebMaghrebtrans(185):59Machrek (185):59-+. Abstract: As a transit zone to the Schengen area, Maghreb is becoming a stopper zone for migrants, under the influence of the European Union, whose immigration and asylum policy communitisation confirms the recess. Using and bargaining the migratory pressure, Maghreb has accepted to assume the control of Saharan and Mediterranean frontiers and to protect Europe from its migrants. In a global context of struggle against terrorism, it undertakes and shows off a restrictive and repressive migration policy. Maghreb's countries are conforming to European rules and pratices, which aim at criminalizing rather than protecting migrants. Pastore,F., Monzini,P., and Sciortino,G. 2006. Schengen's soft underbelly? Irregular migration and 44(4):95human smuggling across land and sea borders to Italy. International Migration 44(4):95-119. Abstract: Irregular migration to or across Italy is usually associated with the idea of hundreds, sometimes thousands, of migrants crossing the Mediterranean crammed in long-worn ships barely staying afloat. Such journeys are often taken as evidence of the existence of hierarchically integrated, centralized, sophisticated, worldwide active, criminal cartels. The only problem with such received wisdoms is the fact that it is radically at odd with the available evidence, as it has little to do with the empirical reality of irregular migratory systems. This paper reviews a number of Italian Court files concerning a variety of organizations operating across both land and sea borders. It is shown how such organizations operate within a variety of local specificities and structural constraints. ArborPena,L. 2005. Foreign brother: Some faults with the new Immigration Law. Arbor-Ciencia Pensamiento 181(713):117y Cultura 181(713):117-131. Keywords: Spanish law/foreigners law/international private law/juridical values/punitive law/paperless immigrants/aid to development/Schengen/European law/immigration law Abstract: The 2003 Spanish Immigration Law runs afoul of fundamental legal values and principles recognized in the Spanish Constitution. It has enlarged the powers of the Administration and the duties of foreigners. As against such a legislative line, I propose a substantial reform by which: (1) the mere fact for a foreigner to be found in Spain without an official permit will not be considered an infringement of the law; (2) a permanent process of normalization will be established, by which foreigners will acquire legal residence after a certain time; and (3) the law will enforce the following values: human brotherhood, historic links, pity, hospitality, freedom, friendship and love, as well as the legal principles of a globalization with a human face, gratefulness, integrability and national interest. Kirisci,K. 2005. A friendlier Schengen visa system as a tool of "soft power": The experience of Turkey. 7(4):343European Journal of Migration and Law 7(4):343-367. both Geddes,A. 2005. Getting the best of both worlds? Britain, the EU and migration policy. International 81(4):723Affairs 81(4):723-+. Abstract: In perhaps unexpected ways Britain has become quite closely linked to key aspects of EU migration and asylum policy. This could be a rather surprising outcome given that the UK is outside Schengen, opted out of the free movement, asylum and migration provisions of the Amsterdam Treaty and remains fixed on the maintenance of border controls at ports of entry to the UK. However, the differential and conditional engagement that has developed with EU migration and asylum policy has been described by Tony Blair as 'getting the best of both worlds'. What could it mean to get the best of both worlds? Can the 'two worlds' of Britain and Europe be so neatly distinguished? To answer these questions the article surveys the extent of British engagement with EU migration and asylum policy and explains when, how and why the

UK has opted into key aspects of it, particularly the more coercive components concerned with asylum and border controls. kinkinToth,J. 2003. Connections of kin-minorities to the kin-state in the extended Schengen zone. European 5(2):201Journal of Migration and Law 5(2):201-227. Walters,W. 2002. Mapping Schengenland: denaturalizing the border. Environment and Planning DDSociety 20(5):561Society & Space 20(5):561-580. Keywords: STATE/GOVERNMENT/MIGRATION/NATION Abstract: In this paper I examine the reorganization of border controls associated with the Schengen process in the European Union and some of its close neighbours. Rather than asking the political science question of why states are committed to Schengen (or not, in the case of the United Kingdom and Ireland), I interpret Schengen as a political moment for genealogical reflection and analysis. The purpose is to contribute to a more historicized understanding of borders. Schengen is analyzed in terms of three trajectories, each of which allows us to denaturalize certain key aspects of the border, such as its identity, function, rationality, and contingency. Schengen is theorized in relation to the geopolitical border, the national border, and the biopolitical border. Other possibilities for genealogies of the border are also canvassed. Wihtol de Wenden,C. 2001. The Schengen agreements: Immigration, refugees and the nature of today's (10):169borders in today's united Europe. Esprit (10):169-174. Huysmans,J. 2000. The European Union and the securitization of migration. Journal of Common Market 38(5):751Studies 38(5):751-777. Keywords: IMMIGRATION/SECURITY/RACISM Abstract: This article deals with the question of how migration has developed into a security issue in western Europe and how the European integration process is implicated in it. Since the 1980s, the political construction of migration increasingly referred to the destabilizing effects of migration on domestic integration and to the dangers for public order it implied. The spillover of the internal market into a European internal security question mirrors these domestic developments at the European level. The Third Pillar on Justice and Home Affairs, the Schengen Agreements, and the Dublin Convention most visibly indicate that the European integration process is implicated in the development of a restrictive migration policy and the social construction of migration into a security question. However, the political process of connecting migration to criminal and terrorist abuses of the internal market does not take place in isolation. It is related to a wider politicization in which immigrants and asylum-seekers are portrayed as a challenge to the protection of national identity and welfare provisions. Moreover, supporting the political construction of migration as a security issue impinges on and is embedded in the politics of belonging in western Europe. It is an integral part of the wider technocratic and political process in which professional agencies - such as the police and customs - and political agents - such as social movements and political parties - debate and decide the criteria for legitimate membership of west European societies. Kuijper,P.J. 2000. Some legal problems associated with the communitarization of policy on visas, asylum and immigration under the Amsterdam Treaty and incorporation of the Schengen acquis. 37(2):345Common Market Law Review 37(2):345-366.

BaldwinEuropean Baldwin-Edwards,M. 1997. The emerging European immigration regime: Some reflections on 35(4):497implications for southern Europe. Journal of Common Market Studies 35(4):497-519. Abstract: Immigration is one of the more controversial areas in the history of European integration. Whilst northern European countries have been constructing elaborate compromises in the European Union (EU) Treaties and in the Schengen group, southern European countries have been trying to construct their own immigration policies. Little attention has been paid in the literature to the relationship between these two phenomena: it is suggested here that southern countries have found it expedient to fit in with EU and Schengen arrangements, even though these appear impossible to implement. This contradiction is seen as intrinsic to the overall relations of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece to the EU. Garoupa,N. 1997. Optimal law enforcement and the economics of the drug market: Some comments 17(4):521on the Schengen Agreements. International Review of Law and Economics 17(4):521-535. Keywords: RATIONAL ADDICTION/CONSUMPTION/FEDERALISM/SEEKING Abstract: In this paper, we extend the optimal law enforcement model to the illegal trade and consumption of narcotics. Three sources of risk in the narcotic business are considered: (1) The consumer can be detected while consuming narcotics; (2) the consumer and the retailer can be detected at the time of sale to the consumer; and (3) the retailer and the producer can be detected at the time of sale to the retailer. We derive the two levels of market equilibrium and a set of comparative static results. The welfare analysis is used to comment on the Schengen Agreements and the implications for the market of narcotics. Hailbronner,K. and Thiery,C. 1997. Schengen II and Dublin: Responsibility for asylum applications in applications 34(4):957Europe. Common Market Law Review 34(4):957-989. Collinson,S. 1996. Visa requirements, carrier sanctions, 'safe third countries' and 'readmission': The development of an asylum 'buffer zone' in Europe. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 21(1):76Geographers 21(1):76-90. Keywords: Europe refugee/asylum flows/buffer zones/geopolitics/migration control Abstract: This paper explores the development of a so-called asylum 'buffer zone' around the eastern frontiers of the west European region as a result of the Schengen, EU and EETA member states' introduction of more restrictive asylum policies during the first half of the 1990s. Restrictive policies in western Europe are forcing central and east European states into a 'buffer role', obliging them to absorb asylum-seekers who fail to gain entry into western Europe and/or restrict asylum-seekers' access to the borders of potential 'receiving' states. In addition to examining the mechanisms by which this 'buffer zone' is developing and questioning what it might mean for future asylum trends and policies in Europe, the paper considers the wider questions raised by this development in relation to the changing geopolitical landscape of Europe, particularly in relation to the changing political and security relations between western, central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Convey,A. and Kupiszewski,M. 1995. Keeping Up with Schengen - Migration and Policy in the EuropeanEuropean29(4):939Union. International Migration Review 29(4):939-963. Keywords: COMMUNITY Abstract: There is an inescapable relationship between the existence of migration movements and the resulting policies which are adopted by the authorities of the area concerned towards encouraging these movements, or more commonly towards attempting to control or to reduce them. This in turn means that the migration researcher must not only look at the effects of policy and changes in policy, important though this is, but must also attempt to understand the

changing political factors which fuel the formation of policy. This paper aims to bring together some of the wide variety of policy issues and responses which may be observed in Europe at the present time and in the recent past, and in particular to make an assessment of the approaches being taken by the European Union member states as a whole, and also by the socalled Schengen group of member states. This article also attempts to look at the perceptions of these policies and their effects fi om the point of view of both the ''western'' and the ''eastern'' European countries, as migration policy issues are rarely one-sided. In conclusion, it considers some of the research issues and problems which are raised by geographers and others working in this area, difficulties which might be implied by our possibly flippant title, ''Keeping Up with Schengen.'' Fernhout,R. 1993. Europe 1993 and Its Refugees. Ethnic and Racial Studies 16(3):492-506. 16(3):492Abstract: The article describes the evolution of immigration policy within the European Community [EC], drawing out the implications of the Schengen Treaty and the Dublin Convention for the entry and treatment of refugees. It is argued that recent policy developments will have the effect of limiting the rights of refugees to enter the EC in order to seek asylum. The legal implications of this restriction are identified and discussed, followed by an evaluation of their impact. Okeeffe,D. 1992. Schengen, Internationalization of Central Chapters of the Law on Aliens, Refugees, Meijers,H. Privacy, Security and the Police 2Nd Edition - Meijers,H. Common Market Law Review 29(5):102929(5):1029-1032. 15(1):29Kofman,E. and Sales,R. 1992. Towards Fortress Europe. Womens Studies International Forum 15(1):2939. Abstract: The growing literature on the implications for immigrants and black and ethnic minority populations of the Single European Market and measures to control entry into the Community through the Trevi (1976) and Schengen (1986, 1990) agreements has tended to pay relatively little attention to the specific position of women. The position of immigrant women is bound up both with the opening/closure of the European Community and the construction of national identity. In this research we focus on four aspects of such women's lives: cultural practices, labour market, legal status, and access to welfare with particular reference to Britain, France, and Germany. Seyler,M. 1992. The Schengen Agreement Concerning Free Movement and Trade Within the European (1):147Community. Esprit (1):147-152. Schutte,J.J.E. 1991. Schengen - Its Meaning for the Free Movement of Persons in Europe. Common 28(3):549Market Law Review 28(3):549-570. C-77/2005Gutierrez,L.G. 2009. Ecj - Judgment of 18.12.2007, United Kingdom/Conseil, C-77/2005-Creation of ExclusionFrontex - Validity - United Kingdom Exclusion-Schengen Acquis and Protocol. Revista de Derecho Europeo 13(34):1083Comunitario Europeo 13(34):1083-1093. Keywords: Area of Freedom,Security and Justice/Control of Persons at External Borders/New Measures that constitute a Development of the Schengen Acquis/Regulation establishing the Frontex Agency/United Kingdom Exclusion Abstract: Regulation No 2007/2004 establishing the Frontex Agency was worked out without the cooperation of the United Kingdom, eventhough this Member State asked to participate. In this Decision, the ECJ argues against the annulment of the Regulation, even if the United

Kingdom had been excluded, because it would be a new measure developing the Schengen acquis and the United Kingdom hadn't accepted to cooperate in the scope of that acquis affected. This way, the ECJ favors the subordinacy between article 5 and article 4 of the Schengen Protocol and rejects the so-called "independence thesis" defended by the United Kingdom.

Klícové slovo: Cross-border cooperation

Castles,S. 1999. International Migration and the Global Agenda: Reflections on the 1998 UN Technical 37(1):5Symposium. International Migration 37(1):5-19. Abstract: As a cross-border phenomenon affecting many countries, migration should be an important area for international cooperation. Yet such cooperation has been slow to emerge. Politically, the topic has been marked by interest conflicts and differing national policy approaches. As a field of social scientific research, it has been characterized by fragmentation according to disciplines, paradigms, methodologies and ideologies. The 1998 United Nations Technical Symposium on International Migration and Development was therefore highly significant as a step towards a global response, although as a meeting of experts it fell short of the intergovernmental deliberations some States (especially emigration countries) have called for. The Symposium reviewed knowledge on the links between migration and development and discussed the relative success of various policy approaches. A number of key themes emerged. An inclusive research framework is needed which takes account of all types of population mobility and all stages of the migratory process. The contributions of a range of social scientific disciplines and paradigms should be integrated. An important advance has been the growing understanding of the role of social networks and cultural capital in the migratory process. The Symposium discussed the need for strategies which reflect the ambivalence of women's experience: international migration can be both a source of exploitation and abuse, and an opportunity for greater autonomy. Issues of settlement and of return migration were debated: both need to be considered in strategies for maximizing the benefits of migration for the various participants. An urgent need for better public information and education on migration and settlement was noted. Overall, the Symposium showed the great complexity of links between migration and development. It also found that a knowledge base does exist for greatly improved policy formation and international cooperation in this area of growing global signifikance. Carr,B. 1999. Globalization from below: labour internationalism under NAFTA. International Social International 51(1):49Science Journal 51(1):49-+. Keywords: FREE-TRADE/MEXICAN Abstract: Globalization has promoted the development of a complex web of cross-border coalitions embracing labour organizations and activists, immigrants rights workers and environmentalists. The article identifies a number of forms of transborder internationalism that have emerged during the 1990s in response to the challenge posed by free trade, globalization and their local manifestation in the North American Free: Trade Agreement. After an examination of the functioning of the North American Agreement on Labour Cooperation (NAALC), the article examines the question: how symmetrical is the new labour internationalism? It concludes that internationalist initiatives among nations with widely differing developmental strengths must Bow 'both ways' - avoiding asymmetries of a paternalistic and protectionist variety in which workers and unions of high-wage economies initiate solidarity and cooperation around the notion of 'threats' from workers in less developed societies

twentyCastles,S. 2000. International migration at the beginning of the twenty-first century: global trends and issues. International Social Science Journal 52(3):269-+. 52(3):269Abstract: Globalisation leads to increases in all kinds of cross-border flows, including movements of people. In recent years international migration has grown in volume, and is now an important factor of social transformation in all regions of the world. States classify migrants into certain categories, and seek to encourage certain types of mobility while restricting others. However, control measures are often ineffective if they are not based on understanding of the economic, social and cultural dynamics of migration. The article reviews causes and patterns of migration, and discusses some key issues: migration and development, international cooperation, settlement and ethnic diversity, and migration as a challenge to the nation-state. It is argued that most national governments have taken a shortterm and reactive approach to migration. Efforts at international regulation are also relatively under-developed. There is a need for long-term cooperative strategies to achieve agreed goals such as: ensuring orderly migration and preventing exploitation by agents and recruiters; safeguarding the human rights of migrants; making migration an instrument of sustainable development; avoiding conflicts with populations of migrant-receiving areas, and maximising positive aspects of social and cultural change. Jacoby,W. PatchBurgoon,B. and Jacoby,W. 2004. Patch-work solidarity: describing and explaining US and European labour internationalism. Review of International Political Economy 11(5):849-879. 11(5):849Keywords: labour unions/CROSS-BORDER/INTERNATIONALISM/Globalization/European Union/AFL-CIO/ETUC/UNION/TRADE/POLICY Abstract: This paper describes and explains the broad patterns of union internationalism championed by Europe and US labour unions. Descriptively, historical evidence reveals that cross-national organizing and cooperation among US and European unions vary most significantly on three dimensions: (1) despite being modest and taking a back-seat to national priorities, both US and European unions have meaningfully increased their cross-border ties since the 1970s; (2) these unions have prioritized intra-regional ties over developing-country or transatlantic coordination; and (3) US unions are more interested in labour rights policies and basic organizing, including somewhat more attention to developing-country and transatlantic initiatives, while their European counterparts focus on broader welfare policy and collective bargaining in their regional setting. Analytically, the argument is that such patchwork internationalism reflects not only patterns of economic 'globalization', but also historicalinstitutional features of domestic and international politics: Since transnationalism is difficult and costly for unions, unions invest scarce resources (organizers, money, political capital) on transnational activities to the degree that national opportunity structures limit policy, bargaining, and organizing benefits, and/or that one or another international setting promises significant new opportunities for achieving such benefits. Kay,T. 2005. Labor transnationalism and global governance: The impact of NAFTA on transnational of 111(3):715Labor relationships in North America. American Journal of Sociology 111(3):715-756. Keywords: INTERNATIONALISM/Globalization/PERSPECTIVE Abstract: This article examines how the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) catalyzed cross- border labor cooperation and collaboration (i. e., labor transnationalism), by creating a new political opportunity structure at the transnational level. Because there are differences in the way power is constituted at the transnational and national levels, theories of national political opportunity structures cannot be directly mapped onto the transnational level. The author describes three primary dimensions of political opportunity structure at the transnational level that explain how power is established: (1) the constitution of transnational actors and interests, (2) the definition and recognition of transnational rights, and (3)

adjudication at the transnational level. The case of NAFTA suggests that while the emergence of national social movements requires nation-states, global governance institutions can play a pivotal role in the development of transnational social movements. Faist,T. 2008. Migrants as transnational development agents: An inquiry into the newest round of the miaration-development 14(1):21miaration-development nexus. Population Space and Place 14(1):21-42. Keywords: transnational migration/transnationalism/development/migrant associations/community/MIGRATION/Mobility Abstract: Migrant networks and organisations have emerged as development agents. They interact with state institutions in flows of financial remittances, knowledge, and political ideas. In the discursive dimension, the new enthusiasm on the part of OECD states and international organisations, such as the World Bank, for migrant remittances, migrant associations and their role in development, is a sign of two trends which have coincided. Firstly, community as a principle of development has come to supplement principles of social order such as the market and the state. Secondly, in the current round of the migration-development nexus, migrants in general and transnational collective actors in particular have been constituted by states and international organisations as a significant agent. In the institutional dimension, agents such as hometown associations, networks of businesspersons, epistemic networks and political diasporas have emerged as collective actors. These formations are not unitary actors, and they are frequently in conflict with states and communities of origin. The analysis concludes with :reflections of how national states structure the transnational spaces in which non-state actors are engaged in cross-border flows, leading towards a tight linkage between migration control, immigrant incorporation and development cooperation.

Ekonomické Ekonomické aspekty: politická ekonomie, bankovní sektor, financní bezpecnost

Klícové slovo: Schengen

Jurickova,V. 2002. Implementation consequences and costs of the European Union standards adoption. 50(5):830Ekonomicky Casopis 50(5):830-853. Abstract: The entry of the Slovak Republic into the EU will be connected with relatively high costs. The essential cause, however, is not the entry alone, but the forty-year interruption of the market economy development during which period individual areas of economy were largely neglected, and even destructed. The acceptance and implementation of acquis communateure will demand relatively large costs. The assets of EU Directives' implementation will act in a long term, costs linked with it will concentrate into short term and medium term horizon. Most extensive financial, requirements both from the state budget and from the entrepreneurial sphere and population as well will be requested in the sphere of environment. From the point of view of cost proportion linked with the implementation of EU standards and specifications relating to the environment complex one of the basic components is the waste management, above all communal waste storage. The important component is also water protection. Total costs invoked by the transition to the EU standards and specifications in the sphere of waterworks and sewerage of wastewaters represent the highest items within the environmental complex. The inevitability of investment expenditure to implement aquis in the sphere of water protection will invoke also some indirect effects. These will represent the development of activities of the Slovak construction companies of subcontractor type, and the creation of new jobs at the implementation of such projects. The third important segment in the system of environmental protection is air protection. This comprises the problems of municipalities (communal waste incineration) and,environmental problems in the entrepreneurial sphere. Particularly big gaps manifest themselves in the sphere of safety at work and health preservation at work, as even currently valid legal standards has not been consistently respected. Thus, the acceptation of aquis in this sphere too will be a relatively demanding and costly process. This refers above all to the implementation of the Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work and relative Directions. These Directives define minimum health and safety standards for concrete work situations. They relate to the requirements on workplaces, work facilities, construction sites, safety labelling as well as other requirements concerning safety at work and health protection at work. Socialeconomic dimensions play an important part within the process of acquis, communateure implementation. These represent above all a higher level of protection, culture and efficiency of labour and social relations. Transposition of aquis into the Slovak legislation in the sphere of social protection means among other things also the assurance of equal rights, equal treatment in the employment and profession, as well as equal rights of all citizens irrespective of their sex, race and religion, and protection against job discrimination. In the sphere of labour legislation, there are some problems with the Council Directive 93/104/EC of 23 November 1993 concerning certain aspects of the organization of working time. Its transposition into the new Labour Code where the maximum working hours overtime inclusive have been limited to 48 hours, has brought about other problems rather than purely cost invoking ones (in transport, post offices, in the sphere of culture). Unlike previous spheres,

where social-economic dimensions prevail, the following spheres are characterised rather by technical and economic dimension prevalence. In the agriculture and foodstuff sector, the implementation of aquis is linked mostly with the adoption of the EU technical standards and with the finalising of institutional structures inevitable for the examination of the adherence to those standards. Timely preparation of all premises indispensable to obtain EU resources in this sector is particularly important. Most important task in implementation of EU technical standards is the assurance of sanitary faultlessness of foodstuffs and agricultural raw materials. Additional costs will be required for ensuring environmental standards in storage facilities and waste management; this will influence increased unit costs mainly in stock raising and pig breeding. From the point of view of Slovakia's entry into the EU transport has the irreplaceable task. In this chapter, Slovak Republic did not ask for any exceptions or transitional period for the implementation of aquis. The Government approved the National Plan of Regional Development for the Slovak Republic for the years 2001 - 2006, which is the official document of the Government regarding requirements to finance transport infrastructure from the EU pre-entry funds. The development programme of transport infrastructure comprises also two priorities construction of railway network (4 public works) and highway construction (3 public works). Basic priority of transport sector is the construction and modernisation of transport infrastructure in approved routes of multi modular corridors. Slovak Republic accepted the results of the TINA final report, which defined the survey of infrastructure projects for reconstruction, improvement or construction of infrastructure. Basic network of TINA includes corridor IV (end points Drazdany - Istanbul), corridore VI (Gdansk - Zilina), and branch Va from Bratislava to Kosice and then to Ukraine. European Union stated that the chapter does not require further negotiation. Progress. monitoring at the acceptance and implementation of aquis will go on during further negotiations. From the point of view of the implementation of EU standards energy sector is important. Slovakia's entry into the EU from the financial point of view relates mainly to supply safety and nuclear. Current insufficient capacity of emergency reserves of oil and oil products and the need to extend these capacities up to the parameters defined by the EU Directive, e. g. 90 day consumption compared to the current 39 day capacity will require considerable costs spent by public finance. Slovak commitment to phase out gradually units of a nuclear power plant VI will not influence public finance directly, and will be financed partially from foreign resources. To support financially this phase out and eventual further related activities that could arise, a Financial Memorandum was signed between Slovakia and the EU and a special account has been opened in the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In compliance with the need to meet towards the year 2004 the EU Directives 96/92 and 98/30 Slovak Republic gradually liberalises its electricity and natural gas market. In the negotiation and implementation process, the sphere of internal safety, especially Schengen agreement, is of special importance. The main task of the Slovak Republic in this area is the protection of the Slovak-Ukraine border as an outer border of the extended EU. Increased costs to protect outer border will be, however, reflected in generally higher external and internal security of the Slovak Republic. This means the decreased number of illegal migrants, decreased custom offences, more efficient detection of illegal drug trafficking etc., which will, from the economy point of view, prepare conditions for relative future savings of the state budget. Slovak Republic as a future member of the EU can become, however, to a greater extent compared to current situation,a country of destination for refugees and asylum applicants. As early as in the year 2003 one expects the increase of the number of refugees up to about 10 thousand people. From the economy point of view the increase of Slovakia's internal safety resulting from the EU membership can influence positively the income from the active tourism (prospective abolition of border controls). Slovak Republic does not need to fulfil the conditions of the Schengen aquis, and connection to the Schengen information system towards the date of EU entry, must however, fulfil the conditions defined for the first phase of the system's application.

Monar,J. 2001. The dynamics of justice and home affairs: Laboratories, driving factors and costs. 39(4):747Journal of Common Market Studies 39(4):747-764. Abstract: The rapid development of justice and home affairs into a major field of EU policymaking since the beginning of the 1990s can be explained by a combination of specific 'laboratories' - which helped pave the way - and 'driving factors' which triggered development and expansion. Whereas the Council of Europe, Trevi and Schengen have served as effective laboratories, new or increasing transnational challenges to internal security, Member States' interests in a 'Europeanization' of certain national problems and the dynamic of its own generated by the launching of the 'area of freedom, security and justice' as a major political project have all acted as major driving forces. Yet the rapid development has also had its price in terms of deficits in parliamentary and judicial control, complexity and fragmentation, an uneven development of the main justice and home affairs policy areas and a tendency towards restriction and exclusion. Singsaas,H. 1997. The Amsterdam Treaty and Schengen - one step towards the internal market. 55(4):605Internasjonal Politikk 55(4):605-&. Abstract: The aim of this article is to discuss the consequences of the Amsterdam Treaty as regards the co-operation injustice and home affairs in the European Union (EU). In Amsterdam in June 1997 the member states decided to integrate the Schengen co-operation in the EU treaty. They also agreed to introduce supranational co-operation in the areas of asylum, immigration and border controls within five years. The co-operation in the fields of justice and home affairs was integrated in the Union for the first time in the Maastricht Treaty in 1991. With the exception of visa policies, the co-operation has been strictly intergovernmental, and further progress has proved difficult. Therefore, the Amsterdam Treaty represents a major step towards the planned abolishment of the internal border controls, and thus the realisation of the Internal Market project. The Amsterdam Treaty is also of great interest for Norway and Iceland. While not being members of the Union, these countries have joined the Schengen group as observers. An integration of the Schengen co-operation in the EU therefore requires new negotiations.

Klícové slovo: Cross-border cooperation

CrossChuchka,I.M. and Moldavchuk,R.I. 2010. Cross-Border Cooperation in the Context of Ukraine'S Economic Security. Actual Problems of Economics (111):92-98. (111):92Keywords: economic security/economic integrity/economic stability/cross-border cooperation Abstract: The article presents an attempt to determine major principles in maintaining economic security of Ukraine; internal and external threats to economic integrity are revealed. The importance of support for national economic stability by means of maintaining most profitable and efficient cross-border cooperation is emphasized. Gruner,H.P. and Hefeker,G. 1996. Bank cooperation and banking policy in a monetary union: A politicalReview 7(3):183political-economy perspective on EMU. Open Economies Review 7(3):183-198. Keywords: European Monetary Union/interest groups/banking policy/bank cooperation Abstract: Why do large European banks lobby for monetary union? We show in a gametheoretic model that montary union can trigger a change in the structure of the market for international banking transactions with asymmetric effects on profits: large banks are induced to cooperate internationally and gain from European Monetary Union (EMU), while small

banks are likely to lose. Monetary union can be interpreted as a device for large banks to push small banks out of the market for cross-border financial services. Flamee,M. and Windels,P. 2009. Restructuring Financial Sector Supervision: Creating a Level Playing Insurance34(1):9Field. Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance-Issues and Practice 34(1):9-23. Keywords: level playing field/globalisation/supervisory challenges/integrated supervision/Cooperation Abstract: During the past few years, the financial industry has been characterised by an ongoing cross-sector and cross-border consolidation of financial institutions spanning banking, securities, and insurance institutions and the blurring demarcation of their respective products and instruments. Against the backdrop of these changes, the creation of a level playing field for financial services has become a key challenge for policy makers, regulators, and market participants alike. At different national and international levels, regulators, and supervisors have been responding to this challenge with a plethora of measures. This paper presents a number of initiatives at different supervisory levels in view of recent financial sector developments and discusses how the challenge of a level playing field is being tackled. crossIssues Krimminger,M.H. 2008. The resolution of cross-border banks: Issues for deposit insurers and proposals 4(4):376for cooperation. Journal of Financial Stability 4(4):376-390. Keywords: Cross-border banking insolvency/Home/host regulatory powers/Insolvency laws Abstract: This paper reviews critical legal and policy issues created by cross-border banking insolvencies. These include (I) Insolvency principles, such as (1) criteria for intervention; (2) deposit insurance; (3) power to manage; (4) ability to maximize recoveries. Also included is (II) International legal complications. Critical issues in cross-border crisis management involve: (1) division of labor between home and host countries; (2) the availability of information; (3) the legal, regulatory and supervisory framework; (4) the law governing initiation of proceedings; (5) grounds for intervention; (6) deposit insurance; (7) legal powers of controlling authorities; (8) the potential financial and economic effects. We conclude with a few proposals for cooperation. crossDiz,F.M. 2008. Judicial protection in cross-border credits in the European Union: Attachment order of bank accounts proposal. Revista de Derecho Comunitario Europeo 12(30):381-418. 12(30):381Keywords: judicial cooperation in civil matters/european system for the attachment of bank accounts/freezing orders/civil european procedural law Abstract: The takings of measures to improve and simplify the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial cases have been taken to fulfil the aim of establishing a genuine European area of justice. In this way the European Union has adopted some protective measures to improve solutions to the problems of cross-borders debt-recovery. One of them, called as "European attachment of bank accounts", tries to avoid that debtors are able to move their monies out of accounts known to their creditors into other accounts in the same or another Member State, and permit creditors to be able to block these movements of monies through provisional remedies, which secure the future enforcement of a monetary claim by freezing bank accounts. The current legislation does not ensure that such remedies are recognized and enforced throughout the European Union. A possible solution to the problems of debt-recovery outlined above would be to create a European system for the attachment of bank accounts which allows a creditor, in certain circumstances, to secure the payment of a sum of money due to him by preventing the removal or transfer of funds held to the credit of his debtor in one or several bank accounts within the territory of the European Union. Taking into account the Commission's "Green Paper on improving the efficiency of the enforcement of judgments in the European Union: the attachment of bank accounts" (2006)

that puts forward a pre-legislative proposal for the attachment of bank accounts to prevent the removal of funds held to the creditors claim from his debtor's bank account while the creditor is awaiting the recognition of his enforceable judgment or title. We analyse the scope of the problems of cross-border debt recovery and the likely effectiveness of this new European instrument. Langevin,M.S. 2010. Kate Bronfenbrenner (eds), Global Unions: Challenging Transnational Capital Cross31(1):94Through Cross-Border Campaigns. Journal of Labor Research 31(1):94-98. Keywords: Labor unions/Labor solidarity/International labor cooperation/Global unions/Transnational corporations (TNCs)/Global union federations (GUFs)/International framework agreements (IFAs)/European Union (EU)/Labor movement fragmentation/Labor based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) Organizational structure/Corporate and industry restructuring/Economic globalization. Cross54(6):818Qiu,L.D. 2010. Cross-border mergers and strategic alliances. European Economic Review 54(6):818-831. Keywords: Cross-border strategic alliances/Cross-border mergers/Export/FDI/Distribution costs/INTERNATIONAL MERGERS/EQUILIBRIUM/COMPETITION/INCENTIVES/OLIGOPOLY/WELFARE Abstract: This paper develops a model with distribution costs to study firm cooperation in forming strategic alliances and mergers, under different types of foreign market entry modes, that is, export or foreign direct investment (FDI). Under both export and FDI, we find that cross-border alliances (mergers) dominate domestic alliances (mergers); and cross-border alliances and mergers are preferred to independence if and only if distribution cost is high. Under export, cross-border alliances are chosen in equilibrium if distribution cost is high. Under FDI and with high distribution cost, cross-border alliances (mergers) are chosen in equilibrium if plant setup cost is low (high). Choy,W.K.W., Ramburuth,P., and Lee,B.E.A. 2010. The People's Republic of China, the ASEAN and Singapore A matter of economic cooperation and differentiated management. Chinese 4(2):162Management Studies 4(2):162-183. Keywords: China/Singapore/Management styles/International business/multinational companies/Globalization Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for international managers to rethink current managerial practices, especially the application of a universalistic approach in an international business context. A differentiated managerial approach is recommended to meet the challenges of a dynamic environment. Design/methodology/approach - Literature review based on secondary data provides the analysis of the bilateral trade relationship between China and ASEAN. This paper cites the case of the China-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park project to illustrate the difficulties in international partnerships. Findings - The findings highlight differences in business philosophies; differences in state bureaucracies and political viewpoints concerning business arrangements; socio-cultural differences in values, and expectations of political and business leaders, and their people. Research limitations/implications - The paper highlights the need for further research in Chinese managerial styles and knowledge. Practical implications The recommended differentiated management approach will allow international managers an alternative option in managing international teams and workforce diversity in cross border business partnerships. Originality/value - The literature gap in this particular area of study presents an opportunity to explore new managerial approaches in international management practices

PisaniSapir,A. Pisani-Ferry,J. and Sapir,A. 2010. Banking crisis management in the EU: an early assessment. Economic (62):341Policy (62):341-373. Abstract: P>For well over a decade many observers had warned that the European Union was ill-prepared in case of a financial storm because its market integration far outpaced its policy integration. This situation was well known to policy-makers but it was hoped that financial crises would wait until policy integration occurred. The reality turned out differently, however. We assess the management of the 2007--2009 banking crisis within the EU against this backdrop. In a nutshell, we find that Europe has done better than could have been expected on the basis of existing arrangements. The two federal institutions acted swiftly, the European Central Bank by providing ample liquidity and the European Commission by enforcing competition discipline flexibly. However, there was no institutional innovation in the form of an EU-financed bail-out of transnational financial institutions or a genuine EU financial stress test. Supervisory responsibilities remained entirely with individual countries and coordination problems were managed through a combination of ad-hoc, discretionary cooperation and reliance on EU rules and procedures. It is not possible, however, to determine whether this relatively satisfactory situation is due to the fact that ad-hoc coordination was fundamentally sufficient or because no complex case of cross-border bank failure occurred. --- Jean PisaniFerry and Andre Sapir. Rules Posner,E. 2009. Making Rules for Global Finance: Transatlantic Regulatory Cooperation at the Turn of 63(4):665the Millennium. International Organization 63(4):665-699. Keywords: EUROPEAN-UNION/UNITEDSTATES/POLITICS/EU/Institutions/MARKETS/TRADE/HARMONIZATION/POLICY/POWER Abstract: This article explains a shift in the way transatlantic authorities managed conflicts over the cross-border regulation of securities markets: from cooperation skewed heavily toward the preferences of U.S. officials and accepted grudgingly by European counterparts; to a Euro-American regulatory condominium characterized by close interactions among decision makers and mutual accommodation. In the final decades of the twentieth century, the asymmetric influence wielded by U.S. securities market authorities had few parallels in other regulatory areas. Why, then, did U.S. officials become more accommodating and European authorities more influential, and why did the turning point occur in 2002 and 2003, an unlikely moment for intensified transatlantic sovereignty sharing? My study shows that institutional change inside the EU recast the North Atlantic balance of regulatory leverage and thereby was the primary factor behind the reshaping of transatlantic cooperation. Internal EU regulatory centralization changed the expectations of U.S. and European firms and authorities and generated new incentives in Washington, D.C., for accommodation and closer transatlantic coordination. My explanation differs from models that, accepting U.S. financial pre-eminence as a given, attribute variance in cross-border regulatory cooperation to factors such as incentives derived from the particularities of issue areas or preferences rooted in domestic politics. While resonating with a well-established theme from the realist branch of IPE, my findings have broad theoretical significance, and open new avenues for dialogue between realists and constructivists about the social, political, and institutional foundations of power in global economic affairs. The transatlantic political process set off by financial transformation in Europe reveals contemporary sources of systemic change and raises questions about what the EU's ascendance as a global financial regulator will mean in the aftermath of the late-2000s crisis.

soukromý Ekonomické aspekty: spolupráce, soukromý sektor, clustery

Klícové slovo: Cross-border cooperation

CrossFetzer,T. 2010. The Late Birth of Transnational Labour Cooperation: Cross-Border Trade Union (195375(1):76Networks at Ford and General Motors (1953-2001). Labour History Review 75(1):76-97. Keywords: Trade unions/multinational companies/labour internationalism/International Metalworkers' Federation/European works' councils/EUROPEAN-WORKS-COUNCILS Abstract: Multinational companies (MNC) are today one of the most important challenges for the trade union movement. Against this backdrop, and given that the growth of MNC has been a long-term historical process, it is rather surprising how little efforts labour historians have devoted to the topic despite the existence of a relevant and rich sociological and industrial relations literature. The article aims to contribute to fill this gap with a case study analysis of international trade union networks at Ford and General Motors, two firms in which such networks emerged early after the Second World War, and which today, at least in Europe, stand out as 'best practice' cases of international labour cooperation in the guise of European works' councils. The paper inquires into the changes in the motives, forms, and practical results of cross-border cooperation initiatives at Ford and GM in Western Europe during the second half of the twentieth century, and interprets these patterns against the backdrop of the broader development of trade union internationalism during the post-war period, and the more specific challenges organized labour faced in these two multinational firms. I argue that serious attempts for international cooperation were already made during the 1950s and 1960s but were frustrated because of management obstruction and also because of fears among major European unions that international bargaining could weaken national union structures and solidarity notions. It was only during the 1990s that the emergence of European works' councils led to the first tangible results of international cooperation, reflecting above all the much more threatening labour market consequences of MNC development during that period. CrossChambers,A. 1997. Cross-border cooperation leading to new opportunities. Power Engineering 101(7):7101(7):7-&. Aulakh,P.S., Kotabe,M., and Sahay,A. 1996. Trust and performance in cross-border marketing osscross 27(5):1005partnerships: A behavioral approach. Journal of International Business Studies 27(5):1005-1032. Keywords: International joint ventures/STRATEGIC ALLIANCES/Cooperation/DETERMINANTS/CONSEQUENCES/COMMITMENT/TECHNOLOGY/OUT COMES/AGENCY/NORMS Abstract: Existing research on international partnerships focuses primarily on the ex ante structuring of interorganizational relationships. This study departs from this research by taking a behavioral approach to understand the ex post maintenance of cross-border marketing partnerships. A conceptual model is developed by identifying the antecedents of trust and performance in such partnerships. The model is empirically tested on a sample of U.S. firms having distributor and licensing relationships with firms from Asia, Europe, and Central/South America. Findings support the importance of bilateral relational norms and informal monitoring mechanisms in building interorganizational trust and improving market performance of international partnerships.

Schurmann,H.J. Schurmann,H.J. 1996. The single market for energy is being established step by step. AtwAtw41(8Internationale Zeitschrift fur Kernenergie 41(8-9):587. Abstract: The possibilities of cross-border competition are to be improved in the sector of conducted energy supplies. The Electricity Directive adopted at the Special Energy Council on June 20, 1996 constitutes a compromise allowing electricity markets in the European Union to be deregulated step by step. However this concept still needs to be approved by the European Parliament. Abolishing the obstacles to integration, and completing the single market for energy, have been topics of heated debate in the Community since the late eighties. As early as in May 1988 the European Commission, in its ''The Single Market for Energy'' working paper presented the regulatory framework. Increased efficiency and flexibility in power supply, and the abolition of special burdens and obstacles to competition, were meant to prepare the member countries for an increasingly tougher international site selection. Although the Luxemburg Energy Directive is not the big hit expected, the step-by-step approach to more deregulation of the electricity economy in the European Union should nor be considered a mere compromise. Once the new Directive has entered into force, large scale customers can freely choose their electricity suppliers. In a first step between 1997 and 1999 at the latest, each country mush deregulate 23% of its national electricity market. This clause holds for customers buying move than 40 GWh of electric power. Additional opening clauses are planned for a later point in time: 28% of the electricity market by the year 2000, or a threshold level of 20 GWh, and 33% and 9 GWh, respectively, by the year 2003. Provisions against possible distortions of competition have been made in the Community. Thus, the right of utilities to invoke obligations incurred in the common interest (Public Service) has been restricted to the limits under Article 90, Section 2 of the EC Treaty. At the same time, protection clauses have been tolerated for the next nine yeats of the interim phase in the deregulation concept now adopted. German utilities are only required to accept deliveries through their grid systems to those customers which are accepted for competition also in the other EU member state. Cross-border competition at the same time can then be much more intense between Germany and EU members with move open electricity markets than, e. g., between the Federal Republic of Germany and France. In the German power industry, all cost items of the utility companies will have to be gone over with a fine comb in the next few years. This undoubtedly includes the technical and financial expense, which is relatively high by international comparison, involved in achieving continuity of supply in this country. As far as reserves ave concerned, possibilities for optimization can be exploited by more cooperation among utilities. However, competitive pressure intensifies not only across borders and supraregionally. In-house electricity generation by industries using attractive gas turbines also puts pressure on the prices charged by public electricity utilities. Asia11(2):233Parrenas,J.C. 1998. ASEAN and Asia-Pacific economic cooperation. Pacific Review 11(2):233-248. Keywords: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)/Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)/regional economic integration Abstract: The emergence of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum has introduced a new element in the global trading environment. APEC includes several regional arrangements: the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations (CER) schemes. Initially a preferential trading arrangement that had very limited practical coverage, ASEAN has forged ahead beyond liberalization of tariff policies, towards greater liberalization of trade in services and of investment policies as well. As ASEAN regional economic integration progresses, it is important to assess how this affects and is affected by the APEC process. ASEAN's liberalization measures influence the development of APEC in several ways. Through its expansion and the unilateral liberalization measures that have followed regional liberalization efforts, ASEAN is

helping realize the enlargement of the market where APEC hopes to see freer and more open trade and investment policies. Correspondingly, ASEAN can play a more aggressive role in challenging other APEC economies to more quickly knock down remaining barriers to crossborder trade and investment flows. The extent to which trade and investment policy reform in ASEAN can affect APEC depends not only on ASEAN's present and future economic weight as a market and exporter of goods, services and capital within APEC. It also depends on the economic importance of such reform to individual APEC member economies. At present, ASEAN is still a relatively small player in intra-APEC trade. ASEAN's share of the total North American and Northeast Asian trade is similarly low. As economic integration proceeds, the ASEAN governments will have a common interest in coordinating policies and eliminating trade and investment barriers vis-a-vis other Asia-Pacific economies. Probably more important than its economic role is ASEAN's political role in molding an Asia-Pacific community. Currently, ASEAN occupies a central position in the region's security dialogue within the framework of the ASEAN Regional Forum. However, the extent of ASEAN's economic and political role within APEC will depend on ASEAN's unity and continued political stability and economic growth. CrossEconomicJessop,B. 1995. Regional Economic Blocs, Cross-Border Cooperation, and Local Economic-Strategies in Behavioral 38(5):674Postsocialism - Politics, Policies, and Prospects. American Behavioral Scientist 38(5):674-715. Keywords: FORMER SOVIET-UNION/EAST-CENTRAL-EUROPE/RUSSIA/TRANSITION/SYSTEMS crossFarek,J. 2006. Challenges of globalization, euroregional cross-border cooperation and foreign 54(6):834investment. Politicka Ekonomie 54(6):834-850. Keywords: Globalization/world economy/Euroregions/capital flows/developing countries/foreign direct investment/transnational corporations Abstract: This contribution is focused on the core changes and trends in the globalized world economy. As the globalization advances, countries and regions are challenged to shape more flexible arrangements to ensure that new risks are dealt with and the new opportunities are exploited. It is Europe's regions that are coming to the fore in matters as capacity - building and growth - related activities. As a locally rooted approach, regional cooperation can harness institutions, encourage creativity and take into account local labor, skills, infrastructure, economic mentality, business environment and communities at different levels of decision making. Globalization has affected the magnitudes, composition and directions of capital flows. Namely in the sphere of foreign direct investment (FDI) that constitute a patent complex of capital, experience, knowledge and operational links with partners abroad. FDI contribute to the economic advancement, especially in the emerging market economies, and has proved to be resilient during financial crises. Attention is also set on motivation, benefits and disputed aspects of FDI. 2005. crossLimao,N. 2005. Trade policy, cross-border externalities and lobbies: do linked agreements enforce more cooperative outcomes? Journal of International Economics 67(1):175-199. 67(1):175Keywords: TRADE/linkage/ENVIRONMENT/labor/cross-border externality/repeated games/GAMES Abstract: We analyze whether linking international cooperation in trade policy to environmental policy (or other issues with nonpecuniary externalities) promotes more cooperation in both policies, or whether cooperation in one is strengthened at the expense of the other. In the context of self-enforcing agreements, we show that if the policies are independent in the government's objective function, then linkage promotes cooperation in one policy at the expense of the policy that is easier to enforce under no-linkage. However, if the linked policies are not independent and if these policies are strategic complements, then linkage can sustain more cooperation in both issues than no-linkage. The policies are strategic

complements only if (i) the production externality has cross-border effects; (ii) the weight on the externality cost is high; (iii) import competing lobbies are not "powerful". crossHuber,P. 2003. On the determinants of cross-border cooperation of Austrian firms with Central and partners. 37(9):947Eastern European partners. Regional Studies 37(9):947-955. Keywords: cross-border cooperation/internationalization/networks/INDUSTRY/Clusters/Trust Abstract: We analyse cross-border cooperation of Austrian firms with CEEC partners. Firm size, previous experience with cooperation and depth of integration with the most important partner are more important determinants of cooperation than distance to the closest potential partner. Firms with experience of cooperation are more likely to enter business relationships and less likely not to cooperate. Small firms are unlikely to cooperate in incentive contracts, while firms which are part of production networks typically cooperate in business and ownership relationships. Distance to the closest potential partner increases the probability of not cooperating and reduces the probability of ownership relationships. noncrossReddy,S.B., Osborn,R.N., and Hennart,J.F. 2002. The prevalence of equity and non-equity cross-border linkages: Japanese investments and alliances in the United States. Organization Studies 23(5):75923(5):759-780. Keywords: STRATEGIC ALLIANCES/interfirm cooperation/JOINT VENTURES/foreign entry mode/ORGANIZATIONAL ECOLOGY/governance/INVESTORS/PATTERNS/STRATEGY/networks/CHOICE/ENTRY Abstract: Using complementary theories derived from, the foreign-entry mode and alliance literatures and two databases on Japanese/US alliances and investments, this study examines the prevalence - a combination of formation and termination - of the full range of investment and cross-border linkage alternatives available to firms. We find that some combinations among the administrative forms, the knowledge flow intent between the partners, and industry-related technology and risk factors were more prevalent than others. Specifically, there were three prevalent combinations consistent with the notions of production efficiency, transaction cost efficiency and learning/adaptation: (1) wholly owned subsidiaries in low R&Dintense industries with the intent of unidirectional knowledge flow; (2) joint ventures in medium R&D-intense industries with reciprocal knowledge flows; and (3) technical agreements with reciprocal knowledge flows in high-tech industries. Knoerich,J. 2010. Gaining from the global ambitions of emerging economy enterprises: An analysis of sell the decision to sell a German firm to a Chinese acquirer. Journal of International Management 16(2):17716(2):177-191. Keywords: Cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As)/Foreign direct investment (FDI)/Emerging markets/China/GERMANY/Competitive strategies of non-emerging market firms for emerging markets/Case study/INVESTMENT/CAPABILITIES/ACQUISITION/TECHNOLOGY Abstract: This paper examines the issue of cross-border acquisitions by companies from emerging economies in industrialised countries: an important phenomenon that has recently found increasing emphasis in international business research. In analysing Chinese acquisitions of German firms in the machinery and equipment industry, the paper addresses the question of why firms from industrialised countries are sold to companies from emerging economies. Several real and imagined reasons may induce the German side not to sell; nevertheless, this type of acquisition occurs with increasing frequency. Using case study evidence and interview data, the study finds explanations for the decision to sell to a Chinese company. The results show that German firms can gain substantially from the global ambitions of the Chinese firms for advancement of their own business objectives. This is due to complementarities in the

motivations for engaging in the deals, as well as the underlying strategic needs of both firms. In addition, the specific nature of the cooperation between both firms instils in the German managers a sense of control and security either real or merely perceived creating conditions that are favourable to the selling decision. Most importantly, in the context of emerging economy enterprises acquiring advanced economy firms, motivations on both sides of the acquisitions appear to go beyond the commonly known goals such as capital transfer and additional market access, as the acquisitions provide the companies involved with conditions favourable to expansion into previously inaccessible market segments. The findings of this study provide useful guidance for the development of future strategic relationships between firms from industrialised and emerging economies. Saintgermain,M.A. 1995. Problems and Opportunities for Cooperation Among Public Managers on the Us25(2):93Us-Mexico Border. American Review of Public Administration 25(2):93-117. Keywords: SERVICE Abstract: With the approval of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) comes the possibility of an infusion of billions of dollars into the U.S.-Mexico border regions; yet, we know little about whether local public managers are prepared to undertake joint projects. This study explores existing linkages between U.S. and Mexican mid-level public managers, how these managers perceive their counterparts, and the barriers to increased cooperation that they must overcome. Existing arrangements are few and informal, mostly among transportation, public safety, and health officials. Mid-level managers are rarely in touch with their counterparts due to differences in language, culture, government, and public administration systems. Because of this lack of contact, some negative stereotypes about counterparts persist. Currently, cross-border cooperation is sporadic, unrewarding, and subject to reversals. We must do more to create the conditions for successful, lasting bi-national public-sector projects. Bernaciak,M. 2010. Cross-border competition and trade union responses in the enlarged EU: Evidence Crossfrom the automotive industry in Germany and Poland. European Journal of Industrial Relations 16(2):11916(2):119-135. Keywords: automotive industry/CEE trade unions/competitive pressure/transnational union cooperation/EUROPEAN-WORKS-COUNCILS/FOREIGN DIRECT-INVESTMENT/multinational companies Abstract: This article explores the conditions under which trade unions in the car industry in Western and Central-Eastern Europe cooperate with each other. It analyses relations between Polish and German unions at three automotive companies displaying variation in the timing and content of cross-border cooperative ventures. Unions cooperated transnationally when no local negotiation channel was available to the German unionists and the Polish unionists benefited more from the assistance of their Western counterparts than from local solutions. Overall, the evidence suggests that East-West labour transnationalism contains a strong element of reciprocity and is guided primarily by cost-benefit considerations. Zavrl,D. 2008. Cooperation and Competition Among Centers for Economic Development (Ceds). Istrazivanja21(4):106Ekonomska Istrazivanja-Economic Research 21(4):106-114. Keywords: game theory/COMPETITION/Cooperation Abstract: An increasing number of Centers for Economic Development is emerging in different countries of European Union. Their main goal is to stimulate Economic Cross border Cooperation. The consequences of this raising number of CEDs are little understood: does the agglomeration stimulate cooperation, or does it lead to a competition between CEDs? We use a game simulation as a research method as it offers a successful way of performing policy

research. The main finding of the 'CED game' is that with agglomeration, the willingness to cooperate decreases. Furthermore we discuss the potential advantages and disadvantages of such game simulation as a tool for policy research. This article suggests that game simulations can be an interesting tool for policy research, but since this method also has its disadvantages a combination of various research methods will contribute to better results. Springer,R. 2010. Cross-border Cooperation - Experiences of German and Polish medium-sized Crossmediumand Enterprises and Banks, Munchen and Mering: Publisher 2010. Journal for East European 15(1):77Management Studies 15(1):77-80. Lee,C.K. 2009. How does a cluster relocate across the border? The case of information technology TaiwanForecasting 76(3):371cluster in the Taiwan-Suzhou region. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 76(3):371-381. Keywords: Information technology/Clusters/Relocation/Taiwan/Suzhou/Industrial system/Institutional innovation/China/INVESTMENT Abstract: Since the end of the Cold War, cross-border regions have proliferated at the borders of formal socialist countries, especially in China. Existing accounts of these emergences treat them either at the macro-level, focusing on political initiatives, or at the micro-level, with emphasis on social and economic relations. This paper uses the Taiwan-Suzhou cross-border region as a case Study for suggesting a meso-level approach, arguing that as a result of continuous interactions between individual Taiwanese information technology firms and opportunity structures generated by the selective opening of the Chinese border, the formation of cross-border high-tech regions is shaped and determined at the level of the industrial system. The industrial system acts as a platform for coordination and cooperation between local elites and foreign investors and among individual firms within this system. The formation of the cross-border high-tech region thus involves the relocation and institutional re-embedding of industrial systems across the border, which has been accompanied by the systemic building of Taiwanese firms on the one hand, and the institutional innovation of Chinese local states on the other. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. CrossObadia,C. 2008. Cross-border interfirm cooperation: the influence of the performance context. International 25(6):634International Marketing Review 25(6):634-650. Keywords: Marketing/Economic performance/Exports/Channel relationships/BUYER-SELLER RELATIONSHIPS/BUSINESS RELATIONSHIPS/DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS/EXPORT PERFORMANCE/CONCEPTUAL-FRAMEWORK/STRATEGIC ALLIANCES/NORMS/governance/MARKET/ANTECEDENTS Abstract: Purpose - This study aims to examine the antecedents and consequences of a cooperative norm in exporter-importer relationships. Moreover, it seeks to investigates the impact of the past economic performance of the venture on the effectiveness of interfirm cooperation. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was conducted among a sample of French exporters. Data on 283 exporter-importer relationships were analyzed using structural equations modeling. Findings - Trust and continuity expectations foster the development of a cooperative norm, which in turn enhances importers' distributive performance. The study also shows that the effectiveness of cooperation increases in a low-performance context. Practical implications - Exporters can improve the performance of their cross-border business relationships by fostering the development of behavioral norms. The findings suggest that a norm of cooperation helps coordinate partners' behaviors in an international exchange. The effectiveness of such a norm increases in bad times, which supports the notion that cooperation can be viewed as a tool to turn around failing export ventures. Originality/value Unlike previous studies on exporter-importer relationships, this study conceptualizes and operationalizes cooperation as a behavioral norm. This new conceptualization of cooperation

makes it possible to assess its influence on the importer's distributive performance, which conditions the success of the export venture. Another distinguishing feature of this study is that it evaluates the effect of past performance on the effectiveness of cooperation. It is shown that cooperation can be used to improve failing business relationships. Thus, cooperation can be an alternative to costly formal governance mechanisms and timeconsuming searches for new foreign representatives to replace terminated ventures. Pulignano,V. 2009. International Cooperation, Transnational Restructuring and Virtual Networking in 15(2):187Europe. European Journal of Industrial Relations 15(2):187-205. Keywords: comparative industrial relations/EUROPE/labour internationalism/Trade unions/transnational restructuring/virtual networking/ORGANIZATION/UNIONISM Abstract: Social networks represent one possible trade union response to cross-border industrial restructuring. The aim is to bring together independent actors so as to generate interaction, cooperation and coordination of cross-national practices and integration of policies. This article draws on empirical evidence from four sectors. It first examines whether unions make effective use of the Internet when developing networking and coordination activities to respond to transnational change in Europe. Second, it discusses the reasons for cross-sectoral variation in the use of virtual networking. It is argued that the use of the Internet by European unions becomes a matter of strategic choices and politics, and reflects sector-based differences in the way that transparency, coordination, social cohesion and democracy are secured for representation and bargaining purposes among employees and unions across borders. WeltWeinert,R. 2001. The enforced europeanization of national trade unions. Soziale Welt-Zeitschrift fur 52(3):323Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung und Praxis 52(3):323-+. Keywords: EUROPE/MAASTRICHT Abstract: After the introduction of the European monetary union, any kind of national wage policy has become part of a supranational context. In the present paper, this process is conceptualized as the enforced Europeanization of national trade union policy. A distinctive feature of the post-Maastricht process has been the intensification of cross-border cooperations among national trade unions. This is exemplified by the so called "Doorn Declaration" and the Baltic Sea cooperation. These examples show that the different systems of collective bargaining are to a considerable degree unknown to actors across national borders, but that this institutional strangeness is gradually being overcome and a process of confidence-building is established. As a consequence, the transnational competence of trade union actors is strengthened and the Europeanization of national trade union policy is accelerated, which can be seen as the actual significance of those cooperation initiatives. That process of national trade unions catching up with Europeanization does not only lead to a shift of national politics to Europe (as neo-functionalist theory makes us believe), but rather to an internalization of Europe into national politics. crossLee,S.H., Shenkar,O., and Li,J.T. 2008. Cultural distance, investment flow, and control in cross-border cooperation. Strategic Management Journal 29(10):1117-1125. 29(10):1117Keywords: cultural distance/alliance/direction of investment/International joint ventures/ENTRY-MODE CHOICE/National culture/UNITEDSTATES/FIRMS/STRATEGY/LOCATION/IMPACT Abstract: Previous research analyzing the impact of cultural distance on joint venture negotiations has often confounded firm and environment effects. To decouple these effects, the cross-border cooperation preferences of small and medium-sized Korean firms were studied, considering simultaneously firms involved in inward and outward investment

ventures. While cultural distance showed no significant relationship with the degree of control sought over the cooperative ventures, cultural distance was significantly related with a preference for ventures in domestic or foreign markets. The impact of cultural distance was found to be greater in inward investment than hi outward investment..

Metropole, teritoriální otázky, dopravní integrace

Klícové slovo: Cross-border cooperation

CrossSohn,C., Reitel,B., and Walther,O. 2009. Cross-border metropolitan integration in Europe: the case of Luxembourg, Basel, and Geneva. Environment and Planning C-Government and Policy 27(5):922C27(5):922939. Keywords: URBAN GOVERNANCE/WESTERN-EUROPE/ECONOMY/REGIONS/WORLD Abstract: In this paper we question the integration processes in three small cross-border metropolitan areas: Luxembourg, Basel, and Geneva. By referring to an original analysis framework, we evaluate the nature and intensity of the functional and institutional integration and highlight the elements that structure the cooperation between the actors. The analysis shows that there is not necessarily a reciprocal link between the size of the functional area and the extent of the cooperation. Whilst no metropolitan-sized organisation is on the agenda in Luxembourg, the example of Basel and Geneva shows that the presence of a national border offers an opportunity to invent original forms of governance, to increase the autonomy of the local authorities by different types of cooperation which transcend the institutional and territorial divides, and to promote the international character of the metropolitan centre. In a context of global competition, these features represent an undeniable benefit. CrossJohnson,C.M. 2009. Cross-Border Regions and Territorial Restructuring in Central Europe Room for More Transboundary Space. European Urban and Regional Studies 16(2):177-191. 16(2):177Keywords: Eastern europe/European Union/GERMANY/political geography/transboundary regionalism/SCALE/STATE/REGIONALIZATION/governance/GEOGRAPHY/POLITICS/PLACE/UNIO N Abstract: As the world's 'first postmodern political form', Europe provides an excellent laboratory for exploring how border regions offer new spaces of/for governance, cultural interaction, and economic development. With the backdrop of dynamic transboundary regionalization in Europe, this article has two goals: the first is to provide a critical review of some recent literature on territorial restructuring whose spatial ambit curiously omits transboundary space. Second, the article follows in the tradition of recent literature on regionalism in geography by exploring competing visions of the scales which are appropriate for organizing particular political and economic activities, in order to call for more engagement with transboundary regionalism. A case-study from Saxony (Germany) shows that the functional utilitarianism and resulting short half life - of some European transboundary regions is a factor inhibiting the emergence of coherent regions. This notwithstanding, evidence also suggests that cross-border cooperation is becoming a key tool as localities and other territories strive to become 'global'. The tangled map of current regional initiatives within the European Union (EU) reflects the temporal emergence and disappearance of cross-border regions in response to changing political priorities and shifting macro-institutional funding sources. The article shows that transboundary regions play an important role in territorial restructuring in Central Europe, but not necessarily in the way EU regional policy intends. BaionacrossValencia,P.J.L. 2007. The Eurocity Baiona-Donostia. Example or utopia in the cross-border (44):325collaboration? Boletin de la Asociacion de Geografos Espanoles (44):325-+.

Keywords: Eurocity/cross-border cooperation/Baiona/Donostia/White book Abstract: The project of the Eurocity Baiona - Donostia supposed a great challenge to future to overcome the interior borders of the European Union and to develop joint and balancely a region established on both sides of the Bidasoa river. However, the results after one decade do not seem to be excessively optimistic. The political - administrative handicaps, the lack of wills and wide bottoms has given to the fret or these have not developed suitably all that it was planned in a beginning. Though, the general result has not been excessively satisfactory yes have existed interesting points of development and, with a view to the future, this project still counts on an evident interest CrossBirchard,K. 2001. Dublin - Cross-border cooperation works slowly but surely. Lancet 357(9253):369. Church,A. and Reid,P. 1996. Urban power, international networks and competition: The example of crossUrban 33(8):1297cross-border cooperation. Urban Studies 33(8):1297-1318. Keywords: DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES/ECONOMIC-DEVELOPMENT/REGIONALDEVELOPMENT/POLICY NETWORKS/POLITICS/CORPORATISM/GOVERNMENT/FRAMEWORK Abstract: The involvement of urban and regional governments in transnational cooperative arrangements and policy networks has led to considerable debate regarding the political and theoretical implications, This paper examines networking and cooperation between urban areas and regions in the UK and France with a shared sea border, Such cross-border cooperation involving local authorities in Europe is a growing phenomenon and has certain implications for the analysis of local and urban politics, Three study areas are examined in detail: the Transmanche region involving Kent County Council and the French region Nord-Pasde-Calais; the Transmanche Metropole which includes Southampton, Portsmouth, Bournemouth and Poole in Britain and Caen, Rouen and Le Havre in France; the cooperative initiative between the English county of East Sussex and the French departements of Somme and Seine-Maritime. In all three case studies, the development of cooperation has been influenced by the availability of funds from the European Union Interreg programme which supports transfrontier networking, A number of political consequences of cross-border cooperation are identified, The implications of these policy initiatives for theories of urban politics are considered, including a discussion of the political and economic construction of competition and cooperation between cities and regions. city-toTjandradewi,B.I., Marcotullio,P.J., and Kidokoro,T. 2006. Evaluating city-to-city cooperation: a case 30(3):357study of the Penang and Yokohama experience. Habitat International 30(3):357-376. Keywords: city-to-city cooperation/technical cooperation/exchange programmes/urban design/road maintenance and solid waste management Abstract: Cross border cooperation among local governments has increased in the recent past. This cooperation claims to be an effective tool in enhancing management capacities of participating authorities. However, surprisingly little research and few evaluations of programmes have been undertaken. This paper begins to address these lacunae by examining and evaluating a 9-year technical cooperation and exchange programme between Penang Municipal Council (Malaysia) and Yokohama City (Japan) in the arenas of city planning and management. It outlines the successes and limitations of the cooperation in this instance. For example, the cooperation was successful in that it brought the important concept of pedestrianization and comprehensive urban design planning to inner city area of George Town, Penang, improvements to road maintenance and management, and the implementation of a recycling programme and solid waste data collection activities. At the same time, while the cooperation has had positive impacts for Penang's local government, there has been a relatively marginal role for local citizenry in this cooperation. The paper also highlights key

elements that were related to the success of the cooperative effort and argues that city-to-city (C2C) cooperation has potential to support urban development processes. As such, much further work is needed to define the extent to which it can be successfully applied. Combining GridNetworkMesarec,B. and Lep,M. 2009. Combining the Grid-Based Spatial Planning and Network-Based Transport Planning. Technological and Economic Development of Economy 15(1):60-77. 15(1):60Keywords: public passenger transport/spatial planning Abstract: Border regions of EU countries are confronted with changes of spatial and economical development. The lack of border crossing strategic information system for regional planning purposes reflects in non-intense cooperation in the field of regional development strategies harmonization. The article presents the methodology developed during Interreg III B project REDECON. Grid-based database with GIS interface, merging socio-economic, environmental and spatial data with vector-based network accessibility data, what enable the public planning departments to analyze and simulate different policy measures concerning transport. The article is focused on the modifications of (during project REDECON) developed methodology, which enable besides cross-border spatial analysis also analysis of current status of public transport demand and supply for finding the areas, where the supply of public transport services does not reach the demand for public transport services. It describes the methodology for selecting the main indicator thematic groups for different public transport demand types, the characterization (evaluation) of suitability of locations in respect to the balance between public transport supply and demand. At the end of the article the results of methodology application are presented on the regional pilot project concerning accessibility of pilot area, regional public transport demands and regional optimization of the public transport supply. crossTeague,P. and Henderson,J. 2006. The Belfast agreement and cross-border economic cooperation in Regional 40(9):1083the tourism industry. Regional Studies 40(9):1083-1096. Keywords: economic development/tourism/Irish development/policy cooperation/economic integration/Ireland Abstract: This paper examines the impact of the Belfast Agreement on north-south economic cooperation in Ireland, using the tourism industry as a case study. The first part of the paper sets out the suggested benefits that may arise from greater economic and business connections between both parts of the island. It also develops a policy framework that the authors believe is established by the Agreement to achieve these benefits. A number of propositions are developed to assess under what conditions the potential benefits from greater cooperation will actually materialize. The second part explores the case-study evidence. The paper concludes by arguing that although advances have been made towards greater cooperation, these new initiatives, for the most part, have not been of a deep or strategic kind. The 'minimalist' character of Strand Two of the Agreement suggests that no big 'institutional push' is likely to emerge to change this situation.

Environmentální aspekty

Klícové slovo: Schengen

Kompala,J. and Lipowczan,A. 2007. Noise hazard to the population of areas connected with functioning crossings. 32(2):279of roadway frontier crossings. Archives of Acoustics 32(2):279-286. Keywords: ecology/acoustic/environment/noise/method Abstract: In spite of Polish observing the Schengen Convention connected with the Freedom of internal moving in European Union, the problem of operating the external frontiers is still valid. Such border crossings can be crossed only at the special border crossing points and in defined time. The controls over them are executed according to uniform criteria. As long as the political situation in Europe is not change, Poland will stay as the border's state of E.U. and people will be put at risk of the border crossing action. The noise connected with border crossing functioning is emitted at whole border crossing - at all developed area and routes lead to it. It is not only the border crossing point itself but also all grounds which come under it. The conducted researches have shown that noise connected with border crossing functioning could be troublesome for the inhabitants of border areas. The problems of exceeding the maximum permissible level of noise on protected areas are mainly connected with many sources of noise producing, for instance lorry type vehicles. On the basis of filled questionnaires it has been found that noise is an important problem For the border areas inhabitants. The scale of the disaster requires taking preventive steps. The problem of many noise sources seems to be quite serious because the Polish border is 3500 km in length and there are 200 Polish border crossings.

Klícové slovo: Cross-border cooperation

Giannias,D.A. and Lekakis,J.N. 1997. Policy analysis for an amicable, efficient and sustainable interinter21(3):231country fresh water resource allocation. Ecological Economics 21(3):231-242. Keywords: water allocation/bilateral agreements/efficiency/sustainability/MIDDLE-EAST Abstract: In the area of fresh surface water resources, which are gradually becoming more scarce, sustainable utilization implies the need for policies aiming to provide adequate water supplies for everyone in both national and international contexts. Many international river basins are shared without any formal intergovernmental agreement, while bilateral agreements guaranteeing amicable cooperation amount to a handful. This paper presents a simple economic-ecologic model within which it examines input-output controls, social input prices, bilateral water trade, a water market for all water users, and a fixed water allocation agreement, as possible water policies for cross border river water sharing. All of these policies can satisfy the conditions for maximum joint economic benefits, while simultaneously working towards maintaining the functional integrity of river ecosystems. In theory, therefore, these policies are of equal use. There are, however, several costs associated with policy administration which are hidden and must explicitly be taken into account. The analysis indicates that bilateral water trade can prove a workable, efficient and sustainable policy for cross border water sharing.

USUSMcLean,B. and Barton,J. 2008. US-Canada cooperation: The US-Canada Air Quality Agreement. Journal HealthA71(9-10):564of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part A-Current Issues 71(9-10):564-569. Abstract: The impetus for the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement was transboundary acid rain in eastern North America. This problem drove the parties to develop a bilateral agreement that not only addressed this issue, but also set up a broad and flexible framework to address other air quality problems. In 2000, the Ozone Annex to reduce smog and its precursor pollutants was negotiated. A transboundary particulate matter (PM) science assessment in 2004 led to the commencement of negotiation of a PM annex in late 2007. Over the course of 15 yr, Canada and the United States also developed innovative cooperative arrangements. Two transboundary airshed dialogues became important sources of practical on-the-ground cooperation in the Georgia Basin-Puget Sound and the Great Lakes Basin. In addition to providing the basis for ongoing international dialogue, these transboundary airshed projects resulted in changes to administrative practices as the parties exchange information and learn from each other in ways that benefit the airshed community. The nature of the Air Quality Agreement also enabled both Canada and the United States to address concerns each has had about specific pollutant sources and to address them in ways that avoided confrontation and resulted in air quality improvements for people living in the airsheds. Case studies of three of the "informal consultations" that have occurred under the agreement are described: where discussions occurred around a power plant in Michigan, a power plant in Saskatchewan, and a steel mill in Ontario. More than an agreement, this relationship has built a capacity to deal with common problems. Fostering such a relationship with its implicit transfer of knowledge and experience has opened doors for discussions on a new Clean Air framework in Canada and joint analyses of cross-border sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO,) emissions caps and trading. U.S. experience with cap and trading is highlighted for background and context. The flexibility inherent in the agreement provides a platform for future air quality issues and continued communication without borders. Williams,A. and Parker,M. 2008. Rehabilitating the Jordan River Valley through cross-border crosscommunity cooperation. Environment 50(3):42. Tacconi,L., Jotzo,F., and Grafton,R.Q. 2008. Local causes, regional co-operation and global financing for coenvironmental environmental problems: the case of Southeast Asian Haze pollution. International Agreements8(1):1Environmental Agreements-Politics Law and Economics 8(1):1-16. Keywords: ASEAN/climate change/fires/GEF/haze pollution/regional agreements/INDONESIAN FOREST-FIRES/SLASH Abstract: Lack of action on cross-border environmental problems in developing countries is often ascribed to gaps in local capacity and resources, failure of regional cooperation and lack of financial support from rich countries. Using the case of the Southeast Asian Haze pollution from forest and peat fires in Indonesia, we explore the challenges posed by environmental problems whose causes are closely linked to local development and livelihood strategies, and whose impacts are local, regional (haze) as well as global (carbon emissions). We assess whether there are real opportunities to implement effectively the recent Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution. To address the deep determinants behind haze pollution, we propose signatories to the Agreement refocus their efforts to controlling peat fires rather than to strive for a zero-burning regime. We also recommend a new approach to financing sustainable development based on rules and incentives, with a regional pool of funds, contributed by rich countries through the Global Environment Facility and countries in Southeast Asia.

Gaden,M., Krueger,C., Goddard,C., and Barnhart,G. 2008. A Joint Strategic Plan for Management of multi ltiGreat Lakes fisheries: A cooperative regime in a multi-jurisdictional setting. Aquatic Ecosystem 11(1):50Health & Management 11(1):50-60. Keywords: governance/Institutions/Cooperation/ecosystem management Abstract: Two nations, eight states, the province of Ontario, two U.S. intertribal authorities, and the binational Great Lakes Fishery Commission all play a role in managing the Great Lakes fishery. No overarching institution has the authority to compel cross-border cooperation. Rather, the fishery agencies adhere to A Joint Strategic Plan for Management of Great Lakes Fisheries, a voluntary, multi-jurisdictional agreement signed in 1981. This article provides a brief overview of the roles and responsibilities of the management jurisdictions and describes how the Joint Strategic Plan helps agencies cooperate across jurisdictional boundaries. The plan relies on four strategies-consensus, accountability, information sharing, and ecosystem management-to foster cooperation, and to operationalize collective action on both lake and technical committees. The plan is a model for multi-jurisdictional cooperation in a politically fragmented region. crossPortman,M.E. 2007. Zoning design for cross-border marine protected areas: The Red Sea Marine Peace 50(7):499Park Case Study. Ocean & Coastal Management 50(7):499-522. Keywords: CORAL RECRUITMENT/FLORIDA-KEYS/LANDUSE/MANAGEMENT/HEALTH/EILAT/POLLUTION/RESERVES/REEFS/conservation Abstract: In marine protected areas (MPAs), zoning schemes can help balance multiple resource uses. Literature on ocean Zoning design methods points out the need for analytical tools that guarantee stakeholder involvement and that address the unique spatial characteristics of the sea, especially under multiple jurisdictions. I illustrate the use of a method of spatial multi-criteria analysis (MCA) that combines data of the land and ocean environment with stakeholder preferences to identify areas most suitable for varying levels of protective zoning. To solicit preferences, I apply social science survey techniques at an early stage in the process. I synthesize the resulting preferences with physical data using a geographical information system. This comprehensive approach addresses some of the challenges of designing zoning for a cross-border, multi-jurisdictional MPA such as varying levels of information between countries, limited cooperation between managers and scientists, differing statutory regimes, and difficulties bringing stakeholders together to solicit their opinions, As a case study, I developed a zoning proposal for the Red Sea Marine Peace Park (RSMPP), a proposed MPA to be jointly managed by Jordan and Israel in the northern Gulf of Aqaba. KastelanKastelan-Macan,M., Ahel,M., Horvat,A.J.M., Jabucar,D., and Jovancic,P. 2007. Water resources and waste water management in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and the State Union of Serbia and Union 9(3):319Montenegro. Water Policy 9(3):319-343. Keywords: Bosnia and Herzegovina/Croatia/State Union of Serbia and Montenegro/water policy/water quality/wastewater management/harmonization with the EU Acquis communautaire Abstract: This work provides an inventory of water resources and presents the current status of water supply, water quality as well as wastewater management in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, established after the break-up of the former Yugoslavia. All three countries are very rich in water resources, pertaining in a large percentage to the Adriatic and Black Sea basins. However, this richness is not adequately reflected in the current status of the public water supply. Water supply is satisfactory only in bigger cities, whereas rural populations still largely depend on the local sources. Furthermore, with respect to integrated water management, there is a big discrepancy between the capacities of water supply and drainage and those for municipal and industrial wastewater

treatment. Only a small percentage of wastewaters receive at least some treatment, putting those receiving natural waters at considerable risk. Nevertheless, available reports on the water quality of ambient waters do not reveal the existence of this problem on a wider scale, but indicate only few hot spots. Microbiological pollution near big cities and patchy elevated levels of heavy metals and organic pollutants around industrial plants and agricultural lands belong to these exceptions. Such a relatively favourable situation is, partly, a consequence of a significant decrease in economic activities, which is characteristic of all transition countries, but it also reveals the impact of the recent wars in the region. Political and military conflicts in the region generated mutual distrust and lack of cooperation between the three countries. However, attempts are being made to resolve most of the issues related to cross-border contamination by signing international and regional treaties. As a part of pre-accession activities, all three states are harmonizing their legislation with the EU and are joining scientific projects on the water protection of other western countries. This is expected to bring considerable benefits to the local population and to make economic development more vigorous. Rudaz,G. 2006. From Valais to Europe: a regional pressure group takes up a stance in the European Alpine94(3):55debate on mountains. Revue de Geographie Alpine-Journal of Alpine Research 94(3):55-64. Keywords: mountain/pressure group/Valais/EUROPE Abstract: This article looks at the international opening of a regional pressure group based in Switzerland, the Groupentent de la population de montagne du Valais romand (Frenchspeaking Valais mountain population group). Three factors explain how this opening came, about in the nineties: debates about Switzerland's membership of the European Economic Area, providing a fertile terrain for cross-border and international cooperation, fear of outsiders taking over the region via the Alpine Convention, which was to become a federating theme, and the organisation of mountain dwellers' interests on a European scale, which acts as a sustainable driving force behind the relations set up. In turn, this international opening was to change the "geography" of the group itself. Dimitrov,R.S. 2003. Knowledge, power, and interests in environmental regime formation. International Studies Quarterly 47(1):123-150. 47(1):123Keywords: ANTARCTIC OZONE HOLE/STRATOSPHERIC OZONE/CHLORINE/SINK Abstract: Knowledge-based approaches to the study of international environmental cooperation tend to treat knowledge as a single variable. It is more useful to distinguish between different types of information and to analyze their roles in policy formation separately. Disaggregating knowledge reveals important aspects of the interplay between knowledge, interests, and power which otherwise remain hidden, and helps solve empirical puzzles and theoretical contradictions. Its utility is illustrated in a comparison between two prominent cases of regime-making efforts: deforestation (non-regime) and ozone depletion (regime). The study relies on analysis of multilateral scientific assessments, observation of UN meetings, and interviews with scientists and policymakers. The evidence suggests that reliable information about the cross-border consequences of a problem is of critical importance in regime formation as it facilitates utility calculations and-the formation of interests. By contrast, other types of seemingly relevant scientific knowledge appear to be of far lesser importance. Moreover, contrary to power-over-knowledge theorizing, the state of knowledge cannot be easily explained with reference to political power. Sustainable multiRinaldi,F.M. and Salvati,M. 2002. Sustainable natural resource management through multi-regional 18(3):223cooperation. International Journal of Environment and Pollution 18(3):223-242. Keywords: Italy/multi-criteria analysis/natural resource management/water

policies/watershed Abstract: Management of natural resources has clear implications for local, national, and supranational territorial units because of diverse and fundamental implications linked to how and where they are managed. There is a strong need to go beyond local, regional or even national administrative borders, redesigning new geographical areas and starting cross-border cooperative actions for more sustainable natural resource management. In this paper, European Union and Italian water policies are analysed, showing that, in Italy, the situation regarding institutional actors involved in water management is quite complex, particularly taking a watershed approach. Management of an important watershed in the south of Italy is taken as an example, showing how natural resources could be managed effectively through multi-regional cooperation. In this context, the work presented here introduces Multi-Criteria Decision Aid (MCDA) as a new multidisciplinary approach to structuring and analysing conflicts between stakeholders involved in the decision making process. Adamkus,H.E.V. 2002. Water policy differences between a western democracy and a country in economic transition. Water Science and Technology 45(8):125-128. 45(8):125Keywords: cross-border cooperation/environmental protection/Lithuania/transition economies/water policy Abstract: Where environmental policy is concerned Western democracies and transition economies share more similarities than differences. Sound environmental policies require substantial investment. Public-private cooperation can play a major role in the search for solutions, but politicians, environmentalists and academics must act vigorously to ensure that big business does not acquire a final say in the implementation of environmental policy. Lithuania as a transition economy faces major environmental challenges, but international collaboration, including working with the European Union and cross-border cooperation with neighbouring states, is bringing good results. A major unifying factor for the Baltic Sea states is the continuing struggle to purify and protect the Baltic Sea. CrosscoThiry,E., Stein,R., and Cibien,C. 1999. Cross-border biosphere reserves: New approaches in the cooperation between Vosges du Nord and Pfalzerwald. Nature & Resources 35(1):18-29. 35(1):18Abstract: Recent years have seen increasing interest in the concept of establishing crossborder protected areas. In a number of frontier situations in many regions of the world, particular ecological systems have provided a connecting focus for cooperation. Examples are the two biosphere reserves of Vosges du Nord and Pfalzerwald, which straddle the border between northeastern France and southwestern Germany and which constitute one of the largest remaining blocks of mixed forest ill western Europe. Since 1985, co-operation between the two reserves has evolved from protocol-type relations to developing a functional crossborder reserve. This trend has entailed a process of inter-cultural learning and mutual understanding in bringing together the different actors. The aim of the transfrontier reserve is to harmonize the conservation of biological diversity, social and economic development, and the preservation of cultural diversity within this large natural region. cooperation Ludema,R.D. and Wooton,I. 1997. International trade rules and environmental cooperation under 38(3):605asymmetric information. International Economic Review 38(3):605-625. Abstract: With asymmetric information about local costs relative to international benefits of direct environmental policy, countries will rely too heavily on trade policy in controlling crossborder externalities in negotiated agreements. The unilateral externality policy chosen before negotiations by an exporter provides a signal about its local cost, modifying the information used in negotiations. The greater the exporter's incentive to use an externality tax as a secondbest trade instrument, the better the signal. Consequently, exogenous limits on the unilateral

use of trade policy in the absence of environmental cooperation can diminish the informational problem and improve the performance of prospective environmental agreements. Honneland,G. 2008. Cooperation in the Barents sea - Environmental protection between Russia and 58(4-5):447Norway. Osteuropa 58(4-5):447-+. Abstract: In the Barents region, Norway and Russia are in conflict over ecological issues. This involves fishing quotas and fishing equipment, the over-fishing of Atlantic cod, the clean up of radioactive waste left on the Kola Peninsula by the Soviet Northern Fleet, CO2 emissions and nuclear safety. In order to regulate these conflicts, bothcountries are working at the bilateral level and in transnational forums such as the Euro-Arctic Barents Region. The results of such cross-border environmental protection efforts have been quite modest. The erratic actions of the Russian environmental authority and its break up under Vladimir Putin'both limit environmentalists' ability to act and weaken cooperation. List,R., Ceballos,G., Curtin,C., Gogan,P.J.P., Pacheco,J., and Truett,J. 2007. Historic distribution and to challenges to bison recovery in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Conservation Biology 21(6):148721(6):1487-1494. Keywords: arid grasslands/bison bison/Chihuahuan Desert/historic distribution/large grazers/TALLGRASS PRAIRIE/BUFFALO WALLOWS/VEGETATION Abstract: Ecologists and conservationists have long assumed that large grazers, including bison (Bison bison), did not occur in post-Pleistocene southwestern North America. This perception has been influential in framing the debate over conservation and land use in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. The lack of an evolutionary history of large grazers is being used to challenge the validity of ranching as a conservation strategy and to limit the protection and reintroduction of bison as a significant component of desert grassland ecosystems. Archeological records and historical accounts from Mexican archives from AD 700 to the 19th century document that the historic range of the bison included northern Mexico and adjoining areas in the United States. The Janos-Hidalgo bison herd, one of the few free-ranging bison herds in North America, has moved between Chihuahua, Mexico, and New Mexico, United States, since at least the 1920s. The persistence of this cross-border bison herd in Chihuahuan Desert grasslands and shrublands demonstrates that the species can persist in desert landscapes. Additional lines of evidence include the existence of grazing-adapted grasslands and the results of experimental studies that document declines in vegetation density and diversity following the removal of large grazers. The Janos-Hidalgo herd was formed with animals from various sources at the turn of the 19th century. Yet the future of the herd is compromised by differing perceptions of the ecological and evolutionary role of bison in the Desert Grasslands of North America. In Mexico they are considered native and are protected by federal law, whereas in New Mexico, they are considered non-native livestock and therefore lack conservation status or federal protection. Evidence written in Spanish of the presence of bison south of the accepted range and evidence from the disciplines of archaeology and history illustrate how differences in language and academic disciplines, in addition to international boundaries, have acted as barriers in shaping comprehensive approaches to conservation. Bison recovery in the region depends on binational cooperation. CanadaBarton,J. 2008. Canada-wide standards and innovative transboundary air quality initiatives. Journal of HealthA71(1-2):74 :74Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part A-Current Issues 71(1-2):74-80. Abstract: Canada's approach to air quality management is one that has brought with it opportunities for the development of unique approaches to risk management. Even with Canada's relatively low levels of pollution, science has demonstrated clearly that air quality

and ecosystem improvements are worthwhile. To achieve change and address air quality in Canada, Canadian governments work together since, under the constitution, they share responsibility for the environment. At the same time, because air pollution knows no boundaries, working with the governments of other nations is essential to get results. International cooperation at all levels provides opportunities with potential for real change. Cooperation within transboundary airsheds is proving a fruitful source of innovative opportunities to reduce cross-border barriers to air quality improvements. In relation to the NERAM Colloquium objective to establish principles for air quality management based on the identification of international best practice in air quality policy development and implementation, Canada has developed, both at home and with the United States, interesting air management strategies and initiatives from which certain lessons may be taken that could be useful in other countries with similar situations. In particular, the Canada-wide strategies for smog and acid rain were developed by Canadian governments, strategies that improve and protect air quality at home, while Canada-U.S. transboundary airshed projects provide examples of international initiatives to improve air quality. Matouskova,M., Weiss,A., and Matschullat,J. 2010. Ecological Survey of River Habitat Diversity: TransTransBoundary Cooperation in the Ore Mountains (Krusne Hory, Erzgebirge). Geografie 115(3):284115(3):284307. Keywords: ecological survey/hydromorphology/diversity/LAWA/EcoRivHab/EN 14614/WFD/FRAMEWORK/TYPOLOGY/GERMANY Abstract: MATOUSKOVA, M., WEISS, A., MATSCHULLAT, J. (2010): Ecological survey of river habitat diversity: trans-boundary cooperation in the Ore Mountains (Krusne hory, Erzgebirge). Geografie, 115, No. 3, pp. 284-307. Results of a trans-boundary ecological survey of the crossborder Rolava and Weisseritz river catchments in the Erzgebirge/Krusne hory are presented. An optimized method to assess the ecohydrological status of streams in keeping with the European Water Framework Directive has been developed. Guiding parameters for the hydromorphological survey were selected, used for (1) the German "Gewaesserstrukturguetekartierung" by the Field Survey method of the Laenderarbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser, (2) the Czech EcoRivHab method and (3) the Czech HEM method that additionally comply with the requirements of the European Standard EN 14614. Hydrochemical monitoring supported the interpretation of the hydrobiological data. The assessment followed the stream type specific background and orientation values. Hydrobiological monitoring focussed on benthic macroinvertebrates, stream type, and stressor specific assessment. Five ecohydrological quality classes were established from 1 (high) to 5 (bad), characterizing the state of the water course in the WFD context. Stefanaki,A., Aki,C., Vlachonasios,K., and Kokkini,S. 2010. Phytogeographic Versus Political Borders: European Union'S Lifelong Learning Programme Towards A Common Concept in the East Aegean Common (E. Greece, W. Turkey). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 19(4A):696-703. 19(4A):696Keywords: Phytogeographic affinities/Aegean/Labiatae (Lamiaceae)/Lifelong Learning Programme/Erasmus/student mobility/ISLANDS/FLORA Abstract: This article presents a bilateral cooperation between School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece) and Department of Biology, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University (Turkey), under the auspices of the European Lifelong Learning ProgrammeErasmus. An Erasmus placement grant was provided to a doctoral student of Aristotle University, for the study of the affinities of Labiatae plants between Chios Island [East Aegean Islands (EAT), Greece] and the adjacent Cesme-Karaburun Peninsula (Anatolia, Turkey). The study resulted in close affinities of the Labiatae in Chios and Cesme-Karaburun [high similarity indices, similar chorological spectra, and occurrence of narrowly distributed species (AnatoliaEAI-Balkan endemics) in both regions]. Additionally, extensive field work throughout Cesme-

Karaburun Peninsula gave 11 new records for this region, meeting the first objective of the European Plant Conservation Strategy regarding documentation of plant diversity, in Anatolia, one of the biodiversity hot-spots of the Mediterranean basin. The article concludes with the benefits for a doctoral student through such cross-border mobility cooperations and further attempts to think towards a common concept in the East Aegean, where both the East Aegean Islands and the adjacent Anatolian mainland will be studied as one phytogeographic entity. This cooperation is the first mutual step of Greece and Turkey for a joint study on the phytogeography of the East Aegean, a region, where political borders are of no phytogeographic sense. Barnett,M. 2010. Canadian Provinces and the Western Climate Initiative: The Constitutionality of CrossExtraordinary Cross-Border Cooperation. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 48(2):321-352. 48(2):321Abstract: The Western Climate Initiative is an extraordinary effort among U.S. states and Canadian provinces to address climate change. Officials in six U.S. states and four Canadian provinces have agreed to cap carbon emissions even though the federal governments of the United States and Canada have yet to do so. This Note focuses on the constitutionality of the Western Climate Initiative under Canadian law, finding the Initiative to be valid even though it imposes burdens on interprovincial commerce and arguably involves provincial conduct of foreign relations. Grafe,M. and Goerigk,A. 2009. International Cooperation within the Scope of the INTERREG Program 99(11):44Project Examples of the Saxon Flood Centre. Wasserwirtschaft 99(11):44-49. Abstract: The importance of economical and social strong regions rises with increasing globalisation. National borders often cause structural divides, which the European Union (EU) is stiving to overcome [1]. The cross-border cooperation importantly supports achieving the strategic objectives of the EU. Accordingly, international cooperation is essential for flood precaution and handling. This enhancement of flood risk management was one intention of ELLA, and is continued in LABEL transnational projects.

Bezpecnostní politika, terorismus

Klícové slovo: Schengen postHolmes,L. 2009. Crime, organised crime and corruption in post-communist Europe and the CIS. Post42(2):265Communist and Post-Communist Studies 42(2):265-287. Keywords: Crime/Organised crime/Corruption/Post-communism/CEE/CIS Abstract: This article examines the incomplete and sometimes contradictory evidence on the crime, organised crime and corruption situations in post-communist states, and then seeks to explain the apparent increase in all three in early post-communism. Among the factors considered are the impact of weak states and economics, neo-liberalism, globalisation, Schengen and Fortress Europe, the Communist legacy (the 'ghost from the past'), and collusion. The article then examines the dynamics of criminality and malfeasance in the region, and provides evidence to suggest that the crime and corruption situation has stabilised or even improved in most post-communist countries in recent times. The factors considered for explaining this apparent improvement are the role of external agents (notably the EU), the move from transition to consolidation, and the role of political will. O'neill,M. 2008. A critical analysis of the EU legal provisions on terrorism. Terrorism and Political 20(1):26Violence 20(1):26-48. Keywords: EU law/Europol/Ireland/Schengen/UK Abstract: Terrorism activities within the EU are essentially transnational. Given that counterterrorism operations and prosecutions have been allocated to different actors in different EU member states, operating within quite differing legal provisions and systems, co-ordination by the EU in this area is to be welcomed. In addition to critically examining the new EU laws in this area, this paper focuses on legal framework for the interaction of police, security services, and judiciary across Europe in this task, to include Europol and Schengen provisions. It also pays particular attention to the divergent positions of the UK and Ireland within this framework. Wiener,A. 2008. European responses to international terrorism: Diversity awareness as a new Jcms46(1):195capability? Jcms-Journal of Common Market Studies 46(1):195-218. Keywords: NORMATIVE POWER EUROPE/STATE/LAW/CONSTRUCTIVISM/INSTITUTIONS/ SOVEREIGNTY/SECURITY/POLITICS Abstract: This exploratory article seeks to identify angles for theory-guided research on European responses to terrorism. It argues that, when placed within the historical context of its own trajectory in the area of border politics, and especially experiences related to the Schengen Agreement, its implementation and cross-pillar collaboration, it is possible to identify a distinct European capability. This article describes this capability as 'diversity awareness'. That is, as an actor on the world stage, the European Union is able to draw on transnational and trans-border experiences with law enforcement in beyond-the-state settings, as opposed to e.g. conventional warfare in order to defend the national interest. While sympathetic to the 'normative power Europe' literature, the article's critical constructivist approach notes reservations against the Universalist bias of that literature and proposes an approach that is more conducive to empirical research instead.

Contin,R. 2005. Increasing the level of domestic security through SWISS participation in Schengen - In combination with national alternative measures from the perspective of the border patrol. 59(1):51Kriminalistik 59(1):51-57. Abstract: The putting into action of Schengen/ Dublin has optimized itself since 1985 constantly. Switzerland has singed a contract with the EU for an association to these contracts on October 26(th) 2004. In spite of the various Schengen compensatory measures, for the cessation of person controls at the landlocked countries, Swiss border customs checks and - in this context - also checks on individuals will still take place even with Schengen membership. Mobile patrols by customs and police will also carry out checks behind the borders. For this purpose are among others the information management by situation reports and search grids to be optimized as well as the national coordination of these measures. Tuffner,M. 2000. The Schengen Information System - A quantum leap for police investigations in 54(1):39Europe. Kriminalistik 54(1):39-43. Competition Sturm,J. 1997. Schengen, Europol, Interpol - Competition or cooperation - Going with one another 51(2):99instead of against one another. Kriminalistik 51(2):99-104. InternationalWolters,J. 1995. International-Cooperation According to the Schengen System - Regulations on Police Criminal49(3):172Cooperation and Legal Assistance in Criminal-Cases. Kriminalistik 49(3):172-177. Kruger,R. 1994. Internal Security for Europe - Schengen and Maastricht - Stations of the Police on the 48(12):773Road to Europe. Kriminalistik 48(12):773-779. SchengenIngenerf,P. 1989. The Schengen-Agreement - A Critical Analysis from the Viewpoint of the Police (6):341Authorities in the Border Area. Kriminalistik (6):341-&. Burghard,W. 1997. The Schengen accord - Introduction, text, provisions - German - Wurz,K. Kriminalistik 51(11):758. SchengenIngenerf,P. 1989. The Schengen-Agreement - A Critical Analysis from the Viewpoint of the Police Authorities in the Border Area. Kriminalistik (6):341-&. (6):341-

Klícové slovo: Cross-border cooperation

Heupel,M. 2007. Adapting to transnational terrorism: The UN Security Council's evolving approach to 38(4):477terrorism. Security Dialogue 38(4):477-499. Keywords: United Nations/Security Council/transnational terrorism/binding obligations/compliance/UNITED-NATIONS/Cooperation/SANCTIONS/LAW Abstract: During the 1990s, and particularly since 9/11, state-sponsored terrorism gradually declined, while transnational terrorism, which largely operates without direct state support and features cross-border network structures and a greater propensity to mass-casualty attacks, has gained in importance. Setting out from this observation, the purpose of this article is to examine whether the UN Security Council (SC) has adapted to transnational terrorism and, if so, how. Providing a systematic and theory-guided comparison of the SC's approach to

these different types of terrorism, the article shows that, contrary to common considerations, the SC did adapt to transnational terrorism. The SC applied sanctions against terrorists and committed every state to instituting far-reaching generic counter-terrorism measures. Moreover, in an unprecedented way, it made use of managerial compliance strategies to foster implementation. In this way, the SC adapted to transnational terrorism by demanding more from states and intervening deeper into their domestic realm, while at the same time offering more support with respect to implementation. While such an approach is unlikely to become common SC practice in the short term, it is nevertheless symptomatic of a broader trend in the evolution of governance patterns in the post-national constellation today. CrossTon,H., van der Zanden,B.A.M., and Houben,A.W. 2005. Cross-border cooperation to decrease risky behaviour behaviour adolescents. European Journal of Public Health 15:168. Brown,I. and Korff,D. 2009. Terrorism and the Proportionality of Internet Surveillance. European 6(2):119Journal of Criminology 6(2):119-134. Keywords: Correspondence/Electronic Communications/Human Rights/Privacy/SURVEILLANCE Abstract: As the Internet has become a mainstream communications mechanism, law enforcement and intelligence agencies have developed new surveillance capabilities and been given new legal powers to monitor its users. These capabilities have been particularly targeted toward terrorism suspects and organizations that have been observed using the Internet for communication, propaganda, research, planning, publicity, fundraising and creating a distributed sense of community. Policing has become increasingly pre-emptive, with a range of activities criminalized as 'supporting' or 'apologizing for' terrorism. The privacy and nondiscrimination rights that are core to the European legal framework are being challenged by the increased surveillance and profiling of terrorism suspects. We argue that their disproportionate nature is problematic for democracy and the rule of law, and will lead to practical difficulties for cross-border cooperation between law enforcement agencies. Hofmann,S.C., Merand,F., Hofmann,S.C., and Irondelle,B. 2010. Transgovernmental Networks in European Security Papersand Defence Policy. European Integration Online Papers-Eiop 14. Keywords: Europeanization/governance/intergovernmentalism/networks/European Security and Defence Policy/political science Abstract: An increasing number of authors describe the European Union as an advanced form of transgovernmentalism. Whether called Europeanization, supranational intergovernmentalism, multilevel governance, administrative fusion or Brusselisation, the transgovernmentalist thesis states that European politics is shaped by the growing interaction of national government officials at every level of the decision-making process. This paper tests the transgovernmentalist thesis by looking at patterns of formal and informal cooperation in the framework of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). The data is based on a questionnaire circulated among 73 defence officials in France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Brussels-based institutions. The results are analyzed through social network analysis. We find that the governance of ESDP is characterized by a weak form of transgovernmentalism, in which cross-border links do exist but formal state actors occupy strategic positions. In particular, two groups display transgovernmental features: a core policy group of crisis management and capability development officials in and around the Council, and a FrancoGerman group of capital-based defence actors. CrossVanduyne,P. 1993. Implications of Cross-Border Crime Risks in An Open Europe. Crime Law and Social 20(2):99Change 20(2):99-111. Abstract: It is to be expected that the development of an open economic space within the E.C.

and the increased accessibility of Eastern Europe will lead to new patterns of cross-border crimes. So do the risks of becoming a victim of one of those crimes. However, the risks may not be spread evenly: some markets may become more affected by crime-entrepreneurs than other markets, though most attention is devoted to drug trafficking and drug money related money-laundering. However, organized drug trafficking and organized fraud are not so neetly seperated. From crime-entrepreneurial point of view one can broadly speak of cross-border crime markets in European regions. The criminological implications may be the development of Euro-crime markets in which crime-entrepreneurs develop lasting patterns of cooperation and cross-border organizations. This is already the case on the illicit drug market. Crime patterns on the field of organized commercial crime, toxic waste trafficking or EC-fraud point in the same direction. The implications for business and law enforcement alike are that without the development of new strategies of prevention and cross-border police investigations organized crime may well intertwine into the developing European economic and social structure thus acquiring a corrosive foothold in the legitimate industry.

Zdravotní a hygienické aspekty

Klícové slovo: Cross-border cooperation

Framework Moliner,A.M. 2010. Creating a European Union Framework for Actions in the Field of Rare Diseases. 686:457Rare Diseases Epidemiology 686:457-473. Keywords: European policies/Neonatal screening/National plans/European reference networks/Patients organizations Abstract: Rare diseases, including those of genetic origin, are defined by the European Union as life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence (less than 5 per 10,000). The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value. The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 152 of the Treaties of the European Union, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the First Public Health Programme 2003-2008 and from the Second Health Programme 2008-2013 has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda. The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and the future adoption of the Directive on Crossborder healthcare, maybe during 2010, have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan drugs, European Committee of Experts, etc.). In conclusion, Rare diseases is an area with enormous and practical potentialities for the European cooperation. Osterle,A. 2007. Health care across borders: Austria and its new EU neighbours. Journal of European 17(2):112 ):112Social Policy 17(2):112-124. Keywords: Central Europe/cross-border health care/EU enlargement/health care access/ENLARGEMENT/POLICY Abstract: In the European Union, a growing body of regulations and decisions attempt to facilitate cross-border health treatments. These focus on coordinating social protection for those migrating or travelling within Europe, and increasingly those travelling specifically for health treatments abroad. With EU enlargement, the framework became effective for another ten countries. This article discusses access to health care in neighbouring regions of 'old' and 'new' EU member states: Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Slovenia. Even if cross-border care is not a new phenomenon in the region, EU enlargement implies greater opportunities and increased requirements and incentives for coordination, cooperation and competition. The article concludes that this also involves prospects for improved access in the border region. But, outside pre-arranged institutional health care settings, taking advantage of these prospects is often determined by and differentiated along the lines of access to information and individual ability to pay, and it involves certain quality risks. CrossWolf,U., Hollederer,A., and Brand,H. 2006. Cross-border cooperation in Europe: What are Euregios? 68(11):667Gesundheitswesen 68(11):667-673.

Keywords: EUREGIO/cross-border cooperation/health policy/patient mobility/Interreg Abstract: In cross-border cooperation, much importance has been attributed to the so-called "Euregios", synonymously also called "Euroregions". These are cross-border structures in which, above all, local and regional authorities have joined together across one or several national borders. As early as 1958, the first Euregio was established along the German-Dutch border. Meanwhile many other Euregios have been set up. Euregios provide the testing ground for pilot projects to examine practical solutions of cooperation. Euregios are therefore also called "laboratories of Europe" or "testing laboratories of European integration". Also in the health sector, several cross-border projects are being and have already been carried out. According to what has been found out so far, above all Euregios with long years of experience in cross-border cooperation seem to commit themselves to the health issue. A huge number of the projects is co-financed by the European Union. Compared to other thematic areas, in some border regions the health issue has, on the whole been, underrepresented in cross-border cooperation. In this respect, there is potential for development. Information on existing projects as well as their experiences can facilitate the successful implementation of healthrelevant crossborder projects also in those regions which have up to now not carried out any or only a few projects of this kind. The EU-funded Euregio project, carried Out by logd NRW, is the first project in which a systematic inventory analysis of crossborder health care projects will be drawn up. CollinsUShealth": Collins-Dogrul,J. 2006. Managing US-Mexico "border health": An organizational field approach. Social 63(12):3199Science & Medicine 63(12):3199-3211. Keywords: Mexico/USA/borders/public health/transnational organizational field/EUROPEANUNION/SAN-DIEGO/Mobility/SERVICES/DEATH/CARE Abstract: During World War 11 Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transtiational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the USMexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems. AlSkinner,H., Abdeen,Z., Abdeen,H., Aber,P., Al-Masri,M., Attias,J., Avraham,K.B., Carmi,R., Chalin,C., El Nasser,Z., Hijazi,M., Jebara,R.O., Kanaan,M., Pratt,H., Raad,F., Roth,Y., Williams,A.P., and through Noyek,A. 2005. Promoting Arab and Israeli cooperation: peacebuilding through health initiatives. 365(9466):1274Lancet 365(9466):1274-1277. Keywords: HEARING-LOSS/POPULATION/CONFLICT Abstract: This article describes a positive experience in building Arab and Israeli cooperation through health initiatives. Over the past 10 years Israeli, Jordanian, and Palestinian health professionals have worked together through the Canada International Scientific Exchange Program (CISEPO). In the initial project, nearly 17 000 Arab and Israeli newborn babies were tested for early detection of hearing loss, an important health issue for the region. The network has grown to address additional needs, including mother-child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and youth health. Our guiding model emphasises two goals: projectspecific outcomes in health improvement, and broader effects on cross-border cooperation

Lessons learned from this experience and the model provide direction for ways that health professionals can contribute to peacebuilding. CanelaRuizDiazUSCanela-Soler,J., Frontini,M., Cerqueira,M.T., Ruiz-Holguin,R., and Diaz-Apodaca,B.A. 2010. US-Mexico crosscross-border cooperation in research on diabetes mellitus type 2. Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica28(3):159Publica-Pan American Journal of Public Health 28(3):159-163. Keywords: Border health/diabetes mellitus,type 2/health policy/international cooperation/United States/Mexico/HEALTH/SURVEILLANCE/TEXAS Abstract: Objective. To describe and analyze, utilizing a case study approach, the U.S.Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a health research cooperation initiative incorporating the participation of federal, state, and local institutions of both countries. Methods. A model of equal representation, participation, consensus, and shared leadership was used, with the participation of more than 130 institutions. A sample of 4 020 people over 18 years of age was obtained by a random, multistage, stratified, clustered design. A questionnaire about diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and health was applied. The statistical analysis took into account the design effect. Results. The prevalence of diagnosed DM2 was 14.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 12.5-17.6) and the prevalence of diagnosed DM2 adjusted by age was 19.5% (95% CI: 16.8-22.6) on the Mexican side of the border and 16.1% (IC95%: 13.5-19.2) on the U. S. border side. There were differences between the DM2 prevalence and risk factors along the border. Conclusions. The U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project allowed the border zone between the two countries to be considered, for the first time ever, as a unit for epidemiological research. A shared understanding among all participating institutions and entities of sociopolitical structures and procedures is required for effective border health cooperation initiatives. Mainland,L. and Wilson,E. 2010. Principles of establishment of the First International Forum on CrossCross94(1):E1Border Reproductive Care. Fertility and Sterility 94(1):E1-E3. Keywords: Cross-border reproductive care/international forum/quality/safety/MEDICAL CrossTOURISM/LEGAL Abstract: Objective: To discuss the implications of increased cross-border reproductive care and the impetus for the establishment of the First International Forum on Cross-Border Reproductive Care. Setting: Ottawa, Canada, January 14-16, 2009. Conclusion(s): The increased use of assisted reproductive techniques, coupled with factors such as the advent of its regulation in some countries, has led to an increase in the number of patients crossing borders to seek fertility treatment. A panel of international experts was gathered to address the issues of safety and efficacy for the travelling assisted reproductive techniques patient, and several common concerns were raised. The Forum participants recommended greater levels of education for patients and care providers in the form of Prompters, which, at the least, would provide both parties with relevant questions to ask of local and foreign care centers. It is clear from the discussions held at the Forum and detailed in this supplemental issue of Fertility and Sterility that cross-border reproductive care is a complicated phenomenon that requires international cooperation and continued dialogue between involved parties. Keerle,R. and Sechet,R. 2009. The Project of the Common Cross-Border Hospital of Puigcerda: Towards CrossEuropeanization Sud(28):65the Europeanization of the Border in Cerdanya. Sud-Ouest Europeen (28):65-76. Keywords: ACTOR/TRANSFRONTIER COOPERATION/Europeanization/HEALTHCARE/TERRITORY Abstract: THE PROJECT OF THE COMMON CROSS-BORDER HOSPITAL OF PUIGCERDA: TOWARDS THE EUROPEANIZATION OF THE BORDER IN CERDANYA. The achievement of the project of the Common Cross-Border Hospital of Puigcerda (Spain) is a particular case of crossborder cooperation in eastern Pyrenees. Its success contrasts with other projects regarding

this part of the French-Spanish border and analyzed in previous research works. In our study of this project, the emphasis is put on the local actors of europeanization, many of them being involved in regional and national responsibilities. The analysis of the rise of a cross-border healthcare space leads to enlarge the subject by considering the departement of PyreneesOrientales as a whole, even Catalonia, and other sectors than healthcare (particularly education and water management). Regulation Merlet,F. and Senemaud,B. 2010. Egg donation: Regulation of the donation and the hidden face of the cross38(1):36cross-border reproductive care. Gynecologie Obstetrique & Fertilite 38(1):36-44. Keywords: Egg donation/Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)/Cross-border reproductive care/Ethics and laws/international cooperation/Good practice in ART Abstract: In France egg donation is not sufficient to meet the needs of infertile couples. As a consequence there is a long waiting time for those couples who may be driven to search solutions abroad. Nonetheless in some countries practice of egg donation raises medical and ethical questions regarding the quality of care provided to the recipients as well as the recruitment and follow-up of egg donors. Meanwhile the scope of this type of "cross-border reproductive care" remains difficult to assess, even though this trend seems to be growing and is reinforced by a recent regulation facilitating the free movement of people seeking crossborder health care within the European Union. These observations lead to question the possible causes of "cross-border reproductive care" in the light of national laws, to identify potential consequences in order to suggest possible actions at both national and international level. Yasui,Y., CrossTu,S.P., Li,L., Tsai,J.H.C., Yip,M.P., Terasaki,G., Teh,C., Yasui,Y., Hislop,T.G., and Taylor,V. 2009. A Crossborder Comparison of Hepatitis B Testing Among Chinese Residing in Canada and the United States. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 10(3):483-489. 10(3):483Keywords: Asian and Pacific Islanders/chronic hepatitis B/liver cancer/prevention clinic/VIETNAMESE-AMERICAN MEN/FRANCISCO BAY AREA/VIRUS-INFECTION/LIVERCANCER/ASIAN-AMERICANS/HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA/BRITISHCOLUMBIA/MANAGEMENT/KNOWLEDGE/CALIFORNIA Abstract: Background: The Western Pacific region has the highest level of endemic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the world, with the Chinese representing nearly one-third of infected persons globally. HBV carriers are potentially infectious to others and have an increased risk of chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies from the U. S. and Canada demonstrate that immigrants, particularly from Asia, are disproportionately affected by liver cancer. Purpose: Given the different health care systems in Seattle and Vancouver, two geographically proximate cities, we examined HBV testing levels and factors associated with testing among Chinese residents of these cities. Methods: We surveyed Chinese living in areas of Seattle and Vancouver with relatively high proportions of Chinese residents. In-person interviews were conducted in Cantonese, Mandarin, or English. Our bivariate analyses consisted of the chi-square test, with Fisher's Exact test as necessary. We then performed unconditional logistic regression, first examining only the city effect as the sole explanatory variable of the model, then assessing the adjusted city effect in a final main-effects model that was constructed through backward selection to select statistically significant variables at alpha = 0.05. Results: Survey cooperation rates for Seattle and Vancouver were 58% and 59%, respectively. In Seattle, 48% reported HBV testing, whereas in Vancouver, 55% reported testing. HBV testing in Seattle was lower than in Vancouver, with a crude odds ratio of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.56, 0.94). However after adjusting for demographic, health care access, knowledge, and social support variables, we found no significant differences in HBV testing between the two cities. In our logistic regression model, the odds of HBV testing were greatest when the doctor recommended the test, followed by when the employer asked for the test. Discussion:

Findings from this study support the need for additional research to examine the effectiveness of clinic-based and workplace interventions to promote HBV testing among immigrants to North America. Heenan,D. 2009. Working across borders to promote positive mental health and well-being. Disability well24(6):715& Society 24(6):715-726. Keywords: mental health/cross border/partnerships/empowerment Abstract: World health reports highlight the increasing prevalence of mental health problems and the need to recognize that mental well-being is a fundamental aspect of any health policy. The scale and cost of mental health problems mean that appropriate policies and strategies must be developed and implemented. In Ireland this is a period of substantial review and reflection on mental health policy and practice, but to date little consideration has been given to the development of a cross-border strategy. Cooperation and collaboration has been largely dependent on the leadership of a number of individuals supported by short-term European Union funding. This paper is informed by a study which was concerned with examining the issues associated with promoting mental health across the Irish border. Insights were provided by 38 individuals who were involved in the delivery of cross-border mental health services in the North West region. The article argues that there is substantial support for working across borders and developing sustainable cross-border health strategies. In the absence of a statutory all-Ireland coordinated policy overseeing the development of mental health promotion, the sustainability of projects emerged as a key issue. The results suggest that whilst much innovative and creative work has been undertaken by committed individuals, what is now required is a strategic response from both the British and Irish governments which will ensure the needs of service users in these deprived border regions can be effectively addressed. Also, at a policy level this strategic development would be seen as a reflection of the value placed on promoting mental health and well-being. Zanger,C., Hodicova,R., and Gaus,H. 2008. Psychic distance and cross-border cooperation of SMEs: An crossstudy empirical study on Saxon and Czech entrepreneurs' interest in cooperazion. Journal for East 13(1):40European Management Studies 13(1):40-62. Keywords: psychic distance/cross - border cooperation/internationalization/SMEs/EXPORT ACTIVITY Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between the psychic distance of decision makers in SMEs from specific foreign markets and their interest in cooperation with companies from those countries. Based on a review of the literature and a qualitative empirical study among entrepreneurs in the Saxon-Czech border area, the paper identifies the central explanatory variables of psychic distance, thus contributing to a theoretically-based conceptualization of this construct. Previous conceptualizations of psychic distance are extended and specified This reveals the necessity for a wider inclusion of perceived differences in the political and legal situations, the mind-set as well as the historical development. CrossMertes,H. and Pennings,G. 2009. Cross-border Research on Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Legal and 5(1):10Ethical Considerations. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports 5(1):10-17. Keywords: Freedom of research/Research tourism/Stem cell research/Extraterritorial jurisdiction/International research/Stem cell legislation/REPRODUCTIVE TOURISM/COUNTRIES Abstract: Although stem cell research is a field that stands to benefit a lot from international cooperation, collaboration between scientists of different countries is hampered by the great divergence in national stem cell legislations. More specifically, researchers from countries with restrictive stem cell policies find themselves unable to participate in international research or attend meetings or workshops in more permissive environments as they fear being prosecuted

in their home country for activities that are deemed acceptable abroad. Juridical clarity on this subject is long overdue. Legally, extraterritorial jurisdiction based on the nationality principle does not conflict with international law. However, invoking this principle to prosecute stem cell researchers would constitute a breach with the current custom to limit extraterritorial jurisdiction to exceptional crimes or circumstances. On the ethical front, legislators have an obligation towards their constituents to protect them from harm through the criminal justice system, but at the same time they should be wary of legal moralism and of jeopardising freedom of research. Researchers on their part cannot simply ignore the law whenever it deviates from their personal moral opinions, but they are not acting unethically if they perform research that they esteem to be ethically justified where it is also legally accepted. Allowing researchers to work freely abroad-within the jurisdiction of the host country-is a way for legislator and researcher to show respect for each other's different moral values and to balance their rights and obligations towards each other. CrossSunol,R., Garel,P., and Jacquerye,A. 2009. Cross-border care and healthcare quality improvement in 18:I3Europe: the MARQuIS research project. Quality & Safety in Health Care 18:I3-I7. Abstract: Citizens are increasingly crossing borders within the European Union (EU). Europeans have always been free to travel to receive care abroad, but if they wished to benefit from their statutory social protection scheme, they were subject to their local or national legislation on social protection. This changed in 1991 with the European Court of Justice defining healthcare as a service, starting a debate on the right balance between different principles in European treaties: movement of persons, goods and services, versus the responsibility of member states to organise their healthcare systems. Simultaneously, cross-border cooperation has developed between member states. In this context, patient mobility has become a relevant issue on the EU's agenda. The EU funded a number of Scientific Support to Policies (SSP) activities within the Sixth Framework Programme, to provide the evidence needed by EU policy makers to deal with issues that European citizens face due to enhanced mobility in Europe. One SSP project "Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies'' (MARQuIS), focused on cross-border care. It aimed to assess the value of different quality strategies, and to provide information needed when: (1) countries contract care for patients moving across borders; and (2) individual hospitals review the design of their quality strategies. This article describes the European context related to healthcare, and its implications for cross-border healthcare in Europe. The background information demonstrates a need for further research and development in this area. Lehti,M. and Aromaa,K. 2006. Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation. Crime and Justice - A Review of 34:133Research, Vol 34 34:133-227. Abstract: Current estimates of human trafficking for sexual exploitation underestimate rather than overestimate the volume. They exaggerate the role of trafficking in international prostitution of adults but underestimate trafficking in minors. About 60-80 percent of the crime is domestic, and the bulk of cross-border trafficking is regional. The major flows run from rural areas to cities and from economically depressed regions to affluent ones. Traffic to industrialized countries is 10-20 percent of the whole; most takes place within and between third-world countries. Prevention should concentrate on the main source countries and the most important junctions. This requires efficient police and intelligence cooperation both regionally and internationally. It is also crucial to harmonize national legislation.

Brand,H., Hollederer,A., Wolf,U., and Brand,A. 2008. Cross-border health activities in the Euregios: Cross86(2-3):245Good practice for better health. Health Policy 86(2-3):245-254.

Keywords: cross-border cooperation/EUREGIO/EUROREGION/Interreg/health policy/health project Abstract: Background: Health-related cooperation between neighbouring countries has a long tradition in the European Union, especially in the transfrontier structures well-known under the label of Euregio or Euroregion. Objective: Overview and analysis of cross-border healthrelated activities in the Euregios. Methods: The EU-funded project "EUREGIO" carried out a systematic inventory analysis of cross-border health projects. It is based on written surveys among 53 Interreg IIIA secretariats, 67 Euregios and 328 project bodies. The responses of 122 health projects were considered. Results: 37 Euregios or similar cross-border structures established health-relevant working groups, working circles, forums or projects. The crossborder health projects cover a wide spectrum of issues, e.g., education and training, patient care, prevention, and disaster control. Target groups were in most cases medical personnel, patients or decision-making bodies. Four official criteria for cooperation (joint project development, implementation, staffing and financing) are met by the great majority of projects. However, the survey shows a lack of information, publication and evaluation. Conclusions: Cross-border cooperation in health is underrepresented in many regions. The project results point to great potentials which should be further developed both in terms of quantitative and qualitative aspects. Recommendations are given for project actors and stakeholders. crossWolf,U., Brand,H., Hollederer,A., and Ward,G. 2006. Promoting and hindering factors of cross-border cooperation in the health sector. European Journal of Public Health 16:206. Starmans,B., Leidl,R., and Rhodes,G. 1997. A comparative study on cross-border hospital care in the crossMeuse7(3):33Euregio Meuse-Rhine. European Journal of Public Health 7(3):33-41. Keywords: cross-border care/hospital care/European Union/regional analysis/HEALTHINSURANCE/SPATIAL-DISTRIBUTION/IMPACT/STATES/CHOICE/DEMAND/MODEL Abstract: Using data and examples from 3 academic hospitals and 1 general hospital in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, this paper illustrates the opportunities for and obstacles to cross-border in-patient care in the European Union (EU). It defines 2 concepts of cross-border care, one related to the country of residence of the patient and the other to the country of insurance. A number of possible determinants of cross-border in-patient hospital care in the Euregio are discussed as well as the actual evidence of this type of care in the study hospitals. In a number of cases, the level of cross-border care measured in this region exceeds the average level estimated for the EU. However, it is quite low: a share of the total hospital admissions of patients admitted from a directly neighbouring member state above 1% has been found to be extraordinarily high. On the one hand, a number of factors seem to have encouraged the cross-border in-patient care in this region: short distances between the patients' residences and foreign hospitals, small language differences, lower levels of patient charges in the foreign hospitals, the presence of special knowledge in the foreign hospitals and waiting lists in the domestic hospitals. On the other hand, regulations for cross-border care at the EU level generally constrain this type of care for publicly insured patients; privately insured patients may face less constraints. National rules may even extend the possibilities of cross-border care. The initiation of cooperation between both providers and insurers across borders, at the regional level, may alter the current state of cross-border care in the future.

Aspekty vzdlávání

Klícové slovo: Cross-border cooperation

Teichler,U. 2009. Internationalisation of higher education: European experiences. Asia Pacific 10(1):93 ):93Education Review 10(1):93-106. Keywords: Internationalisation/Mobility/international cooperation/Bologna process/ERASMUS programme Abstract: 'Internationalisation' is generally defined as increasing cross-border activities amidst persistence of borders, while 'globalisation' refers to similar activities concurrent to an erosion of borders. Study mobility is viewed as the most visible component in this framework in Europe with ERASMUS as the largest scheme of temporary mobility. ERASMUS was a trigger for a qualitative leap of internationalisation strategies and policies since the 1990s: towards cooperation and mobility on equal terms, and towards systematic and strategic internationalisation. The 'Bologna Process' aimed to make higher education more attractive to students from other parts of the world and to facilitate intra-European mobility; however, many other activities are needed to stimulate mobility, and the Bologna Process pursues many other objectives. It remains to be seen whether supra-national and national policies and institutional strategies will continue to opt for wide-ranging cooperation based on mutual trust or whether the 'competition paradigm' will determine the scene. Zhang,M.X. 2009. New Era, New Policy Cross-Border Education and Sino-Foreign Cooperation in CrossSinoFence42(4):23Running Schools in the Eyes of a Fence-Sitter. Chinese Education and Society 42(4):23-40. Abstract: Since World War II, the internationalization of education has experienced a change from a period of political influence to a service trade structure. As the Third International Forum on the Educational Service Trade began, more and more governments accepted the concept of cross-border education. At a time when both opportunities and challenges lay ahead, the government of China had formulated and implemented a series of policies for the internationalization of education to standardize and guide Sino-foreign education programs in China. These policies have embodied the key focal points and minimum policy standards for China's development of Sino-foreign educational programs and set out the functions and standards for each level of government. Looking forward to the future, China's government needs to advance with the times, build an efficiently functioning administration, and propose and implement policies for reviewing and approving cosponsored programs, protecting the interests of all parties, improving education quality, and separating supervision and operation. ChineseLin,J.H. and Liu,Z.P. 2009. New Exploration in the Development Strategy of "Going Out" for ChineseForeign Cooperation in Higher Education. Chinese Education and Society 42(4):78-87. 42(4):78Abstract: It is essential to implement a development strategy of "looking abroad" for Chineseforeign cooperation in higher education and for us to realize a scientific concept for development, deepen and diversify market access, and improve the quality and benefits of higher education in China. We can learn from developed nations' experience in cross-border education, go beyond previously known limits for education cooperation, bring the strategy of "looking abroad" into a theoretical perspective, and establish a legal framework for Chineseforeign cooperation in higher education. To achieve such goals, we should devise favorable

policies for the implementation of the strategy, increase efforts to establish internationalized courses, and refine internal management and operational systems for institutions, teaching assessment systems, and degree certification systems for international cooperation in higher education. Zhou,C.C. SinoZhou,C.C. 2009. Analysis of Three Frameworks for Quality Assurance in Sino-Foreign Cooperation for Running Schools. Chinese Education and Society 42(4):97-107. 42(4):97Abstract: As economic globalization sweeps across the world, cross-border higher education cooperation has witnessed remarkable achievements. Quality improvements, however, have not stepped up accordingly due to reasons including imperfect and distorted policies, incomplete governance structures, and the absence of an effective internal quality assessment mechanism. The question of how to ensure quality has therefore become a key issue in standards for cooperation in school administration. Based on research into quality assurance systems, this paper conducts an analysis of the frameworks of law and policy at the national and governmental levels, of internal quality assurance at the school partners' level, and of international and regional quality assurance at supernational level, as well as their specific roles in education quality control. Jiang,Y.Q. CrossLi,Y.D. and Jiang,Y.Q. 2009. Localized Quality Assurance and Certification for Cross-Border Education A 42(4):108Shanghai Case Study. Chinese Education and Society 42(4):108-118. Abstract: The authors present a case study of Sino-foreign cooperation in education to illustrate how developments in the management of licensing and the approval of programs can contribute to better quality assurance. The study demonstrates how the Shanghai municipal education authority has jettisoned traditional dependence on administrative management and regulation and moved ahead by drawing lessons from international practices.

Regionalistika a regionální pípady

Klícové slovo: Schengen

Wichmann,N. 2009. "More In Than Out": Switzerland's Association With Schengen/Dublin Cooperation. Political 15(4):653Swiss Political Science Review 15(4):653-682. Keywords: Schengen/Dublin/Internal Security/External Governance/EU-Switzerland Relations/EASTERN-EUROPE/GOVERNANCE/CONDITIONALITY/BOUNDARIES/UNION Abstract: Drawing on the concepts developed in the external governance literature, this paper argues that the conclusion of the Schengen Association Agreement symbolises a qualitative change in the bilateral relations between the EU and Switzerland. The argument on the qualitative change in the intensity of relations is developed by comparing the situation in Schengen-related matters before and cuter the conclusion of the Swiss Schengen Association Agreement. Although the regulatory boundary was not formally shifted prior to the conclusion of the Schengen Association Agreement, various forms of policy transfer led to a high degree of policy convergence. The organisational boundary was only "tentatively-shifted in the pieSchengen era owing to the fact that Switzerland remained excluded from the key implementation networks (VS, Dublin). The conclusion of a dynamic integration treaty in Schengen matters shifts the EU's regulatory boundary towards Switzerland in an unprecedented manner a process that has been accompanied by a multiplication of possibilities for organisational inclusion. The article concludes by critically reflecting on the limited exportability of this advanced form of "flexible integration". CrossPipan,P. 2007. Cross-border cooperation between Slovenia and Croatia in Istria after 1991. Acta Slovenica47(2):223Geographica Slovenica-Geografski Zbornik 47(2):223-235. Keywords: political geography/borders/cross-border cooperation/SOPS/Italian minority/Istria/Croatia/Slovenia Abstract: The paper discusses the impact of the international border established in 1991 on cross-border cooperation. It focuses on the impact of the Agreement between the Republic of Slovenia and the Republic of Croatia on Border Traffic and Cooperation ( SOPS) and introduction of the Schengen Agreement as a result of Slovene accession to the EU. The paper highlights the effect of the border on local population. It uses a number of interviews to present the people's attitude to the new realities of the border while at the same time determining the impact of the border on local development and the organisation of Italian national minority in Istria. In conclusion, the paper outlines the three areas formed along the border with regard to the changes in the intensity of cross-border cooperation and the related local development. Finally, the paper attempts to indicate the future development of the area in the context of cross-border cooperation along the EU's external border. Barrett,G. 2001. The Schengen Agreement. Origin, functioning, future. Common Market Law Review 38(3):82138(3):821-822. Kramer,R. 1997. From newcomer to trendsetter? The East German provinces in the European Union. Osterreichische Zeitschrift fur Politikwissenschaft 26(1):57-&. 26(1):57-

Abstract: In a catching-up process, the re-built federal states in the East of Germany established a dense international network. In the beginning, they followed their West German fellows using the fixed constitutional and accorded political framework in this field. In the meantime, dramatic changes occurred in this part of Germany which is one of the poorest regions in Western Europe. This situation produces different political interests and styles In the field of domestic politics, and in their international activities too. Firstly as target-1-regions, they are bargaining as a group for additional regional funds. Secondly, located at the border of the ''Schengen-country'' with traditional ties towards and strong interests in regard of their Eastern neighbours, they are actively lobbying for co-operative relations with the East and for the enlargement of the EU. Reporting general trends in the development of the East German provinces, the article focuses primarily on the Land Brandenburg.

Klícové slovo: Cross-border cooperation

Berg,E. and Ehin,P. 2006. What kind of border regime is in the making? Towards a differentiated and uneven border strategy. Cooperation and Conflict 41(1):53-71. 41(1):53Keywords: border regime/composite policy/cross-border cooperation/differentiation/external governance/internal security/socio-economic cohesion/DYNAMICS/EUROPE Abstract: The recent round of enlargement has provided new impetus for the study of European Union (EU) external borders. This article conceptualizes the emerging European border regime as a composite policy, arguing that the regime is shaped by policy-making across such diverse areas as Regional Policy, Justice and Home Affairs, Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement. It shows that different policy paradigms attribute diverging functions to the EU external border and prescribe different modes of governance and diverse patterns of openness and control. The policy process producing the border regime is therefore both vertically and horizontally fragmented, reflecting interests, perceptions, norms, structures and procedures at various levels of authority (supranational, national, local) and in different policy sectors. This fragmentation results in a differentiated and uneven border strategy marked by diverse patterns of inclusion and exclusion, as illustrated by three case studies representing variations from the common European standard. Marin,A. 2005. On "good neighbors" in international relations: The Finnish-Russian border, a laboratory Finnishcooperation 36(3):109and model for cooperation in Europe. Revue D Etudes Comparatives Est-Ouest 36(3):109-+. EstAbstract: Historically, the boundary between Finland and Russia marks a separation between West and East on the European continent. An analysis of economic interdependence and cooperation in border areas during the post-Soviet transition suggests a process of debordering owing to cross-border flows and networks. The "paradiplomatic" activism of local administrations and the regionalization of the EU's foreign policy in northern Europe tend to "reterritorialize" the Finnish-Russian border. This border is now a place of institutional innovation, where an unprecedented level of "integration without joining" is taking place along the line separating the EU from Russia. European crossScott,J.W. 1999. European and North American contexts for cross-border regionalism. Regional Studies 33(7):60533(7):605-617. Keywords: cross-border co-operation/regionalism/regional planning/governance/European Union/NAFTA/Cooperation/POLICIES Abstract: This paper discusses cross-border regionalism within the supranational contexts of the European Union and the developing North American Free Trade Area. Focusing on planning and regional development issues, cross-border regionalism as a new form of

governance is investigated, based on a comparison of supranational integration logics, cooperation frameworks and instruments, and co-operation agendas and strategies. In both contexts, discrepancies between programmatic objectives and co-operation results are striking, eliciting questions as to the greater potential significance of cross-border regionalism. The paper argues that theories of political regulation and constructivist perspectives might help relate cross-border regionalism to broader economic, political and cultural variables, explaining how regionalist agendas and strategies emerge, and how they are a response to local interests and aspirations and to external economic and political pressures. Reut,O. 2009. The Republic of Karelia in the Baltic-Barents Region. Russian Politics and Law 47(5):80Baltic47(5):8090. Abstract: The author reviews the experience of cross-border cooperation between the Republic of Karelia and countries of the European Union, especially Finland. He concludes that such cooperation, insofar as it has existed in reality and not just on paper, has taken,forms that do not accord with Karelian and Russian interests. CrossPogacar,K. and Sitar,M. 2009. Dynamics of Cross-Border Spatial Development A Case Study of the 53(3):469Maribor (Si) - Graz (A) Development Axis. Geodetski Vestnik 53(3):469-488. Keywords: spatial development/cross-border region/development axis/new urban nodes/Maribor/Graz Abstract: The opening of internal borders among the European Union member states has not only evoked complex socio-economic processes, but also produced new spatial development potentials. This is especially important for the areas located close to the national borders that were until recently regarded as underdeveloped and peripheral. Conversely, the European Union sees them in a completely different light, as key elements in the process of integration, economic, and social cohesion. Consequently, the processes of cooperation and networking have been triggered on different levels, whereby the deterritorialisation of the new economic, social, cultural and spatial relations occurs. The article describes the issue of spatial development of cross-border areas, which are setting up new development conditions by opening the borders. This topic is presented by the case study of spatial development of the area stretching along the axis between two regional centres, Maribor (Slovenia) and Graz (Austria), in the past subjected to numerous demographical, economical and geopolitical changes. In this regard, two viewpoints of spatial development of the area are exposed: the first one explores the influence of the national border on the development of the research area, while the second one reflects contemporary trends of dispersed urbanization along the infrastructural corridor extending between both regional centres, the most indicative among them being the emergence of new urban nodes. Lofgren,O. 2008. Regionauts: The transformation of cross-border regions in Scandinavia. European cross15(3):195Urban and Regional Studies 15(3):195-209. Keywords: cross-border regions/cultural dynamics/everyday life/national identity/Oresund/Cooperation/EUROPE Abstract: Many cross-border regions in Europe remain more political dreamscapes than examples of strong transnational integration. The development of the Oresund region through a bridge linking Copenhagen and eastern Denmark with Southern Sweden has been seen as a model for EU region building. Drawing on a multidisciplinary project, this article uses the Oresund case as a starting point, bringing in some contrastive Scandinavian examples. The aim is to discuss how regions try to make themselves visible and attractive for investments and visitors, but above all to what extent they produce regionauts actively creating integration by different border-crossing activities and contacts. The focus is on the cultural dimensions found

in everyday practices and symbolic manifestations of these transnational processes. What kind of gaps between regional rhetoric and actual mundane activities emerge? A historical perspective is used to illustrate these changing border dynamics in which cultural, political and economic asymmetries often become an energizing factor. crossPopescu,G. 2008. The conflicting logics of cross-border reterritorialization: Geopolitics of Euroregions in Eastern Europe. Political Geography 27(4):418-438. 27(4):41818 Keywords: Euroregions/GEOPOLITICS/cross-border reterritorialization/EU eastern borders/GEOGRAPHY/STATE/TERRITORIALITY/Globalization/Cooperation/governance/REGION S/WORLD/SPACE Abstract: Europe is currently experiencing an unprecedented process of reterritorialization in the context of European Union integration. Central to this process is the implementation of various cross-border cooperation schemes, commonly known as Euroregions, aimed at redefining fixed, border-induced Westphalian territoriality. The literature on Euroregions has primarily examined the reterritorialization of state power and institutions across borders, documenting the emergence of cross-border governance networks. However, the territorial underpinning of cross-border reterritorialization, as well as the process of territorial constitution of cross-border spaces has been less well explored. This paper examines crossborder reterritorialization from a geopolitical perspective informed by multi-scalar conceptualizations of political territoriality. Actors at supranational, national and local scales often follow territorial logics that are at odds with each other. Competing meanings of territory and territoriality interact to produce a geopolitics of Euroregions that shapes crossborder reterritorialization. The paper focuses on the Euroregions established at the current fringes of the EU, in the Romanian-Ukrainian-Moldovan borderlands. Crosscoperspective. Roper,S. 2007. Cross-border and local co-operation on the island of Ireland: An economic perspective. 26(5):554Political Geography 26(5):554-574. Keywords: cross-border co-operation/Ireland/Northern Ireland/R-AND-D/NORTHERNIRELAND/EUROPEAN-UNION/BELFAST AGREEMENT/INNOVATION/DETERMINANTS/alliances/networks/LOCATION/FIRMS Abstract: Cross-border and local co-operation can foster local learning and contribute positively to business performance and social cohesion. This paper considers firms' economic motivation for both types of cooperation around the Ireland-Northern Ireland border. This area, while inevitably impacted by civil unrest in Northern Ireland, shares many of the economic and developmental characteristics of border areas throughout Europe. Simultaneous probit models are used to examine the determinants of co-operation. Overall, around a third of firms in Ireland and Northern Ireland engage in local co-operation of some form; around one in six in Northern Ireland and one in twelve in Ireland also engage in cross-border cooperation. Proximity to the border, perceived barriers to cross-border co-operation and country uncertainty reduce the incidence of cross-border co-operation rates below that of local co-operation. Cross-border co-operation in Northern Ireland is more common because of small region size and fewer perceived barriers to cross-border co-operation. coFurmankiewicz,M. 2007. International co-operation of Polish municipalities: Directions and effects. 98(3):349Tijdschrift Voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 98(3):349-359. Keywords: local government/effects of international co-operation/Poland/cross-border cooperation/WORLD Abstract: The paper describes and discusses the outcomes of the cross-border and international cooperation (CIC) of Polish local governments in the years 1990-2004 (before Polish accession to the European Union), indicated by local government officers in a

questionnaire survey, and finally it gives some general conclusions as to future CIC support policy. In 2004, nearly half of all existing 2,500 Polish municipalities participated in CIC. They achieved most frequently non-material local effects of co-operation in euroregions; and in town-twinning (citizen and professional exchange, etc.). The economic effects such as investments, equipment purchases, innovative management, etc. were achieved to a lower degree, but they were important in improving local public services in dozens of urban municipalities. In general, CIC enhanced mainly European integration in creating links between communities and helping to overcome negative national prejudices, but to a lesser degree integration interpreted as levelling economic differences. Perkmann,M. 2007. Construction of new territorial scales: A framework and case study of the EUREGIO cross41(2):253cross-border region. Regional Studies 41(2):253-266. Keywords: SCALE/re-scaling/cross-border region/cross-border cooperation/EUROPE/TERRITORY/GROWTH TRIANGLE/WESTERNEUROPE/governance/POLITICS/POLICY/STRUCTURATION/ORGANIZATION/GEOGRAPHY/AMERI CA/PLACE Abstract: This paper proposes a framework for analysing re-scaling processes and applies it to a case study of the Dutch-German EUREGIO cross-border region. While much of the scale debate focuses on the causes and consequences of re-scaling, this paper addresses the conditions and circumstances in which new territorial scales emerge and suggests a framework of necessary components of re-scaling processes. Informed by neo-Gramscian thinking, the scales debate and recent analyses of regionalization, these are formulated as: political mobilization, governance building and strategic unification. The case study locates the EUREGIO case with respect to these dimensions. The paper concludes that this framework can be used for studying and comparing other re-scaling cases and presents an initial typology for classifying cross-border regions. Hospers,G.J. 2006. Borders, bridges and branding: The transformation of the Oresund Region into an branding: 14(8):1015imagined space. European Planning Studies 14(8):1015-1033. Abstract: This article explores the spatial-economic transformation of the Scandinavian circle divide resund Region over the last decades with a focus on the role of place marketing (branding) in this transition process. Although the circle divide resund Region, in which Copenhagen and Malmo cooperate, is often highlighted as a European model for cross-border cooperation, this paper argues for a more nuanced view. To be sure, the branding of the circle divide resund builds upon unique regional assets and is symbolized by visible objects (e.g. the circle divide resund-bridge and a regional logo). Still, however, the circle divide resund Region is an "imagined space": the conurbation is branded as an exciting Euregional hub, whereas the region's inhabitants still cope with many day-to-day problems of cross-border integration. The article concludes that this mismatch between the circle divide resund's identity and image may hamper the region's future development. Smart,A. and Lin,G.C.S. 2004. Border management and growth coalitions in the Hong Kong transborder Identities11(3):377region. Identities-Global Studies in Culture and Power 11(3):377-396. Keywords: China/Hong Kong/borders/growth coalitions/real estate/POLITICALECONOMY/REGIMES Abstract: The integration of Hong Kong with proximate parts of China since 1979 has played a major part in one of the most influential spurts of wealth creation in history, but the proliferation of projects to tap large complementarities have not been matched by the creation of innovative institutions to foster cooperation. This article argues that patterns of cross-border cooperation and conflict can be better understood by considering the influence

of growth coalitions with heavy real estate investments in Hong Kong, which are threatened by the risk of price convergence between the Hong Kong and mainland China sides of the border. We examine the impact of these growth coalitions through case studies of debates about border liberalization and proposals for integrative infrastructural projects. We suggest that border studies would benefit from paying more attention to the influence of real estate interests, given the fixity of their investments compared to other more mobile resources and agents. 54(5-6):496Stoklosa,K. 2004. Laboratories of unification: border regions at EU's East End. Osteuropa 54(5-6):496-+. Abstract: After Poland's accession to the EU, the country will have to be involved in the Union's joint policy towards its neighbours - Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. Poland's particular capacity to contribute in this area results from its experience of cross-border regional cooperation. The article looks at the question of how far Poland's regional policy on its borders with these countries can provide a positive impulse for EU policy, and where there are shortcomings. Kepka,J.M.M. 2004. The Nysa Euroregion: The first ten years. Eurasian Geography and Economics 45(3):16245(3):162-189. Keywords: EAST-CENTRAL-EUROPE Abstract: Established in 1991, the Nysa Euroregion is the prototype of sub state cross boundary cooperation in the former Eastern Europe. Encompassing adjoining portions of Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic, it was created to promote the region's economic development. This study examines major initiatives undertaken within Nysa during the first 10 years of its existence. In the process it demonstrates how the larger context of Nysa (political differences and economic inequalities between Poland and Germany) affects both the ability of Polish communes in the euroregion to engage in cross-boundary projects and the nature of this cooperation (reflected in particular cross-border projects and initiatives). Tsiapa,M. CrossDimitrov,M., Petrakos,G., Totev,S., and Tsiapa,M. 2003. Cross-border cooperation in southeastern 41(6):5Europe - The enterprises' point of view. Eastern European Economics 41(6):5-25. Abstract: This article examines the current status, limits, prospects, and policies of crossborder cooperation in the border zone of Albania, Bulgaria, FYROM (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), and Greece on the basis of a survey sample of 291 manufacturing firms located near the borders in all four countries. The analysis suggests that border region firms have a higher level of interaction than the respective average national firms in all countries and that trade relations and economic cooperation eventually depend on the level of specialization and the size of the markets. It also suggests that barriers to cooperation are important and can negatively affect the performance of border region firms. Overall, firms are less concerned about the quality of infrastructure and more concerned about the general or the financial conditions prevailing in each country, indicating that the best policy for cross-border cooperation, rather than improvements in infrastructure, may be the development of the economies in the region and the improvements in their economic environment. Crosselement Turnock,D. 2002. Cross-border cooperation: A major element in regional policy in East Central Europe. 118(1):19Scottish Geographical Journal 118(1):19-40. Keywords: Cooperation/East Central Europe/Euroregions/frontiers/regional policy Abstract: Borders in East Central Europe have become much more permeable over the past ten years as formalities have been simplified and many new crossing points have opened. At the same time cooperation in border regions has increased, thanks mainly to resourcing through EU 'Inrerreg' programmes, to include a range of business, cultural and conservation interests. In many cases these arrangements have been formalised through Euroregions which

have become an indicator of good international relations. The paper reviews these trends with reference to examples and pays particular attention to environmental projects and the joint planning initiatives being undertaken in a number of the Euroregions. At a time when regional policy has been generally weak, cross-border cooperation has contributed significantly to cohesion and it is also a good indicator of stability in the region. However, the impact has been greater in the north than in the Balkans and the first round of EU eastern enlargement will have implications for cooperation across the new external borders. impact Kratke,S. 2002. The regional impact of EU Eastern enlargement: A view from Germany. European Planning Studies 10(5):651-664. 10(5):651Abstract: Based on a relational concept of regional analysis this contribution emphasizes that European Union (EU) Eastern enlargement will primarily lead to a restructuring or intensification of interregional economic relations. However, it rejects the widespread view that at first the border regions at the present EU Eastern boundary would be affected by Eastern enlargement. This view relies on the problematic assumption that the regions' transnational relations are subject to a logic of geographical nearness. The most important nodes of transnational economic relations in an enlarged EU are not the border regions, but certain regional development centres in the interior of the European economic space. Thus the regional impact of EU Eastern enlargement should be differentiated with regard to different types of regions: Particular advantages come towards the structurally strong regions in the interior of the present EU as well as the accession countries, whereas the structurally weak regions at the present EU Eastern boundary can gain advantages from Eastern enlargement only to the extent that they manage to overcome their endogenous blockades concerning cross-border economic cooperation and a positive attitude of the regions' population towards European integration. Jauhiainen,J. 2002. Territoriality and topocracy of cross-border networks. Journal of Baltic Studies cross33(2):156-176. 33(2):156Keywords: REGIONAL-INTEGRATION Abstract: Typically, border regions are peripheral and their infrastructure is frequently underdeveloped. The European Union, states and subnational actors are involved in crossborder cooperation. I argue that territoriality and governmentality are part of cross-border activities in Europe. Many topocratic cross-border networks launch projects mainly to achieve funding for networking, This is studied with three cases: EUREGIO Karelia, EUREGIO HelsinkiTallinn, and ESTRUFIN networks. EU co-funding is important for cross-border networks, but state authorities control the activities, and the involvement of non-governmental organizations and local people is limited. Cross-border cooperation is European designed, state controlled, and public authority driven. Giband,D. 2009. Make Two Into One. Rhetorics, Actions and Possibles in the Construction of A Regional Sud(28):17"Transcatalan" Space. Sud-Ouest Europeen (28):17-29. Keywords: EURODISTRICT/cross-border cooperation/CATALUNYA/BORDER/REPRESENTATIONS Abstract: MAKE TWO INTO ONE. RHETORICS, ACTIONS AND POSSIBLES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A REGIONAL "TRANSCATALAN" SPACE. Kept out of the French/Spanish cooperation, the Catalan cross-border space hosts many changes. The creation of a eurodistrict intends to make easier the emergence of a new cross-border local space in a region known for its dissemmetry. Based on the analysis of rhetoric and representations, this paper investigates the imaging values of this cross-border local space as a "spatial metaphor", prior to the institution of new systems of references and new modes of territorial projections for public policie.

Zukowski,A. and Chelminiak,M. 2010. European Union Enlargement and the new Peripheral Regions: Mazury Political, Economic and Social, and Related Issues - A Case of Warmia and Mazury Region. Lex LocalisSelf8(4):353Localis-Journal of Local Self-Government 8(4):353-367. Keywords: European Union/regional development/new peripheral regions/Warmia and Mazury region Abstract: This paper analyses the problems of the new peripheral regions after the European Union enlargement. The last EU enlargements in 2004 and 2007 were the logical consequences of political, social and economic changes associated with the break-up of the Soviet Union and the disintegration of the Communist Bloc. These two enlargements led to substantial geopolitical consequences. The European Union's demographic and territorial potential increased by around one-third. At the same time, the European Union structures moved east and southwards. In 2004, one of the Polish regions, the Warmia and Mazury region, faced some new challenges associated with the Polish accession to the EU. The years of Poland's membership in the European Union have been a period of gaining experience in submitting EU projects for the region, and in allocating financial resources properly. The total effect of this period is rather positive. However, we must not forget that many negative economic and social phenomena still occur (e.g., a high unemployment rate, emigration of young educated people, etc.). Politically, a new challenge for the Warmia and Mazury region is going to be a continuation and development of the cross-border cooperation with the Kaliningrad region. Poland's accession to the EU has had no positive impact on improving the Polish-Russian relations at the central decision-making level. crossHusak,J. 2010. Regional policy of the European Communities and cross-border cooperation within the Economics56(6):292South Bohemia Region. Agricultural Economics-Zemedelska Ekonomika 56(6):292-300. Keywords: cross-border cooperation/regional policy/the South Bohemia Region Abstract: The paper is focused on the problems of the cross-border cooperation and the regional policy of the European Communities and the implementation of theoretical issues in the South Bohemia Region. The main aim of this paper is to compare the cross-border cooperation and its influence on the regional development of the South Bohemia Region between the 2004-2006 programming period (after the accession of the Czech Republic to the European Communities) and the 2007-2013 programming period. The paper also provides the typology of the realised cross-border projects from the perspectives of the number of projects and also their financial allocation. The results document the increasing importance of the cross-border cooperation and its highly positive impact on the social and economic development of the South Bohemia Region. coSolioz,C. and Stubbs,P. 2009. Emergent regional co-operation in South East Europe: towards 'open regionalism'? Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 9(1-2):1-16. 9(1-2):1Keywords: regionalism/South East Europe/cooperation/networks/GOVERNMENTALITY/REFLECTIONS Abstract: Regional cooperation in South East Europe is at a crossroads. Until now, it has been largely ascribed by outside forces, perceived as a condition related to the EU integration process, and approached from a state-based viewpoint as an interstate construct. However, there are emergent trends which reframe regional cooperation as 'open regionalism', more achieved from within, and consisting of multi-actor, multilevel and multi-scalar processes forming a complex geometry of interlocking networks, with variable reach and multiple nodal points. This text critically explores these trends, addressing some of their cross-border, transnational and interregional dimensions, in the context of wider processes of regional integration.

Yoshimatsu,H. 2010. Regional cooperation in Northeast Asia: searching for the mode of governance. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific 10(2):247-274. Keywords: GLOBAL GOVERNANCE/POLICY NETWORKS Abstract: Since the late 1990s, China, Japan, and South Korea - the core states in Northeast Asia - have gradually engaged in various initiatives and institutions for regional cooperation. Such initiatives extend from summitry to functional cooperation in finance, environmental protection, logistics, and other areas. Furthermore, the three countries have shown their willingness to vitalize cross-border economic activities by concluding commercial arrangements. Given these evolutions, this article seeks to address the following questions: what features are found in trilateral cooperative initiatives and how these features are evaluated in terms of 'regional governance'? The paper advances two propositions. First, regional cooperation in Northeast Asia can be characterized as weak neoliberal orientation and intensive business involvements in cooperative projects in state-directed policy networks. Second, regional governance in Northeast Asia has gradually intensified the nature of regulatory governance in which the governments of the three countries sought to harmonize standards and regulatory systems through trilateral cooperation. Mikic,V. 2010. Development programs for Croatia's border areas. Gradevinar 62(2):123-129. 62(2):123Keywords: development programmes/Interreg initiative/Croatia/regional development/Gorski kotar/Podravina Abstract: The paper starts with statement that the importance of regional development will be increased after Croatia's accession to the European Union. The need to establish interregional links in activities focusing on economic, social and cultural development, especially in border areas, is emphasized. Cross-border cooperation projects in the regions of Gorski kotar and Podravina, based on the EU Interreg programme, are described. Structural fiend projects that open favourable development possibilities are also presented. Perrin,T. 2009. Culture, Identity and Interterritoriality in the Pyrenees-Mediterranee Euroregion. SudPyreneesSud(27):11Ouest Europeen (27):11-25. Keywords: EUROREGION/CULTURE/TERRITORY/CULTURAL RELATIONS/INTERTERRITORIALITY Abstract: CULTURE, IDENTITY AND INTERTERRITORIALITY IN THE PYRENEES-MEDITERRANEE EUROREGION. Anaysing the cross-border cultural cooperation highlights the inter-action between identity, culture and territory; on the one hand, the cultural dimension of the territorial authorities' external relations and cooperation on the other hand. Indeed the double movement of internal construction and external projection of a territorial identity via culture appears as a characteristic of the euro-regional dynamics developing "in-between" local and global scales, whereas interterritoriality seems more and more endowed with relevance as a dimension and a process of public action. The case of the Pvrenees-Mediterranee Euroregion on South-West Europe illustrates such issues, leading to a discussion of interterritoriality as regards cultural action. Lepik,K.L. 2009. Euroregions As Mechanisms for Strengthening Cross-Border Cooperation in the Baltic CrossTramesSea Region. Trames-Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences 13(3):265-284. 13(3):265Keywords: EUROREGION/cross-border cooperation/Baltic Sea region/regional development/EUROPE Abstract: Euroregions are administrative-territorial structures intended to promote crossborder cooperation between neighbouring local or regional authorities of different countries located along shared state borders. They are widely known tools of cooperation among the regions. Having integrated structures and their own financial resources, euroregions are able to address a variety of cross-border topics such as health, research and development,

education and training, waste management, environmental protection, tourism and leisure, rescue and security, transport and communication infrastructure, mobility of people, and business cooperation. This paper explores the main characteristics and problems of euroregions as institutions in the Baltic Sea Region and especially in the regions bordering the Third countries. First, it describes euroregions; then it focuses on their compositions and roles and main issues confronting them with reference to the empirical research carried out among the thirty-five cross-border cooperating organisations. The new legal instrument for euroregions deserves special attention since it provides a basis under public law for decentralised trans-European cooperation between regional and/or local authorities. The article concludes with a discussion of the needs and associated development opportunities available to euroregions within the Baltic Sea Region. crossHarguindeguy,J.B. and Bray,Z. 2009. Does cross-border cooperation empower European regions? The III- FranceCcase of INTERREG III-A France-Spain. Environment and Planning C-Government and Policy 27(4):74727(4):747-760. Keywords: MULTILEVEL GOVERNANCE/STRUCTURAL FUNDS/POLICIES/UNION/CONVERGENCE/CONTEXT/IMPACT/SPACE/URBAN/EU Abstract: In this paper we investigate the impact of the implementation of EU programmes on substate actors, and more specifically regional ones. We focus on the case of the INTERREG cross-border initiative in France and Spain between 2000 and 2003, and whether INTERREG succeeded in empowering regional governments and local authorities as it initially claimed to. Our analysis puts to the fore that this programme has not evolved from being 'a policy for the regions to a policy by the regions' as many expected, but that its implementation rather reveals a wide range of configurations. Indeed, the execution of INTERREG facilitated the transition from a state-centric scheme to a regionalised one only in those territories where a previous decentralisation policy had been realised at the domestic level and where a consistent regional leadership had emerged during earlier versions of INTERREG. GarciaThe CrossGarcia-Duran,P., Millet,M., and Casanova,M.E. 2009. The New Cross-Border Territorial Cooperation and Its Impact on Spain. Revista de Derecho Comunitario Europeo 13(32):121-149. 13(32):121Keywords: EU Cohesion Policy/territorial cohesion/territorial cooperation in Europe/crossborder territorial cooperation/Euroregions Abstract: The Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion was published in October 2008. The Lisbon Treaty aims to raise this cohesion to the economic and social level. All the indications are that the third objective of the EU Cohesion Policy 2007-2013 will be consolidated. The present article has two aims: first, to fill the current gap in the literature regarding the third objective of the European Regional Policy, and second, to assess what Spain can expect from its consolidation. Qualitative and comparative methods are used. First we compare the various community initiatives implemented since 1990 to favour cross-border territorial cooperation, through an in-depth analysis of the Communications and Regulations that define them. We then study the changes in trends detected, and assess their impact on Spain. We conclude that the most recent changes in Community funding have been contrary to the interests of Spain's border regions. Neamtu,G. 2009. Representations of the local resources as a factor of Community Development in Development 24:73Romania and Republica Moldova. Revista de Cercetare Si Interventie Sociala 24:73-86. Keywords: sustainable development/local resources of development/community facilitator/local economies/local development agent/cross border cooperation Abstract: This article is one of the first approaches of a scientifically type studying the present tendencies and directions in theorizing and the research of the community development. A

stage objective of the investigation is represented by the local resources of development classification and the identification of the place they occupy within the representation of the actors interested by cross border cooperation as part of the development strategies on the Eastern European Union Border: Starting with these theoretical intentions it has been delivered a sociological study on an area of 5 localities of urban type from Romania (Iasi and Botosani) and from Republic of Moldova (Cahul, Hincesti and Ungheni). GermanCrossGlorius,B. 2008. Transgression as a Rule. German-Polish Cross-border Cooperation, Border Discourse EUand EU-enlargement. Erdkunde 62(4):368. CrossPipan,P. 2007. Cross-border cooperation between Slovenia and Croatia in Istria after 1991. Acta Slovenica47(2):223Geographica Slovenica-Geografski Zbornik 47(2):223-235. Keywords: political geography/borders/cross-border cooperation/SOPS/Italian minority/Istria/Croatia/Slovenia Abstract: The paper discusses the impact of the international border established in 1991 on cross-border cooperation. It focuses on the impact of the Agreement between the Republic of Slovenia and the Republic of Croatia on Border Traffic and Cooperation ( SOPS) and introduction of the Schengen Agreement as a result of Slovene accession to the EU. The paper highlights the effect of the border on local population. It uses a number of interviews to present the people's attitude to the new realities of the border while at the same time determining the impact of the border on local development and the organisation of Italian national minority in Istria. In conclusion, the paper outlines the three areas formed along the border with regard to the changes in the intensity of cross-border cooperation and the related local development. Finally, the paper attempts to indicate the future development of the area in the context of cross-border cooperation along the EU's external border. McCall,C. and Williamson,A. 2000. Fledgling social partnership in the Irish Border Region: European Union 'Community Initiatives' and the voluntary sector. Policy and Politics 28(3):397-410. 28(3):397Keywords: Irish Border Region/European Union/multi-level partnership/voluntary and community sector Abstract: The Irish Border Region is synonymous with social and economic stagnation. Through multi-level social partnership, involving the voluntary and community sector, the European Union (EU) has attempted to initiate a concerted effort aimed at rescuing the Irish Border Region from its socioeconomic plight. The main conduits for this particular multi-level social partnership are the EU 'Community Initiatives' INTERREG (the initiative dealing with crossborder, transnational and interregional cooperation) and the Special Support Programme for Peace and Reconciliation (SSPPR). Thus far, SSPPR has proved to be more successful than INTERREG in the delivery of a social partnership. CrossArthur,P. 2000. Cross-border cooperation in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. International 22(1):238History Review 22(1):238-239. CrossO'Dowd,L. 2000. Cross-border cooperation in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Political 48(1):186Studies 48(1):186-187. CrossMac Ginty,R. 1999. Cross-border cooperation in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. International Affairs 75(4):836.

CrossMeehan,E. 2000. Cross-border cooperation in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Journal of Market 38(1):167Common Market Studies 38(1):167-168. Wilson,T.M. 2000. The obstacles to European Union regional policy in the Northern Ireland 59(1):1borderlands. Human Organization 59(1):1-10. Keywords: international borders/public policy/European Union/Northern Ireland Abstract: The Europeanization of European Union (EU) member states seeks their economic and political integration, if not eventual federal union, within a common market. EU programs and policies have done much to inject capital into Northern Ireland, but little to weaken the hold of nation and state in local political culture. In fact, in the borderlands of Northern Ireland the boundaries between nations and states are more important than any metaphorical "Europe without frontiers." This essay examines a European policy program, INTERREG, which has enjoyed only partial success at the Northern Ireland border, in order to delineate some of the obstacles to the cross-border cooperation which is its goal. It also relates these obstacles to flaws in national and European policy making and implementation to inform wider research both in the anthropology of the EU and in the anthropology of international borders. CrossCox,W.H. 1999. Cross-Border Cooperation in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. 52(4):760Parliamentary Affairs 52(4):760-762. 20(1):89Cliffe,L. 1999. Regional dimensions of conflict in the Horn of Africa. Third World Quarterly 20(1):89111. Abstract: A survey of the roots and nature of conflicts in the Horn of Africa is offered to determine the extent and form of their cross-border or interregional dimensions. In southern Africa, up to the end of apartheid, most conflicts could be related to the struggle for liberation and the strategies of the apartheid government to resist change, even though these external promptings interacted with various internal cleavages. By contrast, almost all conflicts in the Horn of Africa since the 1970s could be said to have primarily internal origins, but they were amplified by a pattern of 'mutual intervention'. Each government sought to deal with ifs own internal conflicts by some degree of support for insurgencies in neighbouring states. This pattern was reversed by a brief period of detente from 1991-94, but then resumed and is likely to intensify with the current Ethiopia-Eritrea conflict. Considerations in promoting regional stability are explored, including in particular, the role of regional bodies in combining economic cooperation, peace making and security roles. South36(4):553Bain,I. 1998. South-East Asia. International Migration 36(4):553-585. Abstract: This article investigates the issue of HIV and mobile populations in the Mekong Region countries (Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam), with particular regard to cross-border migrants (both legal and undocumented), internal migrants, sex workers, and mobile occupational groups such as truck drivers; fishermen, seafarers and crossborder traders. Economic opening in the region is occurring rapidly as some Mekong States move from centrally planned to market economies and some locations undergo unprecedented economic growth. The uneven nature of economic development has resulted in imbalances between rural and urban, agricultural and industrial areas, and in most places the health and education systems are inadequate for the needs of these new residents. Much of the movement between countries is illegal (i.e., by persons without necessary travel documents). At the same time, HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent in much of the region, particularly in Myanmar and Thailand. Responses to the epidemic range from extremely limited approaches in Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar to wide-ranging and sophisticated strategies in Thailand. In recent years China has begun to devote increased efforts to HIV/AIDS research

and interventions in its huge "floating population" and to the provinces bordering the other South-East Asian countries. However, there is as yet little systematic focus on migration and HIV/AIDS at a national level, and no significant regional cooperation on the issue. Nevertheless, several region-wide research/interventions have been created by aid organizations, NGOs and academic institutions in recent years, and these show considerable potential as models. AIDS Control and Prevention Project's (AIDSCAP) cross-border "hotspot" studies have included river trade routes on the Thai-Lao border and fishing ports in Thailand and Cambodia. The Asian Research Centre for Migration (ARCM)'s project on Trans-national Population Movement and HIV/AIDS, based at Thailand's Chulalongkhorn University, has studied groups and issues such as migrant fishermen in six countries, Burmese migrant women in Thailand, various migrant populations in the Thai-Myanmar border regions, and the impact of transport and infrastructure development on the spread of HIV/AIDS along six main intercountry routes. Finally, the Coordination of Action Research on AIDS and Mobility (CARAM), which began as a partnership between the Malaysian NGO Tenaganita and the Free University of Amsterdam,(2) now involves eight South-East Asian countries in a range of self-selected research and action projects by NGOs. There are also a number of research and interventions in individual countries in the Mekong region, the greatest efforts currently being mounted by China and Thailand. In the past decade, the latter country has seen the entry of large numbers of undocumented economic migrants, the most numerous being illegal immigrants from Myanmar (currently estimated at close to a million persons) and over-staying Chinese nationals (about 100,000 persons). Perhaps one million guest workers enter Thailand each year. At the same time, Thailand displays the most diversity in research approaches and the highest level of research capacity among the Mekong countries, not surprisingly given the comparative length of the epidemic and the relatively high level of economic development and social openness. Research into a broad range of migrant labour issues and worker legal status appears to have some influence on government policy direction. crossGermanKratke,S. 1998. Problems of cross-border regional integration: The case of the German-Polish border Regional 5(3):249area. European Urban and Regional Studies 5(3):249-262. Abstract: in the framework of European integration there is a growing interest in the development of border regions in East Central Europe. This article deals with the problems of regional integration in the German-Polish border region, following an approach that emphasizes the regions' economic organization, institutional fabric and sociocultural environment. New economic links between Western European and East-Central European firms do not necessarily lead to a revaluation of the border region or to the formation of transborder integrated economic regions. Instead, there is a tendency towards the development of new economic links which overlook the border region. Up to now, cooperation between regional firms is weak within the border region. The region's sociocultural environment in terms of a 'low trust environment' and a specifically shaped social distance between the neighbouring regions are a further hindrance to regional integration. These findings are being related to strategic options of regional development policy in the border region. crossRousier,N. 1996. Switzerland and cross-border cooperation: Setback or progress - French - Leresche,JP, Levy,R. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 20(4):765-766. 20(4):765SlovakselfcrossStastny,Z. 1996. Slovak-Belgian project on problems of self-government and cross-border cooperation. 28(4):361Sociologia 28(4):361-362.

Metodické poznámky

Bibliografie vznikla za úcelem prezentace smr a pístup výzkumu peshranicní problematiky v meztinárodním kontextu. Základem bibliografie je databáze excerpovaná programem Reference Manager z databáze ISI WOK (Thomson - Reuters). Pro vyhledávání bylo vyuzito klícových slov, která jsou nadepsána vzdy nad kokrétní cástí bibliografie, která jejich pomocí byla excerpována. Pvodní zámr vyuzití cetných klícových slov týkajících se tematického a územního zamení byl zmnn, nebo pro cetná klícová slova (nap. názvy euroregion) nebyly nalezeny zádné záznamy, v dalsích pípadech pak bylo naopak nalezeno mnozství duplicitních záznam, vedených pod nkolik aklícovými slovy. Zaazeny jsou jednak práce vnované Evropskjé unii a probematice shcnegenského prostoru, jednak cetné pípadové a analogické studie z celého svta. Excerpované záznamy byly následn tídny. Cílem tídní bylo zaadit publikace k sirsím tematickým skupinám tak, aby byla prezentována problematika v co nejvtsí tematické síi. Nkteré záznamy, které vsak nemají zejmý vztah k esenému tématu, byly odstranny. Tématické zaazení publikací vychází z pedbzné analýzy námt jednotlivých publikací, na jejímz základ byly vymezeny hlavní tématické okruhy probelmatiky. Zaazení jednotlivých prací je vsak nutn subjektivní, nebo velká cást prací v sob integruje více témat. Nap. práce o vnjsí hranici Evropské unie mohou být zárove regionálními pípadovými studiemi, publikace k lokální identit se vztahují ke geopolitickým aspektm, atp. Zaazení konkrétních publikací do konkrétních tématických okruh proto vycházelo z dominantního tématického prvku dané práce, resp. ze vztahu pínosu výsledk a diskuse k rozvoji poznání urcitého tematického okruhu. Regionální spektrum excerpovaných prací pedstavuje na vybraných píkladech obrázek níze:

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