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Environmental Education

Teacher's Guide

The Journey to Restore America's Everglades

National Park Service

Jacksonville District

A partnership of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, South Florida Water Management District, Everglades National Park, and many other federal, state, local and tribal partners.

An Introduction to Using This Guide

This curriculum is designed as a reading resource and tells the story of The Journey of Wayne Drop to the Everglades. Wayne, his teacher and classmates follow the water flow through the Kissimmee, Okeechobee and Everglades (KOE) regions of Florida, and eventually arrive at the coral reefs in the Florida Straights. All of the activities in this guide were selected and created by teachers to meet the Florida Sunshine State Standards. It was designed for 4th and/or 5th grades and takes an interdisciplinary approach. The guide can easily be integrated into varied school and subject skill areas. The guide is 3-hole-punched to be easily inserted in a three-ring binder, which will enable teachers to access the Blackline Masters and student resource information with ease. The partners and teacher task force present this guide as a resource for teachers to use in teaching about the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan and its application in understanding the South Florida ecosystem. It is our goal to: 1. Acquaint students with the Everglades/South Florida ecosystem through hands-on interactive activities. 2. Develop within the students an understanding of the value of the Everglades to all of South Florida. 3. Develop within the students an appreciation for the total environment and the importance of restored water flow. 4. Direct students towards a status of active thinking and, hopefully, active participation relating to the environmental issues and decisions of South Florida. An Overview of the Lessons The guide has been organized into 13 lessons. A pre/post test is in the back of the guide and should be given to students prior to beginning the lessons. Teachers will receive a Teacher's Guide and 40 copies of The Jouney of Wayne Drop to the Everglades for distribution to students in their classes. The activities are easily integrated into other categories and teachers are encouraged to be flexible when using the materials. Organization of Individual Activities Each activity begins with a section that provides the objectives, duration or length of each activity, materials needed, background and procedures. The Florida Sunshine State Standards met by each lesson are listed in a separate appendix. In some cases an extension of the activity will be provided. The instructor is encouraged to maximize student critical thinking and creativity in each activity. For many of the activities, a Blackline Master is listed under the materials section. Additional information can be found at the following web sites. www.evergladesplan.org www.nps.gov/ever www.sfwmd.gov This Teacher's Guide can be downloaded from: www.evergladesplan.org

Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Acknowledgements

This guide is dedicated to those teachers who share their sense of wonder with their students.

Development Team: Staff from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Everglades National Park and South Florida Water Management District. Teacher Writing Team: Teachers from Miami-Dade, Lee, Broward and Palm Beach County Public Schools; Janine Townsley, Barbara Esno, Al Christie, Jewel Farris, Carolyn SantAngelo, Claire Greene, Carolyn Almario, Donna Beal, and Brenda Crow. The Journey of Wayne Drop to the Everglades and the Teacher's Guide have been developed and field tested by teachers, and park rangers, for teachers. This guide could not have been produced without their contributions. Additional Contributors: Florida Department of Environmental Protection; Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida; Lee County Schools Environmental Education Program; and Dr. Thomas E. Lodge. When possible, individuals have been credited in the guide.

Printed on Recycled Paper

Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Environmental Education

Teacher's Guide

Table of Contents:

Lesson 1 Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades Watershed System Map . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 2 Everglades Timeline/Marjory Stoneman Douglas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Lesson 3 The Water Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Lesson 4 We're Sponging Off the Everglades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Lesson 5 Population Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Lesson 6 Food Chains and Food Webs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Lesson 8 Create a National Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Lesson 9 Native/Exotic Species in Everglades Student Activities . . . . . . . . . . .53 Lesson 10 Lightning and Fire Cycles in the Everglades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Lesson 11 Endangered Species "Wanted Alive" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Lesson 12 Turtle Breath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Lesson 13 Florida Post Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75

Lesson 1 KOE Map

(Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades)

Objectives: Students will be able to locate and describe important parts of the KOE watershed and identify changes in the system.

Materials

· Class set of The Journey of Wayne Drop Booklet · Class set of Reference Sheets #1.1 - 1.5. · Teacher Copies and Blackline Masters* of Reference Sheets #1.1 - 1.5.

*Recommended Overhead

Student Outcomes

Students will be able to describe: · a simple watershed · the general direction of water flow from north to south and mid-state to coasts, and the exceptions water goes from higher elevations to lower elevations (which makes the St. Johns River flow NORTH!) · modifications made (channelization of Kissimmee River, Lake Okeechobee diked, etc.) to the KOE watershed Students will be able to find on a map locations of places and waterways pertinent to the KOE watershed system

Source

Adapted from "Watershed Journeys," Environmental Education Program, School District of Lee County, 2004.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 1 KOE Map

(Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades)

Procedures

(Time required - Two 45-minute classroom periods) Explain to the students that they will be following "Wayne Drop" and his classmates on an imaginary journey through the Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades watershed. They will see many surprising sights as water drops travel from the top of the Everglades' watershed to the bottom. Remind the students that the story is only an idealized representation of water flow. Although this activity leads students to imagine a drop of water traveling from Turkey Lake in central Florida to the Florida Keys, this rarely happens. 1. Do a quick watershed demonstration. Have the students lay one of their hands palm down on the desktop. 2. Tell them to picture rain falling over the back of the hand. Ask the students "Where will the water pool, or collect?" Use the correct answer (between the fingers) to explain that the troughs between their fingers are miniature watersheds, with the fingers acting as land elevations. Also explain that water will flow down the slope, from higher elevations to lower elevations. 3. Explain that most rivers start where the land is higher (Florida is relatively flat all over compared to other parts of the United States) at the headwaters, where fresh water collects and drains into a low-lying area (it could be a lake or other wetland). There are no daily tides that make water levels go up and down in these areas (though water levels may go up and down based on rainfall or wind). The water follows the slope of the land, until it reaches and flows out of the mouth of the river, which is at a lake or along the coast. The closer you get to a coast, the more saltwater will be mixed into the water, and the more tidal changes you will see. The plants and animals that live in the fresh water upstream near the headwaters will probably be very different from those that live near the saltier mouth of the river. The estuary is where the fresh water and salty ocean water meet to make brackish water. These important nursery areas are where many saltwater species come to reproduce. They are usually vegetated with marsh grasses or mangroves and provide food and shelter for the young. 4. Distribute one copy of Reference Sheet #1.1, Reference Sheet #1.3, and Reference Sheet #1.4 to each student and The Journey of Wayne Drop Booklet to each student.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 1 KOE Map

(Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades)

5. Review the Cardinal directions (north, east, south and west) on the board. Ask the students to think about where the water flow begins in the KOE watershed, which direction it travels and where most of the water ends up. Begin reading the Journey story. Suggested options: teacher reads aloud, alternate with student volunteers, or randomly call on students to read. 6. Instruct the students to write the location names on Reference Sheet #1.1 as locations are encountered in the reading. **locations are not numbered sequentially from top to bottom of the map** 7. Display the overhead transparency of the Reference Sheet #1.1. Demonstrate writing the location names in the proper locations as they are encountered in the reading. Use Reference Sheet #1.2 to guide your answers. 8. Students may use the fold-out map in the center of The Journey of Wayne Drop to help complete their locations, if necessary. 9. When the maps are completed, ask the students what general direction the watershed flows (south). 10. Challenge: Ask students if they think that all watersheds in Florida drain toward the south. Give the students a copy of Reference Sheet #1.5. Then, ask them to look at Reference Sheet #1.5 and find a named major river on the map that goes in another direction besides south (the St. Johns River flows NORTH). The headwaters are in central Florida and the river flows to the north. The mouth opens into the Atlantic Ocean near Jacksonville.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 1 KOE Map

(Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades) Reference Sheet #1.1

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 1 KOE Map

(Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades) Reference Sheet #1.2

Answer Sheet

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 1 KOE Map

(Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades) Reference Sheet #1.3

Changes in water flow patterns that have occurred in the Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades Watershed system

Historic Flow

Current Flow

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 1 KOE Map

(Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades) Reference Sheet #1.4 Kissimmee River prior to channelization, 1961

The river has natural meandering winding twists and turns. The banks slope gradually and are vegetated or provide sandbar areas where alligators like to bask in the sun. There is a wide wetland floodplain on both sides, which normally floods during times each year when rainfall is high.

Channelized Kissimmee River showing remnant oxbow (natural meander)

In response to public outcries for flood control following several large storms, the river was "straightened" into a deep canal, which efficiently drained surrounding wetlands. The canal was cut 300 feet wide and 30 feet deep, with a straight vertical drop-off at the bank. At the time, wetlands were believed to be "wastelands" and environmental impacts were not well understood. The vegetation that grew along the banks, providing food and shelter for small animals and also filtered pollutants from the water, was lost. The gradually sloping banks that provided shallow fishing areas for wading birds, and basking and nesting areas for alligators and turtles were also lost. The floodplain habitat was lost and turned into pasture. When the wading birds started to disappear in large numbers, the environmental impacts were studied and the project reconsidered. Today, portions of the Kissimmee River are being restored and the vegetation and wading birds have returned.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 1 KOE Map

(Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades) Reference Sheet #1.5

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 2

Marjory Stoneman Douglas

(Author of The Everglades: River of Grass)

Objectives: Students will utilize a timeline and biographical information to answer questions.

Materials

· Class set of Everglades Reference Sheets #2.1 - 2.2

Procedures

1. Distribute Everglades timeline/biography: Marjory Stoneman Douglas to each student. 2. Tell students to read through the timeline and biography, and to look for any historical patterns. 3. As they go through the timeline, ask students to write down events that seemed to cause other events. 4. Allow students to work individually or in groups, depending on personal learning style or preference to answer questions on the activity sheet. 5. Review the answers together as a class, asking volunteers to explain how they reached their conclusions. 6. Discuss the general patterns they observed (events mobilize the public, who make their feelings known to politicians, which drives the creation of new legislation, resulting in new projects). Remind students that just one person can make a big impact on the world.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

(Author of The Everglades: River of Grass) Reference Sheet #2.1

Lesson 2

Marjory Stoneman Douglas

Everglades Timeline

1926: "The Hurricane", described by the U.S. Weather Bureau in Miami as "probably the most destructive hurricane ever to strike the United States," hits Fort Lauderdale, Dania, Hollywood, Hallandale and Miami. The death toll is estimated to be between 325 to 800 people. No storm in previous history had done as much property damage. 1928: A huge hurricane devastates south Florida. More than 1,800 people are killed. People begin to ask the government to do something to control the floodwaters that frequently cover the land in south Florida. 1931: Rivers and Harbors act authorizes construction of Herbert Hoover Dike around perimeter of Lake Okeechobee. 1934: The Everglades National Park is authorized by Congress with over 2 million acres to be acquired by public funds and private donations. 1935: National Park Service begins conservation of marine resources in South Florida with Fort Jefferson National Monument. 1947: First publication of The Everglades: River of Grass, by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, alerts people to the idea that the Everglades, a shallow flowing river, is a fragile ecosystem. 1947: Congress authorizes the establishment of Everglades National Park. The purpose of the Everglades National Park is to preserve the great diversity of organisms, living there. Everglades National Park is a portion of a large wetland ecosystem that encompasses the KissimmeeOkeechobee-Everglades Watershed. 1947: A hurricane kills 17 in Florida. Along with another hurricane and a tropical storm, all in a fiveweek period, the 1947 storm causes the worst flooding on record. Most of central and southern Florida is under water. 1948: Congress authorizes a massive public works project called the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project (C&SF) to control the water flow in the Everglades. From 1949 to 1969, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District builds and operates the project. 1968: Biscayne National Monument is created to preserve the scenic beauty and ecological balance of Biscayne Bay. 1972: The Florida legislature passes the Land Conservation Act, which authorizes the state to issue bonds in order to raise money to purchase environmentally endangered and recreational lands. 1974: Big Cypress National Preserve is established. 1980: Biscayne National Monument becomes a national park. 1983: Florida Governor Bob Graham begins the "Save Our Everglades" program, joining the South Florida Water Management District and federal and state governmental agencies to work towards the restoration of the Everglades ecosystem (a 9,000 square mile area including the Kissimmee River Basin, Lake Okeechobee, the Everglades, the Big Cypress swamp, and the estuaries of Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the Ten Thousand Islands).

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

(Author of The Everglades: River of Grass) Reference Sheet #2.2

Lesson 2

Marjory Stoneman Douglas

1987: Surface Water Improvement and Management Act (SWIM) is established to ensure each Florida water management district develops plans to clean up and preserve rivers, lakes, estuaries, and bays. This includes plans for Lake Okeechobee and Biscayne Bay. 1992: Congress authorizes the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to "Restudy" the C&SF Project and develop a comprehensive plan to restore and preserve south Florida's ecosystem, enhance water supply and maintain flood protection. 1994: Florida's Everglades Forever Act establishes a restoration plan and provides for a program of construction research, and regulation, as well as designs to restore clean water and control the growth of exotic species. The Act also requires farmers to reduce the amount of nutrient-rich pollutants used on or discharged from farms. There is also a schedule for constructing storm water treatment areas to filter phosphorous from agricultural runoff before it reaches the Everglades. 1999: The Everglades C&SF Restudy report is finalized, recommending a 30+ year restoration plan and a multibillion dollar budget for the comprehensive restoration of south Florida's ecosystem. 2000: President Clinton authorizes the Water Resource Development Act of 2000 (WRDA), which approves the restoration plan. Florida's Governor Jeb Bush signs the Everglades Investment Act, committing the state to funding 50% of Everglades restoration costs. 2004: The Indian River Lagoon South (IRL-S) report is the first Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) project report to be completed.

BIOGRAPHY:

Marjory Stoneman Douglas

arjory Stoneman Douglas lived from 1890 to 1998. She championed several causes before they were commonly accepted, such as feminism, racial equality, and conservation. Ms. Douglas believed the Everglades to be a place of unique beauty and wrote the landmark book, The Everglades: River of Grass. She coined the name "River of Grass" to describe the slowly moving waters that flowed through the Everglades. She publicized the issues facing the land and its flora and fauna, as people continued to encroach on its wetlands. She was relentless in her struggle to inform the public and the government of the effects their actions were having: the destruction of the Everglades, its habitats, and ecosystems, and how all of this was detrimental to the water cycle and water filtration system as well. She warned about how destruction of the Everglades would affect people and campaigned to educate the public on the need to save and restore the natural system. In 1969, she established "The Friends of the Everglades," an organization devoted to the conservation of the Everglades. In 1987, her book was reissued because of the unresolved problems facing the Everglades. Her work, in addition to the efforts of many others, was instrumental in raising the public's awareness of the Everglades. As a result, Congress authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to re-examine the C&SF project, which managed water flow in south Florida. The conclusions of the study led to WRDA 2000 legislation, and the Army Corps of Engineers, South Florida Water Management District and other partners began work to implement the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) to help conserve and restore the Everglades ecosystem.

M

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 3 The Water Cycle

Objectives: Students will understand the water cycle by observing an activity utilizing steam and condensation to better understand the water cycle.

Materials

· Class set of Reference Sheets #3.1 - 3.4. · Class set of vocabulary sheets · Water · Teakettle and hot plate or electric teakettle · Cookie sheet · Ice cubes · Chairs, tables, books or bricks · Watch with a second hand

Procedures

1. Complete directions for the activity are on the sheet. 2. Students will observe steam as it hits the bottom of a cold cookie sheet. The steam cools, creating "rain." 3. Explain that the same process they just observed in the classroom is what occurs in nature -- water in the form of vapor from evaporation or transpiration goes into the atmosphere, and as it rises, it cools. When it cools, it condenses into liquid droplets, which fall to earth in the form of rain, snow or hail.

Extension

Have students write a description or draw a diagram to explain the water cycle after watching this experiment. Tell them to be sure to include all of the vocabulary words in their project.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 3 The Water Cycle

Reference Sheet #3.1

Name

Water Cycle Vocabulary

evaporation: condensation: precipitation: transpiration:

The process by which any substance is converted from a liquid state into vapor.

The change of a substance from the gaseous (vapor) to the liquid state.

Any form of water, such as rain, snow, sleet, or hail, that falls to the earth's surface. The release of water vapor from the leaves of plants.

The 3 States of Water

liquid:

rain, oceans, rivers, etc.

solid: gas:

ice, hail (pellets of ice), sleet, snow

water vapor, steam

Good things to know

· 75 percent of the surface of the Earth is covered by water · approximately 70 percent of your body is made of water

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 3 The Water Cycle

Reference Sheet #3.2

Name

The Water Cycle

Y

ou drink the same water that the dinosaurs drank. How can that be? As you study the water cycle try to figure this out. Understanding the water cycle is important to realizing how important water is to the earth.

Water is the most common substance on earth. Without water there would be no life. Water is the only substance on earth that is found in three forms, as a liquid, as a solid, and as a gas (water vapor). The water cycle helps to explain this phenomenon.

The water cycle is the never-ending circulation of water. As the water in the oceans is evaporated by the sun it rises as invisible vapor which then falls back to earth in the form of rain, snow, or other forms of moisture. This is precipitation and mainly falls into the ocean. What doesn't fall in the ocean falls on the land. Eventually this water returns to the ocean only to be evaporated and the cycle starts all over again.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 3 The Water Cycle

Reference Sheet #3.3

Name

The Water Cycle

Activity

Complete this activity to better understand the water cycle. Materials: teakettle filled with water and hot plate or an electric teakettle, cookie sheet, ice cubes, chairs, tables, books, or bricks, watch with a second hand Directions: Set the cookie sheet between two chairs, tables, books, or bricks. Place the ice cubes on the cookie sheet. Put the kettle on the hot plate and place it underneath the cookie sheet. Heat the water. Caution: Do not touch steam or vapor. It can burn you. Answer the following questions: · How long does it take before you see anything coming out of the teakettle?

· What happens?

· Look at the bottom of the cookie sheet. What do you see?

· How does this experiment help explain the water cycle?

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 3 The Water Cycle

Reference Sheet # 3.4

Name

The Water Cycle

Celia was walking to school in the rain. She noticed puddles on the ground. Later that afternoon she realized the puddles were no longer there. She asked her teacher what happened to the water. Her teacher explained that it was all part of the water cycle. Which word below best describes what happened to the water in the puddles? 1. Condensation 2. Evaporation 3. Precipitation 4. Transpiration

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 3 The Water Cycle

Reference Sheet # 3.5

Name

Water Cycle

Answer Sheet

Celia was walking to school in the rain. She noticed puddles on the ground. Later that afternoon she realized the puddles were no longer there. She asked her teacher what happened to the water. Her teacher explained that it was all part of the water cycle. Which word below best describes what happened to the water in the puddles? 1. Condensation 2. Evaporation 3. Precipitation 4. Transpiration

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 4

We're Sponging Off the Everglades

Objective: Using a wet sponge to represent the water-bearing limestone underlying the Everglades/South Florida, the students will squeeze the sponge to illustrate the different groups that compete for the limited water supply.

Duration: Day 1) 15 minutes

Day 2) 30 minutes

Key Vocabulary: Aquifer, limestone

Objectives

The student will recognize a) that freshwater in the Everglades/South Florida is not unlimited, b) that the water South Floridians use in all aspects of their lives comes right from the Everglades, and c) problems that humans are creating due to the misuse of water.

Background

The Everglades depends on water from rainfall and drainage from the Kissimmee River Basin and Lake Okeechobee. Before people settled in South Florida, the water that spilled over the lake's southern edge flowed southward through the Everglades. In the late 1800's, people began to build canals and levees to control this water flow for human needs. Now the Everglades competes with humans for water. In times of drought, it does not receive enough water through the flood gates. In times of extreme moisture, it receives the excess. Also, the water the Everglades does receive has been altered (polluted) before it gets here.

Materials

· · · · · One piece of limestone Two large identical sponges (preferably 8-10" long and 2" thick) Jug of water Towel for cleanup/dry off Two pans to hold water, pan 1 labeled "Historic Everglades" and pan 2 labeled "Everglades Today" · Two ID cards labeled "Historic Everglades" and "Everglades Today"

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 4

We're Sponging Off the Everglades

· Four ID cards labeled: "farmer," "developer," " population of South Florida," and "Everglades." · Two additional containers to hold water · Masking tape · Map of South Florida (you can use the Changes in Water Flow Patterns in the Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades Watershed from Lesson 1)

Suggested Procedure

1. The day before the activity, explain to your students how the Everglades is supplied with water. Display the piece of limestone for student observation, while explaining its water-bearing capabilities. 2. Use the map of South Florida to review the concept of the original water flow from the Kissimmee River basin, to Lake Okeechobee, through the Everglades, into the Gulf of Mexico, and on to the coral reefs or the Dry Tortugas. Compare this to the altered water flow due to humans (you can use the Changes in Water Flow Patterns in the Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades Watershed from Lesson 1). 3. Appoint four volunteers to represent "the Everglades," "farming interests," "developers," and "the human population of South Florida." Identify each volunteer with a name tag. 4. Pour water into an extra container. Completely saturate one sponge with water and place it into the pan you have labeled "Historic Everglades." This sponge represents the original, unaltered Everglades during the summer wet season. It has received an uninterrupted flow of water. Ask the students where the water originates. 5. Ask the "Everglades" volunteer to squeeze the sponge over the pan to show how much water the Everglades can hold. Put the sponge back in the water. 6. Immerse the second sponge in the extra container of water until it is saturated.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 4

We're Sponging Off the Everglades

Suggested Procedure

7. Ask the students how the water flow has been changed by people and for what purposes water is diverted away from the Everglades. Tell students that they are going to take water from the Everglades, just as people do. 8. Let the farmer give one squeeze to the sponge from pan 2 ("Everglades Today"), allowing some of the water to squeeze out into another container. Pass the sponge to the developer to let him/her squeeze. What do they do with the water? They divert it, or drain it into the ocean to make the land dry enough for planting and building. 9. Pass the sponge to the "population of South Florida" for a squeeze into the sink. What do people use the water for? 10. Explain that some of the water that these groups use is only "borrowed." However, when they return it to the hydrologic system, it is not always in the same condition that it was when they removed it. It may also be put back in a different place than where it originated. Ask the students if they can think of some specific examples of how the water is affected and/or diverted (nutrients or fertilizers added by farmers, diverted from residential areas and flushed into the ocean to prevent flooding, runoff from roads, and lawns treated with pesticides and fertilizers). 11. Let the "Everglades" get the last squeeze from the sponge from pan 2 ("Everglades Today"). This remaining water squeezed from the sponge into the second empty pan represents the water left for the Everglades after humans have diverted much of the water for their own use. 12. Go back to the first pan labeled "Historic Everglades" and squeeze the sponge again in its own pan. Now squeeze the sponge in the pan labeled "Everglades Today." Compare the two. What is left for the Everglades?

Evaluation

Can water be saved? Is there enough for everyone? What effect does reduced water have on the Everglades' plants and animals? Ask the students to list where the Everglades gets its water, name three other competitors for that water, list three ways to conserve water, and explain how water coming into the Everglades has been changed.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 5 Population Growth

Objective: Students will read text and answer questions about the effects of population growth on the Everglades.

Materials

· class sets of: Reference Sheets #5.1 - 5.5.

Procedures

1. Distribute Reference Sheets #5.1 - 5.3 to the class. Allow students to read information on population growth aloud. 2. Allow students to answer questions individually. 3. Review answers together as a class. 4. Writing Activity: Reference Sheet #5.5.

Persuasive Writing Activity

Pre writing: create a Venn diagram to compare and contrast the benefits (positive) and detriments (negative) of increasing population growth in the KOE area.

Extension

Ask students to draw a picture to illustrate one of the problems with population growth. Be sure that they label the problem on the top of the page. Display in the classroom.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 5 Population Growth

Reference Sheet #5.1

Name

Population Growth

S

outh Florida attracts many people. Originally, the land was considered inhospitable in many areas because of the abundance of insects, wildlife, and lush vegetation. Although the weather was temperate in the winter, the area suffered alternating seasonal floods and dry periods. With the establishment of farms and the introduction of the railroads, the population began to grow. The demand for more farmland to support agriculture and housing for the people led the government to the wetlands. They found they could have more land to suit their needs if they used some of the wetlands. To make it more suitable, the water was rerouted with a system of canals, dikes, and levees. This made many people happy. There were some,

however, who recognized that this was causing changes in the ecosystem. Much of the KOE system was lost. As habitats were being changed, plants and animals felt the effects. A chain reaction occurred which led to the endangerment and extinction of various species. A movement was begun to reverse the changes and try to reestablish the ecosystem to its original condition.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 5 Population Growth

Reference Sheet #5.2

Name

Population Growth

Problems of population growth:

· Population growth calls for more housing to be built to accommodate the additional people · The need for more land leads some people to drain the wetlands · The need for farm land also leads people to drain the wetlands · The more people, the bigger the withdrawals on the aquifers and more stress on natural water filtration systems · The more people, the more pollution (illegal dumping, trash that won't decompose, improper disposal of hazardous wastes, air pollution, chemical pollution, etc.) · Larger developments, with large grassy areas may seem more natural, however the lands are often fertilized and treated with insecticides, herbicides and chemicals. This leads to an imbalance in the ecosystem ­ more nitrogen and phosphorus are added, causing exotic plants to overtake the native plants · The more people encroach on the Everglades, the less balance there is in the food web and ecosystems · The less land in the Everglades, the less food and habitat (both area and different types) for wildlife · Introduction of exotic species (plants and animals) squeezing out the native plants and animals

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 5 Population Growth

Reference Sheet #5.3

Name

Population Growth

Question Sheet

1. Marie bought some plants for her fish tank. After a while, she decided she did not want to have a fish tank, so she dumped the contents into the lake behind her house. Marie was contributing to an Everglades problem. What problem did Marie contribute to? a. Draining the Wetlands b. Introducing exotic species to the Everglades c. Building farms on the Everglades d. Adding food to the Everglades 2. Javier built a factory. Many people came to work in the factory and wanted to live nearby. Houses were built on the edge of the Everglades. What problem did they create for the Everglades? a. Introduction of exotic species b. Redirecting the water flow of the Everglades c. More people than animals lived in the area d. More people meant more water was needed from the underground aquifers

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 5 Population Growth

Reference Sheet #5.4

Name

Population Growth

Answer Sheet

1. Marie bought some plants for her fish tank. After a while, she decided she did not want to have a fish tank, so she dumped the contents into the lake behind her house. Marie was contributing to an Everglades problem. What problem did Marie contribute to? a. Draining the Wetlands b. Introducing exotic species to the Everglades c. Building farms on the Everglades d. Adding food to the Everglades 2. Javier built a factory. Many people came to work in the factory and wanted to live nearby. Houses were built on the edge of the Everglades. What problem did they create for the Everglades? a. Introduction of exotic species b. Redirecting the water flow of the Everglades c. More people than animals lived in the area d. More people meant more water was needed from the underground aquifers

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 5 Population Growth

Reference Sheet #5.5

If you had the power to decide on development in your area, explain what tools or innovations you would use to lessen the negative effect of population growth in your environment.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 6 Food Chains

and Food Webs

Objective: Students will learn about the energy cycle, food chains, food webs, and classifications based on food sources (carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores).

Materials

· · · · · · · · · Magazines Drawing paper Larger paper to use as a base for poster Pencils, crayons, markers Scissors Stick glue Books with animal photographs or computers with Internet access Class set of Reference Sheets #6.1 - 6.5. Blackline Master of Reference Sheet #6.4

*Recommended Overhead

Procedures

1. Distribute Reference Sheets #6.1 - 6.3. Read out loud in class. Stop briefly at each highlighted word and tell students to write a definition for each on their vocabulary worksheet. 2. When students are finished reading and have written their definitions, show definitions on overhead to be sure that all students have the same definition. 3. Students may use a magazine, draw a picture, or use the Internet to find pictures of producers, primary consumers (herbivores), and secondary consumers (carnivores and omnivores). Include pictures of predators, scavengers, and decomposers. Students should cut out the pictures and arrange them into a food chain, connecting them with arrows. 4. Extension: have 2 or more students combine their food chains to create a food web. 5. Alternative: paste the pictures into a food chain/web, then cut the page apart to resemble a jigsaw puzzle. Challenge your friends to rebuild the food chain/web. 6. Predator-Prey game: Project Wild

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 6 Food Chains

and Food Webs

Procedures

7. Create a mural on butcher paper, or a diorama, with the plants and animals that make up the KOE watershed ecosystem. 8. Create a triorama (three sectioned diorama) of the three major ecosystems of the KOE watershed. 9. Writing activity: Reference Sheet # 6.5.

Additional Resources

Visit http://dnr.state.il.us/lands/education/CLASSRM/wild_mammals/pdf/unit2_3.pdf for "The Right Teeth", a lesson plan that provides definitions and detailed information on the teeth of carnivores, herbivores, insectivores and omnivores. "Skulls Tell It All" at http://www.desertmuseum.org/education/3-4_Hunters_skulls.pdf provides pictures of deer, mountain lion and coyote skulls and teeth, and ties in the predator-prey relationship. "Eat or be Eaten" at http://www.nhm.org/mammals/page010.html also provides information on eye placement in predator and prey species. "Sink Your Teeth In" at http://www.nhm.org/mammals/page012.html provides six clear skull drawings that students can use to test their knowledge. Additional food chains and webs activities are at http://www.nps.gov/ever go to education programs, then go to classroom activities.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 6 Food Chains

and Food Webs

Name

Reference Sheet #6.1

Food Chains and Food Webs

It's all about energy.

The food chain shows how energy is made and then transferred to other living things. It begins with the sun's energy. The only organisms that can use this form of energy directly are green plants. They are called the primary producers. Green plants are responsible for making the food that every other organism needs to live. Green plants, some as small as photosynthetic bacteria, and some as large as oak trees, use sunlight, carbon dioxide and water during photosynthesis to make glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar needed by all living things that cannot make their own food for energy. Herbivores are the next link in the food chain. These animals can eat green plants. Their bodies are able to use the stored energy (sugars) from the plants as energy for themselves. In the Everglades, some herbivores are white-tailed deer, fish, insects and some birds. They eat plants and use most of the plants' energy to be able to live and move about, but a small amount of energy is stored in their bodies. They are the primary consumers. The next link in the food chain is a group called the carnivores. They eat meat for their energy. We may know them as predators (panthers, crocodiles, and hawks) or scavengers (vultures). Predators hunt for their food, while scavengers eat animals that have already died. Their bodies are unable to use the form of energy found in plants. They must eat other animals that have already digested plants and stored the plant energy in their own bodies. They are the secondary consumers.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 6 Food Chains

and Food Webs

Name

Reference Sheet #6.2

Food Chains and Food Webs

It's all about energy.

Omnivores are animals that eat plants and other animals for their energy. Their bodies can use the energy, as it is stored in both plants and animals. People, as well as Black bears are omnivores. They use most of the energy from the food they eat to support their lives, but some is stored in their bodies. Then there is another link in the food chain, which brings us back to the beginning. Decomposers have "When one tugs at a single thing in nature, he finds it a very special job. Decomposers attached to the rest of the world...." -John Muir such as bacteria, earthworms, and fungus eat dead plants and animals, using the stored energy in these dead organisms to support their lives. When they are finished with their work, the leftovers are the nutrients that plants need. A food chain appears as a single line, from producer, to herbivore, to carnivore, to omnivore, and then decomposer. In reality, there are many food chains that cross over each other. This is called the food web. A fish may be eaten by a bear or a bird. An insect may be eaten by a fish or a frog. These food chains all happen at the same time, and their straight lines cross and may produce a diagram that looks more like a spider's web. Many things that people do can affect the food chain and the food web. If the plants and animals lower on the food web are affected by man-made changes, so are the rest of the creatures that are connected to the same food chain or web. Sometimes, a very delicate balance must be maintained.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 6 Food Chains

and Food Webs

Name

Reference Sheet #6.3

Food Chains and Food Webs

It's all about energy.

VOCABULARY

food chain

primary producers

photosynthesis

herbivores

primary consumers

carnivores

predators

scavengers

secondary consumers

omnivores

decomposers

food web

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 6 Food Chains

and Food Webs

Name

Reference Sheet #6.4

Food Chains and Food Webs

It's all about energy.

VOCABULARY Definitions

food chain: how energy is made and then transferred to other living things primary producers: green plants that use sunlight to make food photosynthesis: process where green plants use sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to make glucose, a sugar needed by all living things that cannot produce their own food herbivores: eat plants primary consumers: eat plants and use most of the plants' energy but store a small amount of energy in their bodies carnivores: eat meat (flesh) predators: hunt for their food scavengers: eat food that is already dead secondary consumers: eat other animals that have already digested plants and stored the plant energy in their own bodies omnivores: eat both plants and meat decomposers: use the stored energy in dead organisms to support their lives and supply nutrients that plants need food web: many food chains that cross over each other

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 6 Food Chains

and Food Webs

Reference Sheet # 6.5

Each living thing in a food chain plays a roll in an ecosystem. Below is an example of a simple food chain. Describe the flow of energy in this food chain.

Algae

Apple Snail

Snail Kite

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Objectives: Students will observe photos of wading birds and birds of prey found in the KOE watershed, and identify common physical characteristics. Students will determine what type of niche these birds are best adapted to occupy.

Materials

· · · · Class set of Reference Sheets #7.1 - 7.11 Blackline Masters of Reference Sheets #7.1 - 7.11 Paper and coloring materials for bird drawings Bird identification books or Internet bird identification website

Procedures

1. Tell students that they will be studying adaptations, but do NOT tell them in advance that they will be looking at wading birds and birds of prey. 2. Distribute Reference Sheets #7.1 - 7.6 to each student. 3. Ask students to look at the Group A birds and observe the characteristics that most of the birds in the group seem to have in common. Ask them to answer the questions on the Group A worksheet. Students may work individually or in small groups, whichever way they prefer to learn. 4. Using the overhead, write down the common physical characteristics that the students or groups in the class identified. 5. Repeat process with Group B birds. 6. Summarize their observations that birds that live in different ways have physical characteristics adapted or suited to their lifestyles.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Extension

1. Read through Reference Sheets #7.9 & #7.10 on the physical characteristics of birds with students. 2. Ask each student to draw and color a picture of a bird and to label: a. the common name of the bird b. the type of beak the bird has c. the type of feet the bird has

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Reference Sheet #7.1

Name

Bird Adaptations

Group A Birds

A1

A2

A3

A4

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Reference Sheet #7.2

Name

Bird Adaptations

Group A Birds (Cont'd)

A5

A6

A7

A8

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Reference Sheet #7.3

Name

Bird Adaptations

Group B Birds

B1

B2

B3

B4

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Reference Sheet #7.4

Name

Bird Adaptations

Group B Birds (Cont'd)

B5

B6

B7

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Reference Sheet #7.5

Name

Bird Adaptations

Group A Birds

Look at the photographs of the Group A birds that can be found in the Everglades. Observe the characteristics that the birds have in common. List the characteristics these birds have in common:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

These birds are __________________ birds that fish in ______________ water. Water levels are important to them because they cannot wade for fish if the water is too _____________ or too _____________.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Reference Sheet #7.6

Name

Bird Adaptations

Group B Birds

Look at the photographs of the Group B birds that can be found in the Everglades. Observe the characteristics that the birds have in common. List the characteristics these birds have in common: 1.

2.

3.

4.

These birds are probably ___________________________ (choose one: herbivores, carnivores, omnivores) that eat ____________________________. I made this choice for the following reason(s):

Bird B1 and Bird B2 are the same species. How is this possible?

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Reference Sheet #7.7

Name

Bird Adaptations

Answer Sheet

Group A Birds

Look at the photographs of the Group A birds that can be found in the Everglades. Observe the characteristics that the birds generally have in common. List the characteristics that you think these birds have in common: 1. long skinny legs 2. long bills 3. long necks 4. pointed, spear-shaped bills 5. tall, slender bodies 6. long toes These birds are wading birds that fish in shallow water. Water levels are important to them because they cannot wade for fish if the water is too deep (high) or too shallow (low).

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Reference Sheet #7.8

Name

Bird Adaptations

Answer Sheet

Group B Birds

Look at the photographs of the Group B birds that can be found in the Everglades. Observe the characteristics that the birds have in common. List the characteristics these birds have in common: 1. talons for grasping prey 2. sharp beak for tearing flesh 3. short, curved beak 4. short neck 5. short legs These birds are probably carnivores (choose one: herbivores, carnivores, omnivores) that eat meat. I made this choice for the following reason(s): sharp, powerful talons to grab prey; sharp curved beak for tearing flesh Bird B1 and Bird B2 are the same species. How is this possible when they look so different? Bird B1 is the male and Bird B2 is the female - males often have brighter colors to attract females. Young (juveniles) can also have different color patterns.

Key to Birds

A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 Little blue heron Wood stork Yellow-crowned night-heron Tricolored heron Snowy egret Roseate spoonbill Great blue heron White ibis B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 Snail kite (male) Snail kite (female) Red-shouldered hawk Bald eagle Barred Owl Burrowing Owl Osprey

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Reference Sheet #7.9

Name

Bird Adaptations

Foot adaptations: Foot shape is determined by habitat- where birds live, hunt and feed. Bird toes are arranged in different ways to help them stand, hunt, swim, climb and perch. Bird feet come in many shapes and sizes. · Perching feet have three toes in front and one in back. All perching birds, such as finches and sparrows, have the perching foot, which is especially designed for clasping twigs. · Tree clinging or zygodactyl toes define the woodpecker's foot, with two toes in front and two in back. The zygodactyl foot is perfectly suited to climbing up tree trunks. · Webbed feet such as the duck's paddle-shaped foot have webbing between the toes and are excellent for swimming. All waterfowl such as ducks, swans and geese have webbed feet. · Talons for killing and grasping prey belong to birds of prey such as hawks, eagles, and falcons. · Wading feet belonging to long legged waders such as herons and egrets that have 3 long toes forward and one long toe in the back. The toes are much longer than perching toes and have some webbing between them that keeps them from sinking into the muddy river, pond, lake or marsh bottoms. Bill or beak adaptations: Bill shape is determined by the food the bird eats. Bills or beaks are also used for preening, drinking, defense and nest building. Bills have different shapes that have been adapted for eating different foods. · Conical: seed eaters such as sparrows and finches (goldfinches, cardinals) have triangular, thick bills for cracking seeds. · Spear shaped: waders such as Great Blue Herons have spear shaped bills for spearing fish.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Reference Sheet #7.10

Name

Bird Adaptations

· Probing or Drilling: downy woodpeckers, nuthatches, flickers and other tree clinging birds have thin, powerful bills for drilling wood and picking invertebrates out of bark. · Sipping: nectar sipping birds such as the hummingbirds have thin bills that fit perfectly into flowers in order to sip nectar. · Straining: waterfowl such as ducks, geese and swans have flat bills for straining small fish, tadpoles, snails and plants in the water. · Flesh-tearing: birds of prey such as the Red Tailed Hawk have sharp, hooked bills for tearing flesh of prey.

Bird Characteristics

Feathers: All birds have feathers for · · · · warmth keeping dry flight color and patterns for attracting mates

Bird Bones: Bird bones are · light · hollow · have a keel or breast bone providing strong attachment for wing muscles so that birds can fly

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 7 Bird Adaptations

Reference Sheet #7.11

Name

Bird Adaptations

Many animals are different, but share similar characteristics. Use the chart below to determine which characteristics best describe wading birds.

Bird Adaptations

Bird

Osprey Spoonbill Snail kite Heron

Vertebrate

yes yes yes yes

Skin Covering

feathers feathers feathers feathers

Adaptation

talons long legs & neck sharp curved beak long bills

Classification

bird bird bird bird

A. Sharp curved beaks B. Talons and long necks C. Long legs, bills, and necks D. Sharp curved beaks and talons

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 8

Create a National Park

Objective: Students create a mini-national park in a specified outdoor area, marking a nature trail and providing visitors with information about their park.

Duration: 45 Minutes

Location: Outdoors

Objectives

The student will be able to: 1) State three reasons why national parks are needed, 2) Describe characteristics of a national park, 3) List three problems facing national parks, and 4) Analyze the information learned and write a persuasive proposal for a national park designation.

Background

There are 388 national park areas in the national park system. They have been set aside by Congress to preserve and protect the best of our natural, recreational, and cultural resources for the use and enjoyment of all persons, including future generations. For this lesson, we will be discussing parks set aside for their natural wonders. These parks are as diverse as the visitors who come to them. A park may offer any one or a combination of the following: Camping (tent or motor home), wilderness hiking trails, scenic overlooks, motor tour routes, nature trails, campfire programs, boat/tram tours, bike trails, canoeing, fishing and hunting (recreational parks), boardwalks, rock climbing, and swimming. A park may have several outstanding natural features for which it was set aside, or it may be preserved for a specific site. Park management is set up much like a school system, the rangers being the teachers. Each day brings new challenges to a park and its resources. Some parks, like Everglades National Park, have numerous problems facing them. At Everglades National Park, there are a combination of problems: water quality and quantity, exotic species, destruction of habitat, etc.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 8

Background

Create a National Park

Upon arriving at many of the national parks, the visitor pays a small entrance fee and is handed a park map that outlines the major resources and sites to visit. Larger parks have a visitor center where rangers dispense information about the park. One part of a park ranger's job is to interpret the park resources and problems to the visitors so that they understand the concerns of the park. Why? Parks belong to the people and they must learn about these valuable resources and how to preserve and protect them.

Materials

· Clipboard · Paper, pencil · Hand lens · One fifteen-foot piece of string · Six popsicle sticks · Poker chips (at least one per student). *Note the teacher can substitute peanuts for the poker chips. It only costs "peanuts" to get into a national park! · Class set of Blackline Master* - Reference Sheets #8.1 - 8.2

*Recommended Overhead

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 8

Create a National Park

Suggested Procedure

1. Discuss the concept of a national park with your students. Ask students if they have ever been to a national park. What makes it different from a state park or a county park? 2. Ask students what they would like in a national park, if they were to create a "perfect park." Why set up a national park? Who owns national parks? 3. Pair off the students. Distribute the materials listed on the preceding page to each pair. 4. Assign, or let each pair choose an outdoor spot for their national park. Using their string, they should rope off their area. 5. Students must move about their national park on hands and knees. Using the hand lens, the students should choose the scenic values of their park; a hole might be the Grand Canyon, a rock might be a mountain, for instance. The popsicle sticks can be used to mark the trails or scenic spots. 6. Give the class about 20-25 minutes to set up the trails in their park. After the students have marked their parks, they must make a brochure (including a map) publicizing their park. 7. Once the parks are ready for business, the "rangers" (the paired students) must advertise their park. They should advertise their park by shouting out its attributes. Ask the pairs to split up. One student in the pair should remain in the park to interpret it, while the second visits other national parks. The students may then switch. The peanuts are the entrance fee needed to visit another national park. Every student must visit at least one national park. 8. After they have visited the national parks, ask students the following questions: Did they have problems getting visitors to come to their park? Were visitors always careful with the parks' resources? Did they have too many visitors? What would they change? What problems occurred? How would they raise money to improve the park's facilities?

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 8

Evaluation

Create a National Park

Evaluation: Discuss why we should have national parks. What can you do to help protect the resources in a national park? Who has the responsibility of preserving and protecting the park for future generations?

Extensions

· After discussing the questions above, distribute to each student a copy of the blackline master "Owner's Manual to South Florida's National Parks." Have them sign it once they understand their responsibilities. · Ask the music teacher to lead the students in the singing of the song "This Park is Your Park" THIS PARK IS YOUR PARK (To the Tune of "This Land is Your Land") This land is your land, this land is my land From the coastal prairie to Florida Bay From 10,000 islands to the Atlantic Ocean This Park is here for us today. As I was slogging that river of sawgrass I saw before me a great blue heron A cloud of egrets flew in snowy splendor This Park is here for you today. The Everglades needs your protection From the mangrove forests to the dwarf cypress If we are all conservation-minded Our Park will last for you and me. · Write a proposal to get funding to buy a national park. Presentations should be made to the "President" (teacher or principal).

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 8

Create a National Park

Reference Sheet #8.1

Name

Create a National Park

Owner's Manual to South Florida's National Parks

Big Cypress National Preserve, Everglades National Park, Biscayne National Park, and Dry Tortugas National Park were established to assure protection of their unique flora and fauna, as well as for the education and enjoyment of future generations. Who are the parks' rightful owners? All of us, including YOU! With ownership there comes responsibility. This owner's manual will help you protect the park for your enjoyment and that of the next generation. Make no mistake; it is a big responsibility, this ownership business. What are the benefits of ownership? The parks are an incredible refuge for birds, reptiles, insects, mammals and plants. The parks are a refuge for people too; a special place to visit, where the wonders of nature can be discovered first hand. What are the drawbacks of ownership? Your parks are in trouble! Their resources are threatened each day. Things like water quality and quantity, introduction of exotic plants and animals, and a long list of endangered species are just a few of the concerns facing the parks. As an owner you have a lot of responsibility. What can you do to help your park and how much is it going to cost? These are some of the questions you might ask before you take on the job of ownership. On the next page are a few things you can do to help preserve and protect your parks. One word of warning: Taking on this ownership means you could possibly become addicted to the love of the natural world.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 8

Create a National Park

Reference Sheet #8.2

Name

Create a National Park

Instructions for Owners

1. Visit your parks. Learn more about the parks' resources. 2. Tell others about the park and get them involved. 3. Reduce...reuse...recycle! It will help protect clean air and water. 4. Be a fulltime water conservationist. Learn ways to conserve water in your home and community. It will help South Florida's wildlife. 5. Save electricity so that less fossil fuels need to be burned. Fossil fuels come from the earth (at a cost to the environment). 6. Plant native trees and shrubs. They use less water and are beneficial to native wildlife. Remove exotic plants that can spread to natural areas. Learn which plants pose a threat to the South Florida ecosystem. 7. Volunteer for park work projects. 8. Start an ecology club at your school. 9. Write your local, state and federal representatives to share your concerns on environmental issues facing the parks. 10. Raise money for habitat restoration.

Lifetime Warranty

I, the undersigned, understand that this warranty is valid only so long as the owner's manual is strictly followed.

_______________________________________________________ (Signature)

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Native/Exotic Species in the Everglades Student Activities

Objective: This activity is designed to help students identify native and exotic plant species in their local areas. Students may work independently or in small groups.

Lesson 9

Materials

· plant identification books or websites, Internet access

Procedures

1. Prepare a list of the trees and plants found around the school. (The local city forester can be a good source of information.) 2. Form small groups. Assign each group a plant or tree name found on the schoolyard. Have each group research each plant and share with the class. Each group should also include a picture with their information. Be sure that each group has identified their plant as native to South Florida or as an exotic species. 3. Use the pictures from each group's research to create a class guide. 4. Using the class guides, have groups identify the trees and plants. (Specific plants can be numbered prior to the outdoor portion of the activity)

Extension

1. Have students use their plant guides to list the native and exotic species in their neighborhoods. 2. Plan a trip to an arboretum or park (Deerfield Beach Arboretum, for example) to give students an opportunity to learn more about the advantages of native species. 3. Students could write letters to encourage their community to adopt laws banning the use of exotic species. 4. Have the class "adopt" an area of the school to create a native garden.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Native/Exotic Species in the Everglades Student Activities Evaluation

1. Ask students to describe the characteristics of the native and exotic plants they researched. 2. Discuss with the students why exotic species cause problems in an environment.

Lesson 9

What Can Students Do?

Students can be made aware of the problems associated with exotic species and can help play a positive role by: · Never releasing an unwanted pet into a wild area. · Encouraging their family to landscape with native plants. · Writing letters to encourage their community to adopt laws banning exotic species.

Additional Resources

http://riverwoods.ces.fau.edu/education/exotic.pdf (GREAT SITE)

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Native/Exotic Species in the Everglades Student Activities Reference Sheet #9.1

Name

Lesson 9

Native/Exotic Species in the Everglades

The South Florida ecosystem is home to an amazing variety of plants and animals. The introduction of species not naturally occurring (exotics) has become costly to our area and an endangerment to the survival of many native plants and animals. Native Species Plants and animals considered native to south Florida were blown here by the wind, washed up on seashores, were flown here in the bellies of birds, or walked here from more northern regions. Native species interact well with each other, as each has its own niche. They do not compete with each other for available food, water, shelter, and space. Exotic Species Exotic species naturally live hundreds or thousands of miles away and have very different features from native species. Humans bring them here and when released into the south Florida ecosystem, they often have disastrous effects on the native species. Exotics lack natural controls (such as disease and predation) that normally would help keep balance between species. They crowd out native plants and animals and are very costly to our economy. A recent Cornell University study found that invasive exotic plants and animals cost the United States more than one hundred million dollars a year.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Native/Exotic Species in the Everglades Student Activities Reference Sheet #9.2

Name

Lesson 9

Native/Exotic Species in the Everglades

Florida is one of four states in the United States with the highest number of nonindigenous species (Hawaii, California, and Louisiana are the other three). South Florida is home to more exotic animals than any other region in the United States. Approximately 140 of the 840 plant and animal species within the boundaries of the Everglades National Park are exotics.

Examples of Exotic Species The Melaleuca tree (brought from Australia) may be the most harmful exotic in the area when planted in someone's yard. Its seeds quickly blow to wild areas. Its dense growth shades out other plants and dries out the soil. Melaleuca forests can be so thick that many animals cannot even walk through or live in the area. Water requirements by Melaleuca trees are four to five times more than a saw grass prairie. Fish such as tilapia, oscars and Mayan cichlids get dumped into canals from home aquariums and move into the Everglades where they compete with native bass and bream for food and breeding space. They also prey on native species. There is no effective control method that has yet been found. Saltwater fish such as lionfish and tangs have been found on the coral reefs in Florida. Other examples of harmful exotics include Brazilian pepper, Australian pine, Cuban tree frogs (eats the smaller native tree frogs), wild hogs (root up and eat plants in native hammocks and cause widespread destruction), pythons, boa constrictors, parakeets and parrots.

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Environmental Education Teacher's Guide

Lesson 10

Lightning and Fire Cycles in the Everglades

Objective: Students will learn about fire-dependent habitats, prescribed burning and wildfires.

Materials

· Class set of Reference Sheets #10.1 - 10.4.

Procedures

1. Introduce topic to students by asking: Are wildfires good or bad? Tell students that they all have to vote one way or the other, and to be prepared to justify their choice. Tell students that they will be given a few minutes to think about their answer before they have to go to one side of the room or the other (one side is "wildfires are good" and one side is "wildfires are bad"). They should be reminded that they are not expected to know the "correct" answer - the emphasis is NOT on being "right" or "wrong" but rather on THINKING through their answer and providing the reasoning behind it. 2. Ask students to move to either the "yes" side or the "no" side. If they say the answer is "both" and depends upon the situation, allow them to be in the middle of the room. Not knowing or not making a choice is not an option. 3. Ask volunteers on both sides to share their rationale for their decision. 4. Allow the students to sit down and discuss their ideas as a class. 5. Distribute Reference Sheets #10.1 - 10.3, to each student. Read aloud in class, and discuss. 6. Ask students whether they have changed their view after reading the information sheet, and provide reasons. 7. Summarize by stating that many of Florida's ecosystems developed under geographic conditions created by high numbers of thunderstorms and lightning

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Procedures

Lightning and Fire Cycles in the Everglades

strikes. In Florida, wildfires were normal, natural and relatively frequent events, and the ecosystems that developed under those conditions thrived on and even came to be dependent on those conditions. However, when the area was settled and structures were built, the property had to be protected. The natural wildfires could not be allowed to burn freely. Excess fuel built up, since it was no longer being burned on a regular basis. Fires with too much fuel burn explosively - the same thing that happens when you put too much lighter fluid on the charcoal for your barbeque. In addition, there are some plants like scrub pines that require fire to release their seeds so that new growth replaces the old, dead trees. Sometimes fire is needed to keep the species in the area the same (fire-tolerant species could be replaced by less fire tolerant species which could compete better under conditions without fire) or to burn out underbrush (species like the scrub jay like to scrounge around in scrub pine areas where there is normally not dense ground cover). 8. To give your students an example of a previous campaign, tell students about the old "Smokey the Bear" "Only YOU can prevent forest fires!" campaign. You can find information on it at http://www.smokeybear.com/resources.asp and http://www.smokeybear.com/resources/Poster.pdf 9. Ask students to think about a media campaign that they would design to prevent wildfires. Tell them that they will be asked to describe their program in an FCAT style essay the following day. 10. Distribute Reference Sheet #10.4, and ask the students to describe their wildfire prevention program. 11. Extension: Have students create one item from their campaign - create a poster, create a brochure, act out a commercial, dress up as a "character" created to represent and deliver the message, give an informative speech, etc.

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Lightning and Fire Cycles in the Everglades Reference Sheet #10.1

Name

Lightning and Fire Cycles in the Everglades

Naturally occurring wildfires, as well as water, have been major role-players in determining Florida's natural communities. Florida has one of the highest frequencies of lightning strikes of any place in the United States and more thunderstorm days than anywhere in the country. It also has very dry winters followed by frequent summer storms. This creates ideal conditions on higher ridges for wildfires and the plants have adapted to these conditions. As a result of these weather patterns, a large number of natural communities in Florida have come to depend on fires. Pinelands, prairies, scrubs and marshes all require regularly occurring fire. In fact, many plants and animals depend on fire to thrive. One of the ways that plants have adapted to fire is by having massive underground root systems. The modest above-ground portions of the plants regenerate rapidly following a fire. For other plants, fire stimulates seed germination and flowering. In addition, many of the plants need fire in order to provide clear ground for the germination of seeds. This in turn helps to provide a steady food source for Gopher Tortoises and many other herbivores. Without fire, hardwood forests would, in time, take over a site and replace the original vegetation. Florida Scrub Jays, an endangered species native only to scrub, benefit from these same fires that prevent the low scrub habitat from maturing into a taller brushier forested habitat. Scrub Jays are poor flyers compared to many other birds, making them easy targets for raptors such as hawks and falcons. However, if the scrub becomes overgrown with sand pines or other large trees because of a lack of fire, the higher canopy provides ambush points for raptors and a predatory influence that the jays cannot survive. All in all, scrub is Florida's oldest surviving habitat. It is a very unique community, and hundreds of plants and animals (42 of which are listed as either endangered or threatened) have evolved to survive in scrub and today can live nowhere else. Since Florida has been settled and developed, roads, fire lanes and the need to protect lives and property have limited naturally occurring wildfires. A lot of firemaintained communities are unable to sustain themselves without assistance.

RS-10.1

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Lightning and Fire Cycles in the Everglades Reference Sheet #10.2

Name

Lightning and Fire Cycles in the Everglades

Today, forests must be burned under prescribed or controlled conditions to reduce fuel and to prevent unacceptable species changes. Land managers at parks with fire- dependent communities schedule prescribed burns on a regular basis. They set fires with drip torches to burn the excess fuel (plant material such as scrub pine needles). These fires are set only on days when there has been adequate rainfall and little wind so that the fire can Lighting a prescribed burn with a drip be more easily controlled. If prescribed torch from an ATV at Dupuis Reserve burns are not done on a regular basis, too much plant material builds up, and then when there is a wildfire, the fires burn too intensely and too hot, and plants that would normally regenerate after a fire will be too damaged to grow back. Once upon a time, lightning was the primary source of wildfire in Florida, where more thunderstorms occur than anywhere else in North America. There are basically two kinds of lightning, cold and hot. Cold lightning is a return stroke with intense electrical current but of fairly short duration. Hot lightning has currents with less voltage, but these occur for longer periods of time. Exceedingly long-lasting or hot lightning bolts generally start fires. However, lightning now only accounts for about 20 percent of those wildfires actually reported. This increase due to an increase in human ignition sources, a decrease in wildland acreage, and vegetation changes that decrease the possibility of ignition by lightning.

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Lightning and Fire Cycles in the Everglades Reference Sheet #10.3

Name

Lightning and Fire Cycles in the Everglades

FIRE VOCABULARY

Fire regime - the role fire plays in an ecosystem; a function of the frequency of fire occurrence, fire intensity and the amount of fuel consumed Fire dependence - the reliance of plants or plant communities on fire as a mechanism for creating the optimal situation for their survival YOU SHOULD KNOW: · Fire requires combustible material (a fuel source), an ignition source (heat) and oxygen. Remove or significantly reduce any of the three and the fire cannot exist. · Fire conditions are influenced by many factors including humidity, fuel moisture, wind speed, topography and air temperature. · Fire is a natural process that governs many ecosystem functions. Its presence is vital to continued ecosystem health. · Some ecosystems require frequent low-intensity fires; others require infrequent highintensity stand-replacement fires. · Humans, mostly through carelessness, start over 80 percent of the wildfires in Florida. Smokey Bear has been very effective in educating the public about the potential damage from these fires, but has not addressed the long-term ramifications of fire exclusion. · Prescribed fire is often used in the agricultural industry to clear fields of stubble after harvest of wheat, rice, cane, oats, and straw.

RS-10.3

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Lightning and Fire Cycles in the Everglades Reference Sheet #10.4

Humans start more than 80 percent of wildland fires in Florida. Some fires, incendiary fires, are set on purpose, which we call arson, while other fires are the result of accidents or carelessness. Knowing that not all fires are bad, what type of fire "suppression" media campaigns would you suggest and why?

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Lesson 11

Endangered Species "Wanted - Alive"

Objective: This activity is designed to help students become knowledgeable about the endangered animal and plant species in south Florida. Students may work independently, with a partner, or in small groups.

Materials

· · · · · · Class set of Reference Sheets #11.1 - 11.3 Computers with Internet access or Books or other sources of information Paper and pencil/pen Poster sized paper Crayons, pencils, markers

Procedures

1. Assign or have students choose one of the endangered species (list provided in the Reference Sheet) to research and prepare a report for class. Make sure that each species will be covered. Each report should include: · A physical description and picture · Type of habitat required · Predator / Prey relationship (what do they eat/what eats them) · What role does the species fill in its environment (niche) 2. Students may share their information by writing a report or by preparing a "Wanted ­ Alive!" poster. (Information could be placed on 12" x 18" construction paper to create classroom display.) 3. Writing activity: Reference Sheet #11.4.

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Endangered Species "Wanted - Alive" Evaluation

1. What types of habitat do the South Florida endangered species require? (List) 2. What are the similarities and differences of the habitat requirements? (Compare/Contrast) 3. Are any of the required habitats in danger?

Extensions

1. Have students create a poem, rap or song about their plant or animal. 2. Student South Florida Endangered Species Guide ­ Students could create their own endangered species journal/guide and use it to list the endangered species, information about each species, include a picture. This can be an ongoing activity for them. They could add dates and notes of any sightings of these species and include any information of personal interest. 3. Coordinate a school-wide poster contest. Assign each class one of the endangered species. Classes could use their doors to display their posters or create a school area display. 4. "Did you know that..." Share information about each endangered species as part of the daily school announcements. This could be done on a daily or weekly basis. 5. Have students look for related current news stories.

Additional Resources

·www.nps.gov/ever/eco/danger.htm Endangered Species: Everglades National Park ·http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/UW064 The Value of Endangered Species

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Endangered Species "Wanted - Alive" Reference Sheet #11.1

Name

Endangered Species

In 1973, the Endangered Species Act was passed by the United States Congress to classify plant or animal species that should be considered "endangered" or "threatened". Legal protection was mandated for these species. The following information should help students understand: · · · · What does it mean when a plant or animal is classified as endangered? What are the endangered species found in the Everglades? Why should these species be saved? What can students do to help save endangered species?

What does it mean for a plant or animal to be classified as endangered? Plant or animal species are considered endangered if they are in danger of becoming extinct throughout all or most of its range. Extinction is considered a natural process. However, today's extinction rates of plants and animals are accelerating at a rate that is faster than a natural process. Factors that are contributing to this include: ·Loss of habitat ·Alteration of water flow ·Drainage of wetlands ·Introduction of non-native organisms ·Direct killing (over-harvesting and poisoning) What are the endangered species found in the Everglades? Animal species that are classified as endangered are: Insects: Schauss Swallowtail Mammals: Florida Panther, West Indian Manatee, Key Largo Wood Rat, Key Largo Cotton Mouse Birds: Snail (Everglades) Kite, Arctic Peregrine Falcon, Cape Sable Sea Side Sparrow, Wood Stork

RS-11.1

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Endangered Species "Wanted - Alive" Reference Sheet #11.2

Name

Endangered Species

Reptiles: Kemp's Ridley Turtle, Green Turtle, Hawksbill Turtle, Leatherback Turtle, American Crocodile Among these, the wood stork is called an "indicator species". The quality, quantity, and distribution of water directly determine its well-being. This, in turn, indicates how well other species are faring. Why should endangered species be saved? There are many benefits of naturally functioning ecosystems: oxygen production, soil generation and maintenance, ground water recharge, water purification, and flood protection. Biological diversity benefits humans. Plants and animals provide humans with food, clothing, energy, medicines, and structural materials. As such, efforts should be continued to preserve endangered species. Some species may play a critical role in an ecosystem, and we may not even know about it. We don't want to find out when it's too late. Extinction is indeed forever. Once a species becomes extinct, a hole is left in the ecosystem and that species' role, or niche, is left unoccupied. The loss of a single species can affect many other plants and animals. What can students do to help save endangered species? It is important to help students understand that they are not too young to become good stewards of the riches of our environment. They can help by: · Becoming knowledgeable about one or more of the endangered species found in our area · Becoming informed on the status of plants and wildlife in our area · Not purchasing products made from endangered species · Becoming a "Friend of the Florida Panther". (Students can be part of a "panther posse"- see www.floridapanther.org/) · Helping to plant a refuge for wildlife. (Contact your local County Extension Office for details) · Becoming knowledgeable about the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (www.evergladesplan.org/)

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Endangered Species "Wanted - Alive" Reference Sheet #11.3

Name

Endangered Species

What are "listed species"? With respect of and concern for the welfare of other species, federal (nationwide) and state governments have devised lists that categorize plants and animals according to their degree of peril: Endangered: A species, subspecies or isolated population which is so rare, depleted in number or restricted in range of habitat due to any man-made or natural factor, that it is in immediate danger of extinction or extirpation from Florida. Threatened: A species, subspecies or isolated population which is acutely vulnerable to environmental alteration, declining in number at a rapid rate, or whose range or habitat is decreasing in area at a rapid rate and, as a consequence, is destined or very likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future. Species of Special Concern: A species or population which warrants special protection, recognition, or consideration because it has an inherent significant vulnerability to habitat modification, environmental alteration, human disturbance, or substantial human exploitation which, in the foreseeable future, may result in its becoming threatened. (Species of special concern is a state listing only - at the federal or nationwide level, there is no such category) Of course, listing alone does nothing to help these plants and animals. Therefore, rules and regulations are applied that limit human activities that are likely to further jeopardize vulnerable species. In addition, plans are made for the recovery of the species. For complete information about current rules and regulations that protect listed federally listed species in the U.S., visit the U.S. Department of Interior/U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) websites. For distribution and other information about listed species in Florida, visit the Florida Natural Areas Inventory website.

RS-11.3

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Lesson 11

Endangered Species "Wanted - Alive" Reference Sheet #11.4

The bald eagle and the red-shouldered hawk both live in the Everglades. What structural adaptations do they have that allows them to compete with other birds such as the ibis, stork, heron and spoonbill?

RS-11.4

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Lesson 12 Turtle Breath

Objective: An interactive lesson plan that allows students to make predictions, provide support for their position, make scientific observations, analyze patterns, test hypotheses, collect and report data, and reach conclusions while learning about endangered sea turtles and using high-level critical thinking skills.

Materials

· Computer with Internet access and speakers, photo of a leatherback

Preparation

Go to www.floridaleatherbacks.com multimedia or audio webpages and download the audio file of a leatherback turtle. Additional information at www.floridaleatherbacks.com, www.cccturtle.org/leather.htm, and http://www.marinelife.org.

Background for Teacher

The leatherback turtle sound you hear is "Big Bertha" an endangered leatherback sea turtle who came up to lay her eggs on the beach at Singer Island, just east of Riviera Beach and north of West Palm Beach, Florida. "BIG BERTHA" was first observed on 5/17/2003. She weighs about 800 pounds and her carapace (a leathery "shell") is about 1.7 meters (5 feet 7 inches long). The audio was recorded while she was laying her eggs. Research staff from the Marinelife Center of Juno Beach measured and tagged Bertha with tag #RRA653 on her left rear flipper and tag #RRA654 on her right rear flipper. A PIT tag with the frequency number 4414034257 was implanted in her right shoulder. A female leatherback will emerge from the water under cover of darkness, crawl up the beach, dig an egg chamber with her rear flippers and lay approximately 60 to 80 large, round, leathery eggs in a nest up to 3 feet deep in the sand. The nesting season for leatherbacks in Florida is generally from March through June, though they may nest earlier or later. Just think - these huge critters are probably hanging out just offshore in the water right where you go swimming, as they wait for night to fall so they can come up onto the beach, camouflaged by darkness, to lay their eggs!

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Procedure

Part A (one class period) DO NOT TELL STUDENTS AHEAD OF TIME WHAT YOU ARE STUDYING !!!! Tell them you will be presenting a challenge to the class to see who can identify the "mystery sound." Tell the students that they will be listening to a mystery sound and they have to do their best to identify what the sound is (they have to be very specific) and they will have to explain what clues or reasoning they used to make their guess. Tell them that you will play the sound for them four different times. They must be completely quiet and listen carefully to the sound, without talking, commenting or laughing. Tell them that you will go around the room to each student in turn and ask them to describe what they think the sound is, in as much detail as possible. No one knows what the sound is, so they are encouraged to make wild guesses--but they must be able to "back up" their guess with a "reason." They must NOT talk at all while the other students are talking, but are to listen carefully to the other student's ideas, since they will have to decide at the end of the exercise, who they think was correct. As you go around the room and discuss the sound with each student, many students will change their minds as they gather more data from the other students. Tell them that at the very end, you will ask all of the students to point at the student or students they think guessed correctly. (We suggest that you go up and down the rows in order and not allow anyone to opt out - each has to make at least a "wild guess") Tell students that you will play the sound four times only. Remind students that they may not talk or make any noise during this time. Tell students that the first time you play the sound, they need to think about what the sound could be. Play the sound for them (there will likely be some laughter the first time). Tell them that if they make any noise at all, they will not be able to hear the sound and make a good guess. Tell them that you will play the sound only three more times before they will be expected to make a guess (everyone has to participate and guess something). Once you have played the sound four times, go around the room and ask each student in turn what they believe the sound to be, in as much detail as possible. DO NOT AT ANY TIME GIVE ANY INDICATION OF WHETHER THE STUDENT IS "CLOSE" OR "RIGHT", just listen to their answers and ask for specific details and the thought process behind their guess. If they say "I think it is a human," ask, "What makes you think this is a human sound? What clues are you using to make your decision?" Then ask for more detail --"What type of human? A man or a woman? Young or old? Is it a voice or another sound? What is the human doing?" If they say, "It sounds like a monkey," ask them again for more detail.

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Procedure

"Is it a male or female? A big monkey like a gorilla or a little pocket sized monkey? How do you know what size it is? What clues do you hear that tell you what size it might be? Is it one monkey or many? What are the monkeys doing? If they are fighting, how are they fighting? Are they making noises or making contact with each other?"...etc. Accept even "outrageous" answers without judgement, insisting only that the student "backup" their decision. After all of the students have described what they believe the mystery sound to be, tell them to take a moment to think about what the other students have said. When they have had a moment, ask them to point to the person who they thought was "correct."If one or more of the students was correct or close, tell the students who the "best guessers" were. If other students recognized other clues, for example, believing it is a large animal because it was a deep sound rather than a high pitched sound, praise them for recognizing the pattern that large animals often make deep sounds and smaller animals make high pitched sounds (you might want to imitate the bark of a large dog versus a small "yappy" dog). Tell the students that the sound was made by a large endangered leatherback sea turtle when she crawled up onto the beach to lay her eggs in the sand. Play the sound once again so they can listen and imagine seeing a large leatherback laying her eggs in the warm, loose sand above the high tide line on the beach. Part B (one class period) Ask the students about how they think sea turtles breathe. Since they live underwater in marine (saltwater) environments, ask whether they think they breathe through gills like fish, or with lungs like humans (you may have them take a "vote" by raising their hands -- emphasizing that they are not expected to know the answer, but to THINK about why they are choosing that answer). Ask some of the students to share their choice and provide the reason they chose their answer. The answer should be that they breathe with lungs like humans do (though they may have other specialized mechanisms that help them breathe) -- and hold their breath underwater. (Ask the students if they have ever seen a fresh water turtle lying on a log near the water and if they saw the turtle's nostrils -- same thing as a sea turtle). Ask students to think about the first thing a sea turtle would do when it came to the surface for air. Ask whether they thought it would inhale or exhale and to explain why they made that decision. Then, do this exercise: Tell all of the students to hold their breath for as long as they

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Procedure

can, and to make observations like a scientist while they are holding their breath. Students will take a big breath and puff out their cheeks and begin to hold their breath. As students begin to run out of air, one by one, they will release their breath in a loud burst. As each student gives up, point at the students one by one and hold your hand up to your ear, indicating that the students should be listening to what is happening. Let the students observe over and over again that every student participating will end their breath-holding with a loud bursting exhalation. Ask once again: When a sea turtle comes up to the surface of the water to breathe, what is the first thing it will do? (exhale to clear the breathing passages of water and to get rid of air in the lungs that is full of carbon dioxide. Explain the turtle will have to get rid of "used" air before it can fill its lungs with fresh oxygen-rich air). You may ask if the students know of any other "underwater" creatures that live in Florida waters and also have to come up for air. Ask what problem might occur as a result of the need to come to the surface of the water to breathe e.g., (Boat propeller or Impact/collision injury). Part C (one class period) Ask students how they think a female sea turtle would breathe when she emerges from the water and moves up onto the beach to lay her eggs (a process that takes about 1.5 hours). Activity: Tell students that they are going to "make believe" that one of them is a doctor and the other is a patient - the doctor will be listening to the patient's lungs with a "stethoscope" and making observations. Each student must find a partner quickly - they will show that they are paired off by having one student sit down (the "patient"), with the "doctor" standing with his/her hand on the patient's shoulder (otherwise it's tough to tell who is paired off). Students will trade places halfway through the exercise so each has the opportunity to be the doctor and make observations. The "Doctor" will put his/her hand on the "patient's" back as if they were using a stethoscope and will "listen" to the "patient's" lungs while the patient takes 5 deep breaths, just as they would during a real doctor's exam. The students should look and listen carefully to make scientific observations about the breathing patterns, trying again to get as much detail as possible. Students switch roles and repeat exercise. Ask the students what they observed. Then inquire for more detail and ask if they

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Procedure

observed any "patterns." Ask questions such as, "Was the breathing regular or irregular?? Did it stop and start, or were there pauses in between?" You should establish that there are two phases during normal human breathing--an inhalation and an exhalation; The phases alternate: one exhale, one inhale, one exhale, one inhale, etc; the exhalation is louder than the inhalation; the pattern of breathing is regular: in-out, in-out, in-out; there are no long pauses in-between; establish that breathing is an automatic function that can be altered by conscious choice and various stimuli--you don't have to think about breathing all the time (it would be really difficult to do complex tasks and constantly have to think about breathing in and breathing out). Sometimes the speed may increase(when you are running or scared). Also, you exhale and push air across your vocal chords to make noises as you are speaking (ask them to hold their hand out in front of their mouth to feel this occur).

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Tell students to think about the turtle sound and ask them whether they think turtles breathe like humans do when they are up out of the water and laying their eggs (for 1.5 hours), since they no longer have to hold their breath like they do when they are under water. Ask them to support their answer. Tell students that you are going to play the turtle breath sound again for them (one time only), and that you want them to listen to it carefully and analyze it based upon what they observed about human breathing. Ask them again --do turtles breath like humans when they are out of the water? The answer should be "no": turtles maintain their normal breathing pattern both in and out of the water -- a loud exhalation, followed by a quieter breath in, and then a long pause while they are "holding" their breath (even when they are on dry land). The pattern repeats itself with another exhalation-breath-hold sequence. Play the sound one last time, talking through the loud exhalation, breath in, hold breath, etc.

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Reference Sheet #12.1

Baby sea turtles face many obstacles the first several weeks after their birth. Their small size and inability to defend themselves make them easy prey both on land and at sea. What are some solutions that would enhance the survival rate of these animals?

RS-12.1

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Lesson 13 Florida Post Cards

Objective: Students will create postcards illustrating features/locations encountered in "The Journey of Wayne Drop" through the Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades Watershed and the typical habitats, plants or animals associated with those locations.

Source

Adapted from Florida Geographic Alliance's lesson plans, Fabulous Florida by Trisha Holland, Florida Postcards lesson

Materials

sample postcards, 4" X 8" index cards, crayons, markers, etc., class set of "The Journey of Wayne Drop to the Everglades" Booklets.

Procedures

1. Introduce the assignment: to create a post card illustrating one of the features/locations that Wayne and his classmates visited on one of their trips through the KOE watershed. 2. Strategies: Generate a list of features/locations that Wayne and his classmates visited in the KOE watershed. Generate a list of habitats, plants, animals or other characteristics associated with each location/feature. 3. Ask students to choose a location and create a postcard. The postcard must include, on one side, an accurate color illustration of the feature/location. The other side must have a caption describing the picture. An original stamp and a correct address must be included. Each postcard must have a message that includes at least three facts about the feature/location, including its location and description. Typical habitats, animals or plants may be included.

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Culminating Activity

Postcards could be displayed

Evaluation

Students will complete a postcard with: · · · · A color illustration of the location or feature An original stamp A complete mailing address A message with at least 3 facts

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Name

Date

Pre/Post Test

Wayne Wants to Know What You Know!

Sequencing ­ Number the areas of the KOE water system as it flows from the northern most area (#1) ending in the southern most areas (#10). ___ Kissimmee River ___ Water Conservation Area and Big Cypress National Preserve ___ Everglades National Park ___Florida Bay ___Kissimmee Chain of Lakes ___ Florida Keys ___Turkey Lake ___Lake Kissimmee ___Lake Okeechobee ___ Shark River Slough Matching ­ Write the letter of the correct description in front of the number. ___11. Gravity ___12. Watershed ___13. Irrigation ___14. Sawgrass Marsh ___15. Estuary ___16. Cumulous ___17. Sharp-edged Sedges ___18. Periphyton ___19. Mangroves ___20. Florida Keys A. North America's only living coral barrier reef is just off of B. Where fresh river water meets salt water C. Plant that had a "V" shape, not a grass D. Algae that filters phosphorus out of water E. Water for plants that is brought into a drier area F. Force of attraction between two objects G. Water flows from this area into a river/ocean etc. H. Fluffy, slow moving clouds I. Trees with long prop roots and live in coastal areas J. Slough with shallow slow moving water and sedges

Name

Date

Pre/Post Test

Critical Thinking

1. (4 points) What are two endangered species that live in Florida? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. (8 points) Identify two native plants and describe the adaptations that allow them to live in Florida. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. (3 points) What does KOE stand for? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. (5 points) On the back of this paper list at least 5 important ways that water is used in the KOE system of Florida. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ BONUS! How could YOU help protect the environment and habitats of Florida? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ R

Name

Date

Pre/Post Test

Answer Sheet Wayne Wants to Know What You Know!

Sequencing ­ Number the areas of the KOE water system as it flows from the northern most area (#1) ending in the southern most areas (#10). 4 Kissimmee River 6 Water Conservation Area and Big Cypress National Preserve 7 Everglades National Park 9 Florida Bay 2 Kissimmee Chain of Lakes 10 Florida Keys 1 Turkey Lake 3 Lake Kissimmee 5 Lake Okeechobee 8 Shark River Slough Matching ­ Write the letter of the correct description in front of the number. F 11. Gravity G 12. Watershed E 13. Irrigation J 14. Sawgrass Marsh B 15. Estuary H 16. Cumulous C 17. Sharp-edged Sedges D 18. Periphyton I 19. Mangroves A 20. Florida Keys A. North America's only living coral barrier reef is just off of B. Where fresh river water meets salt water C. Plant that had a "V" shape, not a grass D. Algae that filters phosphorus out of water E. Water for plants that is brought into a drier area F. Force of attraction between two objects G. Water flows from this area into a river/ocean etc. H. Fluffy, slow moving clouds I. Trees with long prop roots and live in coastal areas J. Slough with shallow slow moving water and sedges

Teacher's Guide Evaluation Form

We are very interested in your reactions to this first edition. Please complete this evaluation and return it to us at the address below. Your name:_________________________________________________________________________ School name and address: ____________________________________________________________ Grade taught: ________________________________________________ Circle one response for each statement listed below: SA = Strongly Agree A = Agree D = Disagree SD = Strongly Disagree

1. The guide is well-organized. SA A D SD

2. The guide's purpose and concept objectives are clearly explained. SA A D SD

3. The preparation requirements for most of the activities are too difficult. SA A D SD

4. The background information is adequate to carry out the activities. SA A D SD

5. The activities are appropriate for grades 4 and 5. SA A D SD

6. The activities will maintain student interest and involvement. SA A D SD

7. This guide and associated materials will become part of my future teaching lessons. SA A D SD

8. My favorite activity was __________________________________________________________________ 9. My least favorite activity was _____________________________________________________________ 10. I would recommend the following changes, additions, or deletions to the guide:______________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Please return this form to: Erica Robbins Outreach Specialist, South Projects U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Corporate Communications Office 1400 Centrepark Blvd, Suite 750 West Palm Beach, FL 33401-7402 Fax: 561.683.2418

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