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--Sorani Kurdish-- A Reference Grammar with Selected Readings

W. M. Thackston


CONTENTS PHONOLOGY The Phonology of Sorani Kurdish ..................................................................1 Stress ..............................................................................................................3 The Writing System .......................................................................................4 SUBSTANTIVES § 1. The Absolute State .................................................................................8 § 2. The Indefinite State ................................................................................8 § 3. The Definite State ...................................................................................9 § 4. Demonstratives .....................................................................................10 § 5. Attributive Adjectives: The Open Adjectival Izâfa..............................10 § 6. Possession: The Izâfa Construction......................................................10 § 7. Attributive Adjectives with Demonstratives and Definites: The Close Izâfa Construction ................................................................11 § 8. Attributive Adjectives with Definite Nouns .........................................12 § 9. Synopsis of Noun States .......................................................................13 § 10. Personal Pronouns ...............................................................................15 § 10.1 Possessive Pronouns ..........................................................................15 § 11. Enclitic -îsh .........................................................................................16 § 12. Cardinal Numbers ...............................................................................17 § 12.1 Ordinal Numbers ...............................................................................18 § 12.2 Days of the Week ..............................................................................18 § 12.3 Months of the Year and the Kurdish Calendar ..................................18 § 13. Comparative and Superlative Adjectives ............................................19 § 14. Prepositions, Postpositions, Circumpositions .....................................20 § 14.1. Preposed Pronominal Prepositional Complements ..........................22


THE VERB § 15. Present Copulas ...................................................................................25 § 16. `To Have' ............................................................................................26 § 17. The Present Habitual/Progressive .......................................................26 § 18. Verbs in -awa ......................................................................................29 § 19. The Present Subjunctive ......................................................................30 § 20. `To Want' ............................................................................................34 § 21. `To Be Able'........................................................................................35 § 22. `To Remember' ...................................................................................36 § 23. Pronominal Objects of Verbs ..............................................................37 § 24. The Imperative ....................................................................................38 § 25. The Simple Past (Intransitive) .............................................................40 § 26. The Past Habitual/Progressive (Intransitive).......................................41 § 27. The Simple Past (Transitive): The Ergative ........................................42 § 27.1 The Ergative in South Sorani ............................................................45 § 27.2 Pronouns as Logical Objects of Past Transitive Verbs .....................46 § 27.3 Pronominal Prepositional Complements with Agent Affixes ...........48 § 27.4 Displacement of a Possessive Pronoun by a Preposed Prepositional Complement ...................................................................................51 § 28. The Perfect Active Participle ..............................................................53 § 29. The Present Perfect Tense (Intransitive) .............................................53 § 29.1 The Present Perfect Tense (Transitive) .............................................54 § 30. The Past Perfect Tense (Intransitive) ..................................................55 § 30.1 The Past Perfect Tense (Transitive) ..................................................56 § 31. The Past Subjunctive ...........................................................................57 § 32. The Irrealis Mood ................................................................................60 § 33. The Past Conditional ...........................................................................61 § 34. The Passive Voice ...............................................................................63 § 34.1 The Past Passive Participle ................................................................65 § 35. Postposed Verbal Complements..........................................................66 § 36. Factitive Verbs ....................................................................................68 iv

OTHER SYNTACTICAL FEATURES § 37. Expressions of Temporal Duration .....................................................70 § 38. Subordinating Conjunctions ................................................................71 § 39. Relative Clauses ..................................................................................72 § 40. Directional Nouns in -è .......................................................................75 § 41. Orthographic Peculiarities of Sorani Kurdish .....................................75 § 42. Vowel Contractions. ............................................................................77 Verb Tenses and Moods ...............................................................................78 Synopsis of Tenses and Moods ....................................................................85 Conditional Sentence Types .........................................................................86 Conversion Table for the Sorani and Kurmanji Alphabets ..........................88 READINGS ..................................................................................................91 92...................................................................... «:;=? » () 101............................................................. «= C» () 102............................................................. «J I» = ? () 104.......................................................... « S » () 108......................................................................... « » YX V () 120........................................................... « : ]» )] () 122................................................................................. «» e () 142............................................................... « » : k i () 129...................................................... «) i » : k i () 149.................................................................... «u » () 156.................................................................................................) () 159................................................................................................... ]u () 160..................................................... The New Anatolian ] yS () Kurdish­English Vocabulary .....................................................................163



PREFACE KURDISH BELONGS to the Western Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. The two principal branches of modern literary Kurdish are (1) Kurmanji, the language of the vast majority of Kurds in Turkey, Syria, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, the area designated by Kurdish nationalists as "North Kurdistan," with an estimated fifteen to seventeen million speakers, and (2) Sorani, the language of most Kurds in Iraq (four to six million speakers) and Iran (five to six million speakers), the area designated as "South Kurdistan." Although the two are closely related, Kurmanji and Sorani are not mutually intelligible and differ at the basic structural level as well as in vocabulary and idiom. Since Kurdish is fairly closely related to and has been massively influenced by Persian, the dominant literary and cultural language of the area for the last millennium, Kurdish is best approached with a basic knowledge of Persian. While Kurmanji is still far from being a unified, normalized, or standardized language, Sorani has been the second official language of Iraq since the creation of that country after World War I and has many decades of literary activity behind it. In Iran, Kurdish has never been accorded official status, but in Iranian Kurdistan there has been noteworthy publication in Kurdish, particularly after the Iranian revolution. The area in which Sorani is spoken in Iran is more or less the region designated as Kurdistan. Outside of that area, south to Kermanshah and east as far as Bijar, the language is known as Gorani, or South Sorani, which is a Mischsprache that is basically Persian in structure but Kurdish in vocabulary. The readings, chosen to give samples of a broad range of prose writing ranging from fairy tales to the internet, are provided with running glosses beneath the texts, and the glosses in the readings are also contained in the Kurdish­English vocabulary at the end of the book. Words considered to be absolutely basic vocabulary are not glossed in the notes, since it is assumed that these words either are known already or will be actively acquired by looking them up in the vocabulary in the back. Generally words are not glossed more than once in the notes because any word encountered a second vii

SORANI KURDISH time should be learned actively. Words are glossed after the first instance only if they are considered rare enough to warrant being ignored for acquisition. Because Sorani Kurdish dictionaries are not easily obtainable, I have made the vocabulary as large as possible. It contains around 4,000 words, which represent a basic working vocabulary for the language. For dictionaries of Sorani, the following may be consulted: Hazhâr, Hanbâna borîna: Farhang-i Kurdî­Fârsî, 2 vols. Tehran: Surûsh, 1368 [1989]. With definitions in both Kurdish and Persian, this is by far the most comprehensive dictionary of Kurdish, but Kurmanji words are also included without any differentiation. Hazhâr uses instead of for û; otherwise the orthography is standard. McCarus, Ernest N. Kurdish­English Dictionary, Dialect of Sulaimania. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1967. Qazzaz, Shafiq. The Sharezoor Kurdish­English Dictionary. Erbil: Aras, 2000. Sulaymân, Mustafâ. Ferhengî zarawey zanistî. Sulaymani, 2001. Wahby, Taufiq. A Kurdish­English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966. An on-line Sorani dictionary is available at


The Phonology of Sorani Kurdish Vowels: î i e a î i e a û u o â

is like the `ee' in `beet' and `tree,' International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) [i], as in hîch [hitS] `nothing.' is like the `i' in `bit,' IPA [I], as in girtin [gIr»tIn] `to take' is like the `ai' in `bait,' IPA [e], without the y-offglide of English, as in hez [hez] `power' is like the `a' in `bat,' IPA [Q], as in tanaka [tQnQ»kQ] `tin can,' except (1) in the sequence aw, where it is pronounced [´], (2) when it is followed in the same syllable by y, in which case it is pronounced [´], as in tanakakay [tQnQkQ»k´y] `his tin can,' and (3) when it is followed by y but not in the same syllable, in which case it is pronounced [E], as in tanakayek [tQnQ»kEyek] `a tin can.' is like the `oo' in `boot,' IPA [u], as in gûr [guR] `calf' is like the `u' in `put' and `pull,' IPA [U], as in gurg [gURg] `wolf' is like the `oa' in `boat,' IPA [o], without the w-offglide of English, as in go [gor] `level' is like the `a' in `father' and `balm,' IPA [A], as in gâ [gA] `cow'

û u o â


bilabial labiodental dental/alveolar palatal velar plosive uvular glotto-pharyngeal

p b f v

t d s z 1

k g kh gh

q , h



nasal approximants flap, trill laterals

ch j y

m w

n r, l l

b d f g

is like the `b' of English, IPA [b] is like the `d' of English, IPA [d] is like the `f' of English, IPA [f] is the hard `g' of English in `go' and `get,' IPA [g]

ch is like the `ch' in `church,' IPA [tS]

gh is a voiced velar fricative, IPA [], like the Arabic ; it rarely occurs word-initially and is usually replaced by kh in borrowed words (e.g. gham `grief' > kham); word-finally it is often in free variation with kh. h is like the `h' of English, IPA [h] where it exists (according to regional dialect: fairly generalized in Iraq, rare in Iran), it is a voiceless pharyngeal fricative, IPA [], like the Arabic ; otherwise it is not distinguished from h is like the `j' in `judge,' IPA [dZ] is like the `k' of English, IPA [k]

j k

kh is a voiceless velar fricative, IPA [x], like the ch in German Bach and the Arabic l l is a liquid `l' [l] as in Persian, like the `l' in `lee' is like the dull `l' of English in `all' [¥]; in some areas it is a lateral fricative, like the ll of Welsh [¬]; it does not occur word-initially (cf. gul `leper' with gul `flower' and chil `forty' with chil `stalk') is like the `m' of English, IPA [m] is like the `n' of English, IPA [n] 2

m n

PHONOLOGY p q r is like the `p' of English, IPA [p] is a voiceless uvular stop, like the Arabic , IPA [q] is a flap as in Persian and Italian, IPA [R]; does not occur word-initially and rr are trills, IPA [r], like the rr of Spanish (cf. khor [xoR] `sun' with kho [xor] `blood' and bar [bQR] `breast' with ba [bQr] `rug'); all initial r's are trilled (verbal stems beginning with r are trilled regardless of prefixes, as in oysht `he went' and daoysht `he was going') is like the `s' of English in `see,' IPA [s] is like the `t' of English, IPA [t] is like the `v' of English, IPA [v], but it is of rare occurrence in Sorani is like the English `w' except before e, i, and î, when it is a close back unrounded semivowel, IPA [µ], like the `u' in French cuire and huit. is like the `y' of English, IPA [j] is like the `z' of English, IPA [z]

s t v w y z

sh is like the `sh' in `ship,' IPA [S]

zh is like the French `j' and the `g' in `beige,' IPA [Z] Stress. All nouns and adjectives are stressed on the final syllable: tanaká [tQnQ»kQ] `tin can,' gawrá [g´w»RQ] `big'. When enclitic endings are added, stress remains on the final syllable of the base word: tanakáyèk [tQnQ»kEyek] `a tin can,' tanakáyèk i gawrá [tQnQ»kEyeki g´w»rQ] `a big tin can.' The definite suffix is stressed: tanakayaká [tQnQkEyQ»kQ] `the tin can.' The hierarchy of stress in verbs is as follows: (1) The negative prefixes na- and nâ-, as in náchû [»nQtSu] `he didn't go' and nâ´che [»nAtSe] `he doesn't go.' (2) Preverbs like war-, hal-, and dâ-, as in wárgeâm [»wQRgerAm] `I returned,' háldagirim [»hQ¬dQgIRIm] `I pick up,' and dâ´nîshtim [»dAniStIm] `I sat down.' 3

SORANI KURDISH (3) The modal prefixes (d)a- and bi- as in dábînim [»dQbinIm] `I see' and bíbînim [»bIbinIm] `let me see.' (4) When there are no prefixes on finite verbal forms, the final syllable of the verb stem is stressed, as in hâ´tin [»hAtIn] `they came' and kírdibetmânawa [»kIRdIbetmAn´wQ] `that we have opened it.' (5) The infinitive is stressed on the final syllable, as in hâtín [hA»tIn] `to come.'

The Writing System The Kurdo-Arabic alphabet consists of the following letters:


alif b p t s) j ch kh

( (

d z) r z zh s sh s)

( z) ( t) ( z)

` gh f v q k

g l l m n w h y hamza

Letters in parentheses are not normally used. Some writers occasionally "import" these specifically Arabic letters for use in words borrowed from Arabic, even though the vowels are written in the Kurdish manner. Thus, khâsatan `especially' (from the Arabic u), usually written u, may be written u; and khat `line' (from the Arabic ), usually written u, may be written as u. There are very few doubled consonants in Kurdish; the few that exist are written with a double consonant, as in ­k shâllâ `God willing.' `Ayn () is almost always retained in Arabic words ( ma`nâ `meaning' and TM `arab `Arab'); in Iraq the `ayn is usually pronounced as it is in Arabic; in Iran it is either a glottal stop or a prolonga4

PHONOLOGY tion of a preceding vowel, as in Persian. The vowels are written as follows: a is written (1) word-initially with hamza + final h, as in am (2) elsewhere with a final (or alone) h, as in bar and dam

â is written (1) word-initially with hamza + alif, as in âwât, or, alternatively, with alif-madda, as in âwât (2) elsewhere with an alif, as in ] bâr e is written (1) word-initially with hamza + y with a caret above, as in S ewâra i is written (1) word initially as alif, as in > imo (2) elsewhere with y with a caret above, as in ? ber

(2) elsewhere i is not indicated in the writing system, as in oe bir and · girtin; it is the only vowel not indicated in the writing system (see below) (2) elsewhere with y, as in bîr

î is written (1) word-initially with hamza + y, as in îtir o is written (1) word-initially as hamza + vâv with a caret above, as in oda u is written (1) word-initially as hamza + vâv, as in Y umed; alternatively initial u can be written as alif + vâv, as in Y umed û is written with two wâws, as in bûr. (2) elsewhere with one wâw, as in bur (2) elsewhere with a wâw with a caret above, as in bor

The vowel i of the izâfa is written as y () attached directly to words ending in letters that join to the left. Thus, kurdakân i kurdistân i `erâq (`the Kurds of Iraqi Kurdistan') is written: =) ). When added to ?TM words ending in letters that do not join to the left, the y is written in the alone form, as in tanaka i gawraká, written .

The trilled is indicated by a caret over or under the r, as in > or fioka `airplane.' Since all initial r's are trilled, they are rarely marked. 5

SORANI KURDISH The "dull l," called lâm i qalaw "fat l" in Kurdish, is indicated by a caret over the l, as in k qalaw. The only illogicality in the system lies in the writing of the sequence ye, which is written , as though it were ya, as in nâmayek, written ¦, and dâyè. For this and other orthographic peculiarities and variants, see §41. The letters with their various initial, medial, final, and alone shapes are as follows (those marked with an asterisk do not connect to the left and are followed by an initial or alone form):


alif* hamza b p t s j ch kh d* z* r* * z* zh* s sh s z t



¨ J « - ¯ >

alif + madda (initial only)

PHONOLOGY z ` gh f v q k g l l m n w* h y Vowels: a â e i î o u û

× ß


Ø Û : Y


k Y :





SUBSTANTIVES § 1. The Absolute State of the Noun. A Kurdish noun in the absolute state, i.e. without any ending of any kind, gives a generic sense of the noun. It is also the "lexical" form of the noun, i.e. the form in which a noun is given in a vocabulary list or dictionary. The absolute state is normally used for the generic sense, as in qâwa rash a `coffee is black' and wafr :à spî a `snow is white'. § 2. The Indefinite State. The sign of the indefinite singular (`a, any, some') is an unstressed enclitic -(y)èk (i.e. I -èk after consonants and -yèk after vowels) added to the end of the absolute singular noun.

pyâw `man' > I pyâwèk `a man' rozh `day' > I rozhèk `a day' dargâ `door' > dargâyèk `a door' ¦ nâma `letter' > ¦ nâmayèk `a letter'

Among the modifiers that demand that a following noun be indefinite are á chand `a few,' hamû `every,' chi `what?,' and har `each,' as in

I á chand pyâwèk I hamû rozhèk chi lâpaayèk? har lâyèk

a few men every day what page? each direction

The construction ...i zor `many, a lot of' also takes a preceding indefinite singular noun: 8


C) kurdèk i zor C pyâwèk i zor

a lot of Kurds many men

The indefinite plural is formed by adding -ân to the absolute singular. If the absolute singular ends in -â, the indefinite plural ending is -yân. Nouns with absolute singulars ending in -a, like nâma, form the indefinite plural by dropping the final -a and adding -ân.

pyâw > pyâwân (some) men dargâ > ã dargâyân (some) doors ¦ nâma > ¦ nâmân (some) letters ä amarîkî > :ä amarîkîân (some) Americans

§ 3. The Definite State. Singular nouns are made definite (`the') by adding the suffix -(a)ká (i.e. -aká after consonants, u, e, and î, and -ká after the vowels a, â, and o). The combination îaká often results in a vowel contraction to eká, sometimes so spelled in Kurdish.

pyâw > pyâwaká the man ä amarîkî > :ä amarîkîaká the American ktâwî > ktâwîaká the student de > I deaká the village dargâ > e dargâká the door ¦ nâma > ¦ nâmaká the letter

The definite plural is made by adding (a)kân to the singular, i.e. by changing the -(a)ká of the definite singular to -(a)kân.

pyâwaká > pyâwakân the men ktâwîaká > ktâwîakân the students e dargâká > e dargâkân the doors ¦ nâmaká > ¦ nâmakân the letters


SORANI KURDISH § 4. Demonstratives. As attributive adjectives the demonstratives (`this, that') envelop the nouns they modify. `This' is ()... am...(y)á, and `that' is ()... aw...(y)á. The forms of nouns enveloped by demonstratives are the absolute singular and the indefinite plural.

The demonstrative pronouns are amá `this,' amâná `these,' awá `that,' and awâná `those.' § 5. Attributive Adjectives: The Open Adjectival Izâfa. The attributive adjective following a noun that is (1) absolute singular, (2) indefinite singular, or (3) indefinite plural is linked to the noun by the unstressed vowel i (called the izâfa vowel). The izâfa is written as added directly to words that end in joining letters or an alone after non-joining letters.

pyâw > am pyâwá this man, am pyâwâná these men ktâwî > am ktâwîá this student, ã am ktâwîâná these students dargâ > am dargâyá this door, ã am dargâyâná these doors ¦ nâma > ¦ aw nâmayá that letter, ¦ aw nâmâná those letters

] S hotel i bâsh ] SS hotelèk i bâsh ] S hotelân i bâsh C ¦ nâma i drezh C ¦ nâmayèk i drezh C ¦ nâmân i drezh

good hotel1 a good hotel (some) good hotels long letter a long letter (some) long letters

§ 6. Possession: The Izâfa Construction. The same izâfa vowel i links the two parts of a possessive construction and is equivalent to the English `of.'

é ktâwîakân i qutâbkhânayèk

the students of a school

This also has the generic sense, as in "good hotels are hard to find" or "a good hotel is hard to find." It contrasts with the following indefinite hotelek i bâsh, as in "there is a good hotel on the corner."




I deaká i aw pyâwá I k mâlakân i pyâwakân i


that man's village the houses of the men of the village the door of the teahouse the lessons of this book

á e dargâká i châykhânaká darsakân i am ktâwá

§ 7. Attributive Adjectives with Demonstratives and Definites: The Close Izâfa Construction. When noun-adjective constructions are enveloped by the demonstratives or modified by the definite suffix, the linking vowel changes to a. The indefinite is, of course, excluded from this category.

] ëS {hotel a bâsh}aká ] ëS am {hotel a bâsh}á :ä {pyâw a amarîkî}aká :ä aw {pyâw a amarîkî}á {darsân a âsân}aká am {darsân a âsân}á - {darsân a sakht}aká - aw {darsân a sakht}á

the good hotel this good hotel the American man that American man the easy lessons these easy lessons the hard lessons those hard lessons

If the noun in a close-izâfa construction ends in -a, the linking a is omitted, as in the following:

é {qutâbkhâna ibtidâî}akân á {châykhâna gawra}ká á am {châykhâna gawra}yá {natawa yekgirtû}akân



the elementary schools the big teahouse this big teahouse the United Nations

ibtidâîakân may contract to S ibtidâekân. For the contraction îa > e, see §42.


SORANI KURDISH The envelopment of the demonstrative is extendable indefinitely and includes all matter immediately related to a demonstrative phrase.

) ã í bo twânîn i am {dyârî Y kirdin i jegâ i Mîr Gawra}yá

in order to enable this clarification of Mir Gawra's position

Close izâfa constructions may be mixed with open izâfa constructions, as in the following:

á {châykhâna gawraká} i ) sar {shaqâm a sarakîaká} i shâr

the big teahouse on the major street in town

§ 8. Attributive Adjectives with Definite Nouns. Attributive adjectives modifying definite nouns also are linked to the noun by the izâfa vowel i, but the placement of the definite suffix, both singular and plural, is variable.

darsakân i sakht - darsân a sakhtaká - dars a sakhtakân

the hard lessons1

Noun­adjective constructions in which the izâfa is embedded (the second and third examples above), where plural and definite suffixes fall at the end of the izâfa "string," represent a very close connection, inseparable in the mind of the speaker, between noun and adjective.

These three examples all have the same meaning in English, but they connote different aspects of noun-adjective linkage to the speaker of Kurdish. darsakân i sakht are the lessons (about which we already know), which happen to be hard, not necessarily in contrast to anything else. - darsân a sakhtaká points out the specific lessons that are hard, as in i - dars i chwâram u dars i hawtam darsân a sakhtaká i am ktâwán "lesson four and lesson seven are the hard lessons in this book." - dars a sakhtakân is "the hard lessons" as opposed to, say, dars a âsânakân "the easy lessons," where the adjectives "hard" and "easy" are inextricably linked to "lessons," i.e. we are considering "hard-lessons" vs. "easy-lessons."



SUBSTANTIVES A good example is k gul i sûr `red flower, rose.' If the speaker is thinking of a flower that simply happens to be red, say a red carnation, the indefinite is Sk gulèk i sûr, the definite is k gulaká i sûr, the indefinite plural is î gulân i sûr, and the definite plural is k gulakân i sûr. If by gul i sûr the speaker means the `rose,' in which case sûr is inseparable from gul, the indefinite is I k gul a sûrèk, the definite k is gul a sûraká, the indefinite plural is k gul a sûrân, and the definite plural is k gul a sûrakân. Similar close constructions are the following:

TM ? mezhûnûs a `arabakân ) é qutâbî a kurdakân

the Arab historians

Here we are considering only Arab historians, not historians who happen to be Arabs, who would be TM ? mezhûnûsakân i `arab.

the Kurdish students

Similarly here only students who are Kurdish are under consideration. The students who happen to be Kurdish, but not as an exclusive category, would be ) é qutâbîakân i kurd. § 9. Synopsis of Noun States.




definite demonstrative

ktâw `book' ¦ nâma `letter' I ktâwèk ¦ nâmayèk ktâwaká ¦ nâmaká am ktâwá ¦ am nâmayá ktâw i gawra C ¦ nâma i drezh


-- --

ktâwân ¦ nâmân ktâwakân ¦ nâmakân am ktâwâná ¦ am nâmâná

-- --




indefinite definite


C ktâwèk i gawra C ¦ nâmayèk i drezh ktâwaká i gawra C ¦ nâmaká i drezh am ktâw a gaw rayá C ¦ am nâma drezhá

ktâwân i gawra C ¦ nâmân i drezh ktâwakân i gawra C ¦ nâmakân i drezh am ktâwân a gawrayá C ¦ am nâmân a drezhá


absolute indefinite



ktâw a gawra -- C ¦ nâma drezh -- ktâw a gawrayèk ktâw a gawrân IC ¦ nâma drezhèk C ¦ nâma drezhân 1. ktâw a gawrakân ktâw a gawraká 2. ktâwân a gawraká C ¦ 1. nâma drezhakân C ¦ nâma drezhaká C ¦ 2. nâmân a drezhaká am ktâw a gaw am ktâw a gawrâná rayá C ¦ am nâma drezhá C ¦ am nâma drezhâná

§ 10. Personal Pronouns. The independent personal pronouns are as follows:

min I to you (sing.) aw he, she, it


ema we ewa you (pl.) awân they

The independent personal pronouns are used as (1) subjects of equational sentences: 14


.) Min kurdim. I'm a Kurd.

(2) emphatic subjects of verbs and topics of topic-comment sentences:

.· S Aw hât; ewa náhâtin. . ï Min awim balâwa giring niya. He came; you didn't. For me, that's not important.

and (3) emphatic possessors in an izâfa string:

ktâwaká i min S ð=í nîshtimânaká i ema

For pronominal objects of verbs, see §23.

my book our homeland

§ 10.1. Possessive Pronouns. The normal possessive pronouns are unstressed enclitics added to the noun. They take the following forms:


ñ ñ ñ

´-im ´-it ´-î

kúim kúit kúî

é ã

ñ éñ ãñ

´-mân ´-tân ´-yân

kúmân kútân kúyân

´-m ´-t ´-y

pârám pârát pâráy

´-mân é ´-tân ã ´-yân

pârámân é pârátân ã pâráyân

Examples of possessive pronouns with ku `son' and pâra `money':

The enclitic possessive pronouns may be added to the absolute (ñ kúim, pârám), the definite (ñ kuakám, pârakám), or the indefinite (Cñ kúekim, pâráyekim) forms of the noun. When added to the absolute, the noun has a figurative meaning; for actual, concrete meanings the definite form is used. For instance, money ( pâra) you can hold in your hand you would call pârakám `my money,' while pâram is figurative, more like `my wealth.' Someone who writes for a living can be said to earn his livelihood by means of k qalamî `his pen,' but what he actually holds in his hand is k qalamakay `his pen.' Compare and contrast the following: 15



pârat your money, your


pârakát your (real) money,

your cash

) kuim my son, "sonny" ¦ nânmân our livelihood k mâltân your home

) kuakám my (real) son ¦ nânakámân our bread ék mâlakátân your house

Exceptions to the general rule. Prominent exceptions to the general formation are the family members (] bâwk `father,' dâyik `mother,' oe birâ `brother' and ö khwayshk `sister') and ¦ nâw `name.' When modified by pronominal possessives, these nouns are the reverse of the formation described above. ÷oe Birâkám and ö khwayshkakám are used to address or refer to anyone other than one's real brothers and sisters, who are called oe birâm and ö khwayshkim. ¦ Nâwî means `his (real) name,' as opposed to ¦ nâwakáy, which means `his name' in the sense of a label or sobriquet given to someone, not his actual name. When possessives are added to the indefinite form of the noun, they mean `a ... of mine,' &c., e.g. Cñ kuekim `a son of mine,' C ktâwekit `a book of yours,' and YX qalamekî `a pen of his,' &c. § 11. Enclitic -îsh. The enclitic particle -îsh (`too, also, even' and often equivalent to a simple raised voice inflection in English) is added to nouns, noun­adjective phrases and pronouns. It cannot follow a finite verb form. When added to words ending in vowels, -îsh loses its own vowel in favor of the preceding vowel, becoming 'sh. When added to words that have an enclitic pronoun attached, -îsh intervenes between the noun and pronoun.

min I/me > S ema we/us > ] bâwkî his father > ã pârakáyân their money >

íÛ mínîsh I/me too S ema'sh we/us too í] bâwkîshî his father too = pâraká'shyân their money




: rafîqakânim my friends >

í: rafîqakânîshim even my


§ 12. Cardinal Numbers. The cardinal numbers are as follows:

ß Û? i ïã ï ï= ï ï i

1 yek 2 dû 3 se 4 chwâr 5 penj 6 shash 7 awt 8 hasht 9 no 10 da 11 yânza 12 dwânza 13 syânza 14 chwârda 15 pânza 16 shânza 17 avda 18 hazhda 19 nozda

í 20 bîst í 21 bîst u yek í 22 bîst u dû ß í 23 bîst u se, &c. 30 sî 31 sî u yek 32 sî u dû ß 33 sî u se, &c. á 40 chil 50 panjâ 60 shast -i 70 aftâ = 80 hashtâ 90 nawad 100 sad 1000 hazâr 2000 dûhazâr ß 3000 sehazâr 4000 chwârhazâr, &c

All words having to do with time and instance follow the cardinal number immediately in the absolute state:

dû rozh ï shash mâng sad sâl

two days six months a hundred years

With other words the cardinal number is followed by a classifier, which is followed by the singular noun in the absolute state, as in Persian. The most common classifiers, and those which can be used, practically speaking, for almost anything are dâna for things, nafar for people, and sar 17

SORANI KURDISH for animate beings other than people.

chwâr dâna ktâw Û? penj nafar da sar ma

four books five people ten sheep

§ 12.1 Ordinal numbers. The ordinal numbers are formed from the cardinal numbers plus the suffix -(h)am, as follows:

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th

S= #Û?

yekam dûham seham chwâram penjam shasham

7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th

i = ïã ï

awtam hashtam noham daham yânzaham dwânzaham, &c.

§ 12.2 Days of the Week and Months of the Year. The days of the week, made up mostly of cardinal numbers and shamma, are as follows:

shamma % yekshamma dûshamma ? seshamma

Saturday Sunday Monday Tuesday

chwârshamma Û? penjshamma jum`a

Wednesday Thursday Friday

§ 12.3 Months of the Year and the Kurdish Calendar. The traditional months of the year, which correspond to the signs of the zodiac, are as follows:

BAHÂR SPRING Seu khâkalêwa Aries, March 21­

April 20

=é TÂWISTÂN SUMMER = pushpa Cancer, June 22­



bânama or gulân Taurus, April 21­May 21

C galâwezh Leo, July 23­

August 22

jozardân Gemini, May 22­

June 21

¦u kharmânân Virgo, August

23­September 22



u XAZÂN AUTUMN razbar Libra, September 23­

October 22

= ZISTÂN WINTER bafrânbâr Capricorn, December 22­January 20


khazalwar or C galârezân Scorpio, October 23­ November 21

I rebandân Aquarius, January

21­February 19

sarmâwaz Sagittarius,

November 22­December 21

rashama Pisces, February 20­

March 20

The names of the Western (Roman) months are as follows:

kânûn i dûham January ] shubât February âdâr March í nîsân April ã âyâr May ä uzayrân or äi

azîrân June

( (

tamûz July âb August aylûl September tishrîn i yekam October tishrîn i dûham November kânûn i yekam December

The recently instituted "Kurdish era" dates from 612 B.C., and the Kurdish year, like the Iranian, begins on nawroz, the vernal equinox, on or about March 21. § 13. Comparative and Superlative Adjectives. The comparative degree of the adjective is made by suffixing · -tir, e.g. gawra `big' > · gawratir `bigger,' garm `warm' > garmtir `warmer,' and ã zyâ `much' > ·ã zyâtir `more.' The preposition of comparison is X la, as in the following examples.

.· )I X > Amo la dwene sârdtir a. .eá X Ama l' awa châktir a. Today is colder than yesterday. This is better than that.

The superlative degree is formed by suffixing ä· -tirîn. Superlative adjectives so formed precede the nouns they modify, as in

ä· sârdtirîn rozh


the coldest day


= äeá châktirîn shitân Û ä jwântirîn mindâl

the best things the most beautiful child

§ 14. Prepositions, Postpositions, Circumpositions. Certain prepositions, in particular the prepositions ba `in, at,' da `to, in, into' and X la `by, to, in, at' and `from,' occur as circumpositions that envelop the complement, that is, the preposition itself marks the beginning of the prepositional phrase, and the end of the complement is marked by a postpositional element like -awa, -(d)â, or -râ.

X la dûrawa X la khoawa da arzîdâ X la khor'â X la nîwashawdâ - X l' am wakhtádâ

from afar by itself, by oneself on the ground by itself, by oneself in the middle of the night at this time

The d of dâ is often dropped, particularly but not necessarily after n, giving -'â, as in

¦=) X la Kurdistân'â ¦ ᦠX la nâwcha i Sorân'â :¦ I X la shwenawârakân i í nâiya i Khormâl'îsh'â X la pâsh'â Û X lagal min'â

in Kurdistan in the district of Soran in the monuments of the Khormal region too after(wards) with me

The postpositional element does not usually, in and of itself, add anything substantial to the meaning of the prepositional phrase, and most prepositions occur without the postpositional element without any significant change in meaning--with the important exception of la...dâ `in, at' and la...awa `from,' where the postpositions define the meaning of la. When la lacks the postpositional element, the meaning must be ascertained from con20

SUBSTANTIVES text. Common prepositions and circumpositions:

... + ... ... *S X ...

ba (ß* pe) to; with, by (instrumental) babe ...awa without badam ...awa along with, while, during balâ i ...awa in the opinion of bape i according to bar la before (temporal) baraw i ...dâ in the direction of baraw in front of, toward bardam before, in the face of

... ]X ... ]X ]X oeX IoeX ... X ()... X ... X ¦X ... SX ... Û?X X ... X ... CX X ... CX ¦ S ?

labâbat ...awa concerning, about labâra i ...awa concerning labât i instead of labin beside labiret i instead of ladam ...dâ behind lagal ...(dâ) with, together with lalâyan ...awa by (passive agent) lanâw within lanew ...dâ between, among lapenâw i ...dâ for the sake of laraw i with respect to lare i ...awa by means of; for laregâ ...dâ for the sake of lasar on, on top of; according to lazher ...dâ under nâw between, among newân between, among pâsh after pesh before (spacial) wak like

+ be without ... X S bejiga la ...awa except for bo for (,) da (te) on, in dagal with dwâ i after X jiga la except for, aside

from ()... X ... X ()... X (ß) X la (le) in, from la ...(dâ) in, at la ...awa from, than labar ...(dâ) in front of, before labar ...awa because of labayn i ...dâ between, among

... X ... X

§ 14.1. Preposed Pronominal Prepositional Complements. When pro21

SORANI KURDISH nouns are complements of prepositions, they occur as enclitics unless they are to be particularly stressed. Pronominal compliments may be either preposed, i.e. added to the word preceding the preposition, or postposed, i.e. added to the preposition itself. When the following prepositions have enclitic complements, either pre- or postposed, they change their forms as follows:

All prepositions may take an independent pronoun as complement, as in X la min `from me.' If the pronoun is enclitic, the preposition changes to ß le. When the enclitic pronoun is postposed the phrase is S lem `from me,' and such phrases with postposed complements generally occur as tag phrases, i.e. falling after the verb, or at the end of a clause or sentence. When the prepositional phrase falls before the verb, or before the end of a clause or sentence, the enclitic pronoun is usually preposed as ß -im le, and the enclitic pronoun must be attached to some available preverbal matter. For instance, in the sentence


ba becomes ß* pe da becomes , te la becomes ß le

-à becomes -è (see §35 below)

: X I=/

pirsyârèk la rafîqakay dákâ

he asks a question of his friend

if rafîqakay is changed to a pronoun and the prepositional phrase is a tag, the sentence becomes

*S I=/ pirsyârèk dákâ ley

ß C=/

In the sentence

he asks a question of him

Normally, however, the prepositional phrase would have a preposed complement as

pirsyârèkî le dákâ he asks a question of him

X I=/

pirsyârèk la min dákâ

he asks a question of me

min `me' is stressed, but it could be expressed with an enclitic pronoun (and 22

SUBSTANTIVES therefore not particularly stressed) as

ß C=/

pirsyârèkim le dákâ

he asks a question of me

It is important to realize that, for Kurdish speakers, the preposed enclitic pronoun is inextricably linked to the word to which it is attached--i.e., in the example above pirsyârèkim must be pronounced as one word. If there is any pause, the place for it is between the pronoun and the preposition. Other examples are:

ß I < X l' awân gwe dágirim > I'm listening to them. gweyân le dágirim. < oe dargâ bikanawa bo min > Open the door for me. oe dargâm bo bikanawa. < X k pûlaka l' aw war dagire > He takes the money from ß k pûlakay le war dagire. him. < oe qsa bikam bo to > qsat bo Let me tell you a story. oe bikam. ß* < SØ ama bílem ba to > amat pe Let me say this to you. .SØ bílem. oe râwchîyèk henday namâ- A hunter almost came S S < I wa bigâtà rewî > râwchî- upon the fox > A hunter ., yèk henday namâwa biy- almost came upon it.

gâtè. < Y 0 k balkû shitèk bidâtà min > Maybe he'll give me something. , Y0 k balkû shitèkim bidâtè.

< qsa dakâ dagal to > qsat dagal dakâ. < ï aw balâ i minawa giringÛ ï tir a > awim balâwa

giringtir a.

He speaks with you.

He is more important to me.

Similar is the construction involved in the idiom khaw- le kawtin--literally "for sleep to fall on (someone)"--`to fall asleep,' as in ß u kha23

SORANI KURDISH wî le kawt `he fell asleep,' ß u khawim le nákawt `I didn't/couldn't fall asleep.' In this construction the person upon whom sleep falls is expressed by a pronominal enclitic on khaw-; if a 3rd-person "subject" is expressed, the resumptive construction is used, as in

ß ãu y

kichakân khawyân le kawt the girls fell asleep (lit., "the girls--sleep fell upon them")

In all the previous examples, the preposed complement has preceded the preposition immediately, and generally this is the position it takes. However, a preposed complement separated from the preposition by other matter also occurs.

X S Y + Dabe khewatèkim la dara .k wa i shâr bo halbidan.

They will have to pitch a tent for me outside the city.

For the special cases in which preposed postpositional complements displace enclitic possessive pronouns, see §27.4.


THE VERB § 15. Present Copulas. The present-tense copulas (`am, is, are') consist of the following enclitics:


-m -î(t) -in -y(t) -a -in -ya Examples are with ñ kurd `Kurdish' and ? l'era `here':

-im -în



-yn -n -n

ñ kúrdim `I am Kurdish' ñ kúrdî `you are Kurdish' ñ kúrdît ñ kúrda `s/he is Kurdish' ? l'erám `I am here' ? l'eráy `you are here' ? l'eráyt ? l'eráya `s/he is here'

äñ kúrdîn `we are Kurdish' ñ kúrdin `you are Kurdish' ñ kúrdin `they are Kurdish' ä? l'eráyn `we are here' ? l'erán `you are here' ? l'erán `they are here'

When the 3rd-person possessive enclitic (-î/-y) is followed by the 3rdperson copula (-a), a special form, -yatî, is used.

. ktâw-a. . < ktâwî > ktâwyatî. It's a book. his book > It's his book.

The negative copula is formed on the base níy-:

níyim í níyî(t) níya

I am not you are not he/she/it is not

níyîn níyin níyin


we are not you are not they are not

SORANI KURDISH § 16. `To Have.' There is no verb in Kurdish equivalent to the English verb `to have.' Kurdish expresses possession through the following formula: noun possessed (indefinite or absolute) + possessive pronoun + háya/níya (present) or hábû/hanábû (past) or some form of the verb bûn `to be'

. C=/ Pirsyârèkim háya. . C=/ Pirsyârèkim hábû. . Pârat háya. . ] C Ktâwèk i bâshî níya. . k Qalamânmân hábû. I have a question. I had a question. You have money. He doesn't have a good book. We had some pens. How many sons do you have? . ã Zor pârayân hanábû. .+ C) é Tâqa kuekî dabe. They didn't have much money. He has an only son.

é) á Chand kutân háya?

§ 17. The Present Habitual/Progressive. The present habitual tense corresponds to the English simple present used for habitual action (`I go'), progressive action (`I'm going'), and the future (`I'll go, I'm going to go'1). It is formed from the present stem of the verb with a prefixed modal marker, which receives the stress, and the following suffixed personal endings.


-im -î(t) -e(t)

-în -in -in

-m -y(t)

-yn -n

-â(t)/-(t) -n

The inherent (t) shown for the 2nd- and 3rd-persons singular is characteristic of literary Kurdish and seldom appears in the more informal spoken lan1

Unlike Kurmanji, Sorani Kurdish has no future tense. The future may be expressed periphrastically ("I want to go," e.g.), but normally the future sense is gained from context.


THE VERB guage. It is recovered, however, when any enclitic or suffix is added to the verb form (see §18 below). The modal prefix in Sulaymani Kurdish is á-; in most other dialects the modal prefix is dá-. Since otherwise verbs are conjugated identically in all varieties of Sorani Kurdish, the modal marker will be shown in this book as dá-, and examples will be given with á- or dá- as they occur in the texts from which they have been taken. Examples of the conjugation of verbs with present stems ending in a consonant are as follows (examples are -ch`go' and -nûs- `write'):

1 2


chûn `to go' 6 dáchim á dáchîn : dáchît dáchin dáchî Y dáchet dáchin ß dáche


nûsîn `to write' dánûsim dánûsîn í dánûsît dánûsin dánûsî ? dánûset dánûsin ß dánûse

In the negative, the modal marker á- is replaced by stressed nâ´- (< na + a-).

6¦ nâchim :¦ nâchî(t) Y¦ nâche(t)

6 : Y

nádachim nádachî(t) nádache(t)

ᦠnâchîn ¦ nâchin ¦ nâchin


nádachîn nádachin nádachin

¦ nânûsim í¦ nânûsî(t) ?¦ nânûse(t)

í ?

nádanûsim nádanûsî(t) nádanûse(t)

¦ nânûsîn ¦ nânûsin ¦ nânûsin

nádanûsîn nádanûsin nádanûsin

The negative of the modal marker dá- is náda-:

The negative of the Sulaymani habitual is occasionally used as an emphatic


: dáchî(t) and Y dáche(t), with only the literary form in Arabic script but

with both forms in transcription.

Henceforth the second- and third-person singular forms will normally be given as


SORANI KURDISH negative in dialects that normally have the negative in náda-, as in ¦ nânûsim `I don't ever write' (which would then contrast with nádanûsim `I'm not writing') and ¦ qaydè nâkâ `it doesn't matter at all.' For verbs with stems ending in a vowel, the personal endings combine with stems in -a, -o, and -e as follows (examples, ) kirdin `to do,' present stem ka-; ö royshtin `to go away,' present stem ro-; gaân `to turn,' present stem gae-). The only forms that show changes in the stem vowel are the 3rd-person singular of the -a- and -o- stems, which change to -â(t) and -wâ(t) respectively.


dákam dákay(t) () dákâ(t)

ä dákayn dákan dákan

Common verbs conjugated in the present tense like kirdin/ka- are khistin/ u kha- `to throw,' oe birdin/ ba- `to carry,' dân/ da- `to give,' and ö gayshtin/ ga- `to reach.'


dárom dároyt () dárwâ(t)

ä dároyn dáron dáron

Like ro- are khwârdin/ kho- `to eat' and shitin (or shurdin)/ sho- `to wash.' Verbs with present stems in -e, of which there are many, keep the theme vowel unchanged throughout the conjugation, and in the 3rd-person singular nothing is added other than the inherent -t.


I dágaem íI *I dágaey(t) I dágae(t)


I dágaeyn C dágaen C dágaen

Like gae- are all verbs with infinitives ending in -ân.

THE VERB One verb with a peculiar present tense is · hâtin `to come' (present stem -ye). In Sulaymani Kurdish the present stem, ye-, is regularly conjugated but without the modal marker a-. In most other dialects, particularly Iranian varieties, the present stem combines with the modal marker da- to become de-. The two variants are conjugated in the present as follows:


yem yey(t) () ye(t)

ä yeyn yen yen

I dem íI *I dey(t) (I) de(t) ä¦ nâyeyn ¦ nâyen ¦ nâyen

I deyn C den C den

The negative is regularly conjugated on the stem nâye-:

¦ nâyem ¦ ¦ nâyey(t) ¦ ¦ nâye(t)

§ 18. Verbs in -awa. Many Kurdish verbs end with the suffix -awa, which has the following basic meanings: (1) `again, back, re-,' as mân `to remain, be left' > mânawa `to be left behind,' · gotin/· witin `to say' > gotinawa/ witinawa `to say again, repeat,' gaân `to turn' > gaânawa `to return,' (2) `open,' as in ) kirdinawa `to open,' and (3) to give a nuance of meaning to a verb, as ) sûr-kirdin `to make red' > ) sûr-kirdinawa `to sauté.' This said, it should also be noted that -awa often adds nothing of any real lexical significance to the verb but gives a perfective aspect instead. All such verbs are regularly conjugated. With verbs ending in -awa, the -awa suffix is added after the personal ending, as in


dargâ dakamawa dágaenawa

I('ll) open the door you/they('ll) return

Second- and third-person forms always recover the t inherent in the personal endings before -awa, as in



he'll return




you open

Full inflections of gaânawa and ) kirdinawa are as follows:

I dágaemawa -íI dágaeytawa I dágaetawa dákamawa dákaytawa dákâtawa

ÛíI dágaeynawa I dágaenawa I dágaenawa dákaynawa dákanawa dákanawa

§ 19. The Present Subjunctive. Like the present habitual, the present subjunctive is formed from the present stem of the verb and the personal suffixes. The modal marker for the subjunctive is bí-.

chûn 9 bíchim 9 9 bíchî(t) S9 ß9 bíche(t) 9 bíchîn 9 bíchin 9 bíchin

ñ kirdinawa oe bíkamawa oe bíkaynawa oe bíkaytawa oe bíkanawa oe bíkâtawa oe bíkanawa

In compound verbs, the bí- prefix is optional, and when it is omitted the lack of a modal prefix identifies the verb as subjunctive. The modal prefix is regularly omitted with close compound verbs with prefixes like war- and hal-.

oe ï] bâng (bí)kam oe ï] bâng (bí)kay(t) ()oe ï] bâng (bí)kâ(t) wargirim wargirî(t) I wargire(t)


äoe ï] bâng (bí)kayn oe ï] bâng (bí)kan oe ï] bâng (bí)kan ä wargirîn wargirin wargirin

When the preceding word ends in a vowel and the verb stem begins with a

THE VERB single consonant, the vowel of the modal prefix may be elided, giving, e.g.,


wâ b'zânim am wushayá b'nûsîn

I think (lit., if I know thus) let's write this word

This feature is not represented in the Kurdo-Arabic writing system. The negative prefix for the subjunctive is ná-, which replaces bí- where it occurs.

6 náchim á náchîn nákam ä nákayn : náchî(t) náchin nákay(t) nákan Y ß náche(t) náchin () nákâ(t) nákan

The present subjunctive of the verb bûn `to be' is based on the stem b-. It occurs both with and without the bí- prefix with the following conjugations:


bim í bî(t) ? + be(t)

bîn oe bin oe bin

bíbim í bíbî(t) ? > bíbe(t)

bíbîn bíbin bíbin

When the verb means `to be' the bí- prefix is omitted, but when it means `to become' or is part of a compound verb like ä nîzîk-bûn `to get near' or âshkirâ-bûn `to be revealed' in the following examples, the bí prefix is present.

.+ Y¦ +¦ Mirov nâbe nâhumed be. One should not be despondent. They didn't dare get near their houses. She fears there will come a day this secret will be revealed.

k ä Cã Náyândawerâ nîzîk i .Û@ mâlakânyân bibinawa. I ß· Dátirse rozhèk bet am ? S .> nihenîá âshkirâ bibe.

The present subjunctive of hâtin `to come' is regularly conjugated on the stem be- (for *bíye-). Note that the 3rd-person singular subjunctive of hâtin is identical to the 3rd-person singular subjunctive of bûn, i.e. both are be(t). 31


S íS *S ? +

· hâtin

bem bey(t) be(t)

S ? ?

beyn ben ben

The verbs henân `to bring' and heshtin `to let' have subjunctives formed both on the regular stems bíhen- and bíhel- and on the contracted stems benand bel-:



bíhenim bíhenî(t) bíhene(t) bíhelim bíhelî(t) bíhele(t)


S henân

bíhenîn bíhenin bíhenin

? heshtin

bíhelîn bíhelin bíhelin


benim benî(t) bene(t) belim belî(t) bele(t)

;S benîn S benin S benin ØS belîn ØS belin ØS belin

The present subjunctive is used in the following instances: (1) independently--i.e. not dependent upon a preceding construction--as a deliberative (English `should'). In literary style, the interrogative particle ã âyâ often introduces the construction.

Ioe ã Âyâ pâshawpâsh bígaetawa?

Should he retrace his steps? Should I come tomorrow? Should we open the door?

S = Sbaynî bem? oe Dargâ bíkaynawa?

(2) in the 1st persons as a cohortative (`let me, let's') and in the 3rd persons as a hortatory (`let him..., may he ...'). The 1st-person is often preceded by ] bâ or wára (`c'mon').

.äoe ] Bâ bíroyn. .äoe ß SØY Wára, felèkî le bikayn. . -? Nábetà dî. C'mon, let's go. C'mon, let's play a trick on him. May it not happen.



.=í Dâ-binîshinawa. Let them sit back down.

(3) as complement to all verbs and constructions of wanting (see §20), ability (see §21), necessity, etc.

.ßk 9 Amawe bíchimà mâle. .:@ Datwânim bítbînim. I want to go home. I can see you. It is necessary for her to pay a visit to that miserable man who is waiting. It is not necessary that I say...

X =öS Pewîst a ka sar i l' aw . á k Ø mirov a kilolá bídât ka

châwawânî akâ. ... SØ öS Pewîst níya ka bílem...

(4) after a number of conjunctions like X bar l' awaî `before' and + ba be awaî `without'1

... ß9 X bar l' awaî biche... ... í S X bar l' awaî ewa dâbinîshin... .ö oe + Ba be awaî qsa bikâ, roysht. ... ):@ + ba be awaî bitbîne... without his/her seeing you... Without speaking, he left. before he goes/went... before you sit/sat down...

(5) in the protasis of a possible conditional:

-? Ama agar betà dî, atwânîn ... SØ bíleyn... . Agar bitawe, datwânî.

If this should come about, we can say that... If you want to, you can.

Bar l' awaî is always followed by the present subjunctive; the proper tense for English translation is gained from context. In English `without' is followed by a gerund, but in Kurdish it is followed by a subjunctive clause, which is necessarily personal.




? ? Agar bet u hez i atom bo oe ¦ X ) sha u kushtâr u la nâw = ... S birdin ba kâr bíhenre...

If it should be that the power of the atom be used for war, slaughter, and destruction...

§ 20. `To Want.' The Kurdish verb corresponding to the English verb `want' is wîstin (present stem we-). The construction that serves as the present tense of this verb is compounded of the prefix (d)á- (negative ná-) + possessive pronoun enclitic + -awe. The full inflection of the present tense is as follows:


dámawe dátawe dáyawe námawe nátawe náyawe bímawe bítawe bíyawe

dámânawe é dátânawe ã dáyânawe námânawe é nátânawe ã náyânawe bímânawe bítânawe bíyânawe



When the complement, or logical object, of wîstin (i.e. what one wants) precedes the verb, the "subject" pronominal enclitics are usually attached to the complement, and the verb is the invariable 3rd-person singular (d)awe (negative nâwe). The full present "conjugation" of this construction is:


-im dáwe -mân dáwe ¦ -im nâwe ¦ -mân nâwe -it dáwe é -tân dáwe ¦ -it nâwe ¦ é -tân nâwe -î dáwe ã -yân dáwe ¦ -î nâwe ¦ ã -yân nâwe


THE VERB as in the following examples:

Awám awe. ¦ = Am shitânáy nâwe.

I want that. He doesn't want these things.

All verbal complements of `want' are in the subjunctive, as in the following paradigm of `want to go':

9 dámawe bíchim 9 dátawe bíchî(t) S9 dáyawe bíche(t)

Other examples are as follows:

9 dámânawe bíchîn 9 é dátânawe bíchin 9 ã dáyânawe bíchin

You want to write a letter. He wants to buy a book.

. ¦ Atawe nâmayèk binûsî. .>oe I Ayawe ktâwèk bike. sîn.

. ¦ Damânawe nâmayèk binû- We want to write a letter.

oe I=/ é Atânawe pirsyârèk bikan?

.I ã Náyânawe dars bikhwenin.

Do you (pl) want to ask a question? They do not want to study.

Wîstin is conjugated as a transitive verb in the past (see §27 below). § 21. `To Be Able.' The verb `to be able' is twânîn (pres. stem twân-). Twânîn is regularly conjugated in the present, and it is necessarily followed by a subjunctive complement. Below is given the full present conjugation, affirmative and negative, of `can/can't say':

SØ dátwânim bílem íSØ í dátwânî(t) bíley(t) SØ ? dátwâne(t) bíle(t) SØ ¦ nâtwânim bílem íSØ í¦ nâtwânî(t) bíley(t)


SØ dátwânîn bíleyn ?Ø ï dátwânin bílen ?Ø ï dátwânin bílen SØ ¦ nâtwânîn bíleyn ?Ø ï¦ nâtwânin bílen


SØ ?¦ nâtwâne(t) bíle(t)

?Ø ï¦ nâtwânin bílen

The subjunctive is regularly formed: bítwânim, bítwânî(t), í ? bítwâne(t), &c., negative subjunctive: nátwânim, í nátwânî(t), &c. Twânîn is conjugated as a transitive verb in the past (see §27 below). § 22. `To Remember.' The idiom used for `to remember' is X la bîr bûn, literally "to be in the mind." The construction of the idiom, like the present of wîstin, depends upon whether or not there is preposed matter.



la bîrim a la bîrit a la bîrî a

X éX ã X

la bîrmân a la bîrtân a la bîryân a


-im la bîr a -it la bîr a -î la bîr a


-mân la bîr a -tân la bîr a -yân la bîr a

Simple `I remember,' `you remember,' &c. (without mentioning what one remembers) are X la bîrim a, X la bîrit a, &c. (negative X la bîrim níya, X la bîrit níya). However, if anything is preposed to the construction, that is, what one remembers, the enclitic pronouns are detached from bîr and attached to the preposed matter, as in the following:

. X Aw rozhânám la bîr a. I remember those days.

Hence, the prepositional phrase is actually -m la bîr, where the complement to la bîr, -(i)m, has been preposed, or placed before the preposition. Other examples are the following:

. X ¦ Nâwimî la bîr níya. He doesn't remember my name. You didn't remember the answer to the question.

X =/ î Walâm i pirsyârakát la bîr . nábû.

Other constructions involving bîr are -î ba bîrâ hâtin and -î bîr kawtinawa `to remember,' all of which usually take preposed pronominal enclitics.

... Wât ba bîrâ hât ka... Thus you remembered that...



. Y0 Shitèkim hât ba bîrâ. . :ä Dâykyân kawtawa bîr. I remembered something. They remembered their mother.

.-? :Y0 ) wakû shitèkyân bîr kawti- as though they remembetawa bered something

and la bîr chûn `to forget.'

. X ¦ Nâw i aw pyâwám la bîr chû. I forgot that man's name. Did you forget something?

X Y0 Shitèkit la bîr chû?

§ 23. Pronominal Objects of Verbs. Direct-object pronouns of verbs in the present tense and the present subjunctive mood are normally enclitics attached to some part of the verbal conglomerate (i.e. the verb, any preverbal prefixes, compounding agent). Identical to the possessive enclitic pronouns, the direct-object pronouns are as follows:


´-im ´-it ´-î

´-mân ´-tân ´-yân

´-m ´-t ´-y

´-mân é ´-tân ã ´-yân

The enclitic pronouns are attached in the following order: 1. If the verb is compound, the pronoun object is added to the preverb:1

. ï] bângim dákan. .ä warî dágirîn. . k Amad halyân dágire. . ? ferî ábim. They are calling me. We'll take it up. Ahmad will pick them up. I'll learn it.

A preverb may be (1) a noun like bâng `call' as in bâng kirdin `to call,' (2) an adjective like âshkirâ `obvious' as in âshkirâ kirdin `to clarify,' or (3) a directional element like war `up' as in war-girtin `to take up.'



SORANI KURDISH 2. If the verb is not compound, the pronoun object is added to the model prefix (á-, dá-, bí-) or the negative prefix (nâ-, ná):

.)íã dáyânbîne. .í dátbînim. .¦ ¦ nâynâsim/náydanâsim. .>ä¦ nâykim. .> amawe bíykim. He'll see them. I'll see you. I don't know him. I'm not going to buy it. I want to buy it.

.Y: ?; Haz akam bíynerimawa bo I'd like to send it to a rafîqèkim. friend of mine.

Sî oe Rû bikaynà wilâtèk kas .ß namânnâse.

Let's go to a country where nobody knows us.

§ 24. The Imperative. The singular imperative of verb stems ending in vowels is formed from bí- + the present stem. The plural imperative is exactly like the 2nd-person plural subjunctive. As in the subjunctive of close compound verbs, the bí- prefix is usually omitted; in open compounds it is generally found but may be omitted.


kirdin royshtin tawâwkirdin


oe bíka >oe bíro () tawâw(bi)ka

oe bíkan >oe bíron () tawâw(bi)kan

If the present stem ends in a consonant, the singular imperative is formed from bí- + present stem + -a. The plural imperative is identical to the 2ndperson plural subjunctive.

bûn chûn bch-

bíba 9 bícha


bíbin 9 bíchin


9 bíchora.

In addition to bícha, chûn has several alternative imperatives, viz. 9 bícho and



girtin nûsîn gwe-girtin dâ-nîshtin wis-bûn girnûsgwe-girdâ-nîsh wis-b-

oe bígira oe bígirin bínûsa bínûsin () gwe-(bi)gira () gwe-(bi)girin í() dâ-(bi)nîsha í() dâ-(bi)nîshin wis-ba oe wis-bin

Note the irregular singular imperatives of birdin, dân, khistin, and the totally irregular imperative of hâtin:

birdin dân khistin hâtin badakhaye-

bíbara bídara bíkhara wára

bíban bídan bíkhan wárin

The bí- prefix of the imperative takes pronominal direct objects exactly like the subjunctive prefix:

Ûí á Ba châw i khot bímbîna !C chon pyâwèkim!

! X Soe Bíyhena lagal khot!

See (me) with your own eyes what kind of man I am! Bring him/her/it with you!

Imperatives are often preceded by the "attention-getting" particle da. The negative imperative prefix is má-, which replaces bí- where it occurs.

! Mágrî! !S Máyhena! !í Dâ-mánîsha! Don't cry! Don't bring it! Don't sit down!

§ 25. The Simple Past (Intransitive). The simple past (preterite) of intransitive verbs is formed by adding unstressed personal suffixes to the past stem of the verb. The past stem is derived by deleting the -(i)n ending of the infinitive, e.g., hâtin > hât-, bûn > bû-. 39



-im -î(t) --

-în -in -in

-m -y(t) --

-yn -n -n

Examples of the simple past inflection are from · hâtin `to come,' bûn `to be,' gayîn `to arrive' (int.), and mân `to remain.'

hâtim í hâtî(t) hât gayîm í gayîy(t) gayî

hâtîn · hâtin · hâtin gayîyn gayîn gayîn

bûm bûy(t) bû mâm mây(t) mâ

ä bûyn bûn bûn ä mâyn mân mân

The negative is formed by prefixing ná-:

náhâtim náhâtîn nábûm ä nábûyn í náhâtî(t) · náhâtin nábûy(t) nábûn náhât · náhâtin nábû nábûn nágayîm nágayîyn ä námâyn námâm í nágayîy(t) nágayîn námây(t) námân nágayî nágayîn námâ námân

The t of the 2nd-person singular form is recovered if the verb has any suffixed ending like -awa or the directional suffix -à. For example, the verbs hâtinawa `to come back' and chûnà mâl `to go home' are conjugated as follows:

hâtimawa hâtîtawa hâtawa


hâtînawa hâtinawa hâtinawa

chûmà mâl chûytà mâl chûà mâl

chûynà mâl chûnà mâl chûnà mâl

§ 26. The Past Habitual/Progressive (Intransitive). The past habitual (`I used to go') and progressive (`I was going') is formed by adding the habitu40

THE VERB al/progressive prefix (d)á- to the simple past.

dáhâtim dáhâtîn í dáhâtî(t) · dáhâtin dáhât · dáhâtin

dágayîm dágayîyn í dágayîy(t) dágayîn dágayî dágayîn

For past habituals in á-, the negative is formed by prefixing ná- to the affirmative, but, unlike the present, the negative prefix does not combine with the modal prefix:


náahâtim náahâtî(t) náahât

· ·

náahâtîn náahâtin náahâtin


náagayîm náagayîy(t) náagayî

náagayîyn náagayîn náagayîn

For past habituals in dá-, the negative is regularly formed by prefixing náto the affirmative:

nádahâtim í nádahâtî(t) nádahât nádagayîm í nádagayîy(t) nádagayî

nádahâtîn · nádahâtin · nádahâtin nádagayîyn nádagayîn nádagayîn

As in the present tense, in the Suleymani dialect the marker is á-, and it is used as both past habitual and past progressive; in other dialects the marker is dá-. § 27. The Simple Past (Transitive): The Ergative. The simple past tense of transitive verbs is formed from the past stem of the verb and an agent affix--the ergative construction.1 The agent affixes are identical to the enclitic

In ergative-type constructions what we think of as the subject is the "agent" (or "logical subject") and what we think of as the direct object is the "patient" (for Sorani we will also call it "logical object"). In ergative languages that also have case, the agent is in an oblique case (and/or otherwise marked) and the patient is in the nominative (or subjective) case with the verb agreeing in number (and gender if applica1


SORANI KURDISH possessive pronouns:

-(i)m -(i)t -î/-y

-mân é -tân ã -yân

The agent affix usually precedes the verb and is attached to some preverbal matter (more about which shortly) to give the following "conjugation" of khwârdin `to eat.'

-im khwârd -it khwârd -î khwârd khwârdim khwârdit khwârdî

-mân khwârd é -tân khwârd ã -yân khwârd khwârdmân é khwârdtân ã khwârdyân

If only the verb is expressed, or only the verb and its logical subject, the agent affixes are added to the end of the past stem, as

If anything other than the verb is expressed, then the agent is affixed to the first available preverbal matter--"available preverbal matter" includes the following categories in hierarchical order: (1) the negative prefix, as in

námkhwârd nátdît

I didn't eat (it). you didn't see (him/her/it).

ble) with the patient. In Kurmanji Kurdish, for example, where a distinction between independent subject and oblique pronouns has been retained, the subject pronoun for `he' is ew, and the oblique `him' is wî; the subject `I' is ez, and the oblique `me' is min. `He saw me' in Kurmanji is wî ez dîtim (where dîtim agrees with the patient ez), and `I saw him' is min ew dît. Sorani, having lost independent oblique pronouns, resorts to pronominal enclitics to express the agent. An oversimplification is to think of the ergative as a passive (e.g., `the dog bit the man' expressed as `by the dog the man was bit'), but it is important to realize that speakers of ergative-type languages by no means think of the construction as passive (particularly since Sorani Kurdish has a passive, see §34 below).



náynûsî námkhwârd nátkhwârd náykhwârd

(2) the progressive prefix, as in

he didn't write (it).

Full inflection of the negative past tense of khwârdin is as follows:

námânkhwârd é nátânkhwârd ã náyânkhwârd

I was writing (it). he was tying (it).

Û dámnûsî daybast dámkhwârd dátkhwârd dáykhwârd

(3) a compounding preverb as in

Full inflection of the progressive past tense of khwârdin is as follows:

dámânkhwârd é dátânkhwârd ã dáyânkhwârd

I took (it). he took (it) off/out.

k halimgirt. S darîhenâ

Full inflections of the past tenses of hal-girtin `to pick up' and nâma-nûsîn `to write letters' are as follows:

k halimgirt k halitgirt k halîgirt ¦ nâmam nûsî ¦ nâmat nûsî ¦ nâmay nûsî

. ¦ nâmakám nûsî. .) aw kâráy nákird.

ïk halmângirt ïk haltângirt ïk halyângirt ¦ nâmamân nûsî é¦ nâmatân nûsî 㦠nâmayân nûsî

I wrote the letter. He didn't do that.

(4) the logical object (patient) of the verb, as in


SORANI KURDISH When the logical object is modified by the enclitic -îsh/-ysh `too, also,' the enclitic comes between the logical object and the agent affix:

.) ï] ö ÷oe birâkân i zhinakáyshî bâng kird. He invited his wife's brothers also.

(5) a prepositional phrase other than temporal or manner,1 as in

. :Y: Bo rafîqèkyân nûsî. They wrote it to a friend. I considered it necessary to write them down and get them printed.

=öS Ba pewîstim zânî bíyân.oe á nûsimawa u châpyân


Generally speaking, the only things to which the agent affix cannot be joined are (1) the expressed logical subject to which the agent affix refers (pyâwaká witî `the man said'), (2) temporal adverbs and phrases like `today' and `at that time,' and (3) prepositional phrases of manner (generally with the preposition ba) like ba tûaîawa `in anger,' X ba pala `in haste,' and k ba hala `in error.' An overtly expressed logical subject in no way obviates the necessity for a third-person agent affix, but the agent affix cannot be attached to the logical subject.

. oe Kâbrâ i pîr diramakânî wargirt. . Û ) Kuakân ba minyân wit. . ) Min ba kuakânim wit. The old gent took the dirhems. The boys said to me. I said to the boys.

Each and every transitive verb in the past tense must have its own agent affix, i.e. one agent affix cannot serve more than one verb. For example, in the phrase ) rûy kird u gutî (`he faced him and said'), the first agent affix, -y, serves only the verb rû-kird; the second verb, gut, must also have an agent affix, and since there is no preposed matter, the affix is on the end of the verb.

Prepositional phrases with pronominal complements present a special problem. See §27.3 below.



THE VERB When a phrase consists only of an expressed logical subject (agent), prepositional matter to which the agent affix cannot be attached, and verb, then the agent affix is attached to the verb:

... y kichaká ba tûaîawa witî... the girl said angrily...

§ 27.1. The Ergative in South Sorani. In North Sorani the past tense of all transitive verbs is made on the ergative model with agent affixes as described above. In South Sorani, however, a split has occurred. Generally, the ergative construction has been displaced by the non-ergative construction on the model of intransitive past verbs (and doubtlessly under the influence of Persian). However, the older ergative construction has remained for certain figurative expressions. Although the ergative is theoretically available for any past transitive verb, its use may produce a statement on the figurative plane that sounds "funny" or odd--i.e. a figurative use that really has no conventional application. For instance, the verb · mâl sûtin `to burn someone's house' may have an actual, literal application, as in

k mâlaká i Dârâ sûtim

or it may have a figurative application, as in

I burned Dara's house down

k mâlaká i Dârâm sût

"I burned Dara's house"

but here, since it is ergative, it is figurative and really means "I ruined him," "I did him in." The verb ¦ nân-khwârdin `to eat bread' may be either actually `to eat (some) bread' or figuratively `to break bread, have a meal, enjoy someone's hospitality.' On the actual level the past tense is nân khwârdim, as in

¦ nân khwârdim ¦ S X Latak ewa nânim khwârd.

I ate bread.

while on the figurative level the past tense is nânim khwârd, as in

I broke bread with you (I enjoyed your hospitality).

North Sorani, with no such differentiation, expresses these two examples as 45

SORANI KURDISH mâlaká i Dârâm sûtâ and nânim khwârd in all situations (nân khwârdim is meaningless in North Sorani). § 27.2. Pronouns as Logical Objects of Past Transitive Verbs. With past transitive verbs, when the agent affix precedes the verb, enclitic pronominal logical objects are attached to the past stem of the verb, but the enclitics used are the subject endings for the intransitive past,1 as in the following paradigm of the verb âgâ-kirdin `to inform' with the 3rd-person singular agent affix -y.

) e ) e ) e

ä) e ) e âgây kird he informed him/her ) e

âgây kirdim he informed me âgây kirdî(t) he informed you

âgây kirdîn he informed us âgây kirdin he informed you âgây kirdin he informed them

A 3rd-person singular logical object is not overtly expressed with a pronominal suffix since it is implicit in the zero ending of the verb (as in the second example below).

í námdîtî(t) námdît ·k halitgirtin námândîtin ?ïé dátânkeshân

I didn't see you I didn't see him/her/it you picked them up we didn't see you (pl) you (pl) were pulling them

With a 3rd-person plural inanimate logical object, the verb optionally agrees in number with the logical object. In the example, oe kâbrâ i pîr diramakânî wargirt `the old gent took the dirhems,' the verb could also be · wargirtin to agree with the plural logical object. Similarly, in the sentence

(ä>) > I Pyâwèk ktâwakânî kî(n). A man bought the books.

the verb kî may agree with the plural logical object as kîn. With 1st- and

Another way of analyzing this pattern is to think of the past transitive verb dît as meaning "saw him/her/it." Similarly, dîtim means "saw me," dîtî(t) means "saw you." The logical subjects of these verbs must be expressed by agent affixes.



THE VERB 2nd-person logical objects and with animate 3rd persons, the verb perforce agrees with the object in both number and person. When the agent affix does not precede the verb (i.e. if only the verb, or verb + logical subject, and no other element is present), the logical subject agent affix is suffixed to the verb first, and the logical object follows the agent affix except for the 3rd-person singular agent. When the logical subject is 3rd-person singular, the order is reversed: the logical object cedes the logical subject. In the table below are all available forms using dîtin `to see' as an example; the logical objects are given in boldface. Again, a 3rdperson singular logical-object pronoun is not expressed; it is built into the verb.

me I saw -- you him/her us -- you them


dîtimî(t) --



dîtimin --



you saw








s/he saw


dîtimî --





dîtînî --





we saw


dîtmânî(t) --




dîtmânin --



you saw









they saw


dîtyânim me


dîtyânî(t) you


dîtyân him/her


dîtyânîn us



dîtyânin you


dîtyânin them

I didn't see --


námdîtî(t) --


námdîtin --


you didn't see s/he didn't see














we didn't see you didn't see they didn't see --









námândîtî(t) námândît

námândîtin námândîtin















náyândîtim náyândîtî(t)

In South Sorani the situation is altogether different. Since, with the few exceptions noted above, the ergative construction has been lost, transitive verbs are regularly conjugated exactly like intransitives, and pronominal objects are added directly to the end of the verb form--all on the Persian model. The normal forms for South Sorani are as follows (note that the normal South Sorani third-person plural ending is -an instead of -in):

me I saw -- you him/her us -- you them


dîtimit --








you saw








s/he saw

dîtim --





dîtmân --





we saw


dîtînit --




dîtîntân --



you saw









they saw







§ 27.3. Pronominal Prepositional Complements with Agent Affixes. In past transitive verbs the space normally available for a preposed pronominal complement is taken by the agent affix. In this case, the preposition and its complement are split--the preposition precedes the verb, and the complement of the preposition is "bumped" to the end of the verb, but the pronouns 48

THE VERB used are the endings used for intransitive past verbs (-im/-m, -î(t)/-y(t), --, -în/-yn, -in/-n, -in/-n). Note especially that when the prepositional complement is 3rd-person singular, nothing is added to the verb stem. Since the past verb has built-in logical objects, these logical objects are used in such constructions as prepositional complements. The example

. ß C=/ Pirsyârèkmân le dakâ. He asks a question of us.

(present tense), can be viewed diagrammatically as follows:



-mân le


prepositional phrase with preposed complement

But in the past tense--`he asked a question of us'--the agent affix takes the place that would be occupied by the preposed complement to the preposition, so the complement of the preposition is removed to the end of the verb stem,

.ä) ß C=/ Pirsyârèkî le kirdîn.1


He asked a question of us.

Pirsyârek -î

Agent affix

le kird -în

Prepositional phrase

In another example,

Or, the incomplete sequence pirsyârek-le-kird- can be thought of as meaning "asked-a-question-of" and the personal ending -în supplies the "object" "us." Such an approach is probably closer to how native speakers "feel" all such constructions involving a preposition + verb. In the next example, bo-nârd- is certainly felt to mean "sent-to" and -in supplies the "object" "them." Even in the present-tense example bo-dánerim is felt to mean "I-am-sending-to" and the preposed -yân supplies the object "them." Native speakers do not seem to feel that -yân bo really "go together" as a coherent unit in any way separable from the verb; they think of bodánerim as the coherent unit and feel that the proper place to pause is between -yân and bo, not between bo and dánerim. To a certain extent, in the minds of native speakers bo-nârdin is not felt to differ substantially from hal-girtin or any other compound verb.




.? ã aw ktâwânáyân bo dánerim. I'm sending those books to them.

the preposition bo has its complement -yân preposed:

aw ktâwâná -yân bo dánerim

prepositional phrase with preposed complement

In the past, however, the agent affix -(i)m takes the place of the complement of the preposition. The complement is deferred to the end of the verb stem and is changed from -yân to -in, giving

.¦ aw ktâwânám bo nârdin. I sent those books to them.

aw ktâwâná -m

agent affix

bo nârd


prepositional phrase

When the first available element to which an agent affix can be attached is a preposition, the complement of the preposition is "bumped," as in the following:

) :ä dâykyân boy sûr kirdin.¦ awa u boy dâ-nân.

agent affix

their mother fried it for them and set it down before them.




sûr kird

-in -awa

prepositional phrase

Here the -y on boy in both parts of the sentence is the agent affix referring to dâykyân and the -in in kirdinawa and dâ-nân furnishes the complement of the preposition bo. Another example is as follows:



... *S ß pârakáy le girtim u pey witim...

prepositional phrase

he took the money from me and said to me...

prepositional phrase



agent affix






-y agent affix



Here the -y on pâraká and on pe is the agent affix (`he'), and the -im suffix in the verbs girt and wit are complements to the prepositions le and pe respectively. Other examples are as follows:

< () ) ã dargâyân kirdawa bo min They opened the door for ) ã (bom) > dargâyân bo kir- me. dimawa <(S) S k pûlakay wargirt l' ema ß k (lemân) > pûlakay le wargirtîn < (?) amámân wit ba to (pet) > í ß* amámân pe witî(t) He took the money from us. We said this to you.

í S < ? witim pet > pem witî(t) < (é) S ) qsam kird bo ewa ) (botân) > qsam bo kirdin ß I < (*S) X I gwem girt l' aw (ley) > gwem le girt · *S < (:?) witî ba awân (peyân) >

pey witin

I said to you. I told you a story.

I listened to him.

He said to them.

Since the ergative construction is not in normal use in South Sorani, the placement of these pronouns is quite the reverse of North Sorani. Therefore, while in North Sorani pey witim means `he said to me,' in South Sorani it means `I said to him.' Bot kirdim means `you did it for me' in North Sorani but `I did it for you' in South Sorani, and bomân kirdin means `we did it for 51

SORANI KURDISH you/them' in North Sorani but `you/they did it for us' in South Sorani. § 27.4. Displacement of a Possessive Pronoun by a Preposed Prepositional Complement. Similar to the displacement of a prepositional complement by the agent affix is the displacement of a possessive pronoun by a preposed prepositional complement. In a construction such as the following:

. : á châwim ba rafîqakânim kawt. My eye fell upon my friends.

if the noun rafîqakânim is replaced by a pronoun, turning the phrase into -yân pe, the preposed prepositional complement "bumps" the possessive -im from its position on châw to the end of the verb, as:

ß* ãá châwyân pe kawtim

prepositional phrase

my eye fell upon them

châw -yân pe kawt -im


The endings on the verb in such situations are the verbal personal endings, not the possessives. The first-person shows no difference, of course, but the other persons are distinguished, as in the following:

ß* á < ãá châwyân ba min kawt > · châwim pe kawtin

châw -im pe kawt -in


their eye fell upon me

In a combination of the principles given in this and the preceding paragraphs, when a possessive pronoun would be followed by an agent affix, the possessive pronoun may also be "bumped" to the end of a past transitive verb (turning into the intransitive past subject pronouns in the process), as in

. ) ku a korpaká'y dîtim. He saw my infant son.



.í ) ku a korpaká'mân dîtî(t). We saw your infant son. . ) ku a korpakân'yân dîtîn. They saw our infant sons.

The first example could also be expressed as ) ku a korpakám'î dît, but the combination of possessive pronoun + agent affix is generally avoided. Hence the "bumped" possessive. § 28. The Perfect Active Participle. The perfect active participle is formed by adding -û to the past stem of the verb. With past stems that end in vowels the participle takes the form -w.


· hâtin > hâtû mân > mâw öS te-gayshtin > =öS tegayshtû rû-dân > rûdâw ) kirdinawa > ) kirdûawa ä> kîn > > kîw

In meaning the perfect active participle corresponds roughly to the English present perfect participle: hâtû `having come,' = ö S tegayshtû `having understood,' ) kirdûawa `having opened,' &c. Transitivity and intransitivity are retained in the participle, i.e. > kîw means `having bought' in the active sense, not `bought' in the passive sense. (For the perfect passive participle, see §34.1 below.) The perfect active participle is principally used to form the present perfect tense (see §29 below), but it can also be used both adjectivally ( pâshkawtû `fallen behind, backward,' = í dânîshtû `having sat down, seated,' and = nustû `having gone to sleep, asleep') and nominally ( rûdâw `event' < rû-dân `to happen, take place'). § 29. The Present Perfect Tense (Intransitive). The present perfect tense of intransitive verbs is formed from the perfect active participle plus the present copulas. Examples from mân `to remain' (perfect active participle mâw) and · hâtin `to come' (perfect active participle hâtû) are: 53


mâwim mâwî(t) mâwa

ä mâwîn mâwin mâwin

hâtûm hâtûy(t) hâtûa

ä hâtûyn hâtûn hâtûn

The negative is formed by prefixing ná-

námâwim ä námâwîn

náhâtûm ä náhâtûyn


Verbs ending in -awa are conjugated as follows. Note especially the infixed -t- in the 3rd-person singular.

mâwimawa mâwîtawa mâwatawa

mâwînawa mâwinawa mâwinawa

hâtûmawa hâtûytawa hâtûatawa

hâtûynawa hâtûnawa hâtûnawa

For general purposes, the present perfect tense of Kurdish is equivalent to the English present perfect (`I have come'). It is in all respects the exact equivalent of the Persian past narrative ( hâtûm = and mâwa = ), and this means that in Kurdish the present perfect is used in situations where an action or change of state in the past is felt to be of particular relevance to a present situation. § 29.1. The Present Perfect Tense (Transitive). The present perfect tense of transitive verbs is made from the agent affixes plus the past participle plus the 3rd-pers. pres. copula (-a), as in khwardin `to eat' and kîn `to buy.'

-im khwârdûa -it khwârdûa -î khwârdûa > -im kîwa > -it kîwa > -î kîwa


-mân khwârdûa é -tân khwârdûa ã -yân khwârdûa > -mân kîwa > é -tân kîwa > ã -yân kîwa

Verbs in -awa have a -t- inserted between the copula a and -awa, as in )

THE VERB kirdinawa `to open' and dozînawa `to discover.'

) -im kirdûatawa ) -it kirdûatawa ) -î kirdûatawa -im dozîwatawa -it dozîwatawa -î dozîwatawa

) -mân kirdûatawa ) é -tân kirdûatawa ) ã -yân kirdûatawa -mân dozîwatawa é -tân dozîwatawa ã -yân dozîwatawa

When nothing else is available to which the agent affixes may be joined, they fall on the participle and are followed by the 3rd-person singular copula -a (except the 3rd singular, which has the form -yatî1), as in khwârdin and ä> kîn:

khwârdûma khwârdûta khwârdûyatî > kîwima > kîwita > kîwyatî

khwârdûmâna é khwârdûtâna ã khwârdûyâna > kîwmâna é> kîwtâna ã> kîwyâna

When any other element is available, the agent affixes are joined thereto, as in the negative:

námkhwârdûa nátkhwârdûa náykhwârdûa > námkîwa >· nátkîwa >ä náykîwa


námânkhwârdûa é nátânkhwârdûa ã náyânkhwârdûa >ï námânkîwa >ïé nátânkîwa >ïã náyânkîwa

The same -yatî that results consistently from the 3rd-person singular enclitic -î/-y plus the 3rd-person singular copula. The spelling of this suffix is inconsistent. See §15 above.


SORANI KURDISH § 30. The Past Perfect Tense (Intransitive). For intransitive verbs with past stems ending in a consonant (like hatin > hat-), the past perfect tense, which is functionally equivalent to the English past perfect (`I had come, you had gone'), is formed from the past stem + i + the past tense of bûn `to be.' Verbs with past stems ending in a vowel (like bûn > bû) form the past perfect tense from the simple stem + the past tense of bûn.

hâtibûm hâtibûy(t) hâtibû chûbûm chûbûy(t) chûbû náhâtibûm náhâtibûy(t) náhâtibû

ä hâtibûyn hâtibûn hâtibûn ä chûbûyn chûbûn chûbûn ä náhâtibûyn náhâtibûn náhâtibûn

The negative is formed by prefixing ná- to the verb:

The past perfect of bûn `to be' can be slightly irregular. In addition to the expected bûbû, there is also a conjugation based on the form bibû, as follows:

bibûm bibûy(t) bibû

ä bibûyn bibûn bibûn

The past perfect tense is commonly used in the expression heshtâ + negative past perfect + ka (`no sooner had...than,' `scarcely had...when').

Heshtâ nánustibû ka Yï J0 = ? .ö dangèk'î ba gwe gaysht.

No sooner had he gone to sleep than a sound reached his ear.

§ 30.1. The Past Perfect Tense (Transitive). The past perfect tense of 56

THE VERB transitive verbs is formed, like that of intransitive verbs, from the past stem + -i- + the past tense of bûn--with the addition of the agent affixes somewhere. Past stems that end in vowels add bû directly without the -i-. Examples: dîtin and dân:

J0 J0 J0

-im dîtibû -it dîtibû -î dîtibû

J0 J0 é J0 ã

-mân dîtibû -tân dîtibû -yân dîtibû

-im dâbû -it dâbû -î dâbû

é ã

-mân dâbû -tân dâbû -yân dâbû

As with all past transitives, if there is nothing else to which the agent affixes can be attached, they go onto the end of the verb form, as in

J0 J0 J0

dîtibûm dîtibût dîtibûy

J0 éJ0 ãJ0

dîtibûmân dîtibûtân dîtibûyân

dâbûm dâbût dâbûy

é ã

dâbûmân dâbûtân dâbûyân

And if there is any available preverbal matter, the agent affixes are attached thereto, as in negative and compound verbs. Examples: dîtin and dar-hênân.

J0 námdîtibû J0 nátdîtibû J0 náydîtibû ST darimhenâbû S darithenâbû S darîhenâbû

J0 námândîtibû J0é nátândîtibû J0ã náyândîtibû S darmânhenâbû Sé dartânhenâbû Sã daryânhenâbû

§ 31. The Past Subjunctive. The intransitive past subjunctive is formed like the past perfect, but instead of the past tense of bûn, the present subjunctive of bûn is added. Examples: hâtin and chûn:

hâtibim í hâtibî(t) ? hâtibe(t)

hâtibîn hâtibin hâtibin


chûbim í chûbî(t) ? chûbe(t)

chûbîn oe chûbin oe chûbin

The negative is formed by prefixing ná- to the verb:


náhâtibim náhâtibîn náchûbim náchûbîn í náhâtibî(t) náhâtibin í náchûbî(t) oe náchûbin ? náhâtibe(t) náhâtibin ? náchûbe(t) oe náchûbin

Transitive verbs are similarly formed (here, as usual, a 3rd-person singular patient is assumed). Examples: dîtin and dân:

>0 -im dîtibe(t) >0 -it dîtibe(t) >0 -î dîtibe(t) + -im dâbe(t) + -it dâbe(t) + -î dâbe(t)

>0 -mân dîtibe(t) >0 -tân dîtibe(t) >0 -yân dîtibe(t) + -mân dâbe(t) + -tân dâbe(t) + -yân dâbe(t)

If there is no preverbal matter available, the agent affixes are attached to the verb, as follows in the examples dîtin and kirdinawa:

[email protected] dîtibetim [email protected] dîtibetit [email protected] dîtibetî -S) kirdibetimawa -0S) kirdibetitawa :0S) kirdibetîawa [email protected] námdîtibe(t) [email protected] nátdîtibe(t) [email protected] náydîtibe(t) ?ST darimhenâbe(t) ?S darithenâbe(t) ?S darîhenâbe(t)


ð[email protected] dîtibetmân [email protected] dîtibettân [email protected] dîtibetyân ð?) kirdibetmânawa -0S) kirdibettânawa :0S) kirdibetyânawa [email protected] námândîtibe(t) [email protected]é nátândîtibe(t) [email protected]ã náyândîtibe(t) ?S darmânhenâbe(t) ?Sé dartânhenâbe(t) ?Sã daryânhenâbe(t)

And if there is any available preverbal matter, the agent affixes are attached thereto, as in dîtin and dar-henân:

THE VERB The past subjunctive is used (1) after all constructions that take subjunctive complements when the complement is in the past, as, for example (a) after dábe `must,' as in

.=ö + Pyâwakân dábe royshtibin. .() >0 = + Dábe aw shitânát dîtibe (dîtibin). The men must have gone. You must have seen those things.

(b) for a past tense complement to a predicate adjective. Such complementary clauses are often introduced by the conjunction ka `that,' but it is optional.

.(?]) >] ] ï Rang a ka bârân bârîbe(t). It's possible that it (has) rained.1 [email protected] () Lâzim niya (ka) dîtibetim. It's not necessary for me to have seen it.

(2) in past clauses after superlatives (note that a relative-clause antecedent modified by a superlative is in the indefinite state, ...èk).

+ k S= yekamîn kasèk a ka hawlî

... dâbe...

He is the first person who has attempted...

In this type of clause the subject of the relative clause must be the same as the noun modified by the superlative. In an example such as

S= yekamîn kasèk a ka dîtûma

he's the first person I've seen

the relative clause is not subjunctive because the subjects of the main clause (`he') and of the relative clause (`I') are different. (3) in past relative clauses after negatives (`there isn't anyone who has ...') or expressions with an essentially negative sense (`there are few who have...')

Compare this with the present subjunctive: I ] ï rang a ka bârân bibâre(t) `it's possible that it will rain.'




Kas niya (ka) am ktâwáy .+I nákhwendibe. Kam kas haya ikâyat a X ) X kon u lamezhînakân i ? ] kurdî la dâyapîra u bâb u .>0í dâyk u kasukâr i khoy


There isn't anyone who hasn't read this book. Rare is the person who has not heard old Kurdish stories of long ago from his grandmother, grandfather, mother, and relatives.

(4) after ()) wak(û) `as though' in the past for hypothetical situations (note that wak(û) followed by the indicative means `just as' for situations that have actually occurred)

...-? :Y0 ) Wakû shitèkyân bîr kawti- As though they remembetawa... bered something...1

(5) in the past protasis of a possible conditional

X +) Agar gyân i khom bakht ) Û? kirdibe la penâw i .¦ kuim'â, min hîch i ka'm


If I have sacrificed my life for the sake of my son, I do not want anything else.

§ 32. The Irrealis Mood. The irrealis mood, which expresses an unfulfilled or unfulfillable contrafactual statement, usually dependent upon an unrealized conditional, is identical to the past habitual tense (a- or da- + past tense). (a) The irrealis is used in the apodosis of contrafactual conditionals (see §33 below) and expressions that are contrafactual apodoses with ellipsis, as in

.oe · Namatwânî hîch i tir bikam. I couldn't have done anything else (even if I had wanted to).

This may be contrasted with ã= ) wakû aw shitáyân bîr kawt "just as they remembered that thing."




. ß Har kasè wây dazânî. Anybody would have known.

(b) The irrealis is used after khozga `would that' for unfulfilled wishes in the past:

!í ö· CV Khozga jârèk i tirîsh ahâtît! ! = Khozga zistân nádahât! Would that you had come some other time! Would that winter had not come!

§ 33. The Past Conditional. There are two forms of the past conditional mood (`if I had gone,' `had I gone'). The first past conditional mood is formed of the subjunctive prefix bí- (negative ná-) + the simple past conjugation + -âya.


bíhâtimâya -í bíhâtîtâya é bíhâtâya


Ûí bíhâtînâya bíhâtinâya bíhâtinâya


= -im bínûsîâya = -it bínûsîâya = -î bínûsîâya

= -mân bínûsîâya = é -tân bínûsîâya = ã -yân bínûsîâya

The second past conditional is similarly formed, but the bí- prefix is optional, and instead of the personal endings + -áya, the verb is formed like the past subjunctive but based on bâ-, a variant of the subjunctive of bûn.


(bí)hâtibâm (bí)hâtibây(t)


ä ä (bí)hâtibâyn (bí)hâtibân

Or, if there is nothing preceding to which the agent affix can be attached, the forms are = bímnûsîâya, =Û0 bítnûsîâya, =Ûí bíynûsîâya, &c.



() () (bí)hâtibâ(ya)



()Jí -im (bí)nûsîbâ(ya) ()= -it (bí)nûsibâ(ya) ()Jí -î (bí)nûsîbâ(ya)

()= -mân (bí)nûsibâ(ya) ()= é -tân (bí)nûsibâ(ya) ()= ã -yân (bí)nûsîbâ(ya)

The past conditional mood is used in the following instances: (a) In contrafactual conditional sentences, the protasis (the `if' clause) contains a verb in the past conditional mood, and in the apodosis (the result clause) the verb is in the irrealis. Note, as in the last three examples below, that agar may be elipsed from the protasis.

-í )I Agar dwene bíhâtîtâya, . Âzâdit dádît.

If you had come yesterday, you would've seen Azad.

. ¦ Agar nâmakat bínârdâya, If you had sent the letter, it ágayî. would've arrived.

X =Û0 Agar bitnûsîâya, la bîrit . nádachû.

If you had written it, you wouldn't have forgotten it.

Jí Min agar bimzânîbâya If I had known that it C awhâmân basar de, am would happen thus to us, regâyá'm nadagirtà bar u I wouldn't have taken í] khom u bâwkîshimim tûsh this road and I wouldn't Ck i am hamû badbakhtî u have caused myself and mâlwerânîá nadakird. my father to encounter all .)

this misfortune.

X S oe Mâl ba mâl bígaâytâya, bejiga la âfrat u minâl S= Û . · hîch kasèk i tirit nádadî.

Had you gone around house by house, you wouldn't have seen anyone other than women and children.



I=¦ .k )

Nanâsyâwèk biydîbân, ba Were someone who didn't har dûkyânî dagut chola- know to see them, he ka. would call them both swallows. Had he said, "Go throw yourself off that high place," I would have thrown myself off.

X >oe é Biywitâya biro l' aw bar = zâîá khot bikha khwâra . wa, khom dakhistà khwârawa.

(b) The past conditional mood is used for past complements to ­k shâllâ (`I wish') and ãoe biryâ (`would that,' functionally equivalent to khozga + irrealis [see §32, above]) for unfulfilled wishes.

= íC ­k Shâllâ swâr i karèkîshyân î î oe bíkirdîtâya u kolân ba .>?ï kolân i shâr biyângeâytâya.1 .]) ãoe Biryâ aw kâráy nakirdibâya.

I wish they had mounted you on an ass and paraded you through every street in town. Would that he hadn't done that.

§ 34. The Passive Voice. The past passive stem is constructed from the present stem of a transitive verb + -râ. The present passive stem is the present stem + -re-. For example, from the stem bîn `see' comes bînrân `to be seen,' bînrâ `it was seen,' and I dábînre(t) `it is/can be seen'; from the stem ner `send' comes ? nerrân2 `to be sent,' ? nerrá `it was sent,' and I? dánerre(t) `it is sent.' The past and present passives are regularly conjugated:


bînrâm bînrây(t)


ä bînrâyn bînrân

? nerrâm ? nerrây(t)

ä? nerrâyn ? nerrân

Bíyângerâytâya = bí (subjunctive prefix) + yân (agent affix) + gerâ (verb stem) + yt (2nd-person singular patient suffix) + âya (conditional suffix). 2 Since rr = , the verb nerrân is often written alternatively as .




I íI

dábînrem dábînrey(t) dábînre(t)



dábînreyn dábînren dábînren

? nerrâ

I? íI? I?

dánerrem dánerreyt dánerre(t)

? nerrân

I? C? C?

dánerreyn dánerren dánerren


The past perfect passive conjugation is regularly formed as a vowel stem (`I had been seen, I had been sent' &c.):

bînrâbûm bînrâbûy(t) bînrâbû ? nerrâbûm ? nerrâbûy(t) ? nerrâbû

ä bînrâbûyn bînrâbûn bînrâbûn ä? nerrâbûyn ? nerrâbûn ? nerrâbûn

Irregular passives. Although the passive is regularly and predictably formed from the vast majority of verbs, the following common verbs have irregularly formed passives:


í bîstin > dân > dîtin > · girtin > · gotin > khistin > khwârdin > ) kirdin >

í bîstrân bîstre-, as well as the regularly formed í bîsrân bîsre d(i)rân d(i)reÛí bîndrân bîndre-, as well as the regularly formed bînrân bînre gîrân gîre· gutrân gutre khirân khire khurân khure) k(i)rân k(i)re64


¦ nârdin > ¦ nân > · witin >

¦ nârdrân nârdre-, ? nerdrân nerdre-, and the regularly formed ? nerrân nerreï n(i)rân n(i)re· witrân witre-

Other moods and tenses of the passive are regularly formed. All passive verbs are intransitive by definition and therefore never form their past tenses on the ergative model. Examples of passive constructions are as follows:

é öS Pewîst a am ikâyatâná = C á X I binûsrenawa u la châp .Ioe ­ dren u bilâw bikrenawa. X Tanakayèk la bar dukâna.ï ká dâ-nrâbû.

It is necessary that these stories be written down, printed, and published. A can had been set down in front of the shop.

§ 34.1. The Past Passive Participle. The past passive participle is regularly formed from the past passive stem in -râ + -w, giving, for example, bînrâw `having been seen,' nerrâw `having been sent,' and nûs? râw `having been written.' The negative participle is regularly made by prefixing ná- ( nábînrâw `not having been seen,' ? nánerrâw `not having been sent'). From the past passive participle is made the present perfect passive conjugation (`I have been seen, I have been invited,' &c.):

bînrâwim bînrâwî(t) bînrâwa ) ï] bâng krâwim ) ï] bâng krâwî(t) ) ï] bâng krâwa

Examples of passive constructions:

ä bînrâwîn bînrâwin bînrâwin ä) ï] bâng krâwîn ) ï] bâng krâwin ) ï] bâng krâwin ) witû-kirân `to be ironed'


) witû-kirdin `to iron' >


·S C rez le-girtin `to respect' > S C rez le-gîrân `to be respected' Ûí nûsînawa `to write down' > nûsrânawa `to be written


) barg a pâk u tamîz a witûkirâwakáy

his nice, clean, ironed clothes an eminent, respected man The vast majority of these stories have not been written down.

SC C pyâwèk i barz i rezlegîrâw é Zorba i zor i am ikâya. tâná nanûsrâwinawa.

§ 35. Postposed Verbal Complements. With verbs of motion many verbal complements are postposed, i.e. they come after the verb and are linked it by the unstressed vowel à. For example, chûn is `to go,' but chûnà mâlè is `to go home.' The linking vowel occurs in all persons in all tenses. In the present tense the t inherent in the 2nd and 3rd persons singular is recovered before the à. An example of the present tense is that of chûnà mâlè:

ßk X dáchimà mâlè ßk : dáchîtà mâlè ßk Y dáchetà mâlè

ßk : dáchînà mâlè ßk Û dáchinà mâlè ßk Û dáchinà mâlè

In the past tenses, the linking à also comes between the verb and its complement. The t inherent in the 2nd person singular is always recovered. An example of the paradigm for verbs with consonant-final stems is hâtinà darè, `to come out.'

hâtimà darè -í hâtîtà darè hâtà darè

Ûí hâtînà darè hâtinà darè hâtinà darè

In 3rd-person singular past verbs ending in -û and -î, a t may be infixed (depending upon dialect) between the verb and the linking à, as in chûnà shârawa `to go to town' and gayînà mâlawa `to reach home.' 66


chûmà shârawa chûytà shârawa chûtà shârawa k : gayîmà mâlawa k -í gayîytà mâlawa k -í gayîtà mâlawa


chûynà shârawa chûnà shârawa chûnà shârawa k Ûí gayîynà mâlawa k Ûí gayînà mâlawa k Ûí gayînà mâlawa

In past verbs that end in -â, a y is infixed between the verb and the linking à, as in dânà yek `to throw together':

dâmà yek dâtà yek dâyà yek -im dâyà yek -it dâyà yek -î dâyà yek

dâmânà yek é dâtânà yek ã dâyânà yek -mân dâyà yek é -tân dâyà yek ã -yân dâyà yek

With verbs in -awa, the -awa suffix takes precedence over the directional -à, which is deleted. Compare the following:

Hâtimà hosh. Hâtimawa hosh.

I came to consciousness. I regained consciousness.

When a postposed directional complement is turned into a preposed pronominal enclitic, the directional -à becomes -è.

< oe Ayawe bigâtà shâr > , Ayawe biygâtè. S ¦ Hargîz nâgamà aw kew a ßï㦠< dûrâná > nâyângamè.

He wants to get to town > He wants to get to it. I'll never make it to those far-away mountains > I'll never make it to them.


Chûà shârawa also exists in some regions.


SORANI KURDISH This also happens occasionally with the verb dân ba `to give to,' in which case the preposition ba is deleted, its place taken by the directional -è. A full conjugation of this phenomenon is illustrated by the following:

ß Y , ã ) Z é


ama't dadamè `I'll give this to you' ama'm dadaytè `you'll give this to me' ama'yân dadâtè `s/he'll give this to them' ama'y dadaynè `we'll give this to him/her' ama'mân dadanè `you'll give this to us' ama'tân dadanè `they'll give this to you (pl)'

Let him give something to < \ Shitèk ba suâlkarakân Y0 , :Y0 bídât > Shitèkyân bídâtè. the beggars > Let him give them something.

ß < Y0 Shitèkim b' aw pyâwá

dâ > dâmè . Da dirâwim bidarè. .ß Da hazâr lîrat dadamè.

I gave something to that man > I gave it to him. Give me ten dirhems. I'll give you ten thousand liras.

§ 36. Factitive Verbs. The factitive infinitive is formed from the present stem of the intransitive (if the intransitive stem ends in -e, it is dropped) + -(y)ândin. The present stem of all such verbs is in -(y)en-. Examples are:

u rukhân (pres. stem rukhe-)

`to be destroyed' >

u rukhândin rukhen- `to


mirdin (pres. stem mir-)

`to die' >

mirândin miren- `to make

die, to kill'

ö gayshtin (pres. stem ga-)

`to reach' > ga-) `to understand' > 68

ã gayândin gayen- `to make

reach, to deliver' make understand'

ö , te-gayshtin (pres. stem te- ã , te-gayândin te-gayen- `to


. ?÷ ?u I rewî kherâ râkeshâ u khoy The fox quickly stretched mirând. out and played 'possum ("made himself dead"). .ã ã lâwakân khoyân gayândè. The youths got themselves to him.

) X i agar azim l' am hâtiná *S I - nakirdâya, damtwânî ba .?oe jorèk tey bigayenim.

If I hadn't wanted to come on this trip, I could have made him understand somehow.


OTHER SYNTACTICAL FEATURES § 37. Expressions of Temporal Duration. For statives (`X state has been going on for X amount of time'), the Kurdish temporal expression consists of: the temporal + -(y)a + present perfect tense verb:

? ] Sk á Chand sâlèk a bâs i cho S = netî i yekgirtin i shewa kân i zimân i kurdî hâtû. )

atà goè. .=í ? STM á Chand sâ`atek a l' era nîshtûma.

For several years now discussion of how to unite the dialects of the Kurdish language has come to the fore. I've been sitting here for several hours.

For present statives with the verb `to be' (`he's been here for X amount of time') the formula is: temporal + -(y)a + present copula:

.? k Chwâr sâl a l'era ya. He's been here for four years.

For on-going, progressive action continuing to the present (`it's been raining for X amount of time') the formula is: temporal + -(y)a + present progressive verb.

.] ] C á Chand rozhèk a bârân dabâre. It's been raining for several days.

... ? X Zor la mezhû a dazânim... I've known for a very long time...

For negatives (`I haven't done X for X amount of time') the formula is: temporal + -(y)a + negative present perfect verb.

. k Chwâr sâl a námândîtûna. We haven't seen them for four years. .] ] C á Chand rozhèk a bârân nábârîwa. It hasn't rained for several days.


OTHER SYNTACTICAL FEATURES For the past (`something had been going on for X amount of time'), the formula is: temporal + (da)bû + past progressive for affirmative or past perfect for the negative (`I hadn't done X for X amount of time'):

] I á Chand rozhèk dabû bârân .] dabârî. ] I á Chand rozhèk bû bârân .] nábârîbû. ï ß äï Nizîka i se­chwâr mâng .J0 dabû namdîtibû. ... ? X Zor la mezhû bû damzânî...

It had been raining for several days. It hadn't rained for several days. I hadn't seen him for nearly three or four months. I had known for a long time that...

§ 38. Subordinating Conjunctions. Subordinating conjunctions generally consist of prepositions + awaî (ka), where the relative ka, as in relative clauses (see §39), is optional. Conjunctions that mean `after,' like X (la) dwâîâ ka, dwâ i awaî ka, and X (la) pâsh awaî ka, are followed by an indicative verb, present or past according to sense.

.í -í á X la dwâî'â ka châk abîtawa, aybînî. After you are well again, you'll see him. After the city was thrown into an uproar, ...

dwâ i awaî ka shâr

khiroshâ, ...

Conjunctions that mean `before' ( X bar l' awaî ka, ? pesh awaî ka) are invariably followed by a present subjunctive verb. The correct tense for English translation is gained from context.

X bar l' awaî lâfâwaká Y;S kÛ hurizhm benetà sar zhû.) ã S rakânmân, minâlakân

pekawa yârîyân akird.

Before the torrent hurled down on our rooms, the children were playing together.

Other conjunctions that demand a subjunctive verb include ba be awaî (ka) `without' 71


... :@ + ba be awaî biybînim, dám- Without my seeing it, I zânî ka... knew that...

and () bo awaî (ka) `in order that'

aw yekam rozh'î bo khoS ß* ¦ râhenan, bo mashq dânâ X ? bû, bo awaî pe u pilmân C S râbet u la hamû rûyèk awa khomân bo aw rega .äoe C

dûr u drezhá âmâda bikayn.

He had set that first day for getting ourselves accustomed, for practice, in order that our legs and feet become accustomed and that we make ourselves ready in every way for that long road. in order that he prove his innocence...

¦+ e bo awaî pâkî u begunâhî i ...)Sk^ khoy bisalmene...

() V

A short list of common subordinating conjunctions: b' aw marjáî (ka) provided that, on condition that (+ subj.)

() ba be awaî (ka) without (+ pres. subj.) () X bar l' awaî (ka) before (+ pres. subj.) chunkû since dwâ i awaî (ka) after jâ ka inasmuch as ka when kâtè(k) when pâsh amaî/awaî (ka) after pesh awaî (ka) before (+ pres. subj.) () bo awaî (ka) in order that (+ pres. subj.)

ï () V S , () | () ?

§ 39. Relative Clauses. Relative clauses in Kurdish are often, but not necessarily, introduced by the relative pronoun ka `who, which, that.' Syntactically Kurdish relative clauses do not differ significantly from Persian relative clauses, with the exception of the omission of the relative pronoun, 72

OTHER SYNTACTICAL FEATURES which does not happen in Persian. The antecedent of any relative pronoun, expressed or omitted, is usually but not necessarily marked by enclitic -î, -e, or -èk. Generally speaking, the relative pronoun ka may be omitted, particularly when it functions as the object of the verb in the relative clause. The relative pronoun is not often omitted when it functions as the subject (logical or real) of the verb in the relative clause--as in English (`the man whom I met' and `the man with whom I went' may be equally well expressed as `the man I met' and `the man I went with,' but `the man who came' cannot become *`the man came'). If the syntactical function of the relative pronoun within the relative clause is other than subject of the verb, the grammatical place is marked within the clause by a "referent pronoun" that refers back to the relative. The verb inside a relative clause modifying a true indefinite or nonspecific antecedent is in the subjunctive, as in Persian. Examples follow.

X J0 ) sar i kuakáî ka nustibû, .oe la sar rânî bird.

She took the head of the boy, who had fallen asleep, from her lap.

In this example the relative pronoun ka functions as the subject of nustibû-- and is therefore not omissible--and the antecedent is marked by -î.

X S yekèk la lâwakân, ka bo froshtin i barham chû0 . ß* S bûà shâr, gaâyawa u

mizgenî pe dân.

One of the young men, who had gone to town to sell produce, returned and gave them the good news.

Here the relative pronoun ka refers to the antecedent yekèk la lâwakân. The -èk ending on yekèk functions as the marker of the antecedent.

+TM + lât wâ nabe har `arabè to ¦ í tûshî bît, am nâwâná gish .Z dazâne.

Don't think every Arab you meet knows all these names.



optional relative pronoun

relative clause

lât wâ nabe har arabe [ka] to tûsh- î


am nâwâná gish dazâne

referent pronoun

In this example the referent pronoun -î complementing tûshî refers to the antecedent, har arab, marked with the enclitic -e. The relative pronoun is omitted. The verb tûsh-bît is in the subjunctive because the antecedent is nonspecific and the clause is hypothetical (`any and every Arab you may meet'1).

ïã to am kamânáî dayânzânî, Write down these few things you know. . biyânnûsawa.

antecedent marker optional relative pronoun relative clause

to am kamâná î [ka] da- yân -zânî biyânnûsawa

referent pronoun

In this example the referent pronoun -yân in dayânzânî refers to the antecedent am kamâná, which is marked as antecedent by -î without the relative pronoun. The -yân- in biyânnûsawa is a resumptive object pronoun, which, strictly speaking, is optional since the object of binûsawa has already been stated (am kamâná). Such resumptive object pronouns are often used after a relative clause to make clear that the antecedent of the relative clause is actually the object of the main verb.

) ß ë X l' awânaî gilay le kirdûn, .: jyâwâz a.


It is different from those things he has complained of.

Compare the hypothetical subjunctive clause with the actual + TM har `arabè min tûshî bûma "every Arab I've met," where the antecedent is

definite and the verb of the relative clause describes something that has actually happened.


OTHER SYNTACTICAL FEATURES Here the referent pronoun -n, the "bumped" complement of the preposition le, refers to the antecedent awâna, which is so marked by -î without the relative pronoun.

) X zorî la khoy akird ka aw ã ? dû firmesk a gawrayáî .I_ oe ayânawe bikawinà

He was forcing himself to hide those two large tears, which were about khwârè biyânshâretawa. to dribble down.

In this example the antecedent of the relative clause, dû firmesk a gawrayá, is marked by î, and the relative pronoun is omitted. The -yân- in biyânshâretawa is another example of a resumptive object pronoun.

) X bîrim la har shitèk kirdi-? Y0 . X betawa, bîrim la mirdin


Whatever I had thought about, I hadn't thought about dying.

In this example, Y0 har shitèk `whatever' produces an indefinite rela tive clause; thus the verb bîrim kirdibetawa is subjunctive, and in this case, past subjunctive. § 40. Directional Nouns in è. Certain nouns become quasi-adverbial directionals with the addition of unstressed -è. Among these are ßk mâlè `homeward,' zhûrè `inward,' and darè `outward.' These directionals tend to occur as postposed directionals after -à (see §35). § 41. Orthographic Peculiarities of Sorani Kurdish. For the most part, Sorani Kurdish is written in a "phonetic" version of the Arabic alphabet in which all but one of the vowels are given graphic representations. Only the vowel i is not represented internally in a word. The only real inconsistency in the writing system is the representation of the sequence ye, which is written , as though it were ya, which is written the same. Both the writing of ye and the lack of indication of i go back to early twentieth-century attempts to render Ottoman spelling more "phonetic" and actually have nothing to do with Kurdish, but since Kurdish spelling was devised during the late Ottoman period, it has been saddled with for ye and nothing for i. 75

SORANI KURDISH Writers of Kurdish, as well as writers of other languages using the Arabic alphabet, are loathe to write several y's in sequence. It is probably safe to say that a word like gayîyn `we arrived,' which technically should be spelled , with three y's in a row (one for the first y, a second for the î, and a third for the second y), will never be seen with all three y's. At most it will appear as , the same spelling as gayîn `you/they arrived.' The same applies to the sequence -î i, i.e. a word ending in î followed by the i of the izâfa: rarely is this sequence spelled with two y's; generally the -î ending of the word is spelled with y and the izâfa y is omitted, as in

k bo dilnarmî i awâna =] ikâyat andâza u bâristâî i dyârîkrâwî niya. . )ã

for placating them A story does not have a clearly defined size or length.

In the reading passages occasionally a zer vowel point has been inserted under the y ( ) to indicate the missing vowel of the izâfa. The same applies to the sequence îy, where a word ends in î and is followed by the 3rd-person singular pronominal enclitic (possessive or agent affix). Occasionally the sequence is spelled in full with the correct number of y's, but normally only one y is written. This is particularly true when there would be three y's, as in

.) ku X mâlâwâîy la khalk kird. He bade farewell to the people.

The sequence îa, as in tânjîaká `the hunting dog,' is written as either é or é, as though the sequence were î-ya. The sequence îèk, given the orthographic peculiarity of the -ek suffix after vowels, may be written as îek or as îyek, as in tânjîèk `a hunting dog,' which can be written either as Sé or more commonly as é. There is also no unanimity among writers of Kurdish with regard to the writing of compound words. Some put all the elements together, and others leave each element separate. Thus, dilnarmî is spelled either or , and dyârîkrâw is either )ã or äã. This is rarely troubling to k the reader, but the longer compounds like ?÷> sarinjâkesh `attrac76

OTHER SYNTACTICAL FEATURES tive' become, the more difficult they become to recognize. § 42. Vowel Contractions. (1) The sequence -îa- is often contracted to -e-, as in :ä amarîkîaká > Yä amarîkeká.

(2) The sequences -ûwa- and -ûa- can be contracted to -o-, as in bûwatawa > botawa, dîtûatawa > dîtotawa, and bibûawa > bibowa.


Verb Tenses and Moods

Present Habitual/Progressive (kawtin `fall,' nûsîn `write,' & qsa-kirdin `speak')


I ¦ í ? ¦ ) ¦

dákawim dákawî(t) dákawe(t) nâkawim nádakawim dánûsim dánûsî(t) dánûse(t) nânûsim nádanûsim qsa dákam qsa dákay(t) qsa dákâ(t) qsa nâkam qsa nádakam

ä ä¦ ä ¦ ä ä¦ ä

dákawîn dákawin dákawin nâkawîn nádakawîn dánûsîn dánûsin dánûsin nânûsîn nádanûsîn qsa dákayn qsa dákan qsa dákan qsa nâkayn qsa nádakayn

Present Subjunctive (`that I fall,' &c.)

oe oe Ioe í ?

bíkawim bíkawî(t) bíkawe(t) nákawim bínûsim bínûsî(t) bínûse(t) nánûsim

äoe oe oe ä


bíkawîn bíkawin bíkawin nákawîn bínûsîn bínûsin bínûsin nánûsîn


() () ()

qsa (bí)kam qsa (bí)kay(t) qsa (bí)kâ(t) qsa nákam

ä() qsa (bí)kayn oe() qsa (bí)kan () qsa (bí)kan ä qsa nákayn

Simple Past (`I fell,' &c.)


· KAWTIN `TO FALL' káwtim í káwtî(t) káwt

nákawtim nákawtî(t) nákawt

· · · · a= -í =

káwtîn káwtin káwtin nákawtîn nákawtin nákawtin

í = í= = Û



nûsîmân nûsîtân nûsîyân

nûsîm nûsîy(t) nûsîy námnûsî

námânnûsî nátnûsî é nátânnûsî náynûsî ã náyânnûsî FOR AGENT AFFIX PRECEDING A TRANSITIVE VERB: ñ QSA-KIRDIN `TO SPEAK' ) ) ) ) ) )

qsám kird qsát kird qsáy kird qsam nákird qsat nákird qsay nákird

) ) é ) ã ) ) é ) ã

qsámân kird qsátân kird qsáyân kird qsamân nákird qsatân nákird qsayân nákird

Past Habitual/Progressive (= Irrealis) (`I used to fall,' `I would have fallen,' &c.)



í Û ) ) ) ) )

dákawtim dákawtî(t) dákawt náakawtim (Sul.) nádakawtim dámnûsî dátnûsî dáynûsî námanûsî (Sul.) námdanûsî qsam dákird qsat dákird qsay dákird qsam náakird (Sul.) qsam nádakird

· · é ã ) ) é ) ã ) )

dákawtîn dákawtin dákawtin náakawtîn (Sul.) nádakawtîn dámânnûsî dátânnûsî dáyânnûsî námânanûsî (Sul.) námândanûsî qsamân dákird qsatân dákird qsayân dákird qsamân náakird qsamân nádakird

Present Perfect (`I have fallen', &c.)

= = = =Û ) ) ) )

kawtûm kawtûy(t) kawtûa nákawtûm nûsîwima nûsîwita nûsîwyatî námnûsîwa qsam kirdûa qsat kirdûa qsay kirdûa qsam nákirdûa

ä ä = é= ã= = ) ) é ) ã )


kawtûyn kawtûn kawtûn nákawtûyn nûsîwmâna nûsîwtâna nûsîwyâna námânnûsîwa qsamân kirdûa qsatân kirdûa qsayân kirdûa qsamân nákirdûa


Past Perfect (`I had fallen,' &c.)

= = Jí =Û ) ) ) )

kawtibûm kawtibûy(t) kawtibû nákawtibûm nûsibûm nûsibût nûsîbûy námnûsibû qsam kirdibû qsat kirdibû qsay kirdibû qsam nákirdibû

ä ä = é= ã= = ) ) é ) ã )

kawtibûyn kawtibûn kawtibûn nákawtibûyn nûsibûmân nûsibûtân nûsibûyân námânnûsibû qsamân kirdibû qsatân kirdibû qsayân kirdibû qsamân nákirdibû

Past Subjunctive (`that I have fallen,' &c.)

í ? [email protected]= [email protected]= [email protected]= :@=Û +) +) +) +)

kawtibim kawtibî(t) kawtibe(t) nákawtibim nûsîbetim nûsîbetit nûsîbetî námnûsîbet qsam kirdibe qsat kirdibe qsay kirdibe qsam nákirdibe

ð[email protected]= [email protected]= [email protected]= [email protected]= +) +) é +) ã +)

kawtibîn kawtibin kawtibin nákawtibîn nûsîbetmân nûsîbettân nûsîbetyân námânnûsîbet qsamân kirdibe qsatân kirdibe qsayân kirdibe qsamân nákirdibe

Past Conditional I (`had I fallen,' &c.)







-íoe éoe = =Û0 =Ûí =Û oe oe oe )

bíkawtîtâya bíkawtâya nákawtimâya bímnûsîâya bítnûsîâya bíynûsîâya námnûsîâya qsam bíkirdâya qsat bíkirdâya qsay bíkirdâya qsam nákirdâya

oe oe Ûí = = = = oe oe é oe ã )

bíkawtinâya bíkawtinâya nákawtînâya bímânnûsîâya bítânnûsîâya bíyânnûsîâya námânnûsîâya qsamân bíkirdâya qsatân bíkirdâya qsayân bíkirdâya qsamân nákirdâya

Past Conditional II (`were I to have fallen,' &c.)

oe oe oe Jí JíÛ0 JíÛí JíÛ ]oe ]oe ]oe ])

bíkawtibâm bíkawtibây bíkawtibâ nákawtibâm bímnûsîbâ bítnûsîbâ bíynûsîbâ námnûsîbâ qsam bíkirdibâ qsat bíkirdibâ qsay bíkirdibâ qsam nákirdibâ

äoe oe oe ä Jí Jí Jí Jí ]oe ]oe é ]oe ã ])

bíkawtibâyn bíkawtibân bíkawtibân nákawtibâyn bímânnûsîbâ bítânnûsîbâ bíyânnûsîbâ námânnûsîbâ qsamân bíkirdibâ qsatân bíkirdibâ qsayân bíkirdibâ qsamân nákirdibâ

PASSIVE TENSES AND MOODS Present Passive (`I am seen')

I íI

dabînrem dabînrey(t)



dabînreyn dabînren


I I¦ I

dabînre(t) nâbînrem nádabînrem

C I¦ I

dabînren nâbînreyn nádabînreyn

Present Subjunctive Passive (`that I be seen')

Ií íIí Ií I

bíbînrem bíbînrey(t) bíbînre(t) nábînrem

Ií Cí Cí I

bíbînreyn bíbînren bíbînren nábînreyn

Past Passive (`I was seen')

bînrâm bînrây(t) bînrâ nábînrâm

ä ä

bînrâyn bînrân bînrân nábînrâyn

Present Perfect Passive (`I have been seen')

bînrâwim bînrâwî(t) bînrâwa nábînrâwim

ä ä

bînrâwîn bînrâwin bînrâwin nábînrâwîn

Past Perfect Passive (`I had been seen')

bînrâbûm bînrâbûy(t) bînrâbû nábînrâbûm

ä ä

bînrâbûyn bînrâbûn bînrâbûn nábînrâbûyn

Past Subjunctive Passive (`that I have been seen')


bînrâbim bînrâbî(t)



bînrâbîn bînrâbin



bînrâbe(t) nábînrâbim


bînrâbin nábînrâbîn

Past Conditional Passive (`had I been seen')

í í éí

bibînrâmâya bibînrâytâya bibînrâtâya nábînrâmâya

í ¦í ¦í

bibînrâynâya bibînrânâya bibînrânâya nábînrâynâya


Synopsis of Tenses and Moods



chûn to go

ñ ï]

bâng kirdin to invite

ñ ï]

bâng krân to be invited


chûm I went

ñ ï]

bângim kird I invited him/her1

ñ ï]

bâng krâm I was invited

past habitual

dachûm I used to go

ñ ï]

bângim dakird I used to invite him

ñ ï]

bâng dakrâm I used to be invited

pres. perf.

chûwim I have gone

ñ ï]

bângim kirdûa I have invited him

ñ ï]

bâng krâwim I have been invited

past perf.

chûbûm I had gone

ñ ï]

bângim kirdibû I had invited him

ñ ï]

bâng krâbûm I had been invited



(d)achim I(`ll) go


bâng (d)akam I(`ll) invite

Iñ ï]

bâng (d)akrem I am (will be) invited

pres. subj.


bichim that I go

oe ï]

bâng bikam that I invite

Ioe ï]

bâng bikrem that I be invited

past subj.

chûbim that I have gone

?ñ ï]

bângim kirdibe(t) that I have invited him

ñ ï]

bâng krâbim that I have been invited

Because of the ergative nature of the past tenses, a 3rd-person singular object is built into the verb.




past cond. I past cond. II



oe ï]

bângim bikirdâya

oe ï]

bâng bikrâmâya


(bi)chûbâm had I gone

]ñ() ï]

bângim (bi)kirdibâ had I invited him

]ñ() ï]

bâng (bí)krâbâm had I been invited

irrealis (= past habitual)

(d)achûm I would have gone

ñ ï]

bângim (d)akird I would have invited him

ñ ï]

bâng (d)akrâm I would have been invited

Conditional Sentence Types

present/future possible (present subjunctive or simple past indicative protasis, indicative apodosis) .SÛíã () S9 Agar biche(t) (or chû), dayânbîne(t). If he goes, he'll see them. If you go to Kurdistan, you'll learn Kurdish.

=) () 9 . ) ?

Agar bíchîtà (or chûytà) Kurdistân, fer i kurdî dabî.

past possible (past subjunctive protasis, indicative apodosis) .¦ >] X Agar l'awe wafr bârîbe, nâyen. If it has snowed there, they won't be coming. If he has gone, I don't know when he went out. If you have gone to Kurdistan, you must have learned Kurdish.

¦ + . ? + =) -í . ) ¦ =) -í . ) ?

Agar chûbe, nâzânim kay chûà darè. Agar chûbîtà Kurdistân, dabe fer i kurdî bibî.

Agar náchûbîtà Kurdistân, If you haven't gone to nâtwânî fer i kurdî bibî. Kurdistan, you can't have learned Kurdish.

contrafactual (past conditional protasis, past habitual apodosis)



. 9 Agar bichûâya, daydîtin. If he had gone, he would have seen them./ If he were to go, he would see them.

? =) 9 . ) ? =) . )

Agar bíchûytâya Kurdistân, fer i kurdî dabûy. Agar náchûytâya Kurdistân, fer i kurdî nádabûy.

If you had gone to Kurdistan, you would have learned Kurdish. If you hadn't gone to Kurdistan, you wouldn't have learned Kurdish.


Conversion Table for the Sorani and Kurmanji Alphabets Recently there have been attempts, particularly on the internet and on the part of Kurds influenced by speakers of Kurmanji Kurdish, to write Sorani in the Latin-based Kurmanji alphabet. The conversion is as follows: Sorani a â b ch d e f g gh h i î j k kh l l m n o p q r s sh t u û v Sorani Arabic



Kurmanji e a b ç d ê f g x h i î c k x l ll m n o p q r rr s t u û v


w y z j (not indicated)

In writing Sorani in the Kurmanji alphabet, a one-to-one correspondence is observed. The i of the izâfa after consonants is written as î joined directly to the preceding word, but after vowels it is usually written as y, as in ray gitî for râ i gishtî `public opinion' and zarawey zanistî for _ = = zârâwa i zânistî `scientific language.' An example of such transcribed text is given below: Ber le Sedam Husên hîç berpirsêkî Êraqî newêrawe îmza le ser rêkkewtinêk bikat ke otonomî bidate kurd, ewî le 11-î adarî 1970 rêkkewtinname benawbangekey adarî legell Mela Mistefa Barzanî mor kird, tefsîrî ciyaciya bo karekey (cêgirî berrêz) dekira. Hendê deyanut be rastî deyewê ew birîne qûlley cestey Êraq tîmar bikat, hendêkî dîke deyanut deyewê pitgîrî hêzî serbazîy bo xoy misoger bikat û bîxate jêr rikêfî xoyewe, diway ewey le biwarekanî emnî û rageyandin û hizbî da ew pallpitiyey misoger kirdibû.1 In Arabic script the passage is as follows:

oe Y;C X : C S=/ X ? ?TM X ï ]¦ C X ö ñ Û; ã .ñ (C Y) ñ ] : : = ã ä C oe a V k oe = ?TM = X C f oe ] =e ? S .ñ =àk ã÷

An example of a slightly different form of transcription sometimes used on the internet is as follows: Ke dellín zimaní Kurdí, mebest ew zimaneye ke ésta Kurd qisey pédeken. Gelé zimanwan u rojh hellatnasí henderí (ferengí) degell zimaní Kurdí xerék búne, zurbey ew zanayaney ke be shéweyékí gishtí ya taybetí le zimaní Kurdí duwawin gutúyane ke em zimane le biney zimanekaní Hínd

Taken from the internet at cep=4&nnimre=281).



SORANI KURDISH u Urupayí u binemalley Hínd u Éraní u le xézane zimaní Éraní ye u degell zimaní Farsí xizmayetí nizíkí heye. Ja zimaní Kurdí ke ewe rewishtí con peyda buwe? Ashkiraye zimaní hemú willaté zimaní daníshtiwaní willateke debé, eger rodawekaní méjhúyí all u gorrékí neteweyíyan le willatekeda pék nehénabé ewa zimanekeysh her zimaní daníshtiwekaní koní willatekeye u pécewaney emesh pécewane debé. Ja bizanín babeteke bo zimaní Kurdí cone?1 In Arabic script, this text is as follows: ß . ñ ñ k S = ?

㦠Cu ñ (ï ) î S= X ã ñ X é ã = V . äï X k ? ?u ? î ,î = ñ =í ö + î X ã Ck + ? S S ] oe V .+ yS yS î =í ñ


Taken from the website




)*,. () 8 > < 8 / :,I «R I» :.Z / . . g e .«R» c b ` \ m k g 8 .b .> ` t .q k k8 .o .bc g g ` xZ k .o w g g Z ., ` { z k . y. · 8 ` .q \ k · m R/ \ . k { z, m 8 ,{ { .zZ z 8

. «» 8 pand advice, proverb; peshînîân ancestors; / chîrok story; 8 )*, . la lâyan from; sayid sayyid, title borne by lineal descendants of the Prophet Muhammad; > < Jalâl i Khâdamî in accordance with Persian usage, in Iran an izâfa vowel falls between the given name (Jalâl) and the family name (Khâdamî); Saqiz Saqqez, a town in Iranian Kurdistan; I ba dast gayshtin (ga-) to be received (the -mân enclitic on am pandámân goes with ba dast); I rîsh beard; tamâkâr greedy; hîn butt; R muflîs bankrupt; .... l' erawa...ka from the fact that; o / sarchâwa girtin to originate; (,Z) o gotin (le-) to say. \ kâbrâ man; râwchî hunter; ` tânjî hound (for the spelling of tânjîèkî, see §41; the sentence is a topic­comment construction: "a hunter, he has a hunting dog named..."); c ba nâw i by the name of; rozh day; chûnà râw to go hunting; kherâ fast; har right, just (often not translated); shâkh moun.> tain; k8 l' awe'sh there too (for the enclitic -(î)sh see §11); dû two; k karweshik rabbit; ` râw-kirdin to hunt down; 8 râzî la satisfied with; {



. . · e ·R

` I 8 k . ·. I» :.Z TM 8 .m «.R




> 8 8 / :,I «{ oeZ ,Z> ,/ » I .· .b z .\ 8 zq e .z zq \ e {Yg ¡,Z . \ oe Z 8 .> !b » :,Z g

o -èk i tir another; (`) ` kûzhân (kûzhe-) to kill; tamâ greed; o tamâ-girtin for greed to grab s.o., to become greedy; o Z das hal-girtin to cease; hal-sitândin to flush (animals) out of their holes (for the conjugation ,Z of all verbs ending in -ândin, see §36); y. tebar-dân (da-) to set (a dog) on (for the conjugation of dân, see §17); ka when; haras a bafr snowdrift; ` hardûkyân both of them; ()... t · te-paîn ba sar...(d)â to leap on top of; ... ba dwâ i...dâ after, on the heels on; · kilîl a bafr snow bank; gayshtinà sar to arrive at; ` haras-kirdin to collapse in an ·£I avalanche; hamûyân all of them; ¤{ { tek-pechân to envelope; m kandalân edge of a ravine; , shîw narrow valley; khwâr low-lying, deep; { kew mountain; ` tund-kirdin to tumble (trs.); ... z 8 la zher...dâ under, beneath; oZ raq hal-hâtin to be frozen solid (for the present conjugation of

hâtin, see §17). pâsh after; mâwa period of time; z shwen place; () ·£ dîtinawa (bîn-) to spot (for the conjugation of verbs ending in -awa, see §18); ` tamâshâ-kirdin to look; filân so-and-so; 8 -î la lâwa beside him (for preposed pronominal complements of prepositions, see §14.1); qûn butt; ... nûsân ba...awa to be stuck to; om raq halâtin = raq hal-hâtin; 8 la sardamawa immediately; TM bâw-bûn to gain currency.



c ITM . 8 ,Z TM g , { .\ ` e «. 8 , · . e e« . TM zq . 8 «!> yR» ,Z , ¬{ xR , z« zq e 8 { «) « » ,- zq «. > » ,Z e , «.· Z > » ,Z .m g£ c > .> · « { ² ` c Z » : ¬ x e e { R ±.

kâk brother, Mr; > Pîrânshâr Piranshahr, a town in Iranian Kurdistan; harkas (+ subj.) anyone who; / châl pit, hole (chalè is a stylistic variant of châlèk); Z > khalk people; ³ Z hal-kanin to dig; bo khoy himself; · o te-kawtin (kaw-) to fall into; pâshâ king; nokar servant; lîra lira, pound; () dân (da-) to give (-î dadâtè see §35) z`; kwer blind; z swâlkar beggar; kawtinà bîr to occur to; 8 ` ´g fel-kirdin la to play a trick on; Z ba halkawt by chance; zânîn to know; shaw night; sîr garlic; mâst yoghurt; () khwârdin (kho-) to eat; chûnà lâ i to go to; (,Z) o gotin (le-) to say; > kharâp awful; g jegâ place; ` TM bâs-kirdin to discuss; ganîwî stench; zâr mouth; ` TM bâwa-kirdin to believe; bayânî morning; ` ` batâqî-kirdinawa to investigate; ( ) · kâtè(k) when { (conj.); ` qsa-kirdin to talk; o dast ba lûtawa girtin to hold the nose; ` 8 rû l' aw lâ kirdin to turn the face away. bayân i zû early in the morning; ba yekawa together; « kâghaz paper; () nûsîn (nûs-) to write; dânà dast to hand to; () \ birdin ba- to take, carry. > khaznadâr treasurer; 8 la mâl hâtinà dar to come outside; - pirsîn to ask.



«!> ,.

, » ,Z ³TM ·Z< > .> «!> ,. ¬ x 8 . £ { g g «> \ «» ,- 8 ezq . » ,Z m 8 .> 8 «.· > Z , g£ { R· » . ,. { zq c< · 8 q 8 £ «q TM , TM» «., ,Z> ,Z/ » 8 z «.{ oeZ




barim: bar is an alternative present stem of birdin; kawtinà (+ inf.) to start to; pâânawa to beg; m lâlânawa to beseech; Z balkû maybe; shit thing; bazaî compassion; { bazaîy pe'dâ hât (for the orthography of bazaîy, see §41) he felt compassion; c nâma letter; khwendinawa e to read over; nûsrân to be written (for the passive voice, see §34); Z halgir bearer; t½\ sar-biîn to cut the head off; kâ straw; . pest skin; · . kâ da pest âkhnîn to stuff the skin with straw. ·Z< jallâd executioner; ` ³TM bâng-kirdin to call, summon; , sar ledân to behead; (.) su-mân (men-) to spin. m walâm answer; .> nakher no; gawram my lord; 8 l' aw kâtá'dâ at that moment; ( ) c< janâza-henân (hen-) to bring forth a funeral . { procession; rozh day; TM qurbân your highness; bon smell; sar râ-washândin to shake the head; 8 labar khoyawa to himself.



o Z 8 ,¬ . ` 8 ( ) {, Z 8 e ½- ` 8 { . t ³ q , ` ¬{ Z .xeZ m 8 «.o Z 8 . » q Z· 8 ` 8 q , q m g , Z . 8 Z ³ \ Z bc 8 c ,Z ± { w { ³ \ . g { . Z Z TM c / z. 8 oe 8 bc g 8 < .

khudâ God; Z Sultân Mamûd Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna; gwâya it seems; sada century; riq spite; ` dârtâsh carpenter; () farmân-dân (da-) to order; agar if; { ewâra evening; ` hatâ until; ½pi full; z ½- pi ba zhûrek ârdamshâr a roomful of sawdust; ` âmâda-kirdin to prepare; )£ ba pastîawa dejectedly; hâtinà mâl to come home; () mirdin (mir-) to die; ³ chunkû since, because; m dasalât power; Z hal-sûândin to accomplish; zhin wife; , Z dilkhoshî-dânawa to console; () nûstin nû- to sleep; shabaq i bayân at the break of dawn; 8 la dargâ dirân for a knock to come at the door; 8 ` c gardinâzâî kirdin la to say good-bye to; · mindâl child; m balâm but; darka door; ` kirdinawa to open; 8 ` dâwâ-kirdin la to ask s.o. (+ subj. to do; sindûq chest; tarm corpse; ` dirust, kirdin to make; 8 la nîwashaw'dâ at midnight.



.b q b .b gc *



«, e »

8 . t q c 8 , , c TM q . .È . { e { ,I{ ±. . : { e e\ TM 8 8 É t , , w I .{ ± 8 m . 8 b I w { x{ZÌ cb

c tanânat especially; ± giriftârî anguish; rozharashî misfortune; dâmâwî tribulation; ½\ humedbiâw despondent; hokâr cause; g hez power; dyârda phenomenon; han there are; 8 w âgâdâr la aware . of; Z TM bâr u khol i zamâna the vicissitudes of fortune; Z halsûân to evolve; lâ side, direction; () o kawtin (kaw-) to fall; mazin great; 8 la sarawa i over; / châranûs remedy, help; < jâ ka wâ bû since that is so; mirov man, human being; hal time; marj condition; bc nâbe (+ subj.) should not; 8 gc nâhumed la despairing of; b dabe (+ subj.) should; ` tawakul trust in God. z khwen blood; Siyâwish Siyavush, son of the Sassanian Shah Kay, Kaus; kârasât tragedy; c nâsrâw well-known; ` ku son; KayKâwis Kay-Kaus; 8 dwân la to speak about; dâstân story; { 8 la new , among; Eân Iran; `Erâq Iraq; TM bâw current; gaânawa bo to go . .È back to; pesh before; c Shânâma the Shâhnâma, the epic of Iranian kingship . written by Firdawsi in 1010; bo awaî in order that; rûn-bûnawa to be clear; I pewîst necessary; TM awbâra in that regard; ` rûn-kirân to { be explained; rizhân to be shed. Sûdâba Sudaba, wife of Kay-Kaus and stepmother of Siyavush; 8 ` É az-kirdin la to like, to want; hanazâ stepson; dayawe see the conjugation of the present tense of wîstin, §20; \ , 8 la khishta birdin to have illicit sexual relations with; kâr affair; o sar-kawtin to succeed; ` ± bukhtân-kirdin ba to slander; w pâkî purity; c{ begunâhî innocence; Z salmândin to prove; { ba new through; w âgir fire; () I royshtin ro- to



t m { . , 8 t > 8 Z .\ q , q , ¤ ³ 8 . 8 , , , 8 e ` Éc m ³ q , .. ,I , £ q TM ³ . q z8 .½\ .Ð t q / q , I m ³ , . , . ³ e ½\ , , .Z · e{ m `b w R Z < , e . e» m .8 . . , «.e½\c eqc

go; . beziyân without harm; 8 l' aw sarîawa dar-chûn to come out on the other side. , Afrâsiyâb Afrasiab, the ruler of Turan, the traditional enemy of Iran; shâ shah, king; { . herish-henânà sar to attack; m wilât country; dizh i against; duzhmin enemy; ` sha-kirdin to fight; Z dilshikâw broken-hearted; > 8 la dâkhân grieving; t rîz line, rank; 8 lashkir army; 8 ·£ t³ la kho nizîk-khistinawa to seat near oneself; kich daughter; ` mâra-kirdin to marry; ³ farmânrawâ ruler; Éc nâaz malevolent; ` z tâwân rek-khistin bo to accuse falsely; anjâm end; (`) ` kushtin (kuzh-) to kill; TM ³ dang u bâs word, rumor; () I gayshtin gato reach; , Rostam Rustam, the champion warrior of Iran; koshk palace; qizh hair; . râ-keshân to drag; ` / ba yek pârcha âwir kirdin to burn to the ground; ` dar-kirdin to drive away; mâwa period of time; gaânawa bo to return to; I dîsân once again. z{ hendèk thus; · nazîla short, in short; kolîn to boil; Z halchûn to flow; R nîshâna sign; ho reason; rûdâw event; âwsânaî legendary; botà = bûwatà; < jâr time; < zor jâr many times;






« »

t > ³TMc ,I 8 ¬{ «t >» 8 (­) .Ù t TM 8 , · ¬e I t ,I > : / , { ½\ .\ q , { 8 . ³ b > .· < x , . Z > w m qc ,¬ Z 8 e {z q { t> z . . .q > 8 t ,Y ¬{ 8 e\ o TM , . .bc {

hâna provocation; . 8 lashkirkeshî mobilization; o gotin to say; ` kûzhânawa to be extinguished; ½\ birânawa to be stopped, to cease. ranj pain, suffering; Farhâd Farhad; ,I khoshawîstî love; ³TMc banâwbâng famous; t Shîrîn Shirin, Armenian princess and wife of the Sassanian Chosroës Parvez; z Parwez Parvez; paydâ-bûn to come into being; Nîzâmî Nizami of Ganja, Persian poet (1141­1209); 8 dwân la to speak about; , · ¬e rey te-dache ka (+ subj.) it is possible that; afsâna legend; kon ancient; TM darbâra concerning; 8 o war-girtin la to take from (for the past subjunctive, see §31). / chashn manner; newân between; Besitûn Bihistun; ` ` kun{ , . kirdin to tunnel through; ½\ biyâr-dân to decide; farmân order, command; , ba je henân to carry out; qâyil bûn ba to agree to; 8 { Z dilnyâ la convinced of; ` kirân ba to be done by; ` w âgâdâr-kirdin to inform; Z dildâr beloved; { -èk i wâ such a; t> kharîk-bûn (+ present tense) to be busy doing; z pîrezhin old woman; ( ) c nârdinà (ner-) lâ . to send to; diro lie; > 8 la dâkhân out of grief; (`) ` kushtin kûzh- to kill. ,. estâ now; kas person; o gutrân to be said (see §34); zhyân life;






«{Z t ± b wÉ »

/ (-) / 8 , : . Z g£ ³ ` 8 8 TM .q «TM 8 t 8 e< ± )* ZTM . > ± g ,RZ o q . TM 8 ¬e . m .q I .q q ) , < \ » . «.x{ ² ² ½\ I ½ TM t e . .8 y 8 x{ 8 >

... 8 e\ biretî la ...dâ consisting of; hawl toil; { tekoshân effort; ranj-dân to suffer; kachî but; dasgîr-bûn to be attained. mâdâm as long as; Nawshîrwân Anosharwan, Sassanian shah of Iran; wÉ âkim ruler; ± Bakhtak Bakhtak, Anosharwan's vizier; t wazîr vizier; kalâwa ruin; pûl pittance; 8 la dizh i vis-à-vis; / chawsândinawa tyranny; Sâsânî Sassanian. ` saratâ beginning; ³ farmânrawâî reign; kârbadast authority; Z dilraq cruel; zordâr oppressive; TM bâgh garden; ` pyâsa kirdin to take a stroll; * bînîn to see; TM bâyqûsh owl; dîwâr wall; > rukhâw ruined, tumbled-down; R Z hal-nîshtin to perch; zimân language; ZTM bâldâr bird; gwe ear; qsa speech; ` . khwâzben-kirdin bo to arrange a marriage for; mâraî wedding gift for the bride; ` ... dâwâ i ... kirdin to ask for; m walâm-dân to reply; âsân easy; dû awanda twice as many; ` paydâ-kirdin to find; < b' aw marjáî on condition that; hamân that very; (.) mân (men-) to remain. ½ . geânawa to translate; ² ² bibiây-bibiây (+ negative) never ever; ` > kharâpa-kirdin to do evil; wâz-henân la to cease; barâmbar y { with regard to, toward; gal flock, subjects.



, z () e,c . , z TM q TM .t Z q q 8 ,\ ,\ Z 8 : ³Z q TM . . / 8 . 8 TM -- , ·RR . \ 8 t - b : z TM 8 .b 8 TM \ . \ TM Ð c -- . { . Y{c I³ » : ½\ q { q TM 8 ³ { . ³ ²Z , 8 «.,³c y. . z , ·R , < . È

. :() «» 8 , sîkatora gizzard; ZTM Bâlkurt "Shortwing"; zZTM Bâldrezh "Longwing"; dost friend; dost i gyânî-gyânî bosom friends; ,c , nanâsyâw unfamiliar, someone who doesn't know; biydîbân for the past conditional tense see §33; Z cholaka sparrow; t hîch i dîka nothing else. 8 rozhè la rozhân one day; âsmân sky; sâmâl clear, blue; \ birsiyatî hunger; 8 ½\ biist-sandinawa la to take hold of powerful, ly;TM bâ c'mon; ( ) R nîshtin (nîsh-) to sit, to land; dasht plain; saR râ field; giyâ plant; riwân to be green (of a field, the earth); b har nabe (+ subj.) shouldn't we just; ` - prûsha-kirdin to nibble; \ 8 la birsâ mirdin to die of hunger. c nâ no; o Ð kho râ-girtin (gir-) to control oneself; zig belly; \ birsî hungry; TM bâsh good; barzâî height, high place; . ter-bûn to be satisfied, to get full; âdamîzâd human being; I³ nigrîs evil, mean; (´{) . heshtin (hel-) to allow (+ subj.); o wa gyân kawtin to escape alive.



q TM . q TM `½- , g*{ 8 . 8 ·. . , \ , g*e Z \ TM . Z zÈ c ·. ³ 8 » : >TM 8 Z ± Z «.e\ \ , z

y e () , . . e 8 ½- ³ < 8 y {Z . 8 w . ` . >> e { . q 8 R\ <

` tamâshâ-kirdin to look at; dûr distant; ½ \ hîwâbiâwî despair; hargîz (+ neg.) never; () ·£I gayshtinà (ga-) to reach; ²Z halbirân la to part from; ³ nizim-bûn to descend; y. sebar shadow; È `arz earth; khishân to crawl; < jâda road; wak like; mâr snake; ·R sîna breast; z drezh-bûn to stretch out .; mâshen car; `½- pitâw haste; baraw rû i opposite, toward; o firyâ-kawtin to come in time (+ subj. to); kho lâ-dân to come to assist; shûsh glass; R shûsha band i peshawa front windshield; 8 sirawândin la to collide with; 8 lat u pat bûn to be smashed to smithereens; pa feather; po dust; TM bâ wind; tanyâ only; Z dilop drop; , ba je mân to remain behind. c nâw inside; È shâ`îr poet; tyâ (= ). tey'â) bû there was; Z qalam pencil; shikândin to break; 8 qûn i qalam butt of a pencil; daftar ± notebook; >TM bâkhal breast; marg death; ³ nizimâî ignobleness; piroz victory; agarchî even if; râzânawa to be adorned. e rewî fox; tambal lazy; zamân time; qadîm olden; ³ < jany gal forest; sawz green; 8 ½ - pi la full of; dâr tree; ba tanî alone; zhyân to live; mâm uncle; >> khawkhawî sleepy-head; () nustin (nû-) to sleep; 8 w âgâ la aware of; dawr u bar surroundings; ` kun hole; 8 hâtinà dar la to come out of.



, Z³ < 8 . q 8 \ . . { { { {Z . ). ³ 8 ¬e ½- 8 .q q .\ Z 8 o 8 .· { y ,I . æÐ «.e TM » q .> Z , c . É» `q · { . . ¬ ½\ ¬e é / «.q g { Z 8 .q Z m I ,¬ e .. . «.c b k » . I t Z , { ,ê \ . / I e g£ { Z / I «.½\ ¬e . e É» e { m xg\ . ` 8 e .½\ .I Z \ .q Z Ð {

` dast-kirdin ba to start; ` ´ mil u mo kirdin to sniff around for food; ½- 8 la pi all of a sudden; ³ dang sound; ,¬ pe foot(step); {Z sar hal-henân to raise the head; henda namâwa (+ subj.) almost; · biygâtè { see §35; o 8 la tirsân in fright; Z 8 la tambalîân out of laziness; () y twânîn (twân-) to be able (see §21); `Ð râ-kirdin to run away; ` fikrkirdinawa to think; kho mirândin to play 'possum; ëÐ râ-kishân to stretch out; `{ nûk a shap te-kutân to give a sharp kick; É ayf too bad, what a pity; topîn to be dead (of animals); c danâ otherwise; ` kawl-kirdin to skin; ,. har estâ right now; dwâya then; / chaqo knife; é tîzh sharp; { dar-henân to take out; yâdgâr souvenir; t½\ biîn to cut off; (´ ) . , ba je heshtin (hel-) to leave alone; esh pain; ` Z jûla. { kirdin to budge; o Z 8 la dil i kho'dâ gotin to say to oneself; c qaydè nâkâ it doesn't matter. Z hawalî first; dûr-kawtinawa to go far; t dîka other; / châw eye; Z / châw hal-henân to lift the eyes; ½\ birân to be cut off; kilk tail; { . ` tâ u esh u âzâr sharp pain; wakht bû (+ subj.) almost; zîqândin to scream; { har chonèk bû somehow or other; o Z halgirtin to take.



¬ 8 Z 8 «. / m ½\ e » e g ½\ \ . ´{ 8 ,Z e É» .e . t q «.q { ,. c .½\ ¬e . . .½\ ¬e < » t , . «.t Z . 8 ¬e e y 8 í m m { . .q ½\ .q ½\ e ,Z ) y e TM y e !)£q I

{ () .Ð )g*e e< ³b ³Z { { q ³b R )« z ,¬ « « ., « y ) y

/ châ niya at least; zîndû alive; Z tamalî laziness; halnastâ = , Z , Z halnawastâ; , Z hal-wastân to get up; ´{ tikhel prostrate; ² kilkbi tail-cutter; { le-kirdinawa to skin < day jâ hey, c'mon; . pest skin; wara come (imperative); îdî now; kârî tawâw a he's done for; râst-bûn to get up; om halâtin = oZ hal-hâtin to run away; kawtinà bar to encounter; í` gulla bullet; toz dust; khol dirt; gawzân to roll over; ,Z bale yes; âkhir finally; are yes; âwâ thus; o ba sar hâtin to happen to. . - :() «» 8

This piece was written after the Baathist attack on Halabja with chemical weapons in March, 1988.



.R , « ³ ZTM ZTM c . « R y

8 TM < b t ` .q Ð m c « g , m xe z 8 . g « ½z c ` Zé ,¬ .xe 8 ` m Z «½- ,\ x ²{ R . I 8 ½- / c t\ 8 ½- { .« / Z 8m « . R .

bulbul nightingale; mâtam bereavement; ³ diltangî loneliness; Z kizî despondency; ³{ bedangî silence; z< ba jârèk all at once; oÐ dâgirtin to envelope; hawr cloud; « ghamgîn sad; basâm terrible; shîn blue; ` ³. berang-kirdin to make colorless; dîman aspect, mien; mâtamzada bereaved, in mourning; tam mist; « gham grief; dâposhîn to cover over; « ghambâr raining down grief; chyâ mountain; { y ) pedasht foothills; c tanânat especially; shaq rustle of a bird's wing in flight; TM shâbâl wing; ZTM baldâr bird; R bîstrân to be heard; sipâ army, , host; « gham grief; c nâumedî despair, hopelessness; ` Ð dâgîr-kirdin to g invade; ` hatâw sun; t zîz unhappy, angry; £ { betîn weak; TM < jâr u bâr now and again; sûch corner; rash black; kho nwândin to show oneself; o . pesh-girtin ba to get in front of; Zé kîzhola young girl; jwân pretty; c twânâ power; barg raiment; t½z zeîn golden; « ghamgirtû bereaved; zînawar living thing; sarzawî the earth; nwândin to show. t nîzîk near; botawa = bûwatawa (see §42); ` hastkirdin ba to feel; tanyâî loneliness; awîndâr lover; ²{ lekbirâw cut off; ½\ biist force; darûn interior; «½- pigham full of grief; Z hawldân to try; milhu bully; o bar-girtin to block. rûgirzh frowning; t\ birîn wound; c nâsor infection; pazhâra sorrow; /{ newchâwân forehead.



t> t )q / .³, , .½. / ` /{ ` m q TM z , { 8 c . > Z Zq « .q £ y { , .e « 8 ½- ³ mö 8 ³ ½ , ³ . g* g³ 8 8 . · « { ) ³ . ³ t` > 8 { g³ .y« ¬e ,I R½- ³ ` e , ) Z Z c ` m· ,> > Z .`b

zard yellow; 8m gulâla tulip; baybûn camomile; sîs-bûn to R wither; . shiller a type of tulip; Z haliz a plant with needle-like leaves; . hero marshmallow; / chak weapon; )` kîmîâwî chemical; diinda sav age; ba`sî Baathist; t zîz angry; milkach with bowed head; , gyân-aspârdin to give up one's life. ham u tam dark cloud; ` rûtâl frowning; ½. / chîrok geân to tell a story; bahâr spring; ` TM , dâstân bâs-kirdin to tell a story; gul flower; ` tâza fresh; shîn-bûn to be green (of vegetation); > warz i khazân autumn harvest; tyâ-chûn to go away; namân to cease to exist, to be no more; c nâzlâw tender shoot; 8 la barân i throughout the length and breadth of; ` kul rage; dil heart; khuroshîn to scream, cry out; garû throat; ö bichkol infant; ³ dang-khwendin to sing; e kawtinà (+ inf.) to start to; z... har ...èk every; ø ³ âhang-geân to sing a tune; shîn lament; khosh pleasant; samfonî symphony; barz-bûn to arise, be loud; shâno stage; · bilâw-bûn to be broadcast; jirîwa cooing; dol valley; > khânû home; t` târîk dark; bilind loud; ½- pishîn full of lament; halbastî poetry; khosh happy, come, Z



c 8 .q c c q Zc t TM ½- 8 ³ ½\ TM ` . , `b m TM , 8 ³ .q ³ « / !R , :t . 8 ½ .*{ , 8 ½- z I { TM 8 > ` e { TM { R /{ , 8 TM .` m . ) . I . ³ q )û R { 8 t z< ` .TM , ·R ³Z · 8 ½- ½z ³ 8 .oe e .z\ ½- z « I ` ) . ³Z 8 t z< e\ ³ 8 8 ½- Zö ³ TM q Z TM t e £I

dic; z diltazen tragic; gizh u giyâ plants and vegetation; Z zard Z halgaâw yellowed; >³ gyânkanisht the moment of death; mindâl child; · ` tâzalâw adolescent; zhin woman; ±. betâwân innocent. Zc nâla wail; ` kâr-kirdinà sar to affect; ` c tashanâ-kirdin to heal; c 8 la nâkâw suddenly; shîrîkhândin to roar; zig belly; ³ nirka rumbling; ½- pima snivel; giryân to cry; khu flood; t asrîn tear; sirusht nature; TM ` tâwè bârân a torrent of rain; ½\ birânawa to stop; ` kûzhânawa to cease; tTM bârîn to rain down; hîwâ hope; âmânj aspiration; R dastaw azhno dâ-nîshtin to grieve; / harchand no , matter how much; warin come; { pekawa together; nwe new; khoshî happiness; , sarbastî freedom; { , ba je henân to bring forth.




() æ8 < z .Z z e 8 ) q Z t .½t . o É TM .q , 8 kq {Z {Z , ...q 8 / 8 /b ` ³ TM 8 Z> 8 ) m 8 )È Z q 8 .\ e

giryâ weeping; TM dâ-bârândin to rain down (trs.); > kham grief; ` târândin to drive away; zhâr poison; ·£ wâ-rishtinawa to wash away; ` /{ newchâwân kirânawa for a forehead to be smoothed; ³ rang color; )û spîw white; gawâl-gawâl wispy; shâdî rejoicing; TM bârân to rain (int.); ·R ba tînawa powerfully; R tîshk ray; t½z zeîn golden; jîhân the world; ` · bilâw-kirdinawa to spread; c dâ-rinân to shed (skin, clothes); 8 gyânlabar living thing; ³ gizing first rays of dawn; bûzhânawa to flourish; kho râzândinawa to bedeck onself; « (z) binâgha dâ-rishtin (rezh-) to lay a foundation; shâd happy; warza harvest; 8 o wa dar hâtin la to emerge from; dwâsât aftermath; e \ bizwenar warbling; ` kirdinawa bar to put on (clothing); shân ba shân i shoulder to shoulder with; ZTM bâlinda bird; ³ dangkhosh melodious; sirûd anthem; t awîn love; t zhîn life. . - :() «» 8 gâsh big, huge; bard rock; gâshabard boulder; z dâwen foot (of a mountain); sarkash lofty; gund village; gichka tiny; oZ hal-kawtin to be situated; zalâm huge; zabalâ enormous; rwânîn ba sar to loom over; t rîz line; mâl house; ` wakû like; zorba i most of; , k ` kwestân mountainous region; 8 la sar yek on top of each other; ` , che-kirân to be built; TM sarbân roof; É awsha courtyard; nihom story, floor; ` sâz-kirân to be made.



TM TM .q / ` k þR ·, q . g q TM . ¬{Y . z q .½\ mTM < ,/ 8 o z Z> z½- 8 e · ·. £R 8 .m /q { > 8 g 8 . Z ) ) \ 8 · z \ ½ 8 > c { ., g ¬ . Z t z o Z> .q g ·ÿ , . Z> w . ! Z ±. q w m b b ). ¬, z .. . y. m Z> .\ g 8 m , q z { ³ , > ,o 8 m {

binâr foot; Z> khalk people; ³TM malâbângdân dawn; ` hatâ until; khorâwâ sundown; /b be wichân without cease; / mûcha farm; mazrâ field; hawl-dân to toil; (z) È `âraq-rishtin (rezh-) to sweat; t zawîn soil; m bardalânî rocky; \ e zhyân i kho ba rewa birdin to eke out a living; îtir jiga other than; kâr work; 8 ` bîrkirdinawa la to think of; âso horizon; bîr thought; k andesha idea; pa edge, side; ` þ. tepa-kirdin to go beyond; TM bâb father; TM bâpîr grandfather; jûr manner; TM bâwk father; pîr old; o ... g jegâ i ... girtin to take the place of; ` · , shîla i gyân ba garû i zawîn'dâ kirdin to pour the fluid of one's life down the throat of the earth, to die; nawa generation; z ... kâraká i ... drezha-dân to carry on the work of; ¬ wak biley as you might say, it was as though; / châwanûs fate; < jâma {Y clothing; ½\ mTM ba bâlâ birân to be cut to fit.



. 8 c g³

y£ / 8 { e { o z 8 ³ m : Z> . z R ½\ 8 ± g , . {Z e c q , \ 8 . 8 TM 8 , Z .\ .{ { m.> ½

z½ - 8 la piek'â all of a sudden; âwâî village; ( R ) R bîstin (bîs-) to hear; girm u ho loud noise; · . o tirsenar frightening; · sâmnâk dreadful; > 8 la khaw râ-bûn to wake up; ba pashokâwî with terror; rizhânà to pour into; /` kûcha lane; m kolân street; 8 bûmalarz earthquake; râ-shikândin to split; Z hal-qandrân to be uplifted; / kamarchîn edge; ½ khikabard gravel; jor manner; 8 ` haasha kirdin la to threaten; , râ-wastân to stop; chûkatawizhm slight pressure; c ¬ pâl pewa nân to push; ` > khâpûr-kirdin to destroy; o atrash gall; ,o atrashyân chûbû they had lost the gall (+ subj., to do; z werân to dare; ! mitmâna safe; w hâkâ thus; bar-bûnawa to fall (gâshabard hâkâ barbetawa `with the boulder about to fall'); o dast u dil yek-girtin to be calm; ¬ e ridenspî elder; gawrapyâw dig ,* nitary; ). peyân wâ bû they thought; b b habe u nabe one way or another; m balâ calamity; w âkâm result; ` kirdawa deed; . þ. ... separ keshân ba sar ...dâ to cast a shadow over; girân burdensome; sâm terror; pak helplessness; râ-bwârdin to pass (of time); ... î no more, no longer; o\ bizûtin to budge; okhizhn calm; { , ` z nwezh i shukr ba je henân to perform prayers of thanksgiving; gaânawa to return; âsâî usual; ` ,¬ dast pe-kirdinawa to take up again; 8 o tirsî la fear of; , > khawyân le nadakawt they couldn't get to sleep; c nââsâî unusual; hamûy constantly; 8 dar-paândin la to invade. pîrapyâw old man; de village; hardûk both; mâr snake; ³ zangî black; o dar-hâtin to come out; hendè for a while; { ba dawr gaân to circle around; R hamîsân once again; khudâî God110


* * *

R 8 m . eZ c > TM 8 m ê ¬e c ³ R { . þ :³ . m q/ z z ` t\ o z 8 ` y. ... t )³ 8 , zq / )z ){, ,¬ 8 o q I o 8 { q` .{, £ û 8 . z : ,¬ { x.ê !! Z ZTM .y£ { Z ...c ` 8 g,

sent; g khew lord; ± fitwâ decision; ½\ biyâr-dirân for a decision to be made; ba noba by turns; khorâk food; Z dilnarmî placation; \ bin foot, bottom; sako bench; ` , che-kirdin to build; zhaman food; Z ba halkawt by chance; ark duty; 8 la bîr chûn to forget; ½ khika gravel; m.> khezalân sand; khishîn to creep; { wa bîr henânawa to remind. m basâlâchû elder; R hûsha u fîsha hissing; ê khishka u pishka creeping; 8 o râ-hâtin lagal to become accustomed to; TM bâr u dokh burden; 8 c nââzî la discontent with; { pekawa together; R dâ nîshtin to sit down; þ chipa u sirta whispering; c nâazâyatî discon tent; ba gwe yektir'dâ chirpândin to whisper into each other's ears; z z ba shwen regâ i going in search of; ` / chârasar-kirdin to remedy. âkhir alas; ` tâ kay how long; sebar shadow; marg death; o y. tirs fear; () t zhîn zhî- to live; barham i kâr u ranjmân the fruits of our labors; ` ... 8 la garû i ... kirdin to put down the throat of; / chand kasèk several people; z` kwerasawâd semi-literacy; {, dawrbar-gaân to go about; , sarbast i gund village boundary;



, ¬, z ` e m q .ö Z ½\ .. e) / R

* * * . Z> . 8 Z

Z TM ·R mTM Z , , .æÐ z ` z 8 . gZ g Z . ·R 8 q ` . q Z . m , , < .{ q z .²Z .I Z 8 { Y/ Z> . .q Z> È q Z . w Z .> Z .TM Z 8 o { Z ...½

kot u zinjîr bonds and chains; gardin neck; ê pisândin to break; `` tâkû this continued until; sar anjâm finally; lâw youth; firoshtin to sell; barham produce; shâr city; mizgen dân ba to give good . news to; z regâ way; rizgârî salvation; dîtotawa = dîtûwa tawa; Z pâlawân strong man; shân shoulders; TM bâl arm; gopâl club; ` afsûn-kirdin to charm; , Rostam Rustam, a legendary champion; 8 o ` la târîf nahâtin to be indescribable. ` saratâ initially; ... dizh i ... râ-wastân to take a stance against; , ba tundî roughly; ` damkut-kirdin to silence; girm u ho boom; ) mîtr meter; . khizânà pesh to creep forward; ... ba

dwâ i ... chûn to go in search of. gosha corner; dawra-dân to encircle; mTM bâlâ stature; · R sîng chest; , astûr thick; TM bâsik upper arm; Z kolaka column; lâq leg; ba qadar as much as; sâqat tree trunk; Z palk plane tree; ëÐ râ kishân to stretch out; . bahez strong; o` kutik blow; shikândin to shatter; sarkawtûâna triumphantly; hastâ = Z halwastâ; , , , rishtayèk i zinjîr a piece of chain; m ba dawr khoy'dâ



8 ³ q g , {> Z . È 8 { , / ¬ 8 \q \ . zt . g e . - Z> 8 q o .½ o / / Z {Z . q 8 Z .q · Z> .q Z .> Z I TM q Z .o e . , ¬ . TM o 8 Z . { 8 m Z .q Z 8 z : Z³ ./ z

âlândin to wrap around oneself; ` Z girmola-kirdin to twist and turn; t²Z hal-biîn la to get free from; ` hâwâr-kirdin to shout; zor bo { khoy henân to make a great effort; damâr vein; < sujamâr serpent; t dar-paîn to pop out; , Y/ chapla le-dân bo to applaud for; 8 la har lâyèkawa from every side; sika i pûl coin; (z) I hâwîshtin hâwezh- to toss; w shâgashka overjoyed; ` ko-kirdinawa to gather up; ` È du`â i kher kirdin bo to say thank-you to; 8 o ziyâtir la .> more than; TM bârândin to rain down; takân ba kho dân to shake oneself; ½ pichiândin to break apart. darka lid; , sindûq chest; ` kirdinawa to open; { sar dar-henân to stick the head out; ba har u gîf threatingly; È `ard ground; > khat line; . keshân to draw; e t wîrd khwendin to recite a spell; ` \ bizmâr-kirân to be nailed down; / chaqîn to sink to the ground; - papka-bastin to coil up. ½. ,/ chashma-geân to perform a trick; 8 ` m mâlâwâî-kirdin la to say good-bye to; ` · bilâwa-kirdin to disperse; kal u pal paraphernalia; Z ba kol'dâ dân to sling over the shoulders; o wa re kawtin to set out; o z shwen kawtin to follow; ` rû-kirdinà to set out for; TM biyâbân wilderness; > rûkhâw ruined, tumbled-down; kho gayândinà to get oneself to; TM zibân bastrân for the tongue to be tied; ¬{ pey wâ bû he thought, he imagined; diz thief; z regir robber; 8 ` tamâ-kirdin la to have designs on; oZ hal-hâtin to run away; / ... z 8 la sar regâ i ... chaqîn to block s.o.'s way; Z³ ba ranghalbizirkâwî with the color



) : 8 { . z 8 { ! > Z ! gc : o !\ .t m : . ¬{ Z±R ¬{ Z !Z , , . { .TM t { : ³ Z> .t `b Z Z ! oe . e { c< / !g : Z .{ $ oe . . o> É , Z 8 8 :Z Z .½ ` É .

drained from the face. ay O; >> khâwanshiko master; hâtinà khizmat to come to see; hîwâdâr hopeful; ` gc nâumed-kirdin to dash someone's hopes. ... tûsh i ... bûn to be beset by; m balâ calamity; tanyâ only; ` rizgâr-kirdin to save; ` tîtâl-kirdin ba to play a trick on; 8 gaân la ±R to leave alone; TM bâba fellow; rishqanjâr butt of a joke; 8 oZ dast hal-girtin la to let go. ³ yekdang with one voice; `{ behâwtâ peerless; âwât expectation; / châwawân i expecting; c/ janâbit your excellency; e nwenar repre sentative; c dast nân ba rû'awa to turn away; dil-shikândin to break the heart.



: .{

!t½\ TM < . ...TM .TM * * *

8 . Z> { q Z zY/ { c . Z e q TM Z ¬{ 8 . c { )z 8 TMc Z . z ` . È 8 , ,. c 8 8 TM 8 . w . , g£ . Z> \ 8 Z> 8 Z / q . { . t Z> t I · .o )£ { , ·£ . 8 Z .q È ²Z

o> biykan ba khâtir i khudâ leave it to God; âzâr-dân to bother; oe hâne here, take it; amjâr at this point; ba adabawa politely; y 8 la barâmbar i before; É âl situation; É akâyat story; Z dilnyâ convinced; ` bakht rû-kirdin ba for fortune to smile on; khizmat service; âmâda ready; o re-kawtin to hit the road, get under way. wird small; dirisht large; ` ku u kâl boys and girls; { ba tekrâî i together with; . peshwâzî la greeting; , c dawl u zunâ le-dân to play drums and clarions; z Y / chaplarezân applause; shâdî rejoicing; ma sheep; ` TM qurbânî-kirdin to slaughter; nakhshândin to smear on; sarsumân perplexity; TMc nâbâwaî disbelief; goband celebration; 8 rwânîn la to look at; 8 la khoshîân out of glee; , È pây wa `arz nadakawt he couldn't keep his feet on the ground; hargîz (+ neg.) never; 8 . z rêz gîrân la for respect to be paid to; w shâ gashka overjoyed; fîz pride; TM 8 la khobâî puffed up with pride; 8 8 g£ c dastèk la kalaká nân to put a hand on the head, to be flabbergasted; 8 sar laqândin to shake the head; o\ bizûtin to wag; qâmik finger; jwâb-dân to reply.



:q . / .b 8 w Z : o

!b c ê

Z . q 8 . { . Z .· £ g£ : 8 ...q z z , ! / m , Z> \ c8 z \ > Y 8 8 .../ TMZc ` . È . \ Z Z e · . ¬ ¬ Z> .½ Z> Z . { { { < . È .I ` , {Z Z> TMq 8 q 8 Z TM Z > m b q ±. , , . : 8 . z . ½. ¬{ Z

` kurta short (in duration); / wichân to rest; baraw lâ i toward; t ba rîz râ-wastân to stand in a line; t½\ dast baraw âsmân , hal-biîn to raise the hands to heaven; ` È du`â-kirdin to pray; shaqâw step, pace; pâl base; ` hâwâr-kirdin to shout. 8 b w âgât be la watch out for; b c ê khudâ pisht u panât be may

God protect you. { lâ i ewâra toward evening; zhaman food; o wa dar kaw tin to come out; · bazaîekî hâtè he had a feeling of pity; am lâ u aw lâ i all around; z ·£ dast khistinà zher to stick the hand under; ` sûk-kirdin to deprecate; 8 labar khoyawa to himself; sâ wîlka poor, miserable.



: q Z> 8 ,¬ , Z : Z>

! .Z .w> 8

.m.> ½ 8 .Ib Z . : Z . Z . o { . c : { ,. Z> .\ Z . Z > !> Z Y{ g !\ m 8 : Z . . . z .

t> kharîk bûn (+ subj.) to be about to; ` dam-kirdinawa to speak; \ c 8 la nâw birdin to get rid of; zhyân life; ` tâl bitter; TMZc nâlabâr pitiful; / hâtinawa pesh châw to come to one's vision; âwâra homeless; . 8 mâl la kol nomadic; \ bizhîw substance; È `antar monkey; lotî luti, an itinerant entertainer who usually has a performing monkey; Z Lotî Sâli apparently a proverbial lotî; ½. dawr-geân to cut flips; { pe-kanîn ba to laugh at; 8 ba sûkawa rwânîn la to look upon with pity; Z pûl a rash old coin; È `âraqa i rash u sûr dar-dân to work up a sweat; TM < jâr u bâr from time to time; 8 Z âlqa i laîmkirâw i ) zinjîr the soldered links of the chain; kât back of the neck; ` chol-kirdin to abandon, leave; c ,. sar beshîw nân to lay one's head down without din ner; z pârezar protector; rizgârkar savior; o ... ,¬ bakht ba pe i ... hatin for fortune to smile on; ½. ba feo dân to squander; ,¬ , hastânà sar pe to stand up; 8 ` rû-kirdin la to turn one's face toward. damâr root; > khâk earth; hal-qandrân to be uprooted; Z kâr i min niya I can't do it; ba pâânawa pleadingly; Ib berîsha without roots; ½ khika gravel; m khezalân sand; dozînawa to find; 8 la .> ânqast deliberately; o . pesh-girtin ba to block; >> khâwanshiko mas ter; hazhâr poor, miserable; (´{) . , ba je heshtin (hel-) to abandon.



.. c . ` : ! e 8 ¬{Y !Y{ g : Z

< . ` b .. ½\ q Z < Z> { .{ , Z q g .\ , Z Ð ¬{ ) . . \b z Z I . Ð Z> . q { o .q mTM oZ 8 Z .½\ 8 TM8 . TM e ` ·R . . q > > c 8 Z ... \ ³ .q , , > . Z .Z q !{ ...)\ :

. hez power; nakhosh ill; kiz limp; lâwâz thin; lâzim necessary; c twânâ ability; wa dast henânawa to get back; {, { 8 sar i kasek la re dân to disappoint s.o.; lân i kam at least; sâl year; < jârân former. marj stipulation; ` qabûl-kirdin to agree to; asto neck; , , o wa asto girtin to assume a burden; ` bakhew-kirdin to look after, to take g care of; zig belly; ho sack; { bebin bottomless; qûl deep; . ter bûn to get full; harchî whatever; · âkhnîn da to stuff into; qoa rumble; paytâ-paytâ constantly; I tow i mirîshik egg; TM kalabâb rooster; ½\ birân to cease to exist; 8 rozh lagal rozh day by day; Z qalaw fat; ` mTM bâlâ-kirdin to get taller; fû-dân to blow up; ba qad the size of; dirakht tree; ` > tarkhân-kirdin to set aside for exclusive use; gunjân to fit; hoda room; gawra large; ` , che118


> ) { Z o ¬ . z 8 Z> mTM . { ). Z> . . . )£ê . , ! È !cZ Z !> Z . . ³ .{ Z ) / 8 ` .8 z 8 .,¬ ). , Z Z> .· ¬{ z 8 / > . 8 c I Z · .o , . o Z .{ Z . 8 Y/ c ³ .8 .³ z , ) , 8 Z> .I Z {Z 8 ²Z ` 8 .q \ , . Z .tZ . g£ { .gTM . .R Z` g : Z .{ 8 ³

kirdin to build; shash six; ³ mâng month; paz sheep; \ bizin goat; gâ cow; ` ... ba garû i ...dâ kirdin to stuff down the throat of; harka anyone who; > ba khabar hâtinawa to come to enquire after s.o.; naândin to yell; )\ birsîm a I'm hungry. ) mîch roof; zhûr room, chamber; > rûkhândin to destroy; zil huge; mTM bâlâbarz tall; 8 o tirsân la to be afraid of; ... zât i ... bûn to dare to; o dwâ hâtin to come to an end; , ê zig ba pishtawa nûsân for the belly to be stuck to the back, to be skin and bones. È al-wa`da al-wafâ (Ar. È) "it's time to keep your promise." { pe-kanîn to laugh; dol valley; dasht plain; ³ dangdânawa to echo; kho râ-takândin to shake oneself; t8 larzîn to tremble; rimândin to collapse; zârok child; Y tilaqânawa to be shaken up; o kawtin wa dwâ i to fall in after; c panâ shelter; 8 ba sûkî



.... ... ·Z ...)\

: TM () qTM q 8 Z 8 b · . 8 Ù TM 8 , . £R q 8 8 - 8 .\ . . . 8 ` .o 8 .½ , ·R ·R I Z q , . , z / 8 I , e t e , { { q { { ,I . \ · Z { e . q

rwânîn la to look deprecatingly; tûaî anger; c dawl u zunâ drums and clarions; ·/ chapla applause; barzawa bûn to be raised (voice, sound); z dast khistinà zher to stick the hand under; ³ nirkândin to ·£ grunt; 8 kawtinà larz to start to shake; ` hatâ sarsarî altogether; t²Z hal-biîn to cut loose, uproot; (z) I hâwîshtin (hâwezh-) to toss; o sarkawtin success; 8 tZ hal-paîn la shâdî'dâ to jump for joy; ` hast-kirdin to feel; .\ birsetî (= , \ birsîyatî) hunger; ` batâl empty; R dâ-nîshtin to sit down; mândû tired; TM bâwishk-dân to yawn; zâr mouth; narândin to yell. ·Z yâllâ c'mon; ` zû-kirdin to be quick. . - :() : «» 8 TM bâs discussion; adabî literary; pakhshân prose; { begumân without doubt; kam kas haya there are few people; taman age; Z mindâlî childhood; ikâyat tale; kon old; 8 lamezhîna ancient; . · ` kurdî Kurdish; dâyapîr grandmother; kas u kâr people, kin; 8 la bîr mân to remain in the memory; adabiyât literature; - jihân the world; mezhû history; o harwatir even more so; zorba i zor the . great majority; nûsrânawa to be written down; 8 la das chûn to



t 8 . ` R q e . 8 ·R { 8 ..Ð t ZTM m . e ` z t TM Z > . R ) z z 8 z Z> { )£ . Z 8 Z> \ 8 TM ±. 8 1 8 o 8 . , )z TM TM Z > < ZÉ y {Y .Z {

be lost; ·R ·R sîng ba sîng breast to breast; , dastâwdast hand to hand; ½ gayînà bara i amo to come down to today; dyâr obvious; ·R Z âlugo change, transformation; e sarugwelâk form, shape; { tek-shikân to be broken apart; / 8 la châp dirân to be printed; ` · bilâwkirânawa to be published; I pedâwîst necessary; { te-koshân to make an { effort; { le-kolînawa to collect; Z dilband i interested in; adab literature. R nîshâna sign; ` tâybatmandî characteristic; rûdâw event; t sayr strange; samara amazing; bîndrân to be seen; 8 la wâqi` i ·R zhyân in real life; ba dûr rare; e wena illustration; m dasalâtdâr authority figure; ZTM bâlinda bird; gyândâr animal; t dîka other; .Ð dast râ-keshân to point to; qâramân hero; t dyârîkirâw clear-cut; ` tâybatî special; kamtir less; hâtinà goè to come to the fore, to be under discussion; jorâjor varied; ) jyâwâz different; zimân language; âsâî usual; TM zibân language; () dwân (dwe-) to speak; 8 )£ la râstî'dâ in truth; z wit u wezh conversation; hamân that very; rozhâna every-day; Z komalga i zhyân living society. ho reason; hamûkas everyone; pand u râz i ikâyat the moral of a story; 8 o z kalk war-girtin la to benefit from; 8 la sar yek altogether; É zimân i âl exponent; Z> y< jambûra i khalk ordinary people; parasandin to be in general use; komal society.



e2 TM 8 { TM . TM w 8 o Z Z ¬e e TM < . t g R 8 . ¬{, < ³ 8 > m ±. { z .Ð m· . ,/ { .t , z {TM R · ê R e :w > , Y, Yg t TM . R , .z z q

() w ½\ / ` ) 8 .)³{ c{ , .

{ newarok contents; qurs fixed; pitaw firm; TM 8 la bâr i for the purpose of; zânyârî science; z2 kamhawen unproductive; w âkâr conduct, morals; ZTM bâlinda bird; zînawar animal; sâgh sound; sarakî main; âdamîzâd human being; nakhsh role; < daraja class; R hamîsha always; barham produce; m komalâyatî social; > akhlâqî moral; ³ rang-dânawa to color; sarmashq lesson; .Ð sarinjrâkesh attractive; wak as; ½ âmâz instrument, tool; {TM bârhenân upbringing, education; 8 o z kalk war-girtin la to benefit from; gyândâr animal; nimûna example; > akhlâq morals; Yg felbâzî trickery; ·ê pishîla cat; siplaî infidelity; besifatî disloyalty; sag Y, . , dog; wafâdârî fidelity; baamagî faithfulness; andâza length; ,TM bâristâî size; t dyârîkirâw set, determined; ` kurtî shortness; z drezhî length; z dârezhar formulator. . - (Spånga, Sweden: APEC, 1997) «t` » w 8



. ³ . `

TM )R 8 ` m TM ` / \ TM TM { c .q , .q g , . \ m \ TM R . é .· ¬e \ TM , { )R c ½- , . o Z . Rz . {, Z 8 zc c TM 8 .c {Y m \ 8 8 /c 8 { . 7c .\ e\ ¬{ oe o {, .\ { ` g g ` 8

tarm corpse; zîndân prison; tanhâî loneliness; ½\ / ` tâ châw bi kât as far as the eye can see; c{ bekanâr unlimited; ³{ bedangî silence; o bafr girtin for snow to cover; shawgâr nighttime; hâwâr cry; lûra growl; bandî prisoner; ` tâk solitary. ` saratâ beginning; ` awatâ there, voilà; bayânî morning; ` bon-kirdin to smell; c nâkhosh unpleasant; zamat difficult; {, shewa manner; ` ... TM bâs i ... kirdin to discuss; hî really; ` TM nabânkirdin to ignore; gwe-dânà to pay attention to; é tîzh sharp; lînj cloying; qurs heavy; ` hast-kirdin to feel; garû throat; damar vein; rag artery; z mâsûlka sinew; c pakhsh-bûn ba nâw to spread through; Z dilnyâ convinced; 8 labar awaî because of the fact that; z werân to dare; o Z 8 la dilawa gotin to say to oneself; 8 { bejiga l' awa'sh nonetheless; /c nâchâr (+ subj.) obliged to; () t zhîn (zhî-) to live; ` dûr-kirdinawa to get rid of; rizgâr-kirdin to save; c kas nâye ba zor (+ subj.) no one could be forced to; wi dizzy; kâs faint.



/ q . oZ 8 8 .g b m . R { , . \ \ 8 \ R . e TM ·R { q , . { R· . \ 8 ¬ c .q { { z z / q É . )R .q , t z .t² TM c / g \ I .c t z { 8 . \ È ·R ·. ,¬ c . { < .t\ z z { 8 . , q ³ TM , R t .t` \ q m tq o/ z . z z /c tc )R 8 !,ê / ` ) .t o o {

wishk dry; raq stiff; o... ` tâ dahât, ...tir dabû as time went on, it kept getting more ...; girân heavy; oZ hal-girtin to pick up; ` mândû-kirdin to make tired; marg death; bînîn to see; b har { * chonèk be somehow or other; ,. 8 la esta ba dwâwa from now on. kawtinà re to start out; z rek in order, all right; sip u sâgh hail and hearty; nakhoshî illness; tyâ in him; ` ba dî kirdin to observe; 8 sar la ewâra towards evening; ` É az-kirdin to like (for the { use of the past progressive, see §32); bar bayân i zû early in the morning; dar-chûn to go out; z drezh long; c qonâkh halt (on a journey); 8 ` bîr-kirdinawa la to have an idea about; c nakhsha dâ-nân to make plans; È sa`ât hour; kho gayândinà to get oneself to; ashkawt



I .t I .t I I Z> .c )£ 8 . { , g£ 8 q 8 . ±. g£ , m {Z .q TM TM m . .\ c , . m : Z ) . 9æ )R R· c Z 8 b c )R .> .c Rc { 8 b ,¬ ³ \ q TM . TM . . 8 TM c TM .xZ . 8 . . 9·. . < .y£ R

cave; \ birdinà sar to spend (time); kho râ-henân to get oneself into { shape; mashq practice; ,¬ pe foot; pil toes; râ-bûn to become accustomed; z rega road; ` âmâda-kirdin to make ready; ba râstî really; , TM bâsh chûn bo to go well for; ` fawtân to be exhausted; ba tawâwî completely; ` . o / châwtirsen-kirdin to teach a lesson; qara i anywhere near; sakhtî hardship; 8 kho dân la to subject oneself to; ... ba gizh ...dâ chûn to tangle with; zirâwtoqîn galling; ` ` tâqî-kirdinawa to test; lâq leg; ê pisht back; gyân body. dâd-dân to work out for; I dîsân again; tyâ-chûn to go away, to be gone; 8 { tek-chûn la to go wrong for; > khayâl imagination; o ... Z> ba khayâl i ...dâ hâtin to occur to the mind of; rû-dân to happen; nak aw not him; TM bâr load; dinyâ world; shân shoulders; 8 sar i dinyâ hâtinà yek la for the world to collapse around; ) jyâwâzî difference; Z ba ruwâlat obviously; sad khozga "a great pity"; bas enough; .>c ba nâkher i gyân unwillingly; kachî but; c rûnâkî brightness.



c I\ TM . TM { , ` . ½-q . m . 9·. . I TM { £e ê TM< .c oec ³ < q , , . I Z 8 . < TM . ³ . \ R· > . z, . ³ . q g t½ / .½\ , .\ , < TM { .q t . { Z c , Z c 8 .{ ³ . R 8 > . .Z g x{ m,{ 8 m ³ .I . , c Z8 Z . { . I «.c ,¬ . c » , . , . t . g 8 .

` TM bâwa-kirdin to believe; o . barben-girtin to grab by the throat; ³ tang hal-chinîn ba to squeeze tightly; taman age; o 8 la Z palupo kawtin to be unable to endure any longer; 8 ba aw zhûr la on the other side of; sârdî u garmî i zhyân dîtin to experience ups and downs in life; o barga-girtin to resist; ½-` kutupi quick, sudden; bagu strong; e mândwetî exhaustion; < wak jârân as before; c ³ hangâw-nân to take a step; ê pishû-dân to take a breath; Z 8 labar dil i in order not to hurt the feelings of; kho dwâ-khistin to keep behind; ³ ` hangâw shil-kirdin to slow down one's pace; khorâwâ sunset; ³ dirang late; lâ-dânà to camp in; qûl deep; âso horizon; > khor nishîn sunset; ½\ , sûrâî le-biân to take on a red tinge; ½ / châw-geân . bo to look around for; { tek-chûn to be changed, different; c panâ shelter; kandâl hill; .Z c hanâsa hal-keshân to draw a sigh; o witin (variant of o gotin) to say; zhân pain; > kham grief; darûn interior; ³



½ . TM 8 ,. oe\ m { TM )R c ½. 8 . e .\ z yR .q zZ RTM )R ³ .« < yR < É o 8 TM , .³ , ,¬ z 8 . TM Zz .>Z z I .q . 8 ½\ ` , { m \ ¬{ e q 8 É . ± .q TM 8 TM Z q , < . 8 t . < {, m t { I TM q .t TM q {

pang-khwârdinawa to be pent up; zabûnî misery; m,{ bedasta lâtî powerlessness; { ba rû i kho'dâ henân to admit; hawldân to try; c pârû a nân piece of bread; , qumè âw a sip of water; c ,¬ hîchim pe nâkhure I can't eat anything; t sayr strange. ½ amo today; oe\ magar har khwâ bizâne "could even God know," who could possibly know?; c ½ 8 la geânawa nâyet it can't be told; . hî awa niya it's not really anything; ` TM bâs-kirân to be talked about. âwhâ thus; o ba sar hâtin to happen; z regâ girtinà bar to take a road; ... tûsh i ... bûn to meet with; badbakhtî misfortune; zZ mâlwerânî disaster; < jâdûgar magician; « ghaybzân fortune teller; ³ manzil stopping place; > Z hal-bizhârdin to select; Z ½ z gweâyalî i submission to; o râ-hâtin ba to be accustomed to; barzâî high place; ·£ kho khistinà khwârawa to throw oneself down; khosh-bûn ba to be on good terms with; bóya for that reason; ` ... 8 qsa la qsa i

...dâ kirdin to contradict.



¬ e 8 e I { ± , { , R , TM ¬{Y , . ¬{ I ±. . q .q ,¬ - .q / g£ b t t .oe\ e , . { \ ! TM .t\ c ·. ·. I \ . 8 { 8 > > . `\ g )R , . TM TM R 8 TM qc , . R .Z zTM )R 8 ` , ¬ . ¬ Z 8 Y{ { Y{ g )R .\ / ?, t ³ ³ yR , . . . te , m . ·. ³ )R m , ,Z !te ½\ z .½\ t { e

ashkawt cave; Z halsukawt behavior; dam u dû expres sion; goân to change; agarchî even if; { tekal together; sinûr , boundary; ... neither...nor; t paîn la to transgress; hâtinà dîawa to become apparent; ¬{Y wak biley you might say; ` / rachâw kir din to observe, maintain; dost friend; dwândin to speak to; ` pirs-kirdin ba to ask questions of; ` yeksar immediately; { te-gayândin to make understand; hâwsafar traveling companion; e rebwâr traveller; ` bash-kirdin to participate, share; ây oh; \ biryâ would that (see §33); safar trip; dard i sar headache; u tanhâ if only; z... har ...èk u dûân just one or two...; 8 la lâyekawa on the one hand; dard pain; hara-girân very heavy; R 8 la lâyekîshawa on the other hand; kol back; Z cholawânî wilderness; dwâ i chî what for?; ` tâza moreover; ? pashîmânbûnawa regret; ` / châr-kirân ba to , remedy; ba âsânî easily; gaânawa to change; ,. heshtâ still.



TM 8 m ² e b e ± qc .½\ z I / t { .½\ , , . 8 :b ³ c TM 8 {Y . ³ ½\ TM b b 8 { . Z t{ TM ³ t 8 { , . , m { ·. . ` yR b q Z TM R g RZ t .g t g*e . ³ . ½\ 8 m te )R ³ c .Ù½\ z e g ` .TM .Ù½\ z e \ b m q g .\ oec R e e 8 ³ ³ Z RTM .z\

q É () ) Z É

.b É TM I .b 8 ½ . { q 8 . e z z . e q t q» :,Z , R>

t½\ z rega biîn to travel; rozha re a day's journey; / châk well; `c ba min nâkire I can't do it; ³ rang a it's possible; Z saltazalâm soli tary traveller; sûk light; Z balka rather; ... ham...ham both...and; ³ ³ hangâw ba hangâw step by step; (z) gwâstinawa gwez- to ·£

move, transport. . «q w /» ) Z É 8



.½ b / .\ g³ yR { «. )RZ ³ q 8 . ., , TM , q .b { oe b c 8 .Z Z o x . {, Z q .b z · R {Z · et Z· ) 8 Z . g . b ¤ . )z / 8 ¬e , e \ { . e8 b ¤ , !\ ± , ?, t / . 8 ¤ . { TM oe 8 q .bc \ TM» ,Z ¬ x 8z 8 ) { . { m «! ¤ q 8 { . bc » ½\ 8 TM g£ {

pâshâ king; `É awtkua with seven sons; zamân time; É TM bâr i aml pregnancy; R hâtinà peshawa to happen; *g jenishîn successor; sik child in the womb; / shawchara celebration; ½. ³ âhang-geân to hold a celebration; b beandâza unlimited; kich girl; { ba nihenî in secret; (`) ` kushtin kuzh- to kill. ` ., râsperî-kirdin to make a directive; ³ mâng month; c sik dâ-nân to give birth; râspârd task, charge; , ba je henân to carry out; , { o malotka infant; âsh mill; z ba rekawt by hapstance; âsha wân miller; { mindâlek i ba mirdûî a stillborn child; 8 la jyât i in ) · place of; ` g bakhew-kirdin to take care of.



«.{ {

{ 8 8 /c \ q { \ .z\ ¤ q q TM · m 8 \ I { ) g q .e ` b oec I . e Z ¬ Z > > .q {Z ¬e> 8 q É g 8 {Z 8 .q R « ·> ` » :, t m q» : m ¬e> / .qc ? t / .z ± < , { t ,

ba shû dân to get (a female) married; râw u shikâr hunting; kawtinà guzar i to pass by; \ \ na

bikay na bikhoy, har tamâshâ i sâ i gardinî bikay a common expression in storytelling for being mesmerized by beauty; ,, dasbaje immediately; tîr arrow; ashq love; ± giriftâr-bûn ba to be struck by; t zîrudast underling; { pewand connection, kin; ` ? pashîmân-kirdinawa to make , s.o. change his mind; sûd profit; 8 masala matter; ZZ kalkala wish, de sire; { zhin-henân to marry a woman; 8 { wâz-henân la to dissuade from; pâshâzâda son of a king; ` mâra-kirdin to marry; lâyaq appropriate; pâya rank; maqâm station; { ½\ 8 la biyâr henânà khwârawa to make s.o. change a decision. /c nâchâr helpless to do anything else; 8 la lâ dirkândin to make public; 8 { tek-chûn la to get angry with; farmân-dân to order; ` shârbadar-kirân to be exiled; \ birâ brother; khwishk sister; sawâr-bûn to mount; wilâkh pack horse; · mamlakat country; b oec I kam yân zor royshtin kas nâzâne, khwâ khoy nabe `nobody but God knows how far they went,' a common expression in story-telling; ` tamâshâ-kirdin to look; > mât u khâmosh in stunned silence; ` Z khol i mirdû ba sar'dâ kirân to have ashes of mourning for the dead on the head, to be in deep mourning; lâ-dân la to take shelter in; g kamèk a bit; É asânawa to rest; > khânakhwe master of a house; > · khamnâk grieving; mât stunned.



. , z Z . « , x, TM» : q

«.> < R ! x,»

/ Z> x , w :q q .I / ¤ , . . !» : 8 8 . . TM» Z > / «! c 8 / ). « TM . .qc ,¬ ³ { ·R{ 8 / q m , , 8 q » : w ) «. Z R· Z q / 8 8 q Z 8 8 m q .¬Z c 8 I

m walâm-dân to answer; giriftâr i beset by; dard trouble; ` ? ± tîmâr-kirân to be remedied; azhdîhâ dragon; / sarchâw spring; âw water; o { le-girtin to block; 8 ` dâwâ-kirdin la to demand from; bar-dânawa to release; z werân destroyed. x, sbayne tomorrow; nora turn; x, bo sbayne upon the morrow; tawâw i all of; gird-bûnawa to assemble; râzândin to bedeck; sitam unjust; shokh comely; ... darkhwârd i ... drân to be , given to; / chapal filthy; 8 o pesh-girtin la to stand in front of; râ. , wastân to stop; . kesha dispute; ` / chârasar-kirdin to resolve; \ c 8 la nâw birdin to get rid of; ³ jiwânka adolescent; 8 gaân la to leave alone; ... tilândinawa ba ...awa to deal with; girtinà gwe to listen to; tîgh blade; râst right; / chap left; mal`ûn accursed; Z zâlim tyrant; zawâl destruction. tûaî anger; / châw paînà for the eye to light on; tawq a sar top of the head; palâmâr-dân to snatch; ` lûsh-kirdin to swal132


8 .q q t Z > e Z , b w )R 8 > .±.·R 8 q ,ê . w , ½ ³ 8 . .\ m> b TM q 8 w/ m q Z .Z . 8 .q R q ³ , 8 8 b q ¤ · \ ,I . q q > I Z TM» : c R R «.q Z 8 q» : ¬{ q c , z «.$c w/ 8 \ m> TM ) «. x{ m> TM b » : m 8 q I , q 8 )z g* g

low; ba salâmatî hâtinà darawa to emerge unscathed; Z hal-tropîn to drop dead. ` t âfarîn-kirdin to say bravo; Z hal-zhandin to rub; z khwen blood; c nâsîn to recognize. ½. ³ âhang-geân to give a party; pyâwatî bravery; ` m> khalât-kirdin to reward; .Z kho hal-keshân to present oneself; gwâya as though, claiming; âzâyatî feat; Z pâlawânetî heroicism; ba . ·£ diro khistinawa to give the lie to; ` R nîshâna-kirân to be marked; c kas namâ nayet there was no one left to come (the na- in nayet is pleonastic); ... b tanyâ...nabe only; pa i shâr edge of the city; o ` ba kire girtin to rent, hire; \ birdinà bardam to take before. 8 o z rez-girtin la to pay respect to; ` supâs-kirdin to thank; qat (+ neg.) in no way; 8 dar-chûn la to repay; b pâshâm salâmat be hail to my king; bo dwâî for later.



8 ee : eZ É c ¤ «. 8 Z ,» :,Z ³ TM g )* { < TM { { { ±. \ b e . Z , b ½\ c z {, » :,Z ¤ m ½\ , /c e «.\ 8 G c .\ { 8 {Z ³ ` b ½- ¤ 8 { 8 «{ ) » :,Z ¬{ Ð\ / .b «! Ð\ \ » :,Z m 8 R » :,Z e b zq ³ 8 < » :,Z e «!, oe\ { Ð\ z o » :,Z ¤ «. / .x z 8 , G 8 q · e «. 8 { ±. { . » :,Z { 8 o e ±. «.q

8 la pâsh baynèk after a while; bîr well; É awsha courtyard; g* Z âw hal-gozân to draw water; e dew demon; \ bin bottom; ` ³TM bâng kirdin to cry out to; g dastim dâmenit I beg you; Z balkû perhaps; , dar-henânà darawa to get out; pat rope; ` sho-kirdinawa to lower; < jil clothing; barg raiment; khwârdinî food; ` dâbînkirdin to arrange; niyâz desire; ` m mâlâwâî-kirdin to say good-bye; z rega-dân to allow to go; 8 ` { dast tekal-kirdin lagal to have sex with; c danâ otherwise; ` 8 lat u pat kirdin to chop to pieces; /c nâchârî helplessness; ½- sik pi-bûn to get pregnant; b ... ` tâ de ... dabe she becomes ... over time; zard pale; lâwâz thin. < awjâ then; tagbîr chî ya? what's to be done?; / dâ-pâchîn to split from top to bottom; guzar path; kâk brother; Z dilnarm softhearted; ba bazaî compassionate; mizhda good news; hâwre com134


Z q G <» :,Z ¤ · ± { 8 I o q TM m \ g 8 ·) \ t\ z, TM .q \ «.\ ,¬ Z Z ±. g · ·Re G» :,Z ¤ q z «TM» :,Z w {Z «. · tq È q b . · e 8 b t> I , . Ù e ,o m . { / b » :,Z e 8 . Ð\ . . c 8 \ 8 Ð\ .\ { «!·R{,Éc » ,Z «.\ ¬ ` x z TM» ,Z e g g 8 8 G .\ ,¬ \ ) e { {Z Z{ \ ö . TM ¡,Z b 8 ¬e ö q «. 8 e > · Z> / .b ,Zc ·

panion; ` paydâ-kirdin to find. sarsumânawa amazement; ± sâkhta feigned; shîr milk; I basizmân unfortunate; o z, dasnwezh-girtin to make ablutions (for prayer); ·) qîbla the kiblah, the direction of prayer; pâânawa la to beseech; mamik breast; pâk pure; ` z nwezh-kirdin to pray; ` È du`â gîrâ-kirdin to answer a prayer. kayf u safâ gratification; merd husband; sarbast free; . { nihenî secret; âshkirâ-bûn to be revealed; ` 8 la kol kirdin to shoul der, to take responsibility for; agînâ otherwise.



.,Zc ¬{ m ,- , >

8 ½» :,Z e . gê TM m w ,ê { Z8 , Z> · b 8 ¬e q «. , e yR < 8 e .ê > { g .b q c { · ö e 8 TM» :,Z {, b 8 ¬e I ö q «. q ¬ 8 · { { x{Z · \ ,¬ 8 · ¡,Z > · .> . , c {, { 8 . ± c 8 \ ) z .½ \ c 8 ,¬ \ q > { ze 8 xR e R . z q ´ e Z ö q ¡ . TM > Z q g ±. .

c z rega dâ-nân to show the way; ` ,g jebaje-kirdin to take care of, to "polish off"; filân such-and-such; kânîâw spring; ` kho kirdin ba to turn oneself into; zhahr poison; ö bichkol little; goza pot; \ birdinà pîr i to offer to; > khâl maternal uncle; sarkânî spring; (´{) . heshtin (hel-) to allow (, Y{c nâhele > ,Zc nâyele he doesn't allow); kânî spring. âyinda next; ê dûpishk scorpion; m kho malâs-dân to crouch down; hâtinà zhûrawa to come inside; { pe-dân to bite, sting; tûkasar hair on the head; \ TM bâ birdin for the wind to carry away; tagbîr plot; qâch khistinà sar to step on; < jarg beloved child, off·£ spring ({< jargetî for < jargîyatî `he is his child'). {, seham third; 8 tûl a mâr little snake; ö bichorà go into (imperative); · pelâw shoe; ` ,¬ pe-kirdin to put on (a shoe); pîlân plan; { Z hal-takândin to shake out; t dar-paîn la to fall out of.



Z> TM» :,Z ,R , o x ZÉ ö R R· e « .`b {Z· Z> » :,Z I «q q < Z>» :,Z ¬{ ö q < TM «. c 8 I < / , , .2 . ê q Zö q 8 > e >TM TM q (.² q 8) oec . TM Z . 8 > TM q 8 ` b ·. g*e z 8 c É Z>» :,Z ¬ q { ·R{ { 8 c ,TM > m «c TM 8 . > q /c . > » : Z TM ee ,. ,q \ , ! c 8 c{ e 8 TM 8 ö q «. q ¬e q e e8 > . Z .> ¬{ )*, ½\

c nâpâk vile; ba kâr henân to put into effect; chûnà sar to { succeed; ±c 8 la nâwakht'â unexpectedly; wâda appointed time; (>) o> khawtin (khaw-) to sleep; ` ´e wel-kirdin to turn loose; (z) bo kho râ-bwârdin (bwer-) to enjoy oneself; .Z hal-keshân to draw out; > khanjar dagger; TM dabân steel; sar yek'dâ together; ¡ wakhtè when; É âl situation; 8 R o tirs nîshtin la for fear to seize; Z > khâla: children are customarily addressed by the relationship the speaker has to them, i.e. fathers address all their children, male and female, as TM bâba, and maternal uncles address all their nieces and nephews as Z> khâla; ±. betâwân innocent. chi râst u chi diro whether right or wrong; I wîstin to want; (´{) . heshtin (hel-) to allow. ½ \ ` 8 la kurtî biînawa to cut short; >TM TM bâr u bârkhâna supplies, provisions; z rek-khistin to get together; khwishkazâ nephew; TM



I ½. Z> e 8 É q ` b oec I .I q { ¬/ ee Z e g*e 8 y£ 8 {,» : . , þ. . Zc ZTM ZTM . 8 ,c , «. Zc ½\ ,ê 8 Z>» : ö q ) , q ,I 8 w b . ±R q oec ,¬ . ) , q Ð q «.x 8 { 8 , » : Y/ e , e Z \ q ! q ZÈ 8 , t q \ m Y { · , . q» :,Z e «.TM Z L» :,Z q « Ye )

bâr-khistin to unload; ` É az-kirdin to like; c TM ba bâshî nâzânim `I don't think it's good'; TM bâyakh-dân ba to pay attention to; o . eshik-girtin to keep watch; nîwashaw midnight; TM wak bâ u borân like a whirlwind; Z bolabol roaring; { begâna stranger; dawr u makân these parts; , ke who?; toz u gard dust; âsmân sky; 8 `TM la sar i bâwkîawa on his father's side; nawa race; .Z > khanjar hal-keshân to draw a dagger; dam u das straightaway; lût nose; ·£ khistinà tûrakayèkawa to stuff in a sack. I , le dâ-royshtin to set off; e Z dal a dew demoness; o pâl kawtin to recline; mamik breast; râ-khistin to spread out; ³ nirkândin to grunt; t te-paîn to pass by; 8 dar-chûn la dast to escape þ. the clutches; ZTM bâldâr &c. this "jingly" phrase (`I have broken the wing of any

bird that has come, and I have broken the horseshoe of any horse that has come') is based on a Kurdish proverb ( ZTM ZTM Zc Zc) and seems to be a sort of demonic chant, like the giant's "fee fi fo fum" in English fairytales. In Iranian fairytales demons usually announce their approach with some sort of chant.



z 8 !o 8 ½- Z { qTM Z z z R 8 Re ·« I z c q «. )R R , { . \ ³ ` . Ð q , < Z 8 e g ¬{ > Z> ³ c t½ I{ y · - 8 È É . q Z R { t , / » :,Z m 8 I Z ,Zc c t e½\ b { { ·R . 8 R . ·R R , g· «.{ZÉ 8 Z> . g e {> > R ³ 8 ,æ / > ö q Z e 8 ³ q «!Ð 8 » :,Z 8

) dakhîlitim I beg you; o firyâ-kawtin to assist; ba diza surrep titiously; ,ê 8 la pishtawa royshtin bo to go behind the back of; b be awaî (+ subj.) without; ·£ khistinà dam to put in the mouth; t mizhîn to suck; ziyân harm; ` ba ku i khoy as her own son; râz secret; 8 dirkândin la lâ to disclose to; Y/ râ-chilakîn to be startled; âdamî hu man; qasam oath; È `awdâl wandering; ... ´e wel ba dwâ i ...dâ looking for; { hejgâr extremely; sakht difficult; Z halat dangerous; o matirsî fright; ·« saghlatî confusion; R fîsâr such-and-such; kosp difficulty; c nâkhoshî unpleasantness; I{ pewîst necessary. qarâkh outskirts; Z khewat hal-dân to pitch a tent; kal u g pal paraphernalia; t½ kîn to buy; y> khambâr sad; Z khol i mirdû see note 1 on p. 115; waz` situation; ,Zc nâyele = ,Y{c nâhele (< . heshtin); {Z dilopèk âw a drop of water; · ·R 8 la tînuân'dâ khinkân to choke from thirst.



8 Z b z b ±.. . . 8 / e8 ±.g Z> < e o 8 xe e Z .> / Z> x, : 8 .\ 8 9æ É b {m /q 8 8 .q 8 < < « ³ {, .Z , m m> TM Z . . 8 q , { 8 » Ð . 8 m {, Z 8 b g . ö q z 8 c «./ \ q TM ³c )*e 8 < «q , » : Z> { Y c<» : > · . ,¬ . I Z Z «q , { ½z 8 8 8 » : ¬ c , z { : e Ð «. / < þ . yR q · «. ¤TM c Z 8 , » {Z Y < .q , ¤ I{ , q ,

> khafat sorrow; ba diz i unbeknownst to; ëÐ dâ-kishân to creep up; kâfir infidel; ... 8 oÐ kho râ-girtin labar ...dâ to stand up against; go strength; . beshumâr untold; shimshîr sword; / chaqânà zawîaká'dâ to stick in the ground; e 8 talasm-khwendin ba sar'dâ to cast a spell over; o 8 la khoy ziyâtir other than himself; Z hal-kandrân bo to be pulled out by.



.q TM m ¬e {

Z> :q .e I ` I ·£ . ³ >Z TM {, ITM . , { , R , Z > 8 . R ,R c 8 Z> Z TM . q Z TM» Z> « \ · .q )R , Z TM < , «. Z t z< TM 8 c 8 P` < .q , < R c Z < . t q q . TM I c . zq / q ` 8 TM , q TM / / / 8 , . q

8 ` É khwââfîzî-kirdin la to say good-bye to; 9 ë yekjârî final; / ` kûcha lane; m kolân street; « shâî loghân rejoicing; < jârchî herald; < jâr-dân to proclaim; nwândin to carry out; lâf-dân to claim; dar-henân to pull out; Ð râ-gayândin ba to report to; { . kas namâwa nayetà era no one is left to come here (see note 3 on p. 124); ... z c nârdin ba shwen...dâ to send for; dîwân court; c< janâb i pâshâ your majesty; 8 c z rez-nân la to show respect; ` ârazû-kirdin to wish; pâra money; z zer gold; < jawâhîrât jewels; þ chipândin to whisper; Z mâl i dinyâ worldly wealth; gul flower; ¤TM bâkhcha garden; I { te-gayshtin to understand; tifâq supplies; tadârak provisions; pâdishâyâna regal. ko-bûnawa to be gathered; TM bâz-gardân to send a falcon aloft; >Z hal-bizhârdin to choose; . peshû former; { , farmân i khwâ ba je hênân to obey God's command, to die; TM bâz falcon; pa edge; Z hal-dirân to be sent up (falcon); sûânawa to circle around; c 8 la nâkâw suddenly; « gharîb stranger; Z ba hala'dâ by mistake; 7 P` tâj i pâshâî royal crown; c 8 la sar takht dâ-nân to put on the throne; t wazîr vizier; c nâma letter; ` tâw dûrî pain of separation; /



() ) Z É .b c .b zq ` .b 8 ½ . w/ gû TM 8 , b q Z c ½\ . q» :,Z TM .\ R { ,ê > c q «.z>Z 8 TM q .xe ê . .> g* )û . b .c q» : I .{ , . 8 . ½ · w : {± e\ w Z Z . b ` q Z q «. g { . { g q TM )z< .q ³TM c e c \ { 8 I , £. .\ ¬ Z>» : 8 { ) ¬ bq { 8 q,¬ . ) Y{ g q q · «., < . b m 8 Z q q É t z c .q z ¬ . {

barchâw rûn-bûnawa to be delighted; yektir each other; ` shâd u shukr-bûnawa to rejoice at seeing someone from whom one has been separated. . «q w /» ) Z É 8 asp horse; rawg herd; >Z hal-bizhârdin to select; ê pisht back; t mâyin mare; dâ-nawândin to lower; { 8 masala te-gayândin to explain a situation; barî merhorse, a fabulous horse common in Iranian folklore; âwus pregnant; wiryâ-bûn to watch carefully; zân to give birth; qarâkh edge; daryâ sea; nomâ colt; ½ fie-dân to drop; shâlîna shawl; pâshal hind leg; âlîk fodder.



b ·< 8 » : t .½ 8 . «.q b . 8 . R R . I q q ³TM TM £. .R g 8 » : ¬{ ) ,R g z k ±. , {, m I q «. :q , w c m o . c ) .q z c I q {, q · . c » : ) 8 8 q «. 8 8 .o ,, .m Z 8 q 8 g \ / > z 8 q g 8 ){ / 8/ 8 / Z R .

TM bâwazhin stepmother; g damèk a while; shaydâ-bûn to be enfatuated with; ` .³TM bângheshtin-kirdin bo to invite; îlkândin to ) laugh in peals; `Z> khalatân to be deceived; b` { 8 `{ . ¬ peyèkit la kawsh'â bet u aw pekát nakirdibe ba je'y bela `let one of your feet Y{ g be in your shoe, and keep the other foot, which you haven't put in your shoe, in its place,' i.e. be firm in your resolve; , kho dân ba dastawa to let oneself fall into s.o.'s clutches; o 8 la dwâwa girtin to grab from behind; . besûd futile; dirân to be ripped; îsh deed; o dar-kawtin to realize; this R part of the story is taken from the Koranic legend of Joseph and Zulaykha, Potiphar's wife, but the narrator has confused the details: in the Koranic version it is Joseph's garment that is examined, and if it is torn from behind, Zulaykha was the aggressor; if torn in front, Joseph was the aggressor (see Koran 12:26f.). TM dûbâra once again; I dîsânawa once more; k darwesh dervish; , râ-spârdin to charge; azhîhâ serpent; c nân food; pâk unadulterated; ) harchîchikânawa no matter what they did. zhahr poison; 8 tûla sag puppy; tZ hal-warîn to fall down; om raq-halâtin to go stiff.



, 8 .q z c ) . TM q \ Z8 z É { )q . c / , , qÉ Y ±. 8 É z c )q . c / c b q q , ±. TM Z» : z c < TM TM» : m 8 q « ,¬ { e` . 8 TM m t² TM .c Z , ZTM «.\ ¬{Y ,I ` I \ . / z q z 8 .I » : . \ , Z . «. {Z¤{ ! 8 e I ,I 8 < .Z ·£ g* .{>

râyakh rug; / châl pit; Z hal-kandin to dig; / chil forty; gaz yard; R shîsh stake; zhahrâwî poisoned; / chaqândin to stick upright; TM darbâz-bûn to be saved. pâshân later; `É akîm physician; 8 o z rek-kawtin lagal to conspire with; ` kho kirdinà nakhosh to pretend to be sick; gosht meat; ` âmozhgârî-kirdin to advise; Z rola son; I khosh-wîstin to love; hazâr thousand; goînawa ba to exchange for; ` tâw turn, circuit; ` dawrân-kirdin ba to take a turn on (a horse); harka as soon as; 8 TM bâl paydâ-bûn la for a wing to sprout on; qarâkh edge; daryâ sea; ¬ awandaî biley yek u dû before you could say "jack{Y rabbit"; paînawa to take off; pa feather; o ... / barchâw i ... kawtin to be spotted by; \ na bikhoy, na bikay &c. see note 1 on p. 122; wirshadâr colorful; t dâ-bazîn to get off; ¤{ gechal dispute; 8 dil chûn la to be infatuated by; > khân inn.



³ zq c . ,¬ ., q 8 z ³ \ q I TM , o t . t q ) Z Z 8 8 Z TM TM 8 )z .\ ,¬ . c< > )³ » : t . «.x. > oe, \ oe q > q ZZ , q q 8 , R . 8 ,¬ )*e ,ö c 8 . z « z 8 » q / .\ : «.x z g » : , , ½\ k Z » Y «. TM z 8 I ` z .I 8 TM g*e , Z ö .c , » : . Z I \ ½\ e z 8 8 .c ö ·. { c 8 . 8 c .t b / 8 w \

miqomiqo uproar; ³ shokh u shang enchanting; nakhshîn colorful; sar head; 8 chûn la to look like; \ birdinà khizmat to bring before; Z halkawtû nice-looking; ) najîbzâda aristocratic; bûn ba darakî to be out "in the cold"; Z bûn ba mâlakî to be "in"; riqabarâyatî spiteful rivalry; \ . erâyî-birdin ba to be jealous of; âkho ah; ³ rangîn colorful, beautiful; > khâwan owner; chon how?; oe, dashtwâne he could also; { wa dast henân to get hold of.



«.e /

\ )£ { o .e t < , . > 8 > t . I R TM TM 8 .o , { £z q 8 ` ³ ± .b 8 Ù . \ \ ,¬ ± R { oe q c<» : .Y g* { «.x R oe . . » : ¬ z c q ` ¬e { e b . ö b m «qc c 8 » / «.qc { · » : z R . {, q É t > I «. 8 q ·» : .{ 8 R

khistinà sar to put into someone's head; ZZ kalkala i craving for; ·£ b' aw hîwâyáî in hopes that; c 8 la nâw chûn to disappear; 8 z ` shwen laq-kirdin ba to displace; ` , R îstaram-kirdin ba to plead with; dozînawa to discover; c z regâ dâ-nân bo to show the way; k saresha headache; ` tûsh-kirdin to involve s.o. in; ushtir camel; TM bâr load; ganim wheat; ba swârî i mounted on; 8 labar dân to lead; Z girdolka haystack; t½ \ sar-biîn to cut the head off; rizhândin to strew; ... ba dawr...dâ around; t hal-diîn to slit open; 8 palawar bird; mal bird; wirûzhân to flock; nîwao noon; danûk bird's beak; diwân sharp; { ... c nâw i ... henân to invoke the name of; payghamar prophet; \ dast-birdin to grab; qâch leg; bar-dân to let go; / châw dar-henân to pluck the eye out.



, ½\ / , m Y . «.t \ . TM Z T· g*e ,I ` b oec I .Z » : . z , . ± . 8 / / > T· 8 \ / , . , ¬e / > oe\ . ± < . 8 È 8 « » : «. g*{,RY R w ¤ q z / e 8 ZTM ZTM q » : b o b » : «. Zc Zc 8 È 8 » : /c «q

nakhsha plan; khistinà qafazawa to put in a cage; \ ·£ birdinà bardam i to take to; âwâz voice; o awanda i tir so much more; I khoshawîst beloved; dâkh grief; > khafat worry; taqîn to burst; z pîlân rek-khistin to hatch a plan; jwânî beauty; shokhushangî elegance; parî peri, fairy; 8 ` wâ kirdin la (+ subj.) to convince to; ± giriftâr smitten; ... 8 la marâq i ...dâ bûn to wonder; chonetî manner, how to; o das-kawtin to be captured; ½ bo hal . gaân to look for an opportunity; ` giriftâr-kirdin ba to entangle in; \ ± ... . Y chunà bin kilesha i ...awa to dupe; ... ¬ e e qawân khwendinà gwe i ...dâ to harp on into s.o.'s ear; ` râzî-kirdin to convince; 8 la mil dân to behead; oÐ > kham dâ-girtin for grief to afflict; ` âmozhgârî-kirdin to advise; / châr remedy. paînà to leap onto; ` kol back; TM wak bâ like the wind; Tm qalâycha fortress; gird hill; bakht luck; Z ± bakhtit halsâwa you've had a stroke of good luck; râst right; banakhun drawstring; gre knot; 8 gre-dirân la for a knot to be tied in; ` gre-kirdinawa to untie a knot; È 8 la `arsh u qursh `by God's throne and footstool' (an oath); zânîn ba to be aware of; R ânîshk elbow; RY pilîshândinawa to squash; ba îzn i khwâ by God's leave.



o q < < «. Z 8 { g b» : . ¬e ½\ , 8 «.c 8 / ` ³ ., . q `b TM g* t .Z TM Z ³ 8 I z 8 , g 8 t\ c<» : ,I Z q ` 8 «.t { , q `m q Éc zq / ` .\ Ð { 8 TM <» : » : TM q < «. zq 8 É I «{ { . ¬ q» : ½ q g , R . Z «. c / q ` R R , R ) « 8 < «! q TM» : q q 8 / / , TM ½ . , .

o z rek-kawtin to go smoothly; ` shil-kirdinawa to loosen; w o ba âgâ hâtin to come to consciousness; ZTM bâldâr &c. see note 1 on p. 129; b o b khoshit be u tirshit be whether you like it or not; ganj treasure; < jawâhîr jewels; kawtinà tak to sit behind (on a horse); ½\ 8 ârâm biran la to lose patience; swe-bûnawa to pine away; · £

gwâstinawa (gwez-) to take to wife. pâsh baynèk after a while; yâd memory; ` betâqat-kirdin g* ±. to make anxious; 8 lashkir troops; sipâ army; z rek-khirân to be , mustered; Z haladâwân haste; { begâna foreign; âbloqa-dân to lay siege to; ` tâ u dûrî i painful separation from; Éc ba nâaq unjustly; ` rahanda-kirdin to make wander; gul-bûn to contract leprosy; Ð ` dâgîr-kirdin to capture; ` tâza anymore; tamâ desire; tarfana-



> () \ ` · / ` t ½ 8 . ` e z ` c ... > ) yR , .c t e , c ¬{ ¬ TM m ` 8 m { { Z c ...` 8 > TM8 )* , !!-- -- ` > :³ 8 t · R 8 \ ½\ !! ` 8 !!!\ > 8 ... ` È 8 8... I 8 ± , ± ± !e½Ì , !±. V{ ± Z

bûn to be lost; kilîl key; , nîshtaje successor; zalîl miserable; ) , R mizmaîl deprived; dil garm-bûn for the heart to warm; basarhât adventure; « gharîbî exile; / châk-bûnawa to be healed; ba yek together. Paris: Weanên Enstîtuya Kurdî ya Parîsê,) «t :> » 8 . - (1989 Mam u Zîn is an epic poem written by Ahmad Khânî at the end of the 17th century. Hazhâr does not use the double wâw for û (which has been added in the vocabulary in the notes); otherwise his spelling is consistent with normal usage. His highly idiosyncratic punctuation is reproduced as is. ½ ½ wargeân translation; ` mukriyânî the Mukri dialect of Kurdish; / . ` châp-kirân to be printed; ` · bilâw-kirânawa to be published; z wezhawân literary; sorânî Sorani Kurdish; râda degree: ` tâ râdayèk to an extent, to a degree; barham production, work; bûnà , âshnâ dagal to become familiar with; pasand-bûn lâ i ... to be pleasing to; ` c shânâzî-kirdin ba to take pride in; bakht luck; c twânâ ability; hazhârâna paltry, miserable; dast group; e khwendawâr reader; c nâsândin ba to make acquainted with. ` kirmânjî Kurmanji, the Kurdish spoken in Turkey; { te-gayîn = tegayshtin to understand; TM8 labât i instead of; pasind liking; 8 ` t ,



·R : ` Z ¬e 8 ½- t ...c c .gÌ £ê Z ·. ` Y{ { ` > {, ½\ {e 8 ³\ R e ±.Ì t ` 9{Z 8 \ ` ,¬ zê .·R 8 I` ` . c !! > 8 Z ` c 8 :` $ ` ./ ...` :w 8 {

âfarîn-kirdin la to applaud; c tanânat especially; handè rather, somewhat; Z dilsâda naïve; o ()... 8 la rû i ...(d)â gutin to say to someone's face; ` zîndû-kirdinawa to bring back to life; khudâ toba God forbid!; 8 \ giro-birdinawa la to get ahead of; ây oh; ` kufr curse; dam mouth; ` ½\ biwâ-kirdin to believe; gift speech; tift mouth-puckeringly sweet; I farmâyisht compliment; mift free, without cost: ,I farmâyisht a mift empty compliment; sharm shame, embarrassment; È `aybat fear; twân to want; Z pala stain, spot; bukhtân slander; V{ ± lekha bûnawa to be rubbed off of; ½ siînawa to wipe clean. t wîzhdân conscience; pazhâra sadness; ` sirtândin to whisper; nînok fingernail; panja hand; Z âlosh itch: Z âlosh shkândin ·R to scratch an itch; o da firyâ hâtin to come to help. ½\ biyâr-dân to decide; ` Y{ { lek peloz kirdin to put an end to; bisetawa for biasetawa from hasânawa to rest; daryâ sea; ±. ±.Ì mazin great; e lâwech handful; 9{Z halenjân to draw water; nimûna sample; shân-dân to show; zaryâ sea; 8 malawân swimmer; . ·R bînakeshî taking a breath; bîn breath; ê pishû breath; \ takhtabin bottom; ± gawhar pearl; washârtû hidden; o da râda u zhimâr nahâtin to be inestimable and uncountable; o wa das kawtin to be obtained; âzâd free; tozhar researcher; c zânâ knowledgeable; ` kwâ how (for rhetorical questions); ... 8 kho la qara i ... dân to approach. ` barâmbar ba yek kirdin to compare; 8 wird-bûnawa la y



...` «» . ¬/ - , , : ` , { / !! Z« oet { { . ... zc I 8` Z ( {, ) > ¬/ - (m ` c> ) ) ` È ew ., · / zV. ½. È >{, 8 z 8 m . . > .` ` . É 8 e8 ... / « Z I» : . 8 ...É ¬/ - *, ` TM` » : 8 ) .«\ , R e . ` tÈ `

to scrutinize; w 8 la âkâm'â in the end. . Hawlerî a native of Arbil; har zû very early on; ` qit-kirdin to eliminate; mâmostâ professor, teacher, a title accorded learned persons; , , khwâ-bakhshîw the late; wisha word; , rista sentence; Z« ghalat error; râ-mân to contemplate; dâ-mân to be stymied; / wichân to pause; { bîr-lekirdinawa to think; zc I 8` da kulaká i ta'îsh'dâ nâwèkî niya `do not exist in his enlightened view'; fit the sound of spitting. 962 is common Turkish usage for 1962; Mosko Moscow; > khânim lady; {, sedâ Ms.; ., ba râsperî i under the auspices of; ew âkâdemî academy; È `ulûm (spelled in Arabic) science; ` yekîatî union; ) sovyet soviet; m ` c> here Hazhâr replicates the Cyrillic spelling of the Kurmanji for `Oriental Literature Press' (Neirxana Edebiyata Rojhelatî); >{, shewakhat type; È `ârabî Arabic; rûsî Russian; V. peshkhabar pref ace; > ba dâkhawa regrettably; . peshakîakáy its foreword; t dîn to ` see (variant of dîtin); z parâwezân to edit, edition; o dar-kawtin to turn out; / chand several; nuskha manuscript, copy; bayt line of poetry. I mâyis May; ) mîlâdî A.D.; the quotation is in Kurmanji: ew kitaba ku me jê istinsax kirî 1165'da `Ezîz kurê êr Mam Zêdî nivîsî bû, Xuda rahma xwe lê bika: `the book from which I have copied was written in 1165 by Aziz son of Sher Mam Zedi, may God have mercy on him.'



8 ö . RÉ . 8 k8 > ) V/ , m 8 É ...` R 8 Z y, 8 (y)£R 8 Z ( É) - R , 8 Z . ¬/ 8 o ½ . , ` ` !!,R \ . / 8 È / 8 8 : )* )* y. TM Z Z ` Z c ¬{ , Z ... )ÿ{ / R > ... È 8 ­ ±R ) () () () () ( - ) - () ( - ) c «» : , { c z 8 z ( «» c «» ... c «» «» ½ ...

RÉ îsâb calculation; taman age; . shest sixty; ö bichuktir less; yekamîn first (see §12.1); daskhat handwriting. sarparisht head, chief; V/ châpkhâna press; najm star; y)£ R îstîqbâl future; y, Astambul Istanbul; R Qâmîshlî Qamishli, in Syria; ` wafât-kirdin to pass away, to die. lâtîn Latin letters; Turkiyâ Turkey; o tirkî Turkish; farmûshîn ` to say; Shâm Damascus; urûf letters (spelled in Arabic); \ mikhâbin unfortunately; ... neither...nor. âshkirâ clear, obvious; nuskhanûsar copyist; nyâdân to take into consideration; Z hala mistake; c ¬ ba pe i twânâ insofar as possible; { ` râst-kirdinawa to correct; oZ Z pala hal-girtin to catch errors; )ÿ{

tebînî observation. R pît letter (of the alphabet); azmân language; misha frequent; c mânâ meaning; { tek-chûn to be lost; ½ gumâî perdition; goân to be changed; c dalâl, nâz coquetry; zalâl limpid; rûn clear.



... 8 É ·. 8 z R { È .) , Ro R .{ o z 8 ³ 8 È 8 )* { «» «» ` `o , / ` : ½\ Z { 8 > t ` . ·R ±R Io > , t :` c R z R .\ > c ±R e ...z\ R z È 8 ­ , R 8 ¬e , 8 I / 8 ... g*e ...` Z : ` ,¬ , t c :,Z ­ . (È < R» : . 8 > !!> > `

É aw (dialectal) = É awt; { te-khizân ba to slip into; z wezha word; fârsî Persian; ) mîwân guest. ... ³ 8 la songa i ...awa because of; o z 8 la shwen kho tirâzân to be unrecognizable; Z { lek halnâwâr dirân not to be distinguished; âwâ manner; roshin clear; ` ... / chârasar i ... kirdin to remedy; ` tâzî Arabic; ·R nûsînawa literature; 8 kalapûrî traditional; hara most; . hezhâ worthy; c kawnârâ old; c nâawâ unreadable; e > khazena treasury; zâye-bûn to be lost; ... yân...yân either...or; R nîshâna sign; ³ dâ-nirân to be established; ` râva-kirân to be explained. zwân language; malâ learned; shârazâ expert; gizuft i bulbul dân to warble like a nightingale; âshnâyatî dagal acquaintance , with; ` gre rahâ-kirân for a knotty problem to be solved.



. Z ...{Z

. 8 .t ` > {, 8 Z Z / 8 ·. . x . , , . Z TM ­ ê 8 : , 8 (9 tÈ) , R ...> Z ( > ) gÿ{ . ±. t b Z / 8 ³ :,Z Z ... ·. 8 ` . c . ±. 8 > 8 I . Z > g . ... m / ±. , TM : , / 8 : 7 ­ . , :. z È : 8 ` c

. ezhin they say: > khâyândin to spend time; farmûgiyasî (dia lect) `he has said'; yânî that means; matal riddle; zândrân to be figured out. zhînâma biography; ` ba kurtî in brief; dirkândin to disclose; hâtinà dinyâ to be born; nûsar writer; sat = sad. jwân fine, nice; dirust correct; malâ mulla, cleric; R bîstin to hear; farmûn to say (used like in Persian); . kteb book; `îbârat expression; > tra Khn il rabbihi (Ar.) "Khani flew to his lord"; abjad the system of assigning numerical values to the letters of the alphabet; A.H. 1119 = A.D. 1707­8. b hîch nabe if nothing else; lîzga bead; c nâdir rare; hondin to string; penjîna quintet; Nîzâmî see p. 91; ... 8 c kho râ-nân y ·. la barâmbar ...dâ to stand up to; bo-dân to beat (at a game); g humed hope; > khawn dream; o wa dî hâtin to come true; I dîsh another; gosha corner; farâmoshî oblivion; pitir more; gash happy; ba tamâ i khwâ God willing.



8 ³ . È 8 TM8 . ` !! 8 TM TM \8 k oe , TM .Y , \ > ,I bc . ` b ...` - > ³ x{ ...\ È c ¬ , , , { ` c ` z { b 8 . . t ` ½ . ) 8 :8 z` TM 8 ÿ, ,¬ c Z \ b , . \ I.> È

TM zabâni &c. `we have rendered [the word] zabân in the text as zimân'; o matn text; zimân tongue, language; 8 l' awa dakâ `he does this for the following reason'; È qur`ân Koran; . bezhe he may say (a dialectal form); fm and thm are variants for `garlic' in Arabic; sîr garlic; TM8 labât instead of; 8 la sar zâr on the tongue; sûk light. I farmâyisht speech; ` daskârî-kirân to be tampered with; boga smelly vegetation that animals will not eat; - pirtuk piece; pîroz auspi cious; dastnakhurda untouched. zârâwa dialect; khwâparist God-fearing; b ba be hîch with out any; { zor lek-dânawa to over-interpret; ) avîndâr lover; âzâdî freedom; ` . peshkash-kirdin ba to offer to; ÿ roshinbîr in, tellectual; bo mufaik for auspiciousness; barg cover: o da barg girtin to wrap in a cover; makhmar velvet; , nivishta inscription; ` mâch-kirdin to kiss; c hânâ thus; { pe-birdin to find one's way to, to bring oneself to; ` .> È du`â i bakher kirdin bo to offer a prayer of well-being for.



--) c --

q () TM - > c :« » c û ·R , ³ . ,/ TM .\ ,. 8 q ,q - t TM · qw z 8 ) , )£ ·R m e ê ,ê 8 c 8 .q m 8 . ·R . TM TM z ±. c 8 q ³ TM > c 8 ½\ 8 b 8 . RTM Z 8

Zc 8 . , c :« c» ±

. 8 c barnâma program; > tarkhân bo devoted to; ,- pirsyâr question; · R bînar viewer; TM darbâr i about; TM bâbat subject; , / hamachashna of all sorts; ³ farhang culture; gisht public; lâpaa page; jorâwjor various; ` kurdawârî Kurdishness; \ râbirdû past. ... z 8 la regâ i ...awa via; `w fâks fax; ) îmayl e-mail; ... t 8 la lâyan ...awa by; ,ê pispor expert; ê pisht bastin ba to click on; e wena image; m walâm reply; ... 8 la mawdâ i ...awa through; khizmat service; zânyârî knowledge; 8 jiga l' awaî in additional to the fact that; tomâr record. tawar aim; duam = dûham second; ³TM bângawâz request for assistance; ` sorâkh-kirdin to search for; rozhgâr a jorbajorakân the vicissitudes of fortune; . besorâkh lost; kasukâr kinfolks; 8 ½\ dâ-birân la to be cut off from; 8 l' am ruawa in this way; 8 jiga la without.



g ± «» .eq . , q TM TM 8 TM 8 q z { Z , ,c , `TM TM ` . z . q , qw 8 ³ q ·R \ «» g , ,- \ q . q 8 «» c ..Y . c Z É Z q :«·» . q !,R . Z )É 8 ), q z /c , e ·ê ·£ ,> ê 8 z TM { , .

dîdâr interview; , siyâsî political; ± haftâna weekly; dûshamma Monday; c kanâl channel; , râstawkho direct; ` . pesh kash-kirân to be presented; ± hafta week; ` g mewândâr-kirdin to host; siyâsatmadâr politician; TM sabârat ba concerning; ` z witu, wezh-kirdin to speak; c nârâstawkho indirect(ly); pewand ba connec, { tion to. 8 talafon telephone; , post i alîktronî electronic mail; ` bashdârî-kirdin to participate; , ârâsta i to, toward; g mewân guest; yâkhud or; râ view; bochûn opinion; c rozhnâmanûs journalist. · kilâwrozhina skylight; ` zîndûkirdinawa bringing to life; Z balga document; ZÉ âshâhalnagir indisputable; shâhîd witness; , râstaqîn truthful; )É aqîqat truth; !,R nîshtmân dwelling place; ·ê pishkinîn to examine; ·£ khistinà rû to unearth; /c nâwcha region; e shwenawârî monumental; tz derîn ancient; wirdbûnawa inves tigation; { lekolînawa research; z râwezh conversation; ,ê pispor ex pert; shârazâ knowledgeable; > zânist field of knowledge; ârkolo zhiyâ archaeology.



· , «·» ) e ·£. . ³ Z> q ³ 8 q z 8 , \ )* .. . q 7 )£I{ { Z 8 q` q !, 8 «·» g³ R q x.c e .\ q 8 ½- \ t /c m . . to , q ` c :« c» q q { TM Z 8 /c . .È ` w 8 > ·R q q z b Z > q 8 8 / R . · . . TM { .È z 8 ` 8 o{/ R c 8 8 \ , c / «c Ì q c {Z )£ q TM q .È . )

khwâst request; ba zîndû heshtinawa to bring back to life; ·£. e shwenawâr monument; · millat nation; . Ð sarinj râkeshân baraw to attract the attention to; bash portion, part; ³ giring important; mabast goal, aim; 8 sar la nwe anew; c binyât-nânawa )* to relay a foundation; ` z pârezgârî-kirdin to protect; ` ba yek

lâyè kirdinawa to ignore. `` tâku in order that (+ subj.); sarwarî leadership; ` ko-kirdinawa to gather together; (.c) c nâsândin (nâsen-) to make known; m dasalât authority; . bahez strong; t âyin religion; kaltur culture; român story; yekgirtû unified; , zhyândostî love of life; droshm distin guishing feature.



. e< ± c .q .eq

TM> () (,` ` . , c) ` , TM ) ( « .È R 8 . TM » È z 8 . tÉ 8 TM xe . 8 ` z R .È ) { .

anfâl Anfal, the the Iraqi campaign against the Kurds in 1988; ` tâybat ba devoted to; gasht tour; ` basarkirdinawa visit; ikûmat government; .È `Erâq Iraq; ` . herish-kirdinà sar to make an attack on; TM sarbâzî military; > gundnishîn villager; w 8 la âkâm'â as a result; ` sûtândin to burn; shârochka town; ` takht i zawî kirdin to flatten to the ground; z . besar-u-shwen homeless; ` mazina-kirân to be estimated; pîramerd old man; ashkanja-dirân . to be tortured; ... 8 ` o{/ châwpekawtin-kirdin lagal ...dâ to visit with; c qonâgh historical event; , arshîvî archival; ` tomâr-kirdin to record; ` dirâsa-kirân to be studied; wird minute, exact; hawldirân to be attempted; râstî truth; Z salmândin to prove; ` kirda deed; , ) jînosâyd genocide; chwârshamma Wednesday. TM> khabât struggle; c rozhnâma newspaper; , siyâsî political; rozhâna daily; orgân organ; ` ` pârtî i dîmukrât i kurdistân , Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP); yekshamma Sunday; TM shubât February; sarok leader; tÉ Salâadîn Salahuddin, a small town northeast of Arbil; ` R peshwâzî-kirdin to receive; sarak head; izb party; R îslâmî Islamic; z barez respected, Mr.; È Musîn `Abdul ) hamîd Muhsin Abdulhamid; shând delegation; yâwar assisting; 8 o pek { hâtin la to consist of; . D. Ayâd Sâmarâî Dr. Ayad Samarrai; andâzyâr engineer; Miamad Fâzil Sâmarâî Muhammad Fadhil Samarrai.



z` 8 >Z - z 8 .È , >³ 9 >Z .È .,I ` ³ TM 8 ³ 8 ` Z Z 8 .È ,, - 8 ` >Z 8 c .È .` .È !,R )R,I{ , R ,I 8 TM y )n , { 8 { !, t R { £ë I ³ ` .È )R , {, .. .È <

« w/ Z 8 ³ 8 {»

:The New Anatolian TM ¤{ ()

8 ·R 8 ` e TM ¤{ , ,I{ Z / :,Z «The New Anatolian» c . g*

dîdâr meeting; , dostâna friendly; - pirosa process; >Z hal bizhârdin election; z ` tâwtwekirâw suffering; anjâm result; 9 îjâbî positive; >³ nirkhândin ba to evaluate as; ratdânawa rousing; dizh ba against; tîror terror; I tîrorîst terrorist. TM bîruâ darbâra i thinking about; ³ hangâw step; âyinda future; ark duty; ` sarkirdâyatî leadership; ` Z âlugo kirân to be changed; ` dûpât-kirânawa for a statement to be made; bashdârbûn participation; firâwân large-scale; dastûr constitution; , gisht public, general; ,I{ pedâwîstî necessity; !,R nîshtmânî national. ` ta'kîd-kirdinawa lasar to reaffirm; bardawâmbûn continu)n y ation; siyâsat policy; tawâfiq co-operation; ë yekkhistin unifica , tion; t rîz rank; mabda' principle; { pekhâta agreement; ... ³ rangdânawa i ... bûn to be in accordance with; I wîst will; ârazû aspiration; < sarjamgal community.



8 .z b ` ³ 8 { .. I{ y8 g*ee z Z 8 ` ` : ,kZ m ` 8 TM8 {, , ` { ¬ » , { ) { ) {Y t { c { m { 8 z ±. ` { .« w/ z ö 8 TM 8 - :,Z TM ¤{ ` >Z8 : . ` 8 ³ 100 { » ` { m Z > TM , ` { .« >TM , {» w ` 8 ` : ZÉ \ /c8 c ` e e «. . TM e\ ` ) TM

TM ¤{ Nechîrvân Bârzânî Nechirvan Barzani; ³ Ankara Ankara; w/ châkkirdinawa improvement; t parzhîn relation; e harem region; ·R nûsînga office; Hawler Arbil; I {Z bahalategayshtin misunder. standing; lâ-dirân to be removed; 8 la lâ i khoawa on his part; girtinà bar to adopt; ze reushwen way; y8 l' ambârawa in this regard. harwahâ thus; b' am dwâîá recently; TM8 {, kashek i labâr a stormcloud; kZ halwest stance; { negatîv negative; mîdyâ media; ) turkî Turkish; shikist-henân to defeat; c z shaek nânawa to stir { up a war; m dasalâtdâr authority. - barpirs responsible party; wafd delegation; turkmân Turcoman; ` Karkûk Kirkuk; ³ dang vote; TM bârudokh situation. sâda simple; w sâkâr straightforward; e darpaendrân to be driven away; TM bâr i dîmugrâfyâ demographic situation; . peshân for)



Sorani Kurdish Vocabulary

Circumflexed vowels follow uncircumflexed vowels in alphabetization. The furtive i is indicated by italicization, e.g. bâwik `father' but bâwkî `his father.' Abbreviations: adj. = adjective; cond. = conditional; demon. = demonstrative; imprs. = impersonal (verb is always in the 3rd person singular); impt. = imperative; pl. = plural; pron. = pronoun; sing. = singular; subj. = subjunctive; pres. = present; v.i. = verb intransitive; v.p. = verb passive; v.t. = verb transitive (transitive implies that the past tense is formed on the ergative model, not that the verb necessarily takes a direct object either in Kurdish or in English). Generally, compound verbs are listed under the nonverbal element of the compound; compounds with frequently-occurring elements like dâ-, hal-, and pe- are listed under the verb. * a- habitual verbal prefix (Sulaymani the city; ~ i engaged in, practicing: dialect); see daahl i îmân religious, ahl i kher chari-à directional suffix on verbs: chûmà table, ahl i kayf hedonistic; ~ la...dâ shâr I went to town worthy of: filân la rafâqat'dâ zor ahl adab literature, culture; ~î a So-and-So is quite worthy of friendliterary; ~iyât literature; ~parship war patron of literature; be~ Amad Ahmad, masc. proper / impolite; be~î / imponame liteness arâr liberals adîb litérateur, literary person, ajzâkhâna L pharmacy man of letters -aká sing. definite suffix: pyâwaká afandî gentleman, anyone who the man wears western clothes -akân pl. definite suffix: pyâwakân Afrâsiyâb 8 Afrasiab, legendary the men king of Turan akhlâq L morals, ethics; ~î L Afrîqâ , Afrîqyâ ; Africa moral, ethical afsar officer Alamânî T German afsâna tale, legend; ~î al'ân now legendary alîktronî electronic afsos alas, alack am ...á ... this (demon. adj.) afsûn-kirdin B v.t. to charm: ama this (demon. pron.) mâr afsûn dakât he charms snakes amag goodness; ba~ faithagar if; ~chî even though, ful; ba~î fidelity; be~ / even if unfaithful, faithless agînâ if not, otherwise amak = amag ahâlî inhabitants, civilian popula- amal (also `) operation; ~tion kirdin v.t. to have an operation ahl inhabitant, resident: kâwrâ ahl i amarîk|â a America; ~î a shâr a the gentleman is a resident of American



amatâ c here is, voici amâna these (demon. pron.) amârat emirate, principality; ~ a darabagakân feudal principalities amjâ now, at this time amn security; ~î pertaining to security amo g today amshaw tonight amust finger; ~awela kl 8 ring; ~basta 8mn fooled, tricked andâm member; ~î membership andâza measurement; be~ / untold, limitless andâzyâr p engineer anfâl the Iraqi campaign against the Kurds in 1988 ango s you angus(t)s s = amust angûs s = amust anjâm end, result; ~-dân v.t. to accomplish, to do; la ~'dâ v in the end; la ~ i ... awa as a result of; be~ / ineffective, inconsequential anjuman council, board `antar ` monkey; wak `antar i Lotî Sâlih like Loti Salih's monkey, "like an organ grinder's monkey," an object of pity and ridicule `aql ` mind, intelligence `ard ` = arz2 are yes ark (1) duty, responsibility: ark i sar shânima khizmat bikam it's my duty to serve; (2) trouble, labor: hendim ark dâwa nabetawa I've caused unprecedented trouble `arsh ` throne arshîv archive; ~î archiv8 8 al arz1 petition; ~-kirdin v.t. to say (self-deprecating, of the 1st person only: arzim kird I said); to petition: arzî ba pâshâ kird la shitèk he petitioned the king for something arz2 earth, land Arzaom Erzerum arzîng chin, dimple in the chin ashîrat tribe ashkanja torture; ~-dân v.t. to torture; ~-dirân v.p. to be tortured ashkawt = shikaft ashq love ashrâf dignitaries, eminent persons asht wage asîr prisoner aslaa ,, weapons, arms: ba aslaawa armed asp horse aspanâgh 8 spinach aspârdin 8 = spârdin aspâyî 8 stealth; ba ~ stealthily aspe S8 louse, mite asrîn a tear Astamûl 8 Istanbul aster OE8 pool astera OE8 star asterok OE8 firefly asto 8 neck, thick part of the neck; girtinà ~ v.t. to assume the burden of astûr 8 thick atom atom: hez i ~ power of the atom; ~î atomic atrash Z gall: atrashyân chûbû they had lost their gall avîndâr ; lover aw he, she, it (3rd-person sing. pronoun); that (sing. demon. pron.); ~ ...á that, those (demon. adj.): aw shitá that thing, aw shitâná those things awá that (demon. pron.); bo ~î in order that; ~ khwâya God willing awa (with present verb indicates progressive): min awa la birsâ damirim I'm dying of hunger



-awa (postposition, with preposition la; contracts to -wa after vowels) from awal first awanda so much, thus; ~ i tir so much the more; dû ~ twice as much: min dû awanda't dadamè I'll give you twice as much awatâ c there is, voilà awâ then; ~ hât u suppose: awâ hât u kurdèk habû suppose there was a Kurd who ... awân they; ~a those `awdâl ` wandering awe there; l' ~ v there, in that place; l' ~wa lv from there, from that place awîn a love; ~dâr lover, in love awjâ · then, subsequently Awrupâ Europe; ~î European awsâ then, at that time awto so much, such a ay O (vocative particle); oh; now: ay kay det? who's coming now? ayâr p May `aybat ` fear, terror aylûl September `aynak ` eyeglasses azhdîhâ dragon, serpent azhîhâ = azhdîha azhno knee; dastaw-~ 8 grieving, mourning azîz a` dear; ~-kirdin v.t. to pamper; ~-kiran v.p. to be spoiled; ~kirâw Ba` pampered, spoiled -â (contracted form of the postposition 'dâ, q.v.) âb August âbloqa k siege; ~-dân v.t. to besiege âbû g­ honor, modesty, shame; ~birdin v.t. to dishonor, shame; ~tikândin v.t. to dishonor; ~bar g­ shameful, dishonorable; ~chûn g­ indignity âbuhawâ climate âbunmân subscription âborî economy, economic âdamî human being; ~zâ(d) human being âday now then âfarîn a bravo; ~-kirdin la v.t. to applaud âfâq horizons âfrat woman âgâ ~ aware: ~t l' aw kârá haya? are you aware of that?; (2) awake: khawtûa yân ~ya? is he asleep or awake?; ~-bûn la v.i. to be aware of; ~-kirdin v.t. to inform; ~dâr ~ la aware of, careful of; ~dârî ~ awareness, care, attention, information âgir ~ fire; ~dân ~ fireplace âghâ TM agha, title of feudal lord âhang s entertainment, party; ~geân to hold a party, give an entertainment âîn religion; ~î > religious âkâm ~ end, result: la ~'(d)â in the end, finally âkâr ~ conduct, morals âkh earth, grave; exclamation of pleasure âkhâwtin ZL conversational, colloquial âkhir end; (exclamation) well now!, after all!; ~ u okhir latter part, near the end: la ~ i pâyiz dâ toward the end of autumn; ~amîn last: awa ~ jâr be pet bilem let this be the last time I tell you; ~î final, last âkhnîn z v.t. to stuff; hal-~ to stuff full, cram full âkho ah, exclamation of pleasure âl red, flushed âlâ Y pen; flag, banner âlân Y âle- T v.i. to be twisted, wrapped



âlândin Y âlên- OET v.t. to twist (trs.) âlât tools, implements âlik ¢, âlîk forage, fodder Âlmân Germany âlosh T itch âlqa ring, knocker; ~rez ¤ ditto; T T ~rez i dargâ kutân v.t. to knock at a door âltûn T gold âlugo T change; ~-kirdin v.t. to change, to alter âlû T tonsils âmâda ready; ~-kirdin v.t. to make ready, prepare âmânat trust, safekeeping; ba ~ dânà dast i ... v.t. to give into the safekeeping of; ba ~ spârdin ba ... v.t. to entrust to âmânj target, goal âmo paternal uncle; ~zâ cousin âmozhgârî-kirdin B v.t. to advise âmâz g instrument, implement, tool âmyân ; yoghurt starter, leaven ânîshk > elbow ânqast (la ~) on purpose, deliberately âpo paternal uncle âpor calamity âpora crowd; ~-dân v.t. to crowd: khalkèk i zor la dawr i mizgawt ~yân dâwa many people have crowded around the mosque âraq(a) sweat; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to sweat; ~-rishtin v.t. to sweat ârazû wish, hope; ~kar desirous, wishful; ~mand hopeful; ~-kirdin v.t. to wish, desire ârâm calm; ~-girtin v.t. to be still, patient, calm down; ~ birân la(bar) v.p. to lose patience: wazîr ârâm'î le haldagîre the vizier loses his patience; be~ / impatient; be~î / impatience ârân winter quarters ârâsta 8 direction; ~-kirdin v.t. to direct: bînarân datwânin pirsyârakânyân ârâsta i mewân i barnâmaká bikan viewers can direct their questions at the guest of the program; ~kar 8 steering, guiding ârd flour; ~amshâr sawdust ârkolozhiyâ p archaeology ârû cucumber âs ace (cards) âsawâr remains âsâ (postposition) like: min'îsh khot âsâ am kârá'm kird I, like you, did this; ~î normal, usual âsân easy; ~-kirdin v.t. to simplify; ~î ease: ba âsânî with ease, easily âsâyish § peace, security âsh mill; ~awân miller; ~ge gOE water that turns a mill âshbattâl 8 cease-fire âshkirâ clear, obvious; public; ~bûn v.i. to be clear, obvious; to become public; ~-kirdin v.t. to make clear, clarify âshnâ 8 acquainted, friendly; expert; ~yatî 8 acquaintance âsht on good terms; ~-bûnawa v.i. to be reconciled; ~î 8 peace, reconciliation; ~îkhwâz ;n seeking reconciliation âsik gazelle, deer âsin iron; ~ i sârd kutân to do something useless; ~gar 8 blacksmith Âsiyâ 8 Asia âsmân sky; ~ i dûr la zawîawa outer space; ~î of the sky, heavenly, blue âso horizon âst : la ~e kho in spite of oneself âstam 8 slight: namirdibû u ba âstam gyân'î te'dâ mâbû he wasn't dead, for there was a slight trace of life still in him; ba ~(èk) slightly:



dastim ba ~èk rûshâwa my hand is slightly scratched; (2) difficult to cross: Taragha kewèk i ~a Taragha is a difficult mountain to get across âsûda in comfort, comfortable; ~-kirdin v.t. to make comfortable; ~î comfort, prosperity; kawtinà ~îawa to become prosperous âtar fire âtashbâzî 8 fireworks âw water; ~î watery; light blue; ~ishen OE sprinkling, spraying with water âwadân flourishing âwal friend, companion âwâ thus; flourishing, prosperous (land); ~-bûn to disappear; to be gone, over: rozh âwâ be, demà mâltân when day is done I'll come to you; ~-kirdin v.t. to develop; ~dân flourishing, prosperous; ~î village, settlement; ~kirdinawa development âwâl companion, mate; ~kirâs T women's trousers âwâra wanderer, vagabond âwât desire: ~ i dil the heart's desire; ~-khwâstin bo to wish for, desire; ~akhwâz desirous, hopeful âwâz tune, melody; ~a reputation; ~akhwân singer; ~akhwen ¤ singer âwena l mirror âwezha ¤ swamp âwhâ thus, of this sort âwir fire; pregnant âwi backward glance; ~-dânawa la v.t. to look over the shoulder at, to look back at âwis pregnant âwrîshim § silk; ~în § silken, made of silk âwru honor âwsân âwse- v.i. to swell; to warp âwsâna fable, legend; ~î fabulous, legendary âwus = âwis ây O (vocative particle) âyâ p interrogative particle âyin a religion; ~î traditional; religious âyina mirror âyinda future, coming, next: do rozh i âyinda two days later âzâ brave; ~î bravery; ~yatî act of bravery, feat âzâd free; ~-kirdin v.t. to set free; ~î freedom âzâna bravely, courageously âzâr1 bother, annoyance; pain, malady; ~-kirdin v.t. to bother, annoy âzâr2 March âzâyâna p = âzâna âzhal flocks, herds âzhâwa commotion, uproar âzûqa provisions, stores b- pres. stem of bûn ba (with enclitic pronouns pre- or postposed, pe S ) to; by, with (instrumental); by (with passives): hîchit pe nâkire nothing can be done by you ba-1 for compound adjectives formed from ba-, such as barez, bakhabar, banâwbâng, see next element ba-2 pres. stem of birdin badbakht unfortunate; ~î misfortune; bo ~î unfortunately bafr snow; ~-girtin v.t. for snow to cover bafr girtûyatî it is covered with snow; ~ânbâr the month of Capricorn (December 22­January 20) bag lord, master Baghdâ TM Baghdad baghîl stingy; jealous; ~î jealousy; ~î hâtin la v.i. to be jealous: baghîlî'yân le dahât they were jealous bahalategayshtin §²T misun



derstanding bahâr spring bahra benefit, lot; ~-birdin la v.t. to derive benefit from barî merhorse, a fabulous magical horse common in Iranian fairy tales bakesh-kirdin B OE v.t. to drag, haul: ba zor bakesh'î kirdim bo lâ i qâzî he hauled me before the judge by force bakhew-kirdin B ´ v.t. to take care of, to raise (a child) bakht luck; ~-kirdin v.t. to risk, to sacrifice; ~ kirânawa v.p. to have a stroke of luck: bakhtî kirâwatawa he has had a stroke of luck; ~awar lucky; ~iyâr prosperous; ~iyârî prosperity Bakhtak µ Bakhtak, Anosharwan's vizier balangâz sv poor, destitute balâm Y but (conj.) bále T yes balen OET promise; ~-dân ba v.t. to make a promise to balga T document; proof bálka T but, rather bálku T, bálkû T maybe, perhaps banakhun drawstring (trousers) banâ builder banâwbâng s¶ famous, wellknown band prison, dungeon; joint; magic spell; dam; ~ hal-witin ba to say a spell over; ~î prisoner; ~îkhâna prison bandan mountain bar chest, breast; fore; ~ la before, pre-; ~-bûn v.i. to get free; ~-bûnawa v.i. to fall; ~-dân v.t. to set free; ~girtin v.t. to cover, obscure: hawrèk i rash bar i âsmânî girt a black cloud obscured the sky; ~-kirdin v.t. to put on, wear; ~dam front; la ~ for the sake of, because of; la ~ ...'dâ in front of; la ~ ...awa to, with, in the presence of: la bar khoyawa gutî he said to himself; ~la ~ awaî because; la ~ kirdin v.t. to put on, wear; la ~ân i throughout the length and breadth of; la ~dam i in front of; la ~ dast i ...'dâ in the presence of, in front of, with; lamaw~ previously, before; (2) fruit, produce ba rug, flat-woven carpet bar- impt. stem of birdin bara1 tribe, tribal division bara2 bit; bara-bara little by little, gradually bara3 i toward baa = ba barabayân p at dawn baralâ Y free, unhampered; ~-kirdin to set free, turn loose: min baralâ i kolânân dakrem I'll be turned out into the streets barangâr-bûnawa s v.i. to fight with, oppose, resist: dayawe dastdrezhî'y bikâtà sar balâm kichá barangâr'î dabetawa he wants to violate her, but the girl resists him barawa (impt. sing. of bûnawa) be ... again baraw|zher ¤ headed down; ~zhûr headed up barâmbar in the face of, against; m ~ ba facing barâward-kirdin B v.t. to make a comparison barâz boar barbîn base of the throat; ~-girtin to grab by the throat barchâw ¸ see châw bard stone: dawr i ~ the Stone Age; wirda~ pebble, small stone; ~alânî Y rocky bardast errand boy; available bardawâm constant(ly), continual(ly); ~-bûn v.i. to be persistent,



steady; ~bûn continuation, continuance baewabar l director, manager; ~âyatî l administration, directorate baez ¤ see rez barg clothes; cover; da ~ girtin v.t. to wrap in a cover; ~dirû tailor barga power, ability; ~-girtin v.t. to resist barhalist T obstacle barham fruit, produce; ~-henân v.t. to bear fruit, be productive; ~henar ²¹ productive barîk a pocket Barîtânyâ Britain barkh lamb barkosh apron, smock barnâma program barok collar; ~-bar-dân v.t. to leave alone, stop pestering; ~-girtin v.t. to pester barpirs º responsible, in authority; ~yâr 8º responsible barqâsâ with the speed of lightning barz high, tall, loud: ba dang i ~ in a loud voice; ~ape S standing, upright; ~âî highness, tallness; high place barzhawandî interests barzwulâkh horse bas enough basarhât adventure basâlâchû Y aged basâm frightening, terrible bash section, share; omen; ~ i ... kirdin v.t. to suffice for ...; ~akher handout, charity; ~-kirdin v.t. OEL to be enough: aw toza bashim nâkâ that little bit is not enough for me; ~dâr participant; ~dârbûn participation; ~dârî-kirdin v.t. to participate; ~ko corporation bashka , bashkim maybe, perhaps bashûdân see under shû basizmân ¼ poor, unfortunate ba`sî Baathist, member of Saddam Hussein's ruling party in Iraq bastazmân 8 poor, wretched bast|in bast- v.t. to tie, to freeze; ~rân bastre- v.p. to be tied, frozen: la tirsân zibânî bastrâ his tongue was frozen from fear; ~rânawa v.p. to be tied up: la hamû lâyèkawa asp bastrâwatawa horses were tied up on every side batâl c over, finished; empty; invalid, unemployed: brâyèkim batâla one of my brothers is out of work; ~-bûn v.i. to be over, come to an end; ~-kirdin v.t. to stop, cease: har nîwao batâlmân kird we stopped just at noon; ~î Tc idleness batâqî-kirdinawa B c v.t. to investigate bayânî p morning baybûn camomile bayn a midst; la ~ i ...dâ between, among: l' aw ~á'dâ at that time, under those circumstances; pâsh ~èk ´À after a while; ~annahren (a¢ ) ¤ Mesopotamia bazaî compassion: bazaî'm pe'dâ hât I felt sorry for him bazh dry land (opp. to sea) bazîn v.i. a to go/come down; dâ-~ to get off, down bâ1 ¶ hortatory particle (+ subj): bâ biroyn c'mon, let's go bâ2 ¶ wind; ~-dân for the wind to blow; ~ga ¶ whirlwind; ~hoz ¶ whirlwind bâb ¶ father Bâb i `Âlî ` ¶ the Sublime Porte, office of the grand vizier of the Otto-



man Empire bâbat ¶: la ~...awa about, concerning: la ~ minawa adwân they were talking about me; (2) worthy: ama ~ i to niya this is not worthy of you bâfîn ¶ v.t. to weave bâho ¶ shoulders; ~dâr ¶ strong, powerful bâkh ¶ garden, orchard; ~ i gishtî park; ~cha ¶ garden bâkhal L¶ breast, armpit, embrace; ~î TL¶ breast, pocket (adj.): daftar i bâkhalî pocket notebook bâl ¶ arm, wing; ~dâr T¶ bird bâlâ Y¶ height, stature; ~-kirdin v.t. to get tall; ~barz Y¶ tall, elegant; ~nwen ¤Y¶ something that shows the figure: âwena i bâlânwen fulllength mirror bâlândîda ¶: gurg i ~ experienced, worldly bâldâr T¶ bird bâlinda T¶ bird bâlisht T¶ pillow bâlîn T¶ pillow bâlora ¶ a Kurdish verse form bâlwez ¤T¶ ambassador bâm la ...awa be / ... v ¶ aside from, not to mention bân ¶ roof; steppe; ~èka u dû hawâ there's a double standard bânama ¶ the month of Taurus (April 21­ May 21) bâng s¶ cry, shout; ~-kirdin v.t. to call, summon, invite; ~heshtin invitation; ~-heshtin-kirdin bo v.t. to invite: dabe bângheshtinèk'it bo bikam bo mâlawa I must invite you to my home; ~awâz s¶ a cry for help, request for assistance; ~awâz-kirdin v.t. to ask for assistance bânîzha ö small roof bâp ¶ = bâb bâpîr ¶ grandfather bâr1 ¶ time, instance (= jâr) bâr2 ¶ load, burden; manner: pewîst-a aw bârá rûn bikretawa ka khwenakáy tedâ rizhâwa it is necessary for the manner in which his blood was shed to be made clear; ~ dâ-girtin v.t. to pack one's bags; to unload; ~henân upbringing; la ~ i for, for the sake of; ~-kirdin v.t. to load; to decamp, leave; ~nâma ¶ bill of lading; ~ râst-kirdinawa to set straight a crooked load, (meta.) to help someone out, come to someone's aid: zor le-qawmâw bûm, kâkim bârî râst kirdimawa I was in bad straits, but my brother helped me out; ~ u dokh ¶ burden; situation bâr- ¶ pres. stem of bârîn bâra ¶ time: dû ~ hâtawa he came back twice; (2) power: am kâr a girâná la ~ i minâ niya this heavy labor is not within my power; dar~ i about, concerning; la ~ i ...(awa) about, concerning bâragâ ¶ = bârgâ bârân ¶ rain; ~din bâren- v.t. to rain, shower; dâ-~ to rain down bârga ¶ baggage, paraphernalia; ~chî ¶ caravan leader bârgâ ¶ king's court; headquarters bârist ¶, ~âî 8¶ size, volume bârîn a¶ bâr- ¶ v.i. to rain; dâ-~ to rain down bâût ¶ gunpowder bâs ¶ discussion; ~-kirdin v.t. to discuss bâsh ¶ good: rozh ~ good day; da ~a that's enough! bâsik ¶ upper arm bâtînî >¶ occult; châw i ~ inner eye, sixth sense, the ability to see hidden things bâw-bûn ¶ v.i. to become current, customary bâwa ¶ belief; ~-kirdin v.t. to believe



bâwash ¶ bosom, embrace: halimgirt ba ~imawa I grabbed him in my arms; ~-kirdin ba ...'dâ v.t. to embrace: bâwash'y pe'dâ kird she embraced him bâwazhin ¶ stepmother bâwâ ¶ grandfather bâwik ¶ father bâwishk-dân ¶ v.t. to yawn bây ¶ price, worth bâyakh ¶ worth, value; ~-dân ba to attach value to, to pay attention to: hîch bâyakhe ba qsakám nâdâ he doesn't pay any attention to what I say bâyqûsh ¶ owl bâz ¶ hawk, falcon; ~gardân ¶ hawking, making a hawk fly (method of choosing a new king in folktales) bâz-dân la v ¶ v.t. to flee in haste from, to run away in fear from bâzher ¤¶ city, market bâzig ¶ arm; dappled (horse) bâzîband ¶ bracelet be / without (for most compounds in be-, see following element; note that there are a few be- compounds that do not occur without the prefix: they are listed alphabetically); ba ~ awaî (+ subj.) without: ba be awaî biybînim without my seeing it be- = biye-, subj. of hâtin bechû ² baby bedaratân c² poor, unfortunate begâna ² stranger, foreigner begâr ² waste of time bejiga la v ² except for bekanâr ² limitless, shoreless bel- Ç subj. of heshtin, for bíhelben- OE subj. of henân, for bíhenbenzhîn aȲ v.i. to sneeze besar-u-shwen ¤OE homeless, destitute beshik OE thicket Besitûn Behistun, the site where 8 OE Farhad legendarily carved the mountain for Shirin betâqat µOE anxious, unable to endure; ~-kirdin v.t. to make anxious: yâd i bâwkî zor betâqatî kird the memory of his father made him very anxious betâwân µOE innocent; ~î µOE inno cence bewa ² widow; ~zhin ² widow bez OE condescension bezh- OE = biwezhbezha OE literature bezhân OE bezhe- OE v.t. to sift bibiây É never: ~ ~ nâchimawa gund I'll never ever go back to the village bibû (past perf. of bûn) s/he had been: dawlat a khâwanqudratakân i dîka ka la sha'dâ peroz bibûn the other powerful states that had been victorious in the war bichkol Ê little, small bichûk Ê small, little bilâw Ë widespread; ~-kirdin v.t. to spread, publish, publicize; ~ kirdinawa v.t. to broadcast, publish; ~akirdin B Ë v.t. to disperse, go away: khalk bilâwayân kird the people dispersed bilbil Çk nightingale bilesa OEk fiery bilind high, exalted bilîmat ;k genius, clever; ~î ;k cleverness bilwer ¤ reed flute; ~ le-dân to play the flute bin ­ bottom; ~amâl(a) family; ~jor curious, inquisitive; ~jorî curiosity; ~mil nape of the z neck bina baggage, belongings binâgha TM foundation; ~ dâ-rishtin to lay a foundation binâr mountain skirt, foothill



binesht OE chewing gum binj root binyâdam ;À human binyât foundation; ~-nân v.t. to lay ;À a foundation, to construct bi g­ bit: bièk âw'im da give me a bit of water; (2) piece (of wood): dû bi dâr bena bring two sticks of wood; (3) group: tûsh i bi a pyâwe bûm I met a group of men; (4) power, strength; ~-dân v.t. to flow: am rûbâra bi nâdâ this river doesn't flow; ~kirdin v.t. to have strength: bi nâkam l' am kefá sar kawim I can't make it to the top of this mountain; to be effective: tâ châw ~-kât as far as the eye can see; ~ le-dân v.t. to shuffle (cards); ta u ~ gº drenched: kirâsakám ta u bi a my shirt's drenched; la ~ altogether: bar i am gwezá la bi chand a? how much does this walnut tree produce altogether? biraw ­ popularity; ~ paydâ-kirdin v.t. to be popular birâ ­ brother; ~yâna p­ brotherly biân g­. See birân. birdin ­ ba- (v.t., 3rd sing. pres. dabâ(t); impt. sing. (bi)bara) to take, carry; ~à sar ­ to spend (time): am shawá l'era bibaynà sar let's spend tonight here; dar-~ to endure biretî la v l­ consisting of birinj ­ uncooked rice birinja ­ copper biisht g­ fertile ground; power, ability biist g­ power birîn a­ wound; ~dâr ­ wounded; ~pech ´Î­ nurse biîn ag­ bi- g­ v.t. to cut; dar-~ to disclose, reveal; châw-~ la to be hopeful of; qsa pe-~ to interrupt: ba tundî qsakám pe biî u gutim I quickly interrupted him and said birîq|adâr ­ shiny; ~ân ­ birîqe- ­ v.i. to shine, to sparkle birîtî ­ = biretî biro ­ eyebrow birrân1 ­ birre- ­ passive of birdin in all senses; la nâw ~ to be done away with birân2 g­ bire- g­ (passive of biîn) (1) to be cut: ba tawir dâraká birâ the tree was cut with an ax; (2) to be finished, to be no more: nânmân la mâl birâ there is no more food in our house; ~awa to cease: tâwe bârân nábi-râyawa the rain didn't cease for a time; dâ-~ to cut off; hal-~ la to part from, get separated from: la dostakáy halbirâ he parted from his friend birs|ân ­ hunger; ~iyatî 8­ hun ger; ~î ­ hungry: birsîma I'm hungry birwâ ­ belief; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to believe in; (2) permission; ~-dân v.t. to allow, let: dilim biwâ nâdât châwim ba minâlî bikawe I don't have the heart to look at his child; ~nâma ­ diploma biryâ p­ would that (+ past conditional): ~ aw kâráy nakirdibâya would that he hadn't done that biyâr pg­ decision; ~-dân v.t. to decide; ~-nân v.t. to decide; la ~ henânà khwârawa to make one change one's mind: hîch shitèk la biyâr i khoy nayhenâyà khwârawa nothing could make him change his mind birzhân ­ birzhe- ­ v.i. to be roasted birzhândin ­ birzhen- ¤­ v.t. to roast birzhâng s­ eyelash bitâqa ticket biv buzz biwe (pres. subj. of wîstin, with pro-



nominal affix, e.g., -im biwe) biyânû pretext biza ­ laugh, laughter bizâwtin Z­ bizâw- ­ v.t. to shake bizhâr-kirdin B ­ v.t. to weed out, eradicate bizhârdin ­ bizher- ¤­ v.t. to weed out, eradicate; hal-~ to select, choose bizhîw ­ substance bizin ­ goat bizirk|ân ­ bizirke- ­ v.t. to lose; rang hal-~ân to lose color, grow pale; rang-hal~âw Ts pale, "white as a sheet" (with fright) bizmâr ­ nail; ~-kirdin v.t. to nail; ~krân v.p. to be nailed bizûtin Z­ bizû- ­ v.i. to move, budge, stir bizw|ân ­ bizwe- ­ v.i. to shake (int.), quiver; ~ândin ­ bizwen¤­ v.t. to shake (trs.); ~enar l­ quivering, tremulous bizwen ¤­ vowel bîbila , bîbîla pupil (of the eye): m> ;Ò la bîbila i châwî pitir khosh dawîst he was the apple of his eye bîn breath; ~-keshân v.t. to hold the breath; ~akeshî OEz> holding the breath bînar z> viewer bîndrân z> bîndre- z> v.p. to be seen bînîn À bîn- v.t. to see (see also dîn) bîr1 memory, mind; ~-kirdin(awa) la to think of; ba ~'dâ hâtin to remember: wâm ba bîr'dâ hât ka... I remembered that...; ba ~ henânawa to remind; la ~ bûn to remember: awânim la bîrin I remember them; la ~ chûn to forget; la ~ mân to remain in the memory; ~henânawa ² reminder; ~urâ thinking (darbâra i about) bîr2 water well bîs- > pres. stem of bîstin bîst > twenty bîstin > bîs- > v.t. to hear bîstrân > bîstre- > v.p. to be heard bo to, for; why?, what for?; ~ chi why?, what for?; ~ awaî (+ subj.) in order that bo-chûn v.i. to think, to have an opinion; bochûn opinion boga malodorous plants that animals will not eat bokho selfish; ~î selfishness bolabol T roaring, rumbling bon smell; ~-kirdin v.t. to smell, to smell bad, to stink bona cause, pretext; ba ~ i ...awa on the occasion of bor gray bo1 wave; ~-khwârdin v.t. to swell bo2 loss (at a game); ~-khwârdin v.t. to lose (game): boit khwârd you lost; ~-dân v.t. to beat (at a game): boim dây(t) I beat you bora ignoble; fallow, infertile; ~pyâg common peron, person of no name or consequence borân storm boân mooing of cows; bleating of sheep bosh empty bota = bûwata. See bûn. bóya for that reason boyâkh p shoe polish boynbâgh mÀ necktie brâ ­ = birâ Brîtânyâ ­ Britain; ~ yi Kabîr ­ Great Britain bukhcha  bundle bukhtân µ slander; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to slander; ~-rek-khistin bo v.t. to make up slander about: ~èk i gawra'y bo kichaká rek-khist he made up great slander about the girl bulbul nightingale



buwârdin = bwârdin bûchik ¸ little, small bûk bride; doll, puppet bûl ashes bûmalarza v earthquake bûn b- (v.i., past perf. bibû) to be, to become, to happen: agar bet u (+ subj) if it should happen that...; ~awa to be repeated, happen again: ...èk nabetawa a unique ...; ~awa la to be done with, be finished with; ~ ba to become: aw bû ba pâshâ he became king; ~ u na~ to be almost, not to quite be: bayânî rozh bûwa u nabûwa in the morning when it was not quite daylight; (d)ábe(t) (+ subj.) must: dabe royshtibe he must have gone bû = bûl bûrdin bûr- v.t. to forgive: bímbûra excuse me bûzhân bûzhe- v.t. to grow, sprout; ~awa to flourish, enjoy life bwâra front (military) bwârdin bwer- ¤ v.t. to pass (time); râ-~ to spend (time): khoshmân râbwârd we had a good time; khosh'î râbwârdûa he enjoyed life; mâwayèk râbwârd a period of time passed byânî foreign chak ¸ weapon, arms; ~badast armed; ba ~awa ¸ armed; be~ unarmed chakhmâkh ¸ flint, lighter chakma ¸ boot chakush B¸ hammer chal ¸ time; galèk ~ân many times chalama T¸ quandry, dilemma: tang u ~ i awa'm kawtà bar I was caught in a real dilemma cham ¸ river, stream cham|ândin ¸ chamen- OE¸ v.t. to bend, curve; ~înawa ;¸ v.i. to bend over, bow chanachan-kirdin B ¸¸ v.t. to talk at length, chatter chanâga ¸ chin chand ¸ how much?, how many? (usually followed by indef. sing.): ~ rozhèk how many days?; few, several: aw chand rozhá those few days chap ¸ left: dast i ~ left hand chapal ¸ filthy; ~î filth chapla ¸ applause; ~-ledân bo v.t. to k applaud for: khalk chapla'yân bo ledâ the people applauded for him; ~rezân applause chapok ¸ slap; ~-keshân ba sar i ... v.t. to slap on the head chaqân ¸ chaqe- Õ¸ v.i. to sink to/ into the ground: rîshakân chaqân the roots sank into the earth; ~din ¸ chaqen- OE¸ v.t. to stick into the ground: nezay da zawî chaqând he stuck his lance into the ground; hal~din da to scratch: dikekî te halchaqândim a thorn scratched me chaqîn ¸ = chaqân chaqo ¸ knife chachaa ¸¸ crank charkh ¸ wheel; cigarette lighter; century; ~-u-khul ¸ twist and turn charmasare ¸ suffering, hardship chashma ¸ sleight-of-hand trick chashn ¸ sort, type; manner: b' am chashná in this way; hama~a of every sort, miscellaneous chata ¸ highway robber chatâl c¸ fork; a wooden or metal fork on which a gun is set for stability chaw1 ¸ gravel, sand chaw2 ¸ = châw chawr ¸ grease; ~-kirdin v.t. to grease, slick down chaws|ân ¸ chawse- ¸ v.i. to suffer; ~ândin ¸ chawsenOE¸ v.t. to torment; ~ândinawa



¸ torture, torment, tyranny châ ¸ well châdir ¸ tent châk ¸ good; ~-bûnawa to recover;

~-kirdin to make good, fix, restore; ~a good deed; la ~a darchûn to repay a kindness: tâ mâwim la châkat darnâchim as long as I live I'll never be able to repay your kindness; ~kirdinawa B¸ improvement châkata ~¸ jacket châl ¸ pit: har kas ~e bo khalkî halkane, bo khoy te dakawe he who digs a pit for another falls into it ("hoisted on his own pitard"); ~âw Y¸ well châlâk ¸ nimble, quick; useful; right; ~î ¸ effort, effectiveness châlma T¸ tobacco pouch; alarm clock chândin ¸ chen- OE¸ v.t. to plant châp ¸ printing; ~khâna ظ print ing house, publishing house; la ~ drân v.p. to be printed châr ¸ = châra châra ¸ help, remedy; be~ ² help less; ~-kirdin v.t. to remedy; ~sar ¸ remedy; ~sar-kirdin v.t. to remedy chârak ¸ quarter: ~ saâtèk a quarter of an hour châraka ¸ = chârok châranûs ¸ fate chârok ¸ woman's shawl châw ¸ eye; expectation; ~ garm kirdin v.t. to take a nap; ~ kawtin ba v.i. to see: châwim pey dakawt I used to see him; ~ sûr-kirdinawa la v.t. to glare at: kârakar châw'î le sûr kirdimawa the servant glared at me; ~biîn la v.t. to be hopeful of; ~gaândin v.t. to look around; ~-geân = châw-gaândin; ~-hal-hâtin la v.i. to approve of: châwim halnâye la kâr i wâ nâhaq I don't approve of such a dishonest thing; ~-hal-henân ba v.t. to envy, afflict with the evil eye: châ-

wit pe haldene she is envious of you; ~-hal-takândin v.t. to motion with the eye and eyebrow; ~-lek-nân v.t. to close the eyes; ~-qûchândin v.t. to close the eyes; ~-spî-kirdin v.t. to make someone weep (over a death): châwit spî da-kam "you'll be sorry when I'm dead"; bar~ kawtin to be seen, spotted: paèk i jwân'î barchâw kawt he spotted a beautiful feather; la bar ~ bûn to be clear, obvious châwa ¸ spring châwae ¸ expectant, waiting; ~kirdin B ¸ v.t. to wait for: ba je'm hesht ba be awaî châwae i bâqî i pârakám bikam I left him without waiting for my change châwawân-kirdin B ¸ v.t. to wait for châwawânî ¸ expectation châwbalak T¸ person with black eyes and white skin châwbast ¸ blindfold, deception châwchinok z¸ miserly, stingy châwenî l¸ evil eye châwga ¸ view, scenery châwîlka ¸ eyeglasses châwlabar v¸ expectant châwladwâ v¸ hopeful châwpekawtin Z²¸ interview châwqâyim ¸ impudent, bold châwrûnî ¸ good news, congratulations châwtârîk ac¸ pessimist châwtirsen Z¸ a lesson learned; ~OE kirdin v.t. to teach a lesson châwyâr p¸ watchman chây ¸ tea; ~khâna ¸ teahouse che-kirdin B v.t. to fix, make, build chek, har (for har chièk) every ´ thing chen- OE¸ pres. stem of chândin chesht OE¸ lunch chezh- OE¸ pres. stem of chishtin



chi (1) what? (interrogative pronoun); (2) that which (relative pronoun); (3) thing: chiyân nâbe they have nothing; bo awaî ~ (+ subj.) in order that; chi...chi whether...or: chi râst u chi diro whether right or wrong chikân v.i. to drip; to dry up (of a well or spring); ~awa v.t. to thicken (of liquids) chil ¸ forty chil Ǹ branch, stalk chilakân chilake- v.i.: dâ-~ k¸ k¸ to be shocked; dâ-~din chilaken- v.t. to shock; râ-~ v.i. to be shocked chilkin k¸ dirty, unclean; dark (cloud) chilon ¸ how: estâ dazânî rûdâwaká chilon bûwa now you know how the event was chimcha ÂÛ spoon chinândin z chinen- OEz v.t. to mend, patch ching z claw, talon chingâl z fork chinîn z v.t. to weave; to reap; to pick (fruit); to pile up; hal-~ v.t. to pile up; tang ~ ba to hold tight; to squeeze tightly; to squeeze the life of out chipa u sirta Ü whispering chipândin Ü = chirpândin chi (1) g dense (forest): dâristânèk i ~ a dense forest; (2) firm, unyielding: ~ darpeya he's standing firm; (3) steep: shâkhèk i ~ a steep mountain; (4) song: ~e bichira sing a song; ~-dân to tie tight: ~î da bâ nakire-tawa tie it tight so it won't come loose; ~ u châw face: ~ u châwit bisho wash your face chirâ lamp chiândin g chien- ¤g v.t. to rip, tear; to call out to someone chirch wrinkle: ~ halhâtûa it's all wrinkled chiîn ag v.t. to sing chirpândin chirpen- v.t. to OE whisper chirt noise, sound; ~a~ commotion, uproar chiryâ p: ~eke October; ~didwâ November chishtin chezh- OE¸ v.t. to taste, experience chit thing (= shit) chito µ how? chî = chi chîn ¸ generation; wrinkle; China; ~î ; Chinese chî-bûnawa ݸ v.i. to snarl chîok ݸ story; ~vân Bݸ storyteller chîtir (= hîch i tir): ... nabe ~ niya ; is nothing but ... chok knee; ~ dâ-dân v.t. to kneel down chol desert, wilderness; ~-kirdin v.t. to desert, vacate a place; ~awân(î) T wilderness; ~parist T nomad, desert dweller cholaka T sparrow chom river chon how?: chonî how are you?; what sort of: wara bitbînim chon pyâwèkî come let me see what kind of man you are; ~èk ² somehow: har chonèk be somehow or other; ~etî OE = ~iyatî; ~iyatî manner, (+ inf.) how to: shaw u rozh la marâq i chonetî i daskawtin i am kich i shâ i parîâná'dâ bû day and night he was wondering how to get hold of this daughter of the king of the peris; ~ka s because, since chonar beet choqân choqe- Õ v.i. to sizzle; to tremble; ~din choqen- OE v.t. to heat oil to the sizzling point; to tremble cho drop, drip; ~ânawa choe- v.i. to drip, to fall in



drops; ~âwga trickle of blood chortka Z abacus chotà = chûwatà. See chûn. chuklaqulâp k fishing rod chúnka s = chónka churt nap; ~-dân v.t. to take a nap chûk pinnacle of a mountain; foreskin; small, small amount: ~a tawizhmèk a little pressure; boundary chûn ch- v.i. to go; ~ ba to pass (of time): baynèk'î pe chû some time passed (for him/her); min darom-- chand rozhèk'im pe dache I'm going--I'll be gone for a few days; ~ la to look like: har la ku a pâshâ'yân dache he looks just like a prince to them; dar-~ to turn out, come out; to run off/away; te hal-~ to get started; ~à darawa to go out(side) chûnka s = chonka chûz straight line; circle; line, queue chûza stinger (insect) chûzân chûze- v.i. to burn, sting (as sun-burned skin) chwâr four; ~am fourth; ~mashqî crosslegged; ~pal quadruped; ~shamma Wednesday; ~shâna broadshouldered chyâ ; mountain da1 particle occurring with imperative da2 (prep., with pre- or postposed pronominal encl., te) in, into, on da3 ten; ~ham tenth da- habitual and progressive verbal prefix dabân ¶ steel dafr pot dak expletive of amazement dakhîl one taken under protection; ; ~itim ; please, I beg you dal the female of many animals, she-; ~adew lT she-demon; ~awirch T she-bear dalasa v exaggeration dalâqa shelf, trap door dalîl reason, reasoning dam1 moment; ba ~ ...awa while, during: ba ~ pekanînawa while laughing; ~e at once; ~èk-a/bû for a while, zor damèk a/bû for a long time dam2 mouth; ~-kirdin v.t. to speak; ~ kut-kirdin v.t. to silence, cut s.o. off; ba ~awa girtin v.t. to mention, speak of; la ~awa dâ-nân v.t. to give birth to; la ~ dân v.t. to embarrass; ~aqâle T verbal quarrel; ~ataqe Õ dialogue, conversation; ~pârâw eloquent, well-spoken; Ü ~qie g verbal quarrel; ~tang sµ narrow-necked; ba sar ~'dâ face down; la bar~ i ...('dâ) in front of, before dam3 power; ~-u-dazgâ i dawlatî T state apparatus, government administration; ~-u-dû power of expression; cleverness damalqopân T baggy Kurdish trousers damâr vein, root: am bardá, damârî la khâk'dâ ya this rock is firmly rooted in the ground danâ otherwise, if not dang s sound, voice; vote; ~-dân v.t. to vote; ~-dânawa v.t. to reverberate, echo; ~a~ ss noise, outcry; be~ s² silent; be~î s² silence danûk bird's beak daqîqa ; minute dar out; ba ~awa out, outside; ~è outside; hâtinà ~e v.i. to come out, turn out dar- cmpd. vb. agent, see dar-birîn, dar-chûn, dar-henân, dar-kawtin; ~kirdin v.t. to put out dara valley; ~bag feudal lord; ~bagî feudal, feudal period



daraja · rank, degree darakî estranged, foreigner, stranger; bûn ba ~ to be "out in the cold" darâmat income darbadar homeless; ~î homelessness darbâra i ¶ about, concerning darbâz ¶ delivered, saved darbiîn ag­ confession, plain speaking dar-chûn la qsa i ... v to disobey dard pain, trouble; ~-dân ba to give trouble to: dardèkî pe dâyn it gave us some trouble; dard i sar headache, trouble darenân l = dar-henân darfat opportunity dargâ door; la ~ drân for a knock to come at a door: la dargâ dadre there comes a knock at the door darhaq with regard to dark door darkhwârd i worthy of darmân medicine, remedy; gunpowder; ~khâna pharmacy; ~ i behoshî ² knock-out drops, sleeping potion dar-paândin . See paândin. dar-paendrân l. See paendrân. darpe S, darpî S underwear, drawers dars lesson; ~-dân v.t. to teach; ~khwendin v.t. to study daru narrow valley; ~yek-girtin la v.t. to put someone in a tight spot darûn interior, inside darwesh â dervish; ~î of or pertaining to dervishes: jil u barg i darweshî dervish costume darz1 crack darz2 = dars das- for all words beginning with das-, see under dast dasbaje 8 = dastbaje dasht desert, plain; ~akî 8 villager dast hand, arm (verbal expressions involving dast are given below; for all other compounds, see alphabetically); ba ~ henân v.t. to get, acquire; ba ~ gayshtin v.i. to come to hand, to be received; ~ ba âw gayândin v.t. to go to the bath-room; ~ bardân la to cease: dastî la kâr bardâ he stopped working; ~ bilind-kirdin v.t. to resist; ~-birdin bo v.t. to fiddle with, to stretch out the hand for; ~bizâw-tin v.t. to poke, push; ~ bo dam meager existence, hand-tomouth; ~-dânà ...awa v.t. to undertake, carry out: dastim dâyà payjoîèk i zortir-awa I carried out more research; ~drezhî kirdinà sar v.t. to rape, violate; ~ hal-girtin la v.t. to quit, leave alone: dastim le halgrin leave me alone; ~-kawtin v.i. to get, acquire; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to reach for; to start (+ inf): dastî kird ba pekanîn he started laughing; ~-kirdinà ... to put one's hand/arm on/around: dastî kirdà mil i bâwikî he put his arm around his father's neck; ~ la pisht dân v.t. to pat on the back, to encourage; ~ pân-kirdinawa v.t. to beg; ~ pe-kirdin (+ inf.) to begin, start (do-ing): khwendin i khoy dast pe-kird he began studying; ~ pewa girtin v.t. to save, be frugal; ~-nân ba rû...awa to turn someone away; ~-parzhân v.i. to have an opportunity: dastit daparzhe kâre-kim bo bikay? do you have the time to do something for me? dastim nâparzhe I don't have the time, I can't get to it; ~-qutân to grope; ~-qûchândin v.t. to be stingy; ~ tekal-kirdin lagal to have carnal relations with; ~ u dil yekî-girtin v.t. to be at ease, have peace of mind:



khalk îtir dast u dil'yân yekî nadagirt the people no longer had any peace of mind; ~-washândin v.t. to wave; la bar ~ i ...dâ in front of, in the presence of, with dast- for dawast- (see wastân) dasta 8 bunch, group, set; ~-udâyara 8 retinue dastabar 8 guarantor dastalât Y8 authority; ~dâr authority, one in authority; be~î lack of authority dastamo 8 tame dastasi g8 handkerchief dastaw-azhno 8 grieving, be reaved dastawâna 8 glove dastândast 8 nearby, next to one another: gund i ema u gund i ewa ~in your village and ours are next to each other dastâw 8 bathroom, toilet dastâwdast from hand to 8 hand, from one person to another dastâwez ¤8 pretext; gift dastbaje mn immediately, at once dastbarsar mn under surveillance; under guard dastbasta 8mn hands tied, incapa ble, unable, total surrender dastbatâl cmn idle dastbilâw Ëmn spendthrift dastbi É 8 one who fools or plays a trick dastdrezh ¤8 aggressive, usurper, influential dastgir-bûn v.i. to be ac8 quired: hîchyân das(t)gîr nâbe they acquire nothing, they wind up with nothing dasthaq 8 wage dastik 8 handle, grip; bunch dastkârî-kiran B 8 v.p. to be tampered with dastkhat Ø8 handwriting dastnakhurda zn untouched dastnûs zn manuscript dastnwezh ¤ z n ablutions; ~-girtin v.t. to make ablutions (for prayer) dastpa Ün masturbation dastpi gÎ8 rich dasttang sµn poor dast-u-dû 8 physical prowess dastûr 8 constitution dastwâlâ Y8 empty-handed dawan bush dawâ medicine; ~ u darmân medication and remedy dawâm-kirdin B v.t. to last, endure dawâr nomadic tent; tent material dawl drum dawlamand T rich dawlat T wealth; state; ~î T state (adj.), governmental dawr era, time; ~bar gaân to go around, about; ~-geân v.t. to turn circles; ~ u pisht i around (prep.); ba ~ ...dâ around (prep.) dawra circle; ~-dân v.t. to surround: dawra'yân dâbû they had him surrounded dawrân era, epoch; a long period of time; circuit, circle; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to take a turn on (a horse) dawrî plate day hey, c'mon, look here daz = dast: ~baje immediately, at once; ~gâ apparatus; ~gîrân fiancé dazu thread dâ- compound verbal prefix, for dâkirdin only see alphabetically below; for other compound verbs see under the verbal element: dâ-bazîn, dâ-dân, dâ-diîn, dâ-gîrân, dâ-hâtin, dâkanin, dâ-khistin, dâ-nawândin, dânân, dâ-nîshtin, dâ-mazrândin, dârinân, dâ-rizân, dâ-rizhândin 'dâ (postposition with the preposition



la) in, at: l'ewa'dâ there, in that place; l' aw sa`âtá'dâ at that time; ('dâ contracts to 'á, particularly after nasals) la dil i khom'â witim I said to myself dâbash portion, division; ~kirdin v.t. to divide; ~-krânà sar v.p. to be divided into; ~udâbir-kirdin B g­ v.t. to divide and slice up dâbîn-kirdin B v.t. to assemble, arrange dâd justice; ~-dân v.t. to give justice; to be just; to work out for: aw dâdî nadâyn it didn't work out for us dâdga court: ~ i harabarz supreme court dâgh searing hot, scar; grief; ~kirdin v.t. to sear, brand, scar dâgir i ä inclusive of, comprising dâgîr-kirdin B ä v.t. to occupy, usurp, take by force, oppress; ~kar ä oppressor, oppressive dâkh grief; la ~ân L v in grief dâkhwâzînâma application dâ-kirdin B v.t. (1) to start raining: bârân dây kird it started raining; (2) to put animals in a stable: aywânakânim dâ kird I stabled the animals; (3) to pour grain in a bin: ganimaká'm dâkird I poured the grain (into the bin) dâl an opened seed pod dâm : ~ u dazgâ apparatus, power, authority dâmâwî tribulation dâmen OE skirt; ~-girtin v.t. to beset: am balâya dâmenî girtûm I am beset by this disaster; dastim ~it 8 ´ I beg you dân1 da- (v.t., impt. sing. bídara, in compounds, da ; pass. dirân ) to give, pay; ba ...awa ~ to bite, sting: mâr gutî petawa dadam "I'll bite you," the snake said; mâr pewa'y dâwin they've been bitten by a snake; dâ-~ to sharpen (pencil); dâ-~à sar ... to rest, prop ( on ...: ânîshk i râstî dâdâyà sar mezaká he propped his right elbow on the table; hal-~ (1) to cast up, hurl up; (2) to blossom: shînâwar-dakát halî dâwa your garden has blossomed; hal-~ la sar to intervene on behalf of; hal-~ la to start (to speak): la jwâbâ halî dâ he started to answer; hal-~awa to raise: panjaraká haldawa raise the sash; le~ to hit, strike; to throb: dilim ledadâ my heart is throbbing; to play (instrument): zunâ-kay zor khosh ledadâ he played the flute very well; see also alphabetically under le-dân dân2 grain, seed: ganimakám ~'î nagirtûa my wheat has not set seed; ~ ba kho ...'dâ girtin v.t. to have patience, endure; ~-nahenân ba v.t. to place no value in: kâwrâ dân ba minâ nâhene the man places no value in me dân3 tooth (= didân) dânîshtû 8> inhabitant dâpîr grandmother dâr tree, wood; staff, rod, stick; ~kârî-kirdin v.t. to beat with a stick; khistinà zher ~ u falâqawa v.t. to put to the bastinado; ~atarm bier; ~awâr structure; ~das walking stick, staff; ~istân for8 est; ~în a made of wood, wooden; ~tâsh c carpenter dârezhar ¤ molder, formulator dâshtin: hal-~ T v.t. to hurl (from a height) dâw trap; ~ dâ-khistin v.t. to set a trap dâwar judge; ~î judging dâwâ demand; ~-kirdin la v.t. to ask of, demand of dâwen ¤ = dâmen; ~pâkî ~ÜÀl in nocence, purity dâwkhwâz volunteer dâya mother; nurse; ~pîra grandmother



dâyara office dâyik a mother; la ~ bûn v.i. to be born de village de- pres. indicative stem of hâtin del- Çl = dahel-. See heshtin. den- ¤ = dahen-. See henân. de g¤ line derîn a¤ ancient, old: aw nâwcha shwenawârî a derînâná i Kurdistân the ancient monumental regions of Kurdistan dew l demon didân tooth dil heart, interior: la dil i khom'â witim I said to myself; ~-râgirtin to make happy; ~-shikândin v.t. to break the heart: dilmân mashikena don't break our hearts; ba ~ i kho to one's heart's desire; ~band i T interested in; ~dâr T sweetheart; ~girân T disheartened, heavyhearted; ~narm T contented; ~nyâ T la convinced of; ~pir ÎT sad; angry; ~raq T cold-hearted; ~sâda T naïve; ~shikâw T brokenhearted; ~soz T sympathetic; ~tang sT sad, lonely; ~tangî sT sadness, loneliness; ~ta T glad, happy; ~tazen ¤T tragedy, calamity dilop T drop; ~ a khwenèk a drop of blood dimârakol scorpion dinân tooth dinyâ world, weather: dinyâ zistân bû it was winter; ~dîtin world ly experience dir- (for words beginning with dir-, see also dr-) di- pres. stem of dirîn; see also drdirakht tree dirang s late; ~-bûn v.i. to be late dirawshân(awa) v.i. to shine dirâsa lesson, study dirân dre- v.p. passive of dân; la dargâ ~ for a knock to come at a door diân see dirân dirâw dirhem diregh(î) l l shortcoming; ~kirdin v.t. to be inadequate dirinj demon diîn a di- v.t. to rip; dâ-~ to rip (cloth) diik thorn diinda savage, bestial dirkândin dirken- OE v.t. to confess; to pronounce; disclose, reveal (secret, &c.) diro = dro dirân v.p. to be ripped dirust right, correct; ~-kirdin v.t. to make, build, construct dirûn dirû- v.t. to stitch, sew; hal-~ to seam together dirwân v.i.: hal-~ to be stitched together dirwena l reaping with sickle dirz crack; ~ i darwâza opening between two double doors diz thief; ~î thievery, stealth; ba ~a stealthily; ba ~ i unbeknownst to dizh i , dizh ba against, vis-àvis: gawra-pyâwân i gund dizh i am qsâná râdawastân the old men of the village took a stance against this talk; farmân'î ba kuakáy dâ dizh i duzhmin sha bikâ he ordered his son to fight against the enemy dî1 sight; ba ~ henân v.t. to bring about, produce; ba ~ kirdin v.t. to notice, to discern; to see, to spy: hîch i wâ'm tyâ ba dî nakird I didn't notice anything like that wrong with him; hâtinà ~ to come about, to happen dî2 other; again: bo chandân jâr i dî several other times dîdâr interview, meeting dîka a (adj.) other; (adv.) any more,



further dîl prisoner; ba ~ girtin v.t. to take prisoner dîlmânj interpretor dîman aspect, mien dîmugrâfyâ ; demography dîmukrât B democratic dîn a bîn- v.t. to see dîok ga legend dîsân § again, once more dîtin bîn- v.t. to see; ~awa zn to find dîw side dîwakhâna L living room dîwân assembly hall, court dîwâr wall do yoghurt and water beverage do`â ` = du`â dol valley doândin doen- a v.t. to lose dosh dâ-mân v.i. to be at a loss for words doshâw grape molasses dost friend; ~âna friendly; 8 ~âyatî 8 friendship dozîn a doz- v.t. to search for; to find; ~awa to find, recover, discover dr- (for words beginning with dr-, see also dir-) drakht tree drân = dirân drâwse neighbor drezh ¤ long; ~-bûn v.i. to stretch out; ~âî ¤ length; ~a-dân ¤ v.t. to continue drisht large dro lie; ~-kirdin v.t. to lie droshm sign, distinguishing mark drushm design; brightness, brilliance drust = dirust duam = dûham du`â ` prayer, supplication; ~-kirdin bo v.t. to pray for someone; ~ i kher

OEL ` prayer for well-being dugma button; ~ dâ-khistin to button: ~ i châkatay dâ-khist he buttoned his jacket dukân , dukkân shop; ~dâr shopkeeper dund summit, top of mountain dunyâ = dinyâ du middle; large pearl duwân = dwân duzhmin enemy; ~âyat z enmity dû two; ~am second; ~barakî enmity; ~bâra ¶ again, once more; ~dil hesitant, hesitating; ~dil la v distrustful of, suspicious of; ~ham second; ~shamma Monday dûkal smoke dûkyân B the two of them, both of them dûpât statement; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to make a statement dûpishk é scorpion dûr far; la ~awa from afar; ~bîn telescope, camera dûrân dûr- = dirwân dûrînawa v.t. to gather, harvest dûrrân dûrre- v.p. to be sewn, stitched up dûzhmin = duzhmin dwâ last (precedes word it modifies): ~ sâl last year, ~ shaw last night; ~ i after (prep); ~ i awaî (ka) after (conj); ~î last, final; ~rozh future; ba ~ i ...dâ nârdin to send for (s.o.); la ~î'dâ ka after (conj); l' am ~îâná'dâ recently dwân dwe- la v.i. to speak of, talk about dwândin dwen- ¤ v.t. to speak to, address: mamdwena! don't speak to me!; daydwândim he was speaking to me dwe(ka) ¤ yesterday, last night



dwene ê yesterday; ~ sháwe l last night dyâr p clear, obvious; ~-kirdin v.t. to clarify; ba ~awa bûn v.i. to be visible, in view; ba ~î clearly, obviously; ~îkirâw ap obvious dyârî p present, gift -è1 variant of the indefinite suffix -èk -è2 directional suffix occurring on certain nouns like zhûrè upwards, darè outwards, mâlè T homewards, and as a variant of the directional enclitic à on verbs when the complement of the directional is an enclitic pronoun: náygamè I won't reach it, shitèk'î dadâtè he'll give him something ejgâr ² very, very much; ~î ² at all, ever: ~ nâydwenim I don't ever speak to him; all at once: ~ bârim kird I got up and left -èk ¤ indefinite suffix: pyâwèk a man el ² nation, tribe, people ema ² we, us era OE here; l'~(dâ) ()OE here, in this place; l'~wa OE from here, hence Erân OE Iran; ~î OE Iranian `Eâq gOE` Iraq; ~î gOE` Iraqi erayî OE jealousy; ~-birdin ba v.t. to be jealous of: erayî'yân pe dabird they were jealous of him esh OE pain, ache; sar~a â head ache eshik-girtin Z OE v.t. to keep watch esk OE = esqân esqân OE bone estâ 8OE now; l'~wa 8OE as of now, from now on estga 8OE station estir OE mule ewa ² you (pl) ewâra ² evening: ~t bâsh good evening ezing sOE kindling fakhr pride falâ peasant, farmer falâkat misery, difficulty, misfortune falâqa bastinado faqe Õ student faqîr poor; ~î poverty farangî s European farâham-kirdin B v.t. to make available Farânsa ë France farâwân abundant, large-scale farhang s culture; ~dost s cultured, culture-loving; ~ok s glossary Farhâd Farhad, a character in Nizami's poem who falls in love with Shirin farmân order, command; ~ ba je henân v.t. to obey an order, to carry out an order; ~ i khwâ ba je henân to obey God's command, to die; ~-dân ba v.t. to command; ~bar offi cial farmâyish § order, command; § ~t speech; ~t a mift § 8 empty compliment farmûn farmû- v.t. to command, to say (polite); (impt.) please: farmû dânîsha please sit down fatârat c calamity; sar i ... dân ba ~'dâ to bring calamity down on ... fawt loss, death; ~ân c fawteì v.i. to cease to exist; to be lost; to be all in, exhausted; ~ândin c fawten- OE v.t. to give up, to lose fâks B~ fax fâmîn fâm- v.t. to understand fel Ç´ trick; ~-kirdin la v.t. to play a trick on; ~abâz ¶k´ wily; ~bâzî k´ ¶ trickery fenik OE cool fer OE acquainted; ~-bûn v.i. to learn: la



kwe fer i kurdî bûy? where did you learn Kurdish?; ~-kirdin v.t. to teach feo gOE free, gratis; ba ~ for free, for nothing, for no reason; ba ~ dân v.t. to squander, waste: bakhtî ba feo dâwa he's wasted his chance filân so-and-so, dummy name fileq ²k flat, squashed; ~ân ²k file qe- ²k v.i. to be mashed, squashed; ~ândin ²k fileqen- OE²k v.t. to mash, squash finjân íz cup fi g light, delicate; false fira very, much fie-dân g v.t. to throw away, toss, hurl fi|ândin g v.t. to make fly, to fly away with; ~în ag fi- g v.i. to fly firmesk OE tear; ~ hal-rishtin v.t. to shed tears fioka g airplane; ~khâna Lg airport fiufel Ç´g deception, trick firyâ-kawtin Z p v.i. to arrive at an opportune moment; to come to someone's assistance fish flabby, soft fitwâ µ legal opinion, permission fînga ; snivveling fîs > wet fîsâr > so-and-so, such-and-such fîshak > cartridge; ~ligh > car tridge belt fîshkândin > v.t. to whinny, neigh fîz pride fre = fire froshtin frosh- v.t. to sell fû-dân v.t. to puff up, blow up (balloon, e.g.) ga joint: pâm la ~ chûwa I've sprained my ankle gach plaster gal = lagal gal flock, herd, people; ~è a lot, a lot of, much, many: ~ gaân they searched a lot; ~nâs sociologist gal space between the legs galâ Y leaf: wakû galâ i dâr as numerous as leaves on a tree galârezân ¤Y autumn; the month of Scorpio (October 23­November 21) galâwej lY the month of Leo (July 23­August 22) galoz T space between a dog's legs: kilkî da galozî girt (the dog) stuck its tail between its legs galû T throat gan putrid, evil-smelling gandal rotten tree ganim wheat ganî bad odor, rotten smell; ~n v.i. to stink ganj1 treasure ganj2 young garak it is necessary (+ subj.) gaak quarter (of town), neighborhood gaân gae- v.i. to turn, wander, search; ~ ba dwâ i to search for, look for; ~awa to return, come back; hal-~ to be changed, transformed, (with colors) to be ...ish: sûrhalgaâw reddish; ~ la to quit, leave alone: lem gaen leave me alone; ~ la to look for: shitèkim gum kirdawa, ley dagaem I'm looking for something I lost; da sar ~ to get ( out of one's head gard dust gardâw whirlpool gardin neck (of an animal, bottle); ~âzâî-kirdin la B v.t. to bid farewell to gaîda wanderer garm warm, hot; ~â heat: ~ i nîwao midday heat; ~en warm OE region; ~î warmth garû neck, throat: wâ hast dakam garûmî le pi bûwa I feel as though



my throat is full of it; ba ~ i ...'dâ kirdin v.t. to put down s.o.'s throat, to feed to garzik ring gash fiery red; lush gasha-kirdin B v.t. to sprout up, grow up gasht trip, tour gastin gaz- v.t. to bite gavzân v.i. to roll over gawa stable gawâl wisp of cloud; gawâl-gawâl wispy gawj stupid gawra large, big, great; ~î greatness; ~pyâw elder, dignitary gawzân = gavzân gayândin p gayen- OE v.t. to make reach; kho-~à ... to get oneself to: khoy agayenetà nâw shâr he'll get himself into town; lâwakân khoyân gayândè the young men got themselves there; râ-~ to make known, publicize gayîn ga- v.i. to arrive gayshtin ga- ba v.i. to arrive; te-~ to understand; pe-~ to ripen, mature, come of age gaz1 yard (linear measure) gaz-2 pres. stem of gastin gâ cow gâl-dan v.t. to stir up gâla T energetic labor; ~-kirdin ba to work furiously at: chon dirwenayèk har gâlay pe dakâ he's working on it fast and furiously gâlok T club gâlta T joke; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to make fun of: gâltayân pe dakrâ they were being made fun of, a joke was being played on them; ba ~wa T jokingly gâmûsh ox, buffalo gân ge- v.t. to fuck gâsha , ~bard large stone, boulder gâsin ploughshare gâz bite; gas; ~-girtin la v.t. to bite gâzarâ middle of the back, spine gâzinda objection, criticism gâzir washerman, bleacher; ~-bûn to be bleached gechal ² quarrel, dispute geân gOE gee gOE v.t. to turn; ~awa gOE to relate, tell; war-~ to turn into, to translate; war-~à sar ... to translate into: am ktebáy wargeâyà sar fârsî he translated this book into Persian gezh OE dizzy, spinning; ~-bûn to spin: sarî gezh dabe his head will spin; ~alûka TOE whirlwind; ~âw OE whirlpool gh- (for most words beginning with gh-, the Persianate spelling, see normal Kurdish spelling under kh-) ghadir-kirdin la v B TM v.t. to cheat ghalat TTM error, mistake ghalpaghalip TTMTTM commotion gharîb TM stranger; ~î exile, being away from home ghaybzân TM someone who knows hidden things, seer, mindreader ghazal TM ghazal, a Persianate poetic form ghazna TM = khazna ghâr-dân TM v.t. to run gichik  small, little gift word; promise; ~-dân ba v.t. to promise; ~ugo conversation gil Ç dirt, mud; birdinà bin ~ to take to the grave gila complaint; ~-kirdin la v.t. to complain of gilân v.i. to be thrown: la asp gilâm I was thrown from my horse; to stumble: aspakám gilâ my horse stumbled; to move, shake, toss and turn; ~din gilen- OE v.t. to throw, toss,



shake gilena ² pupil of the eye gimez OE urine; ~-kirdin v.t. to urinate gi g flame; ~-girtin v.i. to be enflamed giraw = giro girân heavy gird hill, knoll; ~olka T pile, stack of unthreshed grain giriftâr µ captive, prisoner; ~-bûn v.i. to be captured, taken prisoner; ~î occupation, anguish giring s important girî assumption; ~-kirdin v.t. to assume girm boom, plop, sound of a large body falling; ~ u hor ditto girmola v twisted, taut; ~-kirdin v.t. to twist and turn, contort ginî g rough, coarse giro bet; ~-birdinawa la v.t. to win (a bet or game) from, come out on top of girtin Z gir- v.t. to take; to pinch: kawshakám pâm agire my shoes pinch my feet; to hold, contain: am jawâla shash pût nâgire this sack won't hold six pûts; ~ la to find fault with, pick on: lem magira don't pick on me; ~à bar to adopt; ~awa la to forbid: l' aw kârânám girtotawa I have forbidden those things; ~awa la to reduce, make less: kharjit zora-- ley bigirawa you spend too much-- make it less; to catch (disease) from; ~awa to heal (broken bone): dast a shikâwakát girtûyatawa your broken arm has healed; ba ...awa girtin to cover oneself with, pull over o.s.: lefay pewa girt he covered himself with a quilt; dâ-~ (1) to bring down; (2) to drive crazy by talking: wây dâgirtim ba qsa hoshim namâ he drove me so crazy with his talking I couldn't think straight; hal-~ (1) to lift, pick up: ama la zawî halgira pick this up from the floor; take off: sar i am sindûqá halgira take the top off this box; pick out, select: l' aw kawshâná jûtèkî halgira pick out a pair of those shoes; dastim le halgrin leave me alone; (2) to hold, keep: am pârayám bo halgira keep this money for me; (3) to allow: khwâ halnâgire God will not allow it; (4) to go out of control: asp halî girtim the horse ran away with me; (5) to hold something up: gâyaká pâshûy halgirtûa the cow has its leg lifted; râ-~ to protect, maintain; kho râ-~ to control oneself; war-~ to take, take up giryân p grî- v.i. to weep, cry girzh frowning; dejected; rû~ with a frowning expression gisht all; ~î public gisk broom; ~-dân v.t. to sweep gizh1 mussed, tangled (hair); ~-bûn v.i. for the hair to stand on end; ba ~ ... hâtin to get entangled with; ba ~ ...dâ chûn to have to deal with; ~yân p v.i. to be upset, to be mussed (of the hair) gizh2 tree trunk; plant; ~-u-giyâ vegetation gizh3 anger gizh4 hard, solid gizing s first rays of dawn gîrâ-kirdin B v.t. to answer (a prayer) gîrân gîre- v.p. to be taken (passive of girtin); kho'y pe (râ)~ to restrain oneself, control oneself: kho'y pe nâgîre he can't restrain himself; dâ-gîrân v.p. to be occupied: wilât a dâgîrâwakân the occupied territories; te-gîrân v.i. to tangle gîrfân pocket gîroda infatuated gîrsân gîrse- v.i. to stop, cease; ~awa to stop, halt; dâ-~ to be lit, ignited



gîrsândin gîrsen- v.t.: dâOE ~ to light, ignite go ball goband celebration gogird sulphur; match goh ear, hearing; ~dâr capable of hearing: gwechka i gohdâr wellattuned ear gol (1) gre u ~ knotted; gurj u ~ nimble, quick; (2) male: ~asag T male dog, ~akar T male donkey; (3) goal (soccer); ~-kirdin la v.t. to score a goal against gol calf; pool, pond; stupid golâla TY anemone gom deep, stagnant water; indistinct; lake, pond; ~âw deep pool gomân suspicion; ~-kirdin la v.t. to suspect gon cheek; ~asûra tomato; ~â cheek; ~âgon various, of all sorts gopâl bat, club gor like, manner go (1) level, plain (ground); hâtinà ~è to come to the fore, be under discussion; (2) grave; ~istân 8 cemetery gorân the Goran division of the Kurds; ~î Gorani; song goîn a go- v.t. to change; ~awa ba to exchange for; kho ~ to disguise oneself; ~ar change-producing gorân gore- v.p. to change (int.), be changed gosh-kirdin B v.t. to suckle a newborn gosha corner, angle gosht meat gotin Z le- T v.t. to say govâr magazine, journal goz (see nâz-u-goz) goza pot gozân goze- v.t. to keep; ~awa to move from place to place; hal-~ to lift, raise, draw up gr- see girgre knot; ~ le-dân v.t. to tie a knot; ~ shil-kirdin v.t. to untie a knot; ~kwer ¤¤ tangled knot grewaghâr TMl foot race gul leper; ~-bûn to get leprosy gul flower; ~ a sûr T rose; ~abarozha T sunflower; ~âla TY red tulip; ~âw Y rosewater gulla ò bullet gulof T pressure, crumple; ~în T v.t. to crumple; ~tin T gulof- T v.t. to squeeze, crumple; kho hal-~tin v.t. to hug oneself gum lost; ~-bûn to get lost; ~â g lost, deviant gumân doubt, hesitation; ~-birdin v.t. to doubt; to have, possess: hîch shitè gumân nâbam I do not possess anything; be~ ² doubtless(ly), convinced gumbad m dome gun testes gunâ sin, pity; ~bâr ¶ sinner, transgressor gund village; ~nishîn ë villager, village-dwelling gunjân gunje- v.i. to fit, be fitting; dagunje bileyn we may say, it is appropriate for us to say gur wolf; meeting gu power; flame; threat; ~~ hâtinà khwâre to pour down; ba~ powerful, strong gur|ân gure- v.i. to have one's head cut off; ~ândin v.t. to cut s.o.'s head off gu|ân gue- v.i. to roar; ~ândin v.t. to roar; ~în a to roar gurg wolf gurîs § rope gurj quick, soon; ba ~î ó quickly, soon; ~ u gol nim-



ble; ba ~ u golî T nimbly gutin Z le- T v.t. to say (see witin): har b' aw mabastaî ka gutmân just as we said guzar lane, passage; area; ~-kirdin ba ...(dâ) v.t. to pass by; ~ândin guzaren- ¤ v.t. to spend, pass: hamû zhyân'î lagal madârî guzarândûa he has spent his entire life being a shepherd; zhyân-u~ân p life gû excrement, shit gûr calf gwâstin(awa) gwez-(awa) ¤ v.t. to move, to relocate; to take a bride to the husband's house gwâya as if, as though, you'd say gwâztin(awa) Z v.t. to move; = gwâstin gwe ear; ~-âkhnîn la to ignore; ~bûn la v.i. to hear; ~-dânà ... to listen to; ~-(râ)girtin la v.t. to listen to gwebîs obedient; aware: wâ gwe>l bîs bûm ka bârân bârîwa I was aware that it had rained gwecham Âl riverbank gwechka l ear; ~-dân v.t. to listen; ~-girtin v.t. to hear; ~-takândin v.t. to listen gweder ¤l listener gwedrezh ¤l mule gwegir ¤ listener gwegirân ¤ hard of hearing gwel l handful gwepichi-gwepichi gl gl with great difficulty: girtibûyânim, gwepichi-gwepichi rizgârîm hât they had captured me, and I was rescued with great difficulty; with alacrity gwequlâkh Yl attentive gwerâyal ¤ obedient, submissive; ~î obedience, submissiveness gweraka ¤ calf gwez ¤ walnut; ~hînd ¤ coconut gwez- ¤ pres. stem of gwâstin gyâ plant gyân soul; (following name) dear; wa ~ kawtin to escape alive; ~keshân v.t. to work hard; ~-(a)spârdin v.t. to give up the ghost, to die; ~dâr animal, living creature; ~kanisht ës moment of death; ~labar alive, living habûn for there to be; haya there is; habû there was; habe u nabe "come hell or high water" hafta µ week haftâ µ seventy haftâna µ weekly hagba saddle pack akâyat ,, story, tale; ~khwân ,, teller of tales, storyteller akîm B,, physician hal (1) time, turn: la ~ u darfate in time, at the right time; la hîch ~ u marjèk'dâ at no time and under no circumstances; (2) opportunity: bo halèk i wâ dagaân they were looking for just such an opportunity hal- compound-verbal prefix; for all verbs compounded with hal-, see under the verbal element hala T error, mistake; ba ~(dâ) erroneously haladâwân T haste; ba ~ hurriedly, hastily, in a hurry halat T precipice halâtin ZY = hal-hâtin halbast poet; ~a poem, T 8 T poetry halbizhârdin öT election (see bizhârdin) haldast- T see hal-wastân (s.v. wastân) halè T the prefix hal- with the directional suffix -è; see under hal-hâtin halenjân í²T v.t. to draw water haliz T type of plant with needle-like



leaves halkawt T chance, accident; ba ~ T by chance, incidentally; ~û T nice-looking halmat T attack; ~-birdin/-dân v.t. to attack halo T eagle halpa T haste halpake T type of Kurdish dance hals T rising; ~ukawt T be havior, conduct halssân T halss- T contraction of hal-wastân, q.v. halwest (1) â T a short rest, stop; (2) point of view, standpoint, stance ham1 concern, grief; ~u tam sorrow and grief ham2...ham ... both...and hamân that very, the aforementioned hamaranga s multicolored, of all sorts, varied hamdîs § once again, all over again hamîsân > again hamîsha > always; ~î constant: khwâst i hamîshaî a wish one has always had aml ,, pregnancy: zhinakáy bâr i hamlî dabe his wife is pregnant hamû all, every (+ indefinite): ~ rozhèk every day hana second wife (relationship to the first wife); ~zâ child of another wife, step-child hanâr pomegranate hanâsa breath, sigh; ~ halkeshân v.t. to breathe a sigh; ~sardî grief hand : ~è , ~èk ¤ a little, a bit, somewhat, rather handar outside; ~î foreign hangâw s step, pace; ~-nân bo v.t. to step into hangwen ¤s honey apasân ,, apase- ,, v.i. to be astounded, stunned haq ,, right; ~ ba ~ tit for tat; ~ bûn ba to be right: haq ba to a you're right; ba~ in the right; be~ ² in the wrong haqdast wage aqîqat ;,, truth, reality har just; ~ awanda just that much; ~ chonè bû somehow or other; ~chand ¸ however much, no matter how much; ~chanda ¸ although; ~chî whatever, no matter what; ~chîchikânawa no matter what they did; ~ka as soon as: har ka châwî pem kawt as soon as his eyes fell upon me; ~wahâ , ~wâ likewise; ~watir Z even more so ha u gîf (gîv) threat hara- (prefix with superlative sense); ~barz exalted, very high, supreme: dâdga i harabarz supreme court; ~girân very heavy haras landslide, avalanche (construed with birdin and henân) haasha threat; ~-kirdin la v.t. to threaten haâ-kirdin B v.t. to run harâsân out-of-sorts, in a bad mood harem l region hargiz (+ neg) never; ~âw~ never ever harzakâr adolescent harzal-harzal in tatters and shreds, useless asân|awa ,, ase- -awa ...,, v.i. to rest, relax, be in repose; ~dinawa ,, v.t. to let rest, let relax ashîmat ;,, people, crowd hast feeling; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to feel: hast'î ba birsetî kird he felt hun-



ger; ~yâr (neol.) poet hatâ c until, even; ~ hatâî cc forever hatâw c the sun; ~î c solar hatî threatening term of address: hatî! datkuzhim! I'm going to kill you, you devil! hatîm orphan hatîw = hatîm hawal first; ~în T first hawâ air, weather hawâl news hawâr summer pasture; ~nishîn ë encamped for the summer (of a nomadic tribe) hawen ¤ leaven, ferment hawl toil, effort; ~-dân v.t. to strive, to work hard, to attempt Hawler OE Arbil, Arbela hawr cloud hawsha courtyard awt ,, seven; ~â c,, seventy awz ,, pool haya there is, there are; (preceded by a possessive pronoun) to have: pirsyârekim haya I have a question hayhât impossible haz desire; ~-kirdin v.t. to desire: haz dakam bitbînim I'd like to see you hazhâr poor, unfortunate; ~î poverty, misfortune azîrân a,, June (see also huzayrân) hâkâ ~ thus âkim ~,, ruler âl ,, state, condition; ~ u masala tegayândin v.t. to explain a situation to: ~ u masala'y te gayândim he explained the situation to me hâle informed; ~-bûn ba to be informed of; ~-bûn ba ... la ... to be thinking of one thing (ba) instead of another (la), to mistake X (ba) for Y (la): ba kasèk i dîka'm le hâle nabin? might they not be confusing me with somebody else? hâlî T empty hâlo T earthenware pot hâlû maternal uncle hâmez OE bosom, embrace hâna motivation, provocation; ~dân v.t. to motivate hâne ê there, take it hâra shout; ~ i pekanîn peal of laughter hââ|n v.i. to be pulverized; ~ndin v.t. to pulverize; ~wa dust, powder, grist âshâ ,, denial; ~-kirdin v.t. to deny; ~halnagir T,, undeniable âshiya 8,, marginalia hât luck: hâtim niya I don't have any luck; ~uchû-kirdin B v.t. to come and go, to frequent hâtin Z ye-/de- / (pres. subj. be/; impt. sing. wára ) v.i. to come; (with kas and following subjunctive) no one would: kas nâye kârèk i wâ bikât no one would do such a thing; dâ-~ to be accustomed; hal-~ to run away: hât halè he started to run away; râ-~ lagal ...dâ to learn from, be taught by, get used to; ~à (+ infinitive) to get ...: hâtinà kushtin they got killed, hâtà girtin he got caught; ~ la to be capable of being: la halgirtin nadahât it couldn't be picked up hâtucho-kirdin B v.t. to frequent (a place) hâw- (prefix) same- (see individual words alphabetically) hâwâr cry for help; ~-kirdin v.t. to cry for help hâwbash participant; ~ i ... bûn to participate, share in; ~î participation; ~î-kirdin la ...'dâ v.t. to participate in hâwezh ¤ grasp hâwezh- ¤ pres. stem of hâwîshtin



hâwirdin hâwir- v.t. to bring hâwîn a summer hâwîshtin § hâwezh- ¤ v.t. to throw, toss, shoot; dar-~ to toss out, throw away hâwkâr colleague; ~î-kirdin lagal v.t. to cooperate with hâwmânâ synonymous, having the same meaning hâwnâw namesake; synonym hâwe comrade, companion hâwsafar traveling companion hâwsâ neighbor hâwshewa ²8 similar hâwshîra sister hâwtaman contemporary, of the same age hâwtâ c equal; be~ c² unequalled hâybakht lottery hâzir ready hejgâr ² extremely hel- Dz pres. stem of heshtin helân ˲ hele- k² v.t. to let go; dâ ~à khwârawa to let down, lower: pat'yân henâ u dâyânhelâ khwârawa they brought a rope and lowered him down helka ² egg hemin ² slow; ~-kirdin v.t. to slow, slow down: hangâwî hemin kird he slowed his pace; ~î slowness: ba heminî rû'm da hâweakám kird u gutim I slowly turned my face to my companion and said henân ² hen- OE (v.t.; pres. stem often yen-, as in nâyenim for nâhenim I won't bring it) to bring; ~awa sar kho- to bring back to oneself; ba je ~ to execute, carry out (an order); dar-~ (darenân) to put out, pull out, take off, extract: châwîlkaká'm la châw darenâbû I had taken off my glasses; dâ-~ to comb the hair down; râ-~ to teach, to get into shape; to tame Hend ² India henda so, so much, this much; ~ ... ² tâ so much (so) that: bulbul henda'y khwend tâ kham'î la hamû dilân târand the nightingale sang so much that it drove the sorrow from all hearts hendè(k) ² ¤² a bit; for a while henrân ² henre- ² v.p. to be brought herish OE attack; ~-henân ba to attack; ~-birdinà sar ... to attack (s.o.); ~henar ²OE attacker, aggressor hero OE marshmallow (bot.) heshtâ 8OE still, yet; ~ (+ neg. past perf.) ka ... 8OE no sooner...than, scarcely...when: heshtâ nanustibû ka dangèk'î ba gwe gaysht no sooner had he fallen asleep than he heard a noise heshtin OE hel- Dz (v.t.; subj. often bel- for bihel-) to leave, let, allow (+ subj): nayânheshtim bem they didn't let me come; to turn loose, let go; (neg.) not to leave (anyone alive); ba je ~ to leave alone, leave behind, let be, abandon: ba je'y heshtim he left me alone; dâ-~ to let down, lower: patèk'im bo benin u dâmbelinà khwârawa bring me a rope and lower me down hez OE strength, power: ~ i atom the power of the atom; ba~ OE powerful hezhâ OE valued, valuable, dear ikâyat = hakâyat ikûmat government izb political party hî really: hî awa niya bâs bikre it's not really anything that can be talked about hîch (+ neg.) nothing: ~ i tir nothing else; ~ kasèk ²8 nobody hîlâk tired; ~î tiredness, exhaustion



îlk|a ; peal of laughter; ~ândin ; v.t. to laugh hîn-bûn v.i. to learn hîshk > dry hîwâ hope: hîwâ i zhyân'î le nadakirâ there was no hope of his surviving; ~birâw g­ without hope, in despair; ~birâwî g­ despair; ~dâr hopeful hîz skein, leather bag for oil, cheese, &c. ho reason hoba campsite hoda room hon|în v.t. to spin (thread), compose (poetry); ~din v.t. to string, to weave together; ~drâw woven together, threaded together; ~râw s = hondrâw hor boom, big noise ho sack hortik Z ugly baby hosh consciousness; hâtinawa ~ kho- to regain consciousness; la ~ (i kho) chûn to lose consciousness; be~ ² unconscious; be~-bûn v.i. to faint, pass out, lose consciousness hoz tribe, people, population htâ = hatâ humed ´ hope; ~birâw g ­ ´ hopeless, in despair hunar art, craft, skill; ~mand artist, artisan; ba~ skilled ushtir = wishtir uzayrân a June hûn-bûn = hîn-bûn hûsha u fîsha > hissing (initial i and î are intermingled in alphabetization; the distinction between initial i and î is not always maintained; initial î is spelled ; and indiscriminately) ibtidâî elementary idâra office îdî anymore îjâbî í positive ikhtiyâr µ old, aged: rîshim spî bû, tawâw ~ bûwim my beard is white: I have become old iklîl ä = kilîl îmayl ; e-mail împirâtorî Î empire: ~ i `usmânî the Ottoman Empire împiryâlîst >p imperialist: nata Î ; wa gawra ~akân the great imperialist nations imo g today imshaw tonight înglîs >z> the English, the British (coll.); ~î English (person, language) injâ íz> then, next insân ë human being `Irâq Iraq; ~î Iraqi isti`mâr colonialism, imperial8 ism; ~î 8 imperialist îsh > work, labor, deed; ~-kirdin v.t. to work; ~kar > hardworking; ~ u-kâr > business -îsh § (enclitic, after vowels 'sh and 'ysh) too, also, either îshârat > motion; sign îslâm > Islam; ~î Islamic îstaram-kirdin la v B > v.t. to 8 beg, plead with îtir again, another time îzn permission; ba ~ i khwâ by God's leave jala-kirdin B v· v.t. to tie (animals) together in a herd jallâd · executioner jambûra m· generality, crowd; ~ i khalk üL m· ordinary people janâb · excellency: khalk i gundakámân châwawân i janâbitin the people of our village are waiting for your excellency; janâb i pâshâ his majesty, your majesty



janâza · funeral jang s· war, battle jarda · highway robber jarg · liver, heart (metaphorical) jarrâ · surgeon jawanda · leather water bag jawâl · large sack or saddlebag, usually one of a pair on either side of a donkey or horse jawâhîr · jewels jazhn · festival, celebration jâ · then, therefore jâda · road, street jâdû · magic, sorcery; ~gar · magician, sorcerer jâljâlûka TíT· spider jâm · mirror, glass, pane; bowl jânawar · animal jândârm · police jântâ · satchel jâr · time, instance: dû hafta ~èk once every two weeks; ~ân · olden times, past times; ~èk ¤· once; ~èkyân · once, one time; ba ~e ;¤ · all at once; ~ u bâr ¶· occasionally, from time to time jâ · proclamation; ~-dân la v.t. to proclaim, to broadcast; ~-keshân v.t. to proclaim, make a proclamation; ~chî · herald jâwîn a· v.t. to chew je place; la ~gâ i instead of; ba ~ mân v.i. to be left behind; ba ~ heshtin v.t. to leave, leave behind, abandon; ~-mân v.i. to be left behind; ~ga ´ place, bed; ~gâ ´ place, position; ~nishîn À ´ heir-apparent, successor jebaje-kirdin B ´ v.t. to finish off, to polish off jiga la v aside from, except for; without; jiga l' awaî v aside from the fact that, in addition to the fact that jigar liver, child; ~-sûtân to lose a child to death; ~gosha child; ~soz consoler jigara cigarette; ~-keshân to smoke cigarettes jighâr grief, sorrow jil · clothes, togs; ~-nân to put on clothes jila · octopus jilaw k· reins jimîn jim- v.i. to move jinew ²z insult; ~-dân ba to curse at jinoka z genii jinûb z south ji g rip; ~-dân v.t. to rip; ~-hâtin v.i. to have difficulty, be sad jirîwa cooing (of doves) jisin noble, race jiwân young; ~amarg died young; ~ka s adolescent jizma boot jîhân world; ~bîn worldseeing, all-seeing jînosâyd ; genocide jîra · salary, stipend; ~khor · salaried joga stream jolâ Y weaver jor sort, kind; manner: b' aw jorá in that manner; ~âw~ , ~ba~ of all sorts, various jorâw sock joik bag, saddlebag jozardân the month of Gemini jum`a Friday jûl|a-kirdin B T to move, to budge; ~ân jûle- v.i. to move jût pair; ~yâr farmer jwâb answer, reply; ~-dân v.t. to reply jwân pretty, beautiful; ~î beauty jyâ separate, apart; ~wâz sepa; ; rate; ~wâzî distinguishing fea; ture



jyât i ; instead of ka1 other, else: hîch i ~'m nâwe I don't want anything else ka2 when (conj); that (subordinating conj.) ka- pres. stem of kirdin kachal ¸ bald, mangy kachî but, on the other hand kaftin kaf- = kawtin kal mountain pass; broken (of teeth); ~-u-pal odds and ends kalabâb ¶v rooster kalak T pile; ~ a bard pile of rocks kalakewî ²T mountain ram kalapo v paraphernalia, baggage kalapûr v tradition; ~î traditional kalasher OET rooster kalâwa ruin, a ruined building kalk T use, benefit: kalkî nabû it was useless; ~ war-girtin la to derive benefit from; ~bakhsh benmT eficial; ba~ T useful, beneficial; be~ T² useless, worthless kalkala i TT wish, desire for kalla head kaltur culture kalupal = kalapo kam little, little bit; ~bînâ m weak-sighted, unable to see well; ~hawen ¤¹ unproductive; ~tir less; ~ u zor more or less; ~tâkurtè(k) more or less kamarchîn ¸ cliff kan- pres. stem of kanîn and kanin kanâl channel (television) kandalân Y edge of ravine kandâl hill kandin see kanin kandrân v.p. to be pulled up, to be dug up; hal-~ to be pulled out, to be wrenched out kange s when?, what time? kanin s (kandin ) kan- to pull up, off, dig up; dâ-~ to pull off; hal-~ to pull up, uproot, dig kanîn -kan- v.i. to laugh; pe-~ to laugh kanîshk > girl, daughter kar donkey, ass karasa = karista kaat . See karrat. karista 8 raw material; instrument, tool, means; feature Karkûk B Kirkuk karrat time, instance: aw ~á'sh that time too; la mezhû i kurd'dâ bo hawalîn ~ for the first time in the history of the Kurds karsak large clod karweshik § = kawreshik kas person; ~è anybody; ~-ukâr people, relatives; ~âyatî relationship kasâbat livelihood: bâwkim kâr u ~î chi bû? What did my father do for a living?; ~-kirdin v.t. to make a living kasâs distressed; ~î distress kash stormcloud kashtî 8 boat, ship kasukâr see kas katin Z insult; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to insult: katinèk i gawra'y pe kirdûm he has insulted me greatly kaw sieve with large holes kaw- pres. stem of kawtin kawâl herds and flocks; ~~ spread out kawâta then, therefore, in that case kawâw roasted meat kawchik ¸ spoon kawl skin (of an animal); ~-kirdin to skin (an animal) kawn old; ~ârâ old, ancient kawreshik â rabbit, hare kawsh shoe kawtin Z kaw- v.i. to fall, befall; dar-~ to go outside, to appear; dâ-~ to fall away; dûr ~awa to get far



away; ~à ... (+ inf.) to start to, fall to: kawtînà qsa kirdin we started talking; hal-~ la to be situated in kay when? kaybânû lady kayf enjoyment; ~ u safâ kirdin lagal v.t. to enjoy oneself (sexually) with Kaykâwis a Kay-Kaus, shah of Iran kazh mountain kazhâl = khazâl kâ straw kâbrâ ­ man, gentleman kâch pool kâghaz TM paper kâhû lettuce kâk elder brother; ~a " sir kâklamûshân k" spider kâl raw; unripe, immature; light (color); faded kâlâ Y cloth, commercial goods kâlân scabbord kâm which?, which one? kân mine; ~zâ s mineral kânî spring; ~âw waterspring kânûn : ~ i yekam December; ~ i dûham January kâr work, thing (intangible): nâtwânîn am ~á bikayn we can't do this thing; ~-kirdin v.t. to work, to do something; ba ~ henrân v.p. to be used, be put to use; ~ ba sarawa bûn v.i. to have a responsibility, have something to do: îdî kâr'it ba sarawa nabe you have nothing else to do, there is nothing further you have to do; be~ ² unemployed; be~î ² unemployment kârabâ ¶ electricity kârakar worker, servant kârasât catastrophe kârbadast official kârez ¤ underground water channel; ~kan ¤ kârez digger kârîgar a effective; mortal: birîn i ~ mortal wound kârkhâna L factory kâr-u-bâr ¶ affairs, busines kârwân caravan; ~chî # caravan leader; ~sarâ ë caravanserai kâs dizzy; faint kâset OE cassette kâsib merchant, trader, shopkeeper; ~î 8 trade, commerce kât1 time: l' aw ~á'dâ at that time; ~è(k) ì ² when (temporal conjunction); la ~èk'dâ while, during, at a time when kât2 back of the neck kâwezh ¤ cud; ~-kirdin v.t. to chew the cud kâwrâ = kâbrâ kâya game; ~gâ playing field ke who? kebarke ² race, competition kef ² mountain; cave kel ² tombstone kelân ˲ kel- Dz v.t. to plow ken OE the black fabric of which tents are made ker OE penis kerd OE knife kesha OE dispute; ~ i ... chârasarkirdin v.t. to deal with keshân OE kesh- OE v.t. to pull, draw; râ-~ to draw, pull, select; see also râ-kishân kew ² mountain kha L pres. stem of khistin khabar L news; awareness; ~bazen ¤L spy; ~dâr L, ba~ L awake, aware, informed; ~-bûnawa v.i. to wake up; ~-dân v.t. to report, give news khabâr ¶L danger khabât ¶L struggle; ~-kirdin v.t. to struggle; ~kar Z¶L struggler khafa L undistinguished family;



weak flame; ~-kirdin v.t. to choke, strangle; to lower (flame) khafat L sorrow; ~bâr L sor rowful; ~-khwârdin v.t. to grieve khalat TL curse; mistake; deception khalatân cTL khalate- ìTL v.i. to be deceived, tricked khalatândin cTL v.t. to deceive, trick khalât YL reward; ~-kirdin v.t. to reward khalef ²TL beehive khalk TL people khalq TL = khalk khaltân L wallowing, floundering; ~ T i khwen ¤ TL weltering in blood kham L worry, sorrow; ~bâr mL sorrow-raining; ~girtû L griev ing, sad; ~gîn L sorrowful, sad; ~khor L sympathetic, consoler; ~nâk zL sad khamlân ËL khamle- L v.i. to be k decorated, embellished khama gL large vat khamza L wink khana L henna khandak L ditch khanjar L dagger; dânà bar ~ v.t. to stab, cut with a knife khar- L (imperative stem of khistin): bíkhara (impt. sing) throw! kharand L ditch, cesspool kharâb L bad, out of order, broken kharâmân L graceful, walking stately kharâp L = khirâp kharâw L = kharâb; ~akar L , ~akâr L robber; ~-witin v.t. to curse kharbâr ¶L large measure of weight, 300 kilos kharek ¤L = kharîk kharîb L stranger kharîk aL busy, occupied; kharîkbûn to be busy: ~ i dars-khwendinîn we're busy studying kharîta L map kharj L outlay, expenditure; ~-kirdin v.t. to spend (money) kharmân L haystack, threshing floor; ~a L halo around the moon; ~ân L the month of Virgo (August 23­September 22) khars L estimate, guess; ~ândin L v.t. to estimate; ~-kirdin v.t. to estimate kharsak L thick woolen carpet khartala vL mustard khasândin L khasen- L v.t. to OE emasculate; to prune khasârat L loss Khasraw Parwez ¤ L Chosroës Parvez, Sassanian shah of Iran khasû L mother-in-law, son's wife's mother khat L line khatana L circumcision; ~sûrân L circumcision celebration khatar L grave, serious khaw L sleep, dream; ~yân le kawt they fell asleep; pres. stem of khawtin; ~~î LL sleepy-head; ~anûchka L drowsiness khawin L dream; ~-dîtin v.t. to dream khawtin ZL khaw- L v.i. to lie down; to sleep: khawtûa he's asleep khayâl p L idea, thought; imagination; ba ~ i ...dâ hâtin to occur to the mind of khayâr pL cucumber khazalwar TL the month of Scorpio (October 23­November 21) khazâl L gazelle khazâm L = khazân khazân L autumn khazena lL treasury khazna L treasury; pool in public



bath; ~dâr L treasurer khazr L anger khazûr(a) L father-in-law, son's wife's father khâch L cross khâk L earth, dust; ~âwî dusty, dirty khâkalewa ²~L Aries (March 21­ April 20) khâl1 L maternal uncle; ~o TL uncle (maternal) khâl2 L spot, mole (on skin); tattoo; ~ u mîl ; L colors on neck and breast of partridge, (meta.) beauty of the beloved; ~-kutân v.t. to tattoo khâm L raw khâma L pencil, pen khâmosh L quiet, peaceful; silent; ~-kirdin v.t. to extinguish; ~î quietness khân1 L khan, chief; ~im L lady khân2 L inn; ~chî #L innkeeper khâna L house; ~khirâp L unlucky; ~khwe L host; ~qâ L khanaqah, dervish hostel; ~wâda L family, wealthy family khânulân L family, home; be~ Ø ² homeless; be~-kirdin v.t. to render homeless; be~î ز home lessness khânû L house khâpûr-kirdin B L v.t. to ruin, destroy khâs L good khâsatan L especially khâshkhâsh ØL poppy khâtir ZL mind; ~ i ZL for the sake of; ~jam ·ZL with mind at ease, reassured; ~khwâ ZL in love khâw L = khâm; = khaw; ~-bûnawa v.i. to lose patience; ~ u khezân OELL all the members of a family khâwa L toll khâwan L owner, possessor; ~shiko ëL lord, master khâwar L east, orient; ~ i dûr L

the Far East khâwen ¤L clean, tidy khâya L egg; testicle; ~ron L fried egg khe habit, custom kher OEL good; ba ~ well: ba ~ bît be well; qsa i ~ kirdin bo to put in a good word for: qsayèk i kherî bo bikirdîtâya she could have put in a good word for you kherâ OEL quick, soon, fast; ba ~î OEL quickly, rapidly kherâtin-kirdin B Z OE L v.t. to welcome khesa-kirdin la v B OE L v.t. to turn away from khew ´ owner, lord khewand ´ = khew khewat ´ tent; ~ hal-dân v.t. to pitch a tent khezân OEL members of a family, dependents; ~dâr OEL man with many mouths to feed khida L custom, manner khil L rolling; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to roll down: bardèkim khil kirdawa I rolled a stone down; ~a~ LL rolling, bouncing khilâfândin ËL v.t. to trick, deceive khilena ²L molar (tooth) khilîsk >L slippery, slimy; ~a >L slippery place; ~âne ê>L ice-skating; ~ân >L /~în >L v.i. to slip (on ice) khinkân z khinke- z v.i. to choke; to drown khi1 g round: top i zawî khia the earth is round; ~-bûnawa v.i. to gather: la chî khi bûnawa what did they gather for?; ~ dâ-khistin v.t. to shut tight, slam; ~ u khâlî TL g empty; ~ u khol g pretty khi2 g too big, too large khirâ displeasing; ~î-kirdin ba v.t. to be angry with, displeased by: agar



aw kârá nakan, khirâî'tân pe dakam if you don't do it, I'll be angry with you khirân khire- v.p. passive of khistin; râ-~ to grow, sprout khirâp bad, awful, wrong: ~ tegayshtûy you've misunderstood; ~ geânawa la bâra i ...dâ v.i. to speak ill of; ~a bad deed; ~akâr evil-doer, maleficent; ~akârî evil, maleficence khika g pebble; ~bard g ditto khiroshân khiroshe- v.i. to be in turmoil, commotion khirt cylindrical; ~ u pirt º junk, worthless things; ~ak roller (for a chair, bed, &c.) khish|ân khishe- v.i. to crawl; ~ândin khishen- OE v.t. to drag on the ground; ~în v.i. to creep, crawl khishil Ç ornament khishka u pishka é creeping and crawling khisht skewer; brick, slab of baked clay khishta level; la ~ birdin v.t. to 8 level, ruin, destroy, (meta.) to have illicit relations with, to corrupt khistin kha- L (v.t., impt. sing. bikhara; pass. khirân) to throw, put; ~à ... to throw into: pâdshâ awânî khistà bandîkhâna the king threw them into prison; ~awa to build, make; ~à ...awa to pour into ...: daykhamà kupalayèk i damtangawa I'll pour it into a jar with a narrow neck; ~à sar to fulfill a wish, to help someone accomplish a goal; dar-~ to express; dâ-~ (1) to shut, close: dargây dâkhist he shut the door; dalâqaká'y la sar dâkhistinawa he shut the trap door over them; (2) to spread: baakam dâkhist I spread out the rug; (3) to pull down, lower: likadârakânim dâkhist I pulled down the tree branches, la khajâlatî sarî dâkhist he lowered his head in shame; (4) to store, put up (food): âzûqam dâkhist I put up provisions khitûka µ tickle; ~-dân v.t. to tickle khizân khize- v.i. to slip, crawl; ~ la to draw near to; râ-~ to sprout khizm family; ~âyatî family relationship khizmat service; ~kâr Z servant; ~-kirdin v.t. to serve; gayshtin ba ~ i to meet, see (honorific) khîm foundation; race, origin khîrat L bravery, manly honor khîzalân YL sand, sandy patch kho self (normally kho refers to the subject of the verb of the clause in which it occurs: kho'y kusht he killed himself; with a pron. encl. it also functions as a stressed pronoun: kâbrâ kuaká'y kusht u amjâr haasha i awa'y le kird ka kho'ysh'î bikuzhe the man killed her son and then he threatened to kill her too); la ~awa by oneself; la ~'râ by oneself; ~-dâ-girtin v.t. to lurk in ambush; ~-dâ-kutân v.t. to take root; ~-dâ-nân v.t. to sacrifice oneself, lay down one's life; ~-girtin v.t. to have patience, be stable; to be success-ful; ~-keshânawa v.t. to withdraw, secede; ~-khurândin v.t. to scratch oneself; to participate in charitable affairs; ~-khwârdinawa v.t. to suffer in silence; ~m myself; ~-pârâstin v.t. to defend oneself; ~t yourself; ~y him/herself khobâî ¶ pride, self-satisfaction khokhor xenophile, enemy to one's one people: kurd'îsh chi kurd a? mîlat i khokhora pekawa / bo gyân u mâl i yektirî simkol dakan la khol



(Malâ Mârif) And what are the Kurds? A self-destructive nation altogether stomping their hooves in the dust to get at each other's lives and property khokird B natural, not artificial khol dust; ~ i mirdû ba sar'dâ kirân to be in mourning: khalkakáy daley khol i mirdû'yân ba sar'dâ kirâwa you'd think the people were in mourning; ~akawa ashes; ~amesh OET ashes; ~ameshî OET gray khomâlî T domestic, personal, own: zimân i ~ mother tongue khoparist selfish khopasind self-satisfied, egotis8 tical khopârezî ¤ self-defense khor sun; ~alât Y east, sunrise; ~atâw c sun; ~âwâ west, sunset; ~halât Y east; ~nishîn ë west(ern); ~wazân east -khor suffix meaning eating, consuming kho blood; fast flowing of water khorâî free, gratis khoâî dictator khorâk food khoang s natural color, colorfast khoâ stubborn, intractable khorist wild, uncultivated khort young, youth khosh , khwash good, well; ~ râ-bwârdin v.t. to have a good time, enjoy: l' awe khoshmân râbwârd we had a good time there; ~bûn ba to be happy with, pleased by: pem khosh bû hâtî I'm glad you came; ~-kirdin v.t. to be nice: hawâ khoshî kird the weather turned nice; to fan a flame; to make ready, to improve; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to make up, make peace; ~-wîstin v.t. to love, to like: înglîsîakân khoshyân nawîstûa the British didn't like him; na~ ill, sick khosha ear of grain; ~chîn ¸ gleaner khoshajân · cheers, bon appetit khoshawîst § beloved, dear; ~î love khoshâw dried fruit soaked in water khoshbîn 8 optimistic khoshchezha OEÂ good-tasting, de licious khoshdamâkh happy, in a good mood khoshâl happy, pleased khoshî pleasure, fun; la ~ân'dâ v 8 in joy and happiness khoshken OE humble; ~î ´ humility khoshkhâna Ø tannery khoshkok pretty khoshlîbâs well-dressed, dan dy khoshmaza delicious khoshnâw 8 renowned khoshnûs calligrapher; ~î 8 8 calligraphy khoshposh 8 well-dressed khotâsh c electric razor khoy sweat, dew khozga would that (+ irrealis mood): khozga ahâtî would that you had come; ~-birdin v.t. to wish; ~khwârdin v.t. to wish khudâ God; ~î divine, God-given khul turn, revolution; ~-dân v.t. to revolve; ~-khwardin v.t. to revolve, spin (int.); ~ân khule- v.i. to spin, turn khulyâ wish, desire, daydream khuncha # bud khu sudden rush of water, in flood; khwen u ~ ¤ hemorrhage khurân1 khure- v.i. to itch; ~din khuren- ¤ v.t. to



scratch khurân2 khure- v.p. passive of khwârdin khurd food; small, tiny; ~a small change; ~agîr carper, caviler khurî wool khuîn a v.t. to yell, shout, neigh, whinny; te-~ to yell at, shout at khurj saddlebag khurmâ date khurosh scream, yell; ~ân khuroshe- v.i. to scream, to yell khurt powerful, strong khurûka pox, pockmark khusa sorrow khut-u-khoâî for no good reason, for no reason at all khuyâ-kirdin B p v.t. to show, make obvious khû custom; ~-girtin v.t. to become accustomed khûg pig khûsân v.i. to get soft in water; ~din khûsen- OE v.t. to soften in water khûzh hunchbacked khwar sun khwash = khosh khwayshk § sister khwâ1 God: khwâ yek a u nâbe ba dû God is one and is not two (an oath, "by God almighty"); ~bakhshîw the late (for a deceased person); ~âfîz ,, good-bye; ~âfîzî kirdin la v.t. to say good-bye to; ~leykhoshbû 8 S² the late; ~parist God-fearing khwâ2 whether: ~ bitawe yân natawe whether you want to or not khwâkhwâ eager, impatient; ~ i impatient for khwân dining table khwâr down; ~è down; ~û down, get down; khistinà ~awa v.t. to throw down khwârdin kho- (v.t., pass. khurân) to eat; ~awa to drink khwâs bare (foot, head) khwâst request; ~-kirdin v.t. to request khwâstin khwâz- v.t. to want, desire khwâzbenî proposal of marriage, OE engagement ceremony; ~ i X kirdin la Y v.t. to ask Y for X's hand in marriage: khwâzbenî i kichá la âshawân dakâ he asks the miller for the girl's hand in marriage; ~kar ;À² suit or khwâztin Z = khwâstin khwe1 owner: khâna~ L householder, home-owner, host; khwena~ l avenger, seeking retaliation khwe2 salt khwen ¤ blood; ~akhwe l avenger; ~bast mÀl, ~dâkuzhândin Bäl cease-fire; ~garm l hot-blooded; ~gir l immediate member of a murdered man's family; ~jimmân l blood pressure; ~kar l murderer; ~khwâ l bloodthirsty; ~khwâr l mortal enemy; ~rizh l bloodshedder, murderer; ~tâl µÀl dull, sluggish khwen|din l khwen- ¤ v.t. to call; to read; ~dawâr literate; l na~dawâr l illiterate; ~ar l reader khweâî g¤ free, at no cost khwishk sister; ~azâ nephew, niece; ~âyatî sisterhood kich girl, daughter kifn winding sheet, shroud; ~ u difn kirdin B v.t. to shroud and

south; hâtinà ~e to come



bury kilâw Ë hat: ~yân chû sare "they were fooled"; ~ozhina Ë window, skylight kilesha OEk corpse; bin ~ i ... chûn v.i. to deceive, dupe kilîl , kilel Dzk key kilk finger; tail; pen kilo k lump, clod, clump; ~ qand k lump of sugar, ~ gil Ç k mud clod kiloj manner, way: ba hîch ~èk in no way whatsoever kilol k wretched kilor hollow kimîsar > commissioner kin B side, by the side of kip deaf; silent; ~ u ka deaf: gwem kip u kara my ear's deaf; ~-kirdin v.t. to silence, shut up: kipmân kirdin we shut them up kirân B kire- B v.p. passive of kirdin; ~awa to be opened: bakhtî kirâwatawa he has had a stroke of luck kirâs B shirt kirch B upripe, immature kirda B act kirdawa B behavior, act, deed kirdin B ka- (v.t., passive kirân) to do (for -kirdin compounds, see first element); ~à ...awa to put in/on: daykamà dawrîyèk i pânawa I'll put it on a flat plate; ~awa to open; ~ ba ...dâ to pick up, take away; ~ da to set on, put to: râwchî tânjî'yân te kird u kushtyân the hunters set their dogs on it, and they killed it; hal-~ to pass one's life; to roll up (sleeves, pant legs); to light (fire); hal-~awa to attack kire B wage kiewa lg blizzard kirekâr ¤B laborer, worker kiîn ag = kîn kirm B worm; ~ol B wormy, wormridden kish|ân ' kishe- ' v.i. to crawl up; to pass quickly; ~ân-awa ' to draw back, go backwards, stretch: wak lâstîk la bar yek dakishetawa it stretches like rubber; râ-~ân to stretch out, crawl; ~ândin ' kishen- OE' v.t. to drag on the ground; to stretch; to weigh; ~ândinawa ' to pull back; to reweigh kishtukâl 8' agriculture kiz limp, thin, light; despondent; ~î despondency kizabâ ¶ cold dry wind kizola-kirdin B T v.t. to cringe kîlo B kilogram kîzhola Tà young girl ko collection, assembly; ~-bûnawa la v.i. to assemble, gather around s.o.; ~(wa)-kirdin v.t. to gather, collect; ~bûnawa (n.) meeting, assembly koch decampment, migration; ~kirdin v.t. to leave, depart, decamp; ~ i dwâî kirdin v.t. to pass away, die; ~ar ¸ migrant, migratory; ~î (year) of the Hegira kod wooden milk bowl; concave kol back of the neck, middle of the shoulders; burden, load; ~-dânawa v.t. to lay down a burden, to give up; ba ~'dâ dân v.t. to sling something over one's shoulder: kalupalakáy ko kirdawa u ba kolî'dâ dâ u wa re kawt he gathered his things, slung them over his shoulder, and went on his way; la ~ kawtin v.i. to disappear; la ~ kirdin v.t. to throw over the shoulder; ~kesh OET porter; ~wâna T sack, back-pack kolaka T column kolân Y lane kolîn T kol- v.i. to boil; ~awa v.t. to investigate, research; leT ~awa ² to assemble; le~awa T² assembly, council



kolka T imperfect, pseudo- (precedes word it modifies): ~malâ pseudomulla, ~shekh pseudo-sheykh, ~pyâw half-baked guy komal society, organization; ~âyatî Y societal, social; ~ga T, ~gâ T society komâr tribe, nation, republic kon1 old; ~asâl aged, old in years kon2 tent kor blind; ~awar miserable; ~î misery ko gathering place, meeting place; society; group, delegation: ~èk i amrîkâî châwpekawtinèkyân lagal aw âkimá bûwa an American delegation has had an interview with that ruler; ~-bastin v.t. to meet, hold a meeting korpa newborn kosh lap; bar~ apron koshish attempt, endeavor koshîn kosh- v.i. to strive; te~ to attempt, strive koshk kiosk, pavilion; palace kosp hill, difficulty: ba be ~ u kand leaving no stone unturned kot u zinjîr shackles and fetters kotara tree trunk; ~dâr tree trunk kotâî c end; ~-henân ba v.t. to conclude, put an end to kotik Z a wooden bowl kotir Z dove kowa-kirdin B = ko-kirdin krân B kre- B = kirân krândin B kren- ¤B v.t. to scratch; hal-~ to scratch kîn ag k- g v.t. to buy kroshtin B krozh- B v.t.; dâ-~ to crunch with the teeth ktâw book; ~î student; ~khâna L library ktew ² = ktâw kufr B ingratitude; curse kul B eye, sight kul1 B boiling, raging grief, overwhelming sorrow; hâtinà ~ to come to a boil; ~ u ko raging, boiling: kuluko dâmird it went up in flames; ~ân YB kule- TB v.i. to boil; ~ândin YB kulen- OETB v.t. to boil kul2 short kun B hole, lair, nest; ~-kirdin to make a hole, to pierce; ~â B hole; ~âmurî B anthill kundabu B owl kunna B water sack kupala TB jar, jug ku B boy, son kurd B Kurd; ~awârî B the Kurds; ~âyatî B Kurdishness; ~istân B Kurdistan; ~î B 8 Kurdish; ~sât B Kurdsat, the Kurdish satellite broadcast network kurkakurke BB palpitating kurt B short; ba ~î B in short; pâsh ~a wichânèk ²¸ B after a short pause kurûshka-kirdin B B v.t. to curl up kushtin B kuzh- B v.t. to kill kut B piece; ~-kirdin v.t. to chop into pieces; ~ u mit chûn la B v v.i. to look exactly like; ~ u pi B gº sudden(ly) kutak B strike, blow; ~ pyâ mâlîn v.t. to strike: kutakèk'î pyâ mâlî he struck him kutân c B kute- ì B v.t. to beat, strike; dâ-~ to drive into the ground: aw singá'm dâkutâ I drove that stake into the ground; hal-~à sar to attack; te-~ to hit, strike, poke kutik ZB = kutak kuzh- B see kishtin, kuzhân kuzhân B kuzhe- B v.i. to go out, be extinguished; ~awa B to be extinguished, be silenced



kuzhândin B kuzhen- ¤ B v.t. to extinguish; dâ-~ to extinguish, put out kûcha ¸B lane kûp B vat; ~ala vB jar kû B deep, steep kûtâl cB goods, wares kûzh- B = kuzhkwâ B where is...? kwe B where?: la ~ya? where is it? kwen (1) ¤B = ken, (2) = kwe kwer ¤B blind; ~awar ¤B miserable; ~awarî ¤B misery; ~asawâd ¤B semi-literacy; ~âî ¤B blindness kwestân 8âB mountainous region vicious, spiteful lanja v stately walk, grace; ~-u-lâr stately, graceful walk laq v loose; ~-kirdin v.t. to loosen, shake loose; shwen ~-kirdin ba to dislodge, displace: b' aw hîwâyáî shwen'yân pe laq nakâ in hopes that he wouldn't displace them laqab v title, nickname laqam v = laqab laqândin v laqen- v v.t. to shake; OE sar-~ to shake the head laqlaq v stork la v puny larîn av lar- v v.i. to shake; ~-awa to tremble, quiver larz|în v.i. av to shake, tremble; ~ok v trembling: ba dangèk i ~ pey wit he said to him in a trembling voice; zawî la zher pey'dâ dalarzî the ground shook under his foot lash v body lashkir v army; ~-keshân v.t. to mobilize an army lat v piece, bit; ~-kirdin v.t. to cut into pieces; ~-u-pat bûn to be shattered into bits; ~-u-pat kirdin to tear to pieces lawagâ v pasture lawa|ândin v v.t. to pasture, graze; ~în av to pasture lâ side; ~ i for, in the opinion of, next to, near: lâ i ewâra bû it was near evening; to: am râzá'y lâ dirkând he disclosed this secret to him; ~ i kam at least; ~-chûn v.i. to get away, go aside: lâ cho! get out of here!; ~-dân v.t. to shove, push aside; to remove; to take up residence: la pa i shârawa lâ'yân dâ khânèk they took up residence in a house on the edge of the city; to be a guest; to deviate; ~-dirân v.p. to be removed; ba ~ i ...awa ... between; ~t wâ nabe / don't think that...

v (with encl. pronouns, le) in, at, from; la ...-awa from; la ...-dâ in, at labar v for the sake of, because of; ~ awaî because, since, inasmuch as; ~ dast i ...dâ in front of, in the presence of, with labât i ¶v instead of lagal v with; ~ awaî ka (conj.) despite the fact that, in addition to the fact that lagham TMv tunnel laîmkrâw ;v soldered laka v spot, stain, blemish; ~dâr v stained, spotted; ~-kirdin v.t. to stain lakhorâzî v self-satisfied lama v = labar lamaw v: ~bar v previously; ~pâsh v henceforth, hereafter lamezhîna OEv see mezh lampar Üv obstacle Landan v London langar sv anchor; balance; ~-girtin v.t. to balance oneself: chona l' am sar dîwâr a bârîká langarî girtûa? how has he kept his balance atop this narrow wall? lanj v viciousness, spite; ~bâz




lâf boast; ~-dân v.t. to boast lâfâw flood lâga village; ~î villager lâlân-awa Y lâle- v.i. to beg, beseech lâmarkazî decentralization lân extent; ~ i kam at least lânawâz poor, helpless, lost lânik s cradle lâpaa page lâq leg lâr crooked; ~ u pâl kawtin Z to fall in a heap lâsâr disobedient; ~î disobedience lâsha corpse lât poor, wretched; punk; ~-u-lût ruffian, hooligan lâtîr out of the corner of one's eyes: ~ twâshây kirdim he looked at me out of the corner of his eyes lâw youth, young man lâwakî foreign lâwâz skinny lâwech l handful lâyangir s partisan lâyaq appropriate lâzim necessary le see la le: ~-dân ² v.t. to hit, strike, play (musical instrument); to up and...: mâlâwâîy kird u leydâ u roysht he said goodbye and upped and left; ~kirdin to separate, take away; ~kirdinawa to separate; pick (fruit); ~nân bo v.t. to fix (food) for: shorbâm bo le-nâwa I've fixed soup for him le- T pres. stem of witin lefa ² quilt lehâtû ² worthy, considerable lek ² apart, from one another; ~-birrân v.p. to be separated; ~-bûn v.i. to resemble each other; to be separated; ~-bûn-awa v.i. to break into pieces; to end (hostilities); ~-dân v.t. to mix together; ~-dânawa v.t. to interpret: ba shûm bo khoyân lek dâyawa they interpreted it as an ill omen; ~-hâtin v.i. to go well together: makhmar u konadawâr lek nadahât velvet and old tent material would not go well together; ~-nân to close, put together the two parts of something: châwakânim lek-nâ I closed my eyes, ktebaká'm lek nâ I shut the book; ~birrâw ɲ separated lekolar v² assembler, collector lekolînawa ² assembly, collection; investigation lel-kirdin B Dz v.t. to sully, muddy lepirsînawa z>β interrogation, investigation; khistinà bar ~ v.t. to interrogate leqawmâw ² grief-stricken (see qawmân) le gOE forest leshâw OE downpour lew ² lip lik ¢ branch, limb; ~adâr ¢ tree branch liq = lik lirf(a) roar (of a flood, oven) lînj cloying lîra lira, pound lîta mud, mire lîwân drinking glass lîzga beads strung on a string lîzhna à committee loghat TM rumor loghân TM celebration, rejoicing loka cotton lolo beginning of certain Kurdish songs lotî a professional singer and entertainer lulu pearl lûra growl; ~lûr continual growling lûsh-kirdin B v.t. to swallow, gulp down



lût nose; ~ ba bar kho hâtinawa to regret; ~ ba kho dâ hâtinawa to be humiliated; ~-chûzânawa v.i. to be disappointed; ~-girtin v.t. to hold the nose; ~-hal-kirdin v.t. to get angry; ~-shikân v.i. to be disappointed, ashamed; ~-shikândin v.t. to disappoint, to chastize; ~barz haughty, nose in the air; dast ba ~awa girtin to hold one's nose má- neg. imperative prefix: máro don't go mába (neg. impt. sing. of bûn) don't be mabas aim, goal mabast = mabas mabda' principle machak ¸ arm magar (1) introduces an affirmative question to which a negative answer is expected: magar dazânî? you don't know, do you?; (2) introduces a negative question to which an affirmative answer is expected: magar namgut? didn't I say so?, (3) unless: magar bimirim, danâ daykam unless I die--otherwise I'll do it magaz fly magîn = magar Mamûd Mahmud, masc. proper name mak : shit-u-~ tools, stuff, paraphernalia makân place makhmar velvet mako a crowded place, gathering, cluster mal bird mala v swimming; ~-kirdin v.t. to swim; ~wân v swimmer malâ , malâ Y mulla, religious authority malâbângdân s¶ dawn malâmat Y reason, cause; be~ without cause malâs Y = milâz malband T area, region malotik Z , malotka Z babe in swaddling clothes mamik breast mamlakat country, realm manjal pot manzil s stopping place, destination maqâm station ma sheep marad state, condition marâq wishing, wondering; la ~ i ...dâ bûn v.i. to wonder about march mashed, squashed; ~în ¸ v.i. to be mashed, squashed; ~ândin ¸ v.t. to mash, squash marez ¤ sick, ill; ~khâna L ¤ infirmary marg death marûm the late marj promise, condition; b' aw ~áî · (+ subj.) on condition that, provided that markaz center mataba time, instance; degree masala v affair, question, object masâf battle mashq exercise, drill; sar~ lesson mashrût|a constitution; ~akhwâz constitutionalist; ~iyat the Constitutional Movement in Iran mast drunk; ~î drunkenness, inebriation matal riddle; ~-zândrân v.p. for a riddle to be figured out matâ-dân c to crouch on the ground in expectation, ambush mawdâ (1) edge, tip (of sword); (2) period (of time); (3) distance: gundèk i dîka habû ka mawdây la mâl i najâr zor bû there was another village, the distance of which from the carpen-



ter's house was great; (4) opportunity, chance: mawdâm niya biyânbînim I won't have a chance to see them; la ~ i through, by means of mawzûn metrical, having poetic meter maydân field, arena maynatî grief maysar § possible; ~-kirdin v.t. to make possible, carry out maytar groom mazât auction, sale mazin great, huge mazina = mazinda mazinda guess, estimate; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to estimate at mazrâ farm mazrân mazre- v.i. to stay, dwell, be established; dâ-~ to be set up (tent), be established, be appointed mazrândin mazren- ¤ v.t.: dâ-~ ba to set up (tent), appoint as, establish mâch kiss; ~-kirdin v.t. to kiss mâdâm as long as mâfûr carpet mâl house, home; ~akî T like family, a member of the household; ~ât Y possessions; ~lakol T nomadic, vagrant, wanderer; ~werânî ¤T destruction, devastation; chûnà ~è v.i. to go home mâlâwâ Y goodbye; ~î-kirdin la v.t. to say goodbye to mâlîn T v.t. to strike, hit; to rub: ronî pyâ bimâla rub some oil on it; to sweep; dâ-~ to take off, throw off: jil i pâshâî'y la bar khoy dâmâlî she threw off her regal garb; râ-~ to sweep away, drive off, repel; ~awa to take everything away, to clear; to polish mâm paternal uncle mâmala T transaction, interaction; ~-kirdin lagal v.t. to interact with; to negotiate with, bargain with mâmir chicken mâmo uncle (paternal) mâmostâ 8 teacher mân men- OE v.i. to remain; (neg., namân) to cease to exist, to be no more; ~-awa v.i. to stay behind, be left behind; dâ-~ to be flabbergasted, perplexed; râ-~ to pause, to stop and think mânâ meaning, significance; ~dâr significant mândû tired; ~-bûn v.i. to be tired; ~-kirdin v.t. to tire out: zorî mândû kirdim it made me very tired; ~î tiredness, exhaustion; ~nabûn kirdin la v.t. to greet someone who is working mândwetî l tiredness, exhaustion mâng s moon, month; ~âna s monthly salary; ~î s monthly, lunar mângâ s cow mângir s obstinate mâr snake mâra marriage; ~-kirdin la v.t. to give in marriage to: kichaká i khoy le mâra kird he gave him his daughter in marriage; ~î wedding gift mârakul B scorpion mâshen OE autombile, car mâsî fish; ~-girtin v.t. to fish; ~gir 8 fisherman mâst yoghurt mâsûlka ¢ sinew mât silent; stunned into silence; grief-stricken; shorter than others: aw bardânaî da regat girtûa yekyân ~a one of those stones you have lined up is shorter than the others; ~î stunned silence; perplexity; sorrow; ~-kirdin to checkmate; to stun into silence mâtam bereavement; ~zada bereaved, grieving, mourning mâwa period (of time): dwâ i ~yek,



pâsh ~yèk after a while; mâwayèk râbwârd a period of time passed mâyin a mare me female megal ´ flock, herd; ~ a ma v´ flock of sheep memil ´ calamity, catastrophe merd OE man, husband merg OE meadow mesh OE fly, honeybee; ~ûla v OE mosquito meshik OE brain, mind; skull meshûla vOE mosquito mewa ´ fruit; ~ron ´ marmalade: wak mewaron labar dast i dawlata khâwan zordârân-dâ bûn they were like putty in the hands of powerful nations mewân ´ guest; ~dâr ´ host; ~dârî-kirdin B ´ v.t. to host mewizh ´ raisins mez OE table, desk mezar OE turban mezh OE long time; la ~-a for a long time, (+ neg. pres. perf.) it's been a long time since: la ~a namdîtûyta it's been a long time since I saw you, I haven't seen you for a long time; la~îna OEv ancient, very old mezhû history; ~nûs hisOE OE torian midbaq kitchen Miamad , Mimid , Miimid Mohammed, masc. proper name mijrî box, chest mil neck; ~-nân la v.t. to head for; ~hu tough, bully; charlatan; ~kach obedient, subservient; la ~ dân v.t. to behead mil Ç sniff; ~-kirdin v.t. to sniff; ~-umo kirdin B Ç v.t. to sniff around looking for food milâz Ë : kho ~-dânawa v.t. to crouch on the ground in ambush: khoy le milâz dâwa he crouched on the ground millat nation mimbârak happy, felicitous, blessed min I, me minatbâr i z grateful for minâl z child; ~âna Yz childish; ~î T childhood; ~ochka T small z z child, baby minâra z tower, minaret mindâl z = minâl minga z snort: mingayèkî lewa dahât u wa dar dakawt he snorted and left miqomqo yelling, screaming, uproar mir hen; ~âwî duck; ~îshk § chicken mi g satiated, sated: awanda'y khwârdûa mi bûa he ate his fill mi-u-misht g fight, quarrel moch frowning mirândin miren- ¤ v.t. to cause to die; kho- ~ to play dead mirârî pearl mirchqândin mirchqen- OE v.t. to crumple mirdâr carrion mirdin mir- v.i. to die mirdov man mirdû dead; ba ~î dead mirîshk § chicken mirkân v.i. to subside; dâ-~ to settle down: bo chi nâmirkî why don't you settle down?; to die down (flame, fire): âgir dâmirkâwa the fire has died down; dâ-mirkândin mirken- v.t. to quieten down mirkh passion, lust mirov man, person, one: ~èk i feudâl u pûldâr bûwa he was a feudal and wealthy man mirwârî = mirârî misha frequent mishik mouse misogar insured; ~ kirdin to in-



sure mist fist; palm (of the hand), hand ful; ~-washândin v.t. to box, hit, strike with the fist mitâlâ Yµ study, contemplation mitmâna 0 safe, secure (ba) in, trusting (ba) in miza wage; expense mizgawt mosque mizgen OE good news mizgit = mizgawt mizh inhaling; ~-dân v.t. to inhale: ~èk i qûlî la jigarakáy dâ he took a deep drag on his cigarette mizhda good news mizhî brain mizhîn a mizh- v.t. to suck mizmaîl ; deprived, destitute mîch ; roof mîdyâ p; media mîl ; stripe (in cloth) mîll|at nation; ~î national mînga ; nasality, talking through the nose mîrât legacy, heritage mîrî governmental mîrûla v ant mîtr ; meter mîwân ; guest mokh brain, marrow; ~-keshân v.t. to bother, annoy molaq v staring: châwî ba molaq wastâ he stood staring into space molat T respite mom candle mo frowning; hard stare; ~-bûnawa la to stare at mor violet; virgin; seal; ant; ash; ~ kirdin to seal mora crack in a mud wall; game piece mu sorrow, worry muchika g shiver, shudder mufaik auspiciousness, good omen muflîs > bankrupt, impoverished mu`jîza miracle; ~yek i pâsharozh a latter-day miracle mukriyânî pB of the Mukri region musulmân Muslim; ~î Muslimism, Islam mutaham accused muwaqat temporary, provisional: hikûmatèk i muwaqat i Kurdistân a provisional government of Kurdistan mû hair; ~khor depilatory mûch wrist, ankle; ~awâna ¸ bracelet mûcha ¸ portion; wage; one-family farm; ~khor ¸ salaried, wageearner: kâkim ~ i dawlata my brother is salaried by the government mûchândin ¸ mûchen- v.t. OE¸ to bend; dâ-~ to turn up (cuff, hem) mûnândin mûnen- OE v.t. to spin (thread) na no ná- negative subjunctive prefix nabaga weak, feeble nabân ¶ animal that spurns its own young; not on speaking terms: kâkim lemân ~a, nâmândwene my brother's not on speaking terms with us, he doesn't speak to us; ~-kirdin v.t. to spurn, to disown; to turn away from nabz ­ pulse naft oil, petroleum nagbat calamity; unlucky nagrîs § stubborn, badly behaved; mean, evil naguta unspoken: ~ la jwâbakám te gaysht he understood my unspoken answer najîbzâda ; aristocratic najâr · carpenter; ~î carpentry nak and not: ~ pechawânakáy and not vice-versa; dû jâr'it le birdawa, nak se you've beat him twice, not



three times; ba râstî awaî tyâ chûa minim, nak aw really the one who was lost was I, not he nakhosh ill, patient; kho ~khistin v.t. to pretend to be ill; ~î illness; ~khâna Ø hospital nakhsh role: ~ i daraja dû yâ sey haya it has a secondary or tertiary role; pi ~ u nîgâr gº beautiful nakhsha map, plan; ~-dâ-nân v.t. to lay a plan; ~-keshân v.t. to lay a plot; ~-keshânawa v.t. to draw maps, make plans nakhshândin nakhshen- OE v.t. to draw nakht bit; ~è(k) a bit, a lit²µ tle, a while; ~-u-pukht completely: qsaká'y ~ la bardam'dâ nâ he had his say completely nakhwâzâ especially nakhwendawâr l illiterate nalâmat accursed namâm sapling namâm-kirdin B v.t. to have someone walled up: khân kâwrâyèkî namâm kird the khan had a man walled up namân mân nana grandmother nanâsîwî 8 disguise: la ~ in disguise, in secret; kho la ~ dân la v.t. to be secretly in favor of naqândin naqen- OE v.t. to choose, select naândin naen- ¤ v.t. to roar, scream nardîwân ladder, staircase nargiz narcissus narît custom, manner nastain a8 eglantine natawa nation: ~ yekgirtûakân the United Nations; ~î national natra Z courage; ~-birdin v.t. to lose courage; to trip, stumble naw` type, sort nawa grandchild nawanda fall planting nawân naw- v.i. to bend over nawândin nawen- ¤ v.t. to lower; dâ-~ to lower, bring down nawîn a v.i. to cave in: bânakáy nawîbû his roof had caved in nawroz the vernal equinox nawsha poetry; ~kâr poet Nawshîrwân Anosharwan, Sassanian shah of Iran nazhâd race, lineage nazîla short story nazm poetry nâ no, oh no nââsâî unusual, unaccustomed nâbâwaî ¶ disbelief nâchâr ¸ helpless, there was nothing he could do nâdyâr p invisible, unseen nâf navel nâguzûr destitute, povertystricken nâaq ,, dishonest, unrightful; ba ~ ,, unjustly nâaz ,, ugly; enemy nâkâw, la v suddenly, all of a sudden nâkh depth, interior: la ~ i âkh'dâ inside the earth, in the grave nâkher OEL no; ba ~ i gyânim unwillingly nâkhosh unpleasant; ~î unpleasantness nâl horseshoe; ~dâr T horse nâla v wail, lament; ~bâr ¶v sad, lamentable nâlândin nâlen- OE v.t. to bemoan nâm|a letter; ~îlka ; pamphlet nâmo stranger, foreign nân bread, food; ~-khwârdin to eat, have a meal; ~araq dry crust of



bread; ~awâ baker; ~azig someone who works for his board; ~kar breadmaker, baker nân ne- ê (v.t., pass. nirân nre-) to put, place; dâ-~ to put down, set down, to compose, put together (book): ktebèkî dânâwa he has written a book; râ-~ v.t. to exhibit, show; le-~ bo to fix food for: shorbâm bo le-nâwa I've fixed soup for him; pe~à to make it to: agar aw shawá bimâbâya, pemân danâyà rozh i shasham if he had remained that night, we would have made it to the sixth day; sar-~awa to lay one's head down (to sleep) nâpâk unclean, filthy nâazâ|î unhappiness, dissatisfaction; ~yatî ditto nâawâ unreadable nârâstawkho 8 indirect nârâzî unhappy, dissatisfied nârdin ner- OE v.t. to send nârdîwân ladder nârdrân nârdre- v.p. to be sent nâsândin nâsen- OE v.t. to introduce, make known nâshe it's not right, it's not proper, shouldn't nâshtin nezh- OE v.t. to bury in the ground, plant in the ground nâsik fine, thin nâs|în nâs- v.t. to know, be acquainted with, recognize; ~înawa z> to recognize: nâynâsîtawa don't you recognize him?; ~rân v.p. to be known, recognized; ~rân ba v.p. to be known as; ~râw well-known, famous; ~yâr 8 acquaintance; ~yâw acquainted; 8 na~yâw 8 unacquainted: nanâs yâwèk biydîbân if someone who didn't know them were to see them nâsor an infected sore, gangrene nâtawâw deficient, incomplete; ~î deficiency nâumed ´ in despair, desperate; ~kirdin v.t. to dash someone's hopes: hîwâdârim nâumedmân nakay I hope you won't dash our hopes; ~î despair nâw1 midst, middle; among, between; la ~ birdin v.t. to eradicate, get rid of; la ~ chûn v.i. to disappear, cease to exist; ~aâst middle; ~arok contents; ~and center; ~andî central; ~châw ¸ forehead; ~qad waist; ~râst middle, center; ~châw-turshândin ¸ v.t. to frown nâw2 name; ~bâng s¶ fame, renown; ~dâr renowned; ba~bâng s¶ famous, well-known nâwakhtâ, la µ v at an unusual time, unexpectedly nâwcha ¸, newcha ¸² administrative region nâwik pit: ~ a khurmâ date pit nâyel- dial. var. for nâhel- (see heshtin) nâyen- see henân nâz coquetry; ~dâr dear, cute; ba ~-u-goz bakhew-kirdin v.t. to spoil (a child) nâzlâw tender shoot nâznâw nickname, nom de plume ne ê pres. stem of nân nechîr ² prey negatîv ²² negative ner OE male; ~îna male nerdîwân OE = nârdîwân nerdrân OE = nerrân nerrân OE nerre- OE (passive of nârdin) to be sent new ² = nâw, nâwcha newarok ² contents newchâwân ¸² forehead, brow nezh- OE pres. stem of nâshtin nigrîs §s = nagrîs nihen OE secret, hidden; ~î secret, hid-



den thing; ba ~î in secret, secretly nihom floor, story nimakbaarâm ,,B ingrate, ungrateful nimûna example, sample; ~ nîshân-dân v.t. to give as an example nirân s nre- s v.p. passive of nân nirka s rumble, rumbling sound nirkândin s nirken- OEs v.t. to grunt, to make a rumbling sound nirkh s value, worth; ~dâr Ls valuable; ba~ s worthwhile, valuable; ~ândin Ls ~en- s v.t. to evaluOEL ate (ba as) nishân ë = nîshân niwishta 8 inscription niyâz need; desire nizâw s water exuded from anything nizim s low: ba dang i ~ in a low voice; ~âî s lowliness nizîk as near; la khoy ~ khistinawa v.t. to seat s.o. near oneself nînok z> fingernail nîsân > April nîsh- > pres. stem of nîshtin nîshân > target; trace, sign; ~-dân v.t. to show, give forth; ~-shikândin v.t. to practice archery; ~shiken OEë> sharpshooter nîshâna > sign, mark; ~-girtin la v Z > to take aim at nîshtaje 8> successor nîshtimân 0 country, homeland; ~î 8> 08> national; ~parwar 08> patriot nîshtin nîsh- v.i. to sit; dâ~ to > 8ë sit down, to dwell nîw half, mid-; ~ao noon, mid day; ~ashaw midnight Nîzâmî Nizami (1141­1209), a very well-known Persian poet nîzîk a = nizîk no nine; ~(h)am ninth noba turn; ba ~ by turn noga turn nok chickpea; ~âw chickpea soup nokar servant; ~âyatî servitude, service nokîsa > nouveau riche nol soft: zhûshik ba bechû i khoy dale okhay rola narm u nolakám the porcupine says to its baby, "O my soft little one" nomâ colt nomâl newly wed nora turn nosh : ~ i gyân cheers, bon appetit noshân nosh- v.t. to drink noshâtir Z bleach nuft nose nukrândin B nukren- ¤B v.t. to carve (on wood or stone) nukta joke, pleasantry nuqim-bûn v.i. to disappear, be lost nuqta µ point nushân nushe- v.i.: ~awa to bend, be folded; ~dinawa nushen- OE v.t. to bend, fold nuskha manuscript, copy nustin nu- v.i. to sleep, go to sleep nûk tip, point: nûk a chaqo point of a knife; beak; whimper nûka now, at that time nûkanûk whimper: am ~á la chiya? what's this whimpering for? nûkâ = nûka nûq dunked; ~ân nûqe- Õ v.i. to be dunked; ~ândin nûqen- OE v.t. to dunk nûqîn v.t. to close, shut: châwit binûqe shut your eyes nûs|ar writer, author; ~ândin nûsên- OE v.t. to write nûs|en- OE v.t. to write; ~ânawa copy; ~în nûs- v.t. to write; ~înawa v.t. to copy, z> to transcribe; literature



nûsân nûse- ba v.i. to stick to, to be stuck to, in nûsândin nûsen ba v.t. to OE clutch at nûsînga z> office nûtak heavy darkness nûza moan nwândin nwen- ¤ v.t. to represent, look like; kho ~ to show oneself nwe new; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to renew, to renovate nwen ¤ bedclothes, sheets nwen- pres. stem of nwândin nwenar l representative nweshk â rennet nwezh ¤ prayer (one of the five daily Muslim prayers); ~-khwendin v.t. to perform prayer; ~-kirdin v.t. to pray oghir journey, good omen for a journey: oghrit kher bet bon voyage orgân organ okhizhn rest, calm ordû camp; ~gâ campsite otonomî autonomy pak need, necessity; amazing pakhsh dispersal; ~-bûn v.i. to spread out, to be dispersed pakhsha publication pakhshân prose; dispersed; ~bûn v.i. to be dispersed, to spread out; ~-kirdin v.t. to scatter; ~kirdinawa v.t. to distribute pala v haste; ~-kirdin v.t. to hurry; ba ~ v in haste, hurriedly pala1 T field, farm pala2 T stain, spot palahawr T bird palapalî v confusion palaqâzhe v flailing the hands and feet palawar v, palawir v bird palâmâr attack; ~-dân v.t. to grab, snatch, attack palg T eyelid palk ¢ tress, leaf, branch; ~ i châw ¸ ¢ eyelid; ~a ¢ tress palk T a type of plane tree palkesh-kirdin B OE ¢ v.t. to pick up palupo endurance: palupoy pichiâ he couldn't take it any longer; la ~ kawtin to come to the end of one's endurance pama cotton panâ shelter, refuge, asylum; ~birdin ba v.t. to take refuge in; ~bar refugee pand advice paner OE cheese pang-khwârdin s v.t. to be pent up panhân wonderful, rare, strange panja hand; claw; ~-dân lagal v.t. to fight with, contend with; ~ i kho gastin v.t. to bite one's fingers, to express surprise panjara window panjola T claw papka-bastin º v.t. to coil: mârakân papkayân bast the snakes coiled up pa1 side, direction: aw~ i on the other side of, past pa2 feather paa petal: ~ i gul rose petal parasandin v.i. to be in general use paawâza wandering, homeless paândin paen- ¤ v.t. to make leap, jump; to cause to flee; to cut off part of something: am liká bipaena cut off this limb; to leave out: la khwendinawa'dâ khatèkit paând you left out a line in your reading; to remove: lamparim paând I removed the obstacle; ~awa to save: paândûtimawa you've saved me;



dar-~ la to drive away from, to chase out of; dâ-~ to shake: la dârakáwa am sewâná'm dâpaândà khwâr I shook these apples down from the tree; râ-~ to wake up, roust out of sleep paâw notebook parâwezân ¤ parâweze- ¤ v.t. to edit parcham ¸ bangs parch-dânawa v.t. to pound (the head of a nail) flat parchî cheap, insignificant pardâkh glass, tumbler pare day before yesterday paendrân l v.p. passive of paândin parez ¤ place for harvested grain paristin parist- v.t. to serve, adore, worship parî peri, fairy paîn a pa- v.i. to leap, jump; te~ la to pass by/through parmûn parme- v.t. to rely on oneself; râ-~ to consider worthy, to find s.o. capable (+ subj.) of doing something parsh scattered; ~ u bilâw kirdinawa 6 v.t. to scatter, let loose: kichá qizh'î parsh u bilâw kirdawa the girl let her hair fly loose parsiv answer, response partuk book parwarda-kirdin B v.t. to raise, rear (flocks, herds) parzh opportunity pazh broadcast, widespread parzhîn a relation; business parzhân parzhe- v.i. to be busy pasand-bûn la v to be pleasing to pasârdin paser- v.t.: hal-~ OE ba ...awa to lean against: bel ba dîwârawa halpasera lean the shovel against the wall pashîmân 7 regretful, sorry; ~-kir8 dinawa to dissuade pashok|ân pashoke- v.i. to get upset, be terrified; ~âw terrified; ~âwî terror pasind 8 approval past low, dejected; ~î dejec8 tion; ba ~îawa ;n dejectedly pastâwtin Z8 v.t. to stuff, cram; to beat with the feet, kick pat1 rope, cord: pat i hîwâ kawtà bârîk the thread of hope wore thin, there was not much hope left pat2 see lat-u-pat patâta c potato payâ p = paydâ payâm p message; ~-nârdin to send a message paydâ visible, found; ~-bûn v.i. to happen, to become visible; ~-kirdin v.t. to find payjo(r) investigator, researcher; ~î investigation, research paymân promise; ~-bastin lagal v.t. to make a promise to someone paytâ-paytâ constantly, contin uously paywand connection, relation paz sheep pazhâra sorrow, worry pâchîn ¸ v.t. to pound; dâ-~ to split from top to bottom pâdâsht reward; ~-dânawa to reward pâk pure, clean; ~-kirdin v.t. to clean pâl side; back; inside: la ~ khoy'dâ tûaya he's angry inwardly; ~-dân v.t. to push: nâbizue: wara dagalmân pâl da it won't budge: come push with us; ~-dânawa v.t. to lean back, rest; ~-dân ba v.t. to lean against: ~im ba dîwârawa dâ I leaned against the wall; ~-kawtin v.i. to lie down; ~



pewa nân v.t. to push; la ~ a kho'dâ for one's own part, on one's own behalf pâlawân T champion, hero; ~etî OET , ~iyatî T heroism pâlâ Y = pelâw pâlpishtî 8ÎT backing, support pâltâw T overcoat pân wide, broad, shallow pâr last year pâra money pâân pâe- v.i. to beg, beseech pârâstin pârez- ¤ la v.t. to protect from, keep pârâztin Z = pârastin pârez ¤ avoidance, abstaining; ambush; ~-birdin v.t. to ambush; ~-chûn v.i. to wait in ambush; ~-kirdin v.t. to abstain; ~rân ¤ v.p. to be protected, kept; ~ar ¤ defender, protector, defence lawyer; ~gâr ¤ protector; ~î ¤ protection; ~îkirdin B ¤ v.t. to protect pârû morsel pâsawân guard; ~î surveillance pâsh after (prep); ~-kawtin to fall behind, be backward; ~-khistin v.t. to delay; to neglect, ignore; ~ awaî (ka) after (conj.); la ~'â afterwards; ~arozh future; ~kawtû backward; ~mana left-over; lamaw~ v henceforth pâshal back of the skirt; hind leg pâshâ king, prince pâshu leg (of an animal) pâya rank pâyiz a autumn pâzh portion, section; document pe1 S (adj.) (1) fasting: min amo peyim I'm fasting today; (2) on hand: pûl'it peya? do you have any money on hand?; (3) lit (fire): âgir peya the fire's lit pe2 S foot; ~-dâ-girtin v.t. to insist, importune; ba ~ i in account of; ~ pewa nân v.t. to get a move on, to hightail it out; dang i ~yek the sound of a footstep; ~ la kawsh'(d)â bûn to insist, to be firm: peyèkit la kawsh'â bet u aw pekát nakirdibe ba jey bela be firmly resolved, stick to your guns pe3 S (postposition) see ba; ~... wâ bûn to think, be of the opinion that: pem wâ bû I thought so; pey wâ bû diz u regirin he thought they were robbers and brigands pe4 S cmpd. vb. element, see under verbal element: pe-gayshtin, pe-kanîn, pe-wîstin pe-chûn ² see under chûn ba pe-kirdin ² v.t. to force, oblige: pe'yân kirdim aw kârá bikam they forced me to do it; to fool; to light (fire); dast ~ (+ inf.) to begin (doing) pechawâna ² reverse, opposite; ba ~wa ² on the contrary pechân ² pech- v.t. to fold, wrap; ² hal-~ v.t. to roll up pechrân ² pechre- ² v.p. to be wrapped pedasht ² piedmont plain pedâ ² = paydâ pedâwîst §² = pewîst peghamar ² prophet pek together, in order; ~-ânîn v.t. to ² accomplish, to reconcile; ~-birân v.i. to be suitable: to u aw kirâsá daley pek birâwin it's as though you and that shirt were made for each other; ~-gayshtin v.i. to meet, see each other; ~-hâtin v.i. to agree, get along together; to consist (la of); ~henân v.t. to put together, produce, accomplish; to reconcile; ~awa ² together; ~awa-nân v.t. to shut, close (book, eyes), to stick together; rek u ~ ²¤ ordered, arranged pe-kanîn ² v.i. to laugh pekân ² peke- ² v.t. to hit with an



arrow or bullet, hit the mark pelâw ˲ shoes pelo k² eyelid penâs zOE identity, identity card penâw zOE: la ~ i ...'dâ for, for the sake of: la penâw i âzâdî'dâ khom bakht akam I'll risk my life for the sake of freedom penj zOE five; ~am ízOE fifth; ~sham ma zOE Thursday peaw gOE pedestrian; sidewalk; program pere OE = pare pesh OE before, ahead; ~ awaî (ka) be fore (conj); ~-girtin ba v.t. to prevent: la chûn pesh'yân pe girtim they prevented me from going; ~girtin la v.t. to stand in front of; ~kawtin v.i. to advance, go forward, get ahead of: peshmân kawtûn they have gotten ahead of us; dânà ~ to drive forward peshak OE foreword peshawâ OE leader peshîn OE former, olden; ~îân ;À8 OE the ancients, ancestors, forefathers peshkash OE present, gift; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to present to; ~-krân v.p. to be presented peshkawtû OE advanced, progres sive peshmarga OE guerilla, freedom fighter peshnirâw OE proposed, suggested; proposal peshnyâr ; À OE suggestion; ~-kirdin v.t. to suggest peshnyâz ; À OE suggestion; ~-kirdin v.t. to suggest peshwakht OE early, untimely peshwâz OE greeting: hât ba peshwâz i merdakáyawa she came to greet her husband; ~î kirdin v.t. to receive pest OE skin petakht µOE capital pewa ²: ~ dân see ba ...awa dân; ~ girtin see ba ...awa girtin pewand ² contact, link; ~-girtin lagal v.t. to form a link with pewân ² pew- ² v.t. to measure pewâr ² unseen, invisible pewdân ² measure, rule pewîst §² necessary; ~î ² ne 8§ cessity pey S² = pe2 pichiândin g pichien- ¤g v.t. to break, break apart pichiîn ag pichi- g v.t. to break, cut; ~-awa la to sever relations with: kâkim la ema pichiîwatawa, hâtuchû'mân nâkâ my brother has severed relations with us--he doesn't come to see us; hal-~ to force a cover off pichirân g pichire- g v.p. to be broken, snapped pichok little, tiny pif puff; ~-kirdin v.t. to puff, blow pil finger, toe pilân plan pilâw Ë pilaf, cooked rice piling tiger pilîshâ|nawa >k v.i. to be mashed, squashed; ~ndinawa >k v.t. to squash pilk eyelid pi gº full; for compounds, see next element; la ~ g º v, la ~èk'á ¤g º v, la ~dâ gº v suddenly, all at once; ~ la ...awa full of; ~-bûn la to be angry with: let piim: mamdwena I'm angry with you: don't speak to me; ~'î pe'dâ kirdin v.t. to snatch away; ~âî gº midst, middle: la piâî i âwakádâ in the middle of the water; majority: piâî i khalkaká hât the majority of the people came pird º bridge pima gº whinny, snivel pirshing 8º ray pirsîn º pirs- º la v.t. to ask



pirsyâr º question; ~-kirdin la v.t. 8 to ask s.o. pitâw cgº haste; ba ~ hâtin to rush pirtuk º piece piryâska pº small sack pizhân gº v.i. to be scattered, sprinkled; hal-~ to grapple; to squirt: pe'm le nâ, qu u lîta'm pe halpirzhâ I put my foot in it and mud squirted up all over me pizhândin gº pizhen- ¤gº v.t. to scatter, sprinkle, squirt pisân é v.i. to break, snap pishî é cat; ~la 8é kitten pishkinîn zé pishkin- é v.t. to examine pisht é back; reliance; generation; ~ ba khwâ for God's sake; ~ bastin ba v.t. to click on; ~-dân v.t. to run away; ~-dân-awa v.t. to calm down: biro ~ i khot'î le bidawa go calm down; ~-girtin v.t. to help, protect; ~ hal-kirdin v.t. to turn away in anger; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to rely on; ~ te-kirdin v.t. to turn the back on, ignore; ~astûr complacent; ~ i behind; ~î 8é 8é bolster; ba~ é solid, firm, strong pishtâw é gunpowder sack; type of 8 pistol pishter OE8é stable pishû é breath; ~-dân v.t. to take a breath pispo 8é expert pisû é feeling pitaw strong, firm pitir earlier; more pizhîshk §º doctor, physician pizhma º sneeze pizhmîn º pizhm- º v.i. to sneeze pizîshk §º = pizhîshk pîlân = pilân pîr old, aged; ~ak woman, wife; ~amerd old man; ~azhin OE , ~ezhin ¤ old woman; ~î greet a superior; ba ~î i ...awa hâtin to come/go out to greet Pîrânshâr ë Piranshahr, a town in Iranian Kurdistan pîroz happy, blessed, auspicious pîs > dirty, filthy; ~ gâl-dân > v.t. to stir up filth; dil ~-kirdin la v.t. to suspect the worst of pîsha > trade, craft pîshân > trace; ~-dân v.t. to show pît > letter of the alphabet pît u lat v > bit, little bit pîwâz onion po weft pol flock (of birds) pol grade: la pol i penjam i ibtidâî'dâ in the fifth grade of elementary school; group, squadron polâ Y steel pop cock's comb, forelock; lik-u-~ ¢ branches and twigs po hair (on the head); partridge; pân u ~ wide, broad poshîn posh- v.t. to wear, put on poshta chic; happy; ~-kirdinawa 8 v.t. to dress in fine clothes post1 skin, peel; ~-girtinawa v.t. to peel: post i am khayârá bigirawa peel this cucumber post2 post, mail; ~ i alîktronî 8 e-mail prûsk º remains of a decayed corpse prûsha-kirdin B º v.t. to nibble pushpa 8 the month of Cancer pûl money pû-kirdin B v.t. to store pûs skin pûsh dried grass pût weight equal to sixteen kilos pyâ = pe'(d)â pyâla T cup pyâsa walk, stroll; ~-kirdin v.t. to

old age; the act of going out to



take a stroll, go for a walk pyâw man; ~atî manhood, manliness, generosity; ~ a gawrakân dignitaries pyâz onion qaba thick qabûl acceptance; ~-bûn v.i. to be acceptable; ~-kirdin v.t. to accept, agree to qadpâl mountainside qafaza closet, storeroom qalabâligh ¶T crowd qalam T pen qalaw T fat; lâm i ~ T velarized l qalâ Y fort; ~ycha :Y fortress qalâcho extermination qalbaz T chain of rocks on a mountain; ~a T waterfall qalishîn v.i. to split, crack qalisht crack, split qanâra gallows qandin : hal-~ v.t. to uproot, dig up, get out qandrân qandre- : hal-~ v.p. to be uprooted, dug up qara nearness, vicinity; kho nadân la ~ i ... not to get anywhere near qarabâlikh T¶ = qalabâligh qarâkh edge, outskirts qasâb butcher qast intention; la ~ intentionally qat absolutely qatl murder qawân phonograph record; ~khwendinà gwe i ... v.t. to harp on the same theme to, to keep repeating into s.o.'s ear qawîl accepted, acceptable qawmân qawme- v.i. la to have something wrong or bad happen to: wak ley naqawmâbe wâ bû it was as though nothing bad had happened to him qawr grave, tomb qaychî : scissors qayd impediment; link (in a chain); ~e nâkâ never mind, it doesn't matter qazâwat judgeship, judiciary qâch leg; har ~èk kirdin ba duân v.t. to run as fast as one can: kichá har qâchèkî dakâ ba duân the girl runs as fast as her legs will carry her; ~ khistinà sar ... v.t. to step on; ~ râkeshân v.t. to stretch out the legs qâchâkh ¸ smuggling, contraband; ~chî ¸ smuggler qâlî carpet qâmik finger, finger joint qân qe- Õ v.i.: hal-~ da to get stuck on: dâwenim d' aw bizmârá halqâ my skirt got stuck on that nail qâp dish qâpelk ² shell, hollow shell qâpî S door, gate qâqaz paper qâramân hero; ~î heroism qârch mushroom; ~ik ¸ mushroom qârpoz saddlehorn qârpuz melon; lampshade qât time: hazâr ~ jwântir a thousand times more beautiful qâw1 rumor; ~ dâ-khistin v.t. to spread a rumor qâw2 dish, plate, container qâwa coffee qâwirma meat fried in small pieces qâyil-bûn ba v.i. to agree to qâyim : ba ~ quick, fast, hard qâzân pot, cauldron; ~asar bogey man qâzânj profit; ~-kirdin v.t. to make a profit qâzî cadi, Islamic judge qez revulsion: ba ~ u bezawa with reOE pugnance qilâycha :Ë small fortress, castle



qilîshân >k qilîsh- >k v.i. to split; dâ-~ to split from top to bottom qilîshândin >k qilîshen- v.t. OE>k to split, be split; dâ-~ to be split from top to bottom qilyân waterpipe, long-stemmed smoking pipe qing z buttocks qinj z upright, upturned qinyât z patience qircha ¸ sound of cracking, splintering; ~-kirdin v.t. to splinter qirchân ¸ v.i. to melt (fat over fire); ~-awa to sting, hurt; hal-~ to be heated over fire, sizzle, shrivel up qirchândin ¸ qirchen- v.t. to OE¸ heat fat, grease; to make something shrivel up over heat; ~-awa to cauterize qirîwa a shout for joy qirtaqirt peep, chirp qirtândin c qirten- OE v.t. to cut (with scissors), to tear with the teeth; to crack (seeds with the teeth) qirzhâng s crab qisht cute qit-kirdin B v.t. to eliminate qizh hair (on the head) qîbla ; the kiblah, the direction of Is lamic prayer qîn spite qîr tar, pitch; ~rezhî-kirdin v.t. to cover with tar qît ; erect, in order; kho ~-kirdin v.t. to put oneself in order, straighten oneself up; ~ u zît ; stylish; ~ u qoz ; tall and elegant qîzh à cry, scream; ~ândin à qîzhen- ¤Ã v.t. to scream qol arm, sleeve; ~ hal-mâlân v.t. to roll up one's sleeves, get to work in earnest qonâgh = qonâkh qonâkh lodging, place to stay the night; historical event qo nonsense qoa rumble, rumbling sound qoztin Z qoz- v.t.; ~awa to snatch out of the air: topaká'm haldâ, la hawâ qoztîawa I threw the ball up and he caught it in mid air qsa words, speech, story; ~-pe-birîn v.t. to interrupt: ba tundî qsaká'm pe biî u gutim I quickly interrupted him and said; ~-kirdin v.t. to speak, to tell a story qtâw = qutâb qubûl = qabûl qula v mountain peak qulang sT crane (zoo.) qulâkh Y sensitive (of the ear); gwe~ bûnawa v.i. to listen attentively qulf T lock; ~-kirdin v.t. to lock qum draught, drink: ~e âw a drink of water qu mud; ba ~ girtin v.t. to seal with mud: mâlit ba qu gîre "may your house be mudded up," damn you qurbân ¶ sacrifice; (vocative) qúrbân sir, sire; ~î-kirdin labar pe i ...dâ v.t. to sacrifice for the sake of qurchândin ¸ qurchen- v.t. OE¸ to swallow; dâ-~ to swallow, gulp down qurg throat qurosh piastre ququshim lead (metal) qurs heavy, weighty qursh footstool of a throne qurwâq frog qut short, brief qutâb c book; ~î c student; ~khâna c school qutân c qute- ì v.t. to beat, strike, hit qutîla small box; small lamp qûchândin ¸ qûchen- OE ¸ = qûjândin qûjândin · qûjen- OE· v.t. to close together (eyes, fingers)



qûl deep; ~âî Y depth: la ~ i dilawa kâr'î kirdûa he labored from the bottom of his heart; ~î T depth qûlîna T fruit basket qûn anus, butt; ~ i qalam v stub of a pencil Qûstantaniya 8 Constantinople rachalak T¸ root; ~-birînawa v.t. to uproot, eradicate rachâw ¸ observation; ~-kirdin v.t. to observe rafîq ; friend, comrade rag vein, root ragaz origin, race; ~âyatî racism rahanda wanderer, nomad rakhsân rakhse- v.i. to come into existence rakhsândin rakhsen- OE v.t. to bring about accidentally rama herd; ~kî common, ordinary (people), of the common herd rang1 s color; ~-dân da/la to happen to; ~-dânawa to bleed (as color onto a fabric); ~dânawa i ... bûn v.i. to be in accordance with; ~-halbizirkân v.i. to lose color, go pale; ~halbizirkâw Ts pale, "white as a sheet" (with fright); ~în s colorful rang2 s possible; ~ a ka s (+ subj.) it's possible that ranj pain, suffering; ~-dân to take pains; to go to trouble; to suffer raq stiff; ~ hal-hâtin v.i. to be frozen stiff; ~-kirdin v.t. to freeze; ~u-hîshk i sar > madness raqan hard, stoney ground rasan pure, pure-blooded rash black; ~abâ ¶ dust storm; ~mâl black tent, nomadic tent; ~posh 8 clad in black rashama the month of Pisces (February 20­ March 20) rat-dânawa v.t. to rouse rawand nomad rawâ-dîtin v.t. to allow rawg herd: ~ a asp herd of horses rawisht manner rawîn a v.i. to shy, run away razâ face, mien, aspect; ~girân dullard razâmandî agreement, acceptance razbar the month of Libra (September 23­October 22) razîl stingy, tightfisted; ~î stinginess râ view, opinion râ- cmpd. vb. agent; see under the verbal element: râ-bwârdin, râ-girtin, râhâtin, râ-henân, râ-keshân, râ-wastân râ-bûn to be awakened, roused; la khaw ~ to be roused from sleep râbirdû ­ last, past: rozh i shamma i ~ last Saturday; la chand sada i ~'dâ over the last several centuries râburdû = râbirdû râ-chanîn, la khaw ¸ L v to wake from sleep with a start râchâw-kirdin B ¸ v.t. to choose, select, elect râda degree, extent: tâ ~yèk to an extent; tâ chi ~yèk to what extent? râgayândin pä communications râhat comfortable râhî solution; salvation râ-kirdin Bä v.t. to run râmyâr ; shepherd, herdsman; statesman, politician rân1 herd rân2 leg, thigh rândin ren- ¤ v.t. to drive; to throw (stones) râspârda 8 errand, charge râsperî OE8 charge, commission râst right, correct, true; ~-bûnawa to get up; ~-bûnawa la to loom over; ~aqîna ;8 truth: ~y bo darkawt



the truth dawned on him; ~awkho straight, direct: ~ biro go 8 straight ahead; ba ~î 8 actually, really, frankly; dast i ~ right hand; ~î 8 truth râtib salary, stipend: ~ dadre ba darskhwen u kârkar i dawlat stipends are given to students and government workers râtu(a) theological student's stipend râva-kirdin B v.t. to explain râw prey, hunt; ~-kirdin v.t. to hunt; ~-nân v.t. to hunt down, track down: polîs râwî nây the police tracked you down; ~aewî-henân bo l ² v.t. to foxhunt; to sidetrack; ~ashaw night hunt; ~chî hunter, out hunting; ~kar hunter; ~- ushikâr hunting râwezh ¤ speaking (lagal with), manner of speaking rây idea, plan râyakh rug râz conversation; story râz|ân râze- v.i. to be embellished; ~ândin râzen- ¤ v.t. to embellish; ~ândinawa to adorn, embellish râzâwa embellished, decorated râzî satisfied, content; lakho~ v self-satisfied re way, road; ~-dân v.t. to admit, allow in; ~-girtin v.t. to commit highway robbery; ~-kawtin la to chance upon: ~m l' aw jegâyá kawt I chanced upon that place; ~ te-chûn to be possible; ba ~ kirdin v.t. to escort out/ away; ba ~wa birdin v.t. to lead, manage, administer; ba ~wa kawtin to get under way, hit the road; birdinà ba ~wa to carry out, execute; la ~ i Sl v by way of, through, via rebandân the month of Aquarius l (January 21­ February 19) rebar l leader, guide rebwâr l wayfarer rechâl Âl, rechâr Âl marmalade rechka l path of a swarm of insects; ~-bastin v.t. to swarm (of insects); ~ hal-kirdin v.t. to send out a swarm rega ¤ road, way; la ~ i...awa via; ~girtin ba v.t. to stop, make halt: pâsawân rega'yân pe girt the guards stopped him; ~-kutân v.t. to travel; regâ ¤ road; ~ i âsin railroad; regir ¤ highway robber, bandit rek ¤ smooth, organized, correct; ~kawtin v.i. to go well, to be smoothly; ~-kawtin lagal v.i. to arrange with; ~khistin v.t. to rub together; to organize; to make up; to make a truce; ~kirdin v.t. to smooth, arrange; ~kewtin arrangement, agreement; ~-u-pek ²¤ arranged, in order rekawt ¤ chance, accident: ba ~ by chance, by accident renwen ¤l leader; ~î-kirdin v.t. to lead reaw g¤ crossroads; chance: ba ~ tûshî bûm I met him by chance resh â wound, wounded reushwen ¤ way rewân l guide rewî l fox rez1 ¤ = rîz rez2 ¤ respect; ~-girtin la v.t. to show respect for; ~legîrâw ²¤ respected; ba~ ¤ respected, eminent rez-3 ¤ pres. stem of ristin reza ¤ bit, little bit; la ~ i ...dâ equal to: kichim la reza i ku i aw'dâya my daughter is equal to his son rezh- ¤ pres. stem of rishtin rezmân ¤ grammar; ~î ¤ grammatical ridenspî S8Àl elder rif shelf rifa = rif rikef ² stirrup rim spear



rimândin rimen- OE v.t. to destroy rinân : dâ-~ v.t. to shed (skin, clothes) rinîn v.t. to scratch with the finger nails; ~-awa ditto; qizh-~awa to pull the hair out riq spite, spitefulness; ~abar spiteful rival; ~abarâyatî spiteful rivalry rishqanjâr butt of a joke rishtin rezh- ¤ v.t. to pour; ~awa zn to pour, cast (metal), to stir up trouble; dâ-~ = dâ-rizhândin; hal-~ to shed (tears) rist line, dog collar rista 8 noodle; sentence ristin rez- ¤ v.t. to spin (thread) riwân v.i. to be green (of a field) riwâlat T mien rizân v.i. to rot; dâ-~ to be overcooked; to rot and fall to pieces rizândin rizen- ¤ v.t. to make/ let rot rizgâr saved, rescued; ~-bûn v.i. to be saved, to escape: rizgâryân bû they were saved, they escaped; ~-kirdin v.t. to rescue, to save: tanyâ to datwânî l' am balâyá rizgârmân bikay only you can save us from this catastrophe; ~î salvation, liberation, rescue; ~îkhwâz liberationist; ~kar rescuer, savior rizhân v.i. to pour out, be poured out; dâ-~ to pour down, fall down rizhândin rizhen- ¤ v.t. to pour out; dâ-~ to pour, mold; lay (foundation) rizhdî miserliness, stinginess rizhtin Z = rishtin rîkordar a tape recorder rîqna z bird droppings rîsh § beard; ~-tâshîn v.t. to shave rîsha § root rîz1 a small, tiny rîz2 a line, rank: rîz i lashkir i duzhmin enemy army ranks; ~-kirdin v.t. to line up, arrange ro = rozh rochin window, skylight: ~akán bikaynawa let's open the windows rola T child român story ron oil, grease, fat roshin bright; ~bîr Ò8 intellectual, enlightened; ~-kirdin v.t. to light, turn on, start (machines) Rostam Rustam, the legendary 8 champion of Iran royshtin § ro- v.i. to go (away, off), leave rozh day; ~âna daily; ~(h)alât Y east, orient, dawn: rozhalât i nâwrâst the Middle East; ~halâtnâs Y orientalist; ~âwâ west; ~èkyân ; ¤ one day; ~nâma newspaper; ~nâmanûs journalist rozhgâr days, time: la ~ân i kon'dâ in olden times; fate rozhû fasting; ~-girtin to fast rukhân L rukhe- v.i. to collapse rukhândin L rukhen- OEL v.t. to destroy, pull down rukhsat permission; ~-dân v.t. to give permission; ~-khwâstin la v.t. to request permission of rukhsâr face runâk = rûnâk ruwâlat T obviousness; hypocrisy; ba ~ obviously rû face, aspect, mien; ~-dân v.t. to happen, occur; ~-dân ba yek v.t. to frown; ~-kirdin rwaw v.t. to face, turn toward; ~-kirdinà ... to face, head for (s.o.,; ~ ba ~ i face to face with, opposite; ~ i dam kirdinà ... v.t. to turn to face ...; ba ~ kho'dâ henân to reveal; khistinà ~ v.t. to



bring to light, to reveal; l' am ~áwa v in this respect rûbâr ¶ river rûdiâw event rûdâw event, incident rûgirzh frowning rûkândin rûken- OE v.t. to scratch rûkâr cover rûkhosh cheerful; ~î cheerfulness rûmat cheek rûn bright, clear; ~-kirdin v.t. to explain rûnâk bright; ~bîr B intellectual; ~î brightness rûpa page rûshân v.i. to be scratched; ~din rûshen- OE v.t. to scratch rût naked; ~al naked; ~alî nakedness rûtâl c frowning, with a sour expression rûtan wasteland, desert rwaw toward rwân rwe- v.i. to grow, sprout: tokaî chândim rwâ the seed I planted sprouted; ~ga s standpoint, viewpoint rwânîn v.t. to look; ~à ... to look at: rwânîyânà min they looked at me; hal-~ ba to look something over from top to bottom, to give s.o. the "onceover" sa = sag sa`ât ` hour, clock, o'clock: la ~ (i) chwâr-dâ at four o'clock sabârat ba ¶ concerning, about, in terms of sabîl tobacco pipe sad hundred; ~a century safar trip; ~-kirdin v.t. to travel sag dog; ~ i pe-sûtâw wandering aimlessly sagasaga-kirdin B v.t. to play 'possum saghlat TM confused, perplexed; ~î TM confusion sarâ field sakht hard, difficult sako bench sakta heart attack; ~-kirdin v.t. to have a heart attack salâ Y resurrection; ro i ~ Y doomsday salâmat healthy; ~î health; ba ~î in good health salmândin T salmen- v.t. to OET prove, to accept salmenrân ²T salmenre- ²T v.p. to be proven salp T oar; ~ândin T salpenOET v.t. to row salt T single, unmarried; ~azalâm T a solitary traveler on foot samar fruit samara amazing: shitèk i sayr u ~ya it's something amazing; toil samâ dance; ~-kirdin v.t. to dance samâs patient, calm samâwar samovar sandin sen- OE v.t. to take, take hold of, get, buy sangân s sange- s v.i. to weigh; ~din s sangen- OEs v.t. to weigh, evalute; hal-~din to evaluate, assess sangîn s heavy sannalî chair sapân v.i. to be imposed, forced; ~din sapen- OE v.t. to impose saqat dangerous: pyâwèk i saqat a-- nâwerim bichimà lây he's a dangerous man--I don't dare go near him Saqiz Saqqez, a town in Iranian Kurdistan saqâ watercarrier, waterseller sar head (verbal expressions involv-



ing sar are given below; for all other compounds, see alphabetically): ~ âw chûnawa v.i. to go to the bathroom; ~ bilind-kirdinawa v.t. to rebel; ~ dânwândin ba to bow the head to; la ~ dân v.t. to decapitate; ~ dar-henân v.t. to appear: gyâ sar'î darhenâwa the plants have appeared; to stick the head out: sar'î la panjara darhenâ she stuck her head out of the window; ~ kho hâtin v.i. to recover; ~ la farmân i ... hal-pechân to disobey; ~ la re dân v.t. to disappoint: sar'mân la re't dâya you've disappointed us; ~birdin v.t. to spend (time); ~ chamândin v.t. to lower the head, to give up, submit; ~-dar-chûn la v.i. to understand: sarim le darnâche I don't understand; ~-dâ-nawândin v.t. to lower the head; ~-dân la v.t. to visit, go to see; ~-gum-kirdin v.t. to get excited; ~-hal-girtin v.t. to break the reins; ~-keshân v.t. to peek; ~ khistinà ~ v.t. to tease: saryân khistà sarmân they teased us; ~-khulânawa v.i. to be dizzy; kirdinà ~... v.t. to impose on, charge with: pâshâ dakâtà sar âshawân kichaká'y bidâtè the king forces the miller to give him his daughter; ba ~ kirdinawa v.t. to visit; ~ le-shewân v.i. to be helpless, in distress; ~-nânawa v.t. to lay one's head down (to sleep): dabûâya sarî be shew binetawa he would have had to lay his head down without supper; ~pechî-kirdin v.t. to be obstinate; ~spârdin ba v.t. to rely totaly upon: sar'im pe daspere she relies totally upon me; ~-tâshîn v.t. to have a haircut; ~udar dar-kirdin la v.t. to understand: l' am kârá sarudar darnâkam I don't understand this; ba ~ hâtin v.i. to happen; birdinà ~ v.t. to spend (time); hâtinà ~ v.i. to think, to come to mind: hâtûtà sarim bichim bo shâr it has come to my mind to go to town sarabahâr beginning of spring sarak head, chief, president: sarak wazîrân prime minister; ~î main, chief sar'anjâm in the end, finally saraâ i in addition to sarao headstrong saratâ c beginning sarawa upward sarawgird guardian (of a child) sarawkhwâr headed down sarawzher ¤ headed down sarawzhûr headed up sarâ government building sarâpâ from head to foot, completely sarâw spring sarbadarawa well-known, famous sarbakho independent; ~î independence sarbaraw|zher(a) ()¤ headed down; ~zhûr(a) headed up sarbarz honorable, respected, with one's head held high sarbast free, independent; ~î freedom, independence sarbân ¶ roof sarbâz ¶ soldier; ~î military sarbilind proud sarbi g­ shortcut: ~ royshtim, zû gayshtim I took a shortcut and got here early sarburd adventure sarbûrî adventure sarchâwa ¸ source, spring; ~girtin la v.t. to originate with sarchopî S leadership of a ring dance sardam moment; ~è(k) ´ all at once; ~î temporary sardast sleeve; ~akî 8



standing (doing something normally done seated or lying down): ~ tifang'î hâwîsht he fired the rifle standing sardân i visit to sardâr ¶ leader, chief saren ¤ lifetime saresha â, sareshân â head ache sargardânî perplexity sargarmkar amusing sargirân lazy, drunk sargurushta 8 adventure sarhât event sarinj scrutiny, investigation; ~dân la to scrutinize, investigate closely; ~ râ-keshan v.t. to attract the attention; ~râkesh OEä attractive sarîn a pillow sarjam · collection, ensemble, altogether; ba ~ together with; ~gal ¸ community sarkawtû successful, having attained one's desire, having made an achievement; ~âna triumphantly sarkhosh drunk sarkird|a B commander, leader; ~aî B leadership, command; ~âyatî B leadership sarkomâr president sarkona reproach, rebuke sarkwer ¤B stupid sarleshewâw ²8OE distressed sarmashq lesson; hâtinà ~ to serve as an example sarmâ cold, coldness; ~-khwârdin v.t. to catch cold sarmâwaz the month of Sagittarius (November 22­December 21) sarnâs famous, well-known sarok leader; ~âyatî leadership sarparisht chief, head sarpech ² obstinate, refractory sarpi gº brimful sarpot desultory, superficial sarqâp lid sarqâfilachî caravan leader sarraq stubborn sarrâ in addition; by the by; on the way sarrishta 8 expertise sarrût bareheaded, schoolchild sarsarî flighty, empty-headed sarsâm perplexed, dumbfounded sarsho humiliated sarsumân amazement: ba sarsumânawa gutim I said with amazement sartâsh c barber; ~khâna Øc barbershop sartop unrivaled (in beauty or bravery): l' am nâwá'dâ ~a he is unrivaled in these parts sarugwelâk l form, shape sarwar leader; ~î leadership saryek altogether sarzawî earth, land sarzârakî all talk and no action sarzârî talk, speech sarzhimârî census sawa basket sawdâ commerce, trade; love; eczema; ~î afflicted with eczema; violently in love sawr slowly: ~ qsa bika speak slowly sawz green say = sag sayâra p automobile saydawân hunter sayid sayyid, title borne by descendants of the Prophet Muhammad sayr a strange, odd: ~a that's odd; ~kirdin v.t. to look: sayr i amá ka look at this! sayrân a outing, trip; ~gar sa excursioner, tourist sâ1 then, so sâ2 shadow; na bikay na bikhoy, har



tamâshâ i sâ i gardinî bikay you wouldn't be able to do anything or eat anything, you'd just look at the shadow of her neck (an expression for being mesmerized by beauty) sâbûn soap sâda simple sâgh whole, hail, healthy; ~î health; ~-bûnawa to reach a conclusion, come to an end sâkâr ~ straightforward sâkhta µ fabricated, false sâkhtimân 0 building sâl year; ~gâr a long period of time sâm fear: sâm'î le nîsht he was gripped by fear; ~nâk frightful; z ba~ fearful, terrible; pi~ gº fearful, frightful sâmâl clear (sky, weather) sândin sen- OE = sitândin sâqata tree trunk sârd cold; ~î coldness; ~î u garmî i zhyân dîtin to have much experience in life sârghî bandage sâezh ¤ healed; ~-bûn v.i. to heal (wound) Sâsânî Sassanian sât time, moment; la dwâ ~ i aw rozhá in the aftermath of that day sâwân sâw- v.t. to rub, wear down sâwîlka poor, beggarly sâya shadow; la ~ i v because of, on account of sâz musical instrument; happy; wealthy; ready; baggage; ~inda musician; ~-kirdin v.t. to construct; ~-krân la v.p. to be constructed of sbayn|î tomorrow; bo ~e > 8 8 the next morning, tomorrow morning sbene >OE8 = sbaynî se three; ~ham ² third; ~sham8 ma OE Tuesday; ~-u-dû-(le) kir din v.t. 6 () to hesitate, waffle; be seudû lekirdin / ² without hesitation sebar mOE shadow sedâra ²8 gallows selâw ˲8 flood, deluge sew ²8 apple shabaq dawn; ~-dân v.t. imprs. for dawn to break: wirda wirda shabaqî dadâ little by little dawn was breaking shakat tired; ~î exhaustion shakând- = shikândshakhs person, personage shalâl Y steeped; la khwen ~ steeped in blood shamcha  match shamma Saturday shamshama bat; ~kwera ¤B bat shan winnowing shap slap shapol wave shaq slap, kick; ~ hal-dân ba to kick; ba ~ pe-kirdin to kick around: ba shaq tarâten i hawshaká'yân pe kirdim they kicked me all around the courtyard; ~-birdin v.t. to crack, split; to go to pieces, to fly into a rage shaqa flutter, sound of a bird's wing in flight; dân la ~ i bâl v.t. to flap the wings shaqâm street shaqâw big step shaqqa = shaqa sha fight; ~-kirdin v.t. to fight; ~nânawa v.t. to stir up war; ~ajwenkirdin dagal B ¤ v.t. to exchange curses with; ~agaak war between city quarters, civil war; ~ânî hostile sharm shame, embarrassment: sharm girtimî I was embarrassed; ~azâr embarrassed sharwâl pants, trousers shash six; ~am sixth



shatak-dân to tie up tight shaw night; am~ tonight; ~chara ¸ banquet; ~è by night; ~gâr all night long shaytân Satan, the devil shâ king; ~nishîn ë capital; ~rag artery shâbâl ¶ wing feather shâd happy; ~î joy, rejoicing; ~-bûn v.i. to rejoice at seeing someone from whom one has been separated shâdimânî gaity, joy shâgashka ~ overjoyed, about to faint from joy shâhîd witness shâkh mountain; horn shâlîna T a square of woolen cloth shâllâ ËT I wish (+ past cond.) shâllâ bíhâtîtâya I wish you had come shân shoulder; ~-dânà bar v.t. to undertake shân-dân v.t. to show shâno stage shânâzî pride; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to take pride in shâr city; ~azâ urbane, citified; ~azâ la knowledgeable, expert in; ~ânga s world traveler; ~badar exiled, driven from town; ~istâniyatî 8 civiliza tion; ~î urban; ~ochka town; ~oka town shârdin shâr- : ~-awa v.t. to hide, conceal shâro a sheaf of reaped wheat shât u shût bragging shâyî = shâdî; ~ u zamâwand kirdin lagal to get married to shena zOE breeze; ~î patience, stealth sher OE lion; ~panja OE cancer shet OE crazy; ~-bûn v.i. to go crazy; ~khâna صOE insane asylum shew1 ²8 dinner, evening meal shew2 ²8 = shîw shewa ² style, manner; dialect; 8 ~zwân ²8 dialect shewala T²8 very small valley shewân ²8 shewe- ²8 v.i. to be in distress; ~din ²8 shewen- ¤²8 v.t. to cause distress shewâz ²8 = shîwâz shikaft cave shikân shke- v.i. to break shikândin shken- OE v.t. to break, to vanquish, to dishonor shikâr hunting shike gOE mountain crag shikhâta Ø matches shikift = shikaft shikist defeat; ~-henân v.t. to defeat; ~-khwârdin v.t. to be defeated shil loose, weak, flabby; wet, watery; ~-kirdin v.t. to loosen, untie (a knot); ~~-kutân v.t. to beat to a pulp: shilshil kutâyânim they beat me to a pulp shilazhân k shilazhe- k v.i. to get confused shilâp Ë splash shiller OE a type of tulip shilpa k splat, splash; (meta.) very greasy pilaf shimak belongings shimqâr hawk shimsher OE sword shinashin 8 huffing and puffing shingil-dân Ç8 v.t. to bestir oneself shinîn 8 v.i. to blow (wind); ~awa to blow (in the wind) shipirza Î scattered, distracted shi-u-wi-bûn g to be ripped: kirâsakám shiuwibûwa my shirt is ripped and torn shirîkhândin shirîkhen- OE v.t. to roar shit thing shitin sho- (v.t.; 3rd sing. pres. shwâ) to wash; ~awa to wash again shîla 8 juice



shîn1 dark blue, dark green; ~-bûn to become green (plants); ~-bûnawa la v.i. (1) to importune, pester: to bo la min shîn bûyawa u das bar nâday? why are you pestering me so incessantly?; (2) to turn blue from laughter: la pekanîn shîn bûmawa I died laughing shîn2 wail, lament shînatî z> = shînaward shînaward z > /shînawird z > summer garden shîr milk; sword shîrîn a sweet, nice Shîrîn a Shirin, Armenian princess and wife of the Sassanian Chosroës Parvez shîsh > skewer, stake; ~a > bottle; skewer shîw 8 narrow valley shîwâz 8 appearance, form sho limit, boundary; be~ OE without limit sho- pres. stem of shitin shokh graceful, beautiful; jokester; ~ u shang s beautiful, enchanting shon trace; ~gîrî-kirdin v.t. to pursue, look for sho-kirdin(awa) B v.t. to let down, lower; mil ~-kirdin to bend the neck, submit; sar ~-kirdin to bow the head shorbâ ¶ soup, broth shorish uprising, rebelion shu plow; ~-kirdin v.t. to plow shubât ¶ February shukir B gratitude shurdin shur- v.t. to wash shû husband; ~-kirdin v.t. to marry: khwayshkim shûy-kird my sister got married; ba ~ dân v.t. to marry (a girl) off: dagâtà taman i bashûdân she is reaching a marriageable age shûm ill-omened, gloomy shûra city wall shûraî shame, disgrace shûsha glass; ~band windshield shwâ(t) () (third sing. pres. of shitin) shwân shepherd shwen ¤ place; ~ a gishtîakân public places; ~ ... kawtin v.i. to follow, pursue, chase: shwen kilâw i bâbirdû kawtûa he's on a wild goose chase; ba ~ regâ i ...dâ gaân to look for a way to ...; ~awâr l remain, monument, ruin; ~awârî l monumental sifat fidelity; ba~ faithful; be~ / unfaithful; be~î / infidelity sija red sik belly, womb; ~-dâ-nân v.t. to give birth; ~-kirdin v.t. to get pregnant sika coin sikâlâ Y complaint sikirter OE secretary sim hoof; ~kol-kirdin B v.t. to stomp the hooves on the ground simt side sindûq 8 box sing 8 stake, peg sinif 8 class sinoq 8, sinûq 8 chest, trunk sinûr 8 boundary, border sip perfect; ~ u sâgh hail and hearty sipâ 8 army sipla k8 unfaithful; ~î infidelity siraw|ân sirawe- v.i. to become calm, be at rest sirawândin sirawen- ¤ v.t. to make calm; to strike; kho-~ la to hit against, collide with sirinj = sarinj siînawa g v.t. to wipe clean sirkândin sirken- OE v.t. to mutter



sirta whisper sirtândin c sirten- OE v.t. to whisper sirusht nature sirûd anthem sirwa breeze sitam 8 bad, grievous: châkbûnaway zor ~a prospects for his recovery are very slim sitândin siten- OE v.t. to get, 8 8 take, buy; hal-~ to flush (animals) out of their holes, lairs, &c. siyâs|at politics; ~atmadâr 8 8 politician; ~î 8 political Siyâwish 8 Siyawush, son of the Iranian shah Kay-Kaus sîkatora 8 gizzard sîlâ hole; ~mîsh > mouse8 8 hole sîng z> breast sînî > tray sîs > withered; ~-bûn to wither slâw Ë greetings; ~-kirdin la v.t. to greet; ~-sandinawa v.t. to acknowledge a greeting: slâw'yân nasandînawa they did not acknowledge our greeting so doubt; be~ OE doubtless(ly) sok light, lightweight: ~ u hâsân easy: zhyân boy sok u hâsân bû life was easy for him songa s reason; la ~ i because of sorâgh trace; ~-kirdin v.t. to look for, search out; hâtinà ~ v.i. to come after, to come looking for: hâtà sorâghim dâwâ i qarzaká'y kird he came looking for me to ask for his loan back; ~ i ... pirsîn la to ask (s.o.) the whereabouts of ...; be~ OE lost, disappeared without a trace sorâkh = sorâgh spâ 8 = sipâ spârdin 8 sper- OE8 v.t. to entrust spâs 8 thanks; ~-kirdin v.t. to thank spî S8 white; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to whi ten, to bleach suâlkar ¢ beggar suja · = sija suk = sok sultân T sultan, ruler supâ army supâs = spâs surâkh = sorâgh surisht = sirusht sûch corner sûd profit, benefit Sûdâba Sudaba, wife of KayKaus and step-mother of Siyawush sûk light in weight; deprecation, contempt: khalk ba sûkawa ley dawânîn the people were looking at him with contempt; ~-kirdin v.t. to lighten (a weight), thin out; to deprecate sûr (1) red; ~-kirdin-awa v.t. to fry, saute; gul a ~ rose; châw ~kirdinawa la v.t. to glare at: kârakar châw'î le sûr kirdimawa the servant glared at me; (2) insistent, determined; ~ lasar determined to; ~âî redness sû spin; ~-mân to spin: sarî ~ damene his head is spinning sûân sûe- v.i. to turn around, to circle around; ~-awa to walk about, stroll; hal-~ to spin, be moved; to evolve sûândin sûen- ¤ v.t. to turn, spin; hal-~ to turn, spin, accomplish (a task) sûtân c sûte- ì v.i. to burn sûtândin c sûten- OE v.t. to burn sûzyân p sûz- v.i./t. to burn swâlat T pottery swân swe- v.t. to rub swâr horseman, mounted; ~ i ... bûn to get in, ride in/on (vehicle); ~ i ... kirdin v.t. to mount on, let into (a vehicle): swâr i karèkyân kird they



put him on a donkey swe longing, yearning, regret; ~bûnawa to yearn for someone, to pine swend l oath; ~-khwârdin v.t. to take an oath, to swear: swend'im bo dakhoy beytawa? do you swear to me you'll come back? swenka l dregs, swill Swîs § Switzerland; ~î Swiss tabaq platter tadârak preparations; ~-kirdin v.t. to prepare: ~ i safar'im bo âmâda bikan let them prepare for me the paraphernalia for a journey tafâwat difference tagara wheel (of cart, carriage) tagbîr plan, plot tak near, next to, opposite takân motion; ~-dân v.t. to shake; ~-khwârdin v.t. to move, budge: pyâwaká takân'î nakhwârd the man didn't budge takândin taken- OE v.t. to shake; hal-~ ditto; râ-~ ditto takîn-awa la v B v.i. to avoid takht smooth, flat; throne, bed; ~kirdin v.t. to flatten; ~ i zawî kirdin v.t. to flatten to the ground; to wipe out; ~ u tânj c throne and crown; la sar ~ dâ-nân v.t. to seat on the throne, to enthrone takhta board, slab; ~-bûn v.i. to be µ boarded shut: bâzâr ~ ya the market's boarded shut; ~-kirdin v.t. to board up: dukânakáy ~ kirâwa his shop has been boarded up; ~rash µ blackboard ta'kîd ; C affirmation; ~-kirdinawa lasar to reaffirm takûz B ordered, organized; ~î B orderliness, organization tala T trap, snare; ~-nânawa v.t. to lay a trap talaba T student talafon v telephone talasm v talisman, magic spell; ~khwendin ba sar ...dâ v.t. to cast a spell over talatal-chûn v v.i. to walk very quietly talavizyon v television talâq Y divorce; ~-dân v.t. to divorce: ~'î dâwim he has divorced me talâr hall, room in an upper story talîsm > = talasm tam dust; mist, fog; puff on a cigarette; ~-rândin v.t. to bury taman age: la ~ i mindâlî i khoydâ during one's childhood tamara hurly-burly tamâ desire, greed; ba ~ i desirous of; ~kâr ~ greedy tamâkâr = tamâkâr tamâko ~ tobacco tamâshâ spectacle; ~-kirdin v.t. to look at; to watch (a performance), to see (a sight); ~khâna L theater tamâta tomato tambal m lazy tame admonition; ~-kirdin to admonish, to instruct tamez OE clean tammûz July tan body; ~drust healthy tanaka tin, tin can tanâf rope tanâna(t) () especially tandûr oven; ~-dâ-khistin v.t. to light an oven tang s tight, narrow; saddle strap; ba ~ ...awa bûn v.i. to belong to, to be encompassed by; ~atâw cs hectic pressure; ~atâw-nân cs v.t. to put pressure on; ~âna s narrow pass, strait; dire straits; ~âw s under pressure, in dire straits; ~dast s poor; ~ u chalama T¸s difficulty tanhâ only; alone; ~î loneliness



tanîsht > beside, next to tankhwâ commercial goods; investment capital tanyâ alone, only; following a neg. clause, tanyâ...nabe nothing/nobody but: kasim niya, tanyâ dâyk a pîrèk nabe I have no one but an old mother; kam yân zor roysht kasèk nâzâne tanyâ Khwâ nabe how far he went only God knows; ~î solitude, loneliness; ~bâl ¶ alone, forlorn tapândin tapen- v.t. to stuff, OE cram; to kick, beat with the hands tapîn v.i. to collapse tapsî é plate taqa thump, thud, sound of a heavy thing falling taqal stitch; ~-dân v.t. to stitch; ~ le-dân v.t. to stitch; ~ hal-dân la to take a stitch in taqâlâ attempt; ~-kirdin v.t. to try, attempt taq|în v.i. to burst; ~înawa ba ; to break out in, burst out into; ~amanî explosive material ta moist, wet; nice; ~dam eloquent; ~dast expert, dextrous tara in exile taraqî advancement, progress; ~khwâz ; progressive: ko i yekiyatî u taraqîkhwâzî i kurd Society for the Unity and Advancement of Kurds tarât(en) OE prancing of a horse up and down the field tarâten i OE all around (prep) tareq l = tarîq tarfana lost tarîq shy; ~î shyness tarkhân L special, devoted (ba/bo to); exempt from taxes and imposts; ~-kirdin bo v.t. to give someone exclusive use of something: îtir la nâw aw khânûá bo'yân tarkhân kirdibû, nadagunjâ he no longer fit in the house they had set aside for him tarkhun tarragon tarm body, corpse tarsa reversed, upside down tarza hail tashanâ-kirdin B v.t. to heal, to heal over tashrîn a : ~ i yekam October; ~ i dûham November task narrow tawakul B trust in God tawar aim tawâfat = tafâwat tawâfiq agreement, co-operation tawâncha # pistol tawândin tawen- ¤ v.t. to fold tawâw complete; ~-bûn v.i. to be finished; ~-kirdin v.t. to finish; ba ~î completely tawizhm pressure tawq ring; ~ a sar top of the head: ba ~ i sarîawa on top of his head taws taunt tay tame, trained tay-kirdin B v.t. to traverse tayâr p ready tayâra p airplane tâ1 (1) c to, up to: l' erawa tâ awe from here to there; (2) by the time: tâ min gayshtim namâ by the time I arrived he wasn't there any longer; (3) until (conj. + neg. subj.): tâ nayey, nâyem I won't come until you do; until (introducing final clause + indicative) min l' era bot dâdanem tâ deytawa I'll put it here for you until you come back; (4) (prep.) until tâ sa'ât i penj châwawânit dakam I'll wait for you until five o'clock; (5) the longer, to keep on (getting ~ dahât as time went by, the longer (a situation pertained): tâ dahât, girântir dabû as time went by, the heavier it got; tâ de, rangî



zard u lâwâz dabe he keeps on getting paler and thinner; ~kû Bc so that, in order that (+ subj.) tâ2 c fever tâ3 c fold; ~-kirdin v.t. to fold: kâghazaká tâ bika fold the paper tâj c crown tâk c sole, solitary, alone; ~-u-tanyâ c all by oneself; ~-u-tarâ(k) c () miscellaneous tâkû Bc (+ subj.) in order that; (prep.) until: ~ estâ until now tâl c bitter tâlân Yc plunder; ~-kirdin v.t. to pillage, plunder tâm c taste; ~-kirdin v.t. to taste tâmazro c, tâmâzro c eager, craving; ~î c eagerness, craving tân c warp (weaving) tâna c taunt; ~ le-dân v.t. to taunt tânj c = tâj tânjî c hunting dog tânût c taunt, abuse tâpo c ghost, apparition tâq c sole, only: ~ a kuèkî dabe he has only one son; odd, not even tâqat c energy; be~ µOE anxious, sad tâqâna c only child tâqim c group tâqî c test, trial; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to try, to test Târân c Tehran târândin c târen- ¤c v.t. to drive away forever târîf c description: la ~ nâye it can't be described, it is beyond description târîk ac dark târîkh c history tâsân c tâse- c v.i. to choke, be strangled; ~din c tâsen- c v.t. OE to choke, strangle tâsh c big slab of rock; ~abard c ditto tâshîn c tâsh- c v.t. to shave tâw1 c period of time; ~è(k) ¤c for a while; tâw2 c (1) heat, burning, fever, longing, grieving: la ~ i dûrî i kuakáy har dû châwî kwer bûbû both his eyes had gone blind from grieving over separation from his son; (2) downpour (of rain): ~ i bârân nabirâyawa the downpour has not ceased; (3) turn, charge, gallop; ~-dân v.t. to make (a horse) gallop; ~-girtin v.t. to work assiduously; ~-kirdin v.t. to trick s.o. into believing; ~ sandin v.t. for heat to become intense tâwân1 c reward; fault, guilt, crime; ~bâr c blameworthy, guilty; ~bâr-kirdin v.t. to blame; ~ rekkhistin v.t. to accuse falsely tâwân2 c tâwe- c v.i. to melt; ~din c tâwen- ¤c v.t. to melt tâwil c tent tâwistân 8c summer tâwlama vc wire basket spun to heat charcoal tâwtwe-kirân B c v.i. to suffer tâybat c personal, special, devoted (ba to); ba ~î c especially; ~mandî lc characteristic tâza c new, fresh; ~lâw c adolescent tâzhân c whip, lash tâzhî c hunting dog tâzî c Arabic tâziyâna pc whip te ì see da; ~-birdin (v.t., = birdin da) to put something inside something else; ~-chûn (v.i., = chûn da) to suffer loss; to cost a lot: mâlakám zorî te chûwa my house has cost me a lot; ~gayândin v.t. to make understand, explain to: hâl u masala'y te gayândim he explained the situation to me; ~-gayshtin v.i. to understand; ~-girtin v.t. to take aim at: bardî te bigra aim at the rock; ~-gîrân v.i. to tangle; ~-



kishân v.t. to pass quickly: b' era dâ hât u tekishâ he came there and quickly passed by; ~-kirdin v.t. = kirdin da to pour onto: âwî te ka pour some water on it; to make ready: sabîl te ka get the pipe ready; ~-mân v.i. to be bewildered te- ì cmpd. vb. agent; see te-gayshtin, te hal-chûn, te-kutân tebar mOE lit, burning; ~-bûn v.i. to be lit (fire), to burn; ~-dân v.t. to light (fire): âgirî tebar dâ he lit a fire; to set a dog on tebînî ;Ò² observation tek together; ~-bar-bûn v.i. to fight; ² ~-birdin v.t. to throw things together; ~-chûn v.i. to change, lose one's composure, to get mixed up; ~-chûn la to be mistaken, be the wrong person: lem tek chûy I thought you were someone else; ~-chûn lagal to disagree with; ~-dân v.t. to spoil, mix up; ~-hal-dân v.t. to kick; to lock horns; ~-khirân v.p. to get tied together; ~-khistin v.t. to tie together; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to break someone's bones in a fight: lashyân hamû tek kirdawa they beat him to a pulp; ~shikân v.i. to collapse tekal ² with, along with; bo ~ ba together with; ~-pekal all mixed up, jumbled; ~-dân v.t. to stir: shîraká tekal da stir the milk; dast ~-kirdin lagal v.t. to have carnal relations with: damawe lagalim rek bikawî u dast'im lagal tekal bikay I want you to lie with me and have sex with me te-koshân ² -koshe- ² to strive, to struggle tekrâ ² altogether; ba ~î in general, generally tepar ÜOE: ~-bûn ba sar ...dâ v.i. (for time) to pass after ...; ~-kirdin la v.t. to exceed, surpass ter1 OE full, satiated; ~khaw LOE having had enough sleep; ~-khwârdin la to eat one's fill of ter2 OE large saddlebag teshu OE pile, heap; ~-kirdin v.t. to make a pile; to have breakfast teska OE = tîshk tif spit; ~-kirdin v.t. to spit; ~-kirdinawa v.t. to spit out; ~ân tife v.i. to spit; ~ânà dam yek to plot, conspire tifang s rifle, shotgun; ~-hâwîshtin v.t. to fire a rifle tikândin Z tiken- OE Z v.t. to drip, cause to drip; âbû-~ to dishonor: âbû'y tikândim he dishonored me tifâq provisions tift mouth-puckeringly sweet tikhel Dz stretched out on the ground, prone, prostrate tikhun near; ~ i ... kawtin to get near: tikhun i âgir nakawî you shouldn't get near the fire tilakân k tilake- k v.i. to be sha ken; râ-~ to be shaken up (as liquid in a bottle); râ-tilakândin tilaken- v.t. to shake up tilaqân k = tilakân tilân tile- v.i. to toss and turn; ~dinawa v.t. to toss; to juggle; to deal (ba with) tilîs > drenched, sopping wet; ~ân > tilîse- > v.i. to get drenched; ~ândin > tilîsen- OE> v.t. to wet tilîsh >k ripped, torn: kirâsakám ~ ~ bû my shirt was ripped to shreds; ~birdin v.t. to split: dâr tilîshî bird the tree split; ~ân >k tilîshe- >k v.i. to split; ~ândin >k tilîshen- OE>k v.t. to split tilyâk = tiryâk tilyân k tile- k v.t. to leave, allow tir Z other; hîch i ~ nothing else: namatwânî hîch i tir bikam I couldn't have done anything else; yek~ each other



tirâzân Z v.i. to go to pieces; ~ la shwen kho to be unrecognizable tire Z grapes tio-kirdin B gZ v.t. to disgrace, to drive away in disgrace tirpa sound Z of a footfall; ~ i pe Z S footstep tirs Z fear tirsân Z tirse- Z la v.i. to be afraid of, fear tirsândin Z tirsen- OEZ v.t. to scare; tirsenar zOEZ frightening, scary tirsh Z bitter; khoshit be u ~it be whether you like it or not tiryâk pZ opium; ~kesh pZ opiOE um smoker; ~î pZ opium addict tis E fart (noiseless); ~-dân v.t. to fart; ~in E farter, "old fart," idler; ~în E v.i. to fart tizân Z tize- Z v.i. to collect (liquid), well up: dastim khwenî te tizâwa blood has collected in my hand; firmesk la châwim tizâ tears welled up in my eyes tîgh blade tîka bit, piece tîmâr-kirdin B 7 v.t. to care for the ill tîn power, force; ba ~awa powerfully; be~ n² powerless, weak tîn|û z> thirsty: ~ma I'm thirsty; ~wetî lz> thirst tîp > group, contingent; team tîr arrow tîra clan, family branch, subdivision of a hoz tîsha > sprout; ~bi g­> frost that kills young sprouts tîshk > ray tîsk > clump of hair; bunch of grapes; long-haired: maèk i ~ longhaired sheep tîtâl µ > joke; ~-kirdin ba v.t. to make fun of, play a joke on: pey wâ bû tîtâlî pe dakan he thought they were making fun of him tîz-kirdin ba B v.t. to make fun of; ~-kirdin ba ...awa v.t. to poke, poke fun at tîzh à sharp, hot, spicy; fast, quick; insistent tkâ Z request; ~-kirdin v.t. to request, beg: tkâ akam please to you (sing.) tobra ­ sack tof blizzard; ~ân blizzard, deluge tok tree bark tola T revenge; ~ i ... kirdinawa v.t. to take revenge for: biyâr'yân dâ tola i am âbûchûnáyân bikanawa they decided to take revenge for this outrage against their dignity tom(a) seed, grain; tomwashândin v.t. to sow, scatter seed tomâr record, document; ~-kirdin v.t. to record top ball; big lie; ~al round; ~chî cannoneer; liar topîn top- v.i. to die (of an animal); hal-~ to drop dead toplâkh piled up; ~a-kirdin L B v.t. to pile up: payn u qur ba sar yekâ toplâkhay kirdûa he's piled up dung and mud on top of each other toq top: bardèkî la ~ i sarim dâ he threw a stone on top of my head toqal patch: ~ a tûtiikèk a patch of wild strawberries tow = tom; ~ i mirîshik egg toz dust; ~-kirdin v.t. to stir up dust; ~e , ~èk ¤ a little bit tozhar researcher, investigator trâzân Z trâze Z v.i. to go to pieces, fall apart; kâr la kâr ~ to be all over trîkândin aZ trîken- OEaZ v.t. to scream trîqânawa Z trîqe- Z v.i. to guf



faw, laugh out loud trîshqa §Z lightning tropîn Z v.i. = topîn trombel ²mZ = trumbîl trumbîl mZ automobile trushkân Z trushke- Z v.i. to squat; hal-~ to squat down trûkân Z trûke- Z v.i. to blink: la châw trûkânèk'dâ in the twinkling of an eye; ~din Z trûkenOEZ v.t. to blink trûsk Z shine, gleam; ~a Z glimmer, gleam; ~âî Z faint glimmer; ~ân Z trûske- Z v.i. to shine, to gleam tulân-awa Y v.i. to fall to pieces (from being cooked too much): goshtaká hend kulîwa tulâwatawa the meat has been so overcooked it's fallen to pieces tumaz wouldn't you know? tumâr = tomâr tund tight; fast, swift; hot, spicy; ~kirdin v.t. to hold tight, to make fast turben OE bag, sack turkmân Turcoman tursh sour; ~ândin turshen- OE v.t. to make sour tutin Z tobacco tûk hair; ~asar hair on the head tûla v a small hunting dog tûa angry, mad; ~î anger: ba tûaîawa rû'y le kirdim he turned away from me in anger tûraka sack, bag Tûrân Turan, the traditional Transoxanian enemy of Iran tûsh1 meeting, involved; ~-bûn v.i. to meet, come across: dwene la shaqâm'dâ tûshî bûm I met him in the street yesterday; ~-kirdin v.t. to get someone involved: to tûshit kirdim you got me involved tûsh2 cold, rainy weather; meanness of character; ~-kirdin v.t. imprs. to be cold and rainy (of the weather): hawâkay tûsh kird the weather turned bad; ~î bad weather tûtiik gZ wild strawberry twân twe- v.t. to want; ~awa = tâwân twânâ ability: hargiz la twânâm'â niya it will never be within my ability, ba pe i ~ inasfar as possible twânîn twân- v.t. to be able (+ subj) twânj disapprobation; ~-girtin da to find fault with twâshâ-kirdin B = tamâshâkirdin twe-kirdin B v.t. to rip to shreds: bulbul ka garm i naghmaya âgir dakâtawa / khuncha hazîna, jarg u dilî bo dakâ twe (Nâlî) the nightingale, hot with song, bursts into flame; the bud is saddened and rips her heart to shreds for him twel Çl forehead tyâ = tey(d)â in it; ~-birdin v.t. to do away with, to eliminate; ~-chûn v.i. to go away, disappear; ~ râ-mândin v.i. to be perplexed, confused; to ponder tyâtro Z theater; ~khâna L Z theater u and umed hope; nâ~ desperate, in ´ ´ despair urûpâ l Europe utrumbîl mZ automobile wa1 = ba: wakhabar = bakhabar, wa re = ba re; wadast = ba dast wa2 and wach offshoot, offspring wa`d ` promise; ~-dân v.t. to promise wadast = ba dast wafât death; ~-kirdin v.t. to die



wafd delegation wajâkh · male offspring; ~kwer ¤B· childless wak like; ~ yek alike, all the same; ~î ka on the other hand wakht time: l' aw ~á'dâ at that time; ~ bû, ~â bû nearly, almost (+ subj.) wakht bû bizîqene he almost screamed; wakht-a la birsân bimirim I'm about to die of hunger; ~ basar birdin ba v.t. to while away time by; ~î temporary wakû B as though (+ subj.): ~ shitèk'î bîr kawtibetawa as though he remembered something walâm Y answer, response; ~-dân v.t. to answer waqt = wakht wára come!, come on! (impt. sing. of hâtin) warân v.i. to fall; to writhe; hal-~ to fall down warge gOE translator; ~ân gOE translation war-geân gOE v.t. to translate; ~à sar ... to translate into: am ktebáy wargeâyà sar fârsî he translated this book into Persian; ba pishtè ~ to knock (s.o.) over on his back, to knock down wárin come!, come on! (impt. pl. of hâtin) wais(t) fed up, exasperated waîn a v.i. to bark: sa i hîch darkèk pet nâwae "you're a stranger at no door"; hal-~ = hal-warân was bored warz tall (= barz); season of planting and harvesting warza height, promontory, hill warzish sports, exercise waset OE will and testament; ~-kirdin v.t. to make one's last will washân washe- v.i. to be shaken, to be scattered; dâ-~ to be shaken out: jilakát dâwashâ your clothes have been shaken out; râ-~ to be shaken; to waste away (from illness): lashî dâwashâwa his body has wasted away; ~-awa la to be suitable for, proper for: am kârá la to nâwashetawa this is not suitable for you, am jilá la to dawashetawa these clothes suit you washândin washen- v.t. to OE shake, scatter; dâ-~ to bend down and shake: dârèkî bo dâwashând barî nakawt he bent down a tree and shook it but the fruit didn't fall; hal-~ to rip open, rip apart; râ-~ to shake violently washârtû hidden wastâ 8 master, professor wassân wass- = wastân wastwastân wast- (v.i., pres. 8 tense often contracted to dast- for dawast-) to stand, stop; ~ la to be tired of: wastâwim la kâr I'm tired of working; ~awa la to confront: ley wastâmawa shaqèkim te haldâ I confronted him and gave him a kick; hal~ to get up, stand up; ba pe i ... hal-~ to carry out, execute; râ-~ to stand up, stop, stay wastândin 8 wasten- OE8 v.t. to stop; (2) to tire out; (3) to take back, to get back: dabe aw qarzáy le wastenim I have to get that loan back from him wawî bride, daughter-in-law waz down waz` situation wazândin wazen- ¤ v.t.: dâ-~ to let out/off (of vehicle) wazârat ministry: ~ i darawa ministry of the interior wazin pain, hurt, annoyance wazîn a v.i. to blow (wind); dâ-~ to get out/off (of a vehicle), to come



down; (2) to lose (game); hal-~ to jump up wazîr a vizier, minister: sarak ~ân prime minister wâ thus wâda appointed time, usual time wâq mind, brain: ~im wi-mâ my brain spun wâqi` actuality, reality: la ~ i zhyân zor ba dûrin they are far from the reality of life wârisht raining wâta i.e., that is to say wâz-henân la v ² v.t. to leave, abandon; to dissuade, persuade ... not to: zor hawl dadâ bâwkî l' am kalkalá i zhin henâná wâzbene he is trying hard to dissuade his father from his wish to take a wife wâzha word; ~gal vocabulary we lighted, afire: âgir weya the fire's lit; ~-kawtin v.t. to try: we kawa bizâna la kweya try to find out where it is; ~-kirdin v.t. to light: âgiraká we ka light the fire; ~-rizân v.t. to bother, annoy: wem darize dastim le bar nâdâ he annoys me constantly wel Çl loose, wandering, stray; misaimed, misfired; ~-bûn v.i. to search (ba dwâ i ...dâ for); ~-kirdin v.t. to let go, turn loose, cease wena l picture, image; ~gir l photographer werâ i ¤ along with werân ¤ destroyed, ruined werân ¤ were- ¤ (v.t. + subj.) to dare: nayawerâ bibizûetawa he didn't dare budge weza ¤ ambush, sneak attack wezh|ân ¤ wezhe- ¤ v.t. to speak, say; ~a ¤ literature; ~ar ¤ speaker, announcer; ~wân ¤ literary wichân ¸ rest, pause; be~ ¸/ without rest; pâsh kurta ~èk B

²¸ after a short pause wilâkh Y beast of burden wilâm Y = walâm wilât Y country, state; homeland: ~ a yekgirtûakân i Amerikâ the United States of America win lost; ~-bûn v.i. to be lost; la châw ~-bûn v.i. to disappear from sight: tâ la châw win nabet until it disappears from view; ~-kirdin v.t. to lose wi dizzy; ~-bûn/mân v.i. to spin, be dizzy; ~-kirdin v.t. to make dizzy wirch bear wird little, tiny; ~a ~a little by little, slowly; ~-bûnawa v.i. to investigate, examine closely; ~ u khâsh-kirdin B L v.t. to crush, smash; ~akâr investigator; ordered, regular; ~akârî investigation; order, regularity wiena-kirdin B l v.t. to talk nonsense, to talk in one's sleep wirg tripe wik childish begging, whining; ~girtin la v.t. to pester wirm destroyed, damaged wirsha brightness, glitter; ~dâr bright, loud in color wiryâ p clever; observant: wiryây ba observe it carefully wirûzhân v.i. to be excited (of a flock, crowd) wis-bûn v.i. to be quiet: wis ba be quiet!, shut up! wisha word; ~dân dictionary wishk dry; ~-bûn to stop dead in one's tracks: la je i khom wishk bûm I was glued to the spot wishtir camel wishyâr 8 awake; ~-bûnawa v.i. to wake up, be awake wit speech; ~-u-wezh ¤ language, speech, talk; ~-u-wezh-kirdin v.t. to talk, to discuss; ~a word,



speech; ~âr c speech, article witin Z le- T ba v.t. to say to, tell: pe'm wit I told him; ~awa to repeat witrân Z witre- Z v.p. to be said; ~ ba to be called: Hama'y pe dawitre he is called Hama witû iron; ~-kirdin v.t. to iron; ~chî ironer, cleaner; ~kirâw B ironed wiza power, ability wîrd a charm, incantation; ~-khwendin to recite an incantation wîst § will wîstin § we- (v.t., pres. tense (d)amawe, (d)atawe, &c., or -im (d)awe, -it (d)awe, &c.) to want; pe-~ to be necessary wurd = wird wutuwezh-kirdin lagal v B a v.t. to converse, hold talks with wutin Z = witin wutû = witû yakha L collar: dastyân dâyà yakha i yek they grabbed each other by the collar; ~-girtin Z L v.t. to lay hands on, get hold of, trap: ~'y girtim she trapped me yaqa = yakha yâd p memory; henânà ~ p ² to call to mind, remember; ~agâr p memory, souvenir, memento; ~âwar p reminder yâkhud p or yân p or yâna p club yâr p friend yâralmâsî Tp potato yârî p play, game; ~-kirdin B p v.t. to play; ~kar ap player yârîda p help, assistance yârmatî p help; ~-dân p v.t. to help yâsâ p law, statute; ~wil p policeman yek one: ~e l' awân one of them; ~èkyân one of them; each other; dânà ~ v.t. to throw together; har ~ay each one of them; hâtinà ~ to collapse, to go to pieces; ~-girtin v.i. to unite; ~ la dwâ i ~ one after another, successive: rizhem a yekladwâiyekakân i `erâq successive regimes in Iraq; ~-khistin v.t. to unite -yèk (indef. encl. after vowels) = èk yekatî union: yekatî i sovyet the Soviet Union yekdang s unanimous(ly) yekè la one of yekèk ² someone, anyone who (+ subj) yeketî ² = yekatî yekgirtû united: natawa yekgir tûakân the United Nations yekjâr í' at once, altogether; ~î last, final yekkhistin ' unification yeksar B immediately, right away yeksân B alike, identical; ~î identicality yekshamma ' Sunday yektir each other, one another yekudû B without pause, straightaway yen- OE see henân yeshân OE yesh- (v.i.&t.) to hurt: OE sarim ayeshâ I had a headache zabalâ huge, enormous zabr ­ blow, force, strength zabûn miserable, helpless; ~î misery, helplessness zamat trouble, difficulty za'îf thin; lâm i ~ the liquid l zalâm big, large; fellow zalîl wretched, downcast zamân time



zamâwin , zamâwand wedding; ~-kirdin v.t. to wed zambar m ornament zamîn earth, globe zand forearm zang s bell zangal s = zargal zangî s black zangîn s rich zaq outstanding za gold; ~angar goldsmith zarâ'at ` agriculture zard yellow, blond; ~awâla v wasp, hornet; ~halgaâw T yellowed zardakhana L smile; ~-girtin, kirdin v.t. to smile zargal leggings zaîn a wasp zarkî jaundice, hepatitis zarq glitter, glimmer; ~î glittering, bright zarra particle, atom zawî(n) a earth, ground, floor zawîr a angry; ~ bûn la to be angry with zawq taste; ~î happiness zawt-kirdin B v.t. to usurp zân ze- v.i. to be born; to be collected (liquid), to well up: châwim firmeskî te zâ tears welled up in my eyes; âw zâyà dammân we're drooling (in anticipation) zân|â learned; ~ist ë knowledge, learning; ~istga 8ë, ~istgâ 8ë university; ~istî 8ë teaching, instruction; ~în zân- v.t. to know: wâ bizânim as I believe, I think (so); wâ'm zânî gâlta'm dagal dakâ I thought he was joking with me; ~în zân- ba v.t. to consider as; ~rân s zânre- s v.p. to be known, discovered; ~râw s discovery, finding; ~yâr learned, erudite; ~yârî knowledge, education: wazârat i ~ Ministry of Education zâr1 mouth: zârim bû ba tala i taqîw I was left speechless; dam-u-~ mouth zâr2 miserable; la ~î in misery zârâwa accent, dialect; zârawagal dialect bundle zârawok dialect, accent zârik mouth, opening zârola v child zât being, personage; courage, daring; ~ i ... bûn to dare to (do something): ley datirsân u zât i nizzîk bûnawayân nabû they were afraid of him and didn't dare get near zâwâ husband, in-law; father's sister's husband; daughter's husband; sister's husband zâyala T echo zâye lost; ~-bûn to be lost zâyinî , zâyînî > A.D.: sada i nozdaham i ~ the 19th century A.D. zelkâw l marsh ze g¤ gold; ~în ag¤ golden zhahr poison; ~âwî poisonous; ~âwî-kirdin v.t. to poison zham meal zhaman sustenance zhandin v.t. to rub, stick ( into else); hal-~ ditto: har dû dast'î halzhandà khwen i azhdîhâká'dâ she rubbed both hands in the dragon's blood zhang s rust, verdigris; ~ le-dân v.t. to rust, get rusty zhân pain, illness; ~-kirdin v.t. to hurt, be painful; ~asar headache zhândin zhen- ¤ v.t.: râ-~ to shake, rock zhânpon Japan zhâr poor, miserable; poison; ~-dân v.t. to poison zher ¤ under, beneath; la ~ ...awa from beneath, secretly; la ~ ...dâ



under zhimâra number, issue zhimârdin zhimer- OE v.t. to count; ~ ba to consider as zhimerrân OE v.p. to be counted, reckoned zhin woman, wife; ~-henân v.t. to get married (of a man), to take a wife; ~brâ wife's brother; ~î wo manhood zhinawtin Z zhinaw- v.t. to hear, listen to zhîkala Ta cute, darling zhîla(mo) () ember under ashes zhîn a life; ~azhân life zhîshik § hedgehog zhûr room; upward direction; la ~awa v inside; ~è inside; baraw~ la v on the other side of zhûrû north zhûzhû hedgehog zhwânga s meeting place zhyân p life; ~dostî 8 p love of life zhyân p zhî- v.i. to live; bízhî ... long live ... zhyâr p urban life zibân ¶ = zimân zibr ­ rough, coarse zig = sik zigmâk congenital, native: zwân i ~im my native language zik = sik zikmâk = zigmâk zil large in body, huge zilâm = zalâm zilla ò slap; ~-sirawândin v.t. to slap zimân tongue, language; ~bad foul-mouthed, ill-speaking; ~wân linguist zindâna prison zind|û alive; ba ~ûî alive: ba zindûî darhenrâ he was taken out alive; ba ~ heshtinawa v.t. to bring back to life; ~agânî animation, liveliness; ~awar animal, liv ing creature zinjîr chain zi barren tree; fart; step-; ~birâ ­ step-brother; ~khwishk stepsister zirânî knee zirâw gall, courage; ~toqîn galling ziringân s ziringe- s v.i to ring; ~awa s to reverberate zirma explosion, blast zirtaboz crooked old man zistân 8 winter ziwân = zimân ziyâ p much, more; ~tir la v Zp more than ziyâd p much; ~î increase; ~tir la more than; ~-kirdin v.t. to add ziyâfat p banquet ziyân p damage, loss zîlamo = zhîlamo zît clever zîn a saddle zînawar alive, living thing zînd- see zindzîndân prison zîndû = zindû zîqândin zîqen- OE v.t. to scream zîrak a clever zîz a unhappy, angry zmân1 = zabân zmân2 = zimân zol bastard zor1 force; ~-henân bo v.t. to apply force to; ~-kirdin la kho- v.t. to force oneself, try hard (+ subj., to do; ~dâr forceful, cruel, oppressive; ~dârî cruelty, oppression; pi~ gº strong, forceful zor2 very; a lot, much; ...èk i ~ many: shitèk i zor many things; ~'î pe nachû before long, it wasn't long be-



fore zorân wrestling; ~-girtin v.t. to wrestle zorba large quantity; majority; ~ i zor i the vast majority of zorzân clever; ~î cleverness zozân mountainous region, summer pasturage zubân ¶ = zimân zulm injustice, tyranny; ~lekrâw ² oppressed zuât corn zurba = zorba zunâ clarion zurûf circumstances zû early, soon; ba ~î quickly, fast zûr rough, coarse zwân1 = zimân tongue, language; ~nâs linguist; ~nâsî lin guistic, linguistics; shewa~ ² 8 dialect zwân2 time: b' am ~á at this time zwel l garbage zwer ¤ angry zwîr a = zwer


General Index `Able, be' §21 Adjectives, attributive §5; comparative §13; with definite nouns §8; superlative §13; synopsis §9 Alphabet, pp. 4­7 Bîr §22 Calendar §12.3 Circumpositions §14 Conditionals §19(5), §32(a), §33 Conjunctions, subordinating §38 Copulas §15 Days of the week §12.2 Demonstratives §4 Directionals §40 -è §40 Ergativity §27, §27.1 `Have' §16 -îsh §11 Izâfa §6, §7 Months §12.3 Moods, irrealis §32 Noun, absolute state §1; definite state §3; indefinite state §2; plural nouns with attributive adjectives §8; postposed verbal complements §35; synopsis of states §9 Numbers, cardinal §12, ordinal §12.1 Orthographic peculiarities §41 Participles, past passive §34.1; perfect active §28 Phonology, pp. 1­3 Possession §6 Postpositions §14 Prepositions §14, preposed pronominal prepositional complements §14.1; possessive pronouns displaced by preposed prepositional complements §27.4 Pronouns, agent affixes §27, as logical objects of past transitive verbs §27.2; personal §10; possessive §10.1; preposed pronominal complements §14.1; prepositional complements with agent affixes §27.3; possessive pronouns displaced by preposed prepositional complements §27.4; pronominal objects of verbs §23 Relative clauses §39 `Remember' §22 South Sorani §27.1 Stress, p. 3 Temporal duration §37 Twânîn §21


SORANI KURDISH Verbs, factitive §36; imperative perfect tense §29, §29.1; present §24; irrealis mood §32; in -awa subjunctive §19; simple past §25; §18; passive voice §34; past con§27 ditional §33; past habitual/pro- Vowel contractions §42 gressive (intransitive) §26; past `Want' §20 passive participle §34.1; past perWîstin §20 fect tense §30, §30.1; present habitual/progressive §17; present -yatî §15, §29.1



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