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Fashion Colloquia London College of Fashion 21st and 22nd September 2011

Welcome and Introduction from Frances Corner (prepared by Hannah Clayton)

Welcome to the first Fashion Colloquium. This is the first of four meetings coinciding with the four Fashion weeks in London, Milan (February 2012), Paris (September 2012) and New York (February 2013). Our aim is to explore ideas with various communities (academia, practice, media etc.) and to engender an international narrative examining the future of Fashion studies. We argue that fashion is important across so many integral parts of our everyday lives and that it is an area demanding commitment and investment for a pioneering and sustainable future. Uppermost in our objectives is the development of a core of fashion knowledge, a varied resource freely available to all. As such, each of the contributions at this colloquium will be invited to be uploaded to the newly formed repository to be held here at London College of Fashion, University of the Arts London and we hope each of you continue to send us additional contributions in the future. We have a very full programme over the next two days ­ with many events for you to enjoy and opportunities for us to discuss ideas. I would like to thank all of the people who made this event happen and especially to you for attending. Enjoy your visit to London and especially to London College of Fashion.

Professor Frances Corner, OBE Head of the London College of Fashion.

At a glance:

Wednesday September 21, 2011 09:30 ­ 11:00: Opening Plenary: (RHS East Space) Opening Welcome - Frances Corner (Head of LCF) followed by: Round Table: What is the future of London Fashion Week? Panel Discussion with CEO of British Fashion Council Simon Ward, visiting Professor of LCF, Author & Broadcaster, most famous for Co-authoring Harpers & Queens 'The Official Sloane Ranger Handbook' Peter York and Fashion Blogger Susie Bubble - LIVE STREAMED

11:00 - 11:30: Coffee/Tea Break - Canteen

11:30-1:00: 1. Fashion as Industry RHS East Space Joyce Fenton - Douglas Fashion and Craft: investigating the ancillary trades of the London based élite fashion industry. Chair: Claire ShihWenYing Claire ShihWenYing Fashion Competitive Strategies: Two-Forced Driven NPD. Chair: Ben Barry Ben Barry A Dream We Can Believe In: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Consumers' Responses to Models in Fashion Advertising. Chair: Joyce Fenton-Douglas

2. Fashion as Cultural Production Room 311 Shalini Sud Traditional Fashion Interplay: An Imperative for Identity and Continuity Chair: Olga Vainshtein Olga Vainshtein Being Fashion-able: Controversy around Disabled Models. Chair: Anneke Smelik Anneke Smelik The Fold of Fashion. Chair: Shalini Sud

3. Fashion as Influence Room 418 Agnès Rocamora New Fashion Time: Hypertextuality and Remediation in the Fashion Blogosphere. Chair: Stephane Laurent

Stephane Laurent A Cultural Industrial Struggle for the French Taste. Chair: Gretchen Harnick

Gretchen Harnick The Digital Union. Chair: Agnès Rocamora

4. Fashion as Practice RHS West Space Barbara Trebitsch The state(s) of fashion, both locally and globally Fashion as practice. Chair: Melissa Donne Melissa Donne Fashion in Motion: Exploring the Contemporary Fashion Mediascape through the Moving Image. Chair: Kaustav SenGupta Kaustav SenGupta Designing fashion through Social media using collective intelligence. Chair: Barbara Trebitsch

5. Fashion as Gender Room 105 Danielle Bruggeman Marlies Dekkers: Lingerie Epitomizing Post-Feminist Identity. Chair: Lipi Begum Lipi Begum Power and lingerie for Urban Professional Indian Women Living in India. Chair: Frances Ross Frances Ross Gay and cross-cultural aesthetics; exploring their cross-over appeal with mainstream menswear fashions. Chair: Danielle Bruggeman

6. Fashion as Sustainability RHS Centre Space Varsha Gupta Value Creation in post Consumer apparel waste: A study of rural urban dynamics. Chair: Alex McIntosh Alex McIntosh Slow Change - Circuitous journeys to sustainable fashion. Chair: Alice Payne Alice Payne Frantic fashion and Australia's invisible designers: conversations on sustainability in the mass market. Chair: Varsha Gupta

1:00 - 2:00: Lunch Break - Canteen

2:00 - 3:30: 1. Fashion as Industry RHS East Space Craig Higgins British Menswear, leading the way. Chair: Francesco Morace Francesco Morace The Talent of the Enterprises in the Fashion Business. Chair: Constantin-Felix Von Maltzahn Constantin-Felix Von Maltzahn Complementary Experience Worlds. Chair: Craig Higgins

2. Fashion as Cultural Production Room 311 (3rd Flr) Carlotta Nespoli Fashion = Art. Chair: Katerina Pantelides Katerina Pantelides Fashion and Ethereality. Chair: Maaike Feitsma Maaike Feitsma Braving the elements: Dutch fashion, the weather and the landscape. Chair: Carlotta Nespoli

3. Fashion as Influence Room 418 (4th Flr) Philip Delamore The Fashion Digital Studio: the collision of disruptive technologies. Chair: Esther Rosser Esther Rosser Artistic interventions in fashion photography: Cindy Sherman for Balenciaga. Chair: Mark Timmins Mark Timmins Fashion and Space. Chair: Philip Delamore

4. Fashion as Practice RHS West Space Kevin Almond Bespoke Tailoring: The Luxury and Heritage we can Afford Key Words: Bespoke, Tailor, Luxury, Heritage, Technology, Fashion. Chair: Beth Dincuff Beth Dincuff Demure to Deviant: Ladylike Fashion in the 20th Century. Chair: Vandana Jaglan Vandana Jaglan Costume Design in Indian Films: Trends, Processes Prospects. Chair: Kevin Almond

5. Fashion as Gender Room 105 (1st Flr) Irina Brigenti Ten little dandy girls. Chair: Senem Yazan Senem Yazan Female Dandyiam; Deffiance or Deference? Chair: Zoi Arvanitidou Zoi Arvanitidou & Maria Gasouka Fashion Gender and Social Identity. Chair: Irina Brigenti

6.Fashion as Sustainability RHS Centre Space Rachel Taylor workshop 'pause to think'. Chair: Vaeovan Saicheua Vaeovan Saicheua Public Understanding Towards Sustainable Clothing Supply Chain. Chair: Sue Chowles Sue Chowles FASHION AS INDUSTRY WORKSHOP 'Sitting by Nellie': Cultural Heritage and the Preservation of Couture Craftsmanship Chair: Rachel Taylor Workshop Room 606 Adele Varcoe & Ricarda Bigolin, Fashion People

3:30 - 4:00:

Coffee/Tea Break ­ Canteen

4:00 - 5:00: Plenary: RHS Space - Tony Glenville, Julia Gaimster and Paul McGregor and Guest Men's Style: past, present, future - LIVE STREAMED

6:00 - 7:00:

Cocktail Reception held in RHS Space

Thursday September 22, 2011

9:30 - 11:00: 1. Fashion as Industry RHS East Space David Zajtmann The relationship between creative workers and localized professional institutions. The case of the Parisian "haute couture". A longitudinal study (1973-2010) Chair: Laetitia Dari Laetitia Dari Logistics: strategic function for enterprises in the French ready-to-wear industry? Chair: Franck Depal Franck Delpal Vertical integration in luxury companies: objectives and effects on market foreclosure. Chair: David Zajtmann

2. Fashion as Cultural Production Room 311 (3rd Flr) Simona Segre Reinach "Post Made in Italy" The Evolution of Italian Fashion Identity. Chair: Jonathan Faiers Jonathan Faiers The Mark of The Beast. Chair: Toolika Gupta Toolika Gupta The Effect of British Raj on Indian Costume. Chair: Simona Segre Reinach

3. Fashion as Influence Room 418 (4th Flr) Anamika Debnath The Street: Identity Story-telling. Chair: Flavia Loscialpo Flavia Loscialpo Abstraction and idealization: the case of Futurist and Constructivist single-piece garments. Chair: Felice McDowell Felice McDowell Exhibiting Fashion and Art in Post-war British Fashion Magazines. Chair: Anamika Debnath

4. Fashion as Practice RHS West Space Avinash Raipally Right Pocket. Chair: Alison Rasch Alison Rasch Mindfulness in Fashion. Chair: Jennifer Anyan

Jennifer Anyan The role of the stylist in hypermodern image-making. Chair: Avinash Raipally

5. Fashion as Gender Room 105 (1st Flr) Azadeh Fatehrad Fashion and Female Desire in Iran. Chair: Beth Dincuff Beth Dincuff A Look at Ladylike Dressing in the 20th century. Chair: Monica Germana Monica Germana Bond Girls: The Dialectics of Gender Construction. Chair:

6.Fashion as sustainability RHS Centre Space Rebecca Earley Fashion and Sustainability: The TEN Design Strategies for Professional Designers. Chair: Alison Gwilt

Workshop Room 606 Adele Varcoe & Ricarda Bigolin, Fashion People - reflections and understandings

11:00 - 11:30: Coffee/Tea Break - Canteen

11:30 - 12:30: Plenary: RHS East Space Round Table: "The death of the fashion image?' Panel discussion led by Professor Ian King & Karin Askham

12:30 - 2:00:

Lunch Break - Canteen

2:00 - 3:30: 1. Fashion as Industry RHS East Space Nicola Searle The Demand for Fake Status Goods. Chair: Kannika Leelapanyalert Kannika Leelapanyalert An Investigation into the Factors influencing Internationalisation of Retailing Firms: The Case of Marks Spencer. Chair: Shuyu Lin

Shuyu Lin Revisiting London's Position by Investigating Sources of Creativity in the Fashion Industry. Chair: Nicola Searle

2. Fashion as Cultural Production Room 311 (3rd Flr) Michelle Kauffmann The Couture Client as Patron of the Art of Fashion. Chair: Nithya Venkataraman Nithya Venkataraman Fashion as identity (South India). Chair: Xenia Flores Ribeiro Xenia Flores Ribeiro The language of Panos: dress and fashion in Angola. Chair: Michelle Kauffman

3. Fashion as Influence Room 418 (4th Flr) Martina Steinmetz Freedom of Movement in Woven Women's Wear Clothing Products; The Potential of Block Pattern. Chair: Esther Yance Esther Yance Future Fashion Exchanges between Fashion and Cinema. Chair: Harvell L. Howard Harvell L. Howard Exit 127. Chair: Martina Steinmetz

4. Fashion as Practice RHS West Space Alec Robertson A stitch in time saves nine: the impact of academic research on professional design practice. Chair: Asbjorg Dunker Asbjorg Dunker The depth of life revealed in the Spectacle. Chair: Yuniva Kawamura Yuniya Kawamura Fashion Processes From Modern to Postmodern Times. Chair: Alec Robertson

Research Workshop Room 105 (1st Flr) Research Opportunities/ collaborations etc Workshop led by Tony Kent (Assoc. Dean) Research LCF

6.Fashion as sustainability RHS Centre Space Anjali Wanigasuriya How does a fashion industry innovate? The role of effective knowledge management in sportswear (fashion) product development. Chair: Debra Laraman

Debra Laraman Re-Fabricate: Evolving design through user interaction. Chair: Lavanya Venkatraman Lavanya Venkatraman Ethical luxury; The new paradigm of the luxury segment. Chair: Anjali Wanigasuriya

Workshop Room 606 Nathaniel Dafydd Beard & Kathryn Ferguson Fashion Film: A Future Spectacular 3:30 - 5:00: Closing Remarks: (RHS East space) introducing the second colloquium - Milan, Feb 2012, other future opportunities

PLEASE NOTE: The role of a chair is to keep session on time and to facilitate questions/comments (approx 20 mins for presentation & 10 mins for questions).

Thank you for your cooperation.

Wednesday 21st September: 11.30am ­ 1.00pm Fenton-Douglas, Joyce [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Industry Title: Fashion and Craft: investigating the ancillary trades of the London based élite fashion industry. Abstract: My research investigates, through creative practice, informed and situated by historical and theoretical research, the historical and contemporary application and significance of the ancillary trades of the lite British fashion industry, examining both traditional approaches and methodologies and new innovations enabled by digital technology. Fashion and craft, two words which can share a common meaning, `to make', but which are dichotomous in their more familiar usage, fashion representing the ephemeral, a fleeting moment; craft, a manifestation of time expended. This apparent paradox is exploited by lite fashion, which since the 19th century has used complex detailing requiring a variety of specialist skills, deemed crafts, to distinguish itself from that which is mass-produced. A few fashion houses generate enough work to justify maintaining a diversity of expert workrooms, much of this input derives from what are known as the ancillary trades of the fashion industry. These independent, handcraft oriented ateliers offer small scale production of embellishments, component parts and specialist finishes such as artificial flowers, buttons, sequins, embroidery, and pleating; all of which contribute to the exclusivity, distinction and desirability of the finished garment. Over the past century the number of traditional practitioners has declined but the requisite innovation, individuality and distinction of lite avant-garde fashion ensures a continuing need for specialist input which has provided, and continues to offer, opportunities for a range of practitioners, both inside and outside the traditional field to collaborate in the creative process. In France the ancillary trades have developed into something of an institution, widely acknowledged for their contribution to the haute couture, but those supporting London based designers remain an entity to which scant attention has been paid in assessments of either the crafts in Britain or of lite British fashion. The presentation will focus in particular on the area of my research concerning contemporary London based designers and practitioners in order to illustrate the significance of the role of the ancillary trades. I will argue that regardless of the secondary implication of their collective title, the ancillary trades are of primary importance to many designers in the construction of their creative identity and occupy a central role in both the material and the symbolic production of lite fashion. Reference will be made to the self-referential and cyclical nature of the fashion design process, the continued relevance of traditional methodologies and to the embracing by fashion of the new aesthetics facilitated by digital technologies.

Shih WenYing, Claire [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Industry Title: Fashion Competitive Strategies: Two-Forced Driven NPD Abstract: The fashion industry embraces all kinds of evolving businesses, in which strategies and structures reflect the dynamics of today's fashion environment. Being driven by advanced technology, market demands and the effects of globalisation, the fashion industry is adopting new strategies accordingly to gain competitiveness that can result from new products. Fashion New Product Development (NPD) consists of highly fragmented activities and varies in different parts of the world. With the development of the global textile and fashion industry, the dominators of demand and supply are shifting from country to country. In particular, with the recent quota elimination and economic recession, the structure of the fashion industry is being reset for its buyers, manufacturers and suppliers. Manufacturing competition in the developing countries and falling demand in the economically developed countries have led to the consolidation of the textile and apparel value chain. The remaining manufacturers serving the key fashion markets tend to follow the upgrading trajectory of textile development: from garment assembly activities, textile production to fiber production, or even further towards machinery production. With their upgraded NPD, these developing countries, such as China and India, are encouraged to focus on their NPD domestically rather than being export oriented. However, not every developing country has a sufficiently high level of domestic market demand to follow this industrial development pattern. The newly developed countries are a case in point, which require further research attention and are the focus chosen for study. This study aims to explore how the fashion NPD process of manufacturers operates in the textile and fashion industry. More specifically, it examines the relationships between competitive strategies and the inputs and outcomes of the NPD process within the industrial development trajectory. An in-depth case study is employed in the study.The company in this study was founded in 1976 as a textile trader in Taiwan, where the majority of textile and apparel manufacturers have relocated their production bases or terminated their businesses due to the global competition mainly stemming from low cost manufacturing. As a consequence, this company has undergone a number of business restructures and applied business strategies to sustain their business. This study contains longitudinal and multi-sourced data including interviews with the key personnel and examination of both internal and external documentation, set against a business and academic background provided by the literature review. The research findings reveal that having obtained or integrated the design activities, this company's apparel NPD tended to focus on the intimate markets sharing cultural similarity, while their textile NPD was inclined to collaborate with other technology-led suppliers to produce more higher-value and diversified products for various markets. A two-fold NPD was found to drive the current textile and apparel integrated businesses: firstly, the textile NPD with R&D focus created adding values; secondly, the apparel NPD could be enhanced by the value of fashion retail. This study implies that when the textile R&D and apparel design are integrated into the core of the business, competitiveness can thus emerge through effective management and strategies, e.g. co-branding and co-designs. Further business relationships with retail channels are thus augmented.

Barry, Ben [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Industry Title: A Dream We Can Believe In: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Consumers' Responses to Models in Fashion Advertising Abstract: Research on the use of different types of models in fashion advertising has exclusively examined their impact on the self-esteem of women in Western populations, leaving marketers to question how these models impact consumer behavior in a global marketplace. My research fills this void by surveying over 3000 women in Canada, the United States, and China. I investigate the impact of fashion advertising with models of various sizes, ages, and ethnicities alongside different types of promotional copy on respondents' purchase intentions Focus groups conducted with 200 women in each country provide rich explanations for my survey results. Overall, North American women increase purchase intentions when models reflected their sizes, ages, and ethnicities and were paired with enhancing advertising copy. In contrast, Chinese women reported higher purchase intentions when models reflected the Western beauty ideal (young, thin and Caucasian) alongside problem-solving copy. I explain these opposing findings by drawing on cross-cultural differences in consumers' self-enhancement and self-improvement motivations, advertising skepticism and perceptions of beauty. My findings challenge the advertising industry convention of using young, thin, Caucasian models and underscore the need to take a multiregional approach to developing advertising copy. Sud, Shalini [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Cultural Production Title: Tradition Fashion Interplay: An Imperative for Identity and Continuity Abstract: This presentation highlights how fashion as a practice can provide a context for crafts to benefit and integrate into mainstream process of commerce and business, within the realms of socially responsible sustainable design environment. Fashion in its most fundamental definition represents "a highly visual, image based industry' (Barthes, 1983) and introduces "planned obsolescence' (Gopnik, 1994) that "powers the economic engine in fashion' (Brannon, 2005). Perhaps establishing fashion as a socially responsible, sustainable medium of self as well as community expression is challenging. However, "radical innovations in our society can come from a change in the local systems' (Gwilt, 2009). Embedded in localized practices are seeds of ingenuity that were traditionally in harmony with the material and social culture. Increasingly many countries around the world are once again re-defining their design identity by referring to traditional practices in design ideology, a reaction away from rapid globalization that obliterates indigenous and encourages one singular identity of cloning. Fashion as a system in India is rather nascent as opposed to the established fashion system of the west. It has, however constantly drawn upon its rich cultural heritage to carve out a distinct niche in the world of fashion by constantly referring to local cultural practices, values and meanings. An

effort has been made to place emphasis on traditional practices incorporated by Indian designers, formulated around the ethos of experiences and local values thereby creating its own fashion vocabulary. Examples are drawn from various design practices adopted by practicing designers where collaborative efforts between them and artisans have resulted in redefining the vocabulary of fashion identity that is as rich, diverse and exciting as discovering the country it represents. These examples prove that the partnership has further resulted in reviving and integrating the crafts community and artisan, making traditional craft more trendy and contemporary thereby connecting to the young consumers. The continuation of craft practices in a language that connects with generation- Y in India has ensured that the craft survives and remains meaningful. In addition the products created have given a cultural association and a distinct identity to Generation-Y in India as opposed to the "cloning culture' (Zoom on fashion Trends, 2007) offered by most fast fashion international brands. These examples show that there is definite potential for such approaches to establish a new direction in fashion that integrates local practices, values and skills thereby celebrating uniqueness, diversity through local resources and systems to establish new identities in fashion practice. References: Barthes, R. (1983). The Fashion System, New York: Hill and Wang Brannon, E. (2005). Fashion Forecasting, Second ed. USA: Fairchild Publications Gopnik, A. (1994). November 7. What it all means. The New Yorker, pp15-16 Cloning the world. Zoom on fashion trends. (2007). Bologna, Nuova Libra Editrice, pp 195-197. Gwilt. A. (2009).Generating sustainable fashion: opportunities, innovation and creative designer. Fashion Well- Being, UK: CLTAD Vainshtein, Olga [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Cultural Production Title: Being Fashion-able: Controversy around Disabled Models Abstract: How does fashion negotiate disability issues? How do we perceive the disabled models on the cat walk? Drawing on methodology of fashion studies, body studies and the history of emotions (the works of C.Evans, J.Entwhistle, E.Fischer, H.Wulff), this paper is aimed at examining these questions, analysing the recent fashion events with disabled models. The paper is focused around the debates about the representations of deviant bodies in fashion. It argues that fashion as cultural production successfully generates new visual languages, breaking the barriers of invisibility traditionally associated with disabled bodies and contributing to human well-being. When Aimee Mullins made her debut at the catwalk in 1999 at the invitation of Alexander McQueen, the disabled models were rarely seen in the world of fashion. Currently the policy of challenging visual stereotypes regarding disability has become a popular trend. In 2008 the BBC3 programme Britain's Missing Top Model (BMTM) stirred up the debate around the theme. The reality show followed the competition among eight girls with different disabilities. In September 2010 Tanja Kiewitz, appeared in the advertisement that was part of a

fundraising campaign by a non-profit organization, CAP48. The attractive girl wearing a black bra smiled to the viewers exposing her left arm that ended, handless, just below the elbow. One of the last events in this series was Debenham's Autumn 2010 window campaign featuring disabled model Shannon Murray in a wheelchair. Shannon was the first disabled model to feature in an advertising campaign for a high street fashion brand. It was estimated as "another small step towards inclusion and representation". Debenhams campaign was followed by the special event during London Fashion week in September 2010 when HAFAD (Hammersmith and Fulham Action on Disability), an independent organization in London that promotes disability awareness, organized the show with disabled models "Fashion with Passion". As a result the sold-out event raised over £5000. In spite of all these positive developments even now the appearance of a disabled model on a catwalk is still likely to create the sensation, as demonstrated by the recent case of Mario Galla. The disabled model Mario Galla participated in the show of Michael Michalsky during the Berlin Fashion week in summer 2010. Galla walked on a prosthetic leg, dressed in shorts, so that his prosthesis was clearly visible. The context of fashion show legitimizes the prosthetic body parts, making them visible and publicly acceptable. A new significant tendency; "prosthetics with aesthetics" is currently becoming the significant trend. Fashion system helps to overcome intellectual uncertainty of the viewers by switching the emotional frames. In the field of emotions fashion as performance possesses a vast transformative potential: it can create new emotional communities. Fashion emerges as the permanent experiment with our corporeal sensibility, the vehicle of retuning our emotions in the face of otherness. This is the point where fashion meets diversity, helping to set a more tolerant environment. Smelik, Anneke [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Cultural Production Title: The Fold of Fashion Abstract: Taking my lead from Deleuze's book on The Fold, I want to claim in this paper that in fashion the fold is engaged not so much in a representation of e-motion, but rather in a game of concealing and revealing the body in-motion; thus taking it from pathos to eros. In doing so I want to move away from the representational interpretations of contemporary fashion theory. The concept of representation is, in my view, not the most useful to explain the logistics of a kind of movement which crosses both space and time and defies the linearity of a teleological view of history and as well as the hierarchies of its aesthetics. Nowhere is the constantly vibrating dynamic of the fold more visible and palpable than in the pleats, creases, draperies, furrows, bows and ribbons of fashion. The fluid, flowing, flexible materials of silk in the pleated `Delphos' dress by Mariano Fortuny (1910s) or `Pleats Please' dresses by Issey Miyake (1996-1998) reveal a constantly opening up of the body to the world. While in art history the fold is connected to the expression of e-motion (pathos), in fashion the fold is engaged in a game of concealing and revealing the body in-motion (eros), for example in the Flowerbomb dresses made of ribbons by Viktor & Rolf (2005). Where the flexible fold can be understood as positioning the body differently in time through movement, the stiff fold of sculptured forms

through high-tech fabrics deterritorialise the body by folding inside out and outside in, for example in the work of the Japanese (Rei Kawakubo and Yohji Yamamoto) and Belgian deconstructionists (Ann Demeulemeester and Martin Margiela). This paper will argue that the relational notion of the fold can help us understand the sensation of fashion as a curvature of space containing nothing but sheer movement. The paper will discuss the computer designed garments of the Dutch experimental designer Iris van Herpen to argue how such dresses testify to endless potentialities of the fold. Van Herpen's dress designs potentially free the body from the territorialised understanding of its matter; liberating the materiality of the body into something continuously changing, mobile, and fluid. For Deleuze, the fold, or the process of folding, is a process of becoming. In so far as matter can fold, it is capable of becoming. Thus, to put it differently, experimental fashion designers, like Iris van Herpen, create conditions to actualise multiple becomings. Rocamora, Agnès [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Influence Title: New Fashion Time: Hypertextuality and Remediation in the Fashion Blogosphere Abstract: Since their appearance in the early noughties, fashion blogs have established themselves as a central platform for the circulation of fashion related news and information. Often the creation of fashion outsiders, they have entered the mainstream fashion media, bringing to light the shifting nature of fashion journalism. The paper discusses the rise of the fashion blogosphere and the impact of new technologies on the mediation of fashion. Drawing on the notions of hypertextuality (Landow 1997) and remediation (Bolter and Grusin 2000) it contributes to a recurring question in academic studies of digital culture: how new are new media? The paper looks at the way fashion blogs define themselves in relation to traditional fashion journalism and the traditional fashion press. Their relation of co-dependence and mutual influence is unpacked to shed light on the contemporary field of the fashion media, and the role of new technologies in the production, circulation and consumption of fashion related news. Particular attention is paid to the idea of time. Where fashion time was once neatly paced by the twice yearly collections and the monthly publications of glossies, now fashion time has accelerated, fragmented into a series of moments that have shattered its orderly pace. Precollection, pre-fall, cruise, resort, high summer, and Christmas collections are all new moments in this restructured fashion time, a time ruled by the imperative of immediacy Tomlinson (2007) has identified as constitutive of today's `culture of speed'. The recent creation and rapid proliferation of new digital media such as fashion blogs has supported, as it has been supported by, this culture of `immediacy' (Bolter and Grusin 2000, Manovich 2001). Based on an analysis of the development of digital fashion media and of the fashion blogosphere in particular, the paper interrogates the notion of time as it now unfolds in the field of fashion. In doing so it sheds light on the role of hypertextuality and remediation in the articulation of a new fashion time. References: Bolter, Jay David and Grusin, Richard (2000 1999 ) Remediation: Understanding New Media, Cambridge, MIT Press.

Landow, George. P. (1997) Hypertext 2.0, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Manovich, Lev (2001) The Language of New Media, Cambridge: MIT Press. Tomlinson, John (2007) The Culture of Speed, London: Sage. Laurent, Stephane [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Influence Title: A Cultural Industrial Struggle For The French Taste Abstract: Considered as a truisme, the French taste encompasses notions as elegance, luxury, refinement and takes its roots in Versailles and the 18th Century. In fact, these notions, which are still in use in the luxury industry and business and manipulated as efficient commercial weapons and image, were developed and defended since the beginning in a competitive atmosphere, especially from the 17th century to the aftermaths of the Second World war. During the 12th century, Paris was already considered as the capital of fashion but this situation changed during the 14th and 15th c. anglo-French wars, which allowed Italy and Flanders to take over. Colbert first attempted to overthrow the Italian cultural dominancy and to counterbalance ruinous imports of luxury goods such as carpets from Turkey, marble, silk and glass from Italy, tapestries from Flanders, lace and ceramic from Flanders and Italy by creating French Manufactures such as Saint-Gobain, La Savonnerie and Les Gobelins. This policy was followed up in the 18th century while taking further industrial developments in the furniture, bone china, silk and wallpaper production, according to the growing demand of a national and international market. Success came partly from the strong support given to a thriving liberal industrial sector including education and free zones like the Faubourg Saint-Antoine. From that time, and even from the 16th century Renaissance before, French luxury integrated many foreign talents such as Italians for glass and ceramics studios and Germans and Flemish for furniture making. Only traditions in silverware and stone carving were more established. During the two following centuries, the luxury industry in France succeeded to maintain despite facing some crisis during the French Revolution, the competition with Germany at the turn of the 19th c. and the end of the World war 2. Solutions were found though, that combined to new resources in order to keep a proud cultural and commercial dominancy. Harnick, Gretchen [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Influence Title: The Digital Union Abstract: As a student union promotes the confluence of people and ideas, the digital union leaves record, giving space for expansion, inclusion and introduction of people and their ideas. But what does this mean for the fashion educator? How can going digital, help support your research, teaching, and expanding the curriculum to meet the fast demand of new technology?

This is a presentation and discussion about the potential of `blogs' (and related areas) ­ together with some empirical supporting data. Our discussions and content will include reference to our role as the official colloquia blog and its development over the next two years. Session contributors are: Ari Goldberg , Founding Partner and CEO of StyleCaster Media Group and Gretchen Harnick, Assistant Professor of Fashion Marketing, Parsons, The New School for Design and Editor of 560, The School of Fashion Blog 560, Twitter and Facebook. StyleCaster was the recent digital media sponsor at Project in Las Vegas, where they featured live video interviews in a multi-media hub.

Trebitsch, Barbara [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: The state(s) of fashion, both locally and globally Abstract: The `practice' of Fashion in an increasingly global scenario, which is at the same time extremely diversified both in conceptual and productive terms, represent a crucial point in the analysis of the state of the art of the system faced by the four Western poles. The Italian experience in the whole manufacturing process, from the concept to production and distribution represents a case of its own if compared to the British, French or US cases; it is a reality, which after some critical seasons, is now living a new rebirth. From the educational system substantial differences arise in conceiving what is not just a profession related to the design of clothes, but to a wider vision of the project. Within this scenario, we can see that due to local factors, the educational world approaches the theme with different modalities. Compared to France, Italy has always been considered the capital of Prêt à Porter and not of Haute Couture; compared to the US, Italy has produced a market more related to formal brands and not casual or sportswear and compared to the UK it is considered less creative and more related to the final product and to the market. Even though these assertions are partly true, they are generic simplifications and what I reckon it is important to analyse is the approach to the entire system seen from the inside within the individual realities. In the current complex phase of the fashion system ­ globalization and delocalization, new markets, intensification of proposals, etc. ­ it is important to investigate how the poles of luxury and of fashion are approaching the creative process, especially what this process is about today. Being still radicated into the productive system, the Italian approach is about developing creative abilities also at the entrepreneurial level in order to create wider proposals, not only the development of an idea, of a concept to create collections. This approach become more and more relevant when applied to the menswear industry where fashion practice is strictly linked to market and to a wardrobe concept. The Italian case - from the development of the manufacturing process and of the Made in Italy to the current crisis and emerging rebirth - together with the educational and methodological

expertise can provide the appropriate stimuli to define the state of the art of the system and to animate a confronting debate on its future. Donne, Melissa [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: Fashion in Motion: Exploring the Contemporary Fashion Mediascape through the Moving Image. Abstract: The contemporary fashion mediascape has undergone a process of transformation in recent years with emergent digital technologies seeking to renegotiate how fashion imagery is presented and consumed. The traditional sites of exhibition for fashion media such as the catwalk and printed magazine, whilst still significant, are perhaps being usurped by fashion blogs, electronic magazines, and interactive websites that purport to offer a more "democratised' vision of the industry that may appeal to wider market. Indeed, the accessibility of fashion media through the Internet has revolutionised the arguably elitist world of the runway show by streaming the live action to homes around the globe and to a diverse range of audiences. Fashion blogs in particular, have ushered in a "new guard' of fashion commentators who have harnessed the Internet to capture the popular "street style' look and given a platform to fashion fans eager to disseminate their own sartorial inspirations. More recently, the moving image has emerged as a principal medium for fashion advertising whilst encouraging more artistic expressions of fashion media not immediately intended solely for commercial purposes. This paper will therefore consider the exhibition of fashion through the moving image as an innovative form of fashion media, exploring how a new genre of the "fashion film' has emerged and how brands have utilised the form to present their aesthetic vision and build brand awareness. It will also address how the contemporary fashion film is being utilised as a hub where collaborations between designers, fine artists and photographers can take place in order to explore the crossover between fashion, art and advertising. This paper will reference a number of case studies, specifically the short, digital fashion film, to reveal how the fashion media has adapted to appropriate the moving image form and consolidated its reputation as both a commercial and creative entity, in touch with new media and progressive through its utilisation of technological advances. Additionally, I will discuss how the fashion film has emerged as a form of communication that appeals to audiences who may not be entirely fashion "literate' by targeting film fans also. This has been achieved largely by incorporating fashion film retrospectives within a number of high profile film festivals and also promoting fashion as the theme for a range of "niche' festivals. Similarly, the increasing exposure of the fashion film within a gallery or museum setting gives rise to the idea that fashion media is seeking to straddle the spheres of perceived high and low culture which raises questions regarding the position and reputation of fashion within contemporary culture and society, and whether its allegiance with the moving image has contributed to a broader appeal for audiences.

SenGupta, Kaustav [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: Designing fashion through Social media using collective intelligence Abstract: This paper draws attention to how collaborative intelligence in social media can be applied in fashion design process. Collaborative intelligence is a measure of the collaborative ability of a group or entity. This new form of open source peer production enables the designers to harvest external knowledge, resource and talent from the swarm or group. The four attributes of collaborative intelligence: Openness, peering, sharing, voting and acting globally (through social media, in this case) is an integral part of modern design process in fashion. Though the terms "fashion' and "clothing' tend to be used synonymously, but while fashion conveys a number of different social meaning, clothing is the generic raw materials of what the person wears(Yuniya Kawamura 2005). As defined in the New Oxford Dictionary on Historical Principles (published in 1901) the word "fashion" primarily denotes the action/ process of making, manner, a prevailing custom, a current usage, conventional usage in dress and mode of life. As "the fashion', it is defined as the mode of dress, etiquette, furniture and style of speech adopted in society for the time being. Since, fashion is related to the prevalent social norms and etiquettes, this paper argues that in the design process the group / social swarms should be more involved to actively participate, contribute and vote to add various elements in design. The process suggested in this paper is more of web 2 (the "participatory" web) mode than the traditional (web1, a "non participatory" web) process usually followed in fashion design industry. A Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue as creators (prosumers) of user-generated content in a virtual community, in contrast to websites where users (consumers) are limited to the passive viewing of content that was created for them. This paper also argues about the relevance of intellectual property rights and how the new models of collaboration are forcing a re-examination of intellectual property to affirm the new role of a fashion designer as an enabler rather than an inhibitor of cocreation and collaboration. The second part applies these ideas to fashion design and examines the case of "Kuch Bhi" (meaning "anything", in Hindi), a collaborative project initiated by Neil Dantas at Facebook. Neil, is an Indian designer known for his design sensibility and inspirations from India and specially Mumbai as the soul while its beauty and decay, innocence and guilt become the visual fabric of his work. By extracting elements of the city, he creates icons which become poetic symbols and coded comments on the social, political and emotional issues of today's Mumbai. The Kuch Bhi movement is a fine example of collaborative intelligence, cool swarming and the contemporary role of a fashion designer as an enabler or catalyst in the design process.

Bruggeman, Danielle [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Gender Title: Marlies Dekkers: Lingerie Epitomizing Post-Feminist Identity Abstract: This paper explores the way in which lingerie can serve as a strategic means to express the embodied experience of femininity in a post-feminist era, by focusing on Dutch fashion designer Marlies Dekkers; internationally renowned for her daring lingerie. Celebrities such as Britney Spears, Lady Gaga, and Paris Hilton have been spotted wearing Dekkers' lingerie, which has entered the realm of fashion as it is meant to be seen: innerwear as outerwear. I claim that Dekkers engages in a post-feminist strategy, by celebrating the female body, and presenting powerful feminine identity in her fashion photography. Her lingerie is designed for women who are self-aware, confident, proud of their body, and in charge of seduction. This portrayal of femininity is, for instance, exemplified by the women in Sex and the City who are often said to embody a post-feminist ideal: they are free, independent, sexually active, and self-confident without fearing the sexual double standard (McRobbie 2004; Levy 2005). While arguing how Dekkers employs her lingerie to express post-feminist identity, this paper presents an experiential perspective on the body and identity in relation to lingerie and fashion. Dekkers' lingerie emphasizes the beauty of female bodies, suggesting that after feminism "it is permissible, once again, to enjoy looking at the bodies of beautiful women' (McRobbie 2004). However, I argue that the female body in Dekkers' lingerie is not a mere image nor is it simply objectified for the male gaze, but the fashioned body rather expresses the experience of powerful femininity appealing to the female desire for youthfulness and beauty. Dekkers moves beyond the "body as object' towards the experiential dimension of the body (Sobchack 2004). Thus, Dekkers engages in "fashion's utopian vocation: putting the body and identity into experience' (Marchetti 2009). As such, her lingerie epitomizes the experience of embodying post-feminist identity. Begum, Lipi [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Gender Title: Power and Lingerie for Urban Professional Indian Women Living in India Abstract: As the "spirit of capitalism' looms, so does the burgeoning lingerie market amongst urban Indian professional women (UIPW). Global brands foresee the lingerie industry in India as one big growth opportunity, but what about the UIPW? What does she think? Or is made to think? How much do marketers really understand about foreign cultural contexts and consumer behaviour towards lingerie? And importantly, how much do they really know about the relationship and meanings that UIPW attach to lingerie? I discuss how postcolonial power struggles manifest in the wearing of lingerie, therein discussing the importance of the global production of lingerie, and why the real meanings of lingerie consumption should be understood for UIPW.

The presentation seeks to address the drivers of the lingerie industry in India and critique the meanings attached to lingerie consumption, for UIPW living in India. Despite lingerie consumption being a symbol of seizing control of one's domestic and private spheres, it is also symbolic of being controlled - in that global western brands operate within ethnocentric lingerie marketing frameworks, seizing control over the Indian woman's body, and her notions of femininity; in turn orientalising the UIPW, and creating a sense of Indian otherness. The presentation will focus upon the idea of a dominant cultural gaze latent in global brand lingerie consumption, and address the embodied meanings of lingerie as a site of reflexive struggle. Visual advertising and textual findings from the researcher's content analysis to date, of global brand lingerie advertising will be presented. The advertisements will be further analysed using theoretical frameworks, to conceptualise the way orientalism and Indian otherness manifest in lingerie advertising. These visual manifestations will be contrasted with global brand advertising in other related sectors, adding to the limited body of knowledge on the social meanings of lingerie in globalisation. Ross, Frances [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Gender Title: Gay and cross-cultural aesthetics; exploring their cross-over appeal with mainstream menswear fashions Abstract: There are a number of critical social-cultural and economic factors that have taken place globally over the last decade, which if considered simultaneously as indicators of a paradigm shift will make both the menswear fashion industry and consumers reconsider traditional practices and modes of consumption. This included acceptance of the "cross-over' appeals of gay fashion by the heterosexual male creating a cross-gender styling. Another critical factor is the enculturation of other ethnic groups and their influences on fashion and music styles in menswear. New technology has also made great advances in design and manufacture within the middle to high end menswear market, through the availability and more common use of methods such as digital printing, 3D pattern cutting, 3D tailoring, body-scanning and demi-bespoke manufacturing processes. These have all created shifts in the market which is now fragmenting into smaller niches where manufacturers can reduce costs of specialised products with advanced technology and the transfer of digital information. This study will draw together cross-gender, cross-cultural and new technological components to explore the most innovative current practices, styles and trends in menswear, while forecasting where this may take the industry in the future. Gupta, Varsha [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Sustainability Title: Value Creation in post consumer apparel waste: a study of rural urban dynamics Authors: Varsha Gupta and Ajit Khare Abstract:

The need for recycling, together with reduce reuse have been ingrained in the social milieu of India. Traditional societies had in-built models of sustainability, through reuse recycling. Such practices are ingrained into various aspects of their daily lives to such an extent that over time they had got interwoven into the social, cultural as well as economic fabric of their lives and eventually had evolved into art forms reflecting on handicrafts. Production and consumption remained in harmony with each other. However the industrialized society encouraged large scale production that also created mindless consumption. If all countries in the world successfully followed the industrial example, five or six planets would be needed to serve as mines and waste dumps (Sachs, W. 1992). Today, it may be impossible to roll back the development brought about by industrialization. Urbanization and industrialization have together, encouraged mindless consumption and large scale production thereby upsetting the rural economy. Perhaps the future lies in models of sustainability that can address the imbalances created in the rural economy by industrialization and urbanization. Any such model will have to be built around the concept of social responsibility, i.e. the model will not have to just address the waste management aspect, but will necessarily have to address the socio-economic aspects of the communities. Recycling textiles is a process that affects many entities. It avoids the punitive costs of landfill, provides employment, helps charity, and moves clothing to areas of the world where it is needed (Hawley, J. 2006). Textile and Apparel waste can be clearly classified as post industrial and post consumer waste together providing a vast potential for recovery and quality recycling. Case study approach has been used to study identified regions of India where small clusters are involved in utilizing post-consumer apparel waste to create useful products. The supply chain of the process (from raw material to the finished goods) provides an insight into layers of economic, rural/urban factors that shape the complete dynamics. This brings forth a symbiotic relationship between two extreme realities, a phenomenon far different from the existing perception of cannibalization of "urban' on "rural'. The study establishes existence of a relationship between urban expenditures and generation of non-farm employment in rural clusters in a commercially viable and environmentally sustainable manner with zero carbon footprints. The model encourages the existing social milieu of the families involved in the process and further encourages empowerment of woman through reaffirmation of her role in the supply chain. Reinforcement of "memory' as a value in creation of the final product is built in within the process creating stake in the final creation. The product created does not reflect the image association of reuse of post- consumer apparel waste but that of memories rewoven for continuity. References: Donella, M. (1998) Indicators and Information systems for Sustainable Development, A Report to the Balaton Group, (The Sustainability Institute: Hartland VT) Does Urban Development Drive Rural Growth in India? Published: September 20, 2007 in India, Accessed Online August 30, 2010, (http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/india/article.cfm?articleid=4224) Hawley, J.M. (2006) Digging for Diamonds: "A Conceptual framework for understanding reclaimed textile products', International Textile and Apparel Association, 24(3), pp.1-14 Lucy, N. (2005), "Creative Entrepreneurs: The Recycling of Second Hand Indian Clothing' in Alexandra, P. Hazel, C. (eds.), Old Clothes, New Looks, pp 119-133 (Berg, Oxford, New York)

Ramesh, R.Rural-urban partnerships; an era of glorious possibilities unfolds. Published: November 8, 2005. Accessed online September 5, 2010, (http://janaagraha.org/node/439) Sachs, W. (1992), "The Development Dictionary: a guide to knowledge as power', pp. 6, (Zed Books, London). Sonntag, N Christianson, K Strong, M. (1999) "The Promise of Sustainable Development: A Shared Concern', Stockholm Environment Institute, China-Sweden International Environmental Seminar, Beijing, China (accessed online in November 2008) at http://www.earthscape.org/r1/chk01 Weiss, E. B. (1993), "Environmentally Sustainable Competitiveness: A Comment', Journal article by; Yale Law Journal, Vol. 102 McIntosh, Alex [email protected] Theme: Fashion and Sustainability Title: Slow Change - Circuitous journeys to sustainable fashion. In conversation with Borders & Frontiers, Partimi, Olga Olsson and Michelle Lowe-Holder. Abstract: The Centre for Sustainable fashion has spent the last two years working with a series of fashion SMEs exploring the opportunities and challenges involved in marrying fashion ability and sustain ability. We aim to evolve new approaches to fashion design, product development and communication that engender change in both the material and message contained in what we wear. We recognise that there is an imperative for improved sourcing and supply chain management practices and we take a practical approach to achieving these improvements and setting a standard for best practice; however we also believe that incremental changes only become truly meaningful, when married to new ways of working and thinking. We encourage designers to recognise that garments are both practical objects and signs and symbols of culture and the way we live. We are at the beginning of a journey towards creating new business models that challenge the perceptions of fashion as a creative medium and present a counter culture to the seemingly endless hunger for mass consumption. We want to find opportunities to promote and progress the businesses that are truly forging ahead in this arena. We propose a series of in conversations between designers from Centre for Sustainable Fashion's project and its project leader, Alex McIntosh, focused on exploring a variety of applied approaches to fashion and sustainability through the work of specific businesses. This session will help us to understand the barriers to achieving real meaningful change and explore sustainability in an alternative light, with a specific focus on the power that fashion design has, to influence culture and change consumer behaviour. Payne, Alice [email protected] Theme: Fashion and Sustainability Title: Frantic fashion and Australia's invisible designers: conversations on sustainability in the mass market Abstract: Australia is a small player in the global fashion system. However, the volumes of product pushed through by mass market companies in Australia are still significant. Australia lags behind the EU and

the US in implementing policy to tackle wasteful and unethical environmental and labour practices. Meeting the challenge of fashion sustainability within the Australian context requires conversations and action on the part of all players; from consumers to designers, manufacturers, buyers, retailers, journalists and bloggers. Specifically, this presentation will focus on the role of mass market designers and product developers. The majority of Australians will work, sleep and die in the garments of the mass market. Yet, as Ian Griffiths has termed it, the designers of these garments are "invisible'(2000). To the general public, the values, opinions and individual design processes of these designers are as unknown as their names. However, the designer's role is crucial in making decisions which will have impacts throughout the life of the garment. The high product volume within the mass market ensures that even a small decision in the design process to source a particular fabric, or to use a certain trim or textile finish, can have a profound environmental or social effect. While big companies in Australia have implemented some visible strategies for sustainability, it is uncertain how these may have flowed through to design practices. To explore this question, this presentation will discuss preliminary findings from in-depth semi-structured interviews with eighteen mass market designers and product developers. The designers are employed by three Australian companies: a discount retailer, a fast fashion wholesaler and a mid-market wholesaler/retailer. Collectively, these designers develop fashion garments for over a dozen different labels. The aim of the interviews was to hear the voice of the insider to listen to mass market designers describe their design process, discuss the Australian fashion industry and its future challenges and opportunities, and to comment on what a "sustainability' for their industry could look like. These interviews will be discussed within the framework of design theorist Tony Fry's writing on design redirection for sustainability. Fry (2009) positions design as a world-shaping, futuredestroying or future-creating activity which requires concentrated redirection for sustainability. Fry's view of design is poles away from the rapid, often derivative design of the mass market, in which surface styling and aesthetics are sovereign. However, Fry's analysis highlights the profound need for designers to consider the repercussions their design decisions will continue to have over the life (and subsequent lives) of their garments. Fundamental to Fry's notion of design redirection is the personal commitment of the designer to the project of sustainability. Interviewing designers about their design processes and their views on sustainability is a step towards gauging the potential for a redirective practice, such as Fry describes, within the Australian mass market fashion industry. Wednesday 21st September: 2.00 -3.00pm Higgins, Craig [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Industry Title: British Menswear, leading the way: How can the global, fashion and luxury goods industries learn from British Heritage Menswear Brands, towards providing solutions for a more sustainable future? Abstract: The 1990's saw a huge trend for so called "Heritage Luxury Brands', such as Louis Vuitton, Gucci and Prada, with the rapid growth and near global domination of a few international luxury goods

conglomerates who flooded the market with increasingly diverse product ranges and used high profile ready to wear and couture designer collections to increase desirability and fuel a fast fashion culture. "Today the luxury industry is like Monopoly. The focus is no longer on the art of luxury; it's on the bottom line" Dana Thomas (2007) Deluxe; How Luxury lost its' lustre, London, Penguin Books. This paper will reflect on this phenomenon and examine the status quo. By exploring recent trends and developments within Luxury Menswear, in particular British Heritage Brands, I hope to identify key themes, approaches, strategies and methods which could be employed by the high-end fashion and luxury goods industries to provide solutions for a more sustainable future. Throughout the 1990's and early part of the new millennium, the British menswear market was focussed on high end global designers and luxury branded sportswear. In recent years there appears to have been a shift in thinking around what men, shopping at this level want and expect from their clothing. There has been a marked increase in the popularity of established and well known "British Heritage' brands such as Dunhill, Burberry, Pringle, Barbour and Crombie and a demand for products that last and endure the fleeting trends dictated by fashion. This has led to the re establishment of forgotten brands such as E Tautz and the introduction of new brands such as Heritage Research and 1205, who draw on this heritage as a strategy and a model for their business practices. "All of our cloths are sourced from fine British mills and some individual hand-weavers. We have a great passion for British heritage production and we are proud to support the diversity of fine menswear producers in the British Isles, from the socks to the shirts, and the tailoring to the ties." Patrick Grant menswear designer of the year 2010 (Director of Norton and sons and E Tautz)in Brummell Magazine Blog posted 16 February 2011: http://www.brummellmagazine.net/style/2011/2/16/brummell-blog-patrick-grant.html accessed 29/03/11 By focussing on British menswear brands, I will first consider what "Heritage' means to these brands and the British male. I will then explore the areas of, Design, Production, Marketing and Retailing to identify emerging themes, approaches and strategies. I will then discuss how these might be adopted by the wider, global fashion design industries including womenswear, footwear and accessories to provide potential solutions towards a more sustainable future which reflects global concerns about the environment, provenance and longevity as well as the unique heritage of the four major fashion cities represented by the Colloquia series. Morace, Francesco [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Industry Title: The Talent of the Enterprises in the Fashion Business Abstract: The aim of this talk is to focus on the future paradigms of the fashion world: creativity and innovation, sustainability and beauty, the richness of differences, local roots. The future opportunities of menswear (and the fashion business in general) are to be identified in the fine tuning of ethics and aesthetics, sustainability and talent, so to search for a model of excellence that is founded on the passion for "making things", on the quality of relationships and suggesting links that will release the beauty and quality of life. The Italian Renaissance model is pivotal: some case

histories of Italian fashion companies will be described in order to show how it's possible to shift from the concept of "luxury" to the idea of "taste". Von Maltzahn, Constantin-Felix [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Industry Title: Complementary Experience Worlds: Web 2.0, Consumer Engagement, and Retention Strategies in Dutch High-Street Fashion Retail Abstract: In an era of increasingly generic high-street fashion and fickle consumership the margins are tight to secure retention and establish a strong position in the market. According to Stockert (2004), part of the development is owed to the fact that during the past decades the continuously growing number of multi-label corporations (e.g., LVMH, PPR, EganaGoldpfeil) and chain stores with international market orientation (Inditex/Zara, MEXX, H&M, Mango) have driven out of the market the vast majority of small-scale retailers with more particularised product ranges and strong patronage. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that with the advent of the Internet and Web 2.0 technology market climate and consumer demands have changed rapidly towards a whole new purchasing mentality. According to the argument, brand affinity is increasingly triggered and maintained through interactive relays rather than consumption acts and unique ownership experiences (Siddiqui et al., 2003; Kim Byoungho, 2006; Thomas et al., 2007). In short, the purchase decision-making process is no longer determined by product-inherent properties, but spreads to active engagement with products and company profiles. Based on a three-month period of ethnographic research this paper will explore different dimensions in the brand proposition of the Dutch high-street fashion firm Vanilia. With a brand history spanning more than 20 years, 16 outlets across the Netherlands, and its own production facilities in Turkey, the company constitutes an example of a stand-alone mid-size fashion enterprise with enduring market success. About two years ago the company opted for a change of direction, both in structural and marketing terms, in order to gear its profile to a younger audience. Originally targeted at women in the 35+ segment, the attempts to redesign the firm's retail profile have been directed at shifting the predominant brand identity from clothing supplier to lifestyle brand, thereby tapping into a different consumption mentality. This paper will specifically focus on the means used for extending the firm's profile and attuning it to a different audience group. On the one hand, Vanilia has embraced interactive technologies ; la Facebook and Twitter as strategic drivers for maintaining and establishing customer relations, thereby replenishing the point of value exchange via in-shop consumption experiences with interactive life worlds online. On the other hand, the company has been eager to augment and reinforce extant properties of the brand proposition such as boutique-like retail environments in listed buildings and CSR policies in its own factory in Turkey. The combination of these aspects; old and new, interactive and personal, on- and off-line experiences; produces intriguing dynamics. In simultaneously keeping with the building blocks of the original brand proposition and carefully extending it to other areas, Vanilia has successfully managed to hold its own by securing a unique position in the Dutch fashion market. Making the stretch between existing and new consumer groups, the new direction has been picked up by both

audiences alike, thus carefully rejuvenating the firm's profile while remaining faithful to its original values. Nespoli, Carlotta [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Cultural Production Title: Fashion = Art Abstract: Very often we hear that fashion is art; not only professionals workers but also journalists, teachers and ordinary people have often expressed with this definition. However, are we sure this is true? We truly believe that fashion has put in our cultural pantheon, together painting, sculpture, architecture, poetry? The question is often academic, but what would happen if a course in art history or art theory is interested in fashion? What reaction occurs? What do you think ordinary people? and users? We decided to do some tests, we found varied educational contexts (schools, universities, post-graduate courses) and we tried with the help of teachers to incorporate fashion in their curriculum. The experience was certainly short (also due to the Italian legislation on education and training) but the results have shown a strong interest among students. The fashion has been studied as art, as social expression, cultural and ethical; we have identified pathways that could combine with other substances and that could enrich the knowledge and culture of the students. Finally, we conducted surveys of interest and satisfaction of all concerned stakeholders, students, teachers, students of other courses that had not participated in the project but that they had observed from the outside, parents (for younger pupils). The results were specific: the interest was high, the feedback was very positive, but users were not sure that they have studied art, but something similar. However, since the beginning of the course, everyone had changed their idea of art (making it wider) and have recognized the value of fashion, not only as image but also as culture. The study aims to present the educational paths, the results obtained and a proposal for a project to enhance the fashion and recognize its dignity in cultural studies. Numbers: Students tested: 200 Teachers involved: 10 Other people interviewed: 200 Duration: 4 months

Pantelides, Katerina [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Cultural Production Title: Fashion and ethereality Abstract: Ethereality, or the quality of unearthly lightness, is a dominant characteristic of much fashion output. I want to explore why makers of fashion imagery (designers, stylists, photographers, illustrators and video artists) continually create light bodies that are not quite flesh and blood. I will use both current and historic examples to illustrate my talk, which will cover the following themes: Stuff of daydreams Neuroscientists have proved that it is easier and more pleasurable to generate mental pictures of gauzy, bright substances than heavier ones, because such images resemble the nebulous ambiguity of thought and daydream. In Phantasmagoria Marina Warner demonstrates that ethereal images such as magic lantern reflections produce a similar effect. The psychological and aesthetic appeal of ethereal fashions such as the ballerina trend, pale skin and sheer fabrics will be discussed. Fashion's commercial success often depends on its ability to invade the fantasies of potential consumers and present them with images that they will want to possess and embody. For the most part, the stuff of its output: gauzy and shimmering textiles, feathers, luminous embellishment, and thin, glossy magazine pages, is insubstantial. Tall, thin and radiant, the bodies it privileges (and to some extent creates through digital technology) are also ethereal, as close to angelic as a flesh and blood constitution will allow. The phantasmagoric quality of fashion's imagery is crucial to its success- it presents a desirable, unattainable ideal that can be allegedly achieved through consumption, whether through purchase or daydream. Enchanting Identity A narrative (nearly always fictitious and fantastical) often accompanies the fashion collection or image, thereby imbuing it with an aura beyond its material makeup. This imagined history can be created by the designer or stylist, e.g.: Rodarte's Spring/Summer 2010 collection narrative about a girl who makes a dress from wallpaper and transforms into a condor, or imbued in the spectacle, e.g.: the pearlescent complexions and swept-up hair of the girls who modelled Erdem's Spring/Summer 2011 collection based on the Ballets Russes, recalled photographs of Tsar Nicholas II's daughters, thereby adding poignancy to a show accompanied by Stravinsky's Rite of Spring ( a score about a sacrificial virgin). Sporting such narrative-rich collections, the model or consumer becomes part of the fiction and assumes an ambiguous, spectral identity - she conveys the history of someone or something other than herself. The notion of fluid identities will be explored in further detail. Moving Ether Fashion bodies do not so much walk as float, hover and pixellate, much like mental images. High heels, balletic poses and the invocation of dance are traditional means of achieving this end. The newer medium of fashion video is adept at defying the laws of gravity, using techniques including scanning and montage of graphic and photographic images to create ever more otherworldly bodies that are sometimes barely distinguishable from their surroundings. Here the boundaries between fashion, art and dream become nebulous.

Increasingly, the ethereal is intrinsic to fashion, working on aesthetic, psychological and consumerist levels. Feitsma, Maaike [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Cultural Production Title: Braving the elements: Dutch fashion, the weather and the landscape. Abstract: Fashion is not just about glitz and glamour - as Alice Goodrum has shown in her book The National Fabric (2005) - it also produces meanings about nations and national identity. Some countries, like France, the U.S.A. and the U.K. have a clear fashion narrative. French fashion is seen as elegant, just like the stereotype of the Parisienne, whereas American fashion is understood as sportive and British fashion alternates between the "huntin', shootin' and fishin'" of the gentry and a "god save the queen" punk mentality. Dutch fashion, on the other hand, seems to lack a clear narrative. National fashion identities are often based on the use of particular symbols, materials and techniques and having a certain mentality. Yet, from the Greek Antiquity onwards, national identities or characters have also been linked to a country's climate and corresponding natural phenomena. Although these theories have lost their scientific status, they still loom large when it comes to producing certain stereotypical ideas about nations. (Beller Van Leersum, 2007: 298) Ideas on a relationship between the landscape and a national design aesthetic can be found in recent writings on Dutch architecture. Large parts of the Netherlands were reclaimed from the sea and, as a result, its surface has a very typical grid like division. This manmade, artificial landscape is often understood as the cause for the Dutch inclination with modernity and modernism. (Groenendijk Vollaard, 2009: 8) In this paper I will explore narratives on climate and landscape within Dutch fashion and their role in the construction of a Dutch fashion identity. Preliminary research shows that these subjects form a recurrent theme in contemporary Dutch fashion. First off all, they are a source of inspiration. As can be explained by Elsien Gringhuis's 2011/12 collection One of these Days; the grid like division of the landscape is abstracted into minimalistic designs in the green of the pastures, the blue of the sky, the black of the earth and the white of the clouds. Another central element was the ever-present wind, which according to Gringhuis stands for movement and energy. The wind, grey skies and stormy seas are also important elements in the campaign for the 2008 A/W collection HOPE by Franciso van Benthum. In these images the models are dressed in clothes based on traditional Dutch fishermen costumes and cast against Dutch weather phenomena. These act as a foil, whereby a certain mood is expressed. The landscape is not only a source of inspiration for individual collections, in the work of lingerie designer Marlies Dekkers it can even be regarded as a design principle. In Dutch newspaper Het Parool she declares: "A French designer could not design what I design; blame it on the polder landscape, on the clear lines.' (Lampe, 2008). Consequently, I will argue that fashion does not only express national identity through the use of specific symbols, materials and techniques or a certain design mentality, but also by dint of narratives pertaining to climate and landscape.

Delamore, Philip [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Influence Title: The Collision of Disruptive Technologies with Fashion Design, Production and Consumption. Abstract: Current thinking beyond the trends of mass-customisation and personalisation are towards more social, sensual and experiential notions of how Fashion is consumed and communicated. The notion of a commodity or product and of mass appeal is fading in a multi-sensorial and always connected world, where personal identity is key. The Fashion Digital Studio aims to address the notion and development of Fashion both as a product and as experience. The primary focus is on the translation of the real world fashion experience in its entirety into the world of digital, and managing the seamless interaction between the two. Computer vision, fast low-cost processing and high quality real-time visualisation of cloth is becoming possible and will drive the development of much higher levels of user experience and intervention in online retail, fashion media and publishing. This paper will present the key outcomes of the collision of disruptive technologies with fashion design, production and consumption. Highlighting the issues of adoption needed to successfully enable the mass-customisation model predicted by many, but which has yet to fulfil its potential. It describes new and emerging approaches in computer vision, gaming and film CGI which may have significant impact over the next 10 years, enabled by low-cost accessible hardware and software, with the potential to democratize applications from home and mobile internet shopping to factories of the future. Conclusions and recommendations will be made on how the future of interdisciplinarity may drive innovation and skills in digital fashion. Esther Rosser est[email protected] Theme: Fashion as Influence Title: Artistic interventions in fashion photography: Cindy Sherman for Balenciaga Abstract: This paper will examine the industry trend of inviting artists to create fashion imagery and it will question the meaning and intention of such artistic interventions. Typically, artists bring not only their own stylistic language but also a desire to expose or critique the production of fashion imagery and/or the fashion system in general. The resulting photographs occupy a shifting locale between the contextual frameworks of `art' and `fashion', and between the contrasted readings of encouraging consumption or staging critique. Cindy Sherman's artistic practice relies on replicating mass media imagery of women, plays strongly with the notion of `dressing up', and seems to efface a fixed or essential subjectivity thus making her the perfect choice for designers and fashion editors looking for the added cultural-value of commissioning work from a contemporary artist. Sherman's use of her own body and the solo production of her images distinguish her process from the more elaborate production method typical of fashion photography. While her earlier series (such as the Untitled Film Stills) utilized clothing and accessories found primarily in thrift stores, photographs commissioned by fashion publications and designers are produced using loaned high fashion garments. These fashion images

often also become part of Sherman's wider artistic oeuvre, appearing first as advertisements or magazine spreads and then later as photographic artworks (in the process, receiving their sequential numbering title). `Merci Cindy!' -- a series of photographic works produced in collaboration with fashion house Balenciaga and published in Vogue Paris in August 2007 -- is the primary focus of this paper. Versions of these images became photographic artworks, ending up in the collection of FrançoisHenri Pinault (CEO of PPR the luxury group owners of Balenciaga) and were more recently displayed as part of New York's 2010 Fashion's Night Out. In this series Sherman, dressed entirely in Balenciaga designs, grotesquely performs various character-types who might be otherwise presumed to form the company's own client-base. Yet, undoubtedly, both `brands' (Balenciaga and Sherman) benefit from this exchange. To what extent can these images be read as a critical parody of the fashion industry? Do their meanings shift as they shift context from the pages of a fashion magazine to a personal art collection? How might we measure the `success' of such artistic interventions? Can fashion photography, more generally, enact a critique from within the fashion system? Timmins, Mark [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Influence Title: Fashion and Space Abstract: By the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century, we will have had our first commercial tourists in space. Admittedly this will only just be in space but weightlessness will be achieved and at this juncture people will want to interact with this new sensation. This weightlessness is the reason for paying £200,000, so do you want to be wearing something normal? Or do you want to be clad in a garment that comes alive in these precious minutes and reacts in a completely new way to the weightless environment. Fashion has always explored new concepts and in the context of space, we can look back to amazing 30's characters including Flash Gordon, 50's science fiction films including "Forbidden Planet", "Barbarella" and "Star Trek" in the 60's, as well as fashion designers Courreges and Cardin, who in the excitement of the explosion of 60s space fever, explored new materials and silhouettes, to translate gravity laden mortals with some of the cachets and sparkles of space exploration. The space fever died off and although space exploration continued throughout the 70s, 80s, 90s we never again hit that fertile, febrile excitement until now. Space fever is about to hit the world again and what do we wear? Not just on Virgin Galaxy but on the inflatable space hotel being assembled as we speak that will orbit the earth by "Bigelow airspace" of Las Vegas and the Hilton hotel chain are looking at the design of a hotel on the moon as well as an orbiting space hotel called the galactic suite space hotel. So what will the staff wear in a super expensive luxury hotel that is literally out of this world and what will the super rich wear when on holiday? The answer lies in the hands of fashion designers who will create fashion garments that react to zero and microgravity in a new and completely different way to clothes that currently exist in a full gravity environment. This may involve jets of air, magnets, shape memory alloys, nano

fibres and fabrics, infra red data streams, light, radiation, etc, to allow garments to work with the human body and the environment in a new and unique manner. Almond, Kevin [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: Bespoke Tailoring: The Luxury and Heritage We Can Afford Abstract: This paper investigates the conflict between hand crafted bespoke tailoring and computerised mass market tailoring in the UK, in order to assess the overall place for this traditional technique within fashion design. It supports a need for retaining the heritage of traditional skills practiced in bespoke tailoring and justifies this as a luxury the consumer can and should afford. The research emphasises the pedagogic approach to the delivery and understanding of tailoring technology in the fashion design courses at University of Huddersfield. This understanding underpins the student's perception of pattern cutting, fit, sizing, proportion and an overall approach to making clothes. Fashion tutors at Huddersfield believe that when students are taught to appreciate the luxury, heritage and skill of bespoke tailoring, it equips them with the confidence and expertise to create any type of garment. The luxury of the traditional tailoring process is in the time, craft and experience instilled into each garment. A bespoke tailor is a sculptor whose medium is cloth. He moulds a shell out of this cloth that refines and accentuates the human form. It is a unique service in which the client's individual measurements are applied to the creation of a garment made to their exact size specifications. Particular attention is given to the detail, quality and excellence in the work. Bespoke tailoring as a fashionable look had a revived popularity in the late 1990's and early 2000's. Many fashion designers at the cutting edge of the fashion industry such as Vivienne Westwood and Alexander McQueen pushed the look of tailoring and the craft traditions of bespoke to the forefront of directional fashion, which in turn provoked a resurgence of interest in the craft. Holding court in a 1998 interview in English Vogue, Vivienne Westwood said; "I don't understand this desperate need to always move forward. To strive for the new is the most conformist thing you can do. Everyone can tell you about what is new and clever, but no-one can tell you what is good! There is a myth that the past is irrelevant, that progress is the only thing.' (Westwood, 1998) The paper analyses how the bespoke industry considers the incorporation of new and computerised technology. In so doing, it considers how the fashion industry could determine the future of tailoring. This could either be through contemporary fashion's emphasis on the idiom as a look, or in the vast advances in technological development that could enhance it, in order to make bespoke more widely available. The paper culminates by considering realistic strategies as the technology within an accessible and computerised mass market industry grows and develops. It highlights that its promotion as a luxurious craft with an un-rivalled heritage, at the cutting edge of the industry, could be the key to the customer buying into its continued existence.

Dincuff, Beth [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: Demure to Deviant: Ladylike Fashion in the 20th Century Abstract: As part of Parsons online voice I am proposing to coordinate a crowd sourcing project utilizing the social media skills of London College of Art students, Gretchen Harnick, Assistant Professor, Parsons AAS, Fashion Marketing and myself, Beth Dincuff Charleston, Part time Assistant Professor, Parsons School of Fashion. Titled "Picturing London Fashion" this crowd sourcing project will extend the opportunity to document London Fashion Week and the Fashion Weeks Colloquia to London College of Art students. "Picturing London Fashion" participants can submit photos, video or other types of multimedia from their mobile phones and other digital devices live The Global Repository for Fashion. The almost instantaneous images and commentary will then be made available to the websites or blogs of all the organizing schools: Domus Academy, Milan; Institut Francais de la mode, Paris; London College of Fashion, London; and Parsons School of Fashion, New York by London College of Art students with Prof. Harnick and I providing coordination and content oversight. In addition, Prof. Harnick and I plan to post video interviews of various attendees and blog and tweet live from the colloquia for Parsons. I have also presented a different proposal under the Fashion and Gender category and if we both attend, this would be a joint project. As an online fashion commentator I have separated my projects into three distinct areas: content provider, trend spotter and commentator, and fashion curator. In some instances I utilize social media platforms purely as informational conduits, informing the online fashion audience of specific events, designs or personalities. In other instances I comment on trends that I feel are important to specific areas of fashion or the industry as a whole. Jaglan, Vandana [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: Costume Design in Indian Films: Trends, Processes Prospects Abstract: Costumes reflect our personality. The term costume can refer to wardrobe and dress in general, or to the distinctive style of dress of a particular people, class, or period. When we talk about costumes, it has three P's attached to it, People, Place and Period. One of the more prominent places people see costumes is in theatre, film and on television. In combination with other aspects, theatrical costumes help actors portray characters' age, gender role, profession, social class, personality, and even information about the historical period/era, geographic location and time of day, as well as the season or weather of the theatrical performance. These are representational costumes. Costume Design is one of the important building blocks in the film or theatre, be it in any country. Costumes help to portray a character to an audience and thus, needs to be authentic and well-suiting to the actor playing the role. The study focuses on the Costume Design in the Indian Films and talks about the trend analysis and technical details of the process of Costuming. The Indian film industry is one of the biggest and oldest in the world (Mazumdar, 2007). Of the various regional industries, the one based

in Mumbai has the highest national profile and greatest global appeal (Dwyer and Patel, 2002). In the year 2000, in order to meet the challenges of the fast changing media scene a seismic shift took place in government economic policy to relax restrictions on private enterprise. One of the major policy initiatives has been the granting of the `Industry Status' to the Entertainment Sector (which includes the Film Sector). Institutional finance and other facilities are now available to the Sector. Thus, it entails the exploratory study of different genre of Indian films (Bollywood) like commercial, art and period specific etc. Through review of literature, it is also seen that there is an emerging scenario of commodity consumption in costuming industry in films television which includes use of brands and their products to add value to the scene. It may not be authentic in portrayal of the characters and questions the traditional costuming industry set up. It is therefore imperative to develop a wellcoordinated and useful model of the future costuming industry which is resourceful and progressive and in nature. The Indian Costuming industry is very old yet lacking in innovations and organisation to develop as a specialised industry. The chief sources for ready-to-wear film costumes have historically been dresswalas (costume supply shops), each with their own tailoring staff, that keep on hand a large stock of items for rent, such as military uniforms and dance costumes. The study thus aims on suggesting the tools and techniques to aid in the working system of the costuming industry in India. Brigenti, Irina [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Gender Title: Ten little dandy girls Abstract: This research wants to focus on the figure of the dandy in fashion. The dandy is aesthetics, art, perfection and aims for a higher goal; the dandy is the apollonian ideal expression of fashion. Unfortunately, the figure of the dandy in the fashion and in the collective perspective is an icon typically male. Why? Why is the dandy woman dressed as a man? Even the woman identified the dandy style in a less female figure? We conducted a study through interviews and targeted surveys; a group of 800 people was interviewed on the concept of the dandy in literature and in fashion. After the study has moved in the fashion industry, identifying the elements that transform the dress into aesthetic art. Strong element of differentiation in the answers is the user's age, but have noted, however, a depart from the traditional model. So we have rebuilt the icon of the dandy, who assumed different names and shapes from those expected; we have found a dandy more feminine, less apollonian and more dionysian but still retains a strong formal elegance. An icon that has been proven through a series of tests with ten university students who, in formal situations, dress in different fashions and styles to create a social image which today, with this research is a bit `less masculine than yesterday.

Yazan, Senem [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Gender Title: Female Dandyism; Defiance or Deference? Abstract: This study investigates women who adopted and incorporated items of male clothing at the turn of the nineteenth century Paris and London. In their interaction with both the male attire, accessories, habits and lifestyles, these women challenged the dominant Victorian discourse by embodying the key attributes of the Regency dandy such as the aloofness, cynicism, provocation, and decadence, and became subject to social exclusion due to their preferences. Even though they came from different upbringing, education, social status, and sexual orientation, the activities of these women were not isolated incidents, but suggested a collective respond to the cultural setting in which Modernism developed. The subjects of this investigation comprise primarily of women who worked and lived in the fields of politics, literature, visual and performing arts in the context of the early feminist movement and the social, cultural, and practical involvement in different activities they have undertaken. Since the terminology did not exist to identify women in men's-tailored clothes at that time, this endeavour requires a close reading of theories on gender and sexuality to contextualize the multiple and contradictory models of female masculinity produced by these women and their contemporaries in the turmoil of two fast-growing cities. While exploring the characteristics of dandyism and its manifestations in women who occupied the role of the dandy, this study locates female masculinities within the discourse of masculinity with its own history, characteristics and representations in this ongoing process shaped by culture and choice. As the driving force of cultural transformation in the creation of new gender relations, the stage became the key location for the dissemination of contemporaneous fashion styles. First, with the courtesans and the male impersonators as companions to the poet, the bohemian, and the dandy, and later with the expatriate collective that found the ultimate habitat in Paris in their exploration of cultural, sexual, and personal freedom. Through an extensive reading of documentaries, biographies, illustrations and photographs taken in studios, music halls, theatres, boulevards and avenues, this study demonstrates that the most basic assumptions on cross-dressing are not credible, when it is no longer a fleeting narrative. The adoption of men's tailored suits as daywear by women, considered a modern uniform for the new woman, was regarded in France as revolutionary, whether they escaped from the traditional roles and societal expectations of the heterosexual world, or urged to signal sexual orientation believing themselves to have a gender identity at odds with their anatomy. Considering that the dandy continues today in new forms, one might state that the aesthetic of the dandy is an attitude, confined neither to a historical period, to a certain place or to particular design and materials. By focusing on the concept of dandyism in the context of modernity, style, urban life, gender identity, masquerade and self-presentation, this paper reveals what constitutes the female dandy since it is not only a matter of status, but also a specific way of relating to oneself in spite of the patriarchal culture.

Ferreday, Debra [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Gender Title: Becoming-deer: the cultural politics of trans-species drag Abstract: This paper is part of a longer book project that interrogates the relationship between fashion, feminine and embodiment. The paper will explore the ways in which fashion cultures dramatise and embody debates about the non-human, which have recently become of considerable interest to feminism and cultural theory. It examines how the use of animal motifs in fashion embody fantasies of becoming non-human that queer the relationship between the categories of "human' and "animal'. Non-human trans is not, in itself, a new idea. Popular culture is saturated with (usually monstrous) figures that occupy the boundary between human and nonhuman. As Donna Haraway notes, "queering has the job of undoing "normal" categories, and none is more critical than the human/nonhuman sorting operation' (2008: xxiv). The notion of trans is important in the feminist turn to the nonhuman; as Myra Hird points out, transsex as a phenomenon is not merely an effect of human culture; recently, feminist theorists have turned to non-human data examples to shed light on questions of human sex, gender and embodiment (2006: 36). For Hird, the myriad transformations found in "nature' challenge human assumptions about binary gender, but also about the nature/culture binary itself (2006). In popular culture, the most visible human/nonhuman trans figure is the werewolf, whose violent transformation from human to animal is often held to embody the expression of an innate animal nature which has been repressed; werewolves are queer monsters (Bernhardt-House 2008: 179). Nonhuman hybridity queers the boundaries of the human by (forcibly) reminding us that the human is always-already animal. This paper pays attention to the emergence of a new, less violent and more ambiguous hybrid subject; the human/deer amalgam sometimes known as cervine or cervid. By tracking cervine imaginaries across multiple spaces of performance, including the work of Alexander McQueen, the A/W 2010 Topshop show entitled "into the woods', and the videos of Lady Gaga and Florence + the Machine, I suggest that the cervid queers the human/nonhuman binary through practices of nonhuman cross-dressing and performance, and that, by parodying the notion of either being "fully human' or becoming/'returning to' the animal, these practices perform the anxiety and melancholia at stake in anthropocentrism. The paper argues that cervine styles construct a more ambiguous relation between nonhuman object and human consumer. These antlers, designed to blend in with the wearer's clothing, look less like trophies taken from dead prey than like prosthetics. Cervid styles, whether mainstream or marginal, can be seen as drag, as a kind of human-to-nonhuman cross-dressing that queers the boundaries of the human. I argue that the longing to "return' to an animal state invokes what feminist literary scholars have argued is an intrinsically feminine form of resistance: the desire to escape the symbolic order becoming pre-linguistic. By reading fashion performances alongside feminist theory, the paper aims to get beyond the well-established critique of fur as "bad object' which effectively silences the resistance inherent in such performances.

Saicheua, Vaeovan [email protected] Theme: Fashion and Sustainability Title: Public Understanding Towards Sustainable Clothing Supply Chain Authors: Vaeovan Saicheua, Tim Cooper and Alistair Knox Abstract: There are issues that have been raised through the contradiction between fashion culture and its sustainability. Public understanding is important to promote potential strategies to help the fashion industry evolve into a more sustainable aspect. This paper is part of a sustainable supply chain development model research to demote disposal clothing. It examines different points of views from representatives of UK consumers and clothing industry experts towards sustainable clothing through manufacturing and end-of-life practices. This paper aims to discover the problems effecting sustainability, which currently exists in fashion supply chain including both consumer and industry perspectives. This includes green manufacturing, views of organic garments, angle of reusing or recycling used/unwanted clothes, and aspects of second hand clothes in the UK market. This paper will utilise semi-structure interviews to determine and clarify the British public awareness and understanding towards the topic of sustainable clothing. The consumer side of the survey reflects the view that some consumers are informed and aware of the issue, other show little interest in sustainability aspects of fashion. The industry side of the survey indicates the potential path in promoting the topic of sustainability in the fashion supply chain, as it is part of an ongoing research of market leading firms. The implication of this paper can be made of use throughout fashion industry to drive their sustainable business models according to public behaviour and market conditions. Adele Varcoe & Ricardo Bigolin Theme: Workshop Title: Fashion People Abstract: FASHION PEOPLE is a project that considers the potential of fashion as a way to mediate and design social interactions and inclusivity. Opening up the production and presentation process of fashion is central to the world of FASHION PEOPLE. The aim is to mix the roles associated with members of fashion systems, taking fashion to the people and inviting collaboration in all parts of the process. Instead of the solitary designer, mythic celebrity fashionistas' or iconic fashion critics, FASHION PEOPLE celebrates that everyone knows and can create fashion!

Thursday 22nd September: 9.30am ­ 11.00 Zajtmann, David [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Industry Title: The Relationship Between Creative Workers and Localized Professional Institutions. The Case of the Parisian "Haute Couture". A Longitudinal Study (1973 ­ 2010) Abstract: The globalization of the manufacturing of fashion products, for all product ranges, is now unavoidable. However, most creative activities of the high-end fashion industry remain concentrated in a few capital cities. Besides, the Paris, London or Milan shows remain the ones with the most media coverage. The case of Paris, where the notion of "«haute couture»" has been invented, is therefore an interesting field to study the relationship between creative workers and localized professional institutions. The framework if this study is neo-institutionalism (Williamson, 1975). The interaction between local regulation and cultural industries which includes fashion has been emphasized (Scott, 1998 and 2000). The importance of connections for creative and cultural industries has been emphasized (Chapain and Communian, 2010). The presence of reputation leads to the use of a premium by firms, premium which is also a compensation for firms' investment in reputation (Shapiro, 1983). A longitudinal study of couturiers and fashion designers operating in Paris between 1973 and 2010 has been conducted. To conduct this study, which is part of a management PhD study in progress, an induction approach has been used. Direct access to all the reports of the « Fédération Française de la Couture, du Prêt-à-Porter des Couturiers et des Créateurs de Mode » between 1973 and 2010 has been possible. Besides the governing body of the Federation, we met participants of the Federation, including former CEO's of companies and also young designers who have recently joined the Federation and who joined the «haute couture» professional group. The work of fashion designers choosing to belong to the French «haute couture» federation relies on the cultural heritage of Parisian «haute couture» dating from Worth (1858), and includes firms or actors still in activity such as Lanvin, Chanel or Dior. Someone willing to become a "couturier" should have a sponsorship from a current member of the "Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne" to apply to this professional network. Since 1945, a list of authorized Couture houses is published every year by the French Ministry of Economy. This system still exists, and gives Parisian «haute couture» a unique position in the world. However, in the 1950s and 1960s came a growing competition from Italy. In the 1970s, the United States of America also developed their own high-end fashion industry. On a national level, the couture industry was also challenged by newcomers. This situation was addressed in 1973 by the French fashion industry by reshaping its official network in a Federation which will include the new designers who did not want to fit into the constraints of "haute couture". The federation also opened itself by admitting as guest members Japanese, Italian or Belgian designers. Besides, "haute couture" regulations, which were very strict, have been modified in with less restrictive conditions in 1993.

The findings suggest that the reputation of Paris, which is still considered as a hub for highend fashion, is the main reason of the implication of creative fashion brands into this network. The belonging to this network thus allows them to include a premium in their products. Dari, Laetitia [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Industry Title: Logistics: strategic function for enterprises in the French ready-to-wear industry? Abstract: Logistics became a strategic function for companies, and its outsourcing is increasing. The barometer Outsourcing Ernst's and Young (2005) shows that more than 65 % of companies resort to the outsourcing of their logistic activity. Nevertheless, is it on traditional business sectors such as the ready-to-wear industry? This sector is indeed characterized by a large number of SME, the creation of which is the core profession and which still have no real skills in the field of the logistics. But, the seasonality of products, their fast renewal, the distant sourcing, etc. require to master this activity which, because of the constraints of the sector, becomes inescapable and strategic for companies. In these conditions, how is the logistic activity perceived, and how it is set up? Delpal, Franck [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Industry Title: Vertical integration in luxury companies: objectives and effects on market foreclosure Abstract: During the last twenty years, the tremendous development of the luxury markets has had consequences on companies' organizations and models. Facing several changes in their economic environment (deregulation, globalization, fast expanding demand, weakened suppliers) some of the most emblematic players of the sector (couture houses, leather goods makers, shoemakers) decided to switch to a more integrated model. This strategy took two majors forms: firstly most of the companies started to develop their directly-owned stores network (downstream integration), and secondly some of them built their production capacities or bought back subcontractors (upstream integration). Others cases of hybrid forms of control are also often observed (vertical restrictions for distributors, quasi-integration of suppliers). Based on a series of French and Italian case studies and using a game-theoretic framework, this paper deals with two main issues. First, we examine the motivations to proceed to such vertical control. The economic theory of industrial organization provides us a first approach of the cases in which vertical integration is necessary and efficient. A specific analysis of some luxury sectors (apparel, shoes and leather goods) shows that the motives usually declared by the companies to explain their choice to "make" rather than "buy" and to distribute the major part of their product by themselves are not the only reasons. If the necessity to maintain a certain level of quality through the production process, to guarantee a certain consistence in the brand image around the world and an equal service to customers is no doubt a factor, we show that this strategy also has an economic foundation. Concerning the downstream integration, the benefit of a double margin as a producer and a retailer is obvious. And even for the wholesale part of their business, luxury companies' use of vertical restrictions allows them to sell

under very favorable conditions. In terms of upstream integration, economic and strategic motivations are once again central in the choice of the integration policy and its form (full integration, quasi-integration...). This general movement of vertical integration has led to diverse consequences. At a microeconomic level, it has clearly improved the companies' performances. Moreover, using the tools of the game theory, we show that this strategy led to the settling of strong entry barriers at a sector level. In addition with their strong brand identity and in certain cases specific know-how and assets, the "insiders" now have a bigger market power on their environment, whether they are suppliers or distributors. Potential new competitors have to cope with many disadvantages: important initial investment, worse selling conditions, more expensive or slower deliveries from manufacturers. These evolutions can explain the structure of the luxury industry on many consumer goods: a few big companies whose supremacy can hardly be compromised by their smaller scale competitors.

Segre Reinach, Simona [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Cultural Production Title: "Post Made in Italy" The Evolution of Italian Fashion Identity. Abstract: The fashion product cannot be separated from the ideas which generate it. Therefore the materiality of a product always relates to an abstract concept. Outsourcing has not only separated ideas from things ­ impoverishing the fashion product -, but has also brought about an overestimation of the purely creative aspect at the expense of the hybrid reality of production contexts and the transnationality of fashion. The obsession with a "magnificent" past and the origins of Italian identity, increasingly frequent in communication in general and in that of fashion in particular, are the other side of a `Made in Italy' transformation. The concept, which is still strong in mass production as in the luxury industry, has lost attractiveness in avant-garde design. New interpretations of materiality escape the rhetoric of Made in Italy, as the heir of the Renaissance workshop ("la bottega"), although they might relate to local material traditions and forms of artisan work. Concepts such as made in Italy and Italian fashion must now be redefined and reformulated. The paper shows how the concept of materiality is embedded in Italian menswear and the ways in which it can be represented by brands moving from an obsolete concept of `Made in Italy', although incorporating the main issues of Italian (The Italians remain the undisputed leaders in the luxury menswear arena) and European sartorial histories. Italian menswear is fashion forward and gives a great deal of attention to detail and design. The future of menswear will be characterized by a great attention, not to the trademark, but mostly to the quality of the product. This is determined by the fabric, the technique of the manufacture and by the style, which have to follow the new trend.

Faiers, Jonathan [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Cultural Production Title: The Mark of the Beast Abstract: The paper will consider the importance of the monogram in fashion history, specifically how it has been deployed in film costume. The monogram is often featured in films as an indication of instability, badge of guilt (as originally conceived in Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel The Scarlet Letter) or ironically as an indicator of multiple identities. A central cinematic example will be the use of monogrammed clothing in the costumes worn by Gene Tierney in Leave Her to Heaven where her psychological instability, father fixation and jealous love leads to murder. Other films that use the monogram will include Rebecca Desk Set, Strangers on a Train and more recently the ironic reference to Louis Vuitton's distinctive logo as represented in Madeline Kahn's matching costumes, accessories and automobile in Mel Brook's High Anxiety. The concept of the monogram or logo as either a badge of shame or mark of the obsessive will naturally lead onto a discussion of the importance of logos in contemporary luxury branding, how these function psychologically for the consumer and how their reception and consumption is shifting in the context of the current global recession. This presentation (which would include appropriate film clips) could form part of a session that looks at fashion in film, branding or a number of other possible strands. My work is always interdisciplinary in approach and this enquiry would draw on fashion theory, film studies, literature and brand and marketing analysis. Gupta, Toolika [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Cultural Production Title: The Effect of British Raj on Indian Costume Abstract: The British entered India as traders, but they stayed back as rulers and ruled the country for almost 200 years. They came with their own cultural values and identity, very British clothing and fashion statements, leaving the Indians admiring the BURRA SAHIBS and the MEMSAHIBS. The average Indian wanted to look special and thus wanted to copy their styles. This research focuses on how the British Raj brought about a change in the costumes of contemporary India. How were the British costumes Indianised? Were they accepted by the Indians, or was the change of costume thrust upon them? How did the words "Petticoat" and "blouse" become a part of the Indian languages and of the Indian costume, the "Sari"? How did the DhotiKurta clad common man change to a Shirt Trouser sporting one? Just as the "babus" became a part of Indian culture, so did their dress and dressing sensibility. "English was not the first foreign tongue to be imposed on India as the language of the government." (Watson, 1979). Similarly English Costumes were not the first foreign costumes to be imposed and adopted by Indians. Before the British it was the Persian influence in Fashion and Persian was the official language.

Fashion is a representation of cultural identity. The changes in the socio political scenario of the country brought about a marked change in their costumes. A look at the paintings of the early years of the Raj show that the Indian kings loved to adorn the western attire, where as the commoners and Brahmins considered it outrageous to begin with. "Fashion is architecture. It is a matter of proportions", said Coco Chanel, (Sievewright, 2007). So in keeping with the zeitgeist once the buildings of the city were being constructed in the imperial style, so were the garbs of men and women. It was fashionable to "talk English and walk English". "From Victorian times, as transport was fast, papers, periodicals and novels from England were available in India and they dominated the life of womenfolk. Fashions of London and Paris were also reaching fast."(Dr. Murthy K.L., 2001). The textiles being manufactured in India were also anglicized, this can be seen by the drastic change in the motifs from Lotuses to Tulips, and the style of depiction very Victorian. "By the beginning of the Eighteenth Century most of the flowering trees are displaying exuberant Baroque Curves." (Irwin J and Brett K.B., 1970). Refrences: Watson Francis, a concise history of India, Thames and Hudson, 1979, Dr. Murthy K.L., A Peep into the work and lifestyle of the British in India, Lakshmi Publications, 2001 Irwin John, Brett K.B., 1970, Origin of Chintz, Victoria and Albert Museum. Research and Design by Seivewright Simon, 2007 Debnath, Anamika [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Influence Title: The Street: Identity Story-telling Abstract: From time immemorial, humans have used their dress, hair style, footwear, make-up and so forthwhat the sociologist Irving Goffman collectively termed as "presentation of self' as a powerful tool for telling story about themselves, for communicating important cultural beliefs, for making a "statement' and for the sheer love of exhibitionism. This tool has also been used for making connections - publicly for sharing with the like-minded and to exhibit in front of the others and privately for creating fantasy. More often than not, "the street' has been the metaphorical stage upon which this "drama"- a combination of attitude, aesthetics and activities unfolded; thus giving the streets like Portobello road of London or of Harajuku area of Tokyo its iconic image and status. And thanks to the new digital world of blogging, individuals are able to play a much greater role in constructing both their fashion- persona and social identity by exploring and communicating their stories ever more easily to ever wider audiences. As a Fashion Designer and Design Ethnographer, I have been exploring how individuals share their stories through fashion and communicate using digital technology; how they create an identity both on the street (Polyhemus, 1994) and online; how do they make connections in real versus hyper-real and virtual world (Baudrillard, 1994). This paper presents my research into the realm of identity-making and story-telling with "the street' as a back-ground; I want to highlight "social life of the street' and the rise of "the street' though the "fashion pyramid' from an ethnographer's point of view.

Loscialpo, Flavia [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Influence Title: Abstraction and idealization: the case of Futurist and Constructivist single-piece garments Abstract: The present paper explores the role of abstraction within fashion design in relation to Futurist fashion and the garments designed by Constructivist artists. Whether in art or in fashion, the designed, represented, tailored body implicitly calls into question the relationship between the individual body and its idealization, as well as traditional conceptual pairs, as subject/object, inside/outside, nature/culture, which govern our way of talking and thinking about the body. If abstraction can take place only through a process of simplification that each time selects certain common features, this process implies renouncing to the singular differences existing between `real' bodies. Interesting is the case of Futurist fashion and the tuta, a `universal' one-piece garment created, in 1919, by designer and artist Ernesto Michahelles, under the pseudonym Thayaht, in collaboration with his brother Ruggero Michahelles (RAM). Inspired by the concepts of simplicity, functionality and reproducibility, the tuta in its innumerable versions has deeply permeated not only fashion but more generally everyday life, as well as contemporary terminology. Originally, it was composed of straight lines forming a T-shape, and even in the variant for women was deprived of any ornamentation, reflecting the Modernist aesthetics. Being adaptable to any occasion and allowing a complete freedom of movement, the tuta followed parameters of universality and uniformity, and responded to the `new' need of favoring through clothing the `vertiginous movement of human life' (Umberto Boccioni, "La Pittura Futurista", 1911). The tuta invented by Thayaht presents multiple similarities with the overall garments designed, in the early 1920s, by Constructivist artists as Alexander Mikhailovich Rodchenko and Vavara Stepanova. These overalls were instances of `production clothing' and, although were never put into production, were permeated by the same ideals of universality, uniformity, simplicity and practicability that can be found at the origin of the tuta. Nevertheless, while the Constructivist single-piece overall was mainly conceived for workers, the tuta was a garment tout court, not projected as work wear, and was initially adopted even by members of the Italian aristocracy. The paper explores the origin of the Futurist and Constructivist overall garments, contextualizing them in the cultural and artistic climate in which they were conceived. It emphasizes then their points of convergence, and reflects on the very different audiences and purposes for which they were created. It references documentation from the Thayaht Foundation, referring also to the exhibitions Per il sole e contro il sole. Thayaht e Ram. La tuta/Modelli per tessuti (Galleria del Costume di Palazzo Pitti, Florence, 2008), Modernism: Designing a New World (V&A, 2006), Revolutionary Costume: Soviet Clothing and Textiles of the 1920s (Ministero della Cultura dell'URSS and Associazione Italia-URSS, Pesaro, 1987).

McDowell, Felice [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Influence Title: Exhibiting Fashion and Art in Post-war British Fashion Magazines Abstract: This paper will examine the relationship between the fields of art and fashion, focusing upon the representation and cultural mediation of art in post-war British fashion media. Whilst this relationship is increasingly acknowledged and analysed in terms of recent art, fashion and media practice ­ as German art critic Isabelle Graw points to in her recent study High Price: Art Between the Market and Celebrity Culture (2009), `it is usually art historians, critics, and curators who contribute to the generation of this symbolic value, although recently this role has also been increasingly performed by lifestyle and fashion magazines' ­ this paper will address an earlier, and often neglected history of fashion and art. What kinds of symbolic value was generated by post-war British fashion media in the field of art? And how was this done? I will address these questions through an analysis of art's representation within selected British fashion magazines, Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, and (The) Queen, published between 1945-1948. Addressing this form of visual culture in relation to a wider socio-historical context this paper will look at the emerging discourse of `public' art in relation to a post-war Labour government and its cultural reforms such as the creation of the Arts Council. I will question how this concept of `public' art was negotiated and represented within a fashion idiom of magazine culture. What symbolic value did post-war fashion media adorn these new modes of cultural consumption with? This paper will present the ways in which fashion media represented the field of art through a contextualised reading of the key components that create the body of the magazine, namely, photo-spreads, fashion adverts, cultural news and reviews, and feature articles. How was a discourse of `public' art photographed, written about, and advertised? I will question how this notion of `public' art merges with the relative democratisation of the private art market. This will be addressed through the examination of a selected editorial photo-spread `Cocktail Party Receipt' published in British Vogue February 1948. By examining how this photo-spread appears within context of its publication I will consider how the discursive framework of the fashion magazine contributes to an understanding of this type of visual representation. This paper proposes to directly address how post-war British fashion media contributed to the cultural production of art during this period. In doing it aims to readdresses the ways in which art and history can be interpreted in consideration of a wider and fashionably aware visual culture.

Raipally, Avinash [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: Right Pocket Abstract: Fashion designers are the real masters that embellish the beauty of women and smartness of men. Designers shape up bodies in the most modest manner and make anyone look stunning and sensuous. Now it's time for us to shape up their health too. Why do shirts have a pocket on the left side? 1. Because most people are right-handed, and it would be easy to take things out from left. But all these ages' left-handers could easily use a left pocket, so right-handers can pretty much use a right pocket. Why not make the left-handers fell good for a change? 2. In mankind's thinking the heart is towards the left - anatomically the heart is almost centred, but a little towards the left side. The pocket is where a loving man's heart is and he is carrying his pocket money with him most of the time. Why should shirts have a pocket on the right side? As the advancement of technology took over, we started using mobile phones, I-pods etc in our pockets which are now dearer to us than most of the things. The most basic fact about cell phones is that they emit microwave radiation and studies reveal that cell phones kept close to the heart is one of the reasons for heart attacks and strokes in young people. So is it not our responsibility as designers to change the way we shape the future generations and lessen the burden on the heart? Therefore I plead all the design fraternity, design houses and glorified tailors to stitch the pocket towards right. Let's make the world we live in a better place at least for the coming generations in our own small way by contributing the pocket to the right. Prevention is better than cure. As the coming generations need a better future, let's be part of the prevention. With burning hearts, the design world's still cold? NO. So let's make a change and a move that's bold. LETS HEAL THE WORLD AND LET'S MAKE A CHANGE TODAY ONWARDS. I guess all the design community would be greatly acknowledged for our shift of the pocket. RIGHT IS RIGHT!!! Rasch, Alison [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: Mindfulness in Fashion Abstract: "Why do you do fashion' is a question rarely asked of fashion designers or fashion design students from within the fashion world. That an answer to this question is not always readily obvious may demonstrate a lack of theoretical background, analytical context, or reflective practice within fashion design educational programmes, but it does submit fashion design as a field of cultural

practice in which mindfulness could prove to useful, innovative, and beneficial on a personal, practical, and industry-wide basis. This question of "Why Fashion?' asked in a slightly incredulous tone by many people, but usually not asked by those teaching and working in fashion, I find difficult to answer myself in a satisfactory way. I have tried to regularly ask it of myself, eventually reaching something resembling a mumble about a creative calling to produce that I have no choice but to answer. With mindfulness, there is an approach that at the least allows for exploration of the question, which has the potential to expand the practice of fashion designers, design students, and design tutors. Mindfulness can be described as "becoming more aware of thoughts and feelings, relating to them in a wider, decentred field of awareness, and purposefully opening fully to one's experience' (Bishop et al, 2004, p. 234). Although many fashion designers avoid anything resembling specified parameters, I would offer mindfulness as more of a complementary structure of practice, in thinking and in working, which allows for built-in reflection. Fashion designers are trained to critique the work of others and their own, to accept it and to give it. But the inherent step of reflection involved in mindfulness as practice goes further, allowing one to step out and observe what is happening in real time in one's own mind, body, and emotions. Attending "The Unconscious: Psychoanalysts in Conversation', an event held in March 2010 at the Central Saint Martin's Innovation Centre, I was struck by the comments made by psychoanalyst Michael Parsons, regarding the uncanny; which he described on a basic level as that which makes an artwork stand out to a viewer, an experience which I submit could also apply to something like a creative inspiration, grasping a new insight, or even developing an inquiry. One cannot anticipate or control when the uncanny will occur, but may only suffer the uncanny by submitting to the experience of the uncanny. I took this "submission' to mean supporting a state of mind that is open to experiencing the uncanny when it makes itself known. The state of mind fully open to one's experience of the uncanny I consider to be similar to mindfulness, as an awareness of yourself in the present that acknowledges ideas, thoughts, and feelings, including the uncanny. Personal awareness through mindfulness can encourage acceptance of difficult questions and innovative ideas, allowing for personal reflection and response rather than reaction. I am interested to explore mindfulness and reflective practice further, and the potential for a mindful approach to be applied on an open scale within fashion design to expand the range of the field as a valued cultural practice. The application as practice could range from one's own well being and mental health as a designer, to an educational establishment's reciprocal investment in its students, to a company's role in the future of it's own production. Anyan, Jennifer and Clarke, Philip [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: The role of the stylist in hypermodern image-making Abstract: There has been a heightened awareness of the role of the stylist in contemporary fashion imagemaking in recent years. This paper will aim to define fashion styling as an intellectual pursuit, in historic, theoretical and practical terms. This collaborative paper will attempt to explore the role of the stylist within a creative team (on a fashion editorial shoot for example) and within the wider fashion industry. The stylist, whether

commissioned to gather clothing or accessories for a shoot or as a creative director, could be seen to have more in common with the fine artist than designer or craftsman, in terms of the process undertaken when producing work. The stylist works with existing ingredients; sourcing, collecting and combining predesigned objects (ready mades), participating in the conception and creation of a photographed scene that is designed to convey meaning. Aligning the practice of styling alongside that of the artist, particularly that of artist/social scientist trickster, protagonist and social commentator. Raniere, talking about fine art photography in more general terms, describes the photographic image as "a legible testimony of a history written on faces or objects' (Raniere, 2007). Stylists work with materials clothing or accessories, furniture and location to construct a scenario which communicates a message or theme. Barnard states fashion and clothing "may be considered, at least potentially, undecidable' (Barnard, 1996, p145). The fashion stylist decides, by giving clothing context; stylists literally tether meaning to fashion for the reader/viewer/consumer. Discussing contemporary society beyond postmodernism, Gilles Lipovetsky describes a state of "hypermodernity', where the principles of modernity are taken to the extreme (Lipovetsky, 2005). Nicholas Bourriard's "Altermodern' exhibition at the Tate Modern in 2009 also attempted to define art and design practice beyond postmodernism. This paper will further discuss how cultural shifts and technological factors could affect the stylist's role and their contribution to fashion imagemaking in these "hypermodern times'. In The Fashion System (Barthes, 1960) Roland Barthes chose to discuss the processes involved in the representation of fashion in 1960s women's magazines. The structured fashion system he refers to, discussed in semiotic terms, followed a prescribed format, was modernist and self-referential. The postmodern magazine reader expected bricolage, the assemblage of an image using diverse themes and messages, irony, parody and pastiche. What does the hypermodern magazine reader (online or print format) expect to see and how is the stylist involved in the process? The paper will position the (relatively new in comparison to that of artist and designer) role of stylist as a practitioner whose process operates in the interstice between the established "artist' and "designer' while simultaneously offering a new creative position. The paper will also consider why the role of the stylist has become more prominent and been given more recognition in recent years, taking into account the impact of technology and new media and the resultant, increasingly democratised, journalistic environment. Dincuff, Beth [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: Demure to Deviant: Ladylike Fashion in the 20th Century Abstract: As part of Parsons online voice I am proposing to coordinate a crowd sourcing project utilizing the social media skills of London College of Art students, Gretchen Harnick, Assistant Professor, Parsons AAS, Fashion Marketing and myself, Beth Dincuff Charleston, Part time Assistant Professor, Parsons School of Fashion. Titled "Picturing London Fashion" this crowd sourcing project will extend the opportunity to document London Fashion Week and the Fashion Weeks Colloquia to London College of Art students. "Picturing London Fashion" participants can submit photos, video or other types of multimedia from their mobile phones and other digital devices live The Global Repository for

Fashion. The almost instantaneous images and commentary will then be made available to the websites or blogs of all the organizing schools: Domus Academy, Milan; Institut Francais de la mode, Paris; London College of Fashion, London; and Parsons School of Fashion, New York by London College of Art students with Prof. Harnick and myself providing coordination and content oversight. In addition, Prof. Harnick and I plan to post video interviews of various attendees and blog and tweet live from the colloquia for Parsons. I have also presented a different proposal under the Fashion and Gender category and if we both attend, this would be a joint project. As an online fashion commentator I have separated my projects into three distinct areas: content provider, trend spotter and commentator, and fashion curator. In some instances I utilize social media platforms purely as informational conduits, informing the online fashion audience of specific events, designs or personalities. In other instances I comment on trends that I feel are important to specific areas of fashion or the industry as a whole. Germana, Monica [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Gender Title: Bond Girls: The Dialectics of Gender Construction Abstract: The present proposal is part of a larger research project, provisionally titled Dangerous Women: Body, Dress and Romance. The project examines the representation of subversive women characters in non-realist twentieth-century film, fiction and graphic novels. Whilst looking at the evolution of the fashion industry and developments in costume history, my research attempts to demonstrate how sartorial changes to the representation of the female body linked with the rise of the feminist movement are reflected through the rise and characterisation of dangerous women in fiction, film and the graphic novel. An important part of this project is a chapter dedicated to Bond girls. Style and commodities form an important subtext of Fleming's novels: in the post-war decades, both novels and films became synonyms of luxury, product placement and modern "branding'. My study aims to provide a critical reading of Bond's masculinity in relation to the female characters that support his role. My analysis will include a range of female characters including Bond girls in the strictest sense, such as Honey Ryder (Dr No) , Pussy Galore (Goldfinger) and Domino (Thunderball), as well as other "Bond' women, such as Rosa Klebb (From Russia With Love) and Miss Moneypenny. The close-reading of dress and body politics unveils the crucial role played by female characters in relation to the archetypal male/female opposition that the Bond stories appear to represent. My argument is that such opposition is essential to the construction of Bond's "heroic masculinity', whilst, simultaneously, undermining the masculine/feminine hierarchical opposition in favour of a more dynamically dialectical construction of gender. This new reading of Bond novels and films highlights the important politics fashion; body and dress perform in relation to gender preoccupations. While Bond is literally a wounded man, his apparent heroism showcased through his impeccable elegance and sophisticated tastes; conceals the anxieties of a late 1950s masculinity, whose position is undermined by the rise of female emancipation. Bond is seduced, but also antagonised by girls, whose glamour conceals technology and weaponry to match his own. Bond girls are fast drivers, skilled killers and strong fighters: their accessories are designed to accentuate both their duplicity and charm. Challenging the hierarchical

male/female binary opposition, Bond girls expose an ambiguous kind of femininity, frequently highlighted by their exaggerated exoticism or foreignness, which relates them to archetypes such as that of the "phallic mother' and the "monstrous feminine'. Clothing points to the instability of self. The immaculately dressed Bond; whose clothes and accessories suggest an ideal of "timeless' masculinity; is able to take on other people's clothes for camouflaging purposes: his identity is, thus, made less stable by the frequent change of costume. Conversely, the apparently ultra-feminine sex and sartorial appeal of Bond Girls serves the purpose of concealing their dangerous nature (just as their clutch-bags hide their lethal weapons). The Bond Girl, whose looks evolve through five decades of cinematic production, projects an image of the "feminine other' that challenges the patriarchal foundations of gender: her body is a weapon; not a trophy; to measure Bond's heroic achievements against. Earley, Rebecca [email protected] Theme: Fashion and Sustainability Title: Fashion and Sustainability: The TEN Design Strategies for Professional Designers Abstract: Textiles Environment Design (TED) research cluster is based at Chelsea, and is part of the Textiles Future Research Centre (TFRC) at the UAL. TED is widely recognised as leading the field internationally in practice-based sustainable textile design research. TED's expertise is strategic design thinking for sustainable textiles and the development and application of "The TEN', a set of design strategies for textile designers. The strategies have been integrated into several consultancy projects for leading fashion brands including VF Corp, H&M, Gucci Group and the PPR Group. In March 2011 TED was awarded £0.5m as part of a consortium project funded by the Swedish government. The MISTRA Future Fashion project (2011 - 2015) will address the question, "How can sustainable design processes be created and embedded within companies and gain the participation of consumers?' At TED we believe that the overwhelming opportunity for sustainability in the textile industries is that of innovation in connected thinking at all stages of the "cradle to cradle' environment. Currently sustainable textile designers tend to deal with isolated problems in a piecemeal way. A designer will often choose to recycle, use natural dyes, or source organic cotton, and this becomes their "thing'. Around this their aesthetic develops, and the designer considers that this is their chosen path to more sustainable textile design. Large manufacturers comply with legislation for greener business, but need models for innovation from smaller, young companies who are experimenting with new sources of material and new ways reaching consumers. Today's consumers of textiles are design driven and are motivated by emotional and economic factors in their aesthetic preferences. They are interested in identifying with products, with which they can share values. In other design disciplines, such as product design, a more interconnected thought process is encouraged. The designer is often not the "maker'; s/he gets factories / producers to prototype for him - and therefore s/he has more choice over which sustainable design strategies to consider and employ. As a result, these disciplines currently lead the way in the development and implementation of sustainable design concepts and can act as models for the fashion industries.

Textile designers need to be trained to think and create in a full range of sustainable concepts, and be able to combine complex technical techniques together with new materials and processes, along with product design ideas that improve the use and disposal potential of the product. There is also a distinct lack of good quality, reflective writing in the field of practice-based sustainable textile design, and a need for innovative and clear methodologies to be tested, applied and published. To embed these design strategies into companies sophisticated professional training programmes are needed: which are both highly creative, encouraging new connected thinking that leads to sustainable design innovations; and which enables the company to evaluate the design thinking, finding ways to make use of the innovative ideas quickly and economically. The TED / MISTRA project will be doing just that. Gwilt, Alison alison.gwi[email protected] Theme: Fashion and Sustainability Title: Reflecting on your design practice for sustainable fashion. Abstract: This presentation questions the process of fashion design and provides the designer in industry with the opportunity to reflect upon their everyday working practices in order to better engage with sustainable design principles. The presentation will discuss the design and production process applied in a micro, small or medium sized company, and will then trace the role and influence that the designer has across these phases. The presentation will reveal methods that are intended to help explore where the designer might rethink their role and behavior in the context of sustainable design strategies. During the first part of the presentation, there will be an introduction to sustainable design strategies, what they are and how they can be integrated within the system of designing and making fashion products. There will then be a focus on a select range of sustainable design strategies that are applicable in the production of fashion. The intention is to introduce a set of terminologies that will enable the discussion of sustainable strategies in everyday terms, which are based upon a set of personas developed by the author. Next, the presentation will reflect on the fashion design and production process, which involves a generic sequence of activities and phases that typically occur within all sectors of the fashion industry. Fashion designers have tended to view sustainability as an afterthought to their design practice and so the integration of sustainable strategies within the fashion design process is not typically considered. This activity will help the designer to visualize sustainable design strategies integrated within their own design practice and will demonstrate how to link sustainable strategies with the activities within the fashion design and production process. Overall, the presentation intends to demonstrate the importance of reflection in design practice. By considering the way that garments are designed and manufactured it becomes possible for the designer to see how they can engage with sustainable strategies, which can lead to the production of better garments. Participants will also be directed towards a list of further reading and resources, to support and inspire the changes needed in design practice.

Searle, Nicola [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Industry Title: The Demand for Fake Status Goods Abstract: I propose to discuss the economic factors that form demand for counterfeit status goods. Intended for an interdisciplinary audience, this discussion will be based on a literature review of the economics and management academic research on counterfeit status goods. The demand for counterfeit status goods presents an intriguing paradox between consumption of counterfeit goods and the desire to send status signals. I will examine the socioeconomic factors that create this demand, starting with Veblen's analysis of conspicuous consumption. I will then examine the concepts of relative wealth and the importance of reference groups and status which create the basis for the discussion of counterfeit status goods. Furthermore, I will examine the production and characteristics of these illegally manufactured goods. The counterfeit status good allows the consumer to separate, or unbundle, status and functional qualities by providing a lower priced, lower functioning good with similar status qualities to the original. As for the consumer, characteristics of both the person and the good determine individual demand for counterfeit status goods. Price is the overriding factor in determining demand for counterfeits. The process of deceptive signalling provides the answer to the paradox. Counterfeit status goods can serve as utility maximising status signals in deceptive status signalling. Faced with budget constraints, consumers can find it optimal to use counterfeit goods with high status qualities to deceptively enhance personal status. The process of this is demonstrated by Van Kempen's fourstage deceptive status signalling model. Finally, I will conclude with the aggregate and dynamic effects of the demand for counterfeit status goods. Demand for legitimate status goods and their counterfeits are interrelated and can either be positively or negatively correlated. In the long-run, demand for legitimate status goods is hampered by counterfeiting, hurting producers. While counterfeit status goods can prove utility maximising for the individual, the status signalling game, deceptive or not, is a zero-sum game. Leelapanyalert, Kannika [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Industry Title: An Investigation into the Factors influencing Internationalisation of Retailing Firms: The Case of Marks Spencer. Abstract: Numerous studies can be found in relation to international retailing, but these have not been able to fully identify factors that influence the process of retail internationalisation (Brown and Burt, 1992; Dawson, 1994; Helfferich, Hinfelaar, and Kasper 1997; Pellegrini, 1994, Rogers et al 2005). This research seeks to explore this area in more detail in order to develop a conceptual model, which could provide useful insights and a valid approach to the different processes of retail internationalisation.

The objectives of the research are: 1) To develop and explore a conceptual model for retail companies entering the emerging market; 2) To describe and study the role played by these crucial factors during the internationalisation process of these firms; 3) To describe and study how different market environments can be managed during the international expansion process; 4) To identify the success factors that could facilitate the success or failure of the business entry of Western firms in emerging countries The international retail strategy used by Marks Spencer entering Hong Kong and Thailand are being explored. Data is collected by a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews, reports and observation. The total of 30 interviews are conducted with staff including senior managers, middle managers and frontline employees established at the head office, subsidiaries and franchisee. N*Vivo software is used to encode the data and corroborate the analysis in this qualitative research. This study explores the concept of matching and market orientation and reveals that it is important factor in internationalisation of firms into emerging markets. The findings also indicate that market orientation is another important factor in the process. The interplay between matching and market orientation plays a crucial role in the firm's strategy to achieve a strong market position in foreign markets. Lin, Shuya [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Industry Title: Investigating Sources of Creativity in the UK Fashion Industry: A Resource-Based View Abstract: In creative industries such as fashion, availability and accessibility of required resources have huge positive influence on new product development success. By starting with the question on what makes a designer fashion SME successful, this research then grounded its focus on the area of new product development and design-driven innovation. This study employed a qualitative approach and used semi-structured interviews as a method of collecting data from the field. A two-staged research design were planned and executed. This study has suggested that patristic-symbiotic relationships between designer fashion SMEs and large high street retailers can be more complicated than the literature has stated when adopting a broader view to investigate sources of creativity from an industrial perspective Kauffmann, Michelle [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Cultural Production Title: The Couture Client as Patron of the Art of Fashion Abstract: This paper will explore the relationship between consumers of haute couture and the designers they chose, addressing the overlooked influence one has on the other. While patrons provide economical support and help propagate artists' ideals, the artists help legitimize patrons' social distinction and good taste. The client of couture turns to the designer for high fashion as means to establish and develop her strong personal style. She passively lends her body to the changes of fashions, but

actively "interprets and creates the way it looks." Without the client's participation, there is no fashion; she represents the fulfilment of the designer's vision. The client-couturier relationship begins when she commits to fittings, a time consuming ritual that can be compared to the patron's visit to an artist's studio. During these visits, the client is exposed to the craft and process of couture and has a chance to fully assimilate its luxuriousness and artistic qualities. To the artist and patron of fashion, clothes are a metaphor for identity. The period between the two world wars is considered haute couture's first golden age. At this time, the leading patrons of the art of fashion were sophisticated and cosmopolitan women who travelled constantly between Paris, New York and retort towns such as Biarritz and Palm Beach, feeling equally at home in all these places. Mona Bismarck and Daisy Fellowes, who were avid collectors of couture and featured in the world's best-dressed list, will be explored. Aimee de Heeren, perhaps a lesser-known contemporary, was the quintessence of this glamorous circle. She was an international socialite whose lifestyle demanded the best of high fashion. Her discerning eye acknowledged Balenciaga's genius when he first opened, in the late 1930s. De Heeren was also one of the first people to hurry back to Paris, hungry for couture, once the Second World War was over. These three women, known internationally for their impeccable taste were not merely interested in fashion, they were avid collectors of couture and recognized fashion leaders. Through dress, they demonstrated their social superiority and good taste. They were trendsetters whose sartorial choices influenced the wider public of the art of fashion. The clothes they collected survive in the collections of the Museum at FIT, the Costume Institute and the Museum of the City of New York, and testify to their love of material luxury, cultural sophistication and authentic aesthetic expression. Venkataraman, Nithya and Kumar, Vibhavari [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Cultural Production Title: Fashion as Identity (South India) Abstract: Everyone understands fashion as a medium of expression. Decorating and embellishing oneself is treated much alike painting on a blank canvas- what you wear speaks out on who you are! However, at times fashion goes much beyond, and unconsciously spells out much more than personality; it becomes a medium of expression for identity; both existing as well as what is sought. Clothes, accessories, make-up, hair and footwear together communicate status, social class, religion, region, occupation and caste. While this holds true for most of the world, fashion assumes additional significance in a country as vast and varied as India. With the multitude of cultures, lifestyles, languages and faith that co-exist in this multi hued mosaic, carving an identity for a social segment becomes all the more relevant. Aiding us in this endeavour has been social and religious practices that have been followed in the Indian way of living; from times immemorial. Norms which have been laid out have been unquestioningly practiced over generations; paving way for fashion nuances to act as identity cards for Indians. Our paper seeks to explore the relevance of standard norms of Indian dressing; and how they help shape one's identity. Considering the vastness of the Indian subcontinent, we have restricted the study to the four southern states of the country; Karnataka, Kerala, TamilNadu and

Andra Pradesh. Drapes, accessories, hair-do and facial makeup are analyzed with respect to the relevance they hold as well as the role they carry in identity. Differences in the ways of treatment for each of these elements, spell out the individuality of the person from that region. Each fashion element in the way dressing happens across this region holds meaning; which is also analyzed as part of this study. The paper is an attempt at exploring the co-relation between culture and fashion with respect to the Indian ethos. Ribeiro, Xenia Flores [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Cultural Production Title: The language of Panos: dress and fashion in Angola Abstract: This essay discusses the relations between tradition and modernity, individual and collective identity within the perspective of dress and fashion in Angolan urban spaces, particularly in Luanda. The African textiles have been the subject of much study during the last decades and the renovated interest for the textile art in Africa is unquestionably stated by recent exhibitions on the subject. However, there is clearly a lack of information about the particular flavour of textiles in Angola. The need for diversity oriented studies, as well as the lack of publications on cloth (pano: in Angolan dress, the word pano refers to a piece of fabric, usually wax-printed cloth, of about 2 yards length), costume and fashion in Angola, urge the development of the present study, which is aimed to be a contribution to the understanding of the matter. The apparently mundane subject of fashion reveals a complex representation of ideas on modesty or exhibition, individual or group identity, gender roles and social hierarchy. For most people, the cloth (pano) is part of their everyday garments and accessories. It is also a valuable cultural good, playing a part during social or political occasions, such as weddings, funerals, fests and commemorative dates. The cloth (pano) is an important character in the aesthetics and codes of dress, along with jewellery, fragrances and oils, cosmetics, hairdressing, body changing or decoration. In different places and times, the cloth (pano) has stated a meaning beyond the functional source of dress and has served as currency, remedy, generation, family and society ties and as the key to the construction of individual and group identities. Dress expresses its meaning as it commits the individual with an important role upon society. It also contributed to the birth of a tribal feeling or ethnic identity during the colonial period, i.e., to the construction of new dimensions of group identity. Angolan fashion designers are exploring new ways of approaching traditional techniques and models in order to mingle them with their own contemporary styles, developing a syncretism between the European and American models and traditional African models. They have invested their efforts in the opening of stores, ateliers and showrooms. They also promote their creations in fashion events, such as the ModaLuanda, Angola Fashion Week, Fashion and the most recent Fashion Business Angola. To identify these designers, to understand their work, their ambitions, attitudes and expectations towards the future of Angolan fashion will enable us to perceive the emergence of a culture of fashion in Angola and to sense the way it is, simultaneously, a sign of culture and expression of cultural change.

Textile, dress and fashion as a metalanguage and as a means of communication, particularly in urban centres, is the thread that runs through this work. Steinmetz, Martina [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Influence Title: Freedom of Movement in Woven Women's Wear Clothing Products: The Potential of Block Pattern Abstract: My current research on woven women's wear clothing products, concentrates on flat pattern cutting as used in mass market production, whereby changes of the construction of the basic block pattern are tested under the consideration of an urban life-style and its demand for allowing movement in contemporary clothing. This project addresses the application of being in constant transit and travel situations, which can be seen as synonymous for general movement, as the main aspect of urban life. Garments allowing for an expanded mobility through their flat block pattern construction, gives a new perspective on garment construction which is traditionally based on the upright standing, nonmoving figure. According to Sennett (1994: 16-19), who wrote on the subject of the human body in an urban surrounding, "The modern individual is, above all else, a mobile human being'. Furthermore, he proves this thesis with the fact that the "... most remarkable point of modern times have so privileged the sensations of the body and the freedom of physical life and the experience of speed'. He illustrates this by giving the example of how different travelling today is in comparison to former times. The technologies have motion, whether they are automobiles or public transport, this leads to the fact that urban space is now measured in terms of how easy it is to drive through them. Therefore, "... urban spaces become a mere function of motion, it thus becomes less stimulating in itself; the driver wants to go through the space, not to be aroused by it'. This passing of sections, whereas one being passing the distance from home to work and backwards, have also been stated by Popcorn (1996: 52-64), who introduced the future trend of "cocooning' in her book in 1996. To use the comfort of one's own home as a private cocoon is a familiar idea today. Therefore the time which is spend on being on transit, whether it is to or from work, appointments and further travelling, takes over a huge amount of the people's time in general. This project is based on practice as well as on a critical reflection of aspects of urban life, defined by its demand for mobility. Urban life cannot be seen without the aspect of constant transit and takes place in public rather than in private. Today only the fast moving person who is constantly active and vibrant appears lively and positive. Consequently an increasing part of contemporary mass produced clothing consists of sportswear or shows sports orientated elements. High profile fashion, which translates the urban environments and the various aspects into a design concept, particularly use the idea of utility wear which can be adapted to different situations by the customers themselves, who can make use of elements such as zippers to lengthen or shorten trousers or sleeves. Designers mainly reflect on sociological changes by their themes and inspirations but not in the construction of the garments.

This project targets the huge area of mass market women's wear, made from non stretch fabric and aims to find solutions which do indeed allow for a greater range of movement at the same time as fulfilling requirements of a mass market production. Yance, Esther [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Influence Title: Future Fashion: Exchanges Between Fashion and Cinema Abstract: Fashion, always silent, intrudes into cinema, without our noticing. It is particularly recognizable and evident in cases where the movie discourse is set in the same time than the film production. For instance, the New Look designed by Dior is unmistakable in many films from the 50s; mini-skirts abound in productions from the 60s, leather in the 80s, and so on. In cases where the historical time of the cinematic discourse, and the real time, external to the fiction, are contemporary, the relationship between fashion and film becomes clearly apparent. In these instances, film becomes a most valuable source of information for studies of fashion that springs from the 20th and 21st centuries. But what happens when it comes to describe the future, and not the past? Where do the costumes of the futuristic movies spring from? Have they been inspired by today's fashion, or that of yesterday? Are they related to fashion designers, or to avant-garde art? In futuristic cinema, this is, cinema that situates its action in the future time, costumes lack a real reference to emulate, since the fashion that they could copy or transform has not been created yet. Hence, the construction of the appearance will be achieved through a speculative process based in elements from the past and from the present. We will analyse several examples to confirm the validity of this sentence. We have chosen three futuristic films produced in different periods, in order to examine the changes that happen in their proposal of costumes, and their relationship with contemporary and/or past period's fashion. To start, we well discuss one of the opening films of the futuristic genre, and at the same time one of its most unknown: Things to come, directed by William Cameron Menzies in 1936. Its action starts in London in 1936 and ends in 2036 with the advent of a technocratic utopian civilization. Next we will look at an example very well known by the mass audience, Planet Of The Apes, directed by Franklin J. Schaffner in 1968: a group of astronauts on a space mission time-travel to a dystopia future where apes rule over humans in New York, year 3978. Finally, we will analyse a Japanese film from 1984: Nausicaa, by Hayao Miyazaki, its action taking place in an undetermined time one thousand years after a nuclear war. Following Ugo Volli, and his Il linguaggio del corpo e della moda, we will try to determine, through a brief analysis, the intertwining relationships between these two systems of syncretic texts: fashion and film, and particularly the translations that are carried out in the construction of the body in futuristic films. Howard, Harvell [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Influence Title: EXIT 127

Abstract: Throughout history, fashion has been used to manifest status, beliefs, feelings and values. Fashion affects both our attitudes and our actions. Many would argue that it is just as essential to life as food, water and shelter. EXIT 127 believes that fashion has the potential to be a force for good throughout the world. Consequently, we believe that fashion should be used as a means for positive social change. During our presentation, we would like to address the following question: how can fashion drive positive social change? We believe that this topic will be of a great interest to those individuals that perceive fashion as an opportunity to create positive, systemic social change. Moreover, those attending this session should view their fashion efforts directly connected with positively impacting societies throughout the world by developing the world's greatest asset, people. Through an overview of the EXIT 127's strategy, we would like to present a value-led business model as a best practice for attendees on how to merge fashion and service with the ultimate goal of developing fashion businesses that serve our communities. Exit 127's value-led business model The goal of Exit 127 is to communicate a theme of mind elevation and provoke young people not to settle, but to expand their comfort zones and constantly pursue success in their personal lives. Image is an important factor to young people as they search for their identity and associate with external entities that closely relate to their personal preferences. These images, identities, and external entities, are at times communicated through fashion. As a result, it is a natural tendency for this specific market to express who they are through the apparel they wear. Our line is targeted for those who urge to belong, which is not only one step in Maslow's hierarchy of needs but also an important part of the lives of people in our target audience. EXIT 127's focus is on the youth of today and future generations. In partnerships with local schools, universities, and youth clubs in the USA we allow the students to take part in the fashions shows that will create service learning and career development opportunities. The students incorporate what they are learning in their respective classes (i.e. literature, journalism, drama, photography, dance, cosmetology, visual arts, etc.) throughout the show. The hope is that the students are empowered and gain experience that will help them to further develop their career aspirations. As the youth are being developed, they are able to purchase EXIT 127 clothing and accessories that remind them of the company's success-oriented concepts.

Robertson, Alec [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: University Research `Outcomes' and Their `Impact' on Professional Design: An Issue for Professional Fashion Designers?

Abstract: UK Universities are undertaking their periodic research assessment exercise in 2014. There is a requirement this time around for academic researchers to show evidence that they have at least a Strategic Plan for assisting the "impact' of their work outside academia. This is to help demonstrate value for public money spent. There is a need to help ensure that there is a substantial amount of research being undertaken using public funds within the Universities concerning "design' and that this is of interest and useful for professional designers; that it is in a palatable form for them, and easy to access for their professional design practice. The short story below illustrates a concern of some. We hope you find it amusing. A fashion designer and a research scientist go on a camping trip. After a good dinner, they retire for the night, and go to sleep. Sometime later the fashion designer wakes up and nudges her faithful scientist friend, Scientist, look up and tell me what you see? I see millions and millions of stars, fashion designer exclaims the scientist. And what do you deduce from that? The scientist ponders for a minute. Well, astronomically, it tells me that there are millions of galaxies and potentially billions of planets. Astrologically, I observe that Saturn is in Leo. Horologically, I deduce that the time is approximately a quarter past three. Meteorologically, I suspect that we will have a beautiful day tomorrow. Theologically, I can see that God is all powerful and that we are a small and insignificant part of the universe. What does it tell you, fashion designer? The fashion designer answered: "Scientist friend, it means that someone has stolen our tent!!" This `tongue in cheek' story indicates a perception of the relationships between "science' and "design'; researchers and professional design practitioners. Within other disciplines there is a perception of a closer relationship between the work of practitioners and those engaged with research. In `Medicine' for example, University teaching hospitals integrate teaching, research and practice. Although `Art & Design' design focuses upon useful, culturally rich and aesthetic designs, where `creativity' is of premium value unlike in `Medicine' there is an issue to be addressed. The proposal will discuss the issues involved and encourage debate. The author is part of TeamCSD, advising the Chartered Society of Designers (CSD) - an international professional body for designers.

Dunker, Asbjorg [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: The depth of life revealed in the Spectacle

Abstract: If we consider clothes and fashion primarily as objects to looking, we fail to understand the embodied activity they are subject to, and thus we fail to understand how significant clothes can be in bridging the interior world of a being to the exterior world of being. `In certain almost supernatural inner states, the depth of life is entirely revealed in the spectacle (Baudelaire in Bachelard 1994:192) An artist like Lady Gaga amplifies the truth in the above quote. Lady Gaga does not only master the spectacle, she masters the art of dressing and in doing so she materialises profound meaning and thoughts. "The exterior spectacle helps intimate grandeur unfold,' says Bachelard (1994:192), as he explains how, in the spectacle, the vast world and the vast thoughts are united. "For this grandeur does not come from the spectacle witnessed, but from the unfathomable depths of vast thoughts' (Bachelard 1994:192). Before Lady Gaga, no other art movement has embraced fashion and its instruments as surrealism. Touching on the imagery of woman, but more significantly touching on the correlation between the world of real objects and the objects of the mind (Martin 1987). For the surrealist, fashion became the most compelling friction between the ordinary and the extraordinary, between body and concept, between artifice and real. Through fashion the surrealist vision and faith was connected between the everyday and the exceptional, by which they came to "identify the insurrection art offers to daily life (Martin 1987:9). Considering fashion in this light enables us to consider clothes and the act of dressing, as facilitating exposure of ourselves, our thoughts and thus shape aspects of our life. Clothing thus has no superficial meaning, as they enable us to articulate certain areas and aspects of human life. In fact, matters of fashion are particularly powerful in their implications exactly because of this close and intimate relation to human beings. Through my practice as a style consultant, I realise that the real art of the stylist is to teach the clients that the choices they make when buying and wearing clothes can have a profound effect on their personal experience of a given situation. To teach these clients the true connection between the act of dressing, their inner voice and the way the world perceives them as an individual is to enable them to achieve a greater fulfilment in their lives. The transformation of individuals into one, who can choose to become their own spectacle, is the pinnacle of my practice. Kawamura, Yuniya [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Practice Title: Fashion Diffusion Processes From Modern to Postmodern Times Abstract: I treat fashion as a system of institutions, organizations, groups, individuals, events and practices that contributes to the making of a fashion culture supported by these external factors. A prototype of the system started in Paris in 1868 with the first fashion trade organization that controls fashion show events six times a year in Paris. Similar systems are found in other fashion centres in the West, such as New York, London and Milan. The system builds a fashion culture which increases consumption, expands fashion-related industries and contributes to the local economy as well as international trade. However, as the traditional type of fashion system begins to decline with the advent of the Internet and technologically advanced diffusion strategies, we see an alternative

system of fashion that creates the status and spreads the reputation of creative postmodern consumers with distinct styles, and as a result, the distinction between a professional and an amateur begins to blur. As the mechanism and the structural nature of the fashion systems around the world go through a major transition, so do the diffusion processes. Diffusion theories of fashion seek to explain how fashion is spread through interpersonal communication and institutional networks, and they assume that the fashion phenomenon is not ambiguous or unpredictable. They focus on individuals, which can give a small-scale analysis and also on institutions, which is a systematic, large-scale approach. The source of fashion diffusion used to be a highly centralized system, initially started in Paris. Creators often belong to a community faceto-face or online where a group of individuals and organizations are involved in the production, reproduction, evaluation and dissemination of a specific form of culture as well as subculture. Opinion leaders and gatekeepers include celebrities, editors of major fashion magazines and highly influential publicists. Today, the centralized fashion system has been replaced by alternative systems. Trends are no longer set by professional designers or marketers. Fashion originates in many types of social categories, including youth subcultures. Consequently, fashion emanates from many sources, such as online stores, twitters and blogs, and it diffuses through various consumers in diverse directions. Fatehrad, Azadeh [email protected] Theme: Fashion as Gender Title: Fashion and Female Desire in Iran. Abstract: This essay negotiate the gender identity in relation to fashion in Iran. After revolution 1979 in Iran the enforcement of dress code, forced women to cover up. Since then I believe the Fashion is only way to express the female subjectivity. This essay will examine the way is which fashion reflect the Idea of gender identity and subjectivity through Islamic condition. In terms of the political aspect of veiling, the body can be interpreted as a site of protest as Amelia Jones (2001) claimed: "The body is the site for transgressing the constraints of meaning or normality" (1). Since the body as a medium can emphasise gender identity and "political engagement", it would appear that veiling, unveiling, the nude body or the painted body, can each communicate a variety of thoughts and states. In terms of the "body as a site of protest" lies the issue that "links the subject (body) to her/his social environment" (1). References: 1.Warr, Tracey and Amelia Jones (2000). The Artist's Body. London: Philadon.

Arvanitidou Zoi [email protected] Theme: Fashion and gender Title: Fashion, Gender and Social Identity Authors: Zoi Arvanitidou and Dr. Maria Gasouka Abstract: Garment and fashion is the subject of intense sociological, historical, anthropological and semiotic analysis in contemporary social theory. The phenomenon of fashion, the impact of which is recognized by the famous cliché "You are what you wear", offers a dense, rich set of costume options and reveals multiple and unexpected ways through which fashion is part of the concrete, tangible, profound, complicated and symbolic process of forming of the modern and postmodern Self, identity, body and social relations. The development of gender identity is a social construct with garment and fashion being two factors of this configuration. Even fashion should be considered as part of the social processes of discrimination, namely the reproduction of hierarchy's position and prestige in a deeply unequal society. The aim of this study is to detect different types of human ideas about the evolution of gender through clothing and fashion, what is "feminine" and "male" appearance in the evaluation of various dress styles. The research part of this paper includes the results of a Qualitive social research. The theoretical framework of feminist theory and the process of semi-structured interview are chose in order to release the interviewees. Wanigasuriya, Anjali [email protected] Theme: Fashion and Sustainability Title: How Does a Fashion Industry Innovate? The Role of Effective Knowledge Management in Sportswear (Fashion) Product Development. Abstract: Most of the process innovations happen within the production, logistic practises and IT system developments in the apparel industry; there was little innovations seen in the product design and development stages. These cutting edge experiments were primarily conducted in textile, performance and sportswear industries, and targeted new fibre, fabric or technical apparel innovation. Fashion product innovations were significant in multi functional, lightweight, smart fibre developments, electro-conductive materials, eco-friendly, organic and sustainability trends in fibres and fabrics. Design wise multifunctional seamless knits, stitch free, welded and bonded garments, and body hugging thermal products were highlighted. Sole business is a continuous innovation; one innovation leads to another by bringing about continuous innovations and upgrading via successful knowledge creation (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995:5). Knowledge can be seen as the resource of innovation, yet at other times, it can be seen as a constraint on firm growth. Therefore, the role of knowledge in the organisation is conflicted. Ultimately, however, organisations can gain knowledge from different sources, significantly from exploiting their experiences of past learning and developing new knowledge. Consequently, the

overall purpose of this study is to investigate the central role of knowledge creation in design innovation in the fashion industry (i.e sportswear development) not on knowledge per se. Compared to similar previous research, it can be seen that technical related fashion product development (PD) requires broad cross industrial knowledge that strengthens innovation and firm performance. Many influential studies in knowledge management (KM) and innovation have focused on automotive and electronics industries (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995; Von Krogh et al, 2000) and industrial design firms such as IBM, IDEO and Design Continuum (Hargadon et al, 1997, 2006). There were some historical examples of Edison"s Menlo park lab (Hargadon cited Millard, 2006) and some historical inventors of new PD routinely combined new and old ideas to embed sole designs (Von Krogh et al., 2000; McKinley et al., 1999). There is however, little research conducted in the fashion industry within this subject area. Buyer driven design development has become a more economical and effective way (Gereffi, 1999) of product innovation in the fashion industry in recent years. The paradigm of effective management in fashion design has become one of predicting the needs and wants of the consumer and responding with innovative, well designed and executed products (Little and Plumlee, 2006). Therefore, it is increasingly important to understand the rationale of strategic KM in a fashion design firms in terms of gaining a sustainable advantage within competitive business environments. The primary concern of this research is to identify firm competences as a whole to embody innovative products through generating and disseminating organizational knowledge and experiences. This project will begin by posing the question, "How does a fashion design firm manage knowledge in sportswear product development and how does the firm continuously innovate?" Moreover, this research will explore how existing knowledge is discovered and shared how knowledge leverages whilst new knowledge is being created. Laraman, Debra [email protected] Theme: Fashion and Sustainability Title: Re-fabricate: Evolving design through user interaction Abstract: In New Zealand, increased availability of cheap imported clothing has encouraged consumers to buy more and resulted in large quantities of clothing being discarded. The New Zealand Ministry for the Environment, estimates textiles account for 4% of landfill waste which was equivalent to 31.5kg per person for 2006. Many of the discarded items are of low quality and unable to be sold, ending up in the landfill. My research explored opportunities to add value to discarded clothing and textiles, as a way of extending the life of low value textile items and enabling them to re-enter the fashion system. Three main ideas that emerged were up-cycling, user interaction, and creating a narrative for the garment. User participation was investigated as a way to "add value,' as it was hoped that by enabling the user to interact with the design they would value the item more. Exploring this concept led to the development of a range of garments and garment kits that focused on methods and techniques that could be easily mastered and used materials that would be readily available to the user. A group of research participant's trialled the garment kits, made their own garments and provided feedback which informed the final phase of the project and the development of revised kits

and garments. The participants reported that they felt Inspired to do more sewing and learn new techniques, were able to follow the instructions but adapt aspects to suit themselves, formed an attachment to the garment by being involved in the process and realised the potential for using old clothing and revamping items they already owned. The negative feedback centred around lack of choice over the contents and garments they were given to make, some garments were not completed to their preferred quality standard, the amount of work involved to make the whole garment and a recommendation that practice materials would have been useful. This feedback assisted in the development of two types of kits being created; one that was provided to the consumer when they purchased the up cycled garment and one was a transformation kit that was designed to be sold separately, to extend the life of the users' existing garments. My research suggests opportunities to add value to discarded textiles and extend the life of existing clothing may be possible, by focusing on user participation as a design constraint. The designer could become a facilitator of ideas and methods, by creating garments that allow adaptation and individualization and provide opportunities for users to develop skills that enable them to interact with their clothing and transform items that may be worn, stained or no longer desirable into something new and wearable. By encouraging consumers to be involved in extending the life of their own garments, they are able to create clothing that reflect themselves as an individual, and they build skills and confidence so they rely less on mass-produced fashion. Venkatraman, Lavanya [email protected] Theme: Fashion and Sustainability Title: Ethical luxury; The new paradigm of the luxury segment. Abstract: Where is the luxury segment actually heading? Today luxury will become what you want it to be. There is a constant flux in the luxury market in the wake of the global economic downturn. We are witnessing the democratisation of luxury to mass markets; customisation of luxury goods and services; luxury brands becoming more ethically and socially Responsible. The new class of urbanites with their disposable incomes at hand are willing to do good to the society even through their conspicuous consumption. Consumers are turning more apprehensive about what luxury means to them and more so they want their purchases to say something about who they are. Today, consumers are extending their ethical practices into every aspect of their lifestyle. So when the luxury consumers are willing to spend extra to buy premium products, they also expect their brand to resonate on an equivocal level by providing sustainable, eco-friendly and ethical goods and services. Ethical luxury is a new way of servicing the luxury consumer. Being green and eco-friendly is not merely enough, but creation of eco-iconic luxury products brands is necessary to thrive in this fluctuating luxury segment. AIM: The aim of this research is to - Analyse the rise of new eco-iconic luxury brands and products those that promote the ethical value to the luxury consumers

- Examine from a marketing viewpoint, ethical luxury as an important strategic requirement for competitive advantage in the luxury market. - Investigate how luxury brands are dealing with the conundrum of readjusting to the new ethical luxury environment and adopting practices to be more socially responsible.

<A> Almond, Kevin Bespoke Tailoring: The luxury heritage we can afford Key Words: Bespoke Tailoring, Luxury, Heritage, Technology, Fashion Anyan, Jennifer The role of the stylist in hypermodern image-making Arvantitidou, Zoi & Gasouka, Maria Fashion gender and social identity <B> Begum, Lipi Power and lingerie for Urban Professional Indian Women Living in India Ben Barry A Dream we can believe in: A cross-cultural analysis of consumer's responses to models in fashion advertising Brigenti, Irina Ten little dandy girls Bruggeman, Danielle Marlies Dekkers: Lingerie Epitomising Post-Feminist Identity <C> Chowles, Sue Fashion as Industry workshop `sitting by Nellie': Cultural Heritage and the preservation of Couture Craftsmanship

<D> Dari, Laetitia Logistics: strategic function for enterprises in the French ready-to-wear industry? Debnath, Anamika The Street: Identity Storytelling Delpal, Franck Vertical integration in luxury companies: objectives and effects on market foreclosure

Dincuff, Beth Demure to Deviant: Ladylike Fashion in the 20th Century Dincuff, Beth A look at ladylike dressing in the 20th century Donne, Melissa Fashion in Motion: Exploring the Contemporary Fashion: Mediascape through the Moving Image Dunker, Asbjorg The depth of life revealed in the spectacle <E> Earley, Rebecca Fashion and Sustainability: The TEN Design Strategies for Professional Designers <F> Faiers, Johnathan The mark of the beast Feitsma, Maaike Braving the elements: Dutch fashion, the weather and the landscape Fenton-Douglas, Joyce Fashion and Craft: Investigating the ancillary trades of the London based elite fashion industry. <G> Germana, Monica Bond Girls: The dialectics of Gender Construction Gupta, Toolika The effect of British Raj on Indian Costume Gupta, Varsha Value Creation in post consumer apparel waste: A study of rural urban dynamics Gwilt, Alison Reflecting on your design practice for sustainable fashion <H> Harnick, Gretchen Talk with your customers: social media marketing best practices

Higgins, Craig British Menswear, leading the way Howard, Harvell L. Exit 127 <J> Jaglan, Vandana Costume Design in Indian Films: Trends, Processes Prospects <K> Kauffmann, Michelle The couture client as patron of the art of fashion Kawamura, Yuniya Fashion processes from modern to postmodern times <L> Laraman, Debra Re-Fabricate: Evolving design through user interaction Laurent, Stephane A Cultural Industrial Struggle for the French Taste Leelapanyalert, Kannika An investigation into factors influencing internationalisation of retailing firms: The case of Marks & Spencer Lin, Shuyu Revisiting London's position by Investigating sources of creativity in the fashion industry Loscialpo, Flavia Abstraction and idealisation: the case of Futurist and constructivist single-piece garments <M> McDowell, Felice Exhibiting fashion and art in post-war British Fashion Magazines McIntosh, Alex Slow Change ­ Circuitous journeys to sustainable fashion

McKnight, Alanna Women's clothing in 19th century North America and England Morace, Francesco The talent of the Enterprises in the Fashion Business <N> Nespoli, Carlotta Fashion = Art <P> Payne, Alice Frantic fashion and Australia's invisible designers: conversations on sustainability in the mass market Pantelides, Katerina Fashion and Ethereality

<R> Raipally, Avinash Right Pocket Rasch, Alison Mindfulness in Fashion Ribeiro, Xenia Flores The language of Panos: dress and fashion in Angola Robertson, Alec A stitch in time saves nine: the impact of academic research on professional design practice Rocamore, Agnes New Fashion Time: Hyertextuality and Remediation in the Fashion Blogsphere Rosser, Esther Artistic interventions in fashion photography: Cindy Sherman for Balenciaga Ross, Frances Gay and cross-cultural aesthetics: exploring their cross-over appeal with mainstream menswear fashions

Ross, Frances Gay and cross-cultural aesthetics: exploring their cross-over appeal with mainstream menswear fashions <S> Saicheua, Vaeovan Public Understanding Towards Sustainable Clothing Supply Chain Searle, Nicola The demands for fake status goods Segre Reinach, Simona "Post Made in Italy" The Evolution of Italian Fashion Identity Shih, Claire Wen Ying Fashion Competitive Strategies: Two-Forced Driven NPD Smelik, Anneke The Fold of Fashion Sud, Shalini Traditional Fashion Interplay: An imperative for identity and continuity <T> Taylor, Rachel Workshop `pause to think' Timmins, Mark Fashion and Space Tresbitsch, Barbara The State(s) of fashion, both locally and globally, Fashion as practice.

<V> Vainshtein, Olga Being Fashion-able: Controversy around Disabled Models Venkatraman, Lavanya Ethical luxury: The new paradigm of the luxury segment

Venkataraman, Nithya Fashion as identity (South India) Von Maltzahn, Constantin-Felix Complementary Experience Worlds <W> Wanigasuriya, Anjali How does a fashion industry innovate? The role of effective knowledge management in sportswear (fashion) product development <Y> Yance, Esther Future Fashion exchanges between fashion and cinema Yazan, Senam Female Dandyism: Defiance or Deference? <Z> Zajtmann, David The relationship between creative workers and localised professional institutions. The case of Parisian `haute couture'. A longitudinal study.

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