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Journal of Leadership Education

...is an international, refereed journal that serves scholars and professional practitioners engaged in leadership education. ...provides a forum for the development of the knowledge base and professional practice of leadership education world wide. ...is made available through the continued support and efforts of the membership of the Association of Leadership Educators.

Volume 5, Number 2 Fall 2006

Journal of Leadership Education

Volume 5, Issue 2 - Fall 2006

The Journal of Leadership Education

The Journal of Leadership Education (JOLE) is the official publication of the Association of Leadership Educators. The purpose of JOLE is to provide a forum for development of the knowledge base and practice of leadership education. The journal is intended to promote a dialogue that engages both academics and practitioners. Thus, JOLE has a particular interest in applied research and it is the premise of JOLE that feedback between theory and practice tests both and makes each better. The journal provides several categories for submittals to promote diversity of discussion from a variety of authors. The members and board of the Association of Leadership Educators became aware of the need for a journal about leadership education in the early 1990s. The challenge of educating people about leadership is particularly provocative, complex, and subtle. Other journals with leadership in the title focus primarily on defining and describing leadership, and journals concerning education seldom address the subject of leadership. Indeed, one common argument in society is that leadership is innate (you have it or you don't) and teaching leadership is difficult and often ineffective. This attitude is expressed, perhaps, in the dearth of leadership courses on our university campuses. In this context, JOLE provides a means to test the hypothesis that leadership education is possible. Our journal sits at the nexus of education theory and practice and leadership theory and practice, and from this divide, this mountain pass, there is a need to look "both ways". Whether or not leadership education is a discipline of its own is unclear, at least at present. If nothing else, by looking both ways this journal hopes to provide a passageway between two disciplines, enriching both in the process. JOLE is an electronic journal open to all, both as writers and readers. The journal has been conceived as an "on-line" journal that is available on the world-wide web and is to be self-supporting. To this end, at some time in the future a fee may be charged for publication. At present, all editorial, Board, and reviewer services are provided without cost to JOLE or its members by volunteer scholars and practitioners.

Copyright 2006 by the Association of Leadership Educators. All rights reserved.

ISSN 1552-9045

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Editorial Staff

Editor in Chief · Christine D. Townsend, Texas A & M University Associate Editor · C. B. Crawford, Fort Hays State University Editorial Reviewers · Elizabeth Bolton, University of Florida · Chester Bowling, Ohio State University · Barry Boyd, Texas A&M University · Christie Brungardt, Fort Hays State University · Curt Brungardt, Fort Hays State University · Marilyn Corbin, Pennsylvania State University · Kathryn Cox, Ohio State University · Ken Culp III, University of Kentucky · Renee Daugherty, Oklahoma State University · Garee Earnest, Ohio State University · Nancy Franz, University of New Hampshire · Susan Fritz, University of Nebraska, Lincoln · Scott Homan, Purdue University · Tracy Hoover, Pennsylvania State University · Nancy Huber, University of Arizona · Christine Langone, University of Georgia · Jeri Marxman, University of Illinois · Jeffery P. Miller, Innovative Leadership Solutions · Lori Moore, University of Idaho · Martha Nall, University of Kentucky · Robin Orr, University of Illinois · Penny Pennington, Oklahoma State University · John Ricketts, University of Georgia · Richard Rohs, University of Georgia · Mark Russell, Purdue University · Chris Sieverdes, Clemson University · Wanda Sykes, North Carolina State University · Kelleen Stine-Cheyne, Texas A&M University · Laurie Thorp, Michigan State University · Willis M. Watt, Methodist College · Bill Weeks, Oklahoma State University · Larry Wilson, University of Illinois · Jim Wolford-Ulrich, Duquesne University · Karen Zotz, North Dakota State University

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Table of Contents

From the Guest Editors' Clipboard William Weeks, Oklahoma State University Penny Pennington, Oklahoma State University Dramaturgical Teaching in the Leadership Classroom: Taking Experiential Learning to The Next Level John E. Barbuto, Jr., University of Nebraska-Lincoln Teaching Leadership to First-Year Students in a Learning Community Afsaneh Nahavandi, Arizona State University Team Building and Problem-Based Learning in the Leadership Classroom: Findings from a Two-Year Study JoAnn Barbour, Texas Woman's University Impacting Social Change through Service Learning in an Introductory Leadership Course Corey Seemiller, University of Arizona Design and Implementation of an Interdisciplinary Leadership Studies Minor at an Historically Black, Liberal Arts College Belinda Johnson White, Morehouse College Pirates and Power: What Captain Jack Sparrow, His Friends, and His Foes can Teach Us about Power Bases Jennifer R. Williams, Oklahoma State University Using a Comprehensive Leadership Framework as a Scholarship and Teaching Tool Kim Boyce, University of Minnesota Legacy Leadership Institutes: Strengthening Leadership for Community Involvement in 50+ Adults Tracey T. Manning, University of Maryland Laura Wilson, University of Maryland Karen Harlow-Rosentraub, Case Western Reserve University Submission Guidelines Le Culminant 1

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From the Guest Editors' Clipboard

In the spring of 2006, The Journal of Leadership Education announced a call for submissions for a special issue on Best Practices in Teaching Leadership. Submissions in the article category of "Application Brief" were solicited. Application Briefs provide for a shorter, to the point discussion of a project, program, practice, or tool with consideration of the principles/theory and why it is effective. The recommended maximum manuscript length was 3,000 words excluding references and appendices. This special issue is intended to foster the dissemination of high quality teaching activities, approaches and programs in leadership. For this special issue, the editors sought submissions from thinkers willing to share innovative strategies for teaching leadership concepts in the college classroom or in the community setting. Manuscripts were reviewed by the guest editors to ensure thematic fit and then blind peer-reviewed. Acceptance rates are calculated for each issue of JOLE. Eight articles were selected for publication in this special issue of JOLE with an acceptance rate for this issue of 28%. Special thanks to the reviewers for this issue of JOLE. Your time and commitment to leadership education and the peer-review process is appreciated. · Beth Flynn · Carrie Fritz · Chet Bowling · Chris Morgan · Cindy Bigger · David Jones · Elizabeth Bolton · Fred Rohs · Garee Earnest · Hannah Carter · Jeff Miller · Jim Mahone · Johanna Adams · John Ricketts · Ken Culp · Laurie Thorp · Lori Moore · Louann Waldner · Manda Rosser · Marianne Lorensen · Martha Nall · Mitch Owen

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· · · · · · ·

Nancy Huber Nicole Stedman Renee Daugherty Robin Orr Susan Komives Tracy Hoover Wanda Sykes

Respectfully submitted, William Weeks and Penny Pennington, Guest Editors Dramaturgical Teaching in the Leadership Classroom: Taking Experiential Learning to the Next Level Our lead article details an innovative approach to teaching leadership in the classroom. Barbuto describes the theoretical basis of dramaturgical teaching, as well as how to apply a dramaturgical pedagogy in leadership education coursework. Broad recommendations for implementing a dramaturgical teaching pedagogy are included in addition to specific application to an advanced undergraduate leadership course. Teaching Leadership to First-Year Students in a Learning Community First-year college students participating in Nahavandi's leadership course are also enrolled in an early American history class. Participation in the history-leadership learning community provides synergistic opportunities and is appropriate for students from a variety of majors. Integrating the two courses has positively impacted both learning and retention. Team Building and Problem-Based Learning in the Leadership Classroom: Findings from a Two-Year Study Barbour shares a two-year study examining team leadership in the graduate classroom. The role of both the student and the instructor is explored as they relate to developing students as team leaders through problem-based learning. Conclusions focus on transferring skills developed in the classroom to a realworld setting. Impacting Social Change through Service Learning in an Introductory Leadership Course Both the relational leadership and social change models direct Seemiller's introductory leadership course. A semester long social change project serves as the foundation for the course and provides context for the application of leadership topics studied in the classroom. Ideally, future impacts include students who are better prepared to serve as social change agents.

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Design and Implementation of an Interdisciplinary Leadership Studies Minor at an Historically Black, Liberal Arts College White details an interdisciplinary leadership studies minor developed in 2000 at Morehouse College. Program objectives for the 15 hour curriculum were developed with an emphasis on ethical leadership as it applies to society. The relationship to the college's educational outcomes is described in detail, as well as each of the core courses. Pirates and Power: What Captain Jack Sparrow, His Friends, and His Foes can Teach Us about Power Bases Williams builds on a growing interest in using multimedia to introduce leadership topics. The article explores the world of Captain Jack Sparrow as it relates to leadership and power providing leadership educators a novel approach to teaching power bases in the leadership classroom. The lesson is designed to involve students in the learning process and provide opportunity for deeper learning. Using a Comprehensive Leadership Framework as a Scholarship and Teaching Tool Boyce moves us from the college classroom to a community setting to share a leadership education framework utilized to balance theory and practice. The framework consists of six major leadership components and is easily modified to include current scholarship in each of the areas without restructuring the core framework. The tool is appropriate for developing both leadership programs and activities. Legacy Leadership Institutes: Strengthening Leadership for Community Involvement in 50+ Adults The Legacy Leadership Institute utilizes both a classroom and field placement phase to develop volunteers' leadership competencies as they specifically relate to non-positional roles. The Institute serves adults over 50. Manning, Wilson, and Harlow-Rosentraub describe the Institute goals and learning objectives as well as provide results to date for 94 participants.

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Dramaturgical Teaching in the Leadership Classroom: Taking Experiential Learning to the Next Level

John E. Barbuto, Jr., Ph.D. Associate Professor of Leadership University of Nebraska-Lincoln Lincoln, Nebraska [email protected]

Abstract

This paper presents a pedagogical approach to leadership education that takes experiential learning to the next level of faculty-student interaction and experience. Dramaturgical teaching involves the instructor displaying the leadership style(s) in and out of the classroom so that students experience the leadership style while learning about it. Proposed course structures, special instructions for faculty using this teaching method, preliminary evaluations of the method, and implications are discussed.

Theoretical Basis for Dramaturgical Teaching

The positive impact that experiential learning has had in the leadership education field has been well documented (Guenthner & Moore, 2005). Leadership education programs have been experiencing trends to move away from formal learning structures such as standard lectures and discussions; moving toward more highly interactive teaching strategies that encourage the integration of learning and experience (Finan, 2004; Kolb & Kolb, 2005). A recent approach called dramaturgy takes the basic tenets of experiential learning and extends them to a more holistic and fully encompassing faculty and student experience (Kayes, 2002; Leberman & Martin, 2005). This pedagogical method, termed dramaturgical teaching, may be perfectly suited for coursework in the leadership area. Principles of dramaturgical teaching will be presented next, followed by a proposed course topic outline. Strategies for teaching suggested topics are explored and preliminary results of an assessment of the effectiveness of dramaturgical teaching are provided.

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How Dramaturgical Teaching Works

Origins and Merits in Leadership Education As a pedagogical approach dramaturgy has its origins in theatre and the performing arts (Orr, 2003), but it has also garnered attention in the broader conversation surrounding language and meaning making (Karreman, 2001; Schwandt, 2005). Applications of the pedagogical method have resulted from increased attention paid to experiential learning (Finan, 2004; Kayes, 2002). Dramaturgical teaching has grown to develop a stronger presence in the leadership and organizational behavior field (Boje & Rhodes, 2005; Leberman & Martin, 2005). Dramaturgical teaching has been described as the most student-centered course design structure available in the leadership/management education field (Leberman & Martin, 2005). The strategy of developing and structuring a course specific to students learning and developmental needs has been an increasing trend in the leadership education field (Mundhenk, 2004). While the topic of dramaturgical teaching has received limited coverage in the leadership education field, its potential for connecting theory and practice for the creation of knowledge, meaning-making, and the development of critical thinking and wisdom are among its most attractive features (Schwandt, 2005; Tchaicha & Davis, 2005). Applying a dramaturgical pedagogy to leadership education coursework involves several principles (Finan, 2004; Leberman & Martin, 2005). Dramaturgical teaching features instructors modeling the leadership style being taught as their teaching style. To achieve a dramaturgical teaching pedagogy, I recommend the following. · Instructors should inform students that they will be adopting a dramaturgical teaching method and explain what this means. · Topics covered should last at least two to three weeks in the course so that students can get a full appreciation for the nuances of the leadership style(s) being displayed by the instructor. · Instructors should adopt leadership style for the duration of the topic coverage in the course. · Instructors should structure assignments and teaching methods to be consistent with the leadership style being studied. · That course content is consistent with teaching methods. · Instructors stay in character during all student interactions outside of the class (i.e., office, telephone, email). · Instructors should process the experience with students at the end of each "topic" to ascertain how modeling the leadership styles impacted learning, impressions, and experiences. Examples of processing questions include: o How did it feel to be led by a (style) leader? o What are the advantages of leading with this style?

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o What is it like to work for this type of leader over an extended period of time? o What did you learn about yourself when being led in this way? o What aspects of this leadership style are most/least agreeable to your own leadership philosophy? o How did this leadership style affect your mental approach and preparation for class, your performance in the class, and your attitude towards the class? Proposed Course Structure My dramaturgical course is an advanced undergraduate leadership course titled, "Dynamics of Leadership in Organizations." Students enroll in this course after already completing a foundations/survey course that broadly covered the major leadership theories from the field. This course encompasses three leadership approaches: Political leadership (power and influence), Servant leadership (serving others), and Transformational leadership (visionary and motivating). Power and influence was chosen because it embodies the political dynamics that most organizations possess (Kotter, 1985). Servant leadership is characterized by service over self-interest, making it a dramatic shift from political leadership (Barbuto & Wheeler, 2006). Servant leadership was chosen to contrast with the self-interest focus of power and influence and to reflect the growing trend in society for less self-serving behavior and more service-oriented behavior. Transformational leadership was included because it has consistently related to the most positive employee and organizational outcomes (Lowe, Kroeck, & Sivasubramaniam, 1996). Instructors may select other theories from the field to include in a leadership dynamics course. This paper focuses on the teaching of the three approaches described above. Instructors that choose to use a dramaturgical teaching method will need to be prepared to structure and teach the class in a manner that is consistent with the leadership style being taught. This may present many challenges to instructors because it may force them to operate outside of their natural, preferred teaching styles. The object of dramaturgical teaching is to give students the experience of being led by this type of leader. Teaching political leadership, servant leadership, and transformational leadership will therefore require different mindsets and structures both in assignments, grading, interactions with students, and teaching dynamics. Dramaturgically Teaching Political Leadership (Power and Influence) Teaching political leadership requires the instructor to be authoritative, planned, and structured. During this topic you will cover concepts like power, influence, tactics, authority, managing upward, social networking, naivety, cynicism, diversity, interdependence, and developing power at different career stages (Kotter, 1985). Instructors will need to create a competitive structured

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environment in the classroom because during this topic it is every student for himor herself. I usually prepare students with the following statement, "Beginning next class, I will be incorporating dramaturgical teaching. This means that I will be teaching you using the leadership style that we are learning. I will continue using this style inside and outside of the classroom for the next five weeks, until we begin our second topic. Here are a few rules for next class. No newspapers, baseball caps, cell phones, or gym clothes in the classroom. You will come to class well-rested sit up straight in your seat and be ready to begin class at (class start time) sharp. At the beginning of class I will close the door. If you aren't in class before the door is closed then you may not come to class (i.e., don't open the door)." During the first five weeks I address students as Mr. or Ms. (LAST NAME), accordingly. They address me as Dr. (NAME). During each class the top performing students (discussions and/or assignments) have reserved seats waiting for them to indicate that they are in the upper echelon of the class. Each class I introduce something unexpected (assignments, course structures, deadlines) to them to reinforce the changing political dynamics in organizations and the need to meet my expectations. For example, I enter the class early in the semester and ask, "How many of you have read the first three chapters of the text, as was assigned?" Most students raise their hand implying that they have. I then proceed to announce that I was caught up in some urgent meetings and have not had the opportunity to read them, thus, "I will need a two-page briefing from students on the first three chapters, on my desk, by 10 a.m. tomorrow morning. Class dismissed." This causes great anxiety and time pressure and it alerts students that demands will be made of them with little notice requiring them to juggle priorities to meet my expectations. Other activities with similar unpredictability highlight the coverage of the power and influence topic. During the semester students generally have 100% attendance, come prepared for class, meet all deadlines, and they fight for opportunities to participate during discussions. They inevitably strive to get in the reserved seats during class and be among my favored group. The student morale is sometimes lower during this topic because the competitive environment can wear on some students, but the student performance usually exceeds that of any other topic. Dramaturgically Teaching Servant Leadership (Service over Self-Interest) Teaching servant leadership requires instructors to act caring, open-minded, and unstructured (student-driven). Instructors will have to alter their teaching paradigm and give up control by making students' needs the sole mission. The traditional curriculum planning and syllabus construction process that instructors use is inherently incompatible with servant leadership, so instructors will need to start over at this point in the course and facilitate the construction of the syllabus

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for this topic. This is a challenge for both students and instructors because both are accustomed to the instructor making these types of course planning and curriculum decisions. Questions that have to be addressed with the group include: · What do students want to learn or gain from this topic? · How do students want to structure their (student-centered) coursework to optimize outcomes? · What assignments will help students achieve their goals? · How will students' learning and development be assessed for a topic grade? Instructors may find it difficult to succumb to the communicated needs of the students, but to demonstrate servant leadership they must. In five iterations of the course using dramaturgical instruction I have seen five different syllabi. Instructors should prepare themselves for the unexpected, but also be ready to answer basic questions about servant leadership (this process often lasts two full class periods). Remember, the goal of this topic is to experience what it is like to be led by a servant leader, whose sole purpose is to help others reach their developmental and learning goals (as great or small as they may be). Dramaturgically Teaching Transformational Leadership (Inspirational, Visionary) Teaching transformational leadership requires the instructor to be inspirational and lead with contagious energy. Transformational leadership encompasses four dimensions, which instructors need to model throughout the topic. The four "I's" of transformational leadership include (a) individualized consideration (treating followers as individuals and helping them develop), (b) intellectual stimulation (challenging followers to think outside of the box and solve problems in creative ways), (c) inspirational motivation (articulating a compelling vision for the future, framing issues consistent with the vision), and (d) idealized influence (developing trust and emulation from followers) (Lowe, et al., 1996). Instructors will need to structure the transformational leadership topic to demonstrate these dimensions. This is challenging because it requires instructors to focus on exciting students using visioning and providing compelling articulations of what is possible for students. Instructors will have to balance being inspirational with challenging students to question assumptions and thinking outside of the box. I teach this topic like a leadership development workshop, with high energy activities, dynamic multi-media lectures, frequent interaction, and creative experiential activities focused on practicing the 4 I's of transformational leadership.

Results

Assessments were used to evaluate the impact of dramaturgical teaching on student learning and attitudes. Open-ended responses to the following questions

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were asked of students enrolled in class at the completion of each subtopic. Responses were collected anonymously and participants were not required to complete the evaluations if they chose not to. Comments were typed in cumulative form by a graduate research assistant before the faculty member saw the comments. Representative responses included: · "In what ways did the instructor's modeling of (political, servant, transformational) leadership styles in his/her teaching help you learn?" o "I like seeing each one. I've been in many classes where the instructors only talked about it, but no one understood how difficult political leadership was to deal with as few in this class experienced or how slow and aggravating the servant leadership process can be if done a lot. Plus the energy level created by a transformational leader really impacted how I may want to lead when I have the opportunity in my career" o "I enjoyed that the instructor got into character for each topic because it helped us conceptualize that leadership topic even more." o "We felt things that we wouldn't have if teaching in a regular way. For example, I've never had such a competitive atmosphere in class, but I think it will prepare me for the dog eat dog world that we live in today. Plus I have never had the level of autonomy that we had during the second topic (servant leadership). The third topic was the most dynamic experience I've had in college!" o "It helped me to discover which style I enjoy most and which ones I disliked. But it also gave me an appreciation of the emotional wear and tear that certain styles of leadership can cause." o "It was very effective. I don't think that without him actually demonstrating the style for the entire five weeks we wouldn't have learned as much. We would have known the words...but we wouldn't know what these styles were like (to experience them)." o "I realized that I am more effective a worker under certain styles of leadership and so I will have to really look at my potential bosses in the future to assess what style of leadership they use." o "I realize how each type effects those who serve under them." o "Long after I forget what certain styles and theories were called I will never forget the impact of taking this course and experiencing the dramatic changes in teaching styles that (instructor) displayed. It was the most impactful experience of my college career." o "The dramaturgical approach helped me to experience the leadership styles. The way in which the material was presented and the instructor's attitude/behavior in class really reinforced it and made it real for me." o "The learning was more vivid using this teaching approach than it would have been otherwise."

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·

·

o "It was crucial to my learning. Without experiencing the three styles as I did, I would not have learned most of what I did." "In what ways did modeling (political, servant, transformational) leadership styles hinder your learning?" Out of 168 responses to this question, 128 responded by reinforcing the value of the teaching approach, implying that it didn't hinder learning. o "I learned better under some styles than others so I guess I would have learned more if all three were like the last one." o "I was intimidated during the first topic. I'm not very competitive so I know that that one is not right for me. I was really quiet in class because I was afraid to speak up...but I guess now I know how I'd respond in a more political environment." o "I thought the second topic (servant leadership) was too disorganized and open. Students didn't really have to work hard unless they wanted to and the instructor seemed like he/she was taken advantage." o "Although I like the servant leadership teaching style the best and I also liked the third style (transformational leadership), what I will never forget is how the first five weeks made me discover some of my serious weaknesses." o "I didn't understand how the instructor could let us do whatever we decided during the second five weeks and didn't hold the students accountable if they missed class or assignments." o "I wish more courses were taught this way." "What advice would you give your instructor about the approach to teaching (political, servant, transformational) leadership styles the next time he teaches this topic?" Many students responded with "Don't change anything" or "None" (112 out of 168 respondents). o "Don't ever stop teaching the course this way. It's the best course at the University." o "This was the best class I've ever had. Even though I didn't like the way one of the topics was taught, I will never forget how I felt being led by the three different approaches." o "Nothing. I really enjoyed the class and that out of all the courses I have taken at the University that this was by far the most interesting and that I will take more from this class then I will from any other class. Thank you!" o "Maybe put more structure and focus into the second topic (servant leadership)." o "Remind the students halfway through the first topic that you are `in character'...you had people convinced that that was the way you were."

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Conclusions

Dramaturgical teaching is an innovative pedagogical method for use in the leadership education classroom. In this paper I have described the principles of dramaturgical teaching and outlined a possible structure for implementing this style of teaching in the classroom. Student comments indicate that the teaching method contributes to student learning in positive ways and students were positively impacted from taking the course. Instructors may consider developing a course or structuring an existing course using dramaturgical teaching to accelerate student learning. There has been an influx of experiential learning activities utilized nation-wide in leadership courses over the past twenty years (Guenther & Moore, 2005). Many instructors have longed for creative and interactive activities to engage students using practice-oriented teaching methods (Finan, 2004; Kolb & Kolb, 2005). Dramaturgical teaching offers instructors the deepest form of student experience ­ they live the leadership style while they are learning (Kayes, 2002; Leberman & Martin, 2005). Evidence suggests that this approach to teaching leadership can have a powerful impact on the student experience. It is my hope that more faculty members will challenge themselves and consider adopting a dramaturgical teaching approach in the leadership classroom.

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References

Barbuto, J. E., & Wheeler, D. W. (2006). Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership. Group & Organization Management, 31(3), 127. Boje, D. M., & Rhodes, C. (2005). The virtual leader construct: The mass mediatization and simulation of transformational leadership. Leadership, 1(4), 407-428. Finan, M. C. (2004). Experience as teacher: Two techniques for incorporating student experiences into a course. Journal of Management Education, 28(4), 478491. Gardner, W. L., & Avolio, B. J. (1998). The charismatic relationship: A dramaturgical perspective. Academy of Management Review, 23(1), 32-58. Guenthner, J. F., & Moore, L. L. (2005). Role playing as a leadership development tool. Journal of Leadership Education, 4(2), 59-65. Karreman, D. (2001). The scripted organization: Dramaturgy from Burke to Baudrillard, in R. Westwood & S. Linstead (Eds.) The Language of Organization, pp. 89-111. London: Sage Press. Kayes, D. C. (2002). Experiential learning and its critics: Preserving the role of experience in management learning and education. Academy of Management Learning & Education,1(2), 137-149. Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Learning styles and learning spaces: Enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(2), 193-212. Kotter, J. P. (1985). Power and influence: Beyond formal authority. New York: Free Press. Leberman, S. I., & Martin, A. J. (2005). Applying dramaturgy to management course design. Journal of Management Education, 29(2), 319-332. Lowe, K. B., Kroeck, K. G., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational leadership: A meta-analytic review of the MLQ literature. Leadership Quarterly, 7, 385-425. Mundhenk, L. G. (2004). Toward an understanding of what it means to be student centered: A new teacher's journey. Journal of Management Education, 28(4), 447-462.

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Orr, S. (2003). Teaching play analysis: How a dramaturgical skill can foster critical approaches. Theatre Topics, 13(1), 153-158. Schwandt, D. R. (2005). When managers become philosophers: Integrating learning with sensemaking. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(2), 176-192. Tchaicha, J. D., & Davis, M. M. (2005). The impact of culture on technology and business: An interdisciplinary, experiential course paradigm. Journal of Management Education, 29(5), 738-757.

Biography

John E. Barbuto, Jr., Associate Professor of Leadership at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Dr. Barbuto has been teaching and research leadership and organizational behavior since 1994. He has published over 50 refereed journal articles and presented over 110 refereed conference papers since joining the leadership faculty at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 1997. His research interests include antecedents of leadership, servant leadership, motivation theories, power & influence, and leadership education.

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Teaching Leadership to First-Year Students in a Learning Community

Afsaneh Nahavandi, Ph.D. Professor of Management and Associate Dean of University College Arizona State University Tempe, AZ [email protected]

Abstract

This paper discusses a model for teaching leadership to first-year students as part of a learning community. It outlines the purpose and structure of the course and presents ideas for how different disciplines could be combined with leadership in learning communities. Teaching leadership to first-year students as part of a learning community instead of a stand-alone course has two distinct advantages. First, when leadership is taught at the freshman level, the early introduction of the topic allows for the possibility of repetition and reinforcements of the concepts, both of which are essential to learning. Second, by teaching leadership in a learning community, instructors and students are able to apply and integrate the concepts of leadership with other areas, thereby increasing learning and retention.

Theoretical Base

Leadership scholars and educators generally agree that leadership can be taught and learned (Doh, 2003; Nahavandi, 2006). While some traits and abilities are required for effective leadership (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991), most leadership behaviors and skills that allow leaders to be effective can be developed over time and with practice (Bass, 1990; Kouzes & Posner, 1995). As a result of this assumption, we teach leadership too many individuals at various levels of organizations and through many courses that are part of the university curricula (Pennington, 2005). Particularly, managerially and executive-oriented leadership courses, workshops, and self-help materials are abundant (e.g., Collins, 2001). A review of curriculum offered at private and state colleges and universities conducted by the author suggests that the large majority of leadership courses are aimed at junior and seniors and graduate students, most often in professional programs such as business, public administration, and education. As a matter of fact, the only discipline outside of the latter that addresses leadership consistently is Political Science where the focus appears to be more on the study of political leadership rather than on the teaching of leadership skills. As compared to upperdivision curricula that may offer leadership, the lower-division curricula is filled with general studies courses; the study of leadership at that level is delegated to co-curricular activities such as student clubs and leadership and service learning

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(for and excellent example of blending the teaching and practice of leadership in student organizations see Komives, Lucas, & McMahon, 1998; for an example of service learning see Hoover & Webster, 2004). Interestingly, some small liberal arts colleges and religious-based institutions (e.g., Peace College, Austin College, Regent University, Marietta College, Williams College, Baylor University) provide leadership minors or certificates aimed at undergraduates, sometimes integrating such programs with their freshmen orientation. Otherwise, teaching leadership to undergraduate students, although often mentioned as important, is not a widely established practice. Teaching leadership primarily at the higher levels goes against the basic principles of learning that suggest that skills should be taught as early as possible and repeated and practiced often for learning to occur (Kolb, 1984). If we want our students to understand leadership, learn the necessary skills, and become effective leaders, we should teach them leadership early and often rather than late and in a single course towards the end of their undergraduate education, or only as part of their graduate education. Additionally, as is the case with acquiring any knowledge or learning any skills, students find coherence and can learn better when topics are integrated (Gabelnick, et al., 1990). One common method used to provide such integration at the undergraduate level is First-Year Learning Communities (FLCs), some variants of which are called Freshman Interest Groups (FIGS) (for some examples see Minor, 1997; Rodriguez, Sen, & Boyette, 2003; Schroeder, Minor, & Tarkow, 1999). Typically, FLCs combine two or more courses through a variety of mechanisms such as co-taught and integrated classes, following common themes, shared assignments, or other faculty and student cooperation (Gabelnick, et al., 1990; Jones, Laufgraben, & Morris, 2006; Shapiro & Levine, 1999). The overall goals of FLCs are to create a structure where students can comfortably interact with faculty and with one another, provide them with integrated topics and concepts that would otherwise be perceived as unrelated, and do so in a small scale that creates a sense of community (Gabelnick, et al., 1990). Although there are some inconsistent findings and differences in the degree of impact of FLCs on different groups of students, FLCs have been shown to increase understanding and learning (James, Bruch, & Jehangir, 2006). Some research suggests that being part of FLCs is related to better GPAs, higher retention, higher engagement, and higher graduation rates (Baker & Pomerantz, 2001; Gammill, Hansen, & Tinkler, 1992; Hotchkiss, Moore, & Pitts, 2005; Zhao & Kuh, 2005). Teaching leadership in a FLC to first-year students can therefore provide several benefits. First, students experience leadership not as an independent topic, but as one that can be applied to a variety of settings and disciplines. Second, in- and out-of-class frequent interactions with faculty allow for rich discussion of concepts. Third, students are exposed to leadership early in their undergraduate education, and finally, through the integration provided by the FLC, students can better learn the concepts. Additionally, being part of a FLC provides students with many non-academic social benefits such as a sense of

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belonging and the opportunity to develop friendships, topics that are beyond the scope of this paper. This paper presents a tested model for teaching leadership to first-year students as part of a first-year learning community (FLC), integrated a with general education requirement. The course has been taught and tested for two years with considerable success. The paper specifically suggests that teaching leadership in a first-year learning community has two distinct advantages over typical coverage of the topic. First, leadership is taught at the freshman level allowing for early introduction and the possibility of repetition and reinforcement, both of which are essential to understanding leadership and developing necessary skills. Second, by teaching leadership in a learning community with another course, as opposed to offering it in a stand-alone class, instructors and students are able to apply and integrate the concepts of leadership with other areas, thereby increasing understanding and retention (Komives, et al., 2005).

Intended Audience

Any instructor of leadership who has an interest in undergraduate education and is willing to experiment with new teaching structures can find a teaching partner and acquire administrative support to create a FLC. While the learning community model has been primarily used in teaching first-year classes (e.g., Dabney, Green, & Topalli, 2006), co-taught and linked classes have been used effectively in many other levels and settings (Hotchkiss, et al., 2005; James, et al., 2006). The class described in this paper is intended for first-year students. It is combined with an early American history class. Students in the class came from all colleges and majors. Whether it is offered as a pilot program or part of an on-going FLC program, combining leadership with another course is viable, practical, and beneficial to students.

Learning Objectives and Outcomes

The FLC included three separate sets of learning outcomes: outcomes for the FLC, outcomes for the leadership course, and outcomes for the history course. The first two are presented below. Specific objectives for the leadership component of the FLC were: · Identify the key elements of leadership. · Discuss the role of contextual, historical, and cultural factors in leadership behavior and effectiveness. · Understand power and its role in leadership. · Understand the processes involved in effective leadership. · Develop self-awareness and identify personal strengths and weaknesses in regards to leadership.

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The learning outcomes for the FLC included: · Gain a better understanding of the historical, cultural, and contemporary significance of leadership. · Learn theoretical models of leadership. · Develop an appreciation of our own potential to use leadership to better the communities in which we find ourselves. · Provide a supportive environment that helps new college students develop a community of fellow scholars. · Introduce students to many of the resources available on campus. · Develop and intellectually challenging curriculum for students and faculty, one that draws connections between varied coursework and enables students to see their education holistically rather than as a set of disparate, required courses. The leadership class addressed typical learning outcomes of most leadership courses focusing on understanding leadership, its complexity, the processes involved in leading, and its theoretical foundations, and developing selfawareness related to leadership skills and abilities. In addition to these specific goals, the FLC allowed for application and integration of these concepts to a much higher degree than in a stand-alone class. While the FLC presented in this paper combined history and leadership, a particularly appropriate match, leadership can easily be combined with other general studies courses such as communication, psychology, sociology, political science, and anthropology just to mention a few (see Table 1). By its very nature, the topic of leadership allows for application to and integration with a wide variety of other topics. Combining leadership with history allowed for an in-depth analysis of leadership in a historical context and for integration by analyzing historical leaders' styles and actions, applying leadership theory. A leadership course combined with any of the other topics would provide an equally rich, but different integration. For example, a communication-leadership FLC would focus on communication patterns of leaders. A political science-leadership FLC would consider political rather than historical leaders while an anthropology-leadership FLC would highlight the key role of culture in defining and understanding leadership. The possibilities for offering a FLC with leadership as one of its components are only limited by the instructors' creativity and ability to integrate their own discipline with another.

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Table 1. Suggestions for leadership-based FLCs FLC partners Leadership and history Leadership and psychology Possible Themes Analysis of historical leaders and their effectiveness The nature-nurture debate Role of personality in leadership Leadership in small groups Leaders and society Role of leadership in societal structures Leadership and deviance Political leadership Analysis of political leadership Role of communication in leadership Key communication skills for leaders Cross-cultural communication differences Language of leadership The role of leadership in the criminal justice system Role of leadership in criminal activities The role of culture in leadership Cultural differences in who is a leader and who is considered to be effective Leadership through literature Study of various texts and how leadership is presented and experienced The existence of leadership The classical view of leadership Philosophical and ethical challenges of leadership

Leadership and sociology

Leadership and political science Leadership and communication

Leadership and criminal justice

Leadership and anthropology

Leadership and English literature

Leadership and philosophy

In the case of the history-leadership FLC presented here, the leadership instructor relied heavily on examples of historical leaders discussed in the history class, while the history instructor shifted the focus of the history course towards an analysis of leaders in addition to consideration of social, cultural, and contextual factors. Students learned about how definitions of effective leadership depend on the context, particularly the followers. They became aware of the impact of culture, social, and environmental factors in determining leader behaviors. They also gleaned knowledge about what may be considered universal leadership concepts, for example attention to followers and to accomplishing the task. The study of history along with leadership allowed concepts such as this to be discussed through examples and situations with which students were already familiar. Other learning communities would allow a different focus. Regardless of which combinations of classes are used to create a leadership FLC, the goal of

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presenting and discussing leadership in context, rather in a vacuum can be achieved.

Preparation and Materials

One of the keys to the success of any FLC is how the instructors prepare for the course and the degree to which they become familiar with the material from their partner's course. Shapiro and Levine (1999) suggest that faculty must invest time and commit to plan and prepare their courses together to achieve the appropriate level of integration. In the case presented here, the leadership instructor completed all the readings for the history course, with particular focus on the biography of leaders prior to developing her own syllabus. Similarly, the history instructor reviewed the leadership material assigned to students. This preparation led the instructors to be fully aware of the goals, concepts, and contents of their partner's course and integrate the two topics in a seamless way. Both instructors used materials that they would have used in stand-alone classes adjusting them to reflect the learning outcomes of the FLC. For instance, the leadership instructor included readings and topics that were broader than a typical business curriculum leadership course. To that end, specific readings from philosophy, sociology, and political science were added to the "pure" business and managerially-oriented readings. For example, students read essays by Plato, Aristotle, and Tolstoy in addition to articles by McGregor Burns and Bass (see Table 2). The materials used for the leadership course included: · Wren, J. T. (1995). The Leader's Companion: Insights on Leadership through the Ages. New York: The Free Press. This book consists of series of relatively brief readings from management, social sciences, and the humanities. · Life Style Inventory (LSI) Booklet by Human Synergistics International. This on-line leadership style assessment survey is engaging and thorough enough to let students gain insight into their strengths and weaknesses as leaders. · Additional readings from academic journals and the popular press with a focus on The New York Times for current events and examples provided further opportunity for application of concepts. Table 2. Leadership Course Outline PART I: LEADERSHIP BASICS What is leadership The cry for leadership (W: Gardner) The crisis of leadership (W: MacGregor Burns) Lead softly, but carry a big baton (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/48/baton.html) Images of leadership The historical and contemporary context of leadership (W: Wren & Swatez) exercise Leadership and democracy (W: Cronin) Definition of Servant leadership (W: Greenleaf)

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leadership

Culture and Leadership

Thinking and learning about leadership (W: Cronin ) The meaning of leadership (W: Bass) Natural leader; (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/41/sharpnack.html) Current events in NYT Cultural constraints in management theory (W: Hofstede) News analysis: It's the culture (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/73/nyt.html) Current events in NYT Concepts of leadership: The beginnings (W: Bass) Rulers and generals are "History's slaves" (W: Tolstoy) The Republic (W: Plato) Current events in NYT Politics (W: Aristotle) How princes should keep faith (W: Machiavelli) Tao Te Ching (W: Lao-tzu) Current events in NYT

Historical views of leadership

PART II: ELEMENTS OF LEADERSHIP - The Leader and the Situation LSI booklet Understanding the Are you marked for greatness? leader: Individual (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/41/greatness.html ) characteristics and self-awareness Self-awareness LSI booklet Leadership: Do traits really matter (W: Kirkpatrick & Locke) Current events in NYT The art form of leadership (W: Bennis) #49: What it means to think critically (W: Brookfield) Leadership lessons from a rock climber (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/77/rockclimber.html) Current events in NYT Power, influence, and influence tactics (W: Hughes et. al.) The five most powerful ways to annoy others (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/68/hrubin.html) What if Carly were a man? (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/57/ganders.html) Current events in NYT Leaders and followers (W: Gardner) In praise of followers (W: Kelley) Superleadership (W: Manz and Sims) Current events in NYT Leading in hard times (http://pf.inc.com/articles/2001/11/23643.html) Low cost ways to build employee commitment

Leadership skills

Power

Followers

The task

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(http://pf.inc.com/articles/1999/12/16412.html) Current events in NYT PART III: CONTEMPORARY THEORIES Contingency models Contemporary leadership theory (W: Chemers) Current events in NYT Transactional and transforming leadership (W: MacGregor Charismatic and Burns) transformational Beyond the charismatic leader (W: Nadler and Tushman) leadership Attention class (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/53/teaching.html) Visionary leadership (W: Sashkin) Feedback: Things leaders do (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/83/open_thingsleader sdo.html) Current events in NYT PART IV: DEVELOPING LEADERSHIP Leadership in action Leadership jazz (W: DePree) Redefining leadership (W: McFarland et. al) A visionary and his limits (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/78/edlet.html) Current events in NYT Ethics and Moral leadership (W: MacGregor Burns) leadership Moral development (W: Prince) Ethics: Ask a first-grader (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/83/dispatch.html) Current events in NYT Messages from the environment (W: Ciulla) Ethics and Ethical common ground (W: Kidder) leadership Five ways to jump start your company's ethics (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/75/5ways.html) Current events in NYT Leap of faith LSI: Revisited (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/57/skydiving.html) Grassroots leadership (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/47/militaryacademy. html) Rule #3: Leadership is confusing as hell (http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/44/rules.html) PART V: COURSE INTEGRATION AND PRESENTATIONS Poster presentations

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In addition to business and political current examples, the leadership instructor consistently referred to leaders that students were discussing in their history course. For example, John Winthrop the early American colonist and Massachusetts' first governor and Anne Hutchinson, the banished religious leader, both presented excellent examples of task-oriented leaders whose singleminded focus on their goal often overshadowed consideration of their followers' needs and desires. Similarly, examples of transformational leaders such as John Proctor (so aptly portrayed by Daniel Day Lewis in the film version of the Crucible which was shown in the history course) were also easy to find and could be used to integrate the two courses.

Course Outline and Assignments

The leadership course in the FLC was divided into five parts detailed in Table 2. Students had a midterm and final examination in both courses and while the dates for the exams were coordinated, each instructor tested students on the materials presented in her class. The research paper and presentation for the two courses were fully integrated (see Table 3). The research paper for the history (HIS) course centered on a biography of a leader from early American history. Once the biography was developed, students analyzed the same leader's style for their paper in the leadership course. Both instructors received both parts of the paper; each graded the assignment for her course. The last few sessions of the class were jointly held for students to make one poster presentation that integrated their knowledge from both courses (see Table 3). Table 3. Course Assignments __________________________________________________________________ LEADER ANALYSIS PAPER ___________________________________________________________________ The leadership analysis constitutes your research paper for the semester. It should be between five to seven pages long (you may have additional appendices and exhibits as needed.) Your leader analysis is based on the leader biography that you will develop for the HIS class. Once you have completed your biography, you are to analyze the leader's style based on the concepts you have learned in this leadership class. To conduct and write your leader analysis, you must rely on leadership theories and concepts. This is your chance to apply the theories you have learned about how a leader functions. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate your understanding of the leadership theories and your ability to apply them. The information you have collected for the biography should be used in your analysis. Your paper is due on the day of your poster presentation. ___________________________________________________________________

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POSTER PRESENTATION ___________________________________________________________________ At the end of the semester, you will prepare a poster presentation of your analysis. We will have joint classes with the HIS class and each of you will only present one poster. Therefore, the poster will present information from both your management and your history course: the biography of the leader you have selected and the analysis of his/her leadership style. http://www.ncsu.edu/project/posters/index.html has information regarding preparation of effective poster presentations. The poster will be evaluated based on the following criteria: Appearance 1. Display attracts viewer's attention. 2. Words are easy to read from an appropriate distance (3-5 feet). 3. Poster is well organized and easy to follow. 4. Graphics and other visuals enhance presentation. 5. The poster is neat and appealing to look at. Content 6. Content is clear and easy to understand. 7. Leadership theory is clearly presented. 8. Leadership style is clear. 9. Evidence is presented on poster. 10. Poster is free of unnecessary detail. 11. There is a good balance between history and leadership Presentation 12. Presenter is well prepared. 13. Presenter's response to questions demonstrated knowledge of subject matter and project. 14. Presenter is able to explain leadership model and provide evidence for style. 15. Overall, this was a good poster presentation.

Results

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The history-leadership FLC has been offered twice with considerable success. The teaching evaluations and written and informal student comments strongly indicate that students enjoy not only each class separately, but clearly "get" the point of integrating the two topics. Combining the courses make leadership concepts approachable and understandable as well as relates history to contemporary and current issues. One student stated that he wished he could take more of his courses in a learning community because it allowed him to really grasp the material. During an informal dinner at the end of each semester, students expressed similar ideas. They were able to relate the leadership concepts to current political leaders and apply both their new-found historical and leadership knowledge. One student stated that she felt she could understand current leaders better since she was able to analyze the leadership style of historical figures. These comments suggest that the FLC achieved its goal of integrating the two topics and provided students with a solid understanding of leadership. As is the case with any learning community, this FLC required added preparation from both instructors and active cooperation for adjusting assignments and visiting each other's classes on a regular basis. Instructors also discussed teaching philosophies and expectations. The added preparation was most noticeable the first time the course was taught. However, balancing the added preparation was the many benefits of having a teaching partner. The two instructors were able to discuss and brainstorm concepts, topics, and methods, or flag problems to each other, whether it was students being confused or poor performance. They also were able to cover for each other when one was absent for personal or professional reasons. Overall, while the teaching partnership took some investment, the instructors found it highly rewarding.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Two years of working with first-year students in a leadership-history FLC show that 18 and 19 year old students are able to grasp and apply the concepts of leadership theory. While many of the concepts are abstract, and much of the traditional management and psychology-based research in leadership is somewhat esoteric and may be hard for students who have had neither research methods nor statistics courses to fully comprehend, a simple presentation of such concepts when done in context is fully within their grasp. The integration with a history course ­ it can be any number of other topics ­ allows leadership to be taught in a context and offers accessible examples and application that make the abstract leadership concepts understandable. While based on review of declared majors, other data collected regarding career interests and discussions during the first day of class, few of our first-year students state a strong interest in leadership or in history either as a topic or as a major. Their comments in formal student evaluations and informal discussions at the end of the semester indicate an increased interest in both topics. Making the link between the two disciplines

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makes each more meaningful and discussing leadership and history becomes part of their regular communication. Since leadership is introduced in a freshman course, it is important to provide students who have an interest in the topic with curricular and co-curricular options to continue developing their skills and interests. In our case, the business school offers a four-course concentration in leadership. Leadership courses are also offered as part of the recreation and tourism program and are a component of organizational studies minor in psychology. Students therefore have several avenues for continuing their leadership education. As has been noted by several researchers (e.g., Pennington, 2005), most colleges and universities offer a broad selection of leadership courses in many different disciplines. Students should be reminded that an early leadership course is only the first step in their development of leadership knowledge and skills and they should be encouraged to continue their studies through coursework and practical applications. The research on learning communities suggests that they are excellent learning environments for many students. In addition to the integration of knowledge, students develop a sense of community and friendship, both of which are college success factors beyond the scope of this paper. The focus of this paper is on how to teach leadership better and more often. The FLC presents a viable and effective method to introduce leadership concepts early within a context that encourages students to apply those concepts in a structured environment. Future research could compare student learning outcomes for stand-alone leadership classes and leadership taught in a FLC; compare such learning outcomes for leadership when combined with a variety of other topics in FLCs; and, track interest in the topic of leadership by considering other courses students take during their undergraduate education after participating in FLC. Leadership does not suddenly develop when our students reach middle management. The complex set of traits, skills, and behaviors required for effective leadership demand early development and practice; the earlier the better, so let us teach them leadership early and often.

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References

Baker, S., & Pomerantz, N. (2001). Impact of learning communities on retention and a Metropolitan University. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 2(2), 115-126. Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's handbook of leadership (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press. Collins, J. (2001). Good to great. New York: Harper Business. Dabney, D., Green, L, & Topalli, V. (2006). Freshman learning communities in criminology and criminal justice: An effective tool for enhancing student recruitment and learning outcomes. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 17(1), 44-68. Doh, J. P. (2003). Can leadership be taught? Perspectives from management educators. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2(1), 54-67. Gabelnick, F., MacGregor, J., Matthews, R. S., & Smith, B. L. (1990). Learning communities: Creating Connections among students, faculty and disciplines (#41). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Gammill, L., Hansen, C., & Tinkler, S. (1992). Linked courses: A method to reinforce basic skills. Journal of Education for Business, 67(6). 358-364. Hoover, T. S., & Webster, N. (2004), Modeling service learning for future leaders of youth organizations. Journal of Leadership Education, 3(3), 58-62. Hotchkiss, J. L., Moore, R. E., & Pitts, M. M. (2005). Freshman learning communities, college performance and retention. Working Paper Series (Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta), September (22), 1-26. James, P. A., Bruch, P. L., & Jehangir, R. R. (2006). Ideas in practice: Building bridges in a multicultural learning community. Journal of Developmental Education, 29(3), 10-18. Jones, P., Laufgraben, J. L., & Morris, N. (2006). Developing and empirically based typology of attitudes of entering students toward participation in learning communities. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 31(3), 249-265. Kirkpatrick, S. A., & Locke, E. A. (1991). Leadership: Do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive, 5(2), 48­60.

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Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Komives, S. R., Lucas, N, & McMahon, T. R. (1998). Exploring Leadership: For college students who want to make a difference. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Komives, S. R., Owen, J. E., Longerbeam, S., Mainella, F. C., & Osteen, L. (2005). Developing a leadership identity: A grounded theory. Journal of College Student Development, 46(6), 593-611. Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1995). The leadership challenge: How to get extraordinary things done in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Minor, F. D. (1997). Bringing it home: Integrating classroom and residential experiences. About Campus, 2(1), 21-22. Nahavandi, A. (2006). The art and science of leadership. Upper Saddle River: Pearson-Prentice Hall. Pennington, P. (2005). The leadership pie: Grab your piece before it's gone. Journal of Leadership Education, 4(1), 75-78. Rodriguez, J. C., Sen, P., & Boyette (2003). Collaboration in education: Freshman interest groups. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 35(1), 46-47. Schroeder, C. C., Minor, R. D., & Tarkow, T. A. (1999). Freshman interest groups: Partnerships for Promoting Student Success. New Directions for Student Services, 87, 37-49. Shapiro, N. S., & Levine, J. H. (1999). Creating learning communities: A practical guide to winning support, organizing for chance, and implementing programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Zhao, C. M., & Kuh, G. D. (2005). Adding value: Learning communities and student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 45(2), 115-138.

Biography

Afsaneh Nahavandi is a professor of management at Arizona State University's School of Global Management and Leadership. She is currently associate dean of the University College at ASU. Her areas of teaching and research are leadership, teams, and culture. She has published numerous articles in those areas and is the author of several books, including a best selling leadership textbook now in 4th edition.

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Team Building and Problem-Based Learning in the Leadership Classroom: Findings from a Two-Year Study

JoAnn Barbour. Ph.D. Professor, Educational Leadership Texas Woman's University Denton, Texas [email protected]

Abstract

Leader educators know that demands on leaders of organizations are increasing, requiring different strategies of leading, for example, working in diverse and global environments, using shared decision-making, and developing effective work teams. To educate future leaders in a postmodern era, instructors must attempt nontraditional teaching methods that combine theories and practices of team leadership. With a focus on team leadership, I conducted a classroom study to investigate how to design classroom teams and experiences that would help future leaders lead teams. Three discoveries were made from this study: (a) the importance of the instructor guiding students through the processes of teaming and leading teams as well as providing the content knowledge imbedded in the course, (b) the role shifts of the instructor and students throughout the semester, (c) and the use of problem-based learning as a promising pedagogical tool in the instruction of future leaders in global, diverse, team-based settings.

Introduction

A leader has four responsibilities: to know the self, to know the followers, to know the task, and to know the situation. ---Chinese philosopher (paraphrased)

Organizations have undergone a paradigm shift in the way employees perform their daily tasks. Increasing demands and expectations of leaders of schools, the military, health care agencies, and business, for example, require strategies of leading, decision making and problem solving that embrace a global understanding and focus, a diverse work environment, and a team approach to work. Robbins and Finley (1995) suggest that in the organizational world teams do not work because of a variety of factors, including confused goals, unresolved roles, lack of trust, unwillingness to change, the wrong tools, and bad leadership, among other reasons. My contention is that a key factor at the root of our inability to effectively lead 21st century organizational teams perhaps may be that

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we rarely truly learn to live and work as teams within the classroom and training environments that purport to develop leaders of teams. It is hoped that once future leaders learn and practice positive teaming skills in the leader classroom that they will transfer that knowledge to lead teams in diverse organizations.

Purpose

With a focus on team leadership, the purpose of this study was to investigate how to design classroom teams and experiences that would help future leaders learn to effectively lead teams. This analysis is based on qualitative participant research conducted in graduate classroom on both students and this instructor. Findings are discussed in four areas from the both students' and instructor's perspectives, based on the responsibilities of the leader noted in the epigraph. The components discussed will include findings about how to teach for understanding of: the self (students and instructor), the followers (as members of teams), and the tasks (problem solving, leading teams, presenting information), and the situation (contexts of leading, learning and teaching).

Theoretical Framework

When teaching others the knowledge and skills of leadership, an instructor has two key decisions to make. One must decide on the content of the course, based on goals and objectives, and the teaching methods to accomplish those goals. The theoretical frameworks that grounded this study are based in research on how to lead teams and the pedagogical approach of problem-based learning, an instructional strategy that has a "problem" as a starting point for learning, one that the students might face as future professionals (Bridges, 1992). Problem-based learning can be a strategy to give leaders authentic experiences either in the real world of organizations or through case practica. The authentic experiences were in the area of developing and understanding teamwork and the leading of teams. Teaming Simply defined, teams are "people doing something together" (Robbins & Finley, 1995, p. 10). Katzenback and Smith (1993) add, "A team includes a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable" (p.45), and maintain that since these are the basics of a real team, if any components are missing, the team should work toward getting these key elements right. Donnellon (1996) notes a cohesive, real team compared to "a team in name only" possesses several dimensions. A real team identifies itself as a team, is truly interdependent, exhibits a low need for power, is close socially, and uses both confronting and collaborating processes when managing conflict. She contrasts the key dimensions above with a nominal team that is a functional group, is independent, exhibits high power differentiation, is socially distant, and utilizes conflict management tactics of force, accommodation and avoidance.

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From an organizational perspective, an aspect to developing effective teams involves effective communication (Barbour, 1998, 2005; Barbour & Harrell, 2005; Barbour, Tipping, & Bliss, 1994; Bennis, 1989; Kotter, 1998; Senge, 1990; Senge, et al., 1994; Wheatley, 1992; Zaleznick, 1998). Problem-Based Learning Problem-based learning (Barrows, 1988; Barrows & Tamblyn, 1980; Bridges, 1992) is a pedagogical approach that uses typical problems of practice as the context for an in-depth investigation of either field-based authentic real world problems or extensive case studies that involve core content. Bridges (1992) and Bridges and Hallinger (1995) note that problem-based learning has as a starting point a problem that students are likely to face as future professionals. The problem should come first, and then the content. This contention supported is by Knowles (1978) who holds that adult learners have a problem-centered focus on learning, want to be self-directed and are time-oriented to the present. Additionally, Bridges and Hallinger (1995) note students, individually and collectively, assume a major responsibility for their own instruction and learning; most of the learning occurs within the context of small groups rather than lectures. Finally, the product of the project should be an "authentic" product, that is, simulates some aspect of organizational leadership.

Methods

This instructor observed and collected data with four different groups of graduate students over two years and involved approximately 100 students who were in a masters degree leadership preparation program. Data were collected from one particular leadership course, on problem solving that included processes of decision-making, dealing with conflict, staff development, conducting meetings, and leading effective teams. Student Materials Throughout each semester, I used four prepared learning modules that were placed within a problem-based learning (P-BL) perspective. I developed one module, Self Inventories and Value System. I used a second module developed by Hallinger (1993) titled Unison School. To help the students develop meeting and group skills, I used the book How to Make Meetings Work by Doyle and Straus (1976) as the third module and shared team building strategies and techniques from research on leading teams. The fourth module was a project wherein the students, in teams, developed and wrote case studies that were analyzed and discussed by fellow classmates.

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Data Collection Methods of collecting data were grounded in naturalistic, autobiographical inquiry (Geertz, 1988; Goetz & LeCompte, 1984) and reflective inquiry (Osterman & Kottkamp, 1993; Schon, 1987). Using anthropological methods of data collection including observation and document analysis, the data for this study were collected from several sources: written evaluations and reflections from students and instructor; analyses of surveys and evaluations on team leaders and team climate; observations from this instructor, two student "diarists" and a nonparticipant observer; and from documents presented as final products. Data were analyzed and findings were developed based on recurring patterns and themes using methods of triangulating data, noted by LeCompte and Preissle (1993). Findings After analyzing the data, I discovered a need for students and instructor to change both the traditional modes of learning and methods of teaching in order for teaming and problem-based learning to be effective. Additionally, I discovered pedagogical and leader knowledge uniquely important to each problem-based learning module. Although the situations/contexts were different for each learning module, group processes (roles and dynamics), module-dependent tasks (for example, personal growth, staff development, or long-range planning), and final product (for example, autobiography, portfolio, presentation, or case study) were important variables to each P-BL experience. Findings are discussed below in three areas: leadership skills, the learning triad of module-student-instructor roles in the learning-leader classroom, and factors that seem to lead to team success. First, however, I will discuss findings within the overarching frame of the course: the course timeline. Course Timeline The course was divided into three sections. Figure 1 shows an overview of the entire semester's course. Four strands in the middle of the table (reflection, meetings, teamwork and leadership) were strands that ran all 16 weeks. I discovered that over the course of two years, the locus of learning within the timeline shifted from instructor-centered to the pattern noted in Figure 1. The first few weeks of the semester were devoted to course orientation and introduction of the ideas and process of problem-based learning according to Bridges (1992) and Bridges and Hallinger (1995). The focus was on the self, on conducting meetings, and how to make meetings effective according to Doyle and Straus (1976), and on team skills needed for building successful teams (Tuckman, 1965; Harvey & Drolet, 1994). The instructor provided information and drove most of the focus, while the students took secondary roles as participants, although their participation was more passive as they completed instructor-driven exercises.

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Over time, during the second five to seven weeks of the course, students honed their meeting skills and began to work more seriously on their teamwork skills as they worked on the second problem-based learning module, Unison School. My instructor's focus began to shift as I began to guide, and the students became more active participants. In the final five weeks or so, I took a lesser role as an active observer and the students worked in teams to develop their own realproblem cases and drove the last weeks of their learning. Figure 1. Semester Timeline and Focus of Course at Various Stages Timeline

Weeks 1-5 · · · · · · · · · · Introduction Self Inventories Values Wheel Reflection "Meetings" Teamwork Leadership P-BL Case Case Studies Video Cases | | | | | | | | | S-Centered I-Observer Weeks 6-10 Weeks 11-16

| |

*Locus of I-Centered S-Participant S-Participant I-Guided Learning:

* I = Instructor S = Student

Findings: Leadership Skills

There were four sets of leadership skills that effective groups in each of the classes sorted out over time. First, students learned about and worked out the group process issues. Additionally, roles of team leader, facilitator, recorder and group member were important to learn and practice. Second, in the modules utilized, students studied and reflected upon their value systems and their strengths and weaknesses as future leaders. As they reflected upon the self, I discovered that they began to reflect upon the issues of teamwork and the different roles within team-based problem solving. Third, with opportunities to practice different team roles, students learned from those experiences the cycles of team building. Finally, in each P-BL learning module students reflected upon the role of team leader and discovered the role varied as the tasks and situations varied. This researcher also discovered several variables uniquely important to "instructors of future leaders" who utilize P-BL modules. An instructor must be

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able to understand, model, and lead group processes, which includes the roles all team members will play and the dynamic of team members within those roles. Additionally, the role and tasks of the instructor were different in each module set, so an instructor has to possess a variety of skills depending on the capabilities and needs of students. An instructor utilizing problem-based learning must understand team-specific (module-dependent) tasks that students are expected to master such as reflective aspects of personal growth, staff development or, perhaps, long-range planning. Finally, the end product (for example, autobiography, portfolio, presentation, or case study) is an important variable to each problem-based learning experience and must have appropriate scoring guide and evaluation tool built in to each experience. Findings: Learning Triad In addition to focusing on leadership skills, I also analyzed the role of the instructor who is teaching future leaders. After analyzing the data, this researcher discovered a "learning triad" that seems to take place in the university leader classroom (Figure 2). I discovered that the P-BL module is the bottom piece of a triangle (the conduit) that includes learning and teaching characteristics and responsibilities of both the students (developing leaders) and the instructor (knowing leader), the other two sides of the triangle. Knowing the Self We have Socrates to thank for the view that "the unexamined life is not worth living." The data collected seemed to indicate that problem-based learning can be effective only insofar as students have taken time to examine who they are and what skills and abilities they posses that would cause them to believe they can lead others.

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Figure 2. Learning Triad

Learning Triad

Student Developing Leader Self Values Traits Characteristics P-BL Module Conduit Instructor Knowing Leader Values Traits Characteristics Instructs Coaches Counsels Assesses Designs Models

Values Inventory Self-Inventories "

Tasks

Meetings Making Meetings Work Teamwork "Unison School" Staff Dev. " Strategic Planning " Presentation Module Meetings' Teams Case Study Teams Individual Cases Video Simulations Teams " "

Situation(s) "In-Class"

"Real Life"

Followers

Classmates "Case People" "Real People"

Counsels Assesses

The first few weeks of this course are devoted to a reflective analysis and interpretation of a set of self-inventories and an analysis of one's value system. The inventories begin slowly and easily with a simple left-brain/right-brain hemispheric analysis and progress to a variation of the Myers-Briggs Inventory. Since I wanted to model growth in reflection, I began with fairly easy inventories that progress in depth and interpretation. The students are given analysis and interpretative information for the entire set so they can self-score, analyze and interpret the results relative to their future careers. The students are instructed to write a brief analysis and reflection of the results of their inventories, including a discussion of key personally held values. In class we use this instructor's own findings and discuss the results of my inventory-set to model reflection and application of findings. Using my own findings provides some levity to the task and helps build trust. We also link class discussions to their leadership philosophies and how their deeply held values will effect their organizational decisions. In their reflections, most students placed a high value on the importance of the inventory set. They learned aspects about themselves they did not realize, but most often their results gave substance to what they already knew, that they did, indeed, possess important leadership abilities. Most of the students indicted they would keep and reflect upon the inventories, and that they enjoyed this module.

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Knowing the Task The tasks are duties, responsibilities, or sets of acts one performs in his or her role, for example, as a manager or leader. Tasks can be those of a real-world leader, for instance hiring or firing staff, strategic planning, staff alignment, and decision-making or tasks in the university classroom such as leading small teams, conducting meetings, making presentations, being good group members, or creating a portfolio. Teams were more effective when the instructor provided information about tasks of leadership and shared knowledge about effective tasksuccess in the leadership classroom. Our classroom future leaders, for example, needed to have information about presentation skills, how to be a good group member, how to facilitate and lead teams, how to conduct effective meetings, and so on, to have success in the classroom and to, hopefully, transfer that success to the real world of leadership. Additionally, they needed to understand, for example, effective hiring practices, strategic planning, and collaborative decisionmaking, tasks of real-world leadership. Knowing the Situation The situation is the condition in which a leader is placed. This could be an environment, an event, an action, or a role. The environment can be culturally diverse, homogeneic, chaotic, in need of change, and so on. The situation can be geographically new to the leader, involve an urban setting, or be in a familiar organization. The case study or problem from which the P-BL modules or projects are developed provides the context and situations from which the leaders must make decisions. In the Unison School case used in this particular course, the future leader is presented with a situation (context) that includes a veteran faculty in a low-achieving school. I discovered students had varying experiences with contextual information contained in the cases, often interpreted case material inappropriately, showed a variety of biases, and often relied on experiences in making case decisions, rather than consult the readings offered for theoretical, researched-based grounding for their eventual decisions. Knowing the Followers In the classroom, students are presented with two levels of followers. The staff and faculty members are one level of followers with whom the leader will work. They are the "case module people" in the P-BL materials and the "real people" from the cases developed by the students themselves. The university classroom provides the students an opportunity to practice leadership in context at a level removed from "the self." The students also work within teams where some members are leaders and others are followers. How they work as leaders and followers within the teams will aid in their understanding of the leader-follower dynamic as future leaders.

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Factors Leading to Team Success Tuckman (1965) identifies four stages within a team's developmental life: forming, norming, storming, and performing. Subsequent research published with Jensen added a fifth stage, adjourning (Tuckman & Jensen, 1977). I found that the instructor most directly influences the first stage of team development, forming, since we often choose which class members are grouped together. The rest of the stages are team member-involved and member-driven, with the instructor facilitating or guiding the teams as needed. In our leader classroom, I discovered that teams did, in fact, go through all five stages. I also discovered the instructor's role shift through the developmental process to require less instruction and more modeling, counseling or guidance, as teams coalesced. In this study, I found five factors that seemed to lead to team success and the effective understanding of situations and followers. First, and most importantly, an effective team leader was key to team success in completing and submitting final products. Team members found most success when leaders followed through with their responsibilities for leading and group members actively participated in the projects; thus, understanding of roles and accountability for fulfilling roles were both important for team success. Second, in order to fulfill roles, it was important for leaders and members to honestly assess their strengths and weaknesses, to develop abilities they could, acknowledge their differences and participate fully in their projects. Thus, a leader of teams has to make a concerted effort to place people where they can grow and succeed in order for the team to be successful. Third, a leader of teams is responsible for team members' developing a belief in and an appreciation of genuine differences in others. I discovered that leaders of successful teams set a tone of trust and fairness and modeled that trust and fairness in the norms, roles, and team processes for the members. Fourth, closely related, I noticed that when conflicts about team members or about projects were not resolved that team success suffered. Thus, the team leader must be responsible for leading the resolution of group and/or individual conflict. When teams did not resolve conflict, they most often were not as successful as teams who did resolve conflict. Finally, the team leader has a responsibility to help members so that all personality types can develop their strengths, but not at the detriment of other team members. In order to help the team leader develop, and because students' personal growth and development were important learning criteria for this instructor, I tried to guide the leaders with this responsibility to provide for both personal development for the real world and for success in the leader classroom.

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Summary From my investigation of how to design classroom teams and experiences that would help future leaders learn to effectively lead teams, I made several discoveries: there occurred a shift in the course from instructor-centered to student-centered; four sets of leadership skills emerged from successful teams; and there emerged a learning triad. Additionally, I found the use of problem-based learning modules an effective method to help build teams in the leader classroom, as suggested by the literature; however, the modules should be coupled with a focus on the stages necessary in effective teaming. I found that the student classroom teams did go through the stages of teaming, as noted by Tuckman (1965), and the most effective teams were those who had effective leaders. Students were more effective when the instructor guided them through forming, developing team norms, dealing with conflict, and concluding their projects. In conclusion, as students transfer their skills to the real world of organizations, they will be more effective team leaders if they practice the following: (a) work through and resolve group and/or individual conflict, (b) lead and keep an eye to active group member participation in the work of the teams, (c) get beyond the self to become selfless in group work, (d) accept team members' strengths, weaknesses and differences, (e) and help to facilitate growth in individual members. As the role of the instructor in the problem-based leader classroom shifts from teacher to observer/facilitator, it is hoped that the instructor assists the future leader in gaining a theoretical grounding and practical understanding of leading in diverse, team-based settings.

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References

Barbour, J. D. (1998). Organizational leadership: Rituals and rites of passage to build or maintain school culture. Women as school administrators: Realizing the vision, Texas council of women school executives' 1998 yearbook, pp. 133-141. Austin, TX: Texas Council of Women School Executives. Barbour, J. D. (2005). E pluribus unum: Cultures, subcultures, and teams at Alpha Middle School. Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership, 8(2), pp. 34-48 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Barbour, J. D., & Harrell, D. D. (2005). Leader as teacher: Conversations to grow teams. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 9(2), pp. 81-85. Barbour, J. D., Tipping, S., & Bliss, J. (1994). A study of female change agents in educational leadership roles: Planting and growing visions. Journal of School Leadership, 4(4), pp. 366-381. Barrows, H. S. (1988). The tutorial process. Springfield, Illinois: Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. Barrows, H. S., & Tamblyn, R. M. (1980). Problem-based learning: An approach to medical education. New York: Springer Publishing. Bennis, W. (1989). On becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing. Bridges, E. (1992). Problem based learning for administrators. University of Oregon: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management. Bridges, E., & Hallinger, P. (1995). Implementing problem based learning in leadership development. University of Oregon: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management. Donnellon, A. (1996). Team talk. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Doyle, M., & Straus, D. (1976). How to make meetings work. New York: Jove Books. Geertz, C. (1988). Works and lives: The anthropologist as author. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Goetz, J. P., & LeCompte, M. D. (1984). Ethnography and qualitative design in educational research. San Diego: Academic Press.

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Hallinger, P. (1993). Problem-based learning module: "Something old, something new." Nashville: Vanderbilt University. Harvey, T. R., & Drolet, B. (1994). Building teams, building people. Lancaster, PA: Technomic. Katzenbach, J. R., & Smith, D. K. (1993). The wisdom of teams. New York: Harper Collins. Knowles, M. (1978). The adult learner: A neglected species. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing. Kotter, J. P. (1998). What leaders really do. In Harvard Business Review on Leadership. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, pp. 37-60. LeCompte, M. D., & Preissle, J. (1993). Ethnography and qualitative design in educational research (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Osterman, K. F., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1993). Reflective practice for educators. Newbury Park, CA: Corwin Press. Robbins, H., & Finley, M. (1995). Why teams don't work: What went wrong and how to make it right. Princeton, NJ: Peterson's/Pacesetter Books. Schon, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: JosseyBass. Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday Currency. Senge, P. M., Kleiner, A., Roberts, C., Ross, R. B., & Smith, B. J. (1995). The fifth discipline fieldbook. New York: Doubleday Currency. Tuckman, B.W. (1965). Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63(6), 384-400. Tuckman, B. & Jensen, M. (1977). Stages in small group development revisited. Group and Organizational Studies, 2(4), 419-427. Wheatley, M. J. (1992). Leadership and the new science. San Francisco: BerretKoehler. Zaleznik, A. (1998). Managers and leaders: Are they different? In Harvard Business Review on Leadership. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, pp. 61-88.

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Biography

JoAnn Danelo Barbour, Ph.D., Professor of Leadership, Texas Woman's University, uses her Doctorate in administration/policy analysis and anthropology Masters from Stanford University to ground research in small group leadership and cultural aspects of leadership. JoAnn is currently Chair, Leadership Education of the International Leadership Association, and Editor, Academic Exchange Quarterly

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Impacting Social Change Through Service Learning in an Introductory Leadership Course

Corey Seemiller, Ph.D. Director of Leadership Programs Center for Student Involvement & Leadership University of Arizona Tucson, AZ [email protected]

Abstract

Astin and Astin (2000), W.K. Kellogg Foundation, note "leadership occurs when people become concerned about something and work to engage others in bringing about positive change" (p. 23). At the University of Arizona we have taken that philosophy and integrated it into every component of our course to help students learn about and engage in the social change process. In addition to course curriculum, readings, and classroom activities that expose students to the social change process, students are asked to complete a semester-long team Social Change Project using the social change process dealing with a social issue facing an underrepresented or oppressed group. This project challenges students to recognize the role of leadership in creating social change, giving students a context within which they can apply leadership concepts learned. It has made a lasting impact that some students note as being their most meaningful experience in college.

Introduction

The Social Change Project is a semester-long project in a 2-credit introductory leadership course at the University of Arizona. The course is a survey course in which students are exposed to a variety of leadership topics such as values, ethics, group dynamics, social justice, and vision. The course draws from a variety of disciplines such as business, education, sociology, anthropology, philosophy, classical literature, and psychology for both in-class curriculum as well as course readings. Students have the opportunity to participate in individual, small group, and large group discussions and activities to make meaning of the curriculum. In an effort to give a context to students in learning and practicing leadership, the course is built around the semester-long Social Change Project that challenges students to directly apply knowledge from class to enact change around one or more issues facing an underrepresented or oppressed cultural group in the United States.

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Theoretical Base The leadership course is based on two similar philosophies, the Relational Leadership Model (Komives, Lucas, & McMahon, 1998) and the Social Change Model for Leadership Development (Higher Education Research Institute, 1996). The Relational Leadership Model asserts that leadership is "a relational process of people together attempting to accomplish change or make a difference to benefit the common good" (Komives, et al., 1998, p. 68). The Social Change Model for Leadership Development works in tandem with the Relational Leadership Model by outlining individual, group, and community values which contribute to a process of leadership development and social change (Higher Education Research Institute, 1996). These values include being conscious of oneself, having congruence, having commitment, being collaborative, striving for common purpose, having controversy with civility, and participating in citizenship; all values that can lead toward individual and group leadership development as well as social change in the community. Not only do the curriculum, readings, and activities in the course demonstrate these philosophies, the Social Change Project (SCR) integrates these concepts in an effort so that students will learn that creating change is not only a part of leadership, but a responsibility. In order to have students experience the relational process of leadership and create change for the betterment of others, we have shaped the SCP around the concept of service learning. For this assignment, we define service learning as "a form of experiential education in which students engage in activities that address human and community needs together with structured opportunities intentionally designed to promote student learning and development" (Jacoby, 1996, p. 5). Further, we utilize the social justice orientation of service-learning in which service learning is used as a "vehicle" for social change "often assessed as the redistribution of resources or social capital" (Morton, as cited in Leeds, 1999, p. 118). Based on the integration of the Relational Leadership Model (Komives, et al., 1998), the Social Change Model for Leadership Development (Higher Education Research Institute, 1996), and social justice service-learning (Leeds, 1999), this project provides an opportunity for students to expand their leadership development while contributing to active social change. As a framework, we use the SERVICE Model (Le, 2004). This model provides a structural layout for the SCP and integrates the concepts of relational leadership, social change, and social justice service-learning. The model is as follows: · Select Issue ­ select an issue within the community that everyone on the team would like to improve. · Educate and Inform ­ every member should research on the history and causes of the issue. Understand why there is a need for change and how change may occur. · Respond to the Need in an Ethical Manner ­ be active in the community. Provide a service that addresses the issue.

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·

·

· ·

Value Significance ­ reflect on the experience. How does the experience link to leadership and how can each member incorporate the education into their lives? Have discussions, activities reflecting on the experience, journal writing, or a combination of these activities to facilitate team unity and understanding of the significance of their actions involving the issue. Inform the Community ­ educate others on the information learned concerning the issue and on the experiences of the team. This could be done by having a presentation, a seminar, writing an article for a newspaper, etc. Hopefully, others will want to join the team for future projects or may come up with their own projects related to the issue. Celebrate and Evaluate ­ recognize those who contributed to the project. Evaluate the overall experience to provide suggestions for improvements in future projects. Enhance Education and Commitment ­ continue educating others and self, and keep current information about the issue. Also, the suggestions from the evaluations can be utilized as more projects are developed to further address the issue within the community.

Intended Audience

The audience for this project is approximately 220 undergraduate students across 11 sections of a 2-credit introductory leadership course. The students range in class standing with the majority as second year students. The course is required for students in the Arizona Blue Chip Program, a four-year leadership development program, and one section is focused toward members of fraternities and sororities. Students from a variety of backgrounds with various levels of campus involvement not affiliated with the Arizona Blue Chip Program or fraternities and sororities also take this course. Although this course is not part of a series of courses, there are, however, 15 other leadership courses offered through the Center for Student Involvement & Leadership and the College of Education in which the concept of social change is integrated. These include courses such as Critical Perspectives on Leadership in Society, Social Justice Leadership, and Service Leadership.

Learning Objectives

The learning objectives for this assignment include exposing students to a process for creating social change. They also involve familiarizing them with one current social issue in depth and have an ongoing project in which students can apply what they are learning in the class in a manner that benefits both the students and the community. Resources and Materials Needed Resources needed for this assignment include a worksheet that students fill out during the first or second class session indicating interest in learning more about a

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particular cultural group. Cultural groups can include racial, ethnic, or religious groups or can include groups such as immigrants, ex-felons, war veterans, or any underrepresented or oppressed cultural group. Culture is broadly defined. In addition to a worksheet for students to indicate cultural groups they would like to explore, another helpful resource is a list of local agencies that serve the cultural groups identified for the project. It is beneficial to contact some of these agencies for guidance and support as well as to inform them of the project ahead of time.

Lesson Outline

The project is structured around the SERVICE Model (Le, 2004) to expose students to one comprehensive way in which to begin the process of social change. Students begin by selecting a cultural group in the United States that could be considered either an underrepresented or oppressed group in which they do not identify. Students then engage in a variety of activities, research, service, and reflection exercises that help them learn about issues facing this cultural group and how to create social change around these issues. The following is an outline of the project: S: Select an Issue During the second week of class students fill out the SCP worksheet that lists a variety of underrepresented or oppressed cultural groups in the United States. Students are to indicate which particular groups they have an interest in learning more about in regard to social change. The instructor then puts students into teams of three to five who may share similar interests to agree upon one cultural group for the project. E: Educate Yourself Part I: Sub-Population Education As a team, students research their chosen cultural group and discuss four areas, culture overview, media/current events, laws and policies, and physical environment, in a 10-12 page group paper. The purpose is for students to gain an understanding of some of the needs of the cultural group and to critically analyze structures and systems that may create barriers for this group. E: Educate Yourself Part II: Proposal Students then design an experience in which they can explore this cultural group in person and not simply through research. Each student is asked to write a one to two page proposal outlining his or her plan for a Cultural Experience and a Cultural Interview. These are defined as follows: · Cultural Experience ­ this experience is an individual activity that includes visitation, shadowing, or participation. The purpose is to have students interact with the cultural group in a direct way to learn about this culture from a different lens. Each student can select from the following methods to design

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·

a Cultural Experience. Students should gain appropriate permission when engaging in the Cultural Experience so as not to intrude on the members of the cultural group. · Visitation ­ this may include attending a service, meeting, rally, or event, or going on a tour or visiting a place relating to the cultural group. · Shadowing ­ this may include shadowing someone from the cultural group. · Participation ­ this may include participating in rituals, traditions, or experiences of this cultural group. Cultural Interview ­ each student interviews someone who identifies or works with their chosen cultural group to learn more about his/her everyday experiences. The student's proposal should include information on which he or she plans to interview and what he or she would like to learn. The purpose of the Cultural Interview is to have students be able to connect real individuals to learning about the cultural group. It is important that students understand that one person does not represent an entire population of people. Yet, there is a value in being able to talk with and ask questions of someone in the cultural group to learn first-hand about personal experiences.

E: Educate Yourself Part III: Interaction Each student is to turn in a two to three page reflection of the Cultural Experience and the Cultural Interview reflecting on what he or she has learned through each of these activities. R: Respond to the Need Each student does a minimum of two hours of service related to an issue that the cultural group faces. The service can be done individually or as a team. Each student is to turn in a signed "service hours" worksheet confirming volunteer location and hours volunteered. The purpose of this component of the assignment is to have students intentionally serve the community for the betterment of the cultural group they chose with the idea of social change in mind. The prior assignments will help shape students' understanding of what the needs are of the cultural group so the service is meaningful and relevant for everyone involved. V: Value the Significance Students individually write a four to five page paper about their experiences thus far with the SCP. The papers should include an overview of the experiences they have had with the project, lessons learned, and any impact the project has had on them. The purpose of this component of the project is to have students interpret and reflect on their experiences to make meaning of the social change process and how this process can be applied to other social issues.

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I: Inform the Community Each team provides a 25-minute group presentation to the class on their experiences with this project. They are to include the following: · Overview of the culture. · Media/current issues. · Laws/policies. · Physical environment. · Overview of cultural experiences of team members. · Overview of cultural interviews of team members. · Overview of service contributed by team members. · Vision for change. · Ideas to reach that vision. This sharing provides both an opportunity for reflection for team members to make larger meaning of their experiences and an opportunity for other classmates to engage in the information presented to perhaps mobilize them to participate in another area of social change. C: Celebrate and Evaluate Each student writes a one page personal action plan committing to one tangible and measurable action he or she will take before the end of the semester to address this issue and reduce barriers for this cultural group. The purpose is to encourage students to be both visionary in their social change endeavors and stay engaged with the issue to try to enact change. E: Enhance Education The final aspect of this project is to learn more about the global scope of issues that may face this cultural group. Each student is to research a country other than the United States to learn about any issues/barriers and support that the cultural group experiences. In a three to five page paper, students are to write about: · Issues/barriers facing the cultural group in the selected country. · What this country is doing well to positively address these issues (policies, laws, environment, etc.). · How the country made such advancements (social movements, legislation, religious influence, or it was never an issue). · What the United States can learn from this other country when it comes to issues facing this cultural group. The purpose is to encourage the students to look globally for ideas and creative methods for social change. This can be advantageous both for understanding the solutions or ideas that are implemented in other countries but also to understand processes of social change outside of the United States. In addition, this

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assignment leaves students with the idea that the work is not done and that social change is an ongoing effort.

Effectiveness

This project reflects the philosophy that service and social justice advocacy are major components of leadership and social change. The SCP thoughtfully involves pre-reflection, a variety of learning methods, and post-reflection of the experience as a way for students to learn and understand about social inequity and the process of social change. In addition, it is our hope that students become engaged in a project that will hopefully contribute to the social change efforts needed around a particular issue. A multitude of research especially over the last 20 years has highlighted both the importance and effectiveness of service learning in an academic setting. For instance, participation in community service helps students be more empathetic, have more positive self-attitudes, and have "more highly internalized moral standards" (Allen & Rushton, as cited in Berger & Milem, 2002, p. 87). In addition, service learning "positively affected students' beliefs that they can make a difference in the world" and that "leadership and political influence are important aspirations" (Giles & Eyler, as cited in Berger & Milem, 2002, p. 87). In addition, this project challenges students to a "social justice" orientation of service learning, one from "charity to social change" (Kahne & Westheimer, as cited in Boyle-Baise & Langford, 2004, p. 55). This social justice orientation involves having the service learning be experiential, a valued part of the curriculum, collaborative with other students in striving to create change, "intellectual and analytical, as students engage in inquiry and seek out multiple perspectives," integrating of diverse perspectives, and "activist" (Wade, as cited in Boyle-Baise & Langford, 2004, p. 55). Service learning, in turn, "may lead students to `a deeper understanding of the human condition, including the structural factors that reinforce poverty and prejudice . . . (and) to the development of a lifelong commitment to working for equality and justice'" (Bachen, as cited in Novek, 2000, p. 9). Results to Date The data gathered over the past four years indicates that students are greatly impacted by being exposed to social inequity and learning about how to engage in social change. One student identified the cultural experience portion as having been one of the best college experiences she had ever had, whereas another discussed this as having been extremely influential in her understanding of power and privilege. Others reflected on the value of serving the community and indicated wanting to continue doing the community service they started through the project after the course was over. Another student summed it up by saying that what she got out of the entire experience was learning "how to use my leadership skills to promote positive change." As an instructor for this course, I believe that

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using this project in the course not only provides an opportunity for students to learn about social change, but it gives context and meaning to the leadership concepts integrated into the entire course. Conclusion Although this course is a survey course in leadership development covering topics such as values, ethics, mission, vision, power, and group dynamics, the concept of social change is integrated into each class session, each assignment, and each class reading. We, at the Center for Student Involvement & Leadership, believe that if we want students to engage in responsible and ethical leadership to create social change that social change must be embedded into the curriculum. In addition, one of the most effective methods for developing leadership in students is through group projects and service learning (Astin & Astin, 2000). We have found that building the course around a project such as this enables students to give context and meaning to the various components of leadership they learn in the classroom as well as challenging students to be committed to a cause, "care about the common good," and serve as agents of change (Astin & Astin, 2000, p. 31). The University of Arizona's Center for Student Involvement & Leadership has created the SCP to challenge students to apply knowledge and experiences from the course as well as learn the depth of the social change process. This project combines leadership, social justice, and service through a variety of learning methods for students to learn more about a particular cultural group, issues they may face, and how to engage in social change around those issues. In the future, it is our hope that students will not only practice the social change process within the course, but be truly engaged as social change agents throughout their lives.

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References

Astin, A. W., & Astin, H. S. (Eds.). (2000). Leadership reconsidered: Engaging higher education in social change. Battle Creek, MI: W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Berger, J. B., & Milem, J. F. (2002). The impact of community service involvement on three measures of undergraduate self-concept. NASPA Journal, 40(1), 85-103. Boyle-Baise, M., & Langford, J. (2004). There are children here: Service learning for social justice. Equity & Excellence in Education, 37, 55-66. Higher Education Research Institute (1996). Guidebook for a social change model for leadership development. Los Angeles: Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California. Jacoby, K. (1996). Service-learning in higher education. In K. Jacoby (Ed.), Service-learning in today's higher education (pp. 3-25). San Francisco: JosseyBass Publishers. Komives, S. R., Lucas, N., & McMahon, T. R. (1998). Exploring leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Le, K. (2004). SERVICE model. Unpublished manuscript, University of Arizona at Tucson. Leeds, J. (1999). Rationales for service-learning: A critical examination. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 6, 112­122. Novek, E. (2000, November). Tourists in the land of service-learning: Helping middle-class students move from curiosity to commitment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Seattle, WA.

Biography

Corey Seemiller is the Director of Leadership Programs at The University of Arizona. She works with the Arizona Blue Chip Program, the Arizona Collegiate Leadership Conference, and provides oversight to 16 undergraduate leadership courses for credit. Corey received her PhD in Higher Education from the University of Arizona.

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Design and Implementation of an Interdisciplinary Leadership Studies Minor at an Historically Black, Liberal Arts College

Belinda Johnson White, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Leadership Studies Morehouse College Atlanta, GA [email protected]

Abstract

This article summarizes the design, implementation, and current status of an undergraduate interdisciplinary leadership studies minor at Morehouse College. The college's primary mission is to "develop men with disciplined minds who will lead lives of leadership, service, and self-realization," as well as provide students with an understanding of the African American heritage and cultural experience. The leadership studies minor was designed as a place within the academic curriculum of the college program for students to learn about and reflect upon the study, practice, and interdisciplinary nature of leadership, its theoretical and historical foundations, and explore critical ethical leadership challenges that impact civil society with special emphasis on issues as they relate to African Americans, their heritage, and their cultural experience. Program results to date and the future of the minor in the college's academic curriculum are also discussed.

Introduction

Over the past two decades, leadership studies have become a growing interdisciplinary field in American higher education. In 1987, the University of Richmond, through a multi-million dollar gift, embarked upon the establishment of the nation's first undergraduate school of leadership studies, The Jepson School of Leadership Studies, with an interdisciplinary curriculum rooted in the liberal arts (University of Richmond website). As of the turn of the 21st century, numerous other colleges and universities have formalized the study of leadership at both undergraduate and graduate levels through majors, minors, or selected course offerings. Recently Doh (2003) reported findings that more than threefifths of the top 50 United States business schools offer some coursework in leadership. Clearly colleges and universities that strive to be the best of the best are leading the way in providing formalized academic course offerings in leadership studies. This trend was the impetus for a leadership studies minor at Morehouse College.

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Ranked by Black Enterprise magazine as the number one college in the nation for educating African American students three consecutive times (Sykes, 2004; The 50 Best Colleges for African Americans, 2003), Morehouse College is the nation's largest, private liberal arts college for African American men. Founded in 1867, Morehouse enjoys a long standing tradition of excellence in leadership development. The college states as its primary mission the development of men with disciplined minds who will lead lives of leadership, service, and selfrealization (Morehouse College 2000-2001 Catalog). In 2002, Morehouse College saw the need to strengthen and enhance its leadership development initiatives and added the study of leadership as an academic subject matter through the implementation of a 15-hour interdisciplinary leadership studies minor. Although not the first college to offer a minor in leadership studies, Morehouse College, an HBCU (Historically Black Colleges and Universities), felt the need to distinguish its offering from those of traditional colleges in two ways: (a) by incorporating the African American heritage and experience into the design and delivery of its leadership studies program and (b) challenging students' awareness of the critical ethical leadership issues of the 21st century as they relate to African American life and culture. This paper highlights the Morehouse College interdisciplinary leadership studies minor program and its emphasis on the African American heritage and experience and 21st century ethical leadership issues by discussing (a) the goal and objectives of the leadership studies curriculum, (b) the leadership studies curriculum design, (c) the leadership studies minor core course descriptions; and (d) the leadership studies minor as it relates to the College's Educational Outcomes. The paper concludes with program results to date and implications for the future.

Leadership Studies Minor Curriculum Goal and Objectives

The Leadership Studies (LS) Minor is a program of the Leadership Center at Morehouse College and the Division of Business and Economics. It was designed during the 2000-2001 academic year by an 11-member, interdisciplinary faculty committee, under the leadership of the Executive Director and Associate Director of the Leadership Center. The goal of the Morehouse College Leadership Studies Minor Curriculum is to prepare students to explore critical ethical leadership issues that impact civil society with special emphasis on issues as they relate to African Americans, their heritage, and their cultural experience. Accomplished through a rigorous, interdisciplinary academic course of study, the objectives of the LS Minor are to prepare students to: · Think critically about the relationship between knowledge, values, and the practice of leadership.

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· ·

· · · · · ·

Serve effectively in formal and informal leadership roles in diverse settings. Apply modes of inquiry and knowledge bases from many disciplines to the study and practice of leadership with particular emphasis on science and technology, humanities and the social sciences, and business and economics. Retrieve, examine, and when desirable and necessary, reinterpret leadership practices that have historically marked African American life and culture. Understand the personal and public roles of leadership in an increasingly diverse and global world. Discern, deliberate, and decide on appropriate strategies for action and change directed by values of courage, justice, and compassion. Develop adaptive strategies that promote teamwork and cooperation; Imagine worthwhile visions of the future and inspire others to join in bringing about change when desirable and necessary. Continue their development as leaders by self-directed, life-long learning.

Leadership Studies Minor Curriculum Design

In order to achieve the goal and objectives outlined above, the LS Minor was designed as a 15-hour curriculum comprised of three leadership studies courses (nine-hour core), and two elective courses (six hours) to be selected by the students from a predetermined list of LS Minor electives. The nine-hour core contains three courses which must be completed sequentially. They are LS 101 Foundations of Leadership, LS 201 History and Theories of Leadership, and LS 301 Ethical Leadership and African American Moral Traditions. Courses that may be selected as electives are found in each of the three college divisions, which are Business and Economics, Science and Mathematics, and Social Sciences and Humanities. The electives may be taken at any point after the student has completed LS 101. Students are required to take one elective from each division outside of their major division. This requirement reinforces the interdisciplinary design of the LS minor.

Leadership Studies Minor Core Courses

LS 101- Foundations of Leadership Foundations of Leadership explores the broad and diverse literature of leadership studies and emphasizes the relationship between theory and leadership practice, and the moral and civic responsibilities of leadership. The course seeks to critically examine prominent theories and practices of leadership in context and to evaluate the competencies traditionally associated with the field. The fundamental theories and concepts that are studied include trait, situational, transactional, transformational, adaptive, and servant-leadership models.

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The course also focuses on the practical aspects of leadership which are developed by learning and observing the skills, practices, and activities of effective leadership identified by leadership scholars. For example, students become familiar with the interpersonal and technical skills that are needed for effective communication, conflict resolution, change management, decisionmaking, group development, motivation, and policy making and implementation. The textbook utilized in the course is Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience (Hughes, Ginnett, & Curphy, 2006). As a result of completing LS 101, the student should (a) become comfortable with the concept of leadership, (b) recognize the various theories of leadership, (c) have a working knowledge of the process of leadership, (d) demonstrate an increased awareness of the practice of leadership, (e) have a clear sense of the purposes of leadership, (f) have developing awareness of his strengths and weaknesses as a leader, and be able to articulate a personal approach to leadership, and (g) have an enhanced understanding of concepts and practices involved in leadership in a diverse society. LS 201 - History and Theories of Leadership History and Theories of Leadership broadly and inclusively explores theories of leadership in historical context and demonstrates how ideology and culture provide environments that produce different views of leadership and demand different styles of leadership. The course examines and evaluates competencies traditionally associated with leadership in varying historical and cultural contexts while reinforcing the theoretical dimensions of leadership with an emphasis on contemporary theories and models. The course is designed as an "intellectual history" of leadership, allowing the student to come away with an enhanced understanding of the richness and diversity of the field of leadership studies. The course explores a wealth of differing sources and approaches to leadership, including ancient mythology, classic philosophy, literature, history, social, business, and scientific theories of leadership. The material is integrated in such a way that each perspective falls logically into an understandable pattern of evolving conceptions of leadership over time. The textbook utilized in the course is The Leader's Companion: Insights on Leadership through the Ages (Wren, 1995). As a result of completing LS 201 the student should (a) demonstrate a general working knowledge of the "intellectual history" of leadership, (b) recognize and understand major interpretive frameworks of leadership, (c) appreciate differing perspectives in the field of leadership studies, (d) be able to apply the major interpretive frameworks of leadership to real-life situations, and (e) devise his own conceptual approach to the subject based on his creative engagement with major thinkers and movements in leadership studies.

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LS 301 - Ethical Leadership and African American Moral Traditions Ethical Leadership and African American Moral Traditions examines African American leadership in historical and cultural context and the competencies traditionally associated with African American leadership practices, while evaluating the role of ethical leadership in addressing the issues and challenges facing 21st century African American leaders. Three specific areas of ethical leadership are emphasized: morally-anchored character, transformative acts of civility, and a sense of community. Utilizing a narrative pedagogy, LS 301 acquaints students with major figures, movements, and issues in black American spiritual and ethical traditions. This intermediate seminar focuses heavily on leadership emerging from 19th and 20th century black culture, explores theoretical concerns within respective traditions, and offers a forum for practical engagement with contemporary problems associated with African American life and culture. Two textbooks are used in the class, Uplifting the Race (Gaines, 2002) and The Stones that the Builders Rejected (Fluker, 1995). Secondary source material in the form of readings from and about significant African American writers, thinkers, and leaders are also used. These prominent figures include Harold Cruse, Sojourner Truth, Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, Anna Julia Cooper, Darlene Clark Hines, Peter Paris, Marable Manning, and Cornel West. As a result of completing LS 301, the student should (a) demonstrate an understanding of the historical underpinnings of moral traditions that have nurtured leaders in African American life and practice, (b) demonstrate an appreciation of the interdisciplinary nature of the study of leadership within an ethical framework, i.e., utilizing disciplines of human and social sciences, philosophy, theology, ethics, and the arts, (c) demonstrate an appreciation of the place of narratives and stories that illumine historical, religious, ideological, and cultural antecedents in African American leadership, and (d) demonstrate an ability to identify key leaders and movements that have shaped the context and meaning for African American life and culture.

Relationship to the College's Educational Outcomes

Morehouse College, an HBCU, proudly holds within its mission an obligation and responsibility to educate its students to understand and appreciate leadership and leadership development through the lenses of the African American heritage and cultural experience, as outlined by the college's Educational Outcomes (EO). The LS Minor incorporates the college's 12 educational outcomes into its course content as follows: EO 1 ­ Understanding the African American Experience

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In the LS Minor capstone course, Ethical Leadership and African American Moral Traditions, the historical analyses of African American traditions and exemplary leaders provide a framework for the studying of major events, dates, and persons in African American history. Other ways which this course highlights the African American experience is through discussing the linkage between the African American and African; revisiting the ideological, cultural, religious, and historical counterpoints of the heritage and legacy of European history through readings, discussions, and group work; critically examining and discussing the intellectual and empirical evidence of the significant roles Morehouse men have played in the African American experience and in national and global communities; and examining the holistic and interdisciplinary relationship among the various disciplines associated with black life. EO 2 ­ Leadership Skills All three of the LS Minor core courses provide venues for students to critically examine theory and practice of leadership where skills and competencies of visionary and charismatic leadership are discussed along with other prominent theories and strategies of leadership. The interdisciplinary nature of the subject matter demands that students stay focused, disciplined, and communicate in speech, writing, and through aesthetic forms. Specifically, the capstone course allows reflection on students' own personal views of justice and equality in light of the positions taken by African American leaders. EO 3 ­ Problem-Solving Skills/EO 4 ­ Critical Thinking/Analytical Abilities The LS Minor, through its interdisciplinary offerings, requires students to utilize skills of synthesis, comparison, and contrast to understand the varying concepts, definitions, and examples of leadership. Students are expected to understand how environmental realities shape questions and challenges for leadership and how an interdisciplinary approach to problem-solving is required for effective leadership. The ability to synthesize, compare and contrast, and show whether and how a solution is valid and reliable is required of the students in each of the three core course offerings. EO 5 ­ Citizenship Skills A major objective of the LS Minor is the development of skills and competencies that allow students to explore leadership issues that impact civil society. Citizenship skills as they relate to the national and global work of leadership, the impact of science and technology on societies, and the role that leaders must play in change are significant parts of the study and discussions of all LS Minor core courses.

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EO 6 ­ Effective Communication Skills The interdisciplinary approach to leadership studies places major emphasis on communication skills. In all of the core courses and in designated electives, communication skills are central (see EO 2 above). This EO is also realized through use of student-required exercises in class such as public speaking and presentations. EO 7 ­ Value Judgments Understanding the relationship between knowledge, values, and the practice of leadership is a critical and significant part of the LS Minor. The place of values is a consistent feature of the core course offerings, which highlights the role of values in decision-making, strategizing, and change. In addition, this EO states that students will be able to analyze values found in the various expressions of culture, including artistic, religious, social, humanistic, and scientific. In concert with the college's liberal arts core program of study, the LS Minor requires students to choose as electives from a pre-determined list, one course from each of the two divisions outside of their major division. This requirement provides the venue for LS minor students to explore at deeper levels cultural values from each of the college's academic repositories. EO 8 ­ Understanding of Social Institutions and Processes The LS Minor studies the process of leadership within the major social institutions of our society (political, religious, business, non-profit, and educational) thereby fostering a deeper understanding of the institutions and their inter-workings. Specifically, the minor prepares students to be able to negotiate personal and public roles of leadership in a variety of settings by exploring ways in which social institutions both form and inform the character, agency, and prospects of leadership in historical context. EO 9 ­ Aesthetic Intelligence This educational outcome states that students should understand that the aesthetic experience synthesizes the senses, reason, memory, imagination, morality, dreams, and emotions. The LS Minor, through its interdisciplinary approach, challenges its students to engage all aspects of their aesthetic intelligence in the study of leadership. The capstone course in particular uses innovative pedagogical techniques, namely narrative and other aesthetic dimensions of experience, as a means of engaging moral imagination. EO 10 ­ Knowledge of Various Philosophies and Religions This educational outcome states that students should have an appreciation of diversity of religions and familiarity with major philosophical traditions.

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Although the study of leadership is a relatively new field, the topics outlined in the History and Theories of Leadership course and the capstone course give critical attention to ideology, religion, and culture as significant variables in the study and practice of leadership. Central to this discussion are the ways in which religion and ethics provide the framework for critique of cultural contexts in which leadership emerges and is practiced. EO 11 ­ Knowledge of the Natural World This educational outcome states that students should have an understanding of the relationship between the sciences and other academic disciplines. Students of the LS Minor are challenged to examine issues of leadership in light of the solutions provided through the sciences and applied by business, political, and non-profit institutions. Through interdisciplinary readings and discussions, students are provided with problems and challenges for leadership related to the natural environment and the ethical issues associated with scientific innovation, such as cloning, stem cell research, and biochemical warfare. EO 12 ­ Appreciation of Interdependent Nations and Cultures This educational outcome states that students are to have knowledge of the commonality and diversity of cultures with intent to instill empathy. One of the LS Minor curriculum objectives is to prepare students to understand the personal and public roles of leadership in an increasingly diverse and global world. The LS Minor examines leadership through a global lens, identifying specific issues of diverse cultures and shifting historical, political, and economic contexts that shape leadership challenges and opportunities.

Results

The LS Minor curriculum was approved by the college faculty in Spring 2001. The first offering of LS 101 Foundations of Leadership, occurred in Spring 2002, with five students. One section of LS 101 has been offered each Fall and Spring semester since Spring 2002, with an average class size of 25 students. LS 201, History and Theories of Leadership, a Fall semester course offering, saw 11 students enrolled in Fall 2004, six in Fall 2005 and seven in Fall 2006. LS 301, a Spring semester offering, had five students enrolled in Spring 2005 and eight students, Spring 2006. Three students graduated with a minor in leadership studies in Spring 2005 and two graduated in Spring 2006. Currently, there are six seniors who have completed the requirements and two seniors who will complete their requirements in Spring 2007, resulting in a total of eight graduates with a minor in leadership studies in Spring 2007.

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Student evaluations, both formal and informal, are very positive regarding the impact of the program on their collegiate leadership development experience and growth. Student demand for the LS 101 has consistently exceeded the class enrollment cap of 25 students and current limitations on faculty resources does not allow for additional sections. However, the college has recognized the critical need to provide exposure to the entire student body to the material covered in the leadership studies minor, which focuses on critical ethical leadership issues that impact civil society with special emphasis on issues as they relate to African Americans, their heritage, and their cultural experience. The college is currently undergoing a revision of its general core curriculum and is investigating the feasibility of the incorporation of the leadership studies minor core courses into the general core curriculum of the college.

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References

Doh, J. P. (2003). Can leadership be taught? Perspective from management educators. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 2(1), 54-67. Fluker, W. E. (Ed.) (1998). The stones that the builders rejected: The development of ethical leadership from the black church tradition. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International. Gaines, K. K. (1996). Uplifting the race: Black leadership, politics, and culture in the twentieth century. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina. Hughes, R., Ginnett, R., & Curphy, G. (2006). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience (5th ed.). Boston: McGraw Hill. Morehouse College 2000-2001 Catalog (2000). Sykes, T. (2004, October). 50 best colleges for African Americans. Black Enterprise, 35(3), 154-168. The 50 best colleges for African Americans (2003, January). Black Enterprise, 33(6), 76-83. University of Richmond website. (n.d.). Just what is the Jepson School of Leadership Studies? Retrieved January 28, 2006, from http://oncampus.richmond.edu/academics/leadership/academics/FAQ.html Wren, J. T. (Ed.) (1995). The leader's companion: Insights on leadership through the ages. New York: The Free Press.

Biography

Belinda Johnson White is Assistant Professor and Coordinator of the Leadership Studies Program, Department of Business, Morehouse College. Dr. White teaches the courses, Leadership & Professional Development and History and Theories of Leadership. Her research focus is the leadership development needs of minorities, with special emphasis on professionals of color. The author specially thanks Dr. Walter Earl Fluker, Coca-Cola Chair of Leadership Studies and Executive Director, Leadership Center at Morehouse College, for helpful and constructive comments on this paper.

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Pirates and Power: What Captain Jack Sparrow, His Friends, and His Foes Can Teach Us about Power Bases

Jennifer R. Williams Department of Agricultural Education, Communications, and Leadership Oklahoma State University Stillwater, Oklahoma [email protected]

Abstract

Leadership educators are constantly looking for new and inventive ways to teach leadership theory. Because leadership educators realize principles of androgyny and experiential education work well with leadership theories, instructors find movies are a great way to infuse leadership theory with novel teaching methodology. "Movies, like Shakespeare, are becoming a staple of college curricula" (Hoffman, 2000, p.1). The Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (2003) is a movie illustrating five power bases defined by Raven and French (1958). The rogue characters in this film use expert power, referent power, legitimate power, reward power, and coercive power to get the treasure, get the girl, get the curse lifted, and/or get freedom. Utilizing a three-hour block of time, an instructor can complete a mini lecture on power, watch the movie, and discuss the power bases shown. Results show students develop a deeper understanding of power after the class.

Theoretical Base

Power Power, powerful, wielding power- these words and phrases tend to have a negative connotation in many people's minds. Power, when used ethically, is a very positive occurrence. Power has been described like the wind; it cannot be seen but its effects can be felt (Daft, 2004). Definitions of power by three different authors, Daft, 2004; Nahavandi, 2003; and Shriberg, 2002, delineate power as the ability, or potential, of a person to influence the attitudes and behaviors of one or more people. Influence, then, is defined as the "degree of actual change in the target person's attitudes or behaviors" (Shriberg, Shriberg, & Lloyd, 2002, p.112). The change in attitudes or behaviors occurs when power can be felt. In an organization, power can be classified into two sub-categories: individual and organizational.

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Raven and French (1958) found there are five main power bases leaders/managers utilize. Their widely accepted model named expert power, referent power, legitimate power, reward power, and coercive power as the five basic power bases. Expert power is based on the person's knowledge, competence, or expertness. Referent power is based on the respect for and/or charismatic personality of the leader. Legitimate power is power by title or legitimate right because of "acceptance of the social structure" (p.83). Reward power is the ability to offer incentives to gain compliance. Coercive power is the antithesis of reward power. This power base is seen when the person in power forces someone to comply by threats of consequences. These five power bases can be subdivided into two groups: position power and personal power. Position power bases include reward, coercive, and legitimate. Formal authority, "the force for achieving desired outcomes, but only as prescribed by the formal hierarchy and reporting relationships," (Daft, 2004, p. 494) is another way to describe the position power sub-group. The power bases of positional power can be used two ways: appropriate or excessive (Nahavandi, 2003). When used appropriately, followers comply to the requests of the person with the power. When used excessively, followers resist the requests of the person with power (Nahavandi, 2003, Raven & French, 1958). The personal power subgroup includes the power bases of expert and referent. Nahavandi (2003) ascertains that the power bases in the personal power sub-group are the most effective sources of power. When these power bases are used, the person in power gains commitment. This commitment is much richer than the compliance gained using positional power. Utilizing Movies as a Teaching Methodology Leadership educators are constantly looking for new and inventive ways to teach leadership theory. Because of the subject matter and the over-arching emphasis on androgological teaching methodology, straight lecture is not a viable option for all class periods. Leadership educators see that "over-reliance on the lecture method in higher education [has led to students to become] passive spectators in the college classroom" (Cooper, Prescott, Cook, Smith, & Mueck, 1990, p.1). Passive spectators, as constructivist theorists note, do not learn as much as active participants in the classroom. Both inside and outside the classroom, Astin (1998) further notes that student involvement in the college experience is the basis for persistence and achievement in college. Allowing students to witness and discuss leadership theory aids in the students' ability to build the mental synapses that lead to deeper learning. However, simply watching a movie seldom lends itself to internalization of leadership concepts. As Higgins (2003) notes, multimedia enables students to learn in a different manner by encouraging profound discussion.

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Two recent articles in the Journal of Leadership Education have focused on using movies in teaching leadership. Grahm, Sincoff, Baker, and Ackermann (2003) discuss the use of movies to teach theories from Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Challenge. They found using movies to teach the five principles helped adult learners connect the concept with application. Grahm, Ackermann, and Maxwell (2004) discuss the use of movies as the "bridge to developing emotional intelligence" (p. 48). They note movies are a launching point for class discussion and learning, learning conduits, and effective tools to "engage learners at all levels" (p.48). Pirates of the Caribbean The Academy Award Winning Movie Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl, is a sweeping action-adventure story set in an era when villainous pirates scavenged the Caribbean seas. This roller coaster tale teams a young man, Will Turner, with an unlikely ally in rogue pirate Jack Sparrow. Together they must battle a band of the world's most treacherous pirates led by the cursed Captain Barbossa in order to save Elizabeth, the love of Will's life, as well as recover the lost treasure that Jack seeks. Against improbable odds, they race towards a thrilling, climactic confrontation on the mysterious Isla de Muerta. Clashing their swords in fierce mortal combat, Will and Jack attempt to recapture The Black Pearl ship, save the British navy, and relinquish a fortune in forbidden treasure, thereby lifting the curse of the pirates of the Caribbean (as cited on http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0325980/plotsummary). One of the best reasons for utilizing this movie in teaching power bases is that it is not only an action movie, but also a love story with comic relief. Thus, the movie tends not to alienate people based on their personal taste in movies.

Intended Audience

The intended audiences for this lesson are college students or adults who are willing to learn leadership theory in an original and exciting way. Because of the rating, PG13, the movie could also be used for mature high school students. This lesson is best taught using a three hour time slot. This allows for students to listen to a mini-lecture, watch the movie, and discuss the leadership concepts observed.

Learning Objectives

· · · By the conclusion of this class, students will be able to articulate a definition of power. By the conclusion of this class, students will be able to define the five power bases as identified by Raven and French (1958). By the conclusion of this class, students will be able to differentiate personal power from organizational power.

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·

By the conclusion of this class, students will be able to identify, explain, and discuss examples of the five power bases (as identified by Raven and French) from the movie Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl.

Resources and Materials Needed

· · · Method of lecture (power point, overheads, etc.) to teach the competency of power. Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (2003) motion picture. Quiz (for the next class period).

Lesson

I. II. Announcements. Lecture (about 20 minutes). a. Introduction. i. Definition of power: the ability, or potential, of a person to influence the attitudes and behaviors of one or more people. ii. Definition of influence: degree of actual change in the target person's attitudes or behaviors. iii. Power is like the wind...it cannot be seen, but its effects can be felt. b. Power Bases. i. Expert Power. 1. Definition: based on the person's knowledge, competence, or expertness. 2. Example: many "fresh out of college" workers are looked to as experts, in the field of technology, by their older peers (I have been asked to explain an Ipod by several of my co-workers). ii. Referent Power. 1. Definition: based on the respect for and/or charismatic personality of the leader. 2. Example: often, grandparents hold referent power because the grandchildren respect them (my grandmother asked me to pull weeds from her flower bed, and I did it because I respect her). iii. Legitimate Power. 1. Definition: legitimate power is power by title or legitimate right. 2. Example: officers in student organizations. iv. Reward Power. 1. Definition: ability to offer incentives to gain compliance.

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III.

IV.

2. Example: When your mom told you "if you clean your room, I'll take you to McDonalds," she used reward power. v. Coercive Power. 1. Definition: this power base is seen when the person in power forces someone to comply by threats of consequences. 2. Example: When your mom told you "if you don't clean your room, I'll ground you," she used coercive power. c. Position and Personal Power. i. Position Power. 1. the force for achieving desired outcomes, but only as prescribed by the formal hierarchy and reporting relationships. 2. legitimate, reward, and coercive power bases. a. short-term power bases. b. do not use excessively, or you will lose power. ii. Personal Power. 1. the most effective sources of power. 2. expert and referent. a. gain a deeper commitment from followers. b. usually where empowerment occurs. Movie (2 hours and 13 minutes). Pirates of the Caribbean follows a rogue cast utilizing their power bases to get the girl, get the treasure, get the curse lifted, and/or get freedom. The amazing part of this film is all five power bases can be seen throughout the movie. The most difficult part of this class is making sure the students watch the movie for the power bases and not just watch it for its entertainment value. I encourage students to take notes (making sure I explain there will be a quiz over the movie). I often prompt them, several times throughout the movie, when a power base is being shown or ask them what power base they believe the character is utilizing. Discussion (about 25 minutes). At the conclusion of the movie, we start discussion. I have a few starter questions to get the students thinking and talking. · What examples of reward power did you see? · What examples of coercive power did you see? · Did anyone misuse their power base? · Who had the most power, Jack Sparrow, or Captain Barbossa? These questions are usually all it takes to ignite conversation about the utilization of power in this movie. I make sure all five power bases are discussed. Table 1 shows a small sample of examples of all five power

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bases. My students constantly amaze me with some of the examples of power usage they see that I have never seen before. Table 1. Examples of power bases Expert Mr. Gibbs: uses his expert power regarding the true story of Jack Sparrow (how he got off the island) to influence Will Will Turner uses his expertise of sword making to fight Jack Jack Sparrow utilizes expert power the most: 1. uses the knowledge that the Curse of the Black Pearl is real to get his ship back 2. uses his knowledge of corsets to save Elizabeth 3. uses the knowledge Referent Elizabeth has referent power over her father, Governor Swann, and Commodore Norrington. They do whatever it takes to protect her as well as listening to her requests (do not kill my rescuer) Jack: at the end of the movie, Jack's crew breaks the Pirate Code and return for Jack, showing their respect for him. Will also risks his life to save Jack's out of respect. Legitimate All of these men have the "title" and the power that comes with it: Governor Swann Commodore Norrington Captain Barbossa Captain Jack Sparrow Reward Prisoners try to use a bone to reward the prison dog for bringing them the keys Will promises to get Jack out of jail if Jack will help him find Elizabeth Will promises Barbossa that he will help him lift the curse if Barbossa will let Elizabeth go free Coercive Jack threatens to kill Elizabeth if the Commodore does not let him go Elizabeth threatens Barbossa that she will drop the piece of gold into the ocean if he does not leave Port Royal

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that Will's blood is needed to lift the curse to get his ship back V. Quiz (next class period). 1. Define power. 2. What power base(s) does Jack Sparrow use to gain control of the Black Pearl? Explain. 3. Name and give examples of two of the power bases used by Elizabeth. 4. The prisoners use what type of power to try to obtain the keys to the jail cell? 5. In your opinion, who in Pirates of the Caribbean had the most power? Explain.

Results

I have had great results with this lesson. Students appreciate the different spin on a traditional leadership competency. Because films are a catalyst for thought and discussion, there is always rich dialogue generated and a better understanding of the concept learned after watching the movie (Clemens & Wolff, 1999). I have found the quiz grades for this lesson are higher than the power lesson in the theory course that does not show the movie. The following are thoughts shared by students about the class: · I cannot watch a movie now without finding some leadership in it. · Great class, I loved that we got to watch the whole movie, not just clips. It made the concepts more complete. · Thanks for letting us watch a cool movie. So many others that we have had to watch in different classes have been black and white or old stuff. · Seeing people tackle leadership issues, and then discussing it, made me understand the subject more. · Who knew that Johnny Depp was hot and a good leader!

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References

Astin, W. (1998). The changing American college student: Thirty-year trends, 1966-1996. The Review of Higher Education, 21(2), 115-135. Bruckheimer, J. (Producer), & Verbinski, G. (Director). (2003). Pirates of the Caribbean: The curse of the Black Pearl [Motion picture]. United States: Walt Disney Pictures. Clemens, J. &, Wolff, M. (1999). Movies to manage by. Chicago: Contemporary Books. Cooper, J., Prescott, S., Cook, L., Smith, L., Mueck, R., & Cuseo, J. (1990). Cooperative learning and college instruction: Effective use of student learning teams. Long Beach, CA: California State University Foundation. Daft, R. L. (2004). Organization theory and design (8th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western. Daft, R. L. (2002). The Leadership Experience (2nd ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western. Graham, T. S., Sincoff, M. Z., Baker, B., & Ackermann, J. C. (2003). Reel leadership: Hollywood takes the leadership challenge. Journal of Leadership Education, 2(2), 37-45. Graham, T. S., Ackermann, J. C., & Maxwell, K. K. (2004). Reel leadership II: Getting emotional at the movies. Journal of Leadership Education, 3(3), 44-57. Higgins, S. (2003). Management goes to the movies. Retrieved January 25, 2004 from http://www.moviesforbusiness.com. Hoffman, M. (2000). Everything I know about leadership, I learned from the movies. Inc. Retrieved April 27, 2006 from pf.inc.com/magazine/20000301/17290.html Nahavandi, A. (2003). The art and science of leadership (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Plot summary for Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl. Retrieved October 3, 2006, from www.imdb.com/title/tt0325980/plotsummary Raven, B. H., & French, Jr., J. R. P. (1958). Legitimate power, coercive power, and observability in social influence. Sociometry, 21(2), 83-97.

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Shriberg, A., Shriberg, D. L., & Lloyd, C. (2002). Practicing leadership: Principles and applications (2nd ed.). New York: J. Wiley and Sons. Williams, J. R., & Boyd, B. (2004). Using popular media to teach leadership. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association of Leadership Educators, Memphis, TN.

Biography

Jennifer Williams is a graduate assistant at Oklahoma State University. She is currently working toward her PhD in leadership through the Department of Agricultural Education, Communications, and Leadership. Her bachelor and master degrees are from Texas A&M University where she was a lecturer and advisor in Agricultural Leadership Development.

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Using a Comprehensive Leadership Framework as a Scholarship and Teaching Tool

Kim Boyce Regional Extension Educator, Leadership and Civic Engagement University of Minnesota Extension Service St. Paul, MN [email protected]

Abstract

Educators who work in community settings often encounter participants with a wide array of individual leadership beliefs, attitudes, and experiences. Given this situation, one of the challenges we face is to identify effective methods and tools to teach leadership in community and organizational settings. As an educator, it is important to understand and use quality scholarship and theory in leadership education. At the same time, it is important to use educational methods that respect the life experiences of the participants and that are easy to understand and communicate. At the University of Minnesota Extension Service U-Lead program, we seek to balance the academic and scholarship portion of our work with the application of practical tools and methods that connect with the real-life leadership experiences of our participants. The purpose of this paper is to review the comprehensive leadership education framework we currently use and outline how it addresses this balance.

Introduction

I stand near the front of a room filled with over 40 people from a Midwestern community. As I scan the group, I note an equal number of women and men, people between 25 and 70 years old, and a racial and ethic diversity that is representative of the demographic changes occurring in the community. The group members appear eager and excited to talk and learn about leadership. As the conversation begins, it becomes very apparent that members of this group have daily encounters with a variety of leaders' behaviors and leadership styles. Their stories tell how leadership looks and feels very different, depending on the situation. At times leadership is very formal and at other times it is informal. At times leadership is very directive and autocratic and at other times it is very nondirective and open. Sometimes leadership appears to be very public, bold and obvious. Other times leadership appears to be very calm, quiet and filled with humility. Given these widely varied life encounters with leadership behaviors, these participants bring great diversity of opinions and beliefs regarding leadership to this educational setting. As the group members learn about leadership concepts and theories, they look for the links to their life experiences

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and beliefs, and assess the degree to which the "theories" of leadership match the realities of the "practices" of leadership. Often the degree of match between theory and practice is high; however, that is not always the case. The tension that exists between leadership "practice" and leadership "theory" creates an interesting challenge. From the "practice" point of view, as a professional leadership educator it is important that I honor and acknowledge the wide array leadership beliefs, attitudes, and life experience found in this and other community groups. It is important to demonstrate a level of effective application of leadership skills and practices in the real world and community ­ leadership that is efficient, useful, and just in solving public problems and enhancing community life. From the "theory" point of view, it is important to pay careful attention to the study and development of quality scholarship and theory ­ one of the primary functions of the leadership education profession and the academy. As I teach, it is important that I honor my commitment to use a broad base of quality leadership theory and scholarship. The challenge is to determine the best way to balance practical and conceptual tools that will assist community members in both practicing and understanding effective leadership. Noting this "practical ­ theoretical" tension is not new to our discipline. Over a decade ago, as he wrestled with this challenge, Dr. Robert W. Terry, then Director of the Center for Reflective Leadership at the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, proposed that three polarities are the context for examining leadership ­ "These polarities are the theoretical and the practical, the true and real, and unity and diversity (or the one and the many)" (Terry, 1993, p. 7). These polarities are at the heart of the tension mentioned above. Johnson (1996) describes polarities as interdependent pairs. They exist in relationship with each other, requiring the management of a dynamic balance rather than movement towards a single, static solution. Through his leadership scholarship and practice, Terry (1993) used this principle to develop a comprehensive leadership framework that encompassed the three leadership polarities he identified, and included the six major leadership orientations he observed in scholarship and practice. My colleagues and I are university employees working in community leadership contexts. We frequently encounter the polarities of "theory ­ practice," "true ­ real" and "one-many." We have adopted a comprehensive leadership framework in order to find a consistent balance that respectfully engages community members in leadership discussions, while maintaining quality standards for scholarship. The framework enables us to review and integrate scholarship and to guide the development and delivery of leadership education programs and materials that have practical application in community settings. In this paper I will introduce the framework and the major concepts contained in the framework, and then review the application of the framework to scholarship and teaching.

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Theoretical Base

The quest to classify, catalog, sort and understand the breadth of leadership scholarship and practice is not new. The works of Stogdill (1981), Kellerman (1984), Bass (1990), and Northouse (2001) represent well-known writings that provide a broad perspective on the theory and practice of leadership, and are frequently cited in leadership literature reviews. New conceptual models and ideas for core leadership curriculums such as those discussed by Watt (2003) and Bridgeforth (2005) are just two examples of the continued attention given to this topic. Recently I reviewed the Encyclopedia of Leadership, a comprehensive fourvolume collection of leadership related information edited by Goethals, Sorenson, and Burns (2004) that details multiple perspectives on leadership theories and practices. When it comes to leadership models and frameworks it is obvious that there are many possible options from which to choose. Recognizing there will always be many credible leadership frameworks to choose from, the faculty and staff of the University of Minnesota Extension Service began to adopt the use of a comprehensive leadership framework to assist in the development and delivery of leadership education programs and materials. This effort began informally about a decade ago and the framework was formally adopted in 2003. We worked closely with University of Minnesota faculty and staff at the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, including Dr. Robert Terry. In 1993 Terry authored, Authentic Leadership: Courage in Action. His book provides a broad review of existing leadership theory and scholarship, and groups the variety of different perspectives into a framework consisting of six major views of leadership. That same year, the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development published, Leadership: Sustaining Action on Community and Organizational Issues, a leadership education resource book based on the same Terry framework. A decade later Crosby, Bryson and Anderson (2003) used a similar framework in the development of materials related to leadership and community decision-making. Terry (2001) continued the use of the framework as he further summarized and explored concepts of leadership and the relationship with the concepts of authentic behavior, as well as leadership behavior in situations that are stable or chaotic.

The Framework and How it Works

Using the Terry (1993, 2001) framework, members of the University of Minnesota Extension Service - Leadership and Civic Engagement area of expertise have developed specific educational materials and activities that build upon the theory and scholarship connected with each of his six leadership views. They have proven to be of practical use for community leaders. Here is an overview of the six leadership views followed by a brief review how we apply the framework to scholarship and teaching.

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Figure 1. Graphic representation of the six leadership views in the framework (Boyce, 1999)

Visionary Ethical Power & Political

Authentic Leadership

Personal & Trait Theory Situational & Team

Organizational & Positional

Personal/Trait Theory Leadership Key concepts: Leadership is linked to biological and inborn traits - some people are born to be leaders, others are not, and/or everyone can lead, but their leadership behavior will vary depending on their personal style. Assessing personal skills, preferences, strengths and weaknesses, and understanding personal styles of leadership are part of the personal/trait theory view. The personal/trait theory view is also the portion of the leadership framework that connects to the concept of existence ­ addressing the question, "What is the history of the person, group, or community?" Examples of scholarship in the personal/trait theory leadership view include: Myers and Briggs-Myers (1995), Pearman (1998), and Barrick and Mount (1991). Situational/Team Leadership Key concepts: Leadership is fluid, dynamic and changing ­ dependent on the needs of the group. Everyone has the potential to lead and to be a group member. The role of the leader is to help the group move to the desired goal by using different leadership skills/techniques at appropriate times. The situational/team leadership view is also the portion of the leadership framework that connects to the concept of resources ­ addressing the question, "What are the types of resources needed for success?" Examples of scholarship in the situational/team leadership view include: Hersey (1984), Hersey and Blanchard (1993), Murphy (1996), Parker (1990), and Katzenbach and Smith (1993).

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Organizational/Positional Leadership Key concepts: Leadership is connected to organizational position and role. Leadership responsibilities differ among levels of the organization, and a role of leadership is to create and adapt the organizational structures and processes to work as effectively as possible. Leadership can be defined by the behaviors, skills and activities exhibited by those in positions of organizational influence. The organizational/positional leadership view is also the portion of the leadership framework that connects to the concept of structure ­ addressing the question, "What are the plans, processes and systems used to organize the work?" Examples of scholarship in the organizational/positional leadership view include: Bennis and Nanus (1985), Kouzes and Posner (1995), and Belasco and Stayer (1993). Power/Political Leadership Key concepts: Leadership is connected to getting something done ­ initiating change. Leadership is viewed as (a) moving forward a personal agenda, and/or (b) the empowerment and engagement of others. Leaders must have the skills to work successfully in formal and informal systems, deal with power and conflict, build coalitions, and address issues of participation and involvement. The power/political leadership view is also the portion of the leadership framework that connects to the concept of power ­ answering the questions, "What is the level of commitment with those who are stakeholders?" and "What are the dynamics between those involved in this issue?" Examples of scholarship in the power/political leadership view include: Boyte (1989), Block (1987), Bryson and Crosby (1992), and Tichy (1997). Visionary Leadership Key concepts: Leaders help others to critically examine "the present" - and leaders provide a sense of direction for "the future." Thinking "outside" the existing system is encouraged. Developing scenarios, possibilities for the future, and doing that which has not been done before is expected. The visionary leadership view is also the portion of the leadership framework that connects to the concept of mission ­ addressing the question, "What is the purpose, direction or mission of what we are trying to accomplish?" Examples of scholarship in the visionary leadership view include: Wheatley (1993), Kotter (1996), Adams (1986), Renesch (1994), and Senge (1990). Ethical Leadership Key concepts: Leadership is concerned about "doing the right thing" - moving toward a beneficial end or common good. Leadership assesses why something should be done, what is to be done, and the values that underlie the situation. Leadership engages followers in a respectful, voluntary and community-

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enhancing relationship. The ethical leadership view is also the portion of the leadership framework connected to the concept of meaning ­ addressing questions of "What is at stake here?" and "What are the right things to do?" Examples of scholarship in the ethical leadership view include: Burns (1987), Covey (1991), Kidder (1995), Greenleaf (1997), Ciulla (1998), and Kouzes and Posner (1993). The six views of leadership function as an integrated system. Effective leadership requires knowledge and attention to all six areas simultaneously. Terry (1993) referred to this integration of all the leadership views as "authentic leadership." Authentic Leadership Engaging in all of the above ­ being true to self and true to the world; leading to fulfillment ­ understanding the honoring the promises made to all stakeholders. Application to Scholarship and Teaching The Terry (1993, 2001) framework serves as an "organizing template" for current leadership programs that are designed and/or developed by the University of Minnesota Extension Service. Materials and activities have been designed to teach the overall framework, as well as each of the six leadership views. Educational workshops ranging from four to twelve hours in length have been developed to discuss each leadership view in community contexts. The University of Minnesota Extension Service is currently reviewing and revising the core curriculum for U-Lead programs. We continue to use the Terry framework as a conceptual tool to organize and update our leadership education materials. The revisions are anticipated to be completed within a year. The framework is based on broad leadership concepts and is dynamic, easily allowing for the integration and inclusion of new scholarship and research. It maintains a base that builds upon previous scholarship, research and experience. For example, as new research and scholarship in the areas of ethical leadership or organizational leadership become available, that information can easily be introduced and included in those sections of the framework. We are intentionally transparent with the use of the framework. Frequently, during the first session of a multi-session leadership program, an overview of the entire framework is shared with participants. Then specific modules are used at subsequent sessions to more deeply explore each of the six leadership views. The theoretical model of the framework includes the assumption that understanding and integrating all of the leadership views is required for effective leadership. The framework is used as we design and develop the content for new Extension leadership programs, and also in consultations with other groups as they design leadership programs. The six core areas are used as a systematic method to review the proposed leadership concepts and tools for a particular program and to

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determine if there are leadership perspectives that have been overlooked, overemphasized or that should be added and modified. On some occasions educational materials and activities related to a particular leadership view are used independently if those materials and activities match the educational interests and needs of a particular group or organization. For example, an existing organizational or community-based leadership program might request that Extension conduct a half-day or full-day workshop on the topic of "ethical leadership" to expand upon or enhance an existing leadership education curriculum they currently use in that organization or community. With six primary conceptual points, the framework is simple enough that participants find it easy to understand and to remember the leadership concepts. The framework draws upon scholarship and theory, yet does not overwhelm participants with great complexity. However, if participants want to learn more about one or more of the particular views of leadership they can easily access the scholarly writing and theory and explore a particular leadership view. By systematically reviewing leadership concepts using the framework, participants are able to identify where their particular life experiences, opinions and beliefs related to leadership reside. The framework easily links life experience to theoretical concepts. Participants are able to notice if a majority of their experiences and opinions connect with only a few particular areas of the framework. For example, participants might recognize that they tend to spend most of their energy and focus on issues of ethics and vision, paying little attention to the organizational or team perspectives of leadership. This recognition may help the participants understand how they can best use their strength and experience in ethics and visioning, and when they need to draw upon the strengths and experience of others in areas of organization and team leadership. As leadership concepts and perspectives are introduced and reviewed with participants, the framework challenges participants to thoughtfully wrestle with their existing attitudes, perspectives and views of leadership. The framework serves as a tool to help participants sort and examine the multiple leadership experiences they have and will encounter. During the past year, over 85 people have participated in half-day leadership education workshops that use the Terry (1993, 2001) framework. Workshop evaluations, using a retrospective survey technique, find participants reporting increases ranging from 27.7% to 50% in "their understanding of views and theories of leadership."

Conclusion

Using a comprehensive leadership framework that is scholarly-based has proven to be a valuable tool in leadership education program design and delivery for the

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University of Minnesota Extension Service. The framework is broad and dynamic allowing for the inclusion of new and emerging scholarship while building upon existing scholarship and not requiring a restructuring of the framework. The framework is useful as a design tool to examine and build leadership education programs, materials and activities. The six major components of the framework are easy to understand and remember. The breadth of the framework allows for a systematic examination of leadership perspectives, the respectful integration of participant life experience, opinions and beliefs regarding leadership, and a useful tool to clearly communicate leadership concepts. The framework serves as an effective tool to balance the demands of scholarship and teaching.

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References

Adams, J. D. (1986). Transforming leadership: From vision to results. Alexandria VA: Miles River Press. Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimension and performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44(1), 1-26. Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill's handbook of leadership: Theory, research and managerial applications (3rd ed.). NewYork: Free Press; London: Collier Macmillan. Belasco, J. M., & Stayer, R. C. (1993). The flight of the buffalo: Soaring to excellence, learning to let employees lead. New York: Warner Books. Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: Strategies for taking charge. New York: Harper & Row. Block, P. (1987). The empowered manger: Positive political skills at work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Boyce, K. N. (1999). Views of leadership. Unpublished leadership education materials, University of Minnesota Extension Service, St. Paul, MN. Boyte, H. C. (1989). Commonwealth: A return to citizen politics. New York: Free Press. Bridgeforth, B. W. (2005, Summer). Advancing the practice of leadership: A curriculum. The Journal of Leadership Education, 4(1), pp.4-30. Bryson, J. M., & Crosby, B. C. (1992). Leadership for the common good: Tackling public problems in a shared-power world. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row. Covey, S. (1991). Principle-centered leadership. New York: Summit Books. Crosby, B. C., Bryson, J.M., & Anderson, S. (2003). Leadership for the common good fieldbook: Tools for working in a shared-power world. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota. Ciulla, J. B. (1998). Ethics, the heart of leadership. Westport, CT: Greenwood. Greenleaf, R. (1977). Servant-leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. New York: Paulist Press.

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Goethals, G. R., Sorenson, J. G., & Burns, J. M. (Eds.) (2004). Encyclopedia of Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc. Hersey, P. (1984). The situational leader. Escondido, CA: Center for Leadership Studies. Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1993). Management and organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources (6th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Johnson, B. (1996). Polarity management: Identifying and managing unsolvable problems. Amherst, MA: HRD Press. Katzenbach, J. R., & Smith, D. K. (1993). The wisdom of teams: Creating the high-performance organization. New York: McKinsey & Company; HarperCollins Publishers. Kellerman, B. (Ed.) (1984). Leadership: Multidisciplinary approaches. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Kidder, R. M. (1995). How good people make tough choices: Resolving the dilemmas of ethical living. New York: Fireside Books; Simon & Schuster. Renesch, J. (Ed.) (1994). Leadership in a new era: Visionary approaches to the biggest crisis of our time. San Francisco: New Leaders Press; Sterling& Stone. Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (1995). The leadership challenge: How to get extraordinary things done in organizations (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (1995). Credibility: How leaders gain and lose it. Why people demand it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Murphy, E. C. (1996). Leadership IQ, New York: John Wiley and Sons. Myers, I., & Briggs-Myers, P. (1995). Gifts differing: Understanding personality type. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing. Northouse, P. G. (2001). Leadership: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Parker, G. M. (1990). Team players and teamwork. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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Pearman, R. R. (1998). Hardwired leadership: Unleashing the power of personality to become a new millennium leader. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing. Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: Mastering the five practices of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday Currency. Terry, R. W., & NCRCRD (1993). Leadership: Sustaining action on community and organizational issues. Ames, IA: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development and Iowa State University Printing Services. Terry, R. W. (1993). Authentic leadership: Courage in action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Terry, R. W. (2001). Seven zones for leadership: Acting authentically in stability and chaos. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing. Tichy, N. M. (1997). The leadership engine: How winning companies build leaders at every level. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Stogdill. R. M. (1981). Stogdill's handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: Free Press. Watt, W. M. (2003, Summer). Effective leadership education: Developing a core curriculum for leadership studies. The Journal of Leadership Education, 2(1), pp. 13-26. Wheatley, M. (1993). Leadership and the new science. San Francisco: BerrettKoehler.

Biography

Kim Boyce is a Regional Extension Educator and Professor with the University of Minnesota Extension Service. He specializes in leadership and civic engagement, with particular emphasis on public and natural resources sectors, including elected officials. His career includes 17 years of Extension experience and 12 years in the non-profit sector.

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Legacy Leadership Institutes: Strengthening Leadership for Community Involvement in 50+ Adults

Tracey T. Manning Research Associate Professor Center on Aging University of Maryland College Park, Maryland [email protected] Laura Wilson Director Center on Aging University of Maryland College Park, Maryland [email protected] Karen Harlow-Rosentraub Associate Professor Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio [email protected]

Abstract

Baby-boomers, the sizeable group of knowledgeable, competent, and motivated adults born between 1946 and 1964, view the increased flexibility in lifestyle of their later years as an opportunity to make a further contribution to society (Wilson & Simson, 2006). How can this potential be realized? Legacy Leadership Institutes, created by the University of Maryland's Center on Aging, are designed in collaboration with community agencies through a process of needs assessment and volunteer position development. They provide intense classroom instruction in specific role competencies and non-positional leadership development, followed by supervised field placements in those agencies. The outcome is higher volunteer competence and leadership role self-efficacy, increased civic engagement, challenging volunteer roles, and ultimate enhancement of community social capital.

Background and Intended Audience

Imagine if, in Western society, retirement meant giving back to communities, translating skills acquired from life and work to new forms of civic involvement, meeting social needs, empowering individuals, and enhancing communities! That

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is what baby-boomers desire ­ lifelong learning and "good work," contributing to society in paid and/or unpaid ways (Wilson & Simson, 2003). Communities and individuals stand to gain much from this scenario, but obstacles in their way include narrow societal views of volunteers and of older adults, scant organizational infrastructure to support expanded volunteer roles, and few bridging programs or processes to enhance retirees' transition to this next phase. How can volunteer leadership programs help bridge the gap, equipping and mobilizing this pool of talented, motivated baby-boomers to address society's needs and challenges? Although today's retirees are likely to be knowledgeable, educated, and skilled, their leadership skills and leadership self-efficacy may be tied to their previous work roles, making it difficult for them to see how to transfer their acquired knowledge and skills to volunteer roles. One creative avenue is collaboration between a university and community agencies to offer volunteer leadership programs giving retirement-aged adults critical new volunteer role competencies while building their non-positional leadership skills and leadership self-efficacy.

Theoretical Base

The Center on Aging at the University of Maryland has integrated relevant leadership models, including implicit leadership theory, transformational leadership, situational leadership, and leadership self-efficacy, as well as lifelong learning and civic engagement perspectives to offer such a volunteer leadership program for the past eight years. Implicit Leadership Theories Implicit leadership theories are culturally shared assumptions about leadership, developed through one's previous interpersonal experiences and knowledge of leaders (Epitropaki & Martin, 2004). Based on these "typical" characteristics and other leadership beliefs, people evaluate themselves and others as leaders (Lord & Maher, 1993). Several commonly-held assumptions about leadership can inhibit individuals from identifying and exercising their leadership capability, especially in later adulthood and as volunteers. For instance, nature-nurture leadership beliefs, the confounding of leadership with position or charisma, attributions about previous success or failure in leadership situations, and beliefs about whether leadership ability is static or can be strengthened are likely to affect leadership initiative and leadership self-efficacy in baby-boomers (e.g., Dweck, 2006). A critical factor for non-positional leadership development is to surface and challenge participants' non-constructive assumptions about leadership. Transformational and Situational Leadership Leadership, the ability to work effectively with a group towards a goal, encompasses both basic and more advanced skills. Task leadership and

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relationship-oriented leadership can be viewed as basic group leadership skills. Task leadership, which fosters group progress towards the goal, includes training new group members, helping to develop group goals, organizing tasks, coordinating work load, monitoring work quality, giving performance feedback, and delegating decisions. Relationship leadership skills, which facilitate group cooperation, include fostering positive norms, mentoring and developing group members, preventing and resolving group conflicts, or encouraging/emotionally supporting group members. (Yukl, 1994) Situational leadership research has demonstrated that effective leaders have both sets of skills, utilizing them based on group needs (Hersey & Blanchard, 1996). In Legacy Leadership Institutes, situational leadership helps participants to reframe leadership as ordinary actions that benefit groups, identify their typical group leadership styles, recognize situational influences on leadership effectiveness, appreciate the need for leadership style adaptability, and explore stages of group development. Beyond basic leadership skills, effective group leadership requires the ability to envision a better solution/organization, to motivate others to high achievement, and to utilize powerful strategies to reach ambitious goals (Johnson & Johnson, 1994; Kirlin, 2003). These skills characterize transformational leaders who bring out the best in others, nurturing personal and group improvement, sharing inspiring visions of the future, and fostering commitment and motivation towards important goals (Bass, 1985; Kouzes & Posner, 2002). Transformational leadership skills are relevant at every level of highly effective organizations, including volunteers (Raelin, 2003). For instance, volunteers who demonstrate transformational leadership increase organizational commitment and involvement in other volunteers (Catano, Pond, & Kelloway, 2001). One well-researched transformational leadership model describes five core leadership practices: modeling the way, inspiring a shared vision, challenging the process, enabling others to act, and encouraging the heart (Kouzes & Posner, 2002). In the Legacy Leadership Institute curriculum, we develop participants' transformational leadership through leadership assessment with strengths-based feedback and through application to their new volunteer roles in nonprofit or community organizations. Leadership Self-Efficacy Leadership self-efficacy, confidence in one's ability to work effectively with a group to reach a goal (McCormick, 2001), complements transformational leadership development in the volunteer leadership program. People with higher leadership self-efficacy challenge and motivate themselves and others, persist towards goals in the face of obstacles, build group confidence, and achieve group goals (Chemers, 1996; Kane, Zaccaro, Tremble, & Masuda, 2002). They are also more willing to take initiative or assume leadership responsibilities, even when

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volunteers (e.g., Chan & Drasgow, 2001; Depp, 1993) and those with greater selfefficacy for the group's task are more willing to volunteer to be group leaders (Dickerson & Taylor, 2000). Leadership self-efficacy seems to influence leadership behavior and group accomplishment more than leadership knowledge and skills or group factors alone. The most effective ways to increase self-efficacy are mastery experiences, modeling, social persuasion, and physiological feedback (Wood & Bandura, 1989). Mastery describes improvement through practicing the specific skill, while modeling is learning by observing others use the skill. More cognitive approaches include social persuasion, i.e., getting constructive feedback after using the skill, and physiological state, i.e., changing one's belief that task anxiety indicates task incompetence (Wood & Bandura, 1989). Instructional programs and other developmental or life experiences which include these aspects, such as the Legacy Leadership Institutes, raise volunteers' task-specific and leadership self-efficacy (Schauber & Kirk, 2001; Ohnoutka, Waybright, Nichols, & Nestor, 2005). Bandura's (1977) strategies for increasing self-efficacy are utilized throughout Legacy Leadership Institutes. Participants are helped to strengthen their leadership self-efficacy by gaining awareness of and practicing their leadership strengths in the classroom, field placement organization, and community. They also gain task-specific self-efficacy from new volunteer role competence and organizational knowledge (Gist & Mitchell, 1992).

Institute Goals and Learning Objectives

Legacy Leadership Institute Goals Legacy Leadership Institutes build volunteers' institute-specific skills, transformational leadership competencies, leadership self-efficacy, nonprofit organizational familiarity, and knowledge of relevant social issues through both the classroom and the field placement phases (Wilson & Simson, 2003). The classroom phase lasts between six to eight weeks, typically meeting once or twice weekly for an average of 10-12 hours a week, while the field placement ranges from three to six months for several days a week. Field placement sites are developed jointly with nonprofit organizations to give participants substantive new volunteer roles along a framework for constructive feedback from supervisors and peers. Before an institute, agency personnel plan the curriculum with Center on Aging staff, gaining insight into the program while designing a new volunteer role to augment their organization's capacity. At this writing, there are nine versions of Legacy Leadership Institutes across the United States and eight in Europe, preparing older adults for specific, substantive volunteer roles. The United States versions include: · Legacy Leadership Institute on Public Policy (as legislative aides in state legislature).

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· · · · · · · ·

Legacy Leadership Institute on Development and Fundraising for NonProfits. Legacy Leadership Institute on Humor Practices for Healthy Eating (fostering youths' health). Legacy Leadership Institute on Disaster Response (disaster response team development and leadership). Legacy Leadership Institute on Volunteer Management. Legacy Leadership Institute on the Environment (environmental conservation and education). Legacy Leadership Institute on Community Development and Governance. Legacy Leadership Institute on Nonprofit Organizational Assessment (needs assessment for community organizations). Legacy Leadership Institute on Pro Bono Service (volunteer consultation to nonprofits).

Often professional staff of the field placement organization attends the institute along with Legacy Leaders, to increase their familiarity with the Legacy Leaders' training and competencies while facilitating staff-volunteer teamwork. Two Legacy Leadership Institutes are multi-generational, while the others generally only enroll those people aged 50 and older. Learning Objectives Legacy Leaders can expect to: · Acquire institute-specific knowledge and skills (e.g. fundamentals of nonprofit fundraising, nutrition and humor practices, environmental education/stewardship, state legislative processes). · Gain an overall understanding of the policy issues, organizational and social context influencing the agencies in which they will work. · Observe and learn from subject experts, leadership experts, and other participants about institute-relevant social issues, leadership ethics and values, and community concerns. · Challenge self-limiting elements of implicit leadership theory and increase openness to self-leadership learning. · Identify task-relationship and transformational leadership strengths through assessment and positive feedback from peers and faculty with strengths-based leadership training. · Further develop and increase their comfort in using non-positional leadership skills and institute-specific competencies through supervision and mentoring in field placement.

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Resources and Materials Needed for Leadership Program

Resources Needed To conduct a Legacy Leadership Institute requires effective collaboration between program coordinators and nonprofit or community agency/agencies, curricular and leadership training specialists, relevant assessment tools, along with a nonpositional leadership and institute-specific curriculum. These are described in more detail below. 1. Non-profit or community organizations work collaboratively with Legacy Leadership staff to identify critical unfilled organizational needs and to create a substantive volunteer job description to address one of those needs. They also describe the key competencies of that volunteer role, co-design an institute curriculum to teach those competencies, recommend potential presenters for institute-specific knowledge and skills, and recruit and designate one or more of their professional staff to be involved in the institute and to supervise the field placement phase. 2. Institute faculty use adult learning pedagogies appropriate for a group diverse in previous leadership experience, leadership/management training, age, ethnicity, and education. · Leadership trainers help Legacy Leaders challenge self-limiting leadership assumptions, identify situational and transformational leadership strengths, use a strengths-based perspective to develop non-positional leadership skills and self-efficacy, and work collaboratively in teams. · Institute-specific faculty teach the knowledge and skills needed to equip volunteers for success in the newly created non-positional leadership role (see sample curriculum below). 3. Leadership instruments mirror curricular goals (i.e., strengthening nonpositional transformational leadership, increasing leadership self-efficacy) and are administered as baseline and post-program assessments. · Transformational leadership is assessed by the Leadership Practices Inventory (Kouzes & Posner, 1988), a 30-item leadership inventory assessing five transformational leadership factors: Challenging the Process, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Enabling Others to Act, Modeling the Way, and Encouraging the Heart. Scale reliabilities range from .79 to .88. · The leadership self-efficacy measure, developed following Bandura's (1997) guidelines, includes 20 Likert-scale items, 10 on group leadership self-efficacy (alpha reliability of .88) and 10 on field placement selfefficacy (alpha reliability of .92). A sample item is "Helping a group work through conflicts or problems" and response choices tap confidence in successful achievement in each situation.

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Model for Institute Curriculum

The 60 to 80 hour classroom phase of the Legacy Leadership Institute curriculum integrates core elements common to all institutes with institute-specific topics. The core curriculum topics are perspectives on volunteering, situational and transformational leadership competence, nonprofit/community organization functioning, organizational communication skills, and community collaboration/teamwork skills. Institute-specific knowledge and skills covered include social issues and organizational contexts which participants will face in the field placement, and the knowledge and skills needed to succeed as volunteer leaders in their new role. For instance, environmental institutes build Legacy Leaders' ability to conduct environmental conservation and education activities, along with the core curriculum. Following the classroom phase, all leaders engage in 200 to 450 hours of supervised field placement specific to their institute.

Results

Participants Of 94 graduates for whom we have pre-program and post-program leadership data, about two-thirds are women and one-third men. They range from 49 to 77 years old, averaging 62.8 years. Three-quarters are European-American, 15% African-American, with smaller representation from other ethnic groups. They are relatively highly educated, with half having at least some college, and another third having graduate degrees. They are equally divided between those who have held management positions and those who held professional, technical, or clerical roles. Most are retired, though a significant minority is employed part-time. Impact of Legacy Leadership Institutes on Leadership Leadership self-efficacy: Legacy Leadership Institute participants made significant gains in group leadership self-efficacy after the classroom phase and before beginning their field placements. As would be hoped, they also gained confidence in accomplishing their field placement responsibilities (field placement self-efficacy) (see Table 1). Table 1. Paired samples t-test results (pre-Institute and post-classroom phase) on self-efficacy Scale and Survey Questions

n PreMean PostMean

Group Leadership Self-Efficacy Scale 85 (10 items, alpha = .89) Getting a group to work together productively 90 Motivating people with different interests towards 90

3.74 3.87 3.61

4.02* 4.04** 3.89**

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a common goal Helping a group work through conflicts/ problems 90 3.62 3.96* Communicating about an exciting future that the 90 3.84 4.10* group could (should) be working towards. Delegating responsibilities to others in the group 90 4.00 4.19* Building informal alliances or relationships to get 85 3.84 4.19** things accomplished Taking on leadership responsibilities that are 84 3.55 3.96** unfamiliar to you Identifying untapped potential or ability in others 85 3.55 3.88** Giving constructive feedback about performance 85 3.60 3.80 or attitude problems to another Identifying creative strategies to help a group 85 3.82 4.06* reach its goals Field Placement Self-Efficacy Scale 85 4.13 4.24 (10 items, alpha = .921) Accomplishing the tasks I'm asked to do in my 85 4.13 4.41** field placement * p < .05. * * p < .01. Scale = 1 (Not competent or comfortable) to 5 (Very competent and comfortable). Self-efficacy increased significantly across institutes after the Legacy Leadership Institute classroom phase, with no significant differences in leadership gains between managers and non-managers. Table 2. Paired samples t-test results (pre-Institute and post-classroom phase) on transformational leadership Scale Item Mean Overall Leadership Practices Inventory Challenging the Process (6 items, alpha = .883) Inspiring a Shared Vision (6 items, alpha = .880) Enabling Others to Act (6 items, alpha = .816) Modeling the Way (6 items, alpha = .779) Encouraging the Heart (6 items, alpha = .905) * p < .05. * * p < .01. n 94 94 94 94 94 94 PreMean 46.32 44.85 42.50 50.10 47.46 46.69 PostMean 48.93** 47.43** 45.32** 52.10** 49.93** 49.90

Transformational leadership: After completing the field placement, Legacy Leaders reported significant increases in all five transformational leadership practices (see Table 2). Gains in transformational leadership are seen across institutes, with no significant differences between institutes.

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Those without previous management experience report significantly greater increases in transformational leadership than those with prior management experience. Controlling for pre-institute self-rated transformational leadership, non-managers increased significantly more than managers in Challenging the Process, Enabling Others to Act, Modeling the Way, Encouraging the Heart, and overall LPI self-rating (see Table 3). Table 3. ANOVA comparisons between managers and non-managers on transformational leadership difference scores ­ pre- and post-Legacy Leadership Institutes Scale Difference Scores Managers NonMean (SD) Managers Mean (SD) Mean Overall LPI 53 (5.51) 5.31 (4.89) Challenging the Process 27 (6.06) 4.93 (6.46) Inspiring a Shared Vision .50 (8.73) 4.30 (7.60) Enabling Others to Act .73 (4.86) 5.17 (4.74) Modeling the Way .23 (5.57) 5.63 (5.40) Encouraging the Heart .92 (6.63) 6.50 (5.75) * p < .05. * * p < .01. Mean Squares 134.769 116.067 119.661 101.113 153.799 226.248 F ratio

5.123** 2.894* 1.818 4.331** 5.105** 6.493**

Though men and women did not differ in pre-institute leadership, gender had a slight influence on self-rated leadership increases; women reported significantly greater gains than men only in Encouraging the Heart. There were no other demographic influences on leadership ratings gains. Follow-up research, both quantitative and qualitative, indicates that program gains continue to influence participants over the longer term. In survey research, institute graduates reported significant increases in community attachment from baseline to two year follow-up. Over 50% had taken employment, usually parttime, with the vast majority attributing that to knowledge, confidence, and connections gained through Legacy Leadership Institute participation. In structured interview research, the earliest institute's graduates reported significantly increased community leadership activities with or without benefit of a formal leadership role (e.g., initiating a community emergency preparedness program, creating a neighborhood garden, soliciting corporate donations for nonprofit organizations, running for local office, organizing a nonprofit to lobby the state legislature).

Conclusions

Legacy Leadership Institutes assist adults over 50 years of age to recognize and strengthen their leadership competencies for non-positional leadership, while

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equipping them with additional skills and knowledge for new volunteer roles. Outcomes research demonstrates that older adults strengthen transformational leadership and leadership self-efficacy after participation in the two-phase volunteer leadership development program that includes classroom learning and an intensive, supervised field placement. Transformational leadership is greatly strengthened by completion of any Legacy Leadership Institute, especially for those without prior management experience, while both previous managers and non-managers gain in non-positional leadership self-efficacy. These gains are beneficial to non-profit organizations, through capacity building enabled by the commitment of competent volunteers, and to the volunteers, through enjoyable and productive engagement. Leadership development programs for baby-boomer volunteers can enhance the social capital of communities.

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References

Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership performance beyond expectations. New York: Academic Press. Bass, B. M. (1998). Transformational leadership: Industrial, military and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Catano, V. M., Pond, M., & Kelloway, E. K. (2001). Exploring commitment and leadership in volunteer organizations. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 22(5/6), 256-263. Chan, K.Y., & Drasgow, F. (2001). Toward a theory of individual differences and leadership: Understanding the motivation to lead. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 481-98. Chemers, M. M. (1996, August). Leadership mettle: The role of confidence and optimism in leadership effectiveness. Paper presented to the American Psychological Association Annual meeting, San Francisco, California. Depp, M. J. (1993). Leadership self-efficacy and community involvement. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, 1993). Dickerson, A., & Taylor, M. A. (2000). Self-limiting behavior in women: Selfesteem and self-efficacy as predictors. Group and Organizational Management 25(2), 191-210. Dweck, C. (2006). Mindse: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House. Gist, M. E., & Mitchell, T. R. (1992). Self-efficacy: A theoretical analysis of its determinants and malleability. Academy of Management Review, 17(2), 183-211. Epitropaki, O., & Martin, R. (2004). Implicit leadership theories in applied settings: Factor structure, generalizability, and stability over time. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(2), 293-310. Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. (1988). LEAD questionnaires. Escondido, CA: Center for Leadership Studies Press.

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Hersey, P., Blanchard, K., & Johnson, D. E. (1996). Management of organizational behavior (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, F. P. (1994). Joining together: Group theory and group skills (5th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Kane, T. D., Zaccaro, S. J., Tremble, T. T., & Masuda, A. D. (2002). An examination of the leader's regulation of groups. Small Group Research, 33(1), 65-120. Kirlin, M. (2003). The role of civic skills in fostering civic engagement. College Park, MD: Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement. Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1988). Development and validation of the Leadership Practices Inventory. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48(2), 483-496. Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2002). The leadership challenge: How to get extraordinary things done in organization (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Lord, R. G., & Maher, K. J. (1993). Leadership and information processing: Linking perceptions and performance. London: Routledge. McCormick, M. J. (2001). Self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness: Applying social cognitive theory to leadership. Journal of Leadership Studies 8(1), 22-33. Ohnoutka, L., Waybright, L., Nichols, A., & Nestor, P. (2005). Leadership, teaching, self-efficacy, and networking: Untapped benefits of membership in extension volunteer networks. Journal of Extension, 43(3), Retrieved January 25, 2006, from http://www/joe.org/joe/2005june/rb2/shtml. Raelin, J. A. (2003). Creating leaderful organizations: How to bring out leadership in everyone. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishing. Schauber, A. C., & Kirk, A. R. (2001). Impact of a community leadership program on the volunteer leader. Journal of Extension. Retrieved February 8, 2006, from http://www.joe.org/joe/2001june/rb2.html. Wilson, L. B., & Simson, S. (2003). Combining lifelong learning with civic engagement: A university-based model. Gerontology and Geriatrics Education, 24(1), 47-61.

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Wilson, L. B., & Simson, S. (Eds.). (2006). Civic engagement and the baby boomer generation: Research, policy, and practice perspectives. New York: Haworth Press. Wood, R., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 361-384. Yukl, G. A. (1994). Leadership in organizations (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Biography

Tracey T. Manning, Ph.D., research associate professor at the Center on Aging and senior scholar at the Academy of Leadership, at the University of Maryland, specializes in transformational leadership development activities and leadership research. She is responsible for leadership development curriculum and leadership outcomes assessment with the Legacy Leadership Institutes. Laura B. Wilson, Ph.D., directs the Center on Aging and chairs the Department of Health Administration at the University of Maryland. She developed the Legacy Leadership Institute concept and pioneered its versions in the US and Europe. Her publications on lifelong learning and volunteer leadership include a book, Civic Engagement and the Baby Boomer Generation (2006). Karen Harlow-Rosentraub, Ph.D., associate professor of nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, is the external evaluator for the Legacy Leadership Institutes and Legacy Corps programs of the University of Maryland. She also directs a global initiative doing comparative research on older adult volunteerism.

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JOLE Submission Guidelines

Appropriateness of Topic for JOLE Articles should relate to both leadership and education, but need not be balanced in their focus and may emphasize either leadership or education. If you are uncertain about the appropriateness of your topic please review previous papers and, if needed, contact the editor. JOLE does not accept submittals published previously or under review by another journal. Submitting an Article to JOLE Papers are received by email only, sent to: [email protected] All submittals must be sent as a Word file with a cover memo indicating authors, affiliation, contact, and proposed category. The journal solicits articles in four categories:

· · · ·

Research Feature Theoretical Feature Application Brief Idea Brief or Commentary

Please focus your article on a specific category and indicate with your cover email. Complete information about the categories is provided at Categories of Articles. Review Process Upon receipt of your paper the editor will send notice of receipt to the contact author. The editor will review the submittal for suitability for the journal and specific category. If not suitable the editor will provide guidance for the author. If suitable, members of the editorial board, or selected guest referees, will review the submittal. How to Prepare to Write an Article for JOLE A proven strategy is to review past issues of JOLE and read articles in the same category. As JOLE is a new journal and the number of past issues is developing, authors are encouraged to look at the Journal of Extension www.joe.org which has similar categories. First time authors are encouraged to closely review, even outline, other papers to understand the logic and flow of an acceptable paper in each category.

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Write for a Professional and Academic Audience JOLE articles are intended to demonstrate scholarship but are also expected to be readable and useful to a wide audience, including people who speak English as a second language. Hence, they must be written clearly without losing their scholarly value. For more information visit the JOLE website at: www.fhsu.edu/jole

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Le Culminant

The Editor wants to remind any interested authors to submit articles to [email protected] as soon as possible for review in the Summer 2007 issue. Note that the style guidelines for JOLE have undergone revision recently. As always...suggestions to the Editor are welcomed and they are often implemented!

"The ink of the scholar is more sacred than the blood of the martyr."

- Mohammed

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