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The Nervous System:

Tissues and the Spinal Cord

Nervous & Endocrine Systems

Compare the mode of communication in these two systems. (Complete the worksheet on page 124 in your course packet.

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Organization of the Nervous System

In this flow chart, what do the components in blue have in common? Explain why the Enteric Nervous System is referred to as the "little brain". Where are the Autonomic sensory receptors located?

Basic Tasks of the Nervous System

Sensory Input: Receptors monitor both external and internal environments. Integration: Process the information (at synapses) and often integrate it with stored information. Motor output: If necessary, signal effector organs to make an appropriate response. How is this similar to the normal function of the endocrine system? How is it different? Describe the receptor, control center, and effector in several neural reflexes.

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Basic Structure of a Reflex Arc

Review the lab exercise on reflexes that begins on p. 98 of your packet, and the worksheet on p. 102.

Multipolar neuron

Are dendrites always shorter than axons? Can the neuron processes that conduct information toward the cell body also be myelinated?

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Structural Classification of Neurons

Compare the possible functions of these neuron types. Give one location where these neurons would be found in the body.

Opportunity for practice...

What are the classifications of neurons according to structure? ...according to function? Identify the parts of a neuron in this figure. Give one possible location for this neuron cell body.

4

Neuroglia of the CNS

Which neuroglia have a protective function? Name the cell type that provides myelination in the PNS. Which neuroglia provide myelination in the CNS? Which neuroglia are involved in transport? How are oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells different?

Organization of Neuroglia in the CNS

What differences between gray matter and white matter are visible in this figure? From which embryonic germ layer do these neuroglia originate? What is the blood-brain barrier?

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Gray and White Matter

For practice, label the parts of the brain and spinal cord visible in these sections. What structures are found predominately in gray matter? ...in white matter? Why do you think white matter surrounds gray matter in the spinal cord?

Review of Chemical Synapses

Compare with the structure and function of an electrical synapse.

How does the action differ between an excitatory neurotransmitter and an inhibitory one?

6

Propagation of an Action Potential

Why is the resting potential a negative number?

What is the significance of the refractory period?

Refractory Period

Saltatory Conduction in Myelinated Axons

Action potentials jump from node to node without depolarizing the region under the myelin sheath - called saltatory conduction. What cells myelinate fibers in the CNS?

In addition to the presence of a myelin Fig. sheath, what else may48.11 increase the speed of conduction along a neuron process?

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Structure of Peripheral Nerves

Are nerves considered organs of the nervous system? Why is there such a large c.t. component to nerves?

Regeneration of Peripheral Nerve Fibers (1)

How might this injury occur? Is this a sensory neuron, interneuron, or motor neuron? (What function would be lost?)

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Regeneration of Fibers in the PNS (2)

What is this component of the nerve?

Regeneration of Fibers in the PNS (3)

What is a neuroma?

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Review: Myelination in the CNS

How is myelination different in the CNS from the PNS? Are oligodendrocytes capable of reproduction? Why is this significant? Is there a neurolemmal sheath around myelinated fibers in the CNS? Why is this significant?

Cranial and Spinal nerves of the PNS

Label the nerves in these figures.

Which nerves are classified as sensory?...motor?...mixed?

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Embryonic Origin of the Central Nervous System

Use this figure to help interpret the flow chart on page 176 in your course packet.

Structure and Function of the Spinal Cord

There are 31 segments to the spinal cord; each segment giving rise to a pair of ____________. Name the two main functions of the spinal cord. Why are there cervical and lumbar enlargements?

11

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