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Understanding the health benefits and safety of food Suhaila Mohamed (PhD),Professor Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Selangor Malaysia

· help prevent diseases & promote health.

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soluble/insoluble fibres, probiotics, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, antimicrobes, photochemical, amino acids, peptides, oligosaccharides, phytoplanktons & polysaccharides. Food with health promoting potential Help improve immunity, performances, moods Prevent cardiovascular diseases, cancer Reduces blood glucose in diabetics Reduce gastrointestinal tract disorders Kill pathogens & parasites Slows aging, osteoporosis, antioxidative Top killer diseases of Malaysia Cardiovascular diseases ­ Heart diseases ­ Antherosclerosis ­ Hypertension ­ Stroke · Cancer · Diabetes · Other degenerative diseases

· FOOD THAT HELP PREVENT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES · Fish oil reduced incidence & severity of heart attacks, preventing occurrence during

occlusion & reperfusion · Polyunsaturated vegetable oil (sunflower seed, soybean) reduced arrhythmias during occlusion but not in reperfusion · Saturated animal fat (sheep) adversely increased the severity of heart attacks

· FOOD THAT HELP PREVENT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES · n-3 (omega 3) fatty acids ­ beneficial for hemostasis. Anti-hyperlipidemia, antithrombosis

& anti-atheroscleoris · Monounsaturated could not prevent the incidence of heart attacks · Canola oil (8% linoleic acid n-3) can reduce the risk of cardiac arrhythmias

Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

· Effectiveness of n-3 linolenic acid reduced by high levels of linoleic acids (18:2, n-6) such

as in soybean.

· FOOD THAT HELP PREVENT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES · n-3 fatty acids - changed properties of heart muscle · Most active anti-arrhythmic components - Dodecahexaenoic acid (DHA) &

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) · Phytosterols have cardiotonic activity - help prevent heart diseases

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FOOD THAT HELP PREVENT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES Chilli, mustard leaf & plants from the onion family Phenols, flavonoids & allyl sulphides retard platelets clumping Hypercholesterolaemia increases the likelihood of cardiovascular/blood vessel diseases by causing atherosclerosis HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIA Antioxidants & phytochemicals - repair damaged blood vessel in hypertensics. Allyl sulphides in onions family - reduce serum cholesterol, provide immune, cardiovascular protection & reduce platelet/leukocyte adhesion. Tea (catechins & phenols) - antioxidative & restrict cholesterol increase HYPERCHOLESTEROLAEMIA Antioxidants prevent LDL oxidation - the major blood cholesterol carrying particle Local plants with strong antioxidative properties: turmeric, lemon grass, asam gelugor, cloves, ginger & betel leaves ­ (Lim & Mohamed, 1997) Hypertension · major cause of heart disease & stroke. · puts extra stress to the heart & arteries lending to antherosclerosis. · Catechins & phenols in tea can control hypertension. flavonoids block angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) that raises blood pressure, strengthen tiny capillaries & protect vascular system.

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Food for hypertension & heart diseases · garlic, onions, celery, chives, soybean products, polyphenols in fruits, brown rice, barley & oats. · brown rice, barley & oats contains complex polysaccharides/carbohydrate. · plants - a good source of calcium (Ca) & potassium. Fructooligosaccbarides improve Ca Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

& magnesium absorption. · promote consumption of brown rice · niacin lowers cholesterol · folic acid clears homocysteine - a waste product of excess methionine breakdown

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Spices & condiments reduce sodium intake They increase flavor & aroma to make diet restrictions more palatable. They are low in sodium, fat & cholesterol & a good source of calcium & potassium. black pepper, garlic, cinnamon, dill & lemon juice.

Food that help reduce body fat · Celery (apiin hinders utilization of food) · Garlic & onions · Temulawak (has liver & blood fat lowering activity) · Fibre from bran & germs of cereals / plants (reduce fat/nutrient absorption & gut retention) · Waxy alcohol from plants & cereals (reduce gut retention & accelerate lipid metabolism) · Coffee, iodine (increase metabolism) · Chromium: controls appetite, reduces blood cholesterol & fats

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Spices/herb that help reduce body fat 120 Pigs fed with spices (anise, oregano, cumin seeds, turmeric, horseradish, parsley, rosemary, black pepper, mustard seed & thyme) had better live weight gain, better feed conversion, more lean meat & lower fat than control.

Hypoglycaemic food (lowers blood sugars in diabetics) · Garlic, onions, jiwat (eugenia jambolana) seeds, tea, ginger, cashew nut, celery, fenugreek, chili paddy, cabbage family, petai, soybean, carrots, nuts, bitter gourd, legumes & many plant products. · some contains high levels of plant sterols (Jamaluddin, Mohamed & Lajis, 1993,1994,1995)

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Hypoglycaemic food (lowers blood sugars in diabetics) hypoglycaemic effect of petai seed - due to synergistic action of beta sitosterol & stigmasterol ratio of 2:1 hypoglycaemic activity of petai pods due to stigmast-4-en-3-ol mechanism - probably peripheral

Spices that help reduce sugar consumption · cinnamon, cloves, ginger, allspice & fennel, enhances sweet flavors. The production of Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

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new dipeptide (asp-met) low calorie sweetener, utilisable by phenyl ketonurea patients are being investigated ­ (Mohamed, Yusof & Nakai, 1994a). Some known anti cancer food components allyl sulphides (onions), Thiocyanates, dithiothiones & isothiocyanates (broccoli, cauliflower & brussel sprouts), indoles & lignans (cruciferous vegetables & flax seed & rye isoflavones (soy foods, flavonoids & carotenoids from tomatoes & various vitamins such as vitamin A,C, D, E, choline, folate, B, B12 from various vegetables & oils. Polyphenols Minerals (Selenium), Zn, I, Ca Carotenoids, natural pigments, Lycopenes, xanthenes Shark cartilage, polysaccharides Possible mechanisms kills cancer cells directly; stimulates immune system; blocks formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis), which tumors need for unrestricted growth. activation of detoxification enzymes ->elimination of toxic carcinogenic compounds, interference with hormone metabolism or acting as hormones competitor, as antioxidants & removal of free radicals, altering growth regulators & Repairs damaged DNA & cell components. mechanisms.

· Plants from cabbage family (Cruciferae) can prevent cancer by various known · (1) Sulforaphane, indoles & isothiocyanates trigger/boost an enzyme system, thus blocks

or suppresses cellular DNA damage,

· reduces tumour size, · decreases effectiveness of estrogen like hormones & · induces transportation of carcinogens out of cells (esp. for breast, liver, colon, lung

stomach & esophageal cancer). (ii) PEITC (phenethyl isothiocyanates) prevents carcinogens from binding with DNA. (iii) Indole-3-carbinol breaks estrogen precursor into a benign instead of cancer causing form. (iv) glucosinolates regulates white blood corpuscles & cytokines to improve immunity & activate liver detoxification enzymes. (v) indoles interact with vitamin C => ascorbigen (active vitamin C metabolite) that binds with chemical carcinogen & activate detoxifying enzymes in gut (Bukhman, 1992).

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Plants from onion family (Allium) contains allylic sulphides. responsible for pungent smell / taste Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

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activate & increase enzymes which detoxify carcinogens & help their excretion. increase immune function, anti mutagenic decrease proliferation of tumour cells.

· Flavonoids present in fruits & vegetables · citrus & berries -prevent activation of cancer-causing hormones. · tomatoes, pineapples, green peppers & strawberries, contains P-coumaric, ellagic &

chlorogenic acids - prevents carcinogens formation Flavonoids -blocks enzymes that produce estrogen or bind estrogen to receptors (e.g. estrogen synthase), to reduce estrogen induced cancer (Northrup, 1994). cryptoxanthin & astazanthin. provide protection against lung, colorectal, breast, uterine & prostate cancers. Cantathantin protects against sunlight cryptoxanthin are protective against vaginal, uterine & cervical cancer. Red pepper (capsaicin), beta carotene, cumin & turmeric prevents attachment of toxins to cells & DNA. Tea (black/green) -prevent skin & bowel cancer in animals. Phenolic acids potential DNA protective antioxidants. Perillyl alcohols (monoterpenes) induces tumour cell death. Soybeans -contains phytoestrogens that resembles estrogen in structure & strongly c compete for estrogen receptor to prevent breast, prostate cancer & reduces gonadotrophic hormones (LH & GSH).

· Carotenoids (yellow, orange or red plant pigments) includes xanthophylls, zeaxanthin, · · · ·

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· Isoflavones -antioxidant, preventing DNA damage, reverting tumour cells to non-

cancerous state & inhibit tumour cells by inhibiting their products. · Genistein retards tumour growth by restricting blood & nutrient supply to tumour cells (anti-angionesis). - good antioxidant & potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor (tyrosine kinase being an indicator to malignancy). · Lecithin -reduce lung tumours & gallstones. · Saponins (steroid glycosides) are antioxidative, antimutagenic (prevents DNA damage), stimulates immunity, directly slay certain cancer (colon) cells & slow their growth. (vi) Plant sterols inhibit certain cancers especially colon, breast & prostate. (vii) Omega 3 fatty acids (in vegetable oils & fish) also provide cancer protection. (viii) Phytates in cereals & legumes help prevent iron-excess oxidative disease states such as cancer, arthritis & diabetes & may enhance anti-cancer immunity. (ix) Dietary fibres & resistant starches - shown to prevent cancer & bowel diseases. Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

· Mineral - chromium, calcium, selenium, · Vitamins - folic acid (prevents chromosome breakage), vitamin A, C & D. · Beta carotene - vitamin A precursor -antioxidant & binds to cancer causing substances &

disables them. · Tocotrienols in palm oil can inhibit breast cancer growth. · strong correlationship between fat intake & cancer -World demographic studies.

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Food that have been shown to have anti-cancer properties in order of potency are: (i) Garlic, cabbage, licorice, soybeans, ginger, umbelliferae (carrots, parsnips, celery). (ii) Onions, green & black tea, turmeric, brown rice, whole wheat, flax, mushrooms, solanacea (tomatoes, egg plants peppers); cruciferae ( broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts) (iii) Oats, mints, oregano, basil, chives, cucumber, thyme, sage, rosemary, potato, cantaloupe, tarragon, barley, berries.

· Complex polysaccharides -lowers colonic cancer incidence. · Dietary fibres & resistant starches -broken by gut microbes -> short chain fatty acids

(SCFA) e.g butyric acid -inhibit tumour growth & repairs damaged DNA. SFCA -lowers pH of gut thus reduce toxic amines absorption & inhibit pathogen growth, increase fluid & electrolyte transport, relaxes resistant blood vessels, stimulates muscle contraction, nourish cells, promotes cell proliferation, inhibits tumour growth, repairs damaged DNA, cells & tissues (Annison & Topping, 1994).

· Phenols & isothiocyanate may promote cancer. · Selenium is generally cancer preventing but it can induce pancreatic cancer in mouse

studies. · Supplementing diet with high levels of beta carotene was reported to cause a 28% increase of lung cancer.

· Cartilage cells (chondrocytes) have blood vessel formation inhibitors (absence of blood

vessels in cartilage) · Formation of new blood vessels, (angiogenesis) -necessary for tumors growth > few millimeters diameter (~100,000 to 1,000,000 cells) tumors must obtain oxygen & nutrients from blood. · A developing tumor, cannot grow without good connections to circulatory system of its host. Cartilage and cancer · tumors will initiate angiogenesis when they contain as few as 100 cells. · early stage angiogenesis inhibition may, cause complete tumor regression. regression. Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

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cartilage has angiogenesis inhibitors for cancer treatment. bovine cartilage contains > 3 different angiogenesis inhibitors shark cartilage > 2 angiogenesis inhibitors. inhibitors. major cartilage structural components -collagen & glycosaminoglycans (polysaccharides -Chondroitin sulfate)- not proven anti-angiogenetic Some shark cartilage angiogenesis inhibitor has glycosaminoglycan (Lab/Animal/Preclinical Studies). Some cartilage -have anti-inflammatory & immune-system-stimulating properties,

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glycosaminoglycans /breakdown products : toxic to tumor cells. ANTIOXIDANTS ·free radical scavenging activity; antiageing Flavonoids > protective of vitamin E Flavonoids :-20 x more antioxidative than ascorbic acid; (Larson, 1988; Vinson et al., 1995) (QUERCETIN, MYRICETIN, KAEMPFEROL, CHLOROGENIC ACID, ALL CATECHINS, CAPSAICINS, CURCUMIN, LUTEOLIN, GALLIC ACID, THEAFLAVINS, ISOFLAVINS SULFUR COMPOUNDS · prevent phospholipid bilayers peroxidation (Terao et al 1994 ) · Stability: polyphenols > -tocopherol; (epicatechin EC, epicatechin gallate ECG & Quercetin disappeared in favor of -tocopherol).

Known natural antioxidants · grape skin, rutin, polyphenols & flavonoids in fruits, tocotrienol in palm oil & rice bran oil, genistein (soya), vitamins A, C & E, natural plant pigments, carotenoids, zinc, manganese & selenium. · Isoprenoids - long carbon chains that anchor to & protects fatty membranes · Lipoic acid & Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) protect vit.C, E & liver enzymes Antioxidative Polyphenols: · reduce risk for coronary heart disease (Yoshida 1990). · prevent atherosclerosis (Hollman et al., 1997). · Vitamin C & E sparing activity · potent anticancer agent in man (Yoshida et al. (1990). · reduce carcinogenic activity of mutagens, enhanced antiproliferative activity of anticancer agents · inhibit growth of transformed tumorigenic cells (Leighton et al., 1992). Flavonoids Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

·anti microbe, antivirus, antitoxin, ·antiinflammation, antiallergic, · Phytoestrogenic, anti-ageing · anti-platelet, anti-thrombotic, anti-clotting · immunomodulator, induce detoxifying enzyme -glutathione S-transferase: SOD · relieve local pain caused by inflammation, headache, oral surgery & stomach ulcer (Havsteen, `83).

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Improve kidney, liver functions

Catechin: Antimicrobial (directly damage microbial cell membrane, synergistic with other antibiotics, binds to microbial toxins; & virus (antiviral), anticancer,

Kaempferol: anti-inflammatory antiulcer activity (Goet et al., 1988) inhibit HIV protease (Brinkworth et al., 1992). enhances immune functions, increased GSH hypotensive, Antioxidants: inhibit Macrophage- mediated LDL oxidation ô : Chlorogenic acid ­ highest Theaflavins > catechins; epigallocatechin gallate > vitamin E: Gallic acid, catechin & epicatechin ­strongly inhibit human LDL ô : Black tea: prolonged -LDL ô lag time in 14 healthy volunteers; Dosage: 750 mL /d for 4 wk. flavonol glycosides not affected by polyphenoloxidase as catechins, important vitamin P effect (regulation of capillary permeability) & effects on blood pressure (Finger et al., 1991). Black tea ~ 3% > Onion leaves (2.7g/kg) main dietary sources of flavonoid Bird chili (1.6g/kg flavonoid) -highest luteolin content Anticancer activity of catechins, myricetin, luteolin, kaempferol

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inhibit enzymes, related to tumorigenesis, /antimutagen, (lipoxygenase & prostaglandin synthetase) -reduce risk of tumorigenesis Suppressed H202 production & oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells Topical application: Inhibited tumor initiation & promotion in mouse skin. Huang et al Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

1992).

Cell-line

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J558 : Balb/C mouse cancer cells 3T3 : mice fibroblast cell MDA-MB-435 : human breast ductal carcinoma PN6 : human leukemia cell-line

MDA-MB-435

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Flavonoids & polyphenol: stilbenes, tannins, lignin, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid catechin & epicatechin - antifungal & anticarcinogenic properties, & important for normal growth, development & defence against injury & infection of plants (Kahkonen, et al., 1999).

Food that contains growth factors (assist cell growth & healing) · small proteins that help cells grow/heal with low nutrient requirements · whey (IgF) from of milk · Soybean, Honey, microbes · haruan ? (snake head fish) · applied topically for wound healing · animal feed - more efficient conversion to lean meat Food that heal digestive ailments · Flatulent colic, diarrhea, constipation, heartburn · Overeating, stomachache, poor appetite · dietery fibres, Nutmeg, star anise, anise seed, caraway, black cumin, cumin, dill, ginger, galangal, cekur, garlic, onions, cloves, citrus juice · mechanism: · increases gut motility · inhibit pathogen · increases digestive juice secretion · strengthens the muscles of the digestive tract

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Food for piles/laxative contain extra high soluble & insoluble dietary fibre, Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

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may behave as good laxatives. kangkong (water convolvulus), ketola (luffa), mangoes, papaya, bananas, & pineapples. rice, esp brown, whole grain cereals, legumes, vegetables & fruits in general. FOOD FOR BREATHING & RESPIRATION PROBLEMS volatile enough to stimulate mucous membrane of the respiratory system behave as expectorants, decongestant, antitussive, & good for coughs. increase mucous membrane secretion, kills pathogens, reduce inflamation, reduce viscosity (break hydrogen bonds)

Food that ease breathing & respiration · menthol (mints), Limonoids (citrus peels) protect lung, d-limonene, pinene & eucalyptol, clear decongestion · mustard, chilies, mints, ginger, pepper, lankuas, cloves, garlic, citrus juice, belimbing buloh, & cekur (antitussive). Food/spices that are skin stimulants · Counterirritant, reduce inflammation, antimicrobial, may be good for rashes ­ Ginger, chilies, black pepper ­ Mustard, cloves, onions, garlic ­ Radishes, mints, luffa leaves ­ Starfruit flowers, citrus oils

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Anti-inflammatory plants spiny pigweed (bayam duri), belimbi leaves (external application), candlenut, marigold (bunga tahi ayam), cekur, & pomelo leaves Phytosterols, f1avonoids, 3-n fatty acids & phenols in edible plants. Antiseptic / antimicrobial FOOD Guava leaves, starfruit, skin of most fruits e.g. rambai, passionfruit, rambutan, duku, langsat, mangosteen (Mohamed S., Hassan Z. & Hamid N.A.; 1994), lemon grass Garlic, chilies, onions, ginger, dill, mustard Belimbi, Annona seeds, langkuas, mint Betel nut, bunga tahi ayam (marigold) Cekur, cloves, cumin, cashew sap Jambu mawar seeds, luffa (ketola) Antiseptic activity in spice

· Spices/FOOD that are antifungal · Delays food from getting moldy

Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

· From 58 Malaysian plants, betel leaves (sireh), stronger than commercially available

fungicides (Mohamed, Saka, EI-Sharkawi, Ali,& Muid, 1996c) · Cloves, cinnamon, Mustard, allspice, Oregano, Galangal, garlic, sendudok, Belimbi, starfruit, Cashew sap, jambu air, allylic sulfides · Kangkong buds, kundur

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Plants that are insect repellents/insecticidal Pepper, ginger, cloves, chili Serai, pandan, kesom, lengkuas, turmeric, petai, jering ­ [Mohamed S. Mehadin M., Taipor H., & M. Y. Hussein (1996)] · Onions, garlic, starfruit · Custard & sugar apple seeds (Annona spp.), Cashew sap Mechanism for insecticidal activity anti feedant: hot taste irritant to membrane, during larval growth stage of the insect volatiles may act as insect repellent some compounds may have knock-out effect piperine from pepper are more potent than pyrethrum on housefly) Plants that aids worm expulsion/anthelmintic Garlic, chillies, pepper, cashew Papaya seeds, pumpkin/cucurbita/squash seeds Annona seeds, citrus shoots Betel nut, cumin, pineapples Green mangos Food that can reduce fever Garlic, dill Akar manis (Albizzia myriophylla) Belimbi, starfruit Candlenut, cekur Jambu bol Jambu mawar Betel nut

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Food/plants that are diuretic, emmenagogue · (increase secretion of body fluids) contain substances the body tries to eliminate - used to eliminate excess fluid e.g. Petai & jering, (djenkolic acid); Coffee (cafein); Bayam duri, Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

belimbing, betel nut, cashew apple, jambu bol, ketola (luffa), mango, & pineapples · increase milk flow: dill, & bayam duri (spiney pigweed).

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Plants that are antithyroid, for hyperthyroid patients Garlic Cabbage (raw) Mechanism: isothiocyanates inhibit iodine absorption/ utilisation by the thyroid through competitive or on competitive binding to receptor sites Menopausal syndrome & osteoporosis soyabean-phytoestrogens cereals & legumes: plant proteins, reduce calcium loss, cancer, heart disease, diabetes & menopausal symptoms boron: stimulates estrogen Plant proteins reduce calcium loss reduce cancer incidence reduce cholesterol and heart disease reduce diabetes reduce menopausal syndrome Product development of plant proteins: (Mohamed & Abdullah, 1988; Mohamed et al1989b; 1995, 1996b; Mohamed 1990; Jomduang & Mohamed 1994a; Mohamed & Hamid 1994; ) Spices/food with other physiological effects Sedative, (kangkong, mints) Improves memory (celery, fish oil, 3-3-n fatty acids in veg oil), pegaga Improve eyesight (celery, vit A, beta carotene, 3-n fatty acids) Astringent (jambu air, unripe fruits) Vasopressor (citrus juice chocolates, bananas) Contracts the womb (pineapples, cloves) Miscellaneous Strengthen nails, hair (dill) remove stains (Belimbi, starfruit) Green tea - fluoride to fight dental cavity Lecithin - healthy nervous system Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

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3-n fatty acids - arthritis & diabetes Folic acid prevents neural tube defects. Limonoids - liver induce detoxification Flavonoids -fighting allergies, ulcers, & hepatotoxins, retard catarract in diabetics Anthocyanidins strengthen tissues, collagen

· THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

Suhaila Mohamed (PhD), Professor in Food Science, Department of Food Service Management Faculty of Food Science and Technology, 43400 Universiti Putra Malaysia 603-89468391; 017-3872878, Fax: 603-89423552, Email: [email protected]

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