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MANUSCRIPTS ACCEPTED OR IN PRESS, INCLUDING ABSTRACTS (2012)

For Current journal content see individual journal page at http://www.globalsciencebooks.info/Journals/GSBJournals.html

st Updated 1 October, 2012 (ordered alphabetically, unless in press)

Bioremediation, Biodiversity and Bioavailability

Chris O. Ojiewo (Malawi), Gedion N. Mwai, Mary O. Abukutsa-Onyango, Stephen G. Agong (Kenya), Nono-Womdim (Tanzania/Italy) Exploiting the Genetic Diversity of Vegetable African Nightshades ABSTRACT Mini-Review: African nightshades (Solanum section Solanum) are an important source of daily nutrients and income for small-scale farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and are a delicacy for urban inhabitants. The section is one of the most ubiquitous, largest and most diverse species groups of the genus Solanum, with more than 30 reported species. Complete profiling of the species in this section has been hampered by several morphological, cytological and taxonomic complexities. There is great diversity within the section that could be exploited to improve African nightshade for greater productivity, income generation and nutritional benefits. This paper outlines some factors responsible for the diversity and emphasizes the need for conservation, improvement and utilization of the agrobiodiversity within this section. Pasquale Martiniello (Italy), Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan) Botanical Survey of Floral Species and Animal Feeding Values in Pasturelands of Environments with a Mediterranean Climate ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The native flora of Mediterranean environments with meso-Mediterranean zones, instead of being protected by European Union and Italian government law, continue to be threatened as a result of the effect of social and anthropological evolution and misleading utilization of herbs causing genetic erosion of flora species. A floral survey was established over a two-year period in 20 pasturelands. The biodiversity discovered in the environmental pastures amounts to 29 botanical families and 361 floral species. The most represented floral species (expressed as a percentage of the mean value of the floral species of pasturelands) belong to the following botanical families: Graminaceae (26%), Leguminosae (17%), Compositae (19%), Labiatae (5%), Liliaceae (5%), Umbelliferae (3%), Cruciferae (4%), Plantaginaceae and Ranunculaceae (3%), and Caryophyllaceae (2%). The floral species less represented (< 1% of total flora) are included in a miscellaneous group composed of 19 botanical families. The floral biodiversity influences the herbage and milk feeding units of pasturelands. Five species from the Graminaceae (Aegilops geniculata L., Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Borbas, Stipa barbata Desf., Lolium perenne L. and Phalaris minor L.), which face the risk of extinction, were evaluated over a separate (but later) two-year period at Foggia for seed production. Agronomic evaluations of seed yield and its components of the five most popular grass species evidenced different bioagronomic characteristics and the possibility to provide a seed source for reseeding degraded pasturelands as a way to recover the natural equilibrium of native species in Mediterranean environments. Agronomic practices for seed production of floral species under the risk of extinction in favourable environments in order to provide seed stock to reseed represent a scientific tool to reduce the genetic erosion of floral species present in the degraded swards of the Mediterranean pasturelands. Poonam Lapalikar, Dugyala Raju, Urmil J. Mehta (India) In Vitro Studies on Zinc, Copper and Cadmium Accumulation Potential of Jatropha curcas L. Seedlings ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Germination rate, growth, accumulation capacity and tissue-wise distribution pattern of metals Jatropha curcas L. when exposed to increasing concentrations of heavy metals ranging from 100-700 µM Zn and 50-200 µM of Cu and Cd were evaluated under aseptic in vitro conditions. Growth of seedlings was found significantly affected rather than germination frequency. There was significant decline in the shoot heights with increasing concentrations of Cd and Cu as compared to Zn, exhibiting differential metal specific tolerance levels. Accumulation of metal increased concomitantly with Remi

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increasing exposure level of all the metals studied. The pattern of metal accumulation was in the order of root > stem > leaf for all three metals. Among the metals, the accumulation pattern was Cd > Cu > Zn, Cd > Zn > Cu and Zn > Cd > Cu for root, stem and leaf samples, respectively. The Translocation Factor values with respect to leaves and stem tissues in combination were mostly <1 in all concentrations studied, except in Cu control, Zn 300 and 500 µM, where it was slightly higher, suggesting that metal accumulated mostly in plant roots. Biological Accumulation Coefficient values showed that jatropha could accumulate Cd more efficiently than Cu and Zn. This study helps in understanding optimal growth and accumulation performance of J. curcas in different soil contamination levels of Cu, Cd and Zn and would be useful for a value added approach for eco-restoration of specific metal-contaminated sites. Abdesatar Omezine (Tunisia), Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan) Floristic Biodiversity of Weed Communities in Relation to Conventional and Organic Farming ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: This experiment was conducted at the Superior Institute of Agronomy at Chott-Meriem (Sousse, Tunisia). Weed abundance, species richness and diversity in conventional and organic irrigated vegetable crops in Chott-Meriem were compared in spring by means of a relative abundance index for each species. Shannon's index was used to assess the effect of intensification on the floristic composition and structure of weed vegetation, while a community coefficient was used to evaluate the degree of resemblance between the two floras and to evaluate the role of organic farming in preventing the continued loss of biodiversity caused by intensive farming practices. 8 paired crops were selected and the samples were arranged in randomized complete design. Each pair contained one long-term established organic (for at least 20 years) site and one conventional site. 160 samples were collected from primary plots and analyzed separately or together. 64 samples of 100 g soil were used for analysis of organic matter, nitrogen, pH and electrical conductivity. The weed species were identified and classified according to their importance and type of distribution. Results showed that abundance, species richness and diversity were higher in organic than in conventional fields. This study also showed that the conversion from conventional to organic farming inverted the weed flora. The organic matter content and the salinity were higher in organic soils. The abundant biomass present in organic farming may promote biodiversity and help to biologically control pests and favor insect pollination. A better understanding of changes occurring in the composition of the weed flora could result in a better weed control strategy. Tukaram D. Nikam, Janardhan N. Nehul, Yogesh R. Gahile, Bhausaheb K. Auti, Mahendra L. Ahire, Kirti M. Nitnaware, Bimba N. Joshi, Narendra Jawali (India) Cyanobacterial Diversity in Western Ghats Region of Maharashtra, India ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Cyanobacterial diversity in Ahmednagar, Pune and Satara district of Maharashtra State, Western Ghats ­ one of the biodiversity hotspots of India­was assessed. Screening of 627 soil samples from different locations in the above regions revealed that 94 cyanobacterial spp. belonged to 38 genera, 14 families and 5 orders. Diversity analysis revealed that Westiellopsis prolifica Janet. was relatively abundant (47.21%) followed by Nostoc calcicola Brebsson ex Born. et Flah. (44.82%). The frequency distribution of Myxosarcina spectabilis Geitler was less. Nostoc (Nostocaceae), Chroococcus (Chroococcaceae) and Anabaena (Nostocaceae) were the most densely populated genera. The information obtained will be useful in exploitation of cyanobacteria for biotechnological, pharmaceutical and other applications. Oluwatosin Ebenezer Atobatele (Nigeria) Pelagic Phytoplankton Succession Pattern in a Tropical Freshwater Reservoir (Aiba Reservoir, Iwo, Osun, Nigeria) ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Fortnight phytoplankton sampling of Aiba Reservoir was carried out between March 2004 and February 2005 to determine phytoplankton succession pattern. Five major phytoplankton groups identified show two similar ordered directional repeated sequences of abundance peak patterns during an annual cycle; each began with a peak in Cyanophyceae abundance followed in order by peak abundances of Dinophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae and Euglenophyceae. The first succession pattern occurred between late April and mid-September (early rainy season) while the second occurred between early September and early February (late rainy season ­ dry season). A brief dry spell (August break) during the rainy season is a major factor determining this biannual pattern.

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Rajesh Kumar, Ashwani Tapwal (India), Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Shailesh Pandey, Davapod Borah (India) Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Associated in a Mixed Natural Forest of Jeypore, Assam ABSTRACT Research Note: A study was conducted to investigate the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), spore population in rhizosphere soils and root colonization with trees in different seasons at Jeypore Reserve Forest, Assam, India. All 10 selected tree species had an AMF association with a varied range of root colonization and spore count in rhizosphere soil. Maximum percent root colonization was recorded in the rainy season (23-61%) which gradually declined in winter (13-58%) and was minimum in winter (11-40%), irrespective of the host species. Correspondingly, the rainy season recorded highest AMF spore count in rhizosphere soils (15-42) followed by winter (11-32) and least in summer (8-21). Based on morphological characteristics, 11 AMF species were recorded, representing four genera, viz. Glomus (5 spp.), Acaulospora (4 spp.), Gigaspora (1 sp.) and Sclerocystis (1 sp.), in which Glomus and Acaulosporai were found to be the dominant genera.

Dynamic Biochemistry, Process Biotechnology and Molecular Biology

SPECIAL ISSUE: Proceedings of Bio-energy from Wastes: Green Chemistry Interventions, 25-26 November, 2010, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI)-CSIR, Dept. of Science & Technology, Govt. of India, Nehru Marg, Nagpur, India. ~ 2012 Venkatesh Balan, Leonardo da Costa Sousa, Shishir P.S. Chundawat, James Humpula, Bruce E. Dale (USA) Overview to ammonia pretreatments for lignocellulosic biorefineries ABSTRACT Invited Review: Development of environmentally sustainable and economically viable technologies for plant cell wall deconstruction to fermentable sugars has been impeded due to native plant cell wall recalcitrance to thermochemical and biological based processing. Lower severity alkaline-based pretreatment processes like Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEXTM) can overcome several limitations of traditional pretreatment approaches (e.g., acidic pretreatments) to producing cellulosic biofuels and biochemicals. Here, we give an overview of chemical reactions taking place during alkaline pretreatments including reactions between ammonia and polysaccharides/lignin (e.g., ammonolysis, hydrolysis and Maillard-type reactions). AFEXTM based pretreatments enhance enzymatic digestibility and fermentability of lignocellulosic biomass through various chemical and ultra-structural modifications within the cell wall. An improved mechanistic understanding of the AFEXTM process has led to the development of novel alkaline pretreatments that are briefly discussed in this review. Antje C. Spiess (Germany) Ionic Liquid-Assisted Enzymatic Depolymerisation of Cellulose from Biomass ABSTRACT Invited Review: The recalcitrance of lignocellulose poses a major challenge for its sustainable utilization as source for chemicals, materials and fuels. The capability of some ionic liquids (IL) to dissolve lignocellulose and gain a precipitated amorphous material is exploited within the Cluster of Excellence "Tailor-made fuels from biomass" (www.fuelcenter.rwth-aachen.de) as an alternative pre-treatment for further (bio)-chemical conversion to fuel components. Based on scattered light intensity measurements (BioLector®, Germany) of cellulose suspended in IL, a number of IL capable of dissolving cellulose could be identified. After precipitation from the IL, enzymatic hydrolysis rates and yields are significantly enhanced (~ 20-fold rate and + 10% yield). These results can be partially transferred to wooden biomass. When retaining e.g. 10% (v/v) ionic liquid content in an aqueous system however, the enzymatic activity of commercial cellulase preparations (Celluclast®, Novozyme, Denmark) is significantly reduced to between 20 and 30% of its activity in aqueous solution. Ionic strength and viscosity of the IL have been identified as important contributing factors. Interestingly, the enzyme stability was fully maintained. However, the IL interacts differentially for endo- and exo-acting cellulases. The interpretation of these data is facilitated using mathematical models, e.g. those based on population balances (Predici), that allow incorporating both the polymeric nature of the substrate and in case of precipitated cellulose also the particle characteristics of the substrate, i.e. size, crystallinity, and porosity. As a result of the experimental and theoretical studies, improvements for IL-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis should be directed at 1) increasing enzyme activity in presence of IL and 2) tailoring the composition of the enzyme mixture to the resulting cellulosic material using the mathematical models.

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Bijaya Ketan Sarangi, Sarita Tiwari, Dinesh Yadav, Ram Avatar Pandey (India) Enhanced Energy Density in Plants: Scope and Prospects ABSTRACT Invited Review: The advances in conversion technologies to make fuels from biomass have become more economically viable, although bioenergy production will primarily depend on biomass availability. However, as biomass availability becomes increasingly restricted, so too does the availability of biomass as a feedstock for bioenergy industry become questionable. Forest resources are the primary source of biomass that can not be further exploited due to a need for environment preservation and sustainable growth. Therefore, R&D strategies to regenerate sufficient feed stock for the bioenergy industry are a priority to make bioenergy production viable. In this context, enhanced biomass production of tree species is a valid R&D proposition which could play key role for foreseeable bioenergy production. This R&D proposition entails an understanding of the regulation of plant radial growth that underlies wood development. Strengthening our knowledge is quintessential to strategically plan the enhancement of tree biomass production. Phytohormones play a significant role in the regulation of wood development. Auxin is required for cell proliferation and cell differentiation during cambial development. Besides auxin, several other phytohormones, including cytokinin, gibberellin and ethylene, play regulatory roles in the control of cambial activity because of their stimulatory effect on cell division. The potential exploitation of these hormones to enhance biomass production should be explored. This paper outlines R&D approaches to exploit biotechnological tools for manipulation of physiological responses of select woody plants to enhance biomass production. Madan Junghare, Sanjukta Subudhi, Priyangshu M. Sharma, Ajoy Kumar Mandal, Banwari Lal (India) Mesophilic Hydrogen Production by Clostridium butyricum strain TM-9A, an Alkaline-Tolerant Dark Fermentative Bacterium ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The present study reports hydrogen production potential by an alkaline-tolerant bacterium Clostridium butyricum strain TM-9A isolated from an estuarine river sediment sample and identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Different process parameters such as initial pH, temperature and NaCl concentration affected the hydrogen production potential and growth of TM-9A strain in batch dark fermentation experiments. Glucose (10 g L-1) was used as substrate for an optimization study. TM-9A strain was able to tolerate up to 16 g L-1 of NaCl. Strain TM-9A produced maximum hydrogen, 57.8 mmol L-1, at an initial pH 8 under mesophilic conditions, i.e. in the absence of NaCl. Acetic and butyric acid were the major soluble metabolites detected at 12.32 and 11.61 mmol L-1, respectively. Hydrogen yield was 2.0­2.1 mol H2/mol glucose. Furthermore, the strain was also evaluated for its ability to utilize different carbohydrate-rich substrates like corn syrup (25.74 mmol L-1), molasses (23.44 mmol L-1) and starch (43.29 mmol L-1), sucrose (31.45 mmol L-1), and cellulose (4.16 mmol L-1), respectively for hydrogen production. Hoysala N. Chanakya, Sreesha Malayil (India) Techno-economic Potential for Value Added Products from Digestion of Urban Solid Wastes and Rural Residues ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: India is urbanizing rapidly accompanied by a gradually increasing rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) production that ranges from 200-500 g/cap/day. The domestic, restaurant, garden and community eatery wastes constitute nearly 90% of the total MSW produced in a city and comprises of >85% decomposable or fermentable components. Decentralized anaerobic digesters are an attractive option that reduces transportation costs and C-footprint but is impeded by difficult to digest components such as banana leaves, stems etc ­ about 15-20% of the total fermentables of USW. This situation requires simultaneous fermentation of banana leaf/stem along with food wastes. Plug flow approaches allow multi-feed digestion without preprocessing and such an option has been tried out for banana leaf. The feasibility and techno-economic potential of multi-product anaerobic digesters using banana leaf is examined. The operation and function of a 50 kg/d plant (equivalent to a large household plant) is described here. The study quantifies recovery of four value-added products (VAP) sensible to this option and describes the processes required, estimates their value and projects commercial viability ­ to finally make a case for decentralized, commercially run zero waste option for this type of waste ­ predominant in south India. Saumita Banerjee, Ramkrishna Sen, Amruta Morone, Tapan Chakrabarti, Ram Pandey, Sandeep Mudliar (India) Improved Wet Air Oxidation Pretreatment for Enhanced Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Rice Husk for Bioethanol Production

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ABSTRACT Short Communication: Pretreatment of rice husk by the Alkaline Peroxide Assisted Wet Air Oxidation (APAWAO) approach enhanced the enzymatic convertibility of cellulose in APAWAO-pretreated rice husk. The present work describes the structural changes in rice husk brought about by APAWAO pretreatment by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The SEM images illustrate the extensive loss of biomass integrity following APAWAO pretreatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicated the loss of amorphous lignin following APAWAO to be a factor contributing to the enhanced enzymatic digestibility of pre-treated rice husk. Sridharan Jagadeeswari, Manickam Dakshinamoorthy Balakumaran, Padmanabhan Vidya, Pudupalayam Thangavelu Kalaichelvan, Kanesan Panneer Selvam (India) Utilization of Shrimp and Crab Wastes for the Production of N-Acetylglucosamine by Chitinolytic Soil Streptomyces sp. SJKP9 ABSTRACT Research Note: Shrimp, crab and other crustacean shells are the major wastes of sea food processing industries, possessing a rich amount of protein and oligosaccharides such as chitin and chitosan. In this study, shrimp and crab wastes were utilized to produce the amino sugar compound N-acetylglucosamine using chitinolytic Streptomyces sp. SJKP9 isolated from a sea shore soil sample. The chitin flakes obtained from the sources were digested using crude chitinase enzyme derived from Streptomyces sp. SJKP9 and N-acetylglucosamine was precipitated from a concentrated solution of hydrozylate by adding ethanol. Crab chitin produced more N-acetylglucosamine than shrimp chitin. Debdulal Banerjee, Subhadip Mahapatra (India) Fungal Tannase: A Journey from Strain Isolation to Enzyme Applications ABSTRACT Invited Review: Tannase is an important enzyme and plays an important role in plant polyphenol degradation as well as conversion to very important pharmaceutical products. Even though this enzyme is widely applied to different food and beverage industries, its industrial production, proper induction and catalysis mechanism still remain limited. This review presents an illustrated revision on fungal tannase. Emphasis had been laid on fungal strains which can produce tannase, different fermentation processes of tannase production, tannase purification, structural and functional characteristics of this enzyme, different enzyme assay techniques and applications of this enzyme. A probable mechanism of tannin degradation by fungus is briefly described. Mohd Mazid, Taqi Ahmed Khan, Firoz Mohammad (India), Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Ahmad Anees (India) Energy Crops and Cellulosic Biofuels: The Future Remedy for Transportation and Energy Security ABSTRACT Review: The development of economically viable and environmentally sustainable, low-carbon, liquid fuels from cellulosic biomass will require advances in many areas of science and technology. Biofuels are being extensively promoted for their potential to contribute to energy security, stable energy prices and climate change mitigation throughout the globe. A key constraint to our ability to expand biofuel production to significantly reduce dependence on fossil fuels is likely to be the limited amount of agricultural land available to produce food, feed and energy crops. The choice between engineering natural functions and importing biosynthetic capacity is affected but current progress in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. This review describes the major genomic research topics of information including energy crops and microorganisms, factors influencing the process of breakdown of biomass production by microbial activity as well as improving the prospects of its significant production. Sasidharan Nishanth Kumar, Bala Nambisan, R. Ramya, Chellapan Mohandas (India) Influence of Six Carbon Sources with Yeast Extract on Antimicrobial Metabolite Production by Bacterium Associated with Entomopathogenic Nematode ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: A specific symbiotic Bacillus species isolated from a rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode, Rhabditis (Oscheius) sp. was found to produce a number of bioactive compounds. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of six different carbon sources in combination with yeast extract on the production of antimicrobial substances by Bacillus sp. The yield of crude antimicrobial substances and antimicrobial activity against the test microorganism

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also differed significantly when the carbon sources in the fermentation media were changed. The highest yield was recorded for maltose plus yeast extract (836 mg/L). The antimicrobial activity was significantly higher in yeast extract plus fructose [Pencillium expansum (46.5 ± 2.12 mm) and Escherichia coli (42.00 mm)] than yeast extract plus other carbon souces used in the study. Antimicrobial activity was significantly reduced in yeast extract plus glucose. HPLC analysis of the crude antimicrobial substances revealed different peaks with different retention times indicating that they produced different compounds. When a carbon source was not included in the fermentation media, the antimicrobial production was substantially reduced to almost eight times. Carbon source in the fermentation medium plays a vital role in the production of antimicrobial substances. Yeast extract and fructose as nitrogen and carbon sources in the fermentation medium produced maximum antimicrobial activity. Sameen Farha, Emon Chatterjee, Suba G. A. Manuel, Shobha Ananda Reddy, Radha D. Kale (India) Isolation and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds from Fruit Wastes ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The current study was aimed at utilizing fruit wastes generated after pectin extraction for assessing their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Total soluble proteins (TSP) and heat-stable proteins (HSP) were extracted from wastes of Musa sp., Citrus limetta, Citrullus lanatus, Solanum lycopersicum and Psidium sp. The HSP from S. lycopersicum waste could suppress the growth of Escherichia coli whereas Musa sp. and C. limetta HSP could inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas sp. C. limetta HSP was most effective in suppressing the growth of Fusarium oxysporum relative to the other test samples. No pathogens responded towards the HSP of C. lanatus. High antioxidant activity [Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)] along with high phenolic levels were observed in Psidium sp. and Musa sp. fruit residues. Adopting appropriate extraction methods for active biomolecules from biodegradable wastes may pave the way for neutriceutical and pharmaceutical applications. Mithun Raj, Vinayaka Hegde, Muthulekshmi Lajapathy Jeeva, Archana Prathapachandran Vasanthakumari, Pravi Vidyadharan, Vishnu Sukumari Nath, Muthukrishnan Senthil alias Sankar (India) Rapid and Efficient Method for the Extraction of Genomic DNA from Colletotrichum spp. Suitable for PCR Analysis ABSTRACT Techniques Paper: Contemporary approaches for the extraction of genomic DNA from Colletotrichum spp., the filamentous fungal pathogen genera infecting many important crop plants, are often expensive and yield poor quantity and quality of DNA. The high mucilage and polysaccharide content in this fungus add difficulties in genomic DNA isolation, and further downstream applications. We therefore investigated a new and rapid DNA isolation method, which involves inactivation of contaminant proteins by using guanidine hydrochloride/Proteinase K and precipitation of DNA using ice cold isopropanol. This protocol yielded 0.89 ± 0.10 g DNA mg-1 of mycelium with purity ranges from 1.75-2.05 as confirmed by A260/280 spectrophotometric readings. An advantage of this protocol is its compliance even without a refrigerated centrifuge. The new protocol can be successfully used for both mini and maxi preparation of genomic DNA which meet the quality parameters for further downstream processes like PCR-RAPD, AFLP, SSR and ITS amplification of the rDNA-ITS region.

Dynamic Soil, Dynamic Plant

SPECIAL ISSUE: Vermitechnology IV. Guest Editor: Natchimuthu Karmegam (Department of Botany, Government Arts College, Tamil Nadu, India) 2013 Mira Grdisa (Croatia) Therapeutic Properties of Earthworms ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: The medical value of earthworms has been known for centuries. This is evident from the history of the ancient Southeastern Asian medicine (China, Japan, Vietnam). The earthworms are the source of proteins, peptides, enzymes and physiologically active substances. Thus, the extracts prepared from the earthworm tissue have been used for the treatment of numerous diseases. Earthworms, like other complex invertebrates, possess several types of leukocytes which synthesize and secrete a variety of immunoprotective molecules. The immunoprotective system is involved in phagocytosis, encapsulation, agglutination, opsonization, clotting and lysis of foreign components. The lytic reactions against several targets are mediated by two major leukocytes, small and large coelomocytes. In the last 10 years a number of earthworms' clot-dissolving, lytic and

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immune-boosting compounds have been isolated and tested in laboratory and clinical studies. In particular, research has been focused on clot-dissolving molecules. Fibrinolytic enzymes, which are regarded as potent and safe, have been purified and studied from several species of earthworms, including Lumbricus rubellas and Eisenia fetida. Its therapeutic and preventive effects on thrombosis-related disease have been clinically confirmed. However, several studies have shown that earthworm extracts contain different macromolecules, which exhibit a variety of activities, such as antioxidative, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, etc. Some of these activities are involved in wound healing using an earthworm preparation.

Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology

SPECIAL ISSUE: Bulbous ornamentals (bulbs, cormels and tubers) (Guest Editors: Jaap Van Tuyl and Paul Arens, Wageningen University, The Netherlands) ~ 2012 Geert-Jan de Klerk (The Netherlands) Micropropagation of Bulbous Crops: Technology and Present State ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Conventional propagation of bulbous crops must be supplemented with micropropagation to satisfy the requirements of present-day horticulture with respect to fast production of disease-free, superior starting material. Adequate micropropagation protocols for bulbous crops are therefore a sine qua non. The successive steps in micropropagation of bulbous crops are reviewed: initiation, multiplication, bulb formation, dormancy breaking and planting. In the first two steps, new shoots or bulblets are generated by axillary bud outgrowth or adventitious regeneration. During initiation, endogenous contamination may be a severe problem since bulbs grow subterraneously and have often been propagated vegetatively in the field for many years. Other drawbacks are insufficient axillary branching, poor adventitious regeneration and inferior growth. The latter, inferior growth, is likely the most significant problem and is caused by poor translocation of medium ingredients to the growing regions within the explant. In micropropagation of bulbous crops, bulblets should be produced because of, among others, easy handling and acclimatization. For optimal performance after planting in soil, preparatory treatments are required in particular a dormancy breaking treatment. A phase-change from juvenile to adult and protective pretreatments are also profitable. It is concluded that when major problems like that of inferior growth have been solved, commercial micropropagation of bulbous crops will experience a second heyday. Malgorzata Podwyszyska (Poland) The Mechanisms of in Vitro Storage Organ Formation in Ornamental Geophytes ABSTRACT Invited Review: In most ornamental geophytes, the rate of conventional vegetative propagation is low. Ten or even twenty years can pass until the commercial release of a new genotype. Therefore, numerous micropropagation methods have been developed to enhance the propagation rate, but also to obtain healthy elite stock material, speed up the breeding process, provide new genotypes on the market and restore endangered geophytes. In a number of geophyte species, formation of bulbs, corms or tubers is an essential step in the micropropagation process because only a storage organ shows high rooting ability and good field performance. In nature, abundance of photosynthesis-derived sugars together with some inducing environmental factors (low temperature, short or long day) trigger a sequence of biochemical, physiological, and finally, morphological events leading to storage organ formation. In in vitro conditions, however, due to insufficient light intensity, sugars have to be provided exogenously. In vivo, sugars exist as the multifunctional internal factors, while in vitro, they act both as internal and external factors. This can lead to certain disturbances in the course of the in vitro tuberization process. Therefore, success in storage organ formation often requires administration of the proper growth regulators whose endogenous production is insufficient (cytokinins, abscisic acid, jasmonates, auxins and polyamines), and sometimes other specific compounds such as inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis. This review focuses on the recent findings about the tuberization process in vitro of ornamental geophytes in relation to the newest knowledge concerning tuber formation in potato as model plant. Also some aspects of storage organ formation in vitro, the stages and the factors regulating this process on the morphological, physiological and biochemical levels are discussed in relation to storage organ formation occurring in nature (in vivo). Avner Cohen (Israel), Frans A. Krens (The Netherlands) Genetic Transformation in the Breeding of Flower Bulbs ABSTRACT

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Invited Mini-Review: Ornamental geophytes are used for the production of cut-flowers, potted flowering plants or in gardening (collectively known as flower bulbs). Most flower-bulb cultivars have been produced by cross hybridization and mutation breeding and are propagated vegetatively. Biotechnological techniques have been used to breed and propagate these plants. Plant breeders use in vitro techniques, such as cut-style in vitro fertilization, embryo rescue, ovary-slice culture and ovule culture, to overcome pre- or post fertilization compatibility barriers and generate interspecific hybrids. Recently, biotechnological tools such as molecular markers and genetic engineering have also been introduced. Genetic transformation may be defined as the utilization of isolated recombinant DNA based technology to aid the effective incorporation of a limited number of valuable traits (that are not available in the original plant genome or in closely related species) into improved cultivars lacking such traits. Transformation techniques supplement the other methods available to plant breeders and are especially valuable for clonally propagated crops, such as flower bulbs. Flower bulbs have been transformed using both Agrobacterium-mediated and microprojectile-acceleration methods. In both systems, the success of the transformation depends upon the successful assembly of several key components and the calibration of the entire system. One component is the availability of a genetic construct carrying target genes under the control of appropriate promoters. A second component is the target organ or tissue, which must be competent for genetic transformation. That is, it must be capable of accepting the foreign DNA, into the genome of its own cells, expressing the genes and maintaining the ability to regenerate into plants. Introduced genes in many agricultural crops include those that confer resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses, as well as genes that alter plant phenotype (e.g., flower color). Although transformation systems for many flower-bulb crops are available, few attempts to produce genetically engineered flower bulbs with commercially valuable traits have been successful and, to date, none have resulted in a registered cultivar. In order to be commercially viable, any genetically engineered flower bulb cultivar would contain mostly proprietary technology covered by freedom-to-operate agreements. Marker-free technology is needed to ease the risk-assessment process and to address public concerns. William B. Miller (USA) Current Status of Growth Regulator Usage in Flower Bulb Forcing in North America ABSTRACT Invited Review: North American greenhouse companies are mainly focused on potted crops, and due to lower geographical concentration, individual greenhouse firms, tend to have a very diversified product offering. As such, individual crops are often grown under less than optimum conditions. Plant growth regulators offer a set of tools that allow growers to better tailor bulb crops to containers, and the more liberal market and regulatory environment in North America continues to allow a high degree of specialization of PGR use. It is hoped the specific PGR and crop information presented herein and available online will stimulate additional research and interest in these products and crop uses worldwide. Barbara Ruffoni, Marco Savona, Sara Barberini (Italy) Biotechnological Support for the Development of New Gladiolus Hybrids ABSTRACT Invited Review: The genus Gladiolus L. (Iridaceae) includes important ornamental species and hybrids which are successfully treated on the market since the last century. Recently breeders have selected new genotypes with the aim to increase the production in winter and late spring especially in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. In order to speed up the volume of the new hybrids and to produce virus-free stocks of mother plants, it is possible for Gladiolus to apply biotechnological tools of in vitro propagation through liquid culture or simple bioreactors such as temporary immersion system to reduce production costs and to enhance multiplication rate and cormel quality. Gladiolus micropropagation was reported first by Ziv et al. in 1970 and subsequently by several other authors exploring the performances of different species and varieties. Bulbs and corms of several species are commercially propagated in liquid culture in semi-automatic systems as temporary immersion; in Gladiolus, Ruffoni et al. presented in 2008 data about high efficiency micropropagation using temporary immersion compared with the culture on agar-solidified medium suggesting an efficient semi automatized protocol. The present paper takes into consideration the different ways for in vitro culture initiation and the efficiency of the meristem excision for the establishment of pathogen-free cultures including data coming from direct experiences and bibliography search. Moreover it will compare the different growth strategies (solid vs liquid micropropagation) evaluating finally the performances of the temporary immersion system. Zhanao Deng (USA) Caladium Genetics and Breeding: Recent Advances ABSTRACT

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Invited Mini-Review: Caladiums are important ornamental aroids; they are valued for their colourful and variably-shaped leaves. Numerous advances have been made in recent decades in caladium breeding and genetic studies. Techniques have been developed to increase flower production, store pollen, and maintain seed viability. Sources of genetic resistance have been identified for important diseases and pests (such as Fusarium tuber rot, Pythium root rot, bacterial blight, and root-knot nematodes) and abiotic stress factors including chilling injury. Mode of inheritance for important foliar traits has been elucidated through analysis of trait segregation in progeny populations. Caladiums have evolved three alleles at one locus that control colour of leaf main veins (red, white or green) and two co-dominant alleles at an independent locus that determine leaf shapes (fancy, lance, or strap). Gene loci for leaf spotting and blotching are both simply inherited but tightly linked to green veins. In vitro culture and plant regeneration were successful with several types of tissues/organs through somatic embryogenesis and/or organogenesis. Shoot-tip culture has been used to eliminate viral and fungal pathogens and invigorate planting stock; protoplasts isolated from leaf callus regenerated into whole plants; foreign genes from maize or humans have been introduced into caladium through Agrobacterium co-cultivation. Molecular markers, including highly specific and informative SSRs, have been developed and applied to caladium to distinguish cultivars, assess genetic diversity, and analyze genetic relationships. The availability of these improved techniques, sources of desirable traits, and cellular or molecular tools will be very valuable for enhancing caladium breeding efficiency, achieving specific breeding objectives, and developing valuable new cultivars. Rina Kamenetsky (Israel), John Dole (USA) Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia): Genetics, Physiology and Cut Flower Production ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Peony (Paeonia spp.) is one of the most popular garden plants in temperate regions. They were introduced into cultivation in China hundreds of years ago, and have since been spread widely to many countries. According to morphological traits and life form, the genus is divided into tree and herbaceous peonies. Numerous cultivars of herbaceous peonies have been developed to satisfy demand for colors, fragrance, flowering time, and disease resistance. In the last two decades, the popularity of peonies as cut flowers has resurged, and has resulted in additional requirement for new research, production methods and postharvest technology. Today, more than 25 countries produce cut peony flowers, with the primary markets being in Europe and the USA. Despite the popularity of herbaceous peonies, their production and use are restricted due to a lack of reliable systems for mass propagation, a long juvenile period, complicated flowering physiology and ineffective postharvest handling procedures. In this review, highlights of the recent scientific research in herbaceous peony are presented, along with up-to-date information on peony propagation, postharvest handling and cut flower marketing. Marija Petri, Angelina Suboti, Milana Trifunovi, Slaana Jevremovi (Serbia) Morphogenesis in Vitro of Fritillaria spp. ABSTRACT Invited Review: The genus Fritillaria includes 100 species of bulbous plants and is found throughout the temperate region of the Northern Hemisphere. Fritillaria species are often used as ornamental plants, but various species have also been used in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Turkish medicine. Many species from the genus Fritillaria are endangered, rarely found in the wild and protected by law. Micropropagation techniques have great importance for germplasm conservation and commercial multiplication of fritillaries. Successful propagation methods have been developed for the following Fritillaria species: F. anhuiensis, F. alburyana, F. camtschatensis, F. cirrosa, F. hupehensis, F. imperialis, F. meleagris, F. pallidiflora, F. przewalskii, F. roylei Hook, F. sinica, F. sichuanica, F. thunbergii, F. taipaiensis, F. unibracteata, F. ussuirensis Maxim and F. whitallii. This paper summarises the various techniques of in vitro morphogenesis induction and rapid propagation of fritillaries, as well as successful acclimatisation. The most potent explant types for the induction of morphogenesis in vitro are bulbs, bulb scales, inflorescence parts and immature or mature zygotic embryos. Whole plant regeneration of fritillaries has been achieved by bulblet production, as well as by direct or indirect somatic embryogenesis. The influence of different media compositions, hormone concentrations and temperature requirements for the induction of morphogenesis and overcoming of dormancy are discussed. This review also describes major secondary metabolites in Fritillaria (alkaloids and non-alkaloid constituents), their nature and perspective for production by methods of in vitro culture which can be used in the pharmaceutical industry. Agnieszka Marasek-Ciolakowska (The Netherlands/Poland), M.S. Ramanna, Paul Arens, Jaap M. van Tuyl (The Netherlands) Breeding and Cytogenetics in the Genus Tulipa ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Tulip (Tulipa) is one of the most important ornamental bulbous plants, which has been cultivated for cut

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flower, potted plant, garden plant and for landscaping. Species from the different sections display complementary agronomic characteristics and breeding techniques are used to combine desired features. The main goals of modern tulip breeding are the introgression of resistance against Tulip Breaking Virus (TBV), Botrytis tulipae and Fusarium oxysporum (bulb-rot), and also characteristics such as a short forcing period, good flower longevity and new flower colors and flower shapes into the commercial assortment of T. gesneriana. T. gesneriana has been crossed successfully with only 12 out of the approximately 55 tulip species by using conventional breeding methods. Many successful crosses have been made between T. gesneriana cultivars and TBV resistant T. fosteriana cultivars resulting in highly resistant Darwin hybrids tulips. The majority of tulip cultivars are diploid (2n = 2x = 24) however, there have been many attempts to obtain polyploid tulips. The production of tetraploids was described in the late sixties when young ovaries were treated, under pressure, with laughing gas (N2O). In breeding of polyploid tulip laughing gas has also been used to induce 2n gametes. Several new tetraploids were also obtained by making crosses between tetraploid lines. Polyploids have been derived from interploidy crosses between diploid, triploid, and tetraploid cultivars. Several other polyploids have resulted from 2n gametes, spontaneously produced by diploid F1 hybrids. Molecular cytogenetic tools such as FISH and GISH permitted detailed studies of genome composition and chromosome recombination in the progenies of interspecific hybrids. In this context, tulip breeding and the use of cytogenetic techniques for genome analysis of hybrids are discussed. Riana Kleynhans, Paula Spies, Johan J. Spies (South Africa) Cytogenetic and Phylogenetic Review of the Genus Lachenalia ABSTRACT Invited Review: The genus Lachenalia (family Asparagaceae), endemic to southern Africa, is a horticultural diverse genus, with many species featuring in the red data list of southern Africa. The extensive morphological variation within some species complicates species delimitation and has led to taxonomic confusion. The genus is utilised in a breeding programme where cytogenetic and phylogenetic information is important for the development of breeding strategies. Chromosome numbers of 89 species have been recorded in literature, with 2n = 10 to 56 and n = 5 to 28. B-chromosomes have been described in some species. Basic chromosome numbers include x = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, (probably 10), 11, (probably 12), 13 and (probably 15). Polyploidy was reported in 19 taxa (23%), and is most common in the x = 7 group. Molecular cytogenetic studies using 5S rDNA, 18S rDNA probes and DAPI staining, as well as molecular systematic studies using trnL-F and ITS1-2 were used to assess the phylogeny of the genus. All these studies indicated that species with the same basic chromosome number are closely related. The one deviation is that it appears as if there are two separate groups within the x = 7 group. The cytogenetic and molecular studies are further supported by breeding studies, where improved results are generally obtained from crosses within a phylogenetic group or between closely related groups. This review of the literature reveals how different studies obtain similar results regarding the phylogenetic relationships within the genus and how these results can be utilized to improve breeding strategies. It also accentuates that further multidisciplinary studies are needed to solve the evolutionary history of the complex genus Lachenalia. M. S. Ramanna (The Netherlands), Agnieszka Marasek-Ciolakowska (Poland), Songlin Xie (The Netherlands), Nadeem Khan (Sweden), Paul Arens, Jaap M. van Tuyl (The Netherlands) The Significance of Polyploidy for Bulbous Ornamentals: A Molecular Cytogenetic Assessment ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Most of the bulbous crops, viz., Crocus, Narcissus, Tulipa, Alstroemeria and Lilium that are commercially important, share certain common characteristics. The present day cultivars are all derived from hybrids between distantly related species, and in almost all cases spontaneous polyploidization has played a prominent role and there is a tendency to replace diploids by polyploid cultivars. Molecular cytogenetic techniques such as genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), along with other techniques, have greatly facilitated our understanding of the modes of origins of polyploids. Because the bulbous crops generally have large chromosomes, the parental genomes, individual chromosomes, as well as intergenomic recombinant chromosomes, can be accurately identified in the interspecific hybrids and their backcross progenies. This enables an assessment of the potential genetic variation that might occur in the progenies as well as the extent of introgression. Although the superiority of polyploids as compared to their diploid parents is beyond doubt, the actual explanation for their superiority is still elusive. Of the several explanations, chromosome dosage, optimal amounts of 4C DNA values of the complements, heterozygosity and favourable gene interactions transmitted by the 2n gametes to polyploid progenies are some of the factors that might be considered at present. Undoubtedly, more studies on the bulbous

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ornamental crops using molecular techniques might be rewarding. Nadeem Khan (Sweden), Agnieszka Marasek-Ciolakowska (Poland/The Netherlands), Songlin Xie, Munikote S. Ramanna, Paul Arens, Jaap M. van Tuyl (The Netherlands) A Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of Introgression in Backcross Progenies of Intersectional Lilium Hybrids ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: The genus Lilium is comprised of about 100 species and has been divided into seven taxonomic sections. The abundance and diversity of species within the genus Lilium offers numerous and rewarding possibilities to lily breeders. Species within the same section can be crossed by conventional hybridization and this has led to different hybrid groups of great commercial importance such as Longiflorum, Asiatic and Oriental lilies. On the other hand, the divergence of species between various taxonomic sections causes considerable difficulties for intersectional crosses. Such difficulties include crossing incompatibility barriers, embryo abortion, sterility and reduced fertility in intersectional hybrids. For these reasons, various pollination techniques followed by in vitro embryo (sac) rescue and ovary culture, chromosome doubling, and 2n gametes are used frequently to obtain progeny between parents from different sections. Being the largest genome in the plant kingdom, lily is used as a model plant for cytogenetic analysis. The genome composition of the hybrids and backcross progenies were monitored through genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The progress in molecular cytogenetic studies has been associated with the analysis of introgression of chromosomal segments in backcross progenies of various interspecific hybrids, contribution of individual genome in the resultant progenies, and the mechanism of 2n gamete formation. Based on the cytological analysis of progenies derived from the use of both haploid and 2n gametes, cytological maps of three different genomes have been constructed and the relevance of these analyses for introgression in Lilium is demonstrated. Michikazu Hiramatsu, Jun-ichiro Masuda, Satomi Sakazono, Hiroshi Okubo (Japan) Evolution of Early Flowering Ability in Lilium formosanum from its Progenitor L. longiflorum ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Attention to the evolutionary background of `early flowering ability', i.e. extraordinary shorter period from seed germination to the first flowering in Lilium formosanum, could have great potential for reducing costs in commercial production of lilies. We clarified the phylogenic relationship and geographic divergence of the early flowering ability and its related life history traits using seedling populations from natural populations of L. formosanum and its progenitor species, L. longiflorum. Based on the data obtained, we propose a hypothesis for evolution of the early flowering ability in L. formosanum. Xue Wei Wu, Li Hua Wang, Li Fang Wu, Su Ping Qu (China), Jeung Keun Suh (South Korea), Ji Hua Wang (China) Native Species of the Genus Lilium and the Closely Related Nomocharis in Yunnan, China ABSTRACT Invited Review: The lily is an important ornamental flower that has been cultivated for over 3,000 years, and with the development of breeding technologies, has been widely used in the garden, as potted flower, and for cut flower, floral designing. Lily belongs to the genus Lilium of family Liliaceae, which comprises over 180 species. China is the major center of Lilium distribution in the world; and almost one-third of the species found in China are distributed in Yunnan Province, China. 34 species of the genus Lilium are reported: L. brownii, L. rownii var. viridulum, L. wenshanense, L. sulphureum, L. sargentiae, L. lophophorum, L. lophophorum var. linearifolium, L. nanum, L. souliei, L. henrici, L. henrici var. maculatum, L. bakerianum var. bakerianum, L. bakerianum var. aureum, L. bakerianum var. delavayi, L. bakerianum var. yunnanen, L. bakerianum var. rubrum, L. sempervivoideum, L. amoenum, L. pinifolium, L. nepalense, L. nepalense var. burmanicum, L. nepalense var. ochraceum, L. wardii, L. taliense, L. duchartrei, L. lijiangense, L. papilliferum, L. davidii, L. fargesii, L. stewartianum, L. habaense, L. lankongense, L. primulinum, and L. lancifolium; Seven Nomocharis: N. aperta, N. saluenensis, N. forrestii, N. basilissa, N. farreri, N. meleagrina, and N. pardanthina. Sampling quantity, environmental survey of wild lily introduction, domestication note and crossing history have been previously investigated. Present and the proposed utilization classification characteristics of 41 native species are discussed in this paper. Veli-Pekka Pelkonen, Anna-Maria Pirttilä (Finland) Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Genus Lilium ABSTRACT

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Invited Mini-Review: Lilies have a long history as ornamental plants. Today, there is an ever increasing variety of new lily cultivars due to the significant progress in the propagation and development of new methods in breeding. The domesticated native species have retained their place along with new hybrids in commercialized horticultural industry, and they have sustained their invaluable potential for the breeding of new cultivars for garden use as well as for greenhouse culture. Systematics has always played an important role in plant breeding, giving guidelines for hybridization, although biotechnology has introduced new solutions for many problems that were evolutionary obstacles especially in inter-specific crossings before. The genus Lilium has been a subject of variable suggestions for classification systems, and the process still continues. The currently accepted concept for the phylogenetic and taxonomic system for all species is based on geographical, structural and genetic information. In our review, we give an insight into the latest progress in revealing the taxonomical relationships within the genus. According to the existing GenBank sequence data, we have constructed a phylogenetic tree consisting of the main species and sections of the genus. Provided with species photos, the tree gives a brief overview of phylogeny- and morphology-based classifications, which are not always congruent. In the tree mainly all species grouped into sections defined within the genus, but L. bulbiferum and L. dauricum grouped equally with the species in Sinomartagon and not with each other. Even though these two species share many morphological features, the phylogenetic tree questions the existence of the section Daurolirion and potentially gives a blueprint for classification in the future. Eisuke Matsuo (Japan) Historical Survey of Easter Lily Name in Association with Lilium longiflorum ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Based on the English dictionaries from around 1900, the author traces back how Lilium longiflorum came to be referred to as the Easter lily. The term "Easter lily" was given to any lily-like flowering species that bloomed around the Easter day, being called Easter flowers. Among them, L. candidum became the most famous one known as "Easter lily". The evidence suggests that when more easily forcible bulb production began in the Bermuda Islands, the superiority of L. longiflorum over L. candidum in forcing ability and price, might have led to an explosive promotion of the usage of L. longiflorum as the Easter flower instead of L. candidum. Thus, the name "Easter lily" came to be transferred from L. candidum to L. longiflorum. Keiichi Okazaki, Shotarou Nukui, Hideaki Ootuka (Japan) Application of Nitrous Oxide Gas as a Polyploidizing Agent in Tulip and Lily Breeding ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Nitrous oxide has been successfully applied to zygotes as a polyploidizing agent in various crops. More recently nitrous oxide treatments have been applied at male gamete formation resulting in production of diploid gametes in tulips and lilies. Additionally this treatment can be used to overcome pollen sterility of interspecific hybrids via polyploidization of archesporial cells in developing anthers. This paper provides a review of some of the literature and results of our experiments using nitrous oxide for chromosome doubling of gametes and zygotes, as well as pollen mother cells to overcome pollen sterility of the interspecific hybrids. These methods have important implications for lily and tulip breeding. Hiroshi Okubo, Michikazu Hiramatsu, Jun-ichiro Masuda, Satomi Sakazono (Japan) New Insight into Lilium brownii var. colchesteri ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Lilium brownii var. colchesteri has been widely cultivated for long time by its perfect flower shape with its colour arrangement and fragrance. However, it did not receive enough attention in recent lily research programs, and information on the history and culture is lacking. An overall research project on this species including breeding, flowering control, propagation, virus-free bulb production, flower pigment and scent along with the surveys of old literature and arts to clarify the introduction history of the species into Europe and Japan, has been conducted. The major results are: 1) L. brownii var. colchesterii was probably introduced in about 1600 from Korea to Fukuoka, 2) there was confusion of the species nomenclature of this species in Europe at the time of introduction, 3) all individuals of our present collection in Japan and Korea are clones, 4) F1 hybrids of L. formosanum × L. brownii var. colchesteri obtained through cut-style pollination and ovary slice culture methods showed the early flowering traits of L. formosanum, but the flower shape and colour were similar to those of the pollen parent, 5) F2 seedlings were obtained from self-pollination of F1 through ovary-slice culture, 6) control of flowering was successful by temperature treatments, 7) an in vitro propagation procedure was established, 8) virus-free bulblets were obtained by a

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combination of meristem tip culture and chemotherapy, and 9) pigments that characterize the flower colour were identified. Fred Bos (The Netherlands) Lilium bulbiferum L. Subsp. croceum (Chaix) Arcang., The Orange Lily, A Special Plant of Lowland NW Europe ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: The life history of the Lilium bulbiferum subsp. croceum has been described and analyzed since the orange lily was discovered around 1850 growing wild in rye fields in the northern part of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany. In this article the status of the orange lily has been discussed. The lily does not seem to be a garden escape as was thought in the 19th century, but should be treated as a native species. The orange lily belonged to the agricultural weed plant community, the Sclerantho annui-Arnoseridetum, of the so called "eternal" rye fields on the poor sandy soils in the old-morainic landscape. Due to changes in agricultural use both the orange lily and the other weeds became very rare. Recent research shows that the lily has mainly survived in gardens. In Govelin in Lower Saxony (Germany) the very last rich plant community of the Sclerantho annui-Arnoseridetum with thousands of Lilium bulbiferum subsp. croceum is still present. Because of its beauty the lily has and has had important cultural aspects. In flower symbolism, in medieval paintings and in 17th century Dutch and Flemish flower paintings it is an important symbol. For its orange color several links to the Dutch royal family, the House of Oranje (= Orange) Nassau, were discovered. Rodrigo Barba-Gonzalez, José Manuel Rodríguez-Domínguez, Ma. Claudia Castañeda-Saucedo, Aaron Rodríguez (Mexico), Jaap M. van Tuyl (The Netherlands), Ernesto Tapia-Campos (Mexico) Mexican Geophytes I. The Genus Polianthes ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Members of the genus Polianthes L. are bulbous ornamentals in the Agavaceae, includes 15 species three varieties and a two cultivars native to Mexico. Polianthes tuberosa L. (Tuberose) is the only species cultivated as an ornamental cut flower in tropical and subtropical areas. The cultivation of tuberose occupies a prime position in the floriculture industry in countries such as Mexico, China, India, New Zealand and Taiwan. The Flower colour of all known cultivars of P. tuberosa is white; however, attempts have been made to introduce colors from related species. Besides its use as an ornamental, it is cultivated for use in manufacturing: as a source of fragrant essences in perfumery, to extract polysaccharides and glycosides; in addition P. geminiflora (Llave & Lexarza) Rose is utilized as a source of saponins for soap. The main diseases in this crop are caused by virus and it is affected by a coleoptera (Scyphophorus acupunctatus) whose larva feeds on the bulbs. In this review we will cover the uses, distribution, species, of the genus and the current state of tuberose breeding as a further reference for tuberose breeding programmes. Ernesto Tapia-Campos, Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Dominguez, María de los Milagros Revuelta-Arreola (Mexico), Jaap M. van Tuyl (The Netherlands), Rodrigo Barba-Gonzalez (Mexico) Mexican Geophytes II. The Genera Hymenocallis, Sprekelia and Zephyranthes ABSTRACT Invited Review: Among hundreds of bulbous ornamental plants native to tropical and subtropical America, different genera from the Amaryllidaceae family such as Hymenocallis, Sprekelia and Zephyranthes present an enormous potential as ornamental crops. The genus Hymenocallis comprises over 60 species distributed from the north of Brazil to the south east of the United States; many of them are endemic to Mexico. The flowers are star shaped and white. The different species grow in a wide and contrasting diversity of habitats, near rivers and streams, on occasion completely submerged under water and sometimes in dry areas. The genus presents a complicated phylogeny, where in some cases it is difficult to distinguish species from hybrids. The genus Sprekelia is a monotypic genus native to Mexico; Sprekelia formosissima is cultivated as an ornamental pot plant in many countries. It presents solitary red flowers, their stems reaches up to 80 to 90 cm. The genus Zephyranthes comprises over 70 species distributed in tropical and subtropical America; different species are cultivated all over the world as an ornamental crop. The different species have beautiful flowers from white to yellow with various tints from lemon to sulphur and pink. In this review we will cover taxonomical, chromosomal and phenological aspects of these genera, with the aim of providing a reference of useful traits for breeding programs. Neil O. Anderson, Erika Berghauer, David Harris, Kari Johnson, Jenni Lonnroos, Mary Morey (USA) Discovery of Novel

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Traits in Seed-Propagated Lilium: Non-vernalization-requiring, Day-neutral, Reflowering, Frost-tolerant, Winter-hardy L. xformolongi. I. Characterization ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Lilium are important floricultural crops worldwide. The objectives of this research were to examine L. xformolongi hybrids and a parental species (L. longiflorum) in photoperiods (Exp. 1) and environments (greenhouses, Exp. 1; field, Exp. 2) for flowering without vernalization, post-emergence photoperiod, potted plant/field performance, frost tolerance, and winter hardiness. Seed germination (4-15%) and yield potential (3.5-12.5%) varied between genotypes. In Exp. 1, short/long days had a significant effect on visible bud date only, but not on leaf unfolding rates, plant height, leaf number, or flowering dates; cultivar differences were highly significant. Cultivar × photoperiod interactions were nonsignificant except for flowering date (P = 0.04). `Nellie White' (case-cooled bulbs) flowered in 213 d, while L. xformolongi cultivars took 247 d (`Sakigake Raizan') to 306 d (`Raizan No. 3') from sowing. Both VBD (h2 = 0.93) and flowering date (h2 = 0.91) were highly heritable (Exp. 1) and correlated. Regardless of photoperiod and environment, L. xformolongi flowered in <1 yr from sowing without cold. Leaf number (h2 = 0.81, Exp. 1) and unfolding rates (h2 = 0.93) were not as tightly linked in L. xformolongi as `Nellie White'. No seed-propagated hybrids (98-164 cm) were as short as `Nellie White' (62 cm). `Augusta F1' had the highest flower bud counts (6.9 / plant). Shoot numbers ranged from n=1 (`Nellie White') to n = 3.8 (`Sakigake Raizan'). L. xformolongi reflowered continuously in the field, but varied for frost-tolerance (25-75%; Exp. 2). Winter survival ranged from 0 to 87.5% in L. xformolongi over two years (Exp. 2). Flowering and reflowering of seed-propagated L. xformolongi in <1 yr. without vernalization, frost-tolerance, day neutrality, and winter hardiness are novel trait combinations for Lilium. Neil O. Anderson (USA) Discovery of Novel Traits in Seed-Propagated Lilium: Non-vernalization-requiring, Day-neutral, Reflowering, Frost-tolerant, Winter-hardy L. xformolongi. II. Photoperiodism in Parents and Hybrids ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The discovery of seed-propagated lily hybrids which flower in <1 year from sowing in any photoperiod presents unique opportunities for transforming lilies. Recent research documented such hybrids to possess additional traits such as reflowering capabilities, frost tolerance, and winter hardiness. Objectives of this research were to examine Lilium xformolongi hybrids, backcrosses, and parental species (L. formosanum, L. longiflorum) in photoperiods (SD/LD) to clarify flowering in more stringent environments (growth chambers, greenhouses) than previously. Case cooled (CC) and non-CC bulbs (L. formosanum, L. longiflorum `Nellie White'); non-vernalized L. xformolongi seed-propagated cultivars (5 cultivars, 9 seed lots), L. longiflorum `Snow Trumpet', and L. xformolongi backcrosses (5 BC1F1) were tested. Seed germination ranged from 4% to 83.3%; yield potential was similar. Flowering L. xformolongi (growth chamber) did not differ from L. longiflorum `Nellie White' for VBD. Cultivar x photoperiod interactions were not significant except flowering date (P = 0.04). `Nellie White' (CC) flowered in 213 d, while L. xformolongi cultivars flowered in 247 d (`Sakigake Raizan') to 306 d (`Raizan No. 3') from sowing. Non-vernalized L. formosanum, L. longiflorum bulbs never flowered in either photoperiod or environment. Both VBD and flowering date were highly heritable and correlated. Regardless of photoperiod and environment, seed-propagated L. xformolongi flowered in <1 year. One backcross was day-neutral for flowering. Two L. xformolongi BC1F1 and L. longiflorum `Snow Trumpet' produced significantly less leaves than `Nellie White'. Leaf number (h2 = 0.83) was not as tightly linked in L. xformolongi as `Nellie White'. Plant height in L. formosanum (CC bulbs, several backcross L. xformolongi hybrids) did not differ from `Nellie White'. In contrast, only `Sakigake Raizan' was taller than `Nellie White' in growth chambers. Yoon-Jung Hwang (South Korea), Paul Arens, Jaap M. Van Tuyl (The Netherlands), Tae-Jin Yang, Ki-Byung Lim (South Korea) Genome Analysis of Lilium tigrinum by Chromosome Microdissection and Molecular Cytogenetic Techniques ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Chromosome microdissection and microcloning are powerful tools for plant genome research. Here we describe the isolation of chromosome #1 derived sequences from L. tigrinum with these techniques and their characterization. Detailed chromosome analysis was performed by FISH and then chromosome #1 was isolated from metaphase chromosomes of L. tigrinum by microbeam dissection. DOP-PCR and LA-PCR were used to amplify a DNA of chromosome #1 segments. PCR products from the microdissected chromosome were cloned into a plasmid vector to construct a chromosome #1 specific library and sequenced. BLAST-nr revealed that 28% of the sequences were matched with known genes and transposons, and the rest of 72% did not match with known sequences from NCBI database of plant taxa. The unknown sequences were putatively divided into five classes and we called them lily unique unknown repeats. FISH

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confirmation with some clones confirmed that the products from both methods were indeed amplified from the chromosome #1 of L. tigrinum genome. These results provide important information for not only the composition of the Lilium genome but also for detailed sequence information of huge genome sized plants. Juozas Proscevicius, Vida Rancelien, Violeta Kleizait (Lithuania) Application of Mixed Incongruous Pollen for Interspecific Crosses of Lilies ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Creating interspecific hybrids between distantly related species is the first critical step in breeding of lilies. Different methods are used to overcome pre-fertilization and post-fertilization barriers in incongruous interspecific crosses of lilies. Compatibility between female pistil and pollen play an important role on fertility of crosses. Results are presented showing that pollen incongruous to female pistil can perform fertilization if they are used in mixtures with other incompatible pollen. To overcome pre-fertilization barriers cut-style pollination and pollination of stigma by mixed incompatible pollen were performed. In some cases recalcitrant crosses were more efficient when stigma was pollinated by mixed pollen of incongruous species than when cut-style was pollination by separated pollen of one incongruous male. However, cut-style pollination was efficient in cases when long style possessing females were pollinated by short style possessing male species. Though it is known that crosses of Asiatic hybrid (Asiatic hybrids (A) with Lilium longiflorum or Oriental hybrids (O) possible perform only in one direction where Asiatic hybrid participate as male, the pollen of L. longiflorum and O stimulated fertilization of Asiatic hybrid when they were added in mixtures with pollen of L. candidum, L. henryi, L. monadelphum or Trumpet and Aurelian hybrids (T). However, any stimulation of fertilization was observed when pollen of L. longiflorum and O were added in mixtures with pollen of L. concolor or L. pumilum to pollinate native pistil of Asiatic hybrid. Pollination of Asiatic hybrid by mixed pollen of incongruous species resulted progeny among which hybrids Asiatic hybrid x L. regale and Asiatic hybrid x L. candidum were screened by inheritance of molecular markers characteristic to male species. Kathryn Kamo (USA), Bong Hee Han (South Korea) Optimized Growth and Plant Regeneration for Callus of Lilium longiflorum `Nellie White' ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Rates of growth and regeneration were compared for compact callus, friable callus, and suspension cells of Lilium longiflorum `Nellie White' to determine the optimal culture conditions. The highest frequencies of embryogenic callus induction (60-90%) occurred from compact callus cultured on either picloram (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/L) or dicamba (2 mg/L). Fresh weight (FW) was higher for compact callus induced from bulb scales cultured on MS medium supplemented with picloram (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/L) compared to scales cultured on MS medium supplemented with dicamba (2, 4, or 8 mg/L). Compact callus cultured on picloram (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/L) or dicamba (2, 4, or 8 mg/L) grew slowly with a 1.2X increase in FW/month compared with suspension cells grown in 0.5 mg/L picloram that increased 1.7X in FW/month. Regeneration rates were similar (23-35 plantlets/g FW callus) for compact callus cultured on either dicamba (2 or 4 mg/L) or picloram (0.5 or 1 mg/L), but 3% of the plantlets regenerated from dicamba were phenotypically abnormal while none were abnormal with picloram. Suspension cells showed a lower regeneration rate than compact callus with a maximum of only 12 plantlets regenerated from one g fresh weight suspensions cells grown in 0.5 mg/L picloram. A fast-growing, friable callus was induced and selected from compact callus cultured on MS medium with 2 mg/L dicamba and 9% sucrose but not from 3, 6, or 12% sucrose. Friable callus grew 5X faster than compact callus and formed numerous somatic embryo-like structures when cultured on MS medium with 1% activated charcoal, but only a few embryo-like structures germinated to form plants with roots. Guadalupe Palomino, Javier Martínez, Rodrigo Barba-González, Ignacio Méndez, Benjamín Rodríguez-Garay (Mexico) Mexican Geophytes III. Cytotypes and Meiotic Behaviour in Mexican Populations of Species of Echeandia (Anthericaceae) ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Echeandia Ortega includes about 85 perennial herbaceous species. The subgenus Echeandia is distributed from USA, to Argentina and Chile. Mexico is considered to be the genus center of origin and diversity. Echeandia is considered as a monobasic genus with x = 8. Diploid plants (2n = 16, n = 8, x = 8) have been reported for 35 species of Echeandia. Chromosome numbers for 22 polyploid species for the genus have been the reported (4x, 5x, 6x, 8x, 10x and 11x-4). These reports detail karyotype, meiotic chromosome behavior and, pollen fertility of 23 populations of eight species: Echeandia echeandioides, E. hintonii, E. mexicana, E. montalbanensis, E. nana, E. pubescens, E. reflexa and E. tenuis. All

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species of Echeandia were diploid (2n = 16, n =8, x = 8). Each species had a distinctive karyotype that varied among populations of the same species. Spontaneous heterozygotic exchanges in species and cytotypes of Echeandia have a common behavior pattern in karyotype variation. The exchanges were observed in heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes with satellites, and, in metacentric, submetacentric and subtelocentric chromosomes. The origin of these rearrangements was evident in heteromorphic bivalents (IIs) and quadrivalents (IVs) observed in MI. Additional evidence for translocations and chromatid exchange comes from the low level of meiotic irregularities observed in anaphase I (AI), including U-type bridges, side arm bridges and lagging chromosomes. Populations of E. nana, display only two cytotypes. Based on these results, the translocations and chromatid exchange follow a behavior pattern common to species and cytotypes of Echeandia, and these chromosome aberrations have played a major role in evolution of the genus, providing a larger potential of colonization and distribution in new habitats. Chad T. Miller, Benham Lockhart, Margery Daughtrey, William B. Miller (USA) Iron Deficiency May Result in Interveinal Chlorosis of Shamrock Plant (Oxalis regnellii) ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Oxalis regnellii is a geophytic ornamental pot plant grown primarily for its clover-like leaves. During greenhouse production, the leaves often become chlorotic for unknown reasons, possibly including virus infection, iron (Fe) and/or manganese (Mn) deficiencies, and improper greenhouse forcing temperatures. We conducted a series of experiments to address these hypotheses. Shamrock chlorotic ringspot virus (SCRV) has been reported before in Oxalis regnellii. Oxalis plants exhibiting virus-like symptoms were analyzed and a potyvirus was detected, although this virus was not further confirmed to be SCRV. To confidently test other hypotheses, any suspected viral infected material was discarded. Plants grown at 13°C exhibited slowed growth and development; however, the incidence of leaf chlorosis did not increase compared with plants grown at warmer temperatures of 21/16°C (day/night); 22°C constant; or 22 to 16°C (plants were moved to 16°C when 50% of the plants were in first flower). To assess the ability to correct an iron (Fe) deficiency, a media drench of ferric ethylenediaminedi (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) was applied to chlorotic, Fe-deficient oxalis plants and plants successfully re-greened within 5 days. Emmy Dhooghe, Dirk Reheul, Marie-Christine Van Labeke (Belgium) Cytological and Molecular Characterization of Intertribal Hybrids Between the Geophytes Anemone coronaria L. and Ranunculus asiaticus L. (Ranunculaceae) ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Anemone coronaria L. and Ranunculus asiaticus L. both belong to the Ranunculaceae, a large plant family with many ornamentals of horticultural importance. There are considerable differences between these species leaves, flower morphology and flower colour therefore intergeneric crosses between the species might result in new interesting hybrids. Crosses between Anemone coronaria L. and Ranunculus asiaticus L. were performed and the F1 progeny was examined. In this study, the F1 hybrid generation was investigated at morphological, molecular and cytogenetic levels. More than 85% of the F1 plants had very similar flowers to the maternal plants and although seeming to have a limited paternal contribution, AFLP analyses confirmed the partial hybrid character of the F1 plants. GISH experiments revealed that the F1 plants were mixoploids (plants composed of cells with different chromosome numbers) or showed many chromosome rearrangements. Marian Saniewski (Poland), Hiroshi Okubo, Kensuke Miyamoto, Junichi Ueda (Japan) Evidence for a Role of Auxin in the Stem Elongation of Dark-grown Tulips ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Shoot growth of fully cooled tulip bulbs cvs. `Gudoshnik' and `Apeldoorn' grown in continuous dark conditions was investigated in relation to the role of exogenously applied auxin. Continuous darkness caused much more stem elongation than natural light conditions in the greenhouse. In both cultivars, all internodes were longer in the dark than those in the light. Auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA, applied in the place of a removed flower bud on a stem with no leaves) greatly stimulated the growth of all internodes in the dark in comparison to that in the light whereas almost no growth in all internodes was observed in the absence of exogenously applied auxin both in the dark and in the light. These results confirm that auxin is a major factor responsible for growth of all internodes in etiolated tulip stems. The hormonal control and its metabolic significance during the etiolation of tulips are discussed.

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Dariusz Sochacki, Malgorzata Podwyszyska (Poland) Virus Eradication in Narcissus and Tulip by Chemotherapy ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The aim of the research was to obtain virus-free stock plant material of several cultivars and breeding clones of narcissus (Narcissus L.) and tulip (Tulipa L.) by in vitro culture using chemotherapy with ribavirin. Virus indexing by ELISA was done several times to detect the most important viruses infecting tulips and narcissus. Genotypes of both crops, totally or heavy infected by viruses, were subjected to chemotherapy in a few experiments. The results of virus eradication showed that none of the three concentrations of ribavirin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg l-1) did result in death. However, shoot regeneration and growth on the medium with the highest concentration of ribavirin was significantly retarded, both for tulips and narcissus. Chemotherapy joined with further consecutive virus indexing and roguing the virus-suspected plantlets of tulip S2 and S3 enabled selection of virus-negative plants. The results of chemotherapy obtained for the new tulip cultivars (S2, S6 and S7) in the next experiment were very promising. The ribavirin treatment resulted in virus eradication from the newly forming shoots. In turn, in the old cultivars (E and F) and one breeding line (P7), whose shoots were totally infected, chemotherapy appeared to be ineffective. Virus eradication was unsuccessful for all treated plantlets of narcissus `Lajkonik' infected by Narcissus mosaic virus and potyviruses in two experiments. Virus eradication for breeding clone 0.985T infected by Narcissus latent virus and potyviruses was successful in 27 among the 80 plantlets which started the experiment. The results leads to conclusion that the effect of ribavirin depends on the concentration of this antiviral agent, kind of virus and their concentration in plant tissue and on the genotype of plant. Regina Juodkait, Angel Meilut Balinien, Zenonas Jancys (Lithuania) Assessment of the Vegetative Reproduction Potential of Tulips (Tulipa L.) ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The principal aim of this research was the assessment of the vegetative reproduction potential of different size tulip bulbs. Bulbs were arranged by size into 7 fractions. Vegetative reproduction capacity of different size tulip bulbs of 299 cultivars was calculated using a number of specific reproduction coefficients: total reproduction coefficient (TRC), generative bulb reproduction coefficient (GRC) and forcible bulb reproduction coefficient (FRC). Reproduction coefficients were calculated individually for each different bulb size class of the investigated tulip cultivars. TRC is a quantitative indicator specifying the mean number of all daughter bulbs per clone. GRC is a qualitative indicator specifying the mean number of bulbs per clone that is capable to blossom next year. FRC is a qualitative indicator specifying the mean number of forcible tulip bulbs per clone. By modulating the data on TRC, GRC and FRC of all cultivars of different size bulbs, indexed reproduction coefficient (IRC) was deduced. IRC indicates a comparative reproduction value. Empirical tulip cultivar dispersion analysis demonstrated that this coefficient most objectively reflects reproduction capacity of all bulbs of the studied tulip cultivars. Based on IRC, the investigated tulip cultivars were grouped into 5 classes of reproduction capacity. Most tulip cultivars were ascribed to 2nd­4th classes (correspondingly 24, 30 and 30%), whereas a small number of the studied cultivars were attributed to one of the outer classes 1st and 5th (8%). Faouzi Haouala, Emna Chaïeb (Tunisia) Effects of Explant Position and Polarity on Callus Induction and Shoot Regeneration of Gladiolus (Gladiolus hybridus Hort.) ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Different types of explants were used for callus induction in Gladiolus tissue culture of cultivars `ChaCha' and `Priscilla'. Different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or -naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were tested. Explant polarity was studied for leaves by placing fragments of these organs horizontally and vertically on the culture medium. Also, explants were taken from the apical, middle and basal parts of leaves and petals. Apical buds, leaves and flower stalks showed excellent callus formation (100%). However, petals were characterized by a low callus formation ability (10%) while floral stems, bracts and floral spikes showed no callus formation. The rate of callus development was significantly higher for horizontally cultured leaves and decreased from basal explants to middle and apical ones. The highest rate of callus formation was obtained on media containing either 2,4-D (1 or 3 mg l-1) or NAA (2 or 5 mg l-1). Callus budding was significantly higher on medium supplemented with 1 mg l-1 BA. The budding rate of callus obtained from apical buds was 93.3 and 100%, respectively, for cultivars `Priscilla' and `ChaCha'. For callus derived from leaf fragments, the rate of budding was 100% for both cultivars.

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Rosalia Paladines, Diandra Jurado (Ecuador), Tjitske Riksen-Bruinsma (The Netherlands), Ana Maria Quiñones (Ecuador) Prospects of Isolated Microspore Culture for Haploid Production in Anemone coronaria L. ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The aim of this study was to establish a procedure to obtain haploid plants from microspore cultures of Anemone coronaria L., an important ornamental crop known worldwide due to its commercial value in the cut flower industry. Microspores were isolated from two genotypes of A. coronaria: `Blue' (plants obtained through one cycle of selfing) and `Lilac'. The effect of different treatments to interrupt the gametophytic development of microspores and promote sporophytic development was evaluated. High temperature, culture media composition and developmental stage of microspores at the moment of isolation were the assessed factors. Achieved microspore-derived embryo formation was 0.53% for `Blue' and 0.06% for `Lilac'. Different treatments were tested for microspore-derived embryo germination. Organic supplements had a positive effect on triggering germination, while growth regulators were needed to complete the development of the plantlets. Germination percentage was 2.13 and 2.41 for `Blue' and `Lilac', respectively. The ploidy analysis revealed the existence of haploid and doubled haploid plants of both genotypes. We identified 18 haploid plants and 9 doubled haploid plants of `Blue', and 4 haploid plants and 3 doubled haploid plants of `Lilac'. Yukiko Kashihara, Koichi Shinoda, Hajime Araki, Yoichiro Hoshino (Japan) Towards Intergeneric Hybridization between Alstroemeria L. and Bomarea Mirb. ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: There are many interspecific hybrids of Alstroemeria. In this study, the possibility of intergeneric hybridization between Alstroemeria and Bomarea Mirb. was examined through the development of pollination procedures and ovule culture based on the histological observation of embryo and endosperm development after intergeneric pollination. Three methods of pollination (stigmatic, cut-style, and non-style) were combined with four different pollen types (fresh, frozen, non-germinated, and pre-germinated). We observed that the pollen tubes of Bomarea coccinea (Ruiz & Pav.) Baker could reach to the ovules of Alstroemeria aurea Graham 48 hours after stigmatic pollination with frozen pollen. Histological observations revealed that a primary embryo was formed, but subsequently aborted during development. This study demonstrates the possibility of intergeneric hybridization between Alstroemeria and Bomarea, but showed that there are post-fertilization barriers between A. pelegrina and B. coccinea. Further study is needed to investigate the optimum conditions for obtaining hybrid progeny. Takejiro Takamura, Hideki Yamashita (Japan) Specific Differences in Nuclear DNA Content in the Genus Cyclamen ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Relative nuclear DNA contents in Cyclamen species were estimated by flow cytometry with 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and propidium iodide (PI) staining. The relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) values in each species ranged from 1.52 to 8.071 and from 1.485 to 7.941 in flow cytometry with DAPI and PI staining, respectively. The ratio of RFI with PI staining to that with DAPI staining ranged from 0.93 to 1.15. Species belonged to the same subgenus indicated almost the same ratio of RFI with PI staining to that with DAPI staining. Subgeneric difference of the ratio was also observed. Flow cytometry seemed to be useful for the identification for interspecific hybrids in Cyclamen species, because the RFIs of interspecific hybrids were intermediate between that of their maternal and paternal species. The results of the present study should indicate that flow cytometry might be one of the effective tools for classification and identification of interspecific hybrids in the genus Cyclamen. Peter J.M. Knippels (The Netherlands) Advanced in Vivo Propagation Techniques for Specialty Bulbs ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Bulbs can be propagated by natural propagation techniques like by seeds and off setts, as well as by techniques like scoring, chipping, scaling and leaf cuttings. These techniques are mostly used for in vivo propagation, less for in vitro propagation. This article concerns the first case. Specialty bulbs can successfully be propagated by scoring and chipping, either starting at the beginning of the dormant period or at the end of this period. Of various species of the genera Eucomis, Lachenalia and Ornithogalum, it is known that they can successfully be propagated by leaf cuttings. In the presented experiments the techniques scoring, chipping and leaf cuttings were applied on Eucomis autumnalis and Hymenocallis festalis.

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Scoring and chipping resulted in new newly formed bulblets with E. autumnalis. Propagation by leaf cuttings resulted only with E. autumnalis to the formation of adventitious bulblets. Crucial is the timing of propagation, which will count for all genera and species. In previous research with Lachenalia species it has been proved that the regeneration potential is highest when leaf cuttings are taken at visible bud stage.. A preliminary conclusion is that with Eucomis the regeneration potential is the highest before flowering. It is not possible to draw conclusions for Hymenocallis, because this genus belongs to another family than Eucomis and Lachenalia and the experiment with leaf cuttings failed with this genus. Due to the low number of used bulbs a statistical evaluation was not possible. Antra Balode (Latvia) Effect of Microbiological Products on Bulblet Development of Lilium spp. in Scale Culture ABSTRACT Short Communication: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of two locally produced microbiological products Trihodermins B-J and Vitmins on scale promotion and bulblet development in Lilium. Lily scales were given three treatments: untreated controls; Vitmins solution (10 ml L-1) and Vitmins solution (10 ml L-1) + Trihodermins B-J (dry powder form, at 10 g kg-1 in the substrate). After treatment, scales were placed in a polyethylene bag in peat moss. Bulbs of three cultivars from different groups were used: Asiatic hybrid `Gardenja', Longiflorum × Asiatic (LA) hybrid `Sonora' and Trumpet hybrid `Elegija'. The scales were incubated in a plastic greenhouse at 15°C for 12 weeks; at 5°C for 10 weeks; and 18°C for 4 weeks. The effectiveness of microbiological products was evaluated by the number of bulblets per scale, the diameter of bulblets, shoot height, root length, and the percentages of dead plants. Significant difference (P < 0.05) between shoots and roots among the three cultivars and variants were found. The mean values obtained for shoots by treatment with Vitmins + Trihodermins B-J were: `Gardenja' - 138.5 ± 9.8 mm, `Sonora' ­ 102.0 ± 4.7 mm and `Elegija' ­ 7.0 ± 3.0 mm. The coefficient of variation for number of bulblets per scale was recorded in the range from 19.7 to 39.2%. Treatment with Vitmins + Trihodermins B-J resulted in a significantly higher number of bulblets per scale and greater shoot height (P < 0.05 vs. control). Debashish Behera, Chandi C. Rath, Umaballava Mohapatra (India) Medicinal Orchids in India and their Conservation: A Review ABSTRACT Mini-Review: Application of traditional knowledge for the utilization of natural products, particularly of plant origin, has gained importance in the past several decades. For the tribal people of different parts of India, there is limited alternative to herbal medicines, which they have used for time immemorial. Along with other medicinal plants, orchids are considered to be an important source of herbal medicine. Orchids are among the most diverse of the flowering plant families, with over 181 genera and 1229 species specific to India. Orchids, which are well known for their floriculture value, are also used for curing several diseases. Due to over-exploitation for medicinal use and for the cut-flower trade, many orchids have become either rare or endangered. This review attempts to summarize the use of micropropagation to conserve Indian orchids of medicinal significance. Saranjeet Kaur, K. K. Bhutani (India) In Vitro Propagation of Paphiopedilum spicerianum (Reichb. F.) Pfitz. ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The goal of this study was to investigate various factors affecting germination in vitro and to establish a protocol for propagation of Paphiopedilum spicerianum which would provide information on various events of seed germination and seedling development thus helping to propagate and conserve this species. Capsules were harvested at two different stages of development. Six asymbiotic orchid seed germination media (Knudson C (KC), modified Knudson C (MKC), Terrestrial orchid medium (BM), modified Terrestrial orchid medium (BM1), Vacin and Went (VW) and Nitsch and Nitcsh (N)) were examined for their effectiveness in promoting seed germination, protocorm and seedling development of P. spicerianum. Besides checking the efficacy of different media, the effect of capsule maturity level, photoperiod (0/24 h; 12/12 h L/D), activated charcoal, plant growth regulators [6-benzyladenine (BA) and -naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)] on seed germination was also assessed. The seeds from undehisced green capsules germinated with better frequency than seeds from mature burst capsules. Germination occurred regardless of media type. Amongst all media tested, highest germination percentage (62.75 ± 2.63%) was achieved in BM1 and activated charcoal (AC) under continuous darkness. The addition of NAA (1.5 mg l-1) to medium resulted in the early formation of seedlings within 21.05 ± 0.05 weeks. Higher concentration of BA reduced the percentage of seed germination. After germination for 8 weeks in total darkness at the protocorm stage, a shift from darkness to

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light conditions (12/12 h L/D) was required for differentiation of protocorms into seedlings. Chlorophyll development was a post-protocorm phenomenon in the cultures. The current study has the potential to assist with the future development of ex situ conservation of this endangered species by producing innumerable viable seedlings. Babita Saha, Animesh K. Datta, Siraj Datta (India), Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan) In Vitro Corm Development, Field Evaluation and Determination of Genetic Stability of Corm-derived Elite Gladiolus Germplasm ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: An efficient protocol for in vitro corm production of Gladiolus (cv. `Green Bay', `Intrepid', `Sabnam', `White Friendship' and `Red Ginger') was developed using liquid culture and coir as a matrix. The initial culture was established from the basal portions of the innermost leaves in Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid basal medium with 2.0 mg l-1 -naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Adventitious shoot buds developed (MS supplemented with 0.2 mg l-1 NAA and 2.0 mg l-1 6-benzyladenine) from responding callus (10-15 per callus culture) and elongated in solid MS with 0.5 mg l-1 NAA. High regeneration frequency of corms (98.90%) was established when individual plantlets were cultured in MS liquid medium supplemented with 6% sucrose and 0.5 mg l-1 NAA. In vitro corms were successfully cultivated in the field (`White Friendship' ­ high altitude cultivar; and `Sabnam' ­ plain land cultivar) for two consecutive seasons and flowering was noted in the second generation of plants. Using RAPD profiles, the genetic fidelity of randomly selected in vitro and ex vitro corms of two cultivars (`White Friendship' and `Sabnam') as well as that of their mother corms was compared. Iftikhar Ahmad (Pakistan/USA), Muhammad Hussnain Shah (Pakistan) Trichoderma and Intercropping Impact Production, Quality and Corm Rot Disease of Gladiolus grandiflorus ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The effects of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai application and intercropping with Gazania rigens L. (treasure flower) or Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold), members of the Asteraceae family, were studied on growth, yield, quality and controlling corm rot disease of gladiolus. Two experiments were conducted; first using healthy corms of two gladiolus cultivars, `Fado' and `Cantate' and second on both healthy and artificially infected (with Fusarium oxysporum) corms of cultivar, `Fado' in order to compare the individual treatment effects. The addition of Trichoderma to the medium increased growth, production and quality as well as reduced disease incidence when applied to healthy corms, although intercropping had a similar effect. When individual treatment effects were evaluated, use of both Trichoderma and intercrops, applied to infected corms, significantly improved plant height (65%), foliage growth (122%), reduced crop harvest time (23%), and disease (corm rot) incidence (78%), increased leaf area (70%), total leaf chlorophyll contents (162%), number of florets (71%), stem length (69%), and stem diameter (68%), and cormel diameter (158%) and were similar to those of grown from healthy corms. However, when both Trichoderma and intercropping were applied individually to healthy corms, the results were statistically similar. In both experiments, plants treated with Trichoderma and intercropped had up to 67% less corm rot disease on average than control (plants grown without Trichoderma and intercropping). In summary, Trichoderma application to soil and intercropping with members of the Asteraceae family can be effective for not only improving growth, yield and quality of cut gladiolus, but also controlling corm rot disease of gladiolus. Moreover, intercropped species can also be a source of additional income to the growers. Mohamed Elimem, Brahim Chermiti (Tunisia) Color Preference of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera; Thripidae) and Orius sp. (Hemiptera; Anthocorridae) Populations on Two Rose Varieties ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: A study of the preferential choice of Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande revealed the presence of a phototropism of this pest towards the petal color of its host plant. The color of roses may influence infestation rates by Western Flower thrips. The white-cream rose variety `Ociane' attracted more individuals of F. occidentalis than the red variety `First-red' in the same greenhouse; 29.54 and 39.85 thrips/flower on `Ociane' while only 12.40 and 29.59 thrips/flower recorded on `First-red' on May 31st and June 14th 2007, respectively. In fact, those differences were highly significant almost throughout the entire study period. The predatory bug Orius sp. also showed a similar preference for the `Ociane' than `First-red', and thus followed the distribution of its prey.

Food

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Chih-Cheng Lin, Lu-Te Chuang, Yuan-Chen Wang, Yan-Hong Tang, Jia-Shang Liao (Taiwan), Boakye Amoako-Atta (Ghana), Robert H. Glew, Robert S. Glew (USA) Polyphenol and Antioxidant Content of Kigelia africana Leaves from Ghana ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: In this study we investigate the polyphenol and antioxidant content of Kigelia africana leaves from Ghana, West Africa. K. africana is a semi-deciduous tree that grows wild and its leaves and fruit are used as food and medicine by local residents. The aims of this study are to compare the content and tentatively identify the major polyphenols in methanolic (aq.) versus aqueous extracts of K. africana leaf and the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The polyphenol content of the methanolic (aq.) (20/80, v/v) extract of Kigelia was 1.3-fold greater than that of the aqueous extract and 2-fold greater than that of the methanolic (aq.) extract (80%) of spinach, Chinese cabbage or lettuce. According to the results of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, the methanolic (aq.) extract of K. africana leaves contained 6-fold more antioxidant activity than similar extracts of spinach, cabbage or lettuce. Of these four green leafy vegetables, the methanolic (aq.) extract of K. africana was the most potent in reducing NO production by LPS-stimulated macrophages (RAW 264.7) in culture. HPLC analysis showed that the dominant phenolic compounds in K. africana leaf were ellagic acid and caffeic acid (491 and 70 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the leaves of K. africana contain large amounts of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidants. These findings provide a basis for encouraging efforts to conserve this endangered species and promote further studies on its potential nutritional benefits to populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Hayam M. Ibrahim (Egypt) Lipid and Color Stability as Affected by Combination of Sodium Ascorbate and -Tocopherol Acetate in Minced Buffalo Meat During Refrigerated Storage ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The target of this study was to evaluate the inhibition of oxidative changes of minced buffalo meat during refrigerated storage at 4°C for 6 days by adding a combination of vitamin C and E salts at two different blend levels on lipid and color stability as well as some other quality parameters. A significant difference was observed between the percentage antioxidant activity as a result of these suggested additions. The minced buffalo meat sample B blended with 600-mg/l sodium ascorbate + 5 mg/l -tocopherol acetate exhibited higher antioxidant activity (P < 0.05) than sample A blended with 400 mg/l sodium ascorbate + 10 mg/l -tocopherol acetate during the storage period. Both the suggested blend levels, especially in sample B, can help to minimizing TBARS and met-myoglobin accumulation during the storage period. Also, the same sample at the end of the storage period had higher redness (a*) color values, more acceptable visual color, moderately pleasant odor score and lower cooking loss compared to other samples. Thus, a combination of 600 mg/l sodium ascorbate + 5 mg/l -tocopherol acetate could be utilized effectively for enhancing the shelf life of minced buffalo meat. Murlidhar Meghwal, T. K. Goswami (India) Effect of Moisture Content on the Physical and Textural Properties of Fenugreek Seed ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum) exhibits marked unpredictability in major engineering properties (physical properties) owing to its varying moisture content (mc). Hence, fenugreek seeds were evaluated for changes in various physical properties viz. seed geometry (length, width, thickness and equivalent diameter), sphericity, roundness, specific surface area, surface area, seed volume, 1000-seed-mass, densities (true and bulk), porosity, angle of repose, specific gravity, coefficient of static friction on different surfaces, terminal velocity, aspect ratio as a function of mc. Some of the textural properties such as hardness, fracturability, cohesiveness and gumminess were also measured. The mc of the seeds was varied from 7.6-20.0% on dry weight basis (db). The physical dimensions i.e., seed length, width, thickness, equivalent diameter, sphericity, volume, seed roundness, specific gravity, surface area, true density, porosity, 1000 seed mass, angle of repose increased with increase in mc, while reverse was true for specific surface area and aspect ratio. Positive linear relationship was observed between terminal velocity and mc. Textural characteristics viz., seed hardness, fracturability and gumminess showed a declining trend with increasing mc, whereas cohesiveness increased with increase in the mc. Sheida Mohebbi, Younes Mostofi, Zabihollah Zamani (Iran) Influence of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Quality and Shelf Life of Cornelian Cherry Fruits

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ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Cornelian cherries were stored in two types of polymeric film (polypropylene and low density polyethylene) at 1°C and 90-95% relative humidity for 35 days. Unpackaged cornelian cherries were used as a control. Samples were taken initially and at 7-day intervals during storage and quality parameters were measured. The results showed that MAP could retain their weight and acceptable visual quality throughout the experiment, while the unpackaged fruits lost over 35% of their weight at the end of storage period and consequently their visual quality. Storage in MAP could retard soluble solid contents, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin index decrease and pH increase during the storage time, than if kept in air in open containers. Furthermore, it also could significantly delay total phenolics accumulation and POD activity increase and led to better surface color preservation than the control. During the maintenance period no symptoms of decay was observed. Charles Falang Doumta, Clergé Tchiégang (Cameroon) Standardized Process to Soften African Locus Beans Seeds (Parkia biglobosa Benth) by a Traditional Method ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Daddawa is a traditional condiment obtained by cooking and fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa Benth) seeds. The cooking process is very long (12-48 h), very difficult and time consuming. Putting in place a rapid and standard method of cooking by study the softening parameters (soaking time, amount of dalang, introduction time of dalang in cooking liquid) at 96°C would allow for its production. To evaluate the specific softening time, studies of some softening parameters were performed. From these studies, it was noted that the soaking step positively influenced the softening of seeds. Soaking the seeds for more than 48 h did not influence the percentage of dehulled seeds. These percentages were 51.25 ± 2.00% for unsoaked seeds and 90.00 ± 2.00% after soaking for 120 h. Dalang at 0.75% (w/w), introduced after 60 min of cooking, facilitates the softening and reduces the cooking time. Maximum dehulling (100%) was possible after 3 h. In this case, a standardized process of softening is possible by soaking for 48 h, using 0.75% dalang and introducing it after 60 min of cooking. These specific parameters reduced the softening time to 3 h. Tayo Nathaniel Fagbemi, Adebayo Sunday Adeoya, Adebanjo Ayobamidele Badejo (Nigeria) Effect of Sulphiting on the Physical and Functional Properties of Acetylated Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Starch ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Native cassava starches from a mixed cultivar and clone TMS 30572 were sulphited using a graded amount of sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) to obtain 0-5000 mg SO2/kg starch. The differently sulphited starches were acetylated with 41 mL of acetic anhydride using 3% NaOH as catalyst, washed, centrifuged and dried at 30°C. The degree of acetylation of the starches was determined. The physical (bulk density, sedimentation, whiteness, and water and oil absorption capacities) and functional properties (swelling power, solubility, viscosity, paste clarity and freeze-thaw stability) of the starches were also determined. Sulphiting inhibited acetylation. There was a negative correlation between the level of sulphiting and degree of acetylation for TMS30572 and a mixed cultivar. The yield of the sulphited starches ranged between 94-97% and 89-96% for TMS 30572 and the mixed cassava cultivar, respectively. Optimum yield was 152 and 1250 mg SO2/kg starch for TMS 30572 and the mixed cultivar, respectively. Sulphiting improved the whiteness of the starches but reduced some of the important functional properties. The whiteness ranged between 93.6-96.6% and 89.1-93.5% for TMS 30572 and mixed cultivar starches, respectively. At low concentrations of less than 75 mg SO2, cassava starches showed improved paste clarity while sulphiting at concentrations higher than 75 mg SO2/kg starch reduced paste clarity. Sulphited cassava starches did not freeze until the fourth freeze-thaw cycle and exuded high water content at the fifth freeze-thaw cycle. Sulphiting of acetylated cassava starch is not encouraged in food ingredients when swelling and freeze-thaw stability is required. Flora E. Olaifa, Ibironke A. Ajayi, Victor O. Taiwo, Olusola S. Bello (Nigeria) Growth Response and Nutrient Utilization of Clarias gariepinus on Feeds Supplemented with African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seed Residues ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: An 8-week feeding trial was conducted in circular plastic tanks (50 × 34 × 27 cm3) to assess the performance of Clarias gariepinus juveniles on feeds supplemented with Pentaclethra macrophylla seed residue. Five diets were formulated at 35% crude protein content with 0, 15.58, 31.16, 46.74 and 62.32% P. macrophylla seed residue as partial

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replacement for soybean meal. Each treatment was replicated thrice with 15 fish per replicate (mean initial body weight and standard length 8.32 ± 0.06 g and 12.01 ± 0.01 cm, respectively). Fish were fed twice daily at 3% of body weight Changes in body weights were recorded weekly. Fish on control diet performed better than those on P. macrophylla seed residue-containing diets though no significant differences were observed between the proximate composition of all experimental diets and the control. Significant (P < 0.05) increases were observed in the packed cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cells, mean corpuscular volume, platelets, Mean corpuscular haemoglobin, lymphocytes, heterocytes and eosinophylls during the experiment and between diets. The histology of the liver, kidney, brain, small intestine, gill and heart of fish on all treatments were also recorded. It was concluded that further studies should be carried out to further process P. macrophylla seed residues for inclusion in fish diets. Abiodun Aderoju Adeola, Ogugua Charles Aworh (Nigeria) A Comparative Evaluation of the Chemical Properties of Wild Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Fruits in Nigeria ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the chemical properties of mature wild tamarind fruits in Nigeria. Samples of the fruits were collected from 19 major towns in the savannah vegetation of Nigeria. Fruit pulp was hand-scraped from the seeds and separated from other non-pulp materials. Proximate composition, physicochemical properties, ascorbic acid and mineral composition, total carotenoids and antinutritional factors of mature tamarind fruit pulp were analysed. Proximate and mineral compositions were expressed as g/100 g fresh weight (FW) of the fruit pulp, the ascorbic acid and total carotenoids as mg/100 g FW and µg/100 g FW, respectively; the colour as optical density at a wavelength of 325 nm and total acidity as tartaric acid. Moisture content of the mature fruits ranged between 16.8 and 36.2%. The crude protein, crude fat, ash and total crude carbohydrate of the mature tamarind fruit pulp ranged from 3.5 to 7.4, 3.5 to 7.4, 3.0 to 6.9 and 52.0 to 62.7, respectively. The ascorbic acid, colour and soluble solids varied between 3.7 and 11.3, 0.30 and 1.42, and 5.2 and 6.4 °Brix, respectively. The mature tamarind fruits were high in acid (pH 2.3-3.3) but low in total carotenoids, antinutrients and micronutrients. Calcium and sodium were the most abundant macro- and micro-nutrients. Tamarind fruits are good sources of nutrients and could be effectively employed in combating food insecurity in developing sub-Saharan countries where tamarind fruits grow. Jean-Paul K. M. Bouatenin, Theodore N. Djeni, Solange Aka, Kouakou Brou, K. M. Dje (Côte D'Ivoire) The Contribution of Microorganisms to the Fermentation of Cassava Dough during Attiéké Processing in Côte d'Ivoire ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Biochemical properties of fermentative microorganisms of attiéké traditional starters were evaluated in vitro for highlighting the contribution of each of them in cassava dough fermentation and selection of potential starter strains. A total of 345 isolates from three types of inocula (Adjoukrou, Alladjan and Ebrié) were screening for their abilities to produce -amylase, -glucosidase, pectinases and their acidification rate. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and at a lesser extent Bacillus sp. have been recognized as high acidifying microorganisms. Yeasts isolates were most involved in -amylase (47.56%) production. But, LAB were the most involved in the detoxication of cassava by the high rate of isolates producing -glucosidase (34.66%), while Bacillus sp showed high pectinases producing isolates (43.75%). A proportion of 7 to 10% of moulds contributes to the production of amylase, linamarase and pectinase. A total of 42 strains with one or more desirable biochemical properties were pre-selected for the development as starter cultures for attiéké production. Marina Christelle Nanouman Assohoun, Théodore N'Dédé Djéni, Florent Kouadio N'Guessan, Marina Koussemon (Côte D'Ivoire) Preliminary Study on Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Involved in the Fermentation of Corn Dough during Doklu Processing in Côte D'Ivoire ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from corn dough for doklu production during spontaneous fermentation. Fermentation was conducted for 10 days by mixing corn dough with water at room temperature and biochemical analysis and LAB isolation was performed every 2 days. LAB isolated were then tested for potential antimicrobial activity. Biochemical analyses revealed the presence of 3 main organic acids in corn dough: tartaric acid, oxalic acid and lactic acid. Moreover, pH decreased while titratable acidity increased. Corn dough contains a diversity of LAB including homo- and heterofermentatives. From the 109 isolates, 83.33% showed the ability to inhibit the

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growth of a pathogen bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25915 with diameters of inhibition ranging from 10.4 ± 0.55 mm to 16 mm. Twenty six of these positive LAB produced inhibitory substances which could be bacteriocins with a large spectrum of action against several human pathogens. Rose Koffi-Nevry, Séraphin Affou Wognin, Sébastien Koffi Ouffoué (Côte D'Ivoire) Assessment of Health Risk Factors Associated with Conditions of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Sale in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) Markets ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: This study was conducted to identify the different risk factors related to conditions of sale of vegetables and the general sales environment. The marketing of lettuce is generally an activity assigned to women (100%) between the ages of 15 and 35 (76.4%) although 48.7% do not have any formal education. The highest percentage of sales was realized by the women from Adjamé (56.7%), followed by those of Port Bouet (51.5%) and Koumassi (46.5%). Marcory women sold less lettuce (14.8%) but more of other vegetables (43.8%). The immediate surroundings of sales points are real sources of contamination (garbage, public toilets, open channels, etc.). In Adjamé, 58.5% of the vegetables are exposed to garbage, followed by Plateau (50%). In Abobo (17.1%) and Port Bouet (15%), vegetables are sold close to public toilets. The majority (52.4 to 89.5%) of the traders do not protect lettuce during marketing. Vegetables were most of the time exposed to air, sold in stalls or in plastic bags, sometimes not displayed in baskets and exposed directly to the floor without any protection (71%). After marketing, 58% of the women conserved the unsold lettuce during the day at the stalls used to sell it. In Attécoubé, 100% of the unsold lettuce is kept at the market, in Adjamé, 16.07% of the unsold lettuce is stored at home while in Treichville, 40% of the vegetables are stored in a cold room. The site of sales and the risks of exposure to vegetables during the selling period are potential risk factors for microbial contamination of food. Improper handling and hygiene might lead to the contamination of fresh lettuce which can eventually affect the health of and pose serious health hazards to consumers. Modupe O. Dawodu, Godwin O. Olutona, Funmilola Ajani, O. A. Bello-Olusoji (Nigeria) Determination of Mineral Trace Element and Proximate Analysis of Fish Feed ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Quality control in the feed industry does not only involve the verification of quality, standards established for each feed ingredient as it is received unto storage in the mill, but also involves the close monitoring of the quality of the ingredients through the period of storage prior to usage and during its processing. Quality control continues as ingredients emerge during the mixing process and as they finally go into storage as compound feed. Hence, proximate composition of four different directories' fish feed formulation were examined. The results obtained from the feed samples analyzed showed that the mean values (%) range of crude protein was 57.29 ± 0.19 to 62.61± 0.13; moisture content (5.12 ± 0.06 to 8.26 ± 0.06); crude fat (10.92 ± 0.14 to 13.07 ± 0.04); carbohydrate (32.72 ± 0.17 to 36.16 ± 0.14); crude fibre (0.45 ± 0.08 to 0.65 ± 0.02); ash content (5.91 ± 0.13 to 7.31 ± 0.06); and energy (0.54 ± 0.04 to 0.57 ± 0.03 KJ/g). The mean values (µg g-1) of mineral nutrients analyzed ranged were Zn (9.64 ± 0.06 to 15.05 ± 0.06), Fe (6.01 ± 0.04 to 19.02 ± 0.03), Mn (2.57 ± 0.17 to 7.80 ± 0.06), Cu (4.92 ± 0.11 to 10.10 ± 0.08) and P (1.41 ± 0.004 to 3.10 ± 0.08). The percentage of crude protein in each feed formulation was comparatively equal to the same dietary formulations in the literature. Bal Vipan Chander Mahajan, Wasakha Singh Dhillon, Jatinder Kumar, Karanbir Singh Gill (India) Evaluation of Different Packaging Films on Shelf Life and Quality of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) ABSTRACT Short Communication: Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is a highly perishable vegetable and needs appropriate handling and adequate care to maintain shelf-life and quality. In the present investigations, the post-harvest shelf life of bell pepper was evaluated using shrink film, cling film, low density polyethylene (LDPE) film and high density polyethylene (HDPE) film followed by storage at 8-10°C and 90-95% relative humidity. Data on weight loss, firmness, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and sensory quality were recorded periodically. Shrink film proved to be the best packaging film in maintaining quality up to 20 days storage as indicated by minimum weight loss (1.28%); highest fruit firmness (1370 g force), highest retention of chlorophyll (0.062 mg%) and ascorbic acid (15.92 mg%). On the other hand, control fruit (unpacked) maintained marketable quality only up to 10 days. Shrink film packed bell pepper registered almost double the shelf-life compared to unpacked fruit. Iyabo Bosede Adeoye, Olubunmi Lawrence Balogun (Nigeria) Consumer Preference for Watermelon Varieties in Urban

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Environment of Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria ABSTRACT Short Communication: Watermelon (Citrillus lanatus (Thum.) Matsum and Nakai)) is becoming very popular among residents in Nigerian cities due its taste, flavor and attractive color. One of its constituent, lycopene, an antioxidant, is known to prevent degenerative diseases such as cancer. Horticultural marketing in Nigeria is becoming sophisticated. Thus, it is therefore important to produce and market varieties of preference. The study examined consumer preference for three watermelon varieties (`Sugar baby', `Kaolack' and `Charlton gray') in an urban environment of Ibadan, Oyo state. Primary data was collected from respondents from three randomly selected local government areas in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State. Data were collected from 101 randomly selected consumers of watermelon using a multistage sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive and Probit regression techniques. The results revealed that 63.4% of the respondents were females and that the majority was less than 30 years of age (34.65%). Most respondents had a tertiary level of education (80.85%) and were married (69.15%). Although the result of the analysis indicated that there was little difference in the preference scores of `Kaolack' and `Sugar Baby', `Kaolack' has a slight higher percentage of 49%, `Sugar baby' had 48% while `Charlton gray' was preferred by only 3% of the respondents. The result also revealed that most of the respondents preferred whole (81.3%), medium-sized (65.9%) watermelon to sliced fruits. 29.4% of respondents purchase watermelon once a week. The result of factors influencing consumer preference for watermelon showed that age, household size and number of children in the household (P < 0.05) were important determinants of respondents' preference for watermelon. Research efforts should be concentrated on the development of medium-sized fruits of `Kaolack' and `Sugar baby'. Marc Nwosu Ogbuagu (Nigeria) Amino Acid Composition of a Species of Whelk (Buccinum inclytum) Meat Protein ABSTRACT Research Note: The amino acid composition of a species of whelk (Buccinum inclytum) meat protein has been determined. The result revealed a total of 17 amino acids (excluding tryptophan) with glutamic acid (13.11 g/100 g protein) and aspartic acid (8.98 g/100 g protein) as the predominant amino acids. The amino acids have a total value of 78.61 g/100 g protein. The essential amino acids make up 38.53 g/100 g protein of the total amino acids (excluding tryptophan). This value represents 49.01% of the total amino acid composition of the whelk meat sample. The whelk has high values of lysine (5.61 g/100 g protein), leucine (7.60 g/100 g protein), arginine (5.62 g/100 g protein) and an appreciable value of 4.90 g/100 g protein for phenylalanine. The values of methionine+cystine (3.27%), leucine (7.66%), valine (3.95%), isoleucine (3.31%) and phenylalanine + tyrosine (7.80%) scored higher than their respective FAO/WHO/UNU (1991) reference standards. Whelk meat can serve as a good source of essential amino acids to consumers. SPECIAL ISSUE: Tunisian fruit and vegetables. Guest Editor: Riadh Ilahy (Université 7 Novembre à Carthage, Laboratory of Biotechnology and Plant Physiology, National Agricultural Research Institute of Tunisia, Ariana, Tunis, Tunisia) ~ 2013 Chafik Hdider, Riadh Ilahy, Imen Tlili (Tunisia), Marcello Salvatore Lenucci, Giuseppe Dalessandro (Italy) Effect of the Stage of Maturity on the Antioxidant Content and Antioxidant Activity of High-pigment Tomato Cultivars Grown in Italy ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Lycopene has attracted much interest during the last few years because of its antioxidant activity against free radicals, suggesting protective roles in reducing the risk of several chronic diseases. Therefore, tomato cultivars, with increased lycopene content have been developed. However, a detailed assessment of their nutritional value remains scarce in literature. In this study, the effect of the stage of maturity on the antioxidant content and activity of six high-lycopene tomato cultivars (`Lyco 1', `Lyco 2', `HLY 02', `HLY 13', `HLY 18' and `Kalvert') and one ordinary (`Donald') was determined. The pattern of change in lycopene and -carotene was similar in all tomato cultivars, although quantitatively higher in high-lycopene tomatoes. In those cultivars, lycopene and -carotene were respectively 1.68- to 3.7-fold and 2.11- to 2.48-fold higher during ripening compared to `Donald'. The lipophilic antioxidant activity was well correlated to the lycopene and -carotene contents. The pattern of change in total phenolic, flavonoid and total vitamin C was cultivars dependent. At the red ripe stage, `HLY 13' showed the highest total vitamin C and flavonoid contents. However, `HLY 02' showed the highest total phenolic content. The hydrophilic antioxidant activity was only well correlated to the phenolic and flavonoid contents.

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Chafik Hdider, Riadh Ilahy, Imen Tlili, Nasr Abdelaali (Tunisia) Agronomic Characteristics and Physicochemical Properties of Selected Citrus Cultivars Grown in Tunisia ABSTRACT Short Communication: Citrus is a popular horticultural crop. Interest in assessing agronomic and bioactive compounds with antioxidant capacity and potential health benefits in Citrus is increasing. Besides some agronomic characteristics, the variability in total carotenoids and lycopene contents of ten Citrus cultivars (five oranges including the pigmented cultivars `Moro', `Tarocco', `Sakasli', and `Maltaise', `Demi Sanguine' and the blond cultivar `Maltaise Blonde'; two mandarins `Fortune' and `Minneola'; one citron `Marsh'; one pomelo `Star Ruby'; and one Clementine `Hernandina' were investigated. The results showed significant differences in total carotenoids and lycopene contents between Citrus cultivars. Total carotenoid content ranged from 5.33 mg/kg FW in `Hernandina' to 23.66 mg/kg FW in `Star Ruby'. Lycopene content ranged from 0.27 mg/kg FW in `Maltaise Blonde' to 17.93 mg/kg FW in `Star Ruby'. Therefore, the highest total carotenoids and lycopene values were shown by the pomelo `Star Ruby'. This study demonstrates that the amount of total carotenoid and lycopene was influenced by genotype, emphasizing the need to evaluate Citrus biodiversity in order to improve its nutritional value and to contribute towards increasing the intake of antioxidants.

Fruit, Vegetable and Cereal Science and Biotechnology

SPECIAL ISSUE: Sweet potato. Guest Editors: M. Nedunchezhiyan, G. Byju (Regional Centre of Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Orissa, India) ~ 2012 Maniyam Mini-Nedunchezhiyan, Gangadharan Byju, Susantha K. Jata (India) Sweet Potato Agronomy ABSTRACT Invited Review: Sweet potato, a bio-efficient crop grown for edible roots has spread into Africa, Asia, Europe and East Indies through batatas line and to the Philippines from Central and South America. Sweet potato is a staple food crop in many of the developing countries and serves as animal feed and raw material for many industrial products. It requires a moderately warm climate (21-26°C) with soil pH of 5.5-6.5. Heavy rainfall, high temperature and excess cloudiness encourage vegetative growth. In sweet potato, close spacing is generally recommended to achieve maximum root yield. Though sweet potato covers the soil quickly, weeding is necessary, particularly, in the early stages of the crop growth. Sweet potato requires, on an average, 2 mm of water per day in the early parts of the growing season which gradually increase to 5-6 mm per day prior to harvest. Cylas formicarius Fab. (sweet potato weevil) larvae and adult feeds on the roots and cause extensive damage both in field and in storage. It can be effectively managed by following an integrated pest management strategy. Sweet potato is harvested between 90 and 150 days after planting depending on the location and season. On an average, it yields storage root of 20-25 tonnes ha-1 with improved crop management practices. Maniyam Nedunchezhiyan, Susantha K. Jata, Gangadharan Byju (India) Sweet Potato-Based Cropping Systems ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), a versatile crop used as food, feed and raw material for industries has got the ability to adjust in any cropping systems. It is mainly cultivated in cereal based cropping systems. In China, sweet potato is primarily planted after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harvest in June and harvested before wheat sowing in October. It is cultivated in the intensive irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) based cropping systems in Taiwan. In India, sweet potato is rotated with rice and fallow in upland ecosystem to regain soil fertility and suppress weeds and weevil. In many African countries, sweet potato is intercropped with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), maize (Zea mays L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and a variety of other crops. It is also grown on the borders of the fields in association with maize, cassava, beans (Phaseolus spp.), banana (Musa spp.) and sorghum. It is grown throughout the year in home gardens under mixed cropping in Philippines. Sweet potato being insurance crop against natural calamities is grown as intercrop in plantation crops. However, further research is needed on agronomic aspects when sweet potato is considered in cropping systems for efficient utilization of natural resources, biotic and abiotic stress management and sustainable production. Velumani Ravi, Raju Saravanan (India) Crop Physiology of Sweet Potato

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ABSTRACT Invited Review: Sweet potato is an important tropical tuber crop cultivated mostly under temperate and mild tropical climatic conditions. Its tubers are rich in carbohydrate and some are rich in carotene. The crop is vegetatively propagated through vines. The shoot emerging from the planted vine which grows rapidly for two months and later the growth rate slows down. Within three weeks after planting vines, tubers are formed which later develops into tuber. Soil nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium influence growth and yield of sweet potato. Water deficit stress and high temperature are major abiotic stresses that affect sweet potato growth and yield. Sweet potato can tolerate low level of shade. This chapter presents recent research work done on physiological aspects that influence the growth and productivity of sweet potato. Archana Mukherjee, Samir Kanti Naskar, Korada Rajasekhara Rao, Ramesh Chandra Ray (India) Sweet Potato: Gains through Biotechnology ABSTRACT Invited Review: Gains through application of modern plant biotechnological tools in any horticultural crop are enormous and sweet potato is no exception. Recently biotechnological work in sweet potato has gained momentum in many national and international laboratories. Techniques like micropropagation through axillary shoot proliferation, organogenesis, embryogenesis and artificial seeds have led rapid propagation and reduction of diseases. Cryostorage and DNA finger printing techniques provide safer conservation and rapid characterization of vast genetic resources efficiently with minimum inputs. On the other hand, genetic engineering coupled with tissue culture technology is redesigning the crops to make it more productive. Development of transgenic sweet potato for resistance to weevil, feathery mottle virus and fungal diseases have been reported in international and national laboratories. Genetic engineering for higher protein content are also found to be quite successful in sweet potato. In vitro methodologies have also been developed for faster screening and evaluation of large collections of sweet potato for tolerance to salinity stress. Paclobutrazol (PBZ) and CaCl2 mediated submergence tolerance was also reported in sweet potato. Days are ahead to have nutritionally enriched, disease, pest and salt tolerant sweet potato as source of food, nutrition security and economic sustainability in sweet potato growing countries around the world. C. Mohan, Aswathy G. H. Nair (India) Characterization of Genes and Promoters, Transformation and Transgenic Development in Sweet Potato ABSTRACT Invited Review: Sweet potato belongs to Ipomoea series batatas and is thought to have originated in Central America and Northern South America. World sweet potato production is around 124 million tons in an area of about 9.2 million ha. Asia is the world's largest sweet potato-producing region and China is the world's leading sweet potato-producing country accounting for about 90% of production. Sweet potato has not attracted the attention from modern geneticists that many other economically important crops have because of its high ploidy. The genes related to tuber storage protein, sporamin, sucrose metabolic genes, storage root-inducing genes, proteinase inhibitors, cystein proteniase, retrotranspogens, and senescence-related genes were studied in sweet potato; similarly, sporamin, wound regulated, peroxidase and GBSS promoters were used for developing transgenic plants. Transgenic plants sweet potato with biotic stress (weevil, virus), abiotic stress (drought, early frost, low temperature), and herbicide resistance as well as improved starch quality and fatty acid composition have been developed. C. Mohan, Aswathy G. H. Nair, Samiran K. Naskar (India) Molecular Mapping and Genetic Diversity Studies in Sweet Potato ABSTRACT Invited Review: The sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] is a native species of South America belongs to the genus in the family Convolvulaceae. Sweet potato is the seventh most important crop in the world and a major source of food and nutrition in developing countries. World sweet potato production is around 106 million tons in an area of about 8.1 million ha. Asia is the world's largest sweet potato producing region with the maximum production of 88.5 million tons in 20 million ha. China is the world's leading sweet potato producer with 81 million tons and contributes 90% to the world's production followed by Uganda with 2 million tons. So far three genetic linkage maps developed in sweet potato using different mapping population. Molecular markers were used to map the genes of root knot nematode resistance, carbohydrate metabolic genes, feathery mottle virus resistance, virus disease and carotene genes were studied using different markers. Similarly, genetics diversity work done in sweet potato worldwide with different source of germplasm and different marker system like morphological, RAPD, ISSR, SSR, DAF, AFLP, SAMPL for identifying duplicates and developing core collection in the germplasm.

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Rajasekhara Rao Korada, Samir Kanti Naskar, Archana Mukherjee, Cheruvandasseri Arumughan Jayaprakas (India) Management of Sweet Potato Weevil, Cylas formicarius: A World Review ABSTRACT Invited Review: Sweet potato is infested by many insect pests. Sweet potato weevil (SPW) Cylas formicarius (Fab.) is the important insect pest throughout the world, wherever it is grown. The weevil is managed by a package of practices together called integrated pest management (IPM). In India, a few genotypes of sweet potato have shown durable resistance throughout 2006 to 2011. A new screening method of germplasm, volatile-assisted selection (VAS), was developed to identify resistance/susceptibility in sweet potato genotypes based on the volatile chemicals that are released. Transgenic sweet potato was not successful at the field level. Farmers in Asia practice intercropping of sweet potato with ginger, bhendi, taro and yams to reduce the incidence of pests as well as to conserve soil moisture. Entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes are used successfully to control C. formicarius in the West and Latin America. Female sex pheromone (Z)-3-dodecen-1-ol (E)-2-butenoate has changed the pest dynamics in the field and has become an important tool in C. formicarius IPM. It was used to monitor and trap male weevils, thus reducing the reproductive success of female weevils. A number of botanical pesticides are available and their use is limited in developed countries. A few insecticides that were used to control C. formicarius were banned in recent years in many countries and it is essential to identify new molecules with low or no persistence in tubers and soil with toxic effects on weevils. We reviewed the research done on SPW during the last five decades to assess the management practices of SPW and to identify new strategies required to control the pest effectively and economically. Vimala B., Binu Hariprakash, Bala Nambisan (India) Breeding of Sweet Potato for Enhanced Nutritional Status and Biofortification ABSTRACT Invited Review: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) is an important food crop belonging to the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae). It is cultivated throughout the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world for its edible storage roots. The crop has recently received more attention due to very high levels of pro-vitamin A in orange-fleshed sweet potatoes. Moreover, storage roots provide medium levels of iron and zinc. The nutritional profile of sweet potato leaves and tops reveal the presence of moisture content, crude protein, fibre and ash along with vitamin A and calcium. Since the storage roots of sweet potato possess a high nutritional profile, breeding strategies need to be developed to bring out new varieties which are scientifically feasible, farmer acceptable, with high nutritional status and cost effectiveness. In addition to its importance as human food, it provides raw material for animal feed and industrial purposes. Although, sweet potato is an important food crop, the improvement of the crop has been given very little attention. The genetics of sweet potato is little understood and the inheritance pattern is quite complex one. Genetic information on many traits of direct economic importance in sweet potato is not available and most published information is from the clones of similar genetic back ground. Studies on the entire spectrum of the variability are therefore necessary to acquire knowledge on the inheritance pattern. This chapter briefly reviews the nutritional qualities and breeding patterns of sweet potato with special focus on the chemical components of the sweet potato leaves and storage roots. Sankaran Murugan, Suresh Kumar Paramasivam, Nedunchezhiyan Maniyam (India) Sweet Potato as Animal Feed and Fodder ABSTRACT Invited Review: Alternative sources of livestock feed both to spur domestic livestock production and to free cereal supplies for human consumption are receiving closer attention. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) has higher biological efficiency as food and shows the highest rate of production per unit area (35-45 t ha-1). Sweet potato has a relatively short vegetative cycle (4-5 months). Hence, it fits nicely into tight cropping systems. Sweet potato also competes better with weeds than other root and tuber crops. It also produces much more dry matter (DM) per hectare and per day than cassava. The DM content of sweet potato varieties ranged from 21.70 to 34.78%. Sweet potato tubers can be given to all ruminants as energy supplements along with locally available grasses during the dry season. They can be fed as fresh, chopped tubers, dried chips and silage. The habit of using sweet potato roots for feeding purpose is common in eastern and north eastern regions of India. Sweet potato vine and foliage is a common feed for pigs, and other livestock, in many countries in Asia, including China, India, and a few

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eastern islands of Indonesia (Bali and Irian Jaya), Korea, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, Uganda and Vietnam. Sweet potato vines, commonly left unused, can also be used as a protein feed for animals. The skin and leaf tips contain comparatively higher protein, 50-90% and 18-21%, respectively. Tubers also contain essential amino acids, with the exception of the sulfur-containing amino acids, especially cystine/cysteine. Digestibility of tubers appears to be a problem in some countries for some varieties that are grown under certain types of conditions. Selections of varieties with low trypsin inhibitor activities help expand the plant's potential for wider use as an animal feed in developing countries. The main constraints to using sweet potato vines as pig feed are labor and storage. Sweet potato roots are the good source energy (3500 kcal kg-1) for poultry. The digestibility of sweet potato carbohydrate fraction is reported to be above 90%. From dual purpose lines, DM yield of 4.3-6.0 t ha-1 from foliage could be obtained. The main reasons for adoption of dual-purpose sweet potato are economical viability owing to relatively high yields, net returns and crude protein (CP) content of the fodder. G. Padmaja, Jaffer T. Sheriff, Moothandassery S. Sajeev (India) Food Uses and Nutritional Benefits of Sweet Potato ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) has high ability to convert solar energy in to carbohydrates and store it in the bulky roots that are recognised as one of the energy godowns of nature. Sweet potato is next to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in acreage, widespread cultivation, diversified uses etc., among the tuber crops in the world. With rapidly changing lifestyle and urbanization, the significance of sweet potato as a food is getting diminished. Nevertheless, its importance as a health food is being increasingly realised now. A number of novel food products with functional value are being developed worldwide. Sweet potato tubers with their low glycaemic index have additional value as a food for diabetics. There are a range of primary food products that could be made from sweet potato like chips, flakes, frozen products, French fries, puree etc., while it is also the raw materials for a host of secondary products like noodles, sugar syrups, alcohol, pasta etc. The potential of sweet potato as a promising food crop is discussed. Subrahmony N. Moorthy, Moothandassery S. Sajeev, Salim Shanavas (India) Sweet Potato Starch: Physico-Chemical, Functional, Thermal and Rheological Characteristics ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Among the tropical tuber crops, sweet potato comes next to cassava in starch content. The article reviews the extraction of starch from sweet potato tubers, and the physicochemical, functional, thermal and rheological characteristics of sweet potato flour and starch. Wide variation in biochemical constituents is observed depending on the origin of the tubers and processing conditions. The lipid and phosphorus contents are low. The starch granules are round, 3-45µm in size and have distinct XRD patterns. The amylose content, swelling, solubility and digestibility characteristics depend on a number of factors like age of crop, method of extraction and varietal differences. The viscosity and rheology properties are also quite diverse among the varieties. DSC analysis indicates pasting temperature to be between 60 and 88°C while enthalpy of gelatinization is 10-18 J g-1. Heat moisture treatment alters some of the properties. Ramesh C. Ray, Maniyam Nedunchezhiyan (India) Postharvest Fungal Rots of Sweet Potato in Tropics and Control Measures ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Postharvest rots of sweet potato are mostly caused by fungi. The most important rot causing fungi are Botryodiplodia theobromae (Java black rot), Rhizopus oryzae (soft rot or Rhizopus rot), Fusarium spp. (Fusarium rot), Ceratocystis fimbriata (black rot), Sclerotium rolfsii (Sclerotium rot), Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot), Cochliobolus lunatus (Curvularia lunata), Rhizoctonia solani and Plenodomus destruens, in that order. Curing to promote wound healing, fungicide treatment, bio-control, UV-irradiation, and improved storage practices were found to have intermediate impact in controlling these rots. The other viable proposition is to cultivate rot- resistant/tolerant varieties. C. Mohandas, J.V. Siji (India) Nematode Problems in Sweet Potato and Their Management ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Sweet potato is infested by root-knot and reinform nematodes. Root-knot nematode infestation in sweet potato is studied in detail. A number of resistant varieties are released in sweet potato from USA, Japan and China. A number of

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germplasm accessions and cultivars/varieties were found resistant to the nematodes in Peru. Studies carried out by the authors indicated that sweet potato germplasm is resistant to root-knot nematode in general and susceptibility is less. `Sree Bhadra', a high yielding variety of sweet potato is found as a resistant trap crop of root-knot nematode. Pratylenchus and Ditylenchus are also known to cause serious damage in Japan and China, respectively. However, they are not serious in India and it is desirable to be quarantined in India. Srinivas Tavva, Nedunchezhiyan Manicyam (India) Global Status of Sweet Potato Cultivation ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam.)] is a staple food in many of the developing countries of tropics and sub-tropics also serves as animal feed and raw material for the industries. Sweet potato area globally has been showing a declining trend. This decline was more predominantly seen in Asia followed by Latin America. Sweet potato yields globally showed an increasing trend in all periods, except during 2001-2010 where it recorded a significant decline at 1.0%/annum. This to some extent and significant production growth in Africa compensated for the effect of global decline in sweet potato area on production. Asia continued to have its dominance in spite of the fact that area, production and yield of the crop has showed a declining trend during the past decade. All the major sweet potato-growing African countries recorded significant growth in sweet potato area and production during 1961-2010. Serious and concentrated efforts are needed to exploit its potential in producing many value added products and promoting the orange fleshed sweet potato especially in the African continent to reverse the current declining trends.

Functional Plant Science and Biotechnology Genes, Genomes and Genomics

Shibin Mohanan Nellikunnumal, Arun Chandrashekar (India) Computational Identification of Conserved MicroRNA and their Targets in Coffea canephora by EST Analysis ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Comparative genomic tools have been successfully used to predict new miRNAs in different plant and animal species using expressed sequence tag (EST) and genome survey sequence (GSS) analysis. In the present study we identified conserved microRNAs in Coffea canephora identified by EST analysis using a new modified comparative genomics method. Use of this method eliminates false positives to a greater extent. Conserved microRNA belonging to 12 families was identified. All identified miRNA were used to search their potential target genes from the SGN (Solanaceace Genome Network) EST database and a total of 42 potential targets were identified for miRNA families from C. canephora. Most of the miRNA targets were transcription factors which appeared to be involved in plant growth, development and stress responses according to the mRNA target information provided by NCBI. The newly identified microRNA can help in better understanding of growth and development Coffea. The improved method can be used for more accurate prediction of microRNA from other plant species with sufficient EST database.

International Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Harshavardhan Reddy Arva, Jamuna J. Bhaskar, Paramahans V. Salimath, Aradhya Somaradhya Mallikarjuna (India) Anti-diabetic Effect of Elephant-foot Yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolious (Dennst.) Nicolson) in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: In the present study, the effect of the acetone extract of elephant-foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolious (Dennst.) Nicolson) at 0.1 and 0.25% in the diet of streptozotocin-induced male Wistar diabetic rats was studied. The study involved a comparison between control and diabetic groups: starch-fed control/diabetic (SFC/SFD), 0.1% acetone extract fed control/diabetic (AEFC0.1/AEFD0.1), 0.25% acetone extract fed control/diabetic (AEFC0.25/AEFD0.25) and aminoguanidine fed control/diabetic (AFC/AFD). The rats were examined for water intake, diet intake, urine output, gain in body weight, urine sugar, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A concentration-dependent amelioration of the diabetic status was observed with respect to all the above studied parameters. FBS of AEFD0.1 and AEFD0.25 groups

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showed a 23% and 37% reduction, respectively whereas the AFD group showed a 45% reduction relative to the SFD group. The GFR of experimental rats in AEFD0.1 and AEFD0.25 groups showed a 28% and 41% reduction, respectively whereas the AFD group showed a 54% reduction compared to the SFD group. The results clearly indicate that the acetone extract of elephant foot yam is an effective anti-diabetic agent for streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Arumugam Madeswaran, Muthuswamy Umamaheswari, Kuppusamy Asokkumar, Thirumalaisamy Sivashanmugam, Varadharajan Subhadradevi, Puliyath Jagannath (India) Docking Studies of Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Commercially Available Flavonoids ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Molecular docking is a frequently used tool in computer-aided structure-based rational drug design. Flavonoids are a group of natural products which exhibits various biological and pharmacological activities. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the aldose reductase inhibitory activity of flavonoids using in silico docking studies. In this perspective, flavonoids like aromadedrin, eriodictyol, homoeriodictyol, isorhamnetin, okanin, pachypodol, peonidin, robinetin, tangeritin were selected. Epalrestat, a known aldose reductase inhibitor was used as the standard. In silico docking studies were carried out using AutoDock 4.2, based on the Lamarckian genetic algorithm principle. The interacting residues within the complex model and their contact types were identified. In the docking studies, three important parameters like binding energy, inhibition constant and intermolecular energy were determined. The results showed that all the selected flavonoids showed binding energy ranging between -9.20 kcal/mol to -8.02 kcal/mol when compared with that of the standard (-8.73 kcal/mol). Inhibition constant (181.13 nM to 1.32 µM) and intermolecular energy (-10.99 kcal/mol to -9.81 kcal/mol) of the flavonoids also coincide with the binding energy. All the selected flavonoids contributed aldose reductase inhibitory activity because of its structural properties. These molecular docking analyses could lead to the further development of potent aldose reductase inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes. Further investigations on the above compounds and in vivo studies are necessary to develop potential chemical entities for the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Rashmin B. Patel, Mrunali R. Patel, Kashyap K. Bhatt, Bharat G. Patel (India) Formulation and Evaluation of Microemulsions-Based Drug Delivery System for Intranasal Administration of Olanzapine ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: This paper describes formulation considerations and in vitro evaluation of an oleic acid-based polyelectrolytic polymer-containing microemulsion drug delivery system designed for intranasal administration of a hydrophobic model drug Olanzapine. Drug-loaded microemulsions were successfully prepared by a water titration method. The microemulsion containing 4% oleic acid, 30% surfactant mixture of Labrasol: Cremophor RH 40 (1:1) : Transcutol P (3:1) and 66% (wt/wt) aqueous phase that displayed an optical transparency 99.93%, globule size 25.67 ± 1.17 nm, and polydispersity index of 0.121 ± 0.016 was selected for the incorporation of polyelectrolytic polymer (polycarbophil) as the mucoadhesive component. The mucoadhesive microemulsion formulation of Olanzapine that contains 0.5% polycarbophil (w/w) displayed higher in vitro mucoadhesive potential (19.0 ± 2.0 min) and diffusion coefficient (1.40 × 10-6 ± 0.019 × 10-6) than the microemulsion, followed Higuchi model, was free from nasal ciliotoxicity and stable for six months. Nitin Dubey, Ghanshyam Patil, Dinesh Kumar Jain, Subhash Chaturvedi (India) Simultaneous Estimation of Torsemide and Spironolactone in Combined Dosage Form Using Reverse Phase Liquid Chromatography ABSTRACT Techniques Paper: Simple, accurate, precise, and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for simultaneous estimation of Spironolactone (SPR) and Torsemide (TOR) in combined tablet dosage form has been developed and validated. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 5-25 µg/mL for both drugs in methanol. The RP-HPLC method uses a Shimadzu LC 10 ATVP system with a Luna C18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: phosphate buffer, pH 3.5(60:20:20 %v/v) as the mobile phase. The detection was carried out using a diode array detector set at 238 nm. The recoveries were found to be in the range of 99.64 ± 0.04 to 100.75 ± 0.15 and 99.56 ± 0.35 to 100.33 ± 0.56 for TOR and SPR, respectively. Developed method was found to be simple, precise, sensitive and may be used for routine analysis of TOR and SPR in a pharmaceutical formulation. Results of analysis were validated statistically per ICH guidelines. Yarapa Lakshmikantha Ramachandra, Chavaan Ashajyothi, Satwadi Padmalatha Rai, Supriya Kapil Shetty Thanekar,

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Shirur Dakappa Shruthi (India) Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Adhatoda vasica ABSTRACT Short Communication: The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of pharmacologically important Adhatoda vasica plant extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The agar well diffusion method was adopted to determine antibacterial activity against all the tested microorganisms. The selection of extracts was based on a phytochemical screening for the presence of secondary metabolites. The methanolic extract of A. vasica showed a maximum zone of inhibition (18.17 ± 0.44 mm) for S. aureus and was effective against all bacterial strains tested, thus showing antimicrobial activity. The methanolic extract of the leaves was stronger than extracts based on other solvents such as chloroform and hexane, which showed moderate to weak activity, respectively. Harpreet Walia, Saroj Arora (India) Delineation of Antioxidant Activity of Acetone Extract/Fractions of Fruits of Terminalia chebula Using TA 102 Strain of Salmonella typhimurium ABSTRACT Research Note: Antimutagenic or antioxidant properties elicited by plant species have many prospective applications in human healthcare. The fruits of Terminalia chebula are a rich source of tannins and other bioactive constituents. In Ayurveda, the plant is known as the "wonder healer" due to its extraordinary power of healing. In the present study, the Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay was used to assess the antioxidant activity of the acetone extract of T. chebula fruits in the TA 102 strain of Salmonella typhimurium using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a direct acting oxidant. The acetone extract was prepared by maceration and further fractionated with ethyl acetate and water. The antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate and water fractions was comparatively higher than that of the crude extract. The ethyl acetate fraction inhibited reduction of H2O2 by 72.48 and 72.83% in co and pre-incubation modes, respectively although there was no difference in co- and pre-incubation modes of experimentation.

International Journal of Plant Breeding

Ijaz Rasool Noorka, Amarah Batool, Saeed Rauf (Pakistan), Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Ejaz Ashraf (Pakistan) Estimation of Heterosis in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Contrasting Water Regimes ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Manipulation of heterosis is considered to be a vital approach to enhance the yield potential of wheat and is as accepted to be a safe strategy to overcome barriers in wheat yield. Twelve diverse Pakistani wheat genotypes were crossed to obtain a series of crosses to estimate the level of heterosis and heterobeltiosis among F1 hybrids along with their parents under two contrasting environments: normal irrigation and water stress (withholding 50% water). Estimates revealed a significant relationship between the mean performance of F1 hybrids and their parents under water stress regime only. The presence of significant heterosis for grain yield was also accompanied by heterosis for yield components, particularly length-based traits such as plant height, peduncle length and spike length. The cross Pasban-90 × Sehar-08 was an elite cultivar and showed significant heterobeltiosis. The study suggests that the obtained hybrids surpassed their better parents' effects, indicative of commercial heterosis, and are thus candidates for the commercial production of hybrid wheat.

International Journal of Plant Developmental Biology

Pawan K. Sharma, Rohini Trivedi, Sunil D. Purohit (India) Activated Charcoal Improves Rooting in in Vitro-Derived Acacia leucophloea Shoots ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: An improved method of root induction in in vitro-derived Acacia leucophloea shoots was developed. Roots were induced on Murashige and Skoog medium containing half-strength nutrients, 3.0% sucrose, 1.0 mg l-1 indole-3-butyric acid and 200 mg l activated charcoal (AC). Incorporation of AC could induce roots in more than 88% of shoots. The rooted plantlets were free from any callus and therefore showed better survival during hardening and acclimatization. The role of AC in obtaining callus-free rooting was highly beneficial.

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Manohar Singh Rao, Anshul Goyal (India) High Frequency Rapid Clonal Propagation of Andrographis paniculata Using Cotyledonary Node Explants ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Multiple shoot induction is reported from cotyledonary node (CN) explants cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog 1962) medium containing different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzyl adenine (BA) and kinetin (Kn). However, maximum number of shoots/explant (9.6 shoots/explant) were proliferated on MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2.22 µM BA and 2.32 µM Kn. On this medium all the explants responded positively. Further, shoots were multiplied on the same medium at a rate of 1.4-fold but they remained stunted. The physical consistency of the medium and the concentration and combinations of BA and Kn evoked varied responses in terms of shoot multiplication and elongation. A liquid culture system supplied with 2.22 µM BA significantly promoted shoot multiplication and overcame the problem of shoot elongation. On this medium, shoots multiplied at a rate of 3.88-fold where shoots attained an average height of 4.75 cm. Elongated shoots 2.5 cm in height were most suitable for in vitro root induction. The maximum rooting frequency (92%) and most roots (13.0 roots/shoot) were produced on 1/4-strength MS medium, 0.6% agar, 2.0% sucrose supplemented with 4.90 µM indole-3-butyric acid. The rooted shoots transferred to sterilized jute compost moistened with 1/4-strength MS medium in 400-ml volume glass bottles (covered with polypropylene caps) hardened successfully under misthouse conditions. Hardened plantlets grew well and showed over 82% survival upon transfer to pots containing a mixture of garden soil: sand: farmyard manure (1: 1: 1) during acclimatization in a nursery.

Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology

SPECIAL ISSUE: Medicinal Plants and Cancer Research. Guest Editor: Dilfuza Egamberdieva (National University of Uzbekistan, Faculty of Soil Science and Biology, Tashkent, Uzbekistan), Antonio Tiezzi (Laboratory of Plant Cytology and Biotechnology, Department of Environmental Sciences, Tuscia University, Italy). 2013 Silvia Massa, Rosella Franconi (Italy) Plant Genes and Plant Proteins as Adjuvants in Cancer Vaccination ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: The use of plant products as anti-microbial and immunostimulants has a traditional history and has contributed to the development of important therapeutic drugs used in modern medicine. The anti-cancer properties demonstrated so far by some plant-derived immunostimulants rely on the modulation of non-specific immune responses and do not directly affect immune memory cells. However, it should not be unexpected to find some plant-derived components being able to stimulate antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity in the context of vaccines. The identification of novel adjuvants would give further potential to the development of improved therapeutic anti-cancer vaccines, able to promote better presentation or immunogenicity of tumour antigens and to improve trafficking of effector T-cell populations to non-inflamed tumour sites. Among plant products with effects on microbes and immunity, beside many small secondary molecules, there are also proteins and peptides and most of them are involved in the plant defence against pathogens and invading organisms. We will present data from our work on the use of plant compounds (as extracts, proteins or DNA sequences) as sources of innovative immunostimulants in the context of therapeutic vaccination of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-associated tumours. Further studies are required to determine the mechanism of action by which plant extracts and their active compounds (including secondary metabolites, proteins and peptides) exert their anti-cancer and adjuvant activity for their exploitation in therapeutic vaccines. Moreover, new in vivo and in vitro approaches to isolate novel adjuvant activities are needed. Mohamed L. Ashour, Sherif S. Ebada (Egypt) Plant Natural Products as Potential Modulators of the Transcription Factor NF-B ABSTRACT Invited Review: Nuclear factor-B (NF-B) is an inducible transcription factor which plays important role in the regulation of the immune, inflammatory and carcinogenic responses. Partial NF-B activation is necessary for normal cell survival and immunity; however the deregulated NF-B expression is associated with cancer development, metastasis, and in several inflammatory disorders with a resistant phenotype and poor prognosis. Therefore, NF-B has become an interesting target for drug discovery and several natural and synthetic products have been screened for their ability to inhibit NF-B pathway. This review surveys the plant natural products with significant NF-B inhibitory activity focusing on their potential mechanism of action and their

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implications for cancer therapy. Luigi Lucini, Marco Pellizzoni, Gian Pietro Molinari, Fabrizio Franchi (Italy) Aloe Anthraquinones against Cancer ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Aloe has long been used in folk medicine for its curative and therapeutic properties, and two main classes of active compounds have been identified, namely anthraquinones and some characteristic -polysaccharides. Among anthraquinones, aloe-emodin is reported to show the most interesting anticancer properties. This compound has been successfully tested against neuroectodermal cancer, leukemia, Merkel cell carcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma. Besides the effect on antioxidant enzymes is documented, several authors have identified the induction of cell apoptosis as the main mechanism through which aloe-emodin exerts its cytotoxic activity. In detail, the induction of apoptosis by aloe-emodin was related to the activation of caspases cleaves, and then activating downstream caspases. Maria Pia Fuggetta, Andrea Cottarelli, Giulia Lanzilli, Maria Tricarico, Roberta Bernini (Italy) In Vitro Antitumor Activity of Olive Oil Tyrosol and Hydroxytyrosol and their Methyl Carbonate Derivatives ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil has been associated with health benefits in humans. The phenolic compounds founded in virgin olive oil have demonstrated antitumor activity and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to confirm the in vitro antiproliferative effect of tyrosol (TYR) and hydroxytyrosol (HTYR) on human cancer cell line and to investigate and compare the antitumor effect of methyl carbonate derivatives of these natural compounds as tyrosol methyl carbonate (TYRMC) and hydroxytyrosol methyl carbonate (HTYRMC) synthesized in our laboratory by an eco-friendly procedure. Four human tumor cell lines of melanoma (M14), pulmonary (H125), colon (WiDr) and promyelocytic leukaemia (HL60) were growth in the presence of 3.125, 6.25 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mcg/ml of TYR, HTYR, TYRMC and HTYRMC for 24, 48 and 72 h. The antiproliferative activity was assayed by counting the cells in trypan blue, the apoptosis induction and cell cycle profiles were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. A significant growth inhibition was observed in each tumour cell line exposed to these molecules in the experimental conditions described above. In addition this study demonstrates that HTYRMC results more effective in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction reaching 98.2% at the concentration of 100 mcg/ml. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the mechanisms of these molecules on tumour cell growth. Donatella Ceccarelli, Elisa Ovidi, Doriana Triggiani, Carlo F. Morelli, Giovanna Speranza, AnnaRita Taddei, Antonio Tiezzi (Italy) Antiproliferative Activity of Aloe arborescens Leaf Skin Extracts Tested on Murine Myeloma Cells: Cytological Studies and Chemical Investigations ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: MTT assays showed an intense antiproliferative activity (80%) of Aloe arborescens leaf skin extracts tested on murine myeloma cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation carried out by TLC allowed the identification of a spot showing antiproliferative activity; HPLC and NMR investigations showed that the TLC spot consisted of aloenin A and aloins A and B. The effects of the leaf extract and of the TLC spot were evaluated both by immunofluorescence techniques in order to test the microtubular array and at the morphological level by SEM and TEM observations. Doriana Triggiani, Donatella Ceccarelli, Maria Grazia Cusi, Alessandro Paffetti, Daniela Braconi, Lia Millucci, Giulia Bernardini, Annalisa Santucci (Italy) Rubus ulmifolius Leaf Extract Inhibits Proliferation of Murine Myeloma Cells ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: In the present paper we report preliminary results on the antiproliferative activity of Rubus ulmifolius leaf extract against murine myeloma cells (P3X63-Ag8.653). Cytotoxic effects of plant extract (range 3-30 L/mL of cell culture) were evaluated by microscopy analyses and viability assays, revealing a clear dose-response relationship for cytotoxicity in treated cells vs. controls. The number of viable cells was reduced to nearly 30% when plant extract was tested at 3 L/mL, and to nearly 3% when plant extract was tested at 5 L/mL. Higher concentrations of plant extract allowed the detection of a very limited number of viable cells. Furthermore, the effects of R. ulmifolius leaf extract at the molecular level were investigated through a comparative proteomic approach, which allowed us to highlight how it might modulate protein expression in murine myeloma cells. In particular, only one protein spot was found under-expressed, whereas 44 protein spots showed significantly

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higher levels in plant extract-treated cells when compared to control cells. Our results may thus lay the basis and open new perspectives for future investigations of the effects of plant extracts in mammalian cells. Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, V. A. Venkatesha (India) Preclinical Determination of the Anticancer Activity of Rohituka (Aphanamixis polystachya) in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor-Bearing Mice ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Anticancer activity of various doses of alcoholic extract of rohituka, Aphanamixis polystachya (APE) was studied in mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Administration of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25 or 1.5 g/Kg body weight APE once daily for consecutive 9 days resulted in a dose dependent regression in the tumor mass and increase in tumor-free survivors. The greatest anticancer activity was observed for 1 g/Kg APE as is evident by a maximum number of tumor-free survivors by 120 days post APE administration. Administrations of split dose of 0.5 g/Kg APE twice daily for nine consecutive days resulted in a greater number of tumor free-survivors than the single administration of 1 g/Kg APE concomitantly or 1 mg/Kg doxorubicin (positive control). The stage specific evaluation revealed that APE treatment was effective in regressing the tumors at all the stages and the most pronounced effect was observed up to stage III that lessened when the APE was administered during late stages of tumor development. Biochemical estimation revealed that APE administration increased lipid peroxidation by two folds accompanied by a two-fold decline in the glutathione contents at 8 h post-APE treatment. Similarly, APE treatment reduced the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase at 8 h by 2.1, 2.3, 2, and 3.5 folds, respectively. Our study indicates that APE treatment caused a dose dependent retardation in the tumor mass and regressed tumors even in the late stages of tumor development, which may be due to increased lipid peroxidation and reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, Vijayashree Nayak (India) Indian Medicinal Herb Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Meirs) Exerts its Radiosensitizing Activity by Accelerating Chromosome Damage in HeLa Cells Exposed to Different Doses of -Radiation ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Radiotherapy is an important treatment modality and screening of phytoceuticals may enhance the clinical outcome of radiotherapy, therefore radiosensitzing activity of various guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) extracts was studied in HeLa cells. Chromosomal aberrations were scored in HeLa cells treated with 10 µg/ml of aqueous, methanol, or methylene chloride guduchi extracts or doxorubicin before exposure to 0, 0.5, 1, 2 or 3 Gy of -radiation at 12, 24, 36 or 48 h post-irradiation. Irradiation of HeLa cells caused a dose dependent rise in the chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, dicentric, centric rings, acentric fragments and total aberrations at all post-irradiation times and the dose response was linear quadratic for all types of aberrations scored. Chromatid breaks increased up to 12 h post-irradiation and declined steadily up to 48 h post-irradiation, whereas chromosome breaks, dicentric, acentric fragments and total aberrations elevated up to 24 h post-irradiation and declined thereafter. However, centric rings continued to rise steadily up to 48 h post-irradiation. Treatment of HeLa cells with aqueous, methanol or methylene chloride guduchi extract or doxorubicin before irradiation significantly enhanced various types of chromosomal aberrations and a maximum rise in the chromosome aberrations was observed in the HeLa cells treated with methylene chloride extract before irradiation when compared to other groups. Various guduchi extracts enhanced the effect of radiation in HeLa cells by increasing the molecular damage to cellular genome and their effect was similar to or even greater than doxorubicin (positive control) pretreatment, depending on the type of guduchi extract used. SPECIAL ISSUE: Medicinal Plants of Uzbekistan. Guest Editor: Dilfuza Egamberdieva (National University of Uzbekistan, Faculty of Soil Science and Biology, Tashkent, Uzbekistan). 2013 Dilfuza Egamberdieva, Dilfuza Jabborova, Nilufar Mamadalieva (Uzbekistan) Salt-tolerant Pseudomonas extremorientalis Able to Stimulate Growth of Silybum marianum under Salt Stress ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The effect of root-colonizing Pseudomonas extremorientalis TSAU20 on the root and shoot growth and biomass was determined in the medicinal plant Silybum marianum (milk thistle) under salinated conditions. Four salinity levels (25, 50, 75 and 100 mM) were maintained in a gnotobiotic system using NaCl salt. Shoot and root growth were reduced as much as 42% and fresh weight as much as 31% at 100 mM NaCl. Inoculation of salt-stressed milk thistle with P. extremorientalis TSAU20 significantly improved root length (90%), shoot length (66%) and total fresh weight (64%) at 100 mM

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NaCl compared to control plants. P. extremorientalis TSAU20 also increased the root and shoot length and dry weight of milk thistle in non-saline (0.8 dS m-1), slightly saline (EC 2.3 dS m -1) and saline (EC 7.1 dS m -1) soil. The root length increased by 49%, shoot length by 67% and dry weight by 21%. The strain was able to survive in the rhizosphere of plants. The results presented here make it possible for recommending root-colonizing, auxin-producing P. extremorientalis TSAU20 to alleviate salt stress of milk thistle grown under conditions of soil salinity. Dilfuza Egamberdieva, Nilufar Mamadalieva, Olimjon Khodjimatov (Uzbekistan), Antonio Tiezzi (Italy) Medicinal Plants from Chatkal Biosphere Reserve Used for Folk Medicine in Uzbekistan ABSTRACT Research Note: Chatkal Nature Reserve area, which is situated in Western Tien Shan of Uzbekistan, is unique for its significant role in biodiversity conservation and ethnobotany. Nevertheless, extensive studies on such a rich natural resource region of the area have not been well documented. This paper aimed to create an inventory of and describe medicinal plants grown in the region. Questionnaires were distributed to 25 respondents, which were local people, in order to explore the present use of medicinal plants and their reputed therapeutic effects. It was revealed that there were 117 medicinal plants locally utilized for medicinal use. Plant species, botanical name, vernacular name, part(s) used, popular medicinal were among the information provided. Additionally, the invented plants consisted of Asteraceae (9 species), Lamiaceae (10 species), Liliaceae (4 species), Fabaceae (9 species), Polygonaceae (4 species), Rosaceae (14 species), and Ranunculaceae (6 species) having therapeutic values for digestive ailments, gastrointestinal disorders, anti-inflammatory, and heart disease. Cigdem Kahraman, Zeliha S. Akdemir, I. Irem Tatli (Turkey) Promising Cytotoxic Activity Profile, Biological Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Verbascum L. Species ABSTRACT Invited Review: Verbascum species, the largest genus of the family Scrophulariaceae, have been used in traditional medicines for centuries in almost all parts of the world. In this paper, the usage, biological activities (antioxidant, anticholinesterase, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive, wound healing, cytotoxic, anticancer, antitumor, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antimalarial, anthelmintic, antiviral, antitussive, anti-ulserogenic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, pesticidal, antigermination and the other activities), chemical constituents of these species and new species of the genus are reviewed. Marzieh Negahban (Iran), Kamel Msaada (Tunisia), Enayatollah Tafazoli, Abdolrasool Zakerin (Iran) Effect of Foliar Application of Diammomium Phosphate on Morphological Characteristics and Constituents of Essential Oil of Mexican Marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Pot trials were carried out in a greenhouse in Shiraz, Iran to determine the effect of foliar application of diammonium phosphate (DAP) on morphological characteristics and quality of essential oil (EO) of Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta L.). DAP was applied at 0, 2.4, 4.8, 7.2, 9.6 and 12% (w/v). Growth parameters increased as DAP levels increased. The dry weight of shoots increased at 2.4% DAP. At 7.2% DAP, the height, leaf area, length of axillary shoots and fresh weight of aerial parts peaked. Moreover, the number of axillary shoots, number of flowers per plant and the EO yield reached a maximum at 9.6% DAP. Regarding the EO constituents, the content of dihydro tagetone and Z-tagetone increased as DAP level increased while Z--ocimene and Z-ocimenone content decreased as the DAP level increased. The role of phosphorus as a central and pivotal metabolic and regulatory nutrient element is discussed. Koona Subramanyam, Kondeti Subramanyam, Pinnamaneni Rajasekhar, Chirra Srinivasa Reddy, Nateshan Anil (India) Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Rauvolfia serpentina Accessions Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Rauvolfia serpentina is an important medicinal herb since it contains medicinally important compounds. In the present study, the genetic diversity among R. serpentina accessions collected at different geographical regions in India was assessed through random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Totally 19 accessions of R. serpentina were screened with 60 RAPD primers of which 15 (25%) primers were found to be the most informative and produced multiple band

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profiles with a number of amplified DNA fragments varying from 7 to 11. Of the 143 amplified bands, 95 were polymorphic (66.46%), with an average of 6.33 polymorphic fragments per primer. Jaccard's genetic similarity co-efficient varied from 0.313 to 0.875. A UPGMA dendrogram showed two main clusters split at Jaccard's similarity co-efficient of 0.313. The information obtained here could be valuable for devising strategies for conservation of this medicinal plant. Mouna Ben Taârit Rayouf, Kamel Msaada, Karim Hosni, Brahim Marzouk (Tunisia) Essential Oil Constituents of Salvia argentea L. from Tunisia: Phenological Variations ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The essential oils (EOs) from the aerial parts of Salvia argentea L. were analyzed at three developmental stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages). The highest content of oil (0.15%, w/w) was obtained at full flowering. The current study showed consistent compositional variations among the three studied stages. In fact, manool and manoyl oxide characterised the vegetative stage while viridiflorol, camphor, methyl eugenol and 1,8-cineole prevailed during flowering and the fruiting phase was marked by the prevalence of viridiflorol, -humulene, -ionone and methyl eugenol. Additionally, a wide array of bioactive terpenic compounds was commonly found at different stages, making S. argentea an advocated herb in pharmaceutical science. Ibironke A. Ajayi, Rotimi A. Oderinde, Joseph I. Uponi, Adewale Adewuyi (Nigeria) Evaluation of Selected Heavy Metals and Macronutrients Status of 10 Medicinal Plants from Nigeria ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Ten important herbal plants from the South-west of Nigeria were analyzed for their heavy metal (K, Na, Ca, Mn, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and P) and macro-nutrient status using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The most prevalent heavy metals were K (162 ­ 524 mg/mL) and Ca (102 ­ 472 mg/mL) followed by Mg (48.10 ­ 136.00 mg/mL) and Na (3.51 ­ 10.10 mg/L). The highest level of K (524.00 ± 5.70 mg/mL) and Ca (472.00 ± 1.44 mg/mL) were found in Senna alata and Senna podocarpa, respectively. Out of all the plants, Dissotia rotundifolia had the highest concentrations of Mg (136.00 ± 0.28 mg/mL) and Na (10.10 ± 0.03 mg/mL). The results showed that the level of Cu (0.65 ­ 1.48 mg/mL) and Zn (2.40 ­ 6.77 mg/mL) found in the herbal plants were much lower than the reported range of the elements in agricultural products. Anandhi Selvarasu, Rajamani Kandhasamy (India) Reproductive Biology of Gloriosa rothschildiana ABSTRACT Research Note: An investigation was carried out to study the reproductive biology of Gloriosa rothschildiana. The flowers were borne on a short pedicel (7.73 cm) and were solitary. The flower weighs 1.60 g. There were six small crimson-colored tepals (3.60 × 1.45 cm) with a short stamen (3.34 cm) and pistil (3.39 cm). The stamen displayed profuse orange-yellow pollen. The pistil possessed a three-celled ovary which formed an ellipsoidal capsule. The mean number of days taken to complete flowering was 20.70 days. The percentage of bud opening and anther dehiscence in G. rothschildiana was 60% at 9.30 am. The maximum percentage of stigma receptivity (97.5%), pollen viability (98.1%) and fertility (98.33%) were observed on the day of anthesis. Pollen was oval shaped and pollen output was 701,250 in G. rothschildiana. The highest pod set (93%) was observed under artificial cross pollination followed by self-pollination and natural open pollination. Anindya Bose, Sarbani Dey Ray, Anuradha Khuntia, Sujit Dash (India) Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Aerial Parts of Cleome rutidosperma ABSTRACT Research Note: Different parts of Cleome rutidosperma are used in many ways, as an antiplasmodial, analgesic, locomotor, antimicrobial, diuretic, or laxative. In the present investigation, a detailed pharmacognostic study of C. rutidosperma leaves was carried out to establish standards that could be useful in future experimental studies. The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, powder microscopy, physical analysis and physicochemical evaluation. Masoud Vazirzadeh, Javad Zaboli, Sasan Mohsenzadeh (Iran), Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Hamid Reza Karbalaei-Heidari (Iran), Reza Robati (India) Antibacterial Activity of Ajowan (Trachyspermum copticum) Seed Extract

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ABSTRACT Research Note: The antibacterial activity of ajowan (Trachyspermum copticum) seed extract (ASE) against four Gram-negative and one Gram-positive bacteria were evaluated with the agar disc diffusion and MIC methods. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter lwoffii were resistant to cephalosporin and hexane (0.01 mg/ml) as control drugs but sensitive to ASE. ASE also exhibited antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The thymol in ajowan seeds extracts maybe the cause of this antibacterial effect. Ernest A. Anyalogbu, Ethelbert U. Ezeji, Chiaka J. Nwalozie (Nigeria) Phytochemical Screening and Anti-malaria/Typhoid Fever Activities of Alstonia boonei (De Wild) Stem Bark Powder ABSTRACT Research Note: Anti-malaria/typhoid fever potential of graded doses of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Alstonia boonei bark stem powder were investigated. The stem bark powder was also screened for the presence of some phytochemicals. The percentage chemo-suppressive activity (on early malaria infection in mice) of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight doses were found to be 81, 85 and 75%, respectively for the ethanolic extract and 56, 78 and 80%, respectively for the aqueous extract. This is substantial when compared to the 97% chemo-suppressive effect produced by 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine. The extracts did not produce any observable activity against Salmonella typhii. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponin, flavonoids, terpenes, sterol and resins in the stem bark powder. These results further confirmed earlier reports that A. boonei possesses antimalarial activities.

Pest Technology Plant Stress

SPECIAL ISSUE: Stress-Mediated Signaling in Plants. Guest Editor: Girdhar K. Pandey (Dept. of Plant Molecular Biology, University of Delhi South Campus, India) ~ 2012 Nita Lakra, Kamlesh K. Nutan, Sneh L. Singla-Pareek, Ashwani Pareek (India) Modulating the Expression of Transcription Factors: An Attractive Strategy for Raising Abiotic Stress Tolerant Plants ABSTRACT Invited Review: Plants, being sessile, are strongly influenced by abiotic stress such as high salt, drought, high temperature and freezing. These factors cause metabolic toxicity, membrane disorganization, closure of stomata, decreased photosynthetic activity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered nutrient acquisition. In order to meet the increasing demands for plant-based agricultural commodities, it would be imperative to enhance productivity of crop plants. It is well established that tolerance to abiotic stresses is mediated by a number of biochemical reactions and physiological processes, which essentially means that it is a `multigenic' trait. A large number of stress related genes are expressed in an `orchestrated manner' to bring about this stress response. For this `stress-responsive' unique gene expression network to accrue, transcription factors play a very crucial role. Improvement in stress tolerance through engineering of transcription factors genes is emerging as an attractive strategy in recent years. The global expression analyses have also uncovered hundreds of genes encoding transcription factors that are differentially expressed under environmental stresses, thus implying that various transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are involved. Transcription factors often comprise families of related proteins that share a homologous DNA binding domain such as ERF, bZIP, MYC, MYB, NAC and WRKY binding transcription factors. There are several reports where increased tolerance has been achieved through the overexpression of selected transcription factor(s). The manipulation of a transcription factor can control a broad range of downstream events; therefore can combat abiotic stress efficiently. This review presents a brief description of important transgenic studies which have been attempted with a view to understand the role of various transcription factors towards abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Ankita Sehrawat, Renu Deswal (India) Protein Tyrosine Nitration in Abiotic Stress in Plants ABSTRACT Invited Review: Research in the last two decades has proven, without a doubt, that nitric oxide (NO) is a cytotoxic as well as a signaling molecule in biological systems. NO is one of the nitrogen oxides present in air and being a free radical it is very

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reactive. It combines readily with all major macromolecules whether it is lipids, nucleic acids or proteins. Lipid and nucleic acid modification by NO are relatively less extensively investigated more so in plants. Proteins are mostly post-translationaly modified by NO. and its derivatives, which together constitute reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Although recently, good progress has been made regarding `NO' signaling in plants but focus has been more on nitrosylation (a covalent addition of NO to free thiol group in a protein). Another modification, which has received relatively little attention is `nitration', which is the addition of a nitro group (NO2) to an amino acid, preferable tyrosine. Abiotic stress conditions contributes to `NO' production enhancing the nitrosative stress. In animal system `tyrosine nitration' is shown to be a `nitrosative stress marker'. Current studies in NO signaling hints at a similar scenario in plants. About 150 tyrosine nitrated proteins are known. A generalized increase in nitration by abiotic stress was observed in many plants including Arabidopsis thaliana and Helianthus annuus. Mechanisms and signaling of nitration are being deciphered. Therefore, `tyrosine nitration' with reference to abiotic stress is reviewed in the present review to describe this very new and relatively unexplored research area in plants. Swatismita Ray (India) Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase: A Tool for Plants to Crack the Calcium Code ABSTRACT Invited Review: Ca2+ signals are involved in most aspects of growth and development of plant, including response to hormone signaling, various biotic and abiotic stresses, germination, cell division, cell expansion, pollen tube growth and fertilization. The calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) constitute one of the largest Ca2+ sensing subfamilies of plant-specific protein kinases that decodes the transient changes of Ca2+ concentration in the cytoplasm in response to extrinsic and intrinsic cues. The unique domain structure of CDPKs makes them not only "sensors" but also "responders" to these Ca2+ signatures. A multigene family consisting of 34, 31 and 20 genes in Arabidopsis, rice and wheat, respectively, encodes CDPKs. The multigenic nature and diverse spatial and temporal differential expression have been reported in many plant species, which emphasizes on the precise role of isoforms in developmental (e.g. pollen tube) as well as stress responsive pathways (e.g. ROS). The regulation of CDPKs has been reported to be at transcriptional and post translational level. The signaling pathways mediated by CDPKs have also been found to overlap with MAP kinase pathways, suggesting of an intricate network, which regulate precise responses of plants. The proteins interacting with CDPKs are diverse in their function (e.g. transcription factor, channel protein, v-SNARE) which indicates that CDPKs play important role in regulating the Ca2+ signaling cascade, leading to extremely precise response of plants during development and adaptation to environmental cues. This functional diversity and their cross-talks are being discussed in this review. Akhilesh K. Yadav, Amita Pandey, Girdhar K. Pandey (India) Calcium Homeostasis: Role of CAXs Transporters in Plant Signaling ABSTRACT Invited Review: Calcium is an essential macronutrient as well as an ubiquitous second messenger, playing a pivotal role in plant development and growth. The neutral cytosolic pH, acidic apoplastic and vacuolar pH is maintained by synergistic action of different channels/transporters in plant cells. In the cytosol, submicro-molar range of calcium is maintained for efficient biochemical and physiological functioning, including calcium mediated signal transduction. A concerted interplay of channels/transporters, mediating influx and efflux of ions across membranes, tightly regulates the concentration of calcium in the cytosol by sequestering extra calcium into vacuole. For calcium homeostasis, the pre-requisite is to balance and maintain high calcium level in cytoplasm during signaling events and subsequently counterbalanced after the removal of the signal. Hence, the major mechanism in plant cell for calcium homeostasis is redistribution of calcium and other cation in exchange for the H+ generated by various H+ pumps and antiporters. Calcium/cation antiporter (CaCA) superfamily consist of five families, one of them is CAX multigene family (H+/cation exchangers). In last two decades, several studies have been reported involving discovery of biochemical, physiological and molecular characterization of CAX family members extensively. CAX proteins are mainly constituted in vacuolar membrane and responsible for maintaining low cytosolic Ca2+ and/or other cations against their concentration gradient in cells. CAX family play an important role in calcium signaling, ion compartmentalization, sequestering of essential and heavy metal ions in vacuole. CAXs could be agriculturally important to increase the calcium content in edible part of plant and sequester heavy metals from polluted soil. In this review, we are primarily elaborating the functional aspect of CAX protein family in calcium homeostasis and stress mediated signaling in plants. Alka Shankar, Amita Pandey, Girdhar K. Pandey (India) WRKY Transcription Factor: Role in Abiotic and Biotic Stress

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ABSTRACT Invited Review: One of the fundamental behaviors of plants, being sessile allows them to develop an intricate molecular machinery to adapt themselves to biotic and abiotic challenges experienced in the environment. In response to adapt against a particular stress, a massive transcriptional activity of several genes triggered the defense responses in the plant cell. Extensive research on stress related studies have introduced the role of transcription factors for regulation of the plants responses. In many cases, transcription factors acts as a "master or key regulator" of gene expression under one or multiple stress conditions. In plants, WRKY has emerged as a major and largest transcription factor family. Arabidopsis and rice has 74 and 109 WRKY members respectively, which play a major role during stress and development. WRKY gene family has been studied to be induced in response to several phytohormones such as SA, JA, ABA and pathogen attack, thus have been found to be a key player in plant defense mechanism. This gene family also forms a highly interacting regulatory network with stress response, by acting as either transcription activator or repressor thereby modulating the gene expression. Beside stress and developmental conditions, WRKY is also induced in nutrient deficient conditions such as phosphate deficiency and starvation. The main emphasis of this review is to summarize the progress in WRKY transcription factor research under stress and developmental conditions. At the same time an attempt has also been made to comment upon interaction with a wide range of signaling networks such as MAP kinase proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, calmodulin and regulator of chromatin such as histone deacetylases, and plant-pathogen defense proteins. Moreover, a crosstalk or overlap is also discussed among these different components or pathways involving WRKY transcription factor. Manisha Sharma, Amita Pandey, Girdhar K. Pandey (India) Role of Plant U-BOX (PUB) Protein in Stress and Development ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: During the past few years, the significance of regulated protein degradation has become increasingly apparent in plants. There has been a remarkable exploration of information on the proteins of the ubiquitin/proteasome system and their role in protein degradation throughout the eukaryotes. The proteasome ubiquitination system selects a number of proteins for post-translational modification and subsequently, subjects them to degradation. E3 ubiquitin ligases play a central role in determining the target specificity in this system. Interestingly, most recently discovered, RING/U-box represents a type of E3 ligases and shows greater prevalence in plants (PUBs, Plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases) in comparison to animals. Hence, suggesting their involvement in a range of indispensable processes in plant system. U-box is a highly conserved domain whose physiological function remains unclear, but it has been implicated as a regulator of fundamental cellular processes ranging from cellular growth, damage responses and apoptosis. Besides, on the basis of assorted accessory domains or protein binding motifs, PUBs can be classified into several subclasses, which bestow functional divergence to them. Moreover, genome wide homology searches in monocots and dicots have revealed similar domain organizations in several of the U-box genes suggesting their evolution through a common ancestor. The participation of PUBs in plant development is extensive, affecting processes related to development and signal transduction cascades. Moreover, increasing evidences points towards the association of PUBs in defense against biotic as well as abiotic stresses. Here, we will be emphasizing the current knowledge about the aspects of cellular responses shared by PUB proteins in plants under stress and developmental conditions. Amarjeet Singh, Amita Pandey, Girdhar K. Pandey (India) Phospholipase D in Stress Activated Lipid Signaling in Plants ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Phospholipid hydrolysing enzymes, phospholipase D are represented by multiple gene members encoding various isoforms in plants. Different PLD isoforms display a varying requirement for the Ca2+ and the substrate lipid molecules for their function. By hydrolysing the phosphodiester bond of phospholipids and generating phosphatidic acid (PA), and a soluble head group, phospholipase D regulates various cellular processes in plants such as abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, programmed cell death, defense response to wounding and pathogens, root growth, freezing tolerance and other physiological responses. Studies suggest association of phospholipase D members with various biotic and abiotic stresses and their possible role in stress mediated signaling in plants, as their transcript level and protein activity changes upon exposure to stress stimuli. The focus of this review is discussion of the expression pattern and the functional role of different phospholipase D isoforms under various abiotic and biotic stresses, and the modulation of the stress signaling events leading to stress adaptation and tolerance in plants. Ashish Kumar Srivastava, Penna Suprasanna, Stanislaus Francis D'Souza (India) Interaction and Crosstalk Between Calcium and Redox Signaling Events in Plants

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ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: In response to any stimulus, various cellular responses are triggered among, which the most rapid responses include the induction of calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) transients. The induction of calcium transient is due to the concerted action of calcium dependent channels, pumps, and carriers situated in the plasma membrane and different sub-cellular compartments. The spatially and temporal nature of the calcium transient is defined as cellular "Ca2+ signature" and is responsible for the activation of stimulus-specific calcium sensor and decoder elements. The redox state of the cell under any condition is defined as the integrative ratio of reduced to oxidized form of redox couples present inside the cell. The induction of calcium transient is coherent with the significantly higher level of ROS, which shifts the redox status of the cell to a more oxidized state. This change occurs in a dose dependent manner and is sensed in calcium signaling dependent manner. The complex and coordinated interaction of calcium and redox events is responsible for the generation of stimulus-specific response. The present review deals with the overview of calcium and redox signaling events and their possible crosstalk to regulate different plant functions under normal and stressful environment. Arsheed Hussain Sheikh, Hussain Ara, Alok Krishna Sinha (India) Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases: A Hunt for their Physiological Substrates in Plants ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important signal transducing enzymes that connect various sensors/receptors to a wide range of cellular responses in mammals, yeast and plants. The MAPKs are part of a phospho-relay cascade, which essentially consists of three components namely MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK), MAPK kinase (MAPKK) and MAPK. They are connected to each other by an event of phosphorylation. MAPK, the last component of the cascade, upon activation phosphorylates variety of cytosolic and nucleic proteins for appropriate cellular reorganization. In plants MAPK consist of a multigene family having twenty and sixteen members in Arabidopsis and rice, respectively. Though search for the substrate of MAPK in plants is on, there are only a few reports of phosphorylation of downstream targets by activated MAPK. In the present review we take an overview of the progress made in identifying the substrate of MAPK in plants, the approaches undertaken and finally discuss the future perspectives in hunt for the putative substrates. S. Thiruvenkadam, Manisha Sharma, Amita Pandey, Girdhar K. Pandey (India) Small GTPases: Rho of Plant (ROP) in Development and Stress Signaling ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: The small GTPase superfamily is comprised of four families (ROP, ARF, RAB and RAN) in the plant kingdom. The members of this superfamily show diversity in structure and function, despite possessing a conserved G-domain for GTP-binding and hydrolysis. ROP (Rho of Plants) has emerged as plant-specific GTPases to orchestrate unique cellular function such as polarity establishment, stress and plant hormonal signaling. The prominent role in their functional capability is evident from their varied expressional regulation in different developmental and stress conditions. The functional activity of small GTPases is tuned by both positive (guanine exchange factor, GEF) and negative regulators (Guanine Dissociation Inhibitor, GDI and GTPase activating protein, GAP), which favors the ON and OFF state of small GTPases, respectively. The expressional variation of regulators as well as their spatial and temporal expression pattern determine the activity and hence turn-on the switch of small GTPases. In this report, we are exploring the expressional and functional analysis of ROP class of small GTPases in plants under stress and developmental signaling pathways. Dhirendra Kumar, Tazley Hotz, Mir Hossain, Pavan Chigurupati, Amukta Mayakoti, Nkongho Binda, Bingqing Zhao, Diwaker Tripathi (USA) Methyl Salicylate Esterases in Plant Immunity ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal in various plant processes. It is well known and widely studied for its role in plant disease resistance. Several proteins, which physically interact with SA has been identified and characterized for their possible role in disease resistance signaling. These plant proteins bind to SA with varying affinity and they differ considerably in their structure and activity. The protein, which binds to SA with highest affinity amongst all the characterized SA-binding proteins, is SABP2. It is a 29-kDa protein and has esterase like enzymatic activity. It is able to use plant synthesized methyl salicylate as a substrate and convert it into SA, which triggers disease resistance in plants. Silencing of SABP2 makes

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plants more susceptible to pathogens and their capacity to induce SAR is severely compromised. The esterase activity of SABP2 is required to process the phloem mobile signal, MeSA in distal uninoculated tissues to induce resistance. The binding of SA to SABP2 is important for activation of SAR in distal tissues. Khirod K. Sahoo, Amit K. Tripathi, Ashwani Pareek, Sneh L. Singla-Pareek (India) Taming Drought Stress in Rice through Genetic Engineering of Transcription Factors and Protein Kinases ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Major population of the world depends on rice as the principal staple food crop. Water deficit or drought stress is one of the serious environmental threats and the main constraint to rice productivity. It affects rice at morphological, biochemical, physiological and molecular levels such as delayed flowering, reduced dry matter accumulation and decreased photosynthetic capacity as a result of stomatal closure, metabolic limitations and oxidative damage to chloroplasts. Some of the physiological parameters that are affected during drought stress are root system, root/shoot ratio, stomatal frequency, leaf weight, leaf water potential, tissue water storage capacity, water permeability, leaf weight, thickness of cuticle, leaf chlorophyll content and finally, the yield. To withstand drought stress, plants need to be manipulated at the genetic level for improved metabolic processes like water absorption, stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthesis and finally seed development. Drought tolerance and adaptation in rice plants has been improved by engineering various genes related to transcription, signaling, accumulation of antioxidants and compatible solutes etc. In this review, we discuss the recent developments towards genetic engineering of transcription factors and protein kinases for enhancing drought stress tolerance in rice plants. Annapurna Bhattacharjee, Mukesh Jain (India) Transcription Factor-Mediated Abiotic Stress Signaling in Rice ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Abiotic stresses are the major cause that limits productivity of crop plants worldwide. Plants respond to these stress conditions at physiological and molecular levels. At the molecular level, the expression of thousands of genes is altered in response to various abiotic stress conditions. Several studies have been performed to find out the role of these genes in abiotic stress signaling. However, among these, transcription factor encoding genes are most important because many of them act as `key or master regulators' of gene expression. Transcription factors appear to be attractive targets to unravel the molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress responses and engineering abiotic stress tolerance in plants. However, the role of only a few transcription factors in abiotic stress responses have been elucidated in rice until now and require a detailed investigation for several such candidate genes. In this review, our endeavour is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the intricate regulatory network of transcription factors operative during abiotic stress responses with greater emphasis on rice. Hyunmi Kim, Kyeyoon Lee, Hyunsik Hwang, In Sun Yoon, Dool-Yi Kim, Taekryun Kwon, Myung-Ok Byun, Beom-Gi Kim (Korea) The Orthologues of ABA Receptors and ABA Signaling Components in Rice ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Abscisic acid (ABA) is a multi-functional plant hormone that acts in several different physiological processes such as stomata closing, seed dormancy, abiotic stress adaptation and developmental differentiation. Many efforts have been made over the last decades to identify the molecular mechanisms of ABA signal transduction pathways. In particular, the identification of the ABA receptors has been one of the most important issues facing this research area. Recently, ABA receptors, including two GPCR-type G proteins, a Mg-chelatase H subunit and PYL/RCARs were reported to bind ABA and to be involved in ABA-dependent responses in seed dormancy, stomata closure and abiotic stress adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana. In particular cytosolic ABA receptor PYL/RCARs are considered the major regulators of ABA dependent gene expression. The signaling components consisted of PYR/RCAR, subclass A PP2C, SnRK2 and ABF studied well and the crystal structures of the components and complexes were identified in Arabidopsis. In this review, we describe ABA receptors and signaling components of Arabidopsis and identify the rice orthologues corresponding to ABA receptors and signaling components of Arabidopsis by homology searches in the rice database. This also suggested that the receptors and signaling components of ABA are highly conserved in dicot and monocot plants evolutionarily. Alok Pandey, Subhadeep Chaterjee (India) Signaling in Plant-Microbe Interactions ABSTRACT

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Invited Mini-Review: Plants are attacked by different kinds of pathogens; therefore plants have evolved defense mechanism to combat the pathogen attack and diseases. Many microbial signature molecules, which are known as microbe associated or pathogen associated molecular patterns (MAMPs/PAMPs) are recognized by a plant's primary layer of immune response, known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). In the co-evolution of plant-microbe interactions, successful pathogens have acquired the ability to deliver effectors proteins directly inside plant cell to suppress PTI, allowing pathogen growth and disease. As a counter measure, plants have developed a second layer of defense system, by acquiring the ability to recognize these effector proteins via `Resistance' (R) protein to trigger a defense response, known as effector triggered immunity (ETI). In this review, we discuss the developments that have taken place in understanding the PTI, effectors function, ETI and downstream signaling events. Understanding plant immune signaling pathways would be very helpful in controlling plant diseases. Vol 7(1) Mina Kolahdouz Mohammadi, Dariush Minai-Tehrani (Iran), Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Leila Lotfi (Iran) Biochemical and Cellular Changes in the Root of Lens culinaris Grown on Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Catalase (CAT) is an enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide with high velocity. Under environmental stress, CAT plays an important role in the disposal of hydrogen peroxide. Spillage of crude oil into the soil can damage plants and microorganisms. Oil contamination in soil may act as a stressful element and cause damage to plants. In this experiment, the effect of crude oil-contaminated soil (5% w/w) on root of lentil (Lens culinaris) CAT activity and subcellular changes was studied. CAT activity was measured at different pHs and temperatures. The optimum pH was 10 and maximum activity was observed at 30°C in treated and control samples. Both Km and Vmax changed in treated samples. The Km of the enzyme was 1.13 and 1.5 mM and Vmax was 1.16 and 2 mM/min/mg protein in the treatment and control, respectively. After purification of CAT, SDS-PAGE of purified enzyme revealed a minor difference between the molecular weight of the enzyme in treated samples and the control, suggesting that a CAT isoenzyme was induced in treated samples relative to the control. Nalini Pandey, Archana (India) Membrane Damage in an Oxygen-Free Radical-Dependant Manner induced via Boron Deficiency and Toxicity in Maize ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Maize (Zea mays var. `32-A09') plants grown with variable boron (B) supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity (0.033, 0.33, 0.66, 3.3, 33 mg B L-1), were investigated for the concentration of antioxidants and activities of antioxidative enzymes in leaves. Plants subjected to deficiency and excess B supply showed retarded growth and characteristic B stress symptoms. Chlorophyll a, b and carotene decreased under B stress at both stages i.e., 26 and 38 days after treatment. There was lipid peroxidation as indicated by the high MDA content and accumulation of H2O2 under B stress. The activities of SOD, APX, GR, CAT and POX increased both under deficiency and toxicity. The concentration of total non-protein thiols increased under B stress and ascorbate decreased under B deficiency. DHA concentration decreased under B deficiency and increased under B toxicity in leaves at both treatment stages. There was also an accumulation of phenols with enhanced PPO activity under B deficiency and toxicity. Ramzi Murshed, Safaa Najla, Fahed Albiski (Syria) Screening of Some Syrian Potato Lines Based on the Morphological Responses to Water Stress ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: In order to screen 21 in vitro local lines of potato for water stress, the morphological responses of aerial and radical parts were studied. Water stress was mediated by adding 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (w/v) of sorbitol to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium against 0% for the control. Plant length and diameter, leaf area, root number, length and diameter, as well as plant fresh and dry weight and plant water content, were measured. Water stress induced a decrease in several growth parameters. Using cluster analysis, based on the sum of relative values of water stress responses, three groups could be distinguished: (1) a tolerant group consisting of six lines (SY-C.09 > SY-C.32 > SY-C.42 > SY-C.49 > SY-C.48 > SY-C.08), (2) a moderately tolerant group consisting of eight lines (SY-C.10 > SY-C.51 > SY-C.16 > SY-C.06 > SY-C.30 > SY-C.37 > SY-C.41 > SY-C.50) and (3) a sensitive group consisting of seven lines (SY-C.36 > SY-C.44 > SY-C.33 > SY-C.45 > SY-C.40 > SY-C.05 > SY-C.04).

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Seed Science and Biotechnology

Vikas Bandu Naikawadi, Mahendra Laxman Ahire, Tukaram Dayaram Nikam (India) Seed Characterization, Viability and Promotion of Seed Germination in Nervine Tonic Plant Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae; Shankhpushpi) is one of the important medicinal plants used as a nervine tonic. The aim of the present study was to characterize seed, to assess viability and to enhance germination of E. alsinoides seed. Seed characterization and viability testing showed that about 80% yellowish-green seeds and 45% brown seeds were viable. Black seeds found in the capsules were non-viable. Yellowish-green seeds subjected to different pre-sowing treatments for improved germination included physical scarification using sand paper, acid scarification, presoaking treatment of wet heat (hot water and boiling water), cold water and different types of plant growth regulators including cytokinins, auxins and gibberellic acid (GA3). Significantly highest (78.7 ± 1.8%) rate of seed germination and higher germination speed (GS), germination value (GV), emergence index (EI) and vigor index (VI) were observed in the seeds soaked in 5.00 mM GA3 for 36 h. Fresh and aged seeds (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months old) were subjected to TTC test and presoaking in 5.00 mM GA3 for 36 h resulted in lower viability and seed germination percentage, indicating that E. alsinoides seeds have a storage life of about 2 years. Jitendra Gopichand Patil, Mahendra Laxman Ahire, Tukaram Dayaram Nikam (India) Influence of Plant Growth Regulators on in Vitro Seed Germination and Seedling Development of Digitalis purpurea L. ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Digitalis purpurea L. (foxglove; Scrophulariaceae) is an herbaceous medicinally important cardiac glycoside-producing plant. The aim of the present study was to access the seed viability and influence of plant growth regulators on in vitro seed germination and seedling development. The 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) test showed that 100% of seeds were viable while a direct germination test in soil and in Petri dishes showed only about 20% germination ability. The surface-sterilized seeds were cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar and different concentrations (0 to 15.0 µM) of cytokinins (6-benzyladenine - BA; kinetin - Kin and thidiazuron - TDZ) and auxins (-naphthaleneacetic acid - NAA; indole-3-acetic acid - IAA and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid - 2,4-D) alone and in combination. Addition of all types and concentrations of cytokinins and auxins stimulated the rate and percentage of seed germination. Significantly higher seed germination (65.5 ± 1.2% and 63.1 ± 3.2%) was observed on MS medium containing 10.0 µM BA and Kin, respectively than control (16.7 ± 3.1%). Addition of 10.0 µM IAA in the MS medium was most effective for significantly highest (81.0 ± 3.1%) germination percentage. This was evident by significantly higher germination speed (GS; 2.70 ± 0.1), germination value (GV; 31.3 ± 2.4) and vigor index (VI; 259.1 ± 10.1) on MS medium fortified with 10.0 µM IAA as compared with control (GS: 0.56 ± 0.1; GV: 01.4 ± 0.5 and VI: 50.0 ± 09.4). Addition of cytokinins and auxins to the culture medium significantly increased the growth of seedlings. The protocol developed in the present study can be used for large-scale seedling formation and biomass production of this important medicinal plant. It also used to obtain sterile and uniform starting material for various in vitro studies for the improvement of this plant. Abdolkarim Zarei, Zabihollah Zamani, Amir Mousavi, Reza Fatahi, Maryam Karimi Alavijeh, Bahareh Dehsara, Seyed Alireza Salami (Iran) An Effective Protocol for Isolation of High-Quality RNA from Pomegranate Seeds ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: In the present study, various protocols were tested to extract RNA from different parts of pomegranate, especially the fruit. Using a modified CTAB-based procedure, high quality RNA could be extracted from different parts of pomegranate fruit. This protocol was successfully applied to isolate total RNA from the seeds of four pomegranate genotypes (`Bihaste-Ravar', `Bihaste-Najafabad', `Torshe-Zabol' and `Malase-Esfahani') at five developmental stages as well as from fruit peel and leaves. Electrophoretic analysis clearly separated two ribosomal sub-units indicating no degradation of the isolated RNA. By using this protocol, the absorbance (A) ratio of 260/280 nm ranged from 1.82 to 2.06, indicating the high quality of isolated RNA with no phenolic or protein contamination. In addition, the A260/A230 nm ratio was between 2.05 and 2.11, indicating that the extracted RNA was free of polysaccharides. The average yield of extracted total RNA was 106.42 µg/g fresh weight. Fragments of Actin and 18S reference genes were successfully amplified by RT-PCR and constant expression of the

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Actin gene was confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Using this protocol, RNA extracted from pomegranate fruit was suitable for cDNA construction and hence for subsequent molecular studies.

Terrestrial and Aquatic Environmental Toxicology The African Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology

Special Issue: Plant Science and Biotechnology in Ethiopia ~2012 Solomon Abate Mekonnen, Fikiremariam Haile (Ethiopia) Essential Oil Content Response of Lemongrass, Palmarosa and Citronella to Post Harvest Wilting and Chopping ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: An experiment was set to determine effects of wilting period and chopping on essential oil content of three aromatic grasses vis. Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, C. citratus Stapf and C. martinii. A completely randomized design with three replications was used in the experiment. Wilting the harvested part of C. citratus, C. winterianus and C. martinii for 96 hr yielded significantly higher essential oil (av. 1.31, 2.44 and 1.45%, respectively) than other treatment levels, except for 72 hr. Chopping to any level generally reduced essential oil content by 20.9% for C. citratus, 8.9% for C. winterianus and 9.24% for C. martinii. Thus, commercial production of essential oils from these plants needs to consider these two factors in order to optimize the quality and yield. Beemnet Mengesha Kassahun, Solomon Abate Mekonnen (Ethiopia) Effect of Cutting Position and Rooting Hormone on Propagation Ability of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: To fill in existing information and knowledge gaps on asexual propagation of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), this experiment was conducted at the Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center nursery site in a plastic chamber. The experiment consisted of two levels of cutting positions (top and middle) and three levels of rooting hormones (zero hormone, 0.2% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 0.4% 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)). The experiment was laid out in a 3×2 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on leaf number/plant, survival count and rate were recorded and analyzed. Mean squares from analysis of variance revealed the existence of a very highly significant influence (P < 0.001) of cutting position on leaf number and survival rate. The application of rooting hormone exerted a significant influence (P < 0.05) on survival rate only. Interaction effect of cutting position and hormone application did not exert an influence (P > 0.05) on the parameters considered. Higher but statistically similar survival rate were recorded for the control and the 0.2% IBA treatment whereas the lowest values were recorded for the 0.4% NAA treatment. Top cuttings demonstrated significantly more leaves (eight) and survival rates (80.18%) and showed a 46.78 and 28.49% increase in leaf number and survival rate compared to middle cuttings. Therefore, it is recommended that the top part be used for the propagation of stevia. The application of rooting hormone might not necessarily be an economically sound option for vegetative propagation. Zewdinesh Damtew Zigene, Beemnet Mengesha Kassahun, Tsion Tesema Ketaw (Ethiopia) Effects of Harvesting Age and Spacing on Leaf Yield and Essential Oil Yield of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of harvesting age and spacing on agronomic and chemical traits of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). Data on plant height, branch number/plant, fresh and dry leaf weight/plant, fresh and dry leaf yield/ha, essential oil (EO) content and EO yield/ha were collected and analyzed. Harvesting age exerted a very highly significant (P < 0.001) influence on plant height and dry leaf weight/plant, and a highly significant (P < 0.01) influence on dry leaf to stem ratio. Spacing affected fresh and dry leaf weight/plant very highly significantly (P < 0.001) and highly significantly (P < 0.01) plant height. The interaction effect of harvesting age and spacing was significant (P < 0.05) on dry leaf yield/ha, EO content and yield, and highly significant (P < 0.01) on fresh leaf yield/ha. Maximum plant height and dry leaf weight/plant were obtained 11 months after transplanting (MAT) and maximum dry leaf to stem ratio at 9 MAT. Higher plant height was attained at 60 × 60 cm while higher fresh and dry leaf weight/plant at 90 × 90 cm. Higher fresh leaf yield/ha (38.43 t) and dry leaf yield/ha (10.83 t) were obtained at 60 × 60 cm at 9 MAT. Maximum EO content (2.77 %) and EO yield (271.43 kg)

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were recorded at 10 MAT at a spacing of 90 × 120 cm and 60 × 60 cm, respectively. Solomon Abate Mekonnen (Ethiopia), T. P. S. Katiyar, H. Ravishankar (India) Yield Components and Yield of Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Under Different Irrigation Frequency and Planting Density Treatments ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: An experiment was undertaken to determine the yield component and yield of haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties in the semi-arid region of Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. The experiment was a split plot with three irrigation frequencies as main plots and a combination of three planting densities and two haricot bean varieties as subplots, all of which replicated three times. Irrigation frequencies consisted of 1, 0.67, and 0.5 irrigation water to cumulative pan evaporation (IW/CPE ratio) thereby fixing the depth of IW to 60 mm, planting densities of 15.6, 25, and 35.7 (plants m-2) and two haricot bean varieties, `Roba-1' and `Mexican-142' were considered. Different planting densities were employed by changing planting distances within cultivation rows. Plant data on dry biomass/plant, number of branches bearing pods, number of pods/primary branch, number of pods/plant, pod length and width, number of beans/pod, number of beans/plant, 100-bean weight and harvest index at harvest were recorded. Increasing irrigation frequency from 0.5 IW/CPE to 0.67 IW/CPE and to 1 IW/CPE significantly increased all parameters. On the contrary, increasing population densities caused a significant reduction in the parameters. Averaged over planting density and variety, yield/ha and soil water depletion increased significantly with the increase in irrigation frequency. These results showed that irrigation given at 1 IW/CPE can give maximum yield of both haricot bean varieties in the semi-arid condition of Dire Dawa. Zerihun Yemataw, Hussein Mohamed, Mulugeta Diro, Temesgen Addis (Ethiopia), Guy Blomme (Uganda) Genetic Variability, Inter-Relationships and Path Analysis in Enset (Ensete ventricosum) Clones ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) is the most important staple food crop for millions of people living in southern and southwestern Ethiopia. Two hundred and forty enset clones collected from six zones in the southern region were established in 1999 at the Areka Agricultural Research Center to assess the magnitude of genetic variability, heritability of important characters, inter-relationships among characters and their direct and indirect effect on yield. The mean squares due to genotypes were highly significant (P 0.01) for all the quantitative traits studied, suggesting the presence of substantial variability among the 240 enset clones. The phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation varied from 16.4% for plant height to 147.2% for bulla yield ha-1 y-1 and from 12.92% for pseudostem height to 138.41% for bulla yield ha-1 y-1, respectively. Estimates of H' were lowest for fiber yield plant-1 (43.06%) and highest for maturity time (93.75%). The minimum genetic advance expectations were for pseudostem height (19.65%) and the maximum were for bulla yield ha-1 y-1 (267.35%). Fermented, squeezed kocho yield ha-1 y-1 was positively and significantly correlated with most of the traits, but negatively correlated phenotypically and genotypically with maturity time, bulla yield plant-1 and fiber yield plant-1. Path coefficient analysis indicated that leaf sheath weight after decortication and central shoot weight before grating exerted positive direct effects on fermented, squeezed kocho yield ha-1 y-1. A wide variation was observed between maximum and minimum values for most of the characters. The presence of wide variation in observed traits may point to opportunities for selecting enset clones with desirable characters. Yared Semahegn Belete, Sentayehu Alamerew Kebede, Adugna Wakjira Gemelal (Ethiopia) Genetic Associations of Seed Oil Quality Traits and Selection Criteria in Ethiopian Mustard (Brassica carinata A. Brun) ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Ethiopian mustard, as an oil seed crop, needs genetic improvement which integrates both quality and agronomic traits. In this study, the correlations of eight quality traits of the 36 genotypes were investigated using a 6 × 6 simple lattice design at Holetta Research Center, Ethiopia. Heritability and genetic advance (as percent of mean) of the studied traits ranged from 35.4-69.2 and 5-23.8%, respectively. A strong positive correlation (0.752) was observed between palmitic and erucic acid. Similarly, a strong but negative correlation (-0.866) was observed between oleic and erucic acid. In relation to agronomic traits, positive and significant correlation of stearic with number of primary branches (0.607), number of secondary branches (0.608) and number of pods (0.387) was observed. Palmitic showed negative correlation with seed yield/plot (-0.354), oil yield/plot (-0.393) and 1000-seed weight (-0.404). Oil content positively correlated with seed yield/plot (0.343) and oil yield/plot (0.446), while negative correlation was found with days to flowering (-0.373) and days to maturity (-0.394). Path

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analyses showed that oleic acid and oil content were found the most important components to be considered as selection criteria in the improvement of edibility of seed oil of Ethiopian mustard genotypes. This investigation also indicated that improvement in the oil content of the seeds of the genotypes would be possible through selecting early flowering genotypes. Beemnet Mengesha Kassahun, Hassen Nurhusain, Hailesilasie Gebremeskel, Solomon Abate Mekonnen, Zewdinesh Damtew, Muluken Philipos, Bekri Melka, Terutaka Niide (Ethiopia) Participatory Development of Quality Seedlings in Lemon Verbena (Alloysia triphylla L.) Using Stem Cuttings ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: This experiment fills in existing information and knowledge gaps on asexual propagation of lemon verbena by involving two farmer's research groups (FRGs) at Sembero Rogicha and Dawile Kebeles during 2011 starting from the beginning of August to the end of October. Each FRG has 10 member farmers. The experiment consisted of three levels of the part used (top, middle and bottom) and four levels of node number (three, five, seven and nine) in a factorial combination. The nursery experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on survival count, survival percentage, number of branches/seedling, number of leaves/branch and number of leaves/seedling were recorded in a participatory approach. Mean squares from analysis of variance revealed the existence of a very highly significant influence (P < 0.001) of cutting position, node number and the interaction effect of cutting position with node number on all parameters considered in the study. Bottom cuttings with 3 and 5 nodes demonstrated significantly higher respective values of survival rate (81.67 and 78.33%), number of branches/seedling (6), number of leaves/branch (25) and number of leaves/seedling (104 and 137) and lowest values of these parameters were recorded for top cuttings. Similar results were obtained with the FRG member farmers' evaluation criteria. Therefore, bottom cutting position with 3 and 5 nodes could be recommended for the development of quality lemon verbena seedlings using stem cuttings under good nursery management. Solomon Abate Mekonnen (Ethiopia) Irrigation Frequency and Plant Density Affect Phenology and Crop Growth of Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: A field study was conducted involving a factorial combination of two haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties `Roba-1' and `Mexican-142' with three irrigation frequencies at 60, 90 and 120 mm cumulative pan evaporation (CPE) using an IW/CPE ratio thereby fixing the depth of irrigation water (IW) to 60 mm and three planting density levels (150000, 250000, 350000 plants/ha) to investigate their effects on phenology and crop growth at Tony farm, Dire Dawa during the winter (`Bega') season of 2002. A split plot design was laid out with irrigation frequency as main plots while a combinations of planting density and variety as sub-plots with three replications each. Increasing irrigation frequency from 120 to 90 and to 60 mm CPE significantly increased days to maturity and crop growth parameters of haricot bean. Variety significantly influenced phenological stage, specifically days to flowering and days to maturity. Plant height and leaf number were significantly higher for `Mexican-142', with a 17.7 and 29.0% increase, respectively. Increasing plant density significantly (P < 0.05) decreased leaf area and leaf number, and increased leaf area index of beans. The highest seed yield per plant was recorded with the minimum plant density, 150000 plant/ha and lowest seed yield per plant with the highest plant density, 350000 plants/ha. The increase in irrigation frequency from 120 to 60 mm CPE significantly increased seed yield per plant from 38.22 to 59.94 g. Mihiret Mekonnen Moges, Tanta val Selvaraj, Mitiku Tesso Jebessa (Ethiopia) Influence of Some Antagonistic Bacteria against Early Blight (Alternaria solani (Ell. & Mart.) Jones & Grout.) of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Early blight caused by Alternaria solani (Ell. & Mart.) Jones & Grout., is amongst the most common foliar disease in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) farms of West Shewa sub-regions of Ethiopia that reduce yield and occasionally cause complete crop loss. To satisfy the contemporary market driven demand and supply for tomato products, the research need to focus on management options that are environmentally friendly. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antagonistic effect of some rhizospheric bacteria (biocontrol agent) against A. solani and to study their influence on growth and development of tomato leaf of a farming cultivar, `Romans VS'. Ten local antagonistic bacteria were screened in vivo for suppressing the pathogen. Five promising antagonists exhibiting higher zone of inhibition (ZOI) (38 mm and above) and percent disease control (ranging from 38.16 to 43.79%) were selected. These are Pseudomonas fluorescens TK-1, P.

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fluorescens TK-3, Bacillus subtilis TK-4, P. fluorescens TK-8 and P. fluorescens TK-10. The greenhouse experiment revealed P. fluorescens TK-3 as a best biocontrol agent which increased plant height by 35.20% and biomass by 52.28%. The efficacy test results of antagonistic bacterial isolates have clearly indicated that the indigenous strain, P. fluorescens TK-3 followed by Bacillus subtilis Tk-4 is an efficient biocontrol agent against A. solani with good in vitro and in vivo antagonistic activity. Meseret Degefa Regassa, Ali Mohammed, Kassahun Bantte (Ethiopia) Evaluation of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Genotypes for Yield and Yield Components ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Owing to the limited availability of improved cultivars that are suitable for different purposes, the yield of tomato in Ethiopia is far below the world's average. The world's average was 34.84 tones/ha and the average productivity of Ethiopian was 7.57 tones/ha (FAO 2009). Hence, identification of improved tomato varieties that are adaptable, high yielding and disease resistant are necessary. Therefore, an experiment was conducted at Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine (JUCAVM) to evaluate nine tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties for their fruit yield using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications under field conditions. Data were collected on growth parameters and yield components, including plant height, primary branch, number of flowers and fruit per cluster, number of fruit clusters per plant, days to first harvest, fruit set percentage, polar and equatorial diameter, number and yield of fruit per plant, marketable, unmarketable and total fruit yield per hectare. The study indicated that yield per plant was higher for `H-1350', `Eshet', `Metadel', `Marglobe' and `Moneymaker' than the rest of the varieties. Total yield was highest for `H-1350', `Eshet', `Metadel', `Marglobe' and `Moneymaker' whereas it was lowest for `Fetan', `Miya' and `Jimma local'. Considering yield and yield components, variety `H-1350' was found to be better than the rest of the varieties, while `Eshet', `Marglobe' and `Jimma local' were the poorest performers for almost all parameters. Meseret Degefa Regassa, Ali Mohammed, Kassahun Bantte (Ethiopia) Evaluation of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Genotypes for Fruit Quality and Shelf Life ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Soft fruit such as tomato has a very short post harvest shelf life. Thus, to fill the information and knowledge gaps on post-harvest handling, fruit quality and storability of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was studied. The experiment was conducted at Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine (JUCAVM) to evaluate nine tomato varieties for their fruit quality and shelf life using a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications under laboratory conditions. Data were collected on the major fruit physicochemical properties, including fruit weight, volume, juice, weight loss, total soluble solids content (TSS), acidity (TTA and pH), TSS/TTA ratio and sensory attributes, which were assessed at 7-day intervals during a 28-day storage period. There was an increasing trend in physiological weight loss observed during the study period. Physiological weight loss was highest in `Eshet', `Marglobe' and `Jimma local' during the storage period. Changes in TTA during storage were relatively small. The TTA content showed a decreasing pattern throughout the storage period. A general decreasing trend in fruits firmness and an increase in fruit color was observed among the varieties as the storage period progressed. Considering fruit quality and shelf life, variety `H-1350' was better than all other varieties while `Eshet', `Marglobe' and `Jimma local' were the poorest performers in almost all parameters. Tewabech Tillahun (Ethiopia), Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Solomon Admassu (Ethiopia) Assessment of Yield Loss and Determination of Optimum Planting Date for the Control of Gray Leaf Spot on Maize (Zea mays L.) in South Ethiopia ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important strategic crops selected for food security mainly due to its high productivity and wider adaptability in Ethiopia. In recent years, gray leaf spot (GLS) has become a serious disease in different parts of the country. However, no research activity has been carried out to determine the role of planting date on the control of GLS. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess the damage and yield loss due to GLS and to identify and determine the optimum plating date of maize for the control of GLS. The experiment was carried out at Areka and Billito, Southern Ethiopia which are GLS hotspots during the 2004-2006 main cropping seasons. Fungicide treatment as the main plot and planting dates as the subplot treatment were arranged in a split plot design and replicated four times. The result of this experiment shows that there were significant differences among planting dates, fungicide spray, years and locations. Analysis of variance carried out across years at Areka and Billito indicated that there were statistically significant differences

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among planting dates for severity, upper ear leaf infestation, number of cobs harvested, number of diseased cobs, ear length, ear diameter, grain yield and 1000-kernel weight. The highest grain yield (8.12 and 9.09 t ha-1) was recorded from plantings on March 17 and April 18 at Areka and Billito, respectively. Planting on March 27 and April 18 increased yield by 55.5 and 43.0% more than maize planted on April 17 and May 18 at Areka and Billito, respectively. The highest grain yield (8.61 t ha-1) was recorded in plots sprayed with fungicide at Billito while the least was recorded in unsprayed plots (6.3 t ha-1) at Areka. The yield loss due to late planting was 29.5% more than early planting. Zewdinesh Damtew Zigene, Bizuayehu Tesfaye, Daniel Bisrat (Ethiopia) Growth and Essential Oil Yield of Artemisia (Artemisia annua L.) as Affected by Growth Stage ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: A study was conducted to observe the growth trend and essential oil yield of Artemisia annua L. under varying growth ages at the Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center. The experiment consisted of six growth stages (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 months after transplanting). The treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on plant height, branch number/plant, fresh leaf weight/plant, dry leaf weight/plant, fresh leaf/stem ratio, dry leaf/stem ratio essential oil content (EOC) and essential oil yield (EOY) were collected and analyzed. As mean squares from analysis of variance indicated, different growth ages affected plant height, fresh leaf/stem ratio and dry leaf/stem ratio very highly significantly (P < 0.001) and affected EOC and EOY highly significantly (P < 0.01). Fresh leaf weight/plant and dry leaf weight/plant were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by different growth ages. Branch number/plant did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) at different age of growth. In this study, the highest values were recorded at 5 months after transplanting (MAT) for plant height (194 cm), fresh leaf weight/plant (382.47 g) and dry leaf weight/plant (98.36 g) and at 2 MAT for fresh leaf/stem ratio (0.69) and dry leaf/stem ratio (0.64). The highest EOC (1.08%) and EOY (21.78 kg) values were obtained at 6 MAT. Zewdinesh Damtew Zigene, Beemnet Mengesha Kassahun (Ethiopia) Agronomic Characteristics and Essential Oil Yield of Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats) as Affected by Population Density and Harvesting Age at Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia ABSTRACT Short Communication: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of harvesting age and population density on agronomic characteristics and essential oil yield of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats). Data on number of tiller/bunch, number of leaf/bunch, fresh weight/bunch, fresh herbage yield/ha, dry weight/bunch, dry herbage yield/ha, essential oil (EO) content and EO yield/ha were collected and analyzed. Population density exerted a very highly significant (P < 0.001) influence on fresh herbage yield/ha, dry herbage yield/ha and essential oil yield/ha of palmarosa. A very highly significant (P < 0.001) influence of harvesting age was observed on number of leaves/bunch, fresh weight/bunch and fresh herbage yield/ha while a highly significant (P < 0.01) effect was observed on EO yield/ha. Dry weight/bunch, dry herbage yield/ha and EO content was affected significantly (P < 0.05) by harvesting age. Maximum fresh herbage yield/ha (20.86 t), dry herbage yield/ha (6.85 t) and EO yield/ha (100.65 kg) were obtained at 60 × 60 cm spacing for harvests made at every 3 months after plating and the preceding harvests. Higher and statistically similar EO content were obtained for harvests made at every 3, 4 and 5 months after planting regardless of spacing. Zenebe Mekonnen Gebretsadik (Ethiopia) The Effect of Slope on Diameter and Height Growth of Grevillea robusta at Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia ABSTRACT Short Communication: Grevillea robusta (A. Cunn. ex R.Br.) is widely used in Africa and grows on fairly well drained and neutral to acidic soils in altitude ranging 0-3,000 m a.s.l. but does not tolerate water logging or heavy clays. In Ethiopia, it does well in agro-climatic zones ranging 1,500-2,700 m a.s.l. In this study, three south facing slope categories with mean slope in degree and mean slope length in meters {(15, 50); (8, 70); (4, 100)} are selected coincidently in ten-year old G. robusta plantation perpendicular to the contour. Ten trees at each slope range are selected randomly. The objectives of the study were i) to identify the slope factor on height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH i.e.1.3 m above the ground) growth of G. robusta trees and ii) to compare responses of apical and lateral growths of trees on three slope categories to give reasonable assurance of detecting meaningful differences. The statistical analysis from one-way ANOVA at = 5% has shown that there is highly significant difference (P < 0.0001) in height growth of G. robusta planted on different slope ranges. Similarly, it was also

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recognized that there is significant difference (P < 0.04) in lateral or diameter growth of G. robusta trees planted at hillsides of Abaro Mountain at Wondo Genet. Ermias Shonga, Temesgen Addis, Mesele Gemu, Tesfaye Tadesse (Ethiopia) Cassava Scale: A New Threat for a Food Security Crop in Ethiopia ABSTRACT Research Note: In Ethiopia, cassava is mainly cultivated and consumed in Segen Peoples, Gedeo, Gamo Goffa, Sidama and Wolyita zones of the southern region. Farmers in these areas grow cassava as a food security crop in small irregular scattered plots either alone or intercropped with different crops. However, production and productivity of the crop is seriously affected by cassava scale, Aonidomytilus albus. It was first observed in 2001 at Amaro, Southern Ethiopia. It has become important to integrate various information on cassava scale in order to grow cassava sustainably. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the distribution of A. albus, to identify alternate hosts and natural enemies and to test hot water temperatures against it. Scale insects were collected from cassava stems and buds and stems of different crops and sent to IITA, Benin for identification. Different hot water treatments for different time durations were tested to disinfest cassava cuttings from cassava scale. Cassava scale was recorded in Segen peoples, Gedeo, Sidama and Wolyita zones. It was recorded on Solanum incanum, Abitilion tiophreslium, Buzuwa and Nuxia congesta. Scale samples taken from the stems of Grabilia robusta, Melia azadirachta and Erytrina abyssinica were identified as Coccus sp., Parlatoria camelliae and an undetermined species, respectively. Cybocephalus sp., which is a predator of scale insects including whiteflies, was recorded at Amaro at two locations. Boiling water treatment at all durations totally killed cassava cuttings. Relatively better germination of cassava cuttings were obtained at 55°C. However, complete removal of cassava scale was not possible. Tajudeen Adebayo Adeniji (Nigeria) Review of Cassava and Wheat Flour Composite in Bread Making: Prospects for Industrial Application ABSTRACT Mini-Review: Cassava is emerging as a dominant staple of primary importance in many developing countries of the humid and sub-humid tropics in Africa and elsewhere. Nigeria is the largest producer of cassava in the world, while production has also increased over the past two decades in many African countries. This formidable production potential demands for a strategy for the development of Africa through cassava industrialisation under the auspices of New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). This can be achieved through the emergence of many strong cassava-based industries with opportunities in commercial flour production for baking and confectioneries. The habit of eating bread has spread from the Mediterranean Basin throughout the world, thus making bread available in many urban centres in developing countries. The demand for bread (the most popular yeast-leavened product) is increasing globally. It is one of the least expensive and yet most important staple foods in the world. Flour is an important raw material in bread making. Processing of fresh cassava roots into flour improves product palatability, reduces the cyanide content of the processed products and facilitates fortification with other food products. The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture has developed several varieties of disease-resistant and high-yielding cassava. The trend in cassava production in Africa cannot be sustained without corresponding improvements in the diversification of their processing technology. The utilisation of cassava flour in bakery and confectionery products therefore requires upgrading to exploit its industrial potentials. The application of cassava flour as a partial replacement for wheat flour in bread making, biscuits, pastries, and snack foods could constitute an intervention programme in support of NEPAD and Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations initiative in achieving food security. Maria Mbatudde, Sylvester Nyakaana (Uganda), Stefanie Ploß, Helmut Dalitz (Germany) Genetic Structure of Prunus africana Rosaceae (Hook.f.) Kalkm. in East Africa, as Inferred from Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkml., the African cherry, is an evergreen climax vegetation tree species typically reaching 25­30 m in height and occurs primarily in montane and submontane forests. In this study, the genetic structure of P. africana was analyzed using a coding chloroplast DNA region; Megakaryocyte-Associated Tyrosine Kinase Gene (MATK) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) with 63 individuals in East Africa. This study detected low levels of nucleotide diversity in nrDNA ( = 0.00529) and cpDNA (0.00448), high levels of haplotype diversity in nrDNA (hT = 0.811) and low levels of haplotype diversity in cpDNA (hT = 0.242). As revealed by the results of AMOVA analysis, genetic

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differentiation for cpDNA (FST = 0.0275) was obviously lower than for nrDNA data (FST = 0.237) in P. africana. Gene flow among populations based on nrDNA data (Nm = 2.641) was significantly higher than that based on cpDNA (Nm = 0.82). Mantel test revealed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances for cpDNA (r2 = 3.0 × 10-5) and nrDNA (r2 = 7.0 × 10-5). Demographic history analyses based on pair-wise nucleotide sequence mismatch distributions revealed that only the Kakamega population was in mutation-drift disequilibrium. Tajima's D neutrality test, however, revealed significant signatures of recent population expansion in only the Kakamega population; (D = ­1.85646; P < 0.05). This study therefore proposes that the P. africana population in Elgon and Mabira forests should be conserved both ex situ and in situ, while the other three; Budongo, Kakamega and Monduli should be conserved in situ. Omena Bernard Ojuederie, David Okeh Igwe, Somiame Itseme Okuofu, Benjamin Faloye (Nigeria) Assessment of Genetic Diversity in some Moringa oleifera Lam. Landraces from Western Nigeria using RAPD Markers ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Genetic diversity in 10 Moringa oleifera Lam. landraces from Western Nigeria was assessed using 10 arbitrary random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 595 fragments were obtained, out of which 485 (81.5%) were polymorphic. Primer OPT-5 exhibited the least percentage of polymorphism (26.8%) compared to other primers used. Primers OPB-3, OPB-6, OPH-2, OPH-5, OPH-6, OPT-3, and OPT-4 gave 100% polymorphism. The number of amplified fragments per primer ranged from 44 (OPT-2) to 123 (OPT-5) with a polymorphic information content (PIC) ranging from 0.8301 to 0.9280. Unweighted Pair Group with Mean Average (UPGMA) clustering placed the genotypes into two major groups. `MO2' and `MO4' showed very close relatedness from the dendrogram obtained while `MO10' was genetically isolated from the other genotypes. 87% dissimilarity was revealed by the dendrogram. The high degree of polymorphism obtained suggests that RAPD is very useful for genetic diversity studies in M. oleifera. Kehinde A. Okeleye, Sylvester O. Oikeh (Nigeria), Christopher J. Okonji (Nigeria/Kenya), Sunday G. Aderibigbe, Francis Nwilene, Olupomi Ajayi, Akeem A. Oyekanmi (Nigeria) Influence of Legume/Rice Sequence and Nitrogen on NERICA® Rice in Rainfed Upland and Lowland Ecologies of West Africa ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: One major limitation in tropical agriculture is the loss of productivity of soils due to continuous cultivation. This is often due to leaching losses of nutrients, erosion or crop removal. There is need to explore improving productivity of soils by using grain legumes complemented with low-use of applied nitrogen. Modern interspecific rice hybrids called New Rice for Africa (NERICA®) are low input cultivars developed to overcome environmental stresses including low soil fertility. The productivity of these NERICA®s under legume/rice rotation and low-nitrogen (0 vs. 30 kgN ha-1) was evaluated in farmers' fields in 2007 and 2008 in rainfed upland in Kasuwa Mangani northern Guinea savanna (10° 24 N, 7° 42 E) and lowland at Edozhigi, southern Guinea savanna (09° 45 N, 06° 7 E) ecologies in West Africa. Preceding plots of incorporated soybean and mucuna (Mucuna utilis) after harvest, gave 33% increments in rice yield over the previous control-fallow plots in the upland ecology. While, in the lowland, plots with previously incorporated grain soybean (cv. `TG× 1485 ­ 1D') and dual-purpose cowpea (cv. `IT 98K­131­2') residues gave about 0.8 Mg ha-1 greater rice yield than plots with previous mucuna or dual-purpose soybean. Although NERICA L-42® produced over 25% more tillers and panicles than the farmers' cultivar, both cultivars had similar yield of 3.6 Mg ha-1, possibly because of the severe effects of iron- toxicity that limited their potentials. Results showed that upland NERICA® rice would perform better after soybean or mucuna rotation, and the lowland NERICA® after soybean cultivation than traditional fallow. Also, the low N at 30 kg ha-1 applied was adequate to enhance the effect of incorporated legume on rice yield. Jules Ntamwira (DR Congo), Pieter Pypers (Kenya), Piet Van Asten (Uganda), Bernard Vanlauwe (Kenya), Ndungo Vigheri (DR Congo), Ariane Badesire (Rwanda), Guy Blomme (Uganda) Effect of Banana Leaf Pruning on Banana and Bean Yield in an Intercropping System in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Banana-bean intercropping systems are used by many small-scale farmers in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo to maximize land use and intensify crop production. A study was conducted at the INERA Mulungu research station to determine the effect of banana leaf pruning on banana (Musa spp.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) yield. The East African highland cooking banana `Barhabesha' was established in April 2007 at a spacing of 2 by 3 meters. The

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treatments consisted of different levels of banana leaf canopy coverage (5 leaves [5L] and all leaves [ALL]) and leguminous crop varieties (the bush bean `Ngwaku Ngwaku' and the climbing bean `AND10') which were planted in the banana plot. Bean yields were assessed during 4 cropping seasons (2008B, 2009A, 2009B and 2010A). Banana leaf pruning did not have a significant effect on time from planting to bunch harvest in either legume intercropping treatment. Banana leaf pruning did not have a significant effect on banana yield (32.3 and 28.6 t/ha for ALL; 32.2 and 26.3 t/ha for 5L for climbing and bush bean intercropping respectively). The average banana bunch weight was higher in the climbing bean (ALL: 19.4 / 5L: 19.4 kg) than in the bush bean intercropped plots (ALL: 17.2 / 5L: 16.1 kg). A reduction in the number of banana leaves (i.e. from all leaves to 5 leaves) enhanced bean yield for both legume types. Under the all leaves treatment, climbing bean yield (358 kg/ha) was slightly but not significantly higher than bush bean yield (335 kg/ha). However, it was significantly higher for the 5L treatment (512 kg/ha against 362 kg/ha). Results from a gross margin analysis of banana-bean intercropping and cropping season effects are also presented. Amel Kerkeni, Mejda Daami-Remadi, Mohamed Ben Khedher (Tunisia) In Vivo Evaluation of Compost Extracts for the Control of the Potato Fusarium Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tuberosi ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Nine compost extracts (C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8 and C9) based on animal manures were evaluated for their inhibitory effect against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tuberosi the causal agent of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Fusarium vascular wilt. They were compared to one healthy control (non-treated and non-inoculated plants) and to an inoculated control (plants inoculated and non-treated). Fusarium wilt severity was assessed based on the Leaf Damage Index (LDI) and on plant growth parameters 90 days post-planting. Potato plants grown in a mixture of perlite and peat treated with different compost extracts and inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tuberosi showed a highly significant decrease in the LDI as compared to those inoculated and non-treated. Moreover, the development of the pathogen was completely suppressed by C2, C3 and C9 extracts. The presence of compost extracts in the growing medium allowed for a significant improvement in plant-growth parameters as compared to inoculated control and even to those of healthy control (non-treated and non-inoculated plants). Despite the presence of inoculum in the substrate, increase of plant growth in comparison to the inoculated control, exceeded 43% for the tuber fresh weight, 75% for the shoot fresh weight and 78% for the root dry weight. The C8 extract was usually the most efficient in increasing the plant growth and yield parameters as compared to the other extracts. This study demonstrated the usefulness of compost extracts as an effective organic fertilizers and as an efficient biological tool for plant protection. Gbenga Akinwumi, Vincent Umeh, Isaac Olabode, Semeton Amosu, Babashola Adelaja (Nigeria) The Performance of Two Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Varieties Supplied with Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer under Tropical Conditions ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Mineral nutrition is a factor that can easily be modified for plant growth, and consequently soil can be amended to alleviate limitations of nutrient availability and/or absorption in many horticultural practices. Generally, the amendments provide soil and biological factors necessary for improved plant growth by affecting changes in plant growth and development, and particularly soil chemical composition. A trial was conducted to evaluate the performances of two varieties of guava supplied with poultry manure and inorganic fertilizers applied alone or in combination for over a period of two years. Two varieties of guava seedlings namely `Allhabad' and `White delicious' were transplanted to the field. Cured poultry manure and NPK15:15:15 were used as organic and inorganic fertilizer respectively at the rates of 0.28 t/ha organic fertilizer + 75 kg/ha NPK inorganic fertilizer at four application per year (F1), inorganic fertilizer at 150 kg/ha NPK at four application per year (F2), 0.56 t/ha organic fertilizer only (F3) and control (no fertilizer) F0. Result showed that a combination of organic + inorganic fertilizers performed better in terms of growth parameters assessed among the treatments in both varieties than plants supplied with full organic fertilizer (0.56t/ha poultry manure). However, `Allahabad' had the highest stem girth and canopy cover while `White delicious' had the tallest plants. The combined application of poultry manure and NPK fertilizer gave the best growth performance. Mohamed Nabil Abd El-Mageed Omar, Salwa Fahmy Badr (Egypt), Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Gamalat Abel-Aziz Hermas, Heba Mossa Hewait (Egypt) Characterization of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Associated with Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from Saline Soil

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ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have the potential to enhance plant growth by various direct or indirect mechanisms. Eleven bacterial isolates were isolated from different salinized rhizospheric soils in which wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. `Giza-139' was growing, in Sahl-El-Tina, South Sinai, Egypt. These isolates, whose morphological and biochemical characteristics were studied, were screened in vitro for the production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), siderophores and Catalase (CAT). Results were compared with three reference strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus circulans). Most (i.e., 8) of the tested isolates and all the reference strains (i.e., 3) could produce siderophores. IAA was detected in all isolates except for one isolate (HM9) and B. circulans. In addition, CAT activity was pronounced in isolate HM4, P. fluorescens and B. circulans. No CAT activity was detected in HM5, HM8 and HM11 isolates. The tested isolates and reference strains showed higher antagonistic activity against Alternaria triticina than against Fusarium graminearum and Helminthosporium sativum. All the isolates and reference strains were able to produce HCN. The tolerance of bacterial isolates and reference strains were evaluated against NaCl (the response of bacteria to different salt concentrations varied from one isolate to another), temperature (the highest growth was recorded at 30°C after 72 h incubation for HM1 and HM2 isolates and reference strains) and pH (highest growth of the different isolates and reference strains was recorded at pH 7 after 48 h incubation). The bacterial isolates were also characterized at a molecular level (SDS-PAGE and RAPD) in which 5 isolates (HM1, HM2, HM4, HM9, HM10) could be successfully differentiated from two reference strains (P. fluorescens and B. polymyxa). Hala Abdel Wahab, Nesreen Ahmed Sabry Helal (Egypt) Evaluation of Preharvest Bioagent Applications for both Production and Biological Control of Onion and Strawberry under Natural Botrytis Infections ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Botrytis spp. is one of the most important airborne diseases for many plant hosts resulting in poor fruit quality and serious yield loss. This study was performed using different bioagent treatments under natural Botrytis infection experiments. Different varieties of strawberry and onion were sensitive to natural Botrytis infection more than tolerant varieties. Botrytis infection values were significantly different among strawberry organs, being higher in leaves than in stamens. In addition, despite Botrytis infection values not differing among different treatments in both strawberry and onion, fungicide was the least efficient treatment under natural conditions. Moreover, treatment with the bioagent yeast, Pichia anomala, showed an increase in strawberry flowers and fruits as well as in onion leaves and bulbs in the majority of plants. This study suggests that plant foliar application of microbial antagonists may be not an effective measure for controlling natural Botrytis infections but has large impacts on plant production and quality. Chehaibi Sayed, Elouaer Mohamed Aymen, Dridi Bouthaina, Sahbej Karim (Tunisia) Effect of Mechanical Planting Density on Agronomic Performance of Organic Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Culture ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The demand for organic and quality agricultural product has increased in recent years, as population is increasing. Urban society is becoming concerned about organic food quality product. However, crop management options are extremely limited in organic systems, often leading to reduced yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mechanized planting density on crop yield of organic potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. `Spunta') conducted on the experimental plot of the Higher Institute of Agronomy, Chott-Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia. The experimental field was characterized by a sandy loam texture. Planting potatoes tubers was performed mechanically by a double row planter. Four planting densities were tested (19, 14.3, 16.6 and 12.5 plants/m2). Results showed that d4 density (40 cm between plants and 80 cm between lines, which implies 12.5 plants/m2) give the best growth parameters (fresh and dry weight of aerial parts, number of stems/plants and leaf area) and yield parameters (fresh and dry weight of tubers, tuber yield). In fact, d4 density (12.5 plants/m2) gives more than 3 stems per plants than others densities and 3000 cm2 leaf area. Concerning fresh and dry yield of potato aerial parts, d4 density gives respectively 320 g/plant and 29.28 g/plant. Regarding to potato caliber, d2 density (40 cm between plants and 70 cm between lines, which means 14.3 plants/m2) gives the highest percentage of larger caliber (> 55 mm). Tubers yield was higher with d4 density (15 tonnes/ha). Sofiane Abdelhamid, Naziha Grati-Kamoun (Tunisia), Francesco P. Marra, Tiziano Caruso (Italy) Genetic Diversity of Major Olive Varieties from Southern Tunisia

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ABSTRACT Short Communication: Considering the importance of olive-growing in Tunisia, microsatellite (SSR) analysis was used to study the genetic variation among twenty olive accessions from southern Tunisia. This set of olive microsatellites showed potential utility for genetic studies and it could contribute to the development of strategies for Tunisian germplasm conservation and breeding. Unweighted pair group method cluster analysis was performed and cultivars separated in three main groups. Five polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci were employed and they revealed 38 alleles with a mean number of 7.6 alleles per locus. Genetic variability was wide as indicated by high values of both observed heterozygosity (mean value = 0.79) and PIC values (average value = 0.60). Cultivars formed 3 distinct and clear groups. Var. `Chemlali' was grouped with the others cultivars and showed low genetic diversity. We hypothesize that this variety is a population of cultivated varieties, with the presence of different clones of the same cultivar. Moses S. Owolabi, Wasiu Kazeem (Nigeria), Noura S. Dosoky, William N. Setzer (USA) The Leaf Essential Oil Composition of Eugenia javanica from South West Nigeria and Insecticidal Activity against Sitophilus zeamais ABSTRACT Research Note: Volatile oils play an important role as natural insecticides for protection of stored food products. Members of the Myrtaceae have been used traditionally as insecticides and insect repellents. In this work we have examined the chemical composition of Eugenia javanica leaf oil, which was obtained in 0.63% yield, and the activity of the oil as a contact insecticide against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. E. javanica leaf oil was composed largely of -terpineol (14.1%), terpinen-4-ol (7.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (6.6%), -cadinol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (9.6) and 1-epi-cubenol (6.0%). The oil showed notable contact toxicity to S. zeamais (100% mortality after 96 h). The insecticidal activity of E. javanica oil is likely due to relatively high concentrations of known insecticidal components -terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, and caryophyllene oxide, and is consistent with the traditional use of this plant family as an insecticide and insect repellant. Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Bouzid Nasraoui (Tunisia) International Collaboration, Partnerships or Co-operation (CPC) in Science Writing: Case of Africa and the Middle East with a Focus on Tunisia ABSTRACT Opinion Paper: Africa and the Middle East are currently the center of socio-political focus, due to unrest and instability, and whether we are from Beijing, or from Brasília, the events in these broad geographic locations affect us as citizens of the world, and, as a subset, as scientists. For most of the countries in the northern belt of Africa and the Middle-East, except where there has been an Anglo-Saxon vestigial linguistic influence, do not use English as a first language. This places scientists from countries in these regions in a clearly disadvantaged situation (through explicit or implicit bias) when attempting to publish in high level journals, mainly published by Western developed countries. Most of the scientists from these countries face serious difficulties related to language and scientific writing skills during the preparation of scientific manuscripts. This difficulty is now currently being severely compounded by a global economic recession and extreme, often violent, socio-political events that deeply disturb the effective (due to lack of resources, stability, psychological welfare) focus on science. Within this extremely complex setting, we bring you viewpoints that attempt to show the links between these socio-political events, and between current and past academic structures, that foment further instability in science, or to stabilize through the implementation of novel good means. Although the socio-political prospects of the mid-term future look probably uncertain, we are confident that there may be pockets of strengthening scientific ties that would allow for the betterment, not only of science, but of society, through a scientific-based understanding of cross-cultural differences encompassing race, gender, and religion.

The Americas Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology

SPECIAL ISSUE: Rusts. Xianming Chen (USA) High-Temperature Adult-Plant Resistance, Key for Sustainable Control of Stripe Rust ABSTRACT Invited Review: High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance expresses when plants grow old and the weather becomes warm. This non-race specific and durable type of resistance has been used successfully in control of wheat stripe rust in the U.S. since early 1960s. This article describes practical procedures for identification and characterization of HTAP resistance

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and reviews recent studies on discovery of genes conferring HTAP resistance. Recent studies providing insights to the molecular basis for the durability of HTAP resistance will be presented. Strategies for improving levels of HTAP resistance and improving control of stripe rust through combining HTAP resistance with effective all-stage resistance will be discussed. Elsa Ballini (France/USA), Nick Lauter, Roger Wise (USA) Prospects for Advancing Rust Disease Defense through Genetical Genomics ABSTRACT Invited Review: Rusts are one of the most severe threats for cereals because new races emerge regularly, typically resulting in infestations that lead to large yield losses. In 1999, a new race of stem rust, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt TTKSK or Ug99), was discovered in Uganda. Most of the wheat and barley cultivars grown currently worldwide are susceptible to this new race. Pgt TTKSK has already spread northward into Iran and will likely spread eastward throughout the Indian subcontinent in the near future. This scenario is not unique to stem rust; new races of leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) have also emerged recently. One strategy for countering the persistent adaptability of these pathogens is to stack complete- and partial-resistance genes, which requires significant breeding efforts in order to reduce deleterious effects of linkage drag. These varied resistance combinations are typically more difficult for the pathogen to defeat, since they would be predicted to apply lower selection pressure. Recent technological developments allow the fusion of quantitative genetic and molecular methods, often referred to as genetical genomics or expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis, to efficiently identify regulatory loci that control the expression of many to hundreds of genes. Integrated deployment of these technologies coupled with efficient phenotyping offers significant potential to elucidate the regulatory nodes in genetic networks that orchestrate host defense responses. The focus of this mini-review will be to present advances in genetical genomic experimental designs and analysis, particularly as they apply to the prospects for discovering partial disease resistance alleles in cereal crops. Thiago Lívio P. O. Souza, Ana L. Alzate-Marin, Fábio G. Faleiro, Suelen N. Dessaune, Trazilbo J. de Paula-Junior, Maurilio A. Moreira, Everaldo G. de Barros (Brazil) Breeding for Common Bean Rust Resistance in Brazil ABSTRACT Invited Review: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an economically, nutritionally, and socially important crop. It is grown in distinct regions and different seasons around the world by subsistence level farmers with low-technology input as well as by farmers that use high input technologies. One important factor that can limit the bean growing and drastically affect grain yields is the high number of destructive pathogens that attack P. vulgaris and cause serious damage to the crop. Among them is bean rust, incited by the highly variable fungus Uromyces appendiculatus. This disease is distributed throughout the world, but it effectively causes major production problems in humid tropical and subtropical regions. In Brazil, rust causes major losses in south, southeast, and central regions of the country. Bean rust control by resistant cultivars is an easy and economical strategy to be used in association to other rust management practices. The pyramiding of different race-specific resistance genes in association with other genes conferring adult plant resistance, slow rusting, and reduced pustule size can prolong the lifespan of a common bean cultivar by creating a more durable resistance complex against the rust pathogen. This review manuscript presents an overview on common bean rust and reports some breeding efforts aiming to develop rust resistant cultivars in Brazil. Luís Antônio Siqueira de Azevedo, Fernando Cezar Juliatti (Brazil) Strategies of Chemical Protection for Controlling Soybean Rust ABSTRACT Invited Review: Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is a very destructive disease that undermines the current soybean production system in Brazil, and in the 23 million ha available for production, the disease is present throughout the entire cultivated area. The disease control has required a combination of several practices, in order to avoid losses. The chemical control of the Asian soybean rust is the most widely used method for the control of the disease. In the last two harvests, the application of fungicides has been shown as an effective alternative for the producer in the control of this aggressive disease. Under the technical and economic point of view, the best results have been obtained with two to three applications of triazole or triazole + strobilurin fungicides. Since the first fungicides emergency recommended for the 2002/03 harvest (azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, fluconazole, pyraclostrobin + epoxyconazole and tebuconazole), a large number of new

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formulations was added to the arsenal to control rust. There are today recorded in MAPA about 40 active ingredients (alone or in combination), trademarks and formulations for the rational use against rust. Among fungicides, there are differences in efficacy, residual period, metabolic stability and translocation rate, requiring care from producer and technical assistance in the choice of product to be used in each situation. In the present review, the chemical control of rust is analyzed in Brazil from 2001/02 to 2006/10; its economic importance, strategic variables for the rational use of fungicides, factors that complicate the control chemical and the risk of resistance to the main chemical groups. Arianne Tremblay, Benjamin Matthews (USA) Understanding the Soybean Rust Interaction with Soybean using Biotechnology ABSTRACT Invited Review: United States, Brazil and Argentina are the three biggest producers of soybean in the world at a combined 180 million metric tons each year. All soybean fields growing in these countries are susceptible to soybean rust; caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow. With new and emerging biotechnology techniques we may develop new strategies for broadening resistance of soybean to soybean rust. Using these new techniques, scientists can identify and study genes expressed on both sides of a plant-pathogen interaction to better understand the infection process. The recent development of techniques, such as microarray analysis, high-throughput DNA sequencing and laser capture microdissection, has dramatically improved our ability to identify new genes and to examine gene expression. Microarrays can be used to study changes in expression of thousands of genes per experiment in infected leaves. The complete soybean genome sequence now available provides a template for analyzing gene expression results from deep sequencing of transcripts during the infection process. Deep sequencing provides unprecedented amounts of data for analysis of the genome and gene expression. Laser capture microdissection allows the isolation of specific cells from infected leaf cross-sections that can be analyzed for pathogen gene expression using diverse DNA sequencing approaches. There is still a great lack of knowledge of the function of soybean and fungal genes and their spatial and temporal expression. However, these new techniques will provide new information about pathogen development in its host. Some of these plant and fungal genes may be useful to broadening soybean resistance to soybean rust. David Henry Moon, Thiago Falda Leite, Juliano Bragatto, Luis Felipe Boaretto, Carlos A. Labate (Brazil) Eucalyptus Rust (Puccinia psidii): Strictly a Brazilian Problem? ABSTRACT Invited Review: Eucalyptus is one of the most important arboreal cultures with more than 19 million hectares planted worldwide, of which 6.4 million are planted in the Americas and it is used as the raw material for several industrial purposes. In 2010 the Brazilian pulp and paper industry produced 14.1 million tonnes of cellulose (almost exclusively from Eucalyptus spp.) and 9.8 million tonnes of paper. Currently the greatest single threat to Eucalyptus monoculture is tropical rust caused by Puccinia psidii, which attacks trees up to 2 years-old. This biotrophic fungus primarily infects the younger actively growing leaves, quickly covering these organs with the characteristic yellow pustules containing large numbers of spores in susceptible plants. If the infected individuals are able to recover they exhibit reduced height when compared to resistant individuals resulting in reduced yield at harvesting age. We will try to put into perspective potential the economic losses due to tropical rust by reviewing the current threat of P. psidii rust to Eucalyptus plantations in and outside Brazil. This review also contains a brief introduction into the life cycle of the fungus and evidence for genetic variation within and between populations of this pathogen. The interaction between Eucalyptus grandis-Puccinia psidii will be discussed with respect to differential gene and protein expression during the exposure of resistant and susceptible individuals to infection, indicating probable mechanisms of resistance and potential molecular markers. Finally, these results will be discussed in light of the chemical analysis carried out on the on leaves from a susceptible and a resistant clone in the presence and absence of the fungus. Eleonora Barilli (Spain), Amero A. Emeran (Egypt), Josefina C. Sillero, Ana M. Torres, Elena Prats, Diego Rubiales (Spain) The Pea Rusts, Uromyces pisi and U. viciae-fabae: Pathogen Identification and Sources of Resistance ABSTRACT Invited Review: Pea is the second most important feed legume crop in the world. Pea rust has become an important pea pathogen being widely distributed, particularly in regions with warm, humid weather. Most reports refer to Uromyces viciae-fabae as the causal agent of pea rust, however, pea rust can also be incited by U. pisi. Similarity of their macroscopical

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features makes difficult to distinguish among them, being necessary to resort to specific details of substomatal vesicle or to molecular identification. It seems that U. vicia-fabae on pea prevails in tropical and subtropical regions as India and China, while U. pisi might be prevalent in temperate regions. In this review we describe and discuss methods of identification, the occurrence and incidence of both pathogens on peas and the availability of sources of resistance. Maria Carlota Vaz Patto (Portugal), Diego Rubiales (Spain) Rust Resistance in Lathyrus cicera L. and Lathyrus sativus L. ABSTRACT Invited Review: Several Lathyrus species have a high potential both as food and fodder crops. Rust fungi are among the most important pathogens of major grain legumes including Lathyrus species. L. sativus and L. cicera are known for its tolerance to abiotic factors such as drought, heavy and poor soils, and to biotic factors such as rust fungi. We review and critically discuss available knowledge on existence of resistance and the underlying resistance mechanisms against rust fungi in the L. sativus and L. cicera. Cheng-ming Tian (China), Peng Zhao (Japan), Ying-mei Liang, Zhi-min Cao (China) Research Progress on Poplar Leaf Rust in China ABSTRACT Invited Review: Poplar leaf rust disease is a worldwide disease that causes damage in short rotation coppice (SRC) poplar plantations for renewable energy. The situation is especially severe in China as poplars are grown as a major SRC crop for energy for their yield potential and coppicing ability. From disease investigation to disease control, fungi taxonomy, physiological specialization and host resistance breeding, the present paper introduced the progress in researches on poplar leaf rust. Comments and the prospective of the researches on poplar leaf rust were discussed in terms of the research progress and current research situation in China. Suvendu Mondal, A. M. Badigannavar (India) Peanut Rust (Puccinia arachidis Speg.) Disease: Background and Recent Advances ABSTRACT Invited Review: The peanut rust disease caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg. is an important biotic stress that reduces pod and fodder yield and oil quality significantly. The fungus belongs to the class urediniomycetes like other rust fungi but occur to a lesser extent in teliospore form. P. arachidis is predominantly spread by the repeated cycle of urediniospores. The disease is prevalent in most countries where it is cultivated and favored by warm and humid climatic conditions. Despite its economic importance, limited work has been carried out on host-fungus interaction, fungal diversity and physiological specialization. The present mini-review describes different aspects of P. arachidis especially symtomatology, histopathology, epidemiology as well as developments on host resistance, genomics, breeding and control measures. Mitchell L. Wise (USA) Relationship between Crown Rust and Avenanthramide Biosynthesis in Oat (Avena sativa) ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Avenanthramides are phenolic alkaloids produced in oat. These secondary metabolites are found in the grain as well as leaf and other tissues in the plant. A growing body of evidence indicates that these compounds impart beneficial health effects in animals thus may be of interest as phytonutrients. Originally termed avenalumins and described as phytoalexins by Mayama in 1981, the chemical structures of the avenanthramides were correctly determined in 1989. There is abundant evidence that avenanthramides are elicited in oat leaf and other tissue by infection with crown rust (Puccinia coronata) or molecular mimics of fungal infection. Correlations between crown rust infection and levels of avenanthramides in the grain have also been observed. This manuscript will review the current literature relating to the biosynthesis of avenanthramides in response to crown rust and other fungal elicitors, the efficacy of these phytoalexins in combating crown rust and implications for breeding oat cultivars for enhanced avenanthramide production. J. C. Comstock (USA), W. Ovalle (Guatemala), E. Chavarría (Costa Rica), N. C. Glynn, L. A. Castlebury, R. N. Raid (USA), Hector Orozco (Guatemala) Sugarcane Orange Rust, an Emerging Disease in North and Central America: Its Impact and Comparison to Sugarcane Brown Rust

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ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, was detected in June 2007 in Florida and subsequently in several Caribbean, Central American and South American countries, as well as, Cameroon and the Ivory Coast in Africa. It has reduced production in several locations, primarily on `CP 80-1743' in Florida; on `CP 72-2086', `SP 71-5574' and `SP 79-2233' in Costa Rica and `CP 72-2086' in Guatemala. The disease has also impacted variety development programs and has necessitated a rapid transition to more resistant varieties. Orange rust is characterized by the light orange coloration of pustules and poses a legitimate threat to all sugarcane producing countries in the Western Hemisphere. Orange rust develops in warmer weather conditions than brown rust and is active for a longer duration on the crop than brown rust, caused by P. melanocephala. Orange rust may be differentiated from brown rust by its light orange urediniospores, which have a prominent apical thickening. Urediniospores of P. melanocephala are darker brown and have uniformly thickened walls. Resistance ratings are given for a number of sugarcane varieties. Mohamed Bechir Allagui (Tunisia) Recent Progress in Oat Crown Rust in Tunisia ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata Cda. f. sp. avenae Eriks, is a major fungal disease of cultivated oats (Avena sativa and A. byzantina) in Tunisia. In a pure stand or in association with vetches, oats are the dominant fodder crops grown mainly for hay and silage for livestock. Surveys conducted during different cropping seasons showed that crown rust severity in farmer's fields varied with the year; the humid year favourable to oat culture was also favourable to crown rust epidemics and vice versa mainly when the year is too dry. Trials on sowing dates showed that, for early-seeded plantings, early development of crown rust occurred on susceptible varieties. The attack was delayed when sowing date was late and the oat variety had efficacious resistance gene. The Pc-gene differential oat lines, used by oat researchers to study the virulence pattern in oat crown rust populations showed the virulence phenotypes locally recorded were TJFR, TDFL and TBLM; indicating that the Pc-genes still with resistance to oat crown rust were Pc38, Pc39, Pc52 and Pc68. Results on alternate host indicate that Rhamnus lycioides L., a common and endemic part of the vegetation in Tunisia, is a new aecial host of oat crown rust that the aeciospores released in April and May constitute the source of the fungus virulence diversity. Landraces of oats recently collected from different regions were evaluated for leaf rusting and for agronomic traits. The results suggest that vast areas in Tunisia are still rich with oat crown rust resistance as many landraces displayed important agronomic traits and good resistance to crown rust making it useful in breeding programs. Stephen J. Molnar, Winson Orr, David L. De Koeyer, James Chong, Nicholas A. Tinker (Canada) Development and Validation of PCR-based Markers Linked to Pc68/Pg3/Pg9 and Pg4/Pg13 Rust Resistance Gene Clusters in Oat ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Genetic resistance to pathogens causing crown and stem rust is essential for oat varieties developed worldwide. We report the development, testing, and deployment of five new PCR-based markers linked to the complex gene cluster containing the Pc68 crown rust resistance gene and the Pg3 and Pg9 stem rust resistance genes. These markers are based on sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR), on cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), and on an amplified microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) with these markers was used to identify oat lines containing Pc68 resistance in four oat populations. The SCAR and CAPS markers can be used as either dominant or co-dominant markers depending on the alleles present in the population of interest, while the SSR marker is co-dominant. At a second complex gene cluster, the Pg4 stem rust locus was mapped close to markers previously shown to be linked with the Pg13 stem rust resistance locus, validating the map location of both rust loci. For this cluster, a new SCAR marker was developed that has potential for MAS for Pg4 and Pg13. Md. Shahidul Haque, Robert F. Park, Colin R. Wellings (Australia) Postulation of Seedling Resistance Genes and Assessment of Adult Plant Response to Stem Rust in Two International Oat Nurseries ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Multipathotype greenhouse tests were conducted to postulate seedling resistance to stem rust in entries in the 1998 (71 lines) and 1999 (95 lines) North American Quaker Oat Nurseries. The seedling tests were conducted with seven Australian races of the oat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae; P. g. avenae), one of which was also

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used in field nurseries to investigate the adult plant rust responses of the oat lines. The 166 lines carried eight oat stem rust seedling resistance genes, namely, Pg-a (41 lines), Pg-1 (17), Pg-2 or Pg-4 (34), Pg-2 + Pg-4 (24), Pg-8 (1), Pg-10 (4), Pg-13 (2) and Pg-Sa (2), none of which were effective to all seven P. g. avenae races used. A total of 26 lines had unknown resistance to P. g. avenae and 15 lines were susceptible to all P. g. avenae isolates used. All 166 lines were rated as susceptible at adult plant growth stages, however, several had lower disease severities and may therefore carry slow rusting against P. g. avenae. Further field tests are however needed to examine this in more detail. Evsey Kosman, Pnina Ben-Yehuda, Jacob Manisterski (Israel) Virulence Dynamics of Puccinia triticina on Wheat in Israel ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Pathotype and virulence structure of four annual collections (1994, 1998, 2002 and 2006) of wheat leaf rust (P. triticina) in Israel were analyzed in order to reveal major trends of the pathogen evolution in the course of time. Virulence phenotypes of 60 to 84 isolates were annually determined on 17 Thatcher isogenic lines that possess Lr1, Lr2a, Lr2c, Lr3, Lr3ka, Lr9, Lr10, Lr11, Lr15, Lr16, Lr17, Lr18, Lr21, Lr23, Lr24, Lr26 and Lr30 resistance genes. The number of detected pathotypes varied from 18 to 38 in 1998 and 1994, respectively, which were years of the least and highest richness of the pathogen annual collections. Some population parameters were also compared with the corresponding ones in the collection of P. triticina on wheat in 1993. Changes in the Israeli population of wheat leaf rust may be attributed to the possible massive migration of leaf rust urediniospores from the neighboring regions in 1994 and selection pressure of new wheat cultivars since 1997. The pathogen collections of 1994 and 1998 were significantly different from those of 2002 and 2006. Many new pathotypes that emerged in 1994 belonged to the M-race with virulences on Lr1 and Lr3, and the T-race with virulences on Lr1, Lr2a, Lr2c and Lr3. Isolates of the T-race were prevalent in 1994 and 1998, but were nearly not detected in 2002 and 2006. On the other hand, the frequency of the M-race drastically increased in 2002 and 2006. These two pairs of annual collections can also be distinguished on the basis of virulence dynamics on Lr2a, Lr17 and Lr15 resistance genes. The frequency of virulence on Lr2a was moderate in 1994 and 1998, but nearly nil in 2002 and 2006. In contrast, the frequency of virulence on Lr15 and Lr17 resistance increased considerably in 2002 and 2006. Patterns of genotypic and genetic diversity within the annual collections of wheat leaf rust were not congruent. Mary Frances Mahalovich (USA) Genetic Differentiation of Pinus albicaulis Engelm. Populations from the Northern Rocky Mountains ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Survival, height, cold hardiness and blister rust resistance of 107 individual-tree and one bulk lot were used to summarize patterns of genetic differentiation for whitebark pine across 3,600 km2 of forested lands in Idaho, Montana, and eastern Washington, U.S.A. The artificial inoculation trial demonstrates the efficacy of screening for resistance to the recently introduced blister rust fungus. Significant proportions of genetic variance are associated with seed source (1-44%) and families within seed sources (7-59%). Family heritabilities for survival, height, cold hardiness, and blister rust resistance are moderate to high in the inoculated seedlings (0.68-0.99) and low to high in the control seedlings (0.33 to 0.92). Rust resistance as described by seven traits is weakly correlated with 6th year height, where seed sources from northwestern locations are taller and have more rust resistance (r=0.14). Rust resistance is weakly correlated (r=0.27) to freezing injury, where populations from lower elevations or geographically milder sites are more resistant but have low freezing tolerance. Survival is moderately correlated to freezing injury (r=0.45) and 6th year height (r=0.36). Seed sources from lower elevations or geographically milder sites are taller but have low freezing tolerance. Regression models explaining 15-68% of the variability suggest that seed transfer can be geographically broad, ± 1.85° latitude, ± 2.15° longitude, and ± 245 m elevation. Moderate seed source differentiation, low QST index values, and variation explained by random events not included in the regression models characterize whitebark pine as having a generalist adaptive strategy in this portion of the species' distribution. Omar Perdomo Sánchez (Dominican Republic), Meike Piepenbring (Germany) Species of Uromyces (Pucciniales, Basidiomycota) on Loranthaceae ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Two new species of Uromyces with reticulated teliospores are compared with nine species known from Loranthaceae. The new species Uromyces brasiliensis has smaller spores than all known species of Uromyces with reticulate teliospores. Uromyces struthanthi is characterized by a large pedicel of the teliospores and spinose-echinulate

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aeciospores. In addition new details of ornamentation of aecidio- and teliospores of known species are presented. Francisco das Chagas Oliveira Freire (Brazil), Reinhard Berndt (Switzerland) An Updated List of Rust Species on Plants from Ceará State (Brazil) ABSTRACT Research Note: A survey of rust fungi (Basidiomycota, Uredinales) from plants in Ceará State (Brazil) is presented. Puccinia is the most common genus, followed by Uromyces, Achrotelium, Chaconia, Dasyspora, Esalque, Hemileia, Kimuromyces, Maravalia, Melampsora, Phragmidium, Physopella, Porotenus, Prospodium, Pucciniosira, Sphaerophragmium, Sphenospora and Ypsilospora. At least five new species have recently been described. The species Coleosporium solidaginis, Phakopsora euvitis, Puccinia horiana and Uromyces transversalis were introduced into Ceará State through infected seedlings from the southeast region of Brazil. The importance of studying the fungi biodiversity on different types of vegetation of Ceará State is discussed.

The Asian and Australasian Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology

Issues in Publishing and Science Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Judit Dobránszki (Hungary), Pham Thanh Van (Japan/Vietnam), William A. Payne (USA) Corresponding Authors: Rules, Responsibilities and Risks ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: It is generally understood that the corresponding author (CA) is responsible for all communications related to the submission of a manuscript to a journal. However, it is quite common that the CA be a student or inexperienced scientist, which can lead to often very damaging results arising from the allocation of responsibility to that person. Errors most commonly made by these CAs (despite signed declarations to the publisher or journal) include: submission of a manuscript without knowledge of the co-authors; falsification of data or double submissions; and inclusion of false authors or those who should not be authors. Most of these errors could be eliminated if: 1) There were full, open and transparent communication between the CA and the other co-authors and between the CA and the publisher; 2) The CA selected were a senior member of the research group; 3) All key points during the publishing process were shared with all co-authors, including submission, main revisions and acceptance; and 4) The publisher makes a good faith effort to obtain written permission to publish and print from each CA. The choice of the CA should not lie with the journal or publisher, but the choice should be made smartly in line with guidelines such as those presented in this paper. Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Judit Dobránszki (Hungary) Should the Hardy-Littlewood Axioms of Collaboration be Used for Collaborative Authorship? ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: It is difficult to assign authorship in bio-medical science using any fixed rule. Often strong conflicts of interest are related to two main issues: a) the rights of authorship and b) the order and position of co-authorship. The Hardy-Littlewood Rules were established on four core axioms which proposed a freedom of movement and authorship which is incompatible with most current publishing models since such co-authorship would most likely be labeled as invalid or unethical. The logic and fundament is based on an intrinsic level of trust between parties allowing complete freedom of choice. A possible ethical stumbling block may lie with the fourth axiom, which claims that all scientific papers should be published with the names of all partners, even if one or more of them had not contributed anything to the work. Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Chengjiang Ruan, Xiaonan Yu, Songjun Zeng (China) International Collaboration, Scientific Ethics and Science Writing: Focus on China ABSTRACT Research Note: China is, without a doubt, the world's current focus of attention in terms of economic and scientific advances. Center to this advance lies the need to define and understand, with some profound depth of knowledge and practical expertise, the frame-work that is currently in place to provide a support structure for scientists to advance while meeting the challenges of

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an ever-changing international publishing landscape. It is undeniably becoming increasingly competitive for Chinese scientists to publish in high level international journals, facing serious language- and writing skill-based difficulties when writing scientific manuscripts for submission to international (mostly English) peer-reviewed journals. Thus, without a doubt, English and writing skills are, after the scientific base of an experiment, the most essential skills for success in science publishing for Chinese scientists. This paper explores how international writing collaboration can serve as one simple but effective solution and tool to fortify scientific publishing without ethical hurdles provided that strict rules and values are adhered to. By adhering to a strict set of rules and by understanding the limitations that currently exist in China at the level of scientist, laboratory and institute or Ministry of Education, it will be possible to ensure the competitive advantage that Chinese scientists will require to publish on the global stage, advance their careers and move the advancement of science ­ specifically that performed in China ­ forward. To overcome the serious difficulties and problems in publishing their articles in international peer-reviewed journals in English, Chinese scientists often collaborate with other non-Chinese scientists that help to design or conduct experiments, analyze data or improve English expression of their manuscripts. These international writing collaborators are considered, in China, to be valid authors of an article without any ethical hindrances. Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Pham Thanh Van (Japan/Vietnam) The Impact of the Impact Factor®: Survey among Plant Scientists ABSTRACT Research Note: The Thomson Reuters marketing tool, the Impact Factor® (IF), is currently the only global quantitative system of assessing the impact (indirectly the quality) of a journal (therein the manuscript and the authors associated with it), solely as a function of referencing and/or indexing frequency. Despite its simplistic brilliance, as for any other monopolistic system in any sector of society, the IF is now beginning to have profound (negative) effects on how science is being selected, funds are being allocated and this in turn is driving science in an unnatural way, not driven any longer by core scientific values and principles, but rather by the inherent (implicit and explicit) benefits underlying the IF score of a scientific journal. This survey aspired to ascertain the notions that exist among plant scientists (n = 162) regarding the IF and how this system of quality assessment in the bio-medical sciences affects their way of conducting science and the niche in which they work and study. Twelve questions were posed and respondents could respond online with the possibility of also freely adding any additional comments. Except for one question, all other questions stowed an extremely polarized response, with 10/11 questions showing a YES: NO response ratio of 7:3. Almost all respondents (93%) had published in an IF journal, and 72% supported the IF. Of all respondents, 60% were made to (= forced by implicit or explicit rules and regulations) publish in an IF journal. Just over half of all respondents (51%) are compensated for publishing in an IF journal while a shocking amount (70%) are reprimanded, or suffer some form of negative consequence (by their Department, Institute, Funding Agency or Government) should they not publish in an IF journal. 73% of respondents felt that the IF should not be held in the hands of a media company or publisher (i.e., Thomson Reuters) and 91% felt that they had the right to know how an IF is assigned and calculated and to freely request the IF of any publication from any year, i.e. the IF history of a journal. Even though 85% felt that an alternative system to the IF was required, only 24% knew of such a system, although most of these were local and not global, or had their inherent problems and limitations. Closely related to the IF, most (70%) respondents felt that print versions of journals were still important, 94% felt that publication of a manuscript should be free, while 80% felt that papers should be Open Access. Without a doubt, the IF is here to stay. However, the great displeasure, exhibited by 91% of respondents who felt that an alternative system of quantitative measurement is required, points towards a desperate need for the (plant) scientific community to act towards countering the monopolistic activities of a single company, Thomson Reuters, by providing one or more competitive, alternative systems of assessing and quantifying the quality of science. Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Jean Carlos Cardoso (Brazil), Marcos Daquinta Gradaille (Cuba), Javier E. Sanchéz Velasco (Ecuador), Silvia Ross (Uruguay) International Collaborative Writing: One Solution for Science Writing and Publishing ­ Focus on Central and South America ABSTRACT Opinion Paper: The Central and South American continents do not have any native English speaking countries, and apart from Brazil, where Portuguese is spoken, all other countries have Spanish as their first language. For Central and South American scientists it is extremely difficult to compete with native English-speaking scientists when trying to publish work in top English language-based peer reviewed journals. For them, language- and writing skill-based difficulties are the top two challenges when writing scientific manuscripts for submission to peer-reviewed journals and are, without a doubt, after the scientific core of

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an experiment, the most essential skills for success in science publishing. This paper explores some perspectives from plant scientists in Central and South America and provides their opinions on how international writing collaboration can serve as one simple but effective solution that could result in scientific publishing success without ethical hurdles provided that strict rules and values are adhered to. Increased competitiveness in a global scientific sphere can be achieved through international writing collaboration as one sub-set of research collaboration that will ensure the competitive advantage that Central and South American scientists will require to publish, advance their careers and move the advancement of science forward. Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Vien Cao (USA) 1,116,629 or One Million, One Hundred and Sixteen Thousand, Six Hundred and Twenty-nine? More Sensible Rules for Abbreviations and Acronyms in the Bio-Medical Sciences ABSTRACT Opinion Paper: Authors and editors, science writers and reviewers are often in contact with a horde of literature and manuscripts almost on a daily basis. It is common for peer reviewers and editors ­ who are clearly not linguists nor, in many cases, native English speakers ­ to preach to authors ­ who are often native English-speaking scientists ­ that they should not start a sentence with an abbreviation or an acronym. The frequency of such a blind criticism or advice ­ often unscreened or unedited by the publisher ­ has led us to explore, in this paper, the use of abbreviations and acronyms in the English language with the purpose of creating a clearer set of rules or guidelines that would allow scientists ­ authors and reviewers/editors alike ­ as well as publishers to better use abbreviations and acronyms in bio-medical journals. It is also common to see predatory publishers claim the use of strict grammar, but on opening the manuscript PDF files, a wealth of grammatical errors, including in the use of abbreviations and acronyms, further fortifying their predatory nature. The rules that we cover in this opinion piece are not necessarily a grammar review, but provide practical examples of what to do and what not to do, and how to make choices related to abbreviations. We further suggest altering several rules which, in the context of science writing, are non-sensical or non-sensible. Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan) Wabi-Sabi: A Way for Science (and the World) to Rediscover Itself ABSTRACT Opinion Paper: We have entered the age of chaos where technological advances are a fad today and outdated tomorrow, one day news, the next day forgotten. In this state of digital narcissism and ever-competitive market-driven capitalism, fueled by corruption in governance and banking, there is little to disprove that the same trends are taking place in science. At this cross-road we are left with only one alternative: to stop, reflect deeply, and induce radical and revolutionary change. But how to do so in a peaceful way? Under quotidian constraints, to stop is literally impossible, thus this paper deals with one possible way in which we, as scientists, and as a sub-set of the wider society and community within which we are integrated, can seek such change in the form of a change in life-style, and hence state of mind. Wabi-sabi is not a tangible concept that can be quantified or described in set parameters. It is as ephemeral as mist, and as elusive as outer space. Yet, in the folds of its understanding, lies a secret to a peaceful equilibrium with knowledge. To counter the current state of global chaos, inequalities and gross greed that have also come to characterize science and science publishing, wabi-sabi may be one of the last realistic solutions left to restore order and peace. SPECIAL ISSUE: Cotton research in Uzbekistan. Guest Editors: Dilfuza Egamberdieva (National University of Uzbekistan, Faculty of Soil Science and Biology, Tashkent, Uzbekistan), Ibrokhim Abdurakhmonov (Center of Genomic Technologies, Institute of Genetics and Plant Experimental Biology (IGPEB), Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, Uzbekistan), 2013 Alisher Abdullaev, Abdumavlon A. Abdullaev, Ilkhom Salakhutdinov, Sofiya Rizaeva, Zarif Kuryazov, Dilrabo Ernazarova, Ibrokhim Y. Abdurakhmonov (Uzbekistan) Cotton Germplasm Collection of Uzbekistan ABSTRACT Invited Review: Cultivated cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the main source of natural fiber and oilseed as well as one of the most important crops for bio-energy production. Although cotton is native to the tropics and subtropics, it is naturally cultivated in more than 80 countries. The Uzbekistan cotton germplasm collection is one of the largest among worldwide collections, representing accessions and species not only with wide geographic and ecological niches but also with large amplitude of morphobiological and genetic diversity. More than 40 A- to G and K-genomes of wild Gossypium species as well as ~7,500

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cotton accessions are preserved in the Institute of Genetics and Plant Experimental Biology at the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan (IGPEB). There are a number of lines and cultivars with useful agronomic traits (early maturing, long fiber, high yield, disease tolerant, etc.) that have been developed using Uzbek cotton germplasm resources. A history of the collection development, maintenance, management and problems of ex situ conservation as well as utilization of germplasm resources are reviewed in this paper. Hikmat S. Nematov, Auhat M. Batalov, Azamat A. Sultanov, Ikrom H. Nematov (Uzbekistan) Development of Productive Cotton Cultivars with Increased Fiber Quality for Bukhara Region of Uzbekistan ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Bukhara region is one of the important agricultural regions for Uzbekistan, producing cotton as a leading crop in addition to cereals and horticultural crops. Agricultural production in this region is greatly suffered by soil salinization and water deficit that requires a specific effort in development of adapted crop cultivars for this harsh climatic environment. However, with development of scientific efforts and science-based facility in the provincial regions of Uzbekistan after independence in 1991, cotton breeders of Bukhara research centers took a concentrated effort to develop new cotton varieties, named after the ancient city 'Bukhara', which turned to be highly adapted to this region. These new varieties are 'Bukhara-6', 'Bukhara-8' and 'Bukhara-102' that significantly increased the cotton productivity of the region. The 'Bukhara-6' variety became the leading standard for other varieties of cotton cultivated in Uzbekistan because of its high textile quality among other varieties grown in Uzbekistan. Nigora Khashimova, Ali Akhunov, Egor Pshenichnov, Sergey Vshivkov, Elmira Mustakimova, Zamira Golubenko (Uzbekistan) Some Aspects of the Interaction between Cotton Anionic Peroxidases and Verticillium dahliae Kleb. ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a phytopathogenic fungi which causes wilt disease in a wide range of crops, including cotton. In this study, we have examined the role of the peroxidase (POX) enzymes in cotton response to pathogen. We examined the inducibility of POXs through the experimental explosion of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars by V. dahliae. The results of this study indicate that POX activity was associated with resistance and that its activity was correlated with levels of different resistance of cotton cultivars. POX activity of 7-day-old cotton seedlings increased in the presence of V. dahliae chitin and conidia in comparison with its activity in crude extract. This activation occurred in the chitin-sorbed fraction. Isoelectric focusing shows that cotton seedlings of var. `AN-Bayaut-2' are considered to be resistant and had two anionic isoforms (pI 3.4 and 3.9) that bind to V. dahliae while `C-4727' is considered to be susceptible and had only one of these types of isoforms (pI 3.1). The treatment of cotton seeds and seedlings by soluble chitosan revealed that POX activity was induced among all the tested plants. The role of POX in disease resistance was examined through an anti-fungal activity test of chitin-binding anionic isoforms. Significant anti-fungal activity of chitin-binding POX isoforms of the resistant cotton variety was observed. Microscopic examination of the hyphal growth inhibition zone revealed that the anionic chitin-bound POXs of `AN-Bayaut-2' were able to arrest the growth of the pathogen. The use of POX activity as a preliminary marker for resistance of cotton cultivars to V. dahliae is suggested. Dilfuza Egamberdieva, Dilfuza Jabborova (Uzbekistan) Biocontrol of Cotton Damping-off Caused by Rhizoctonia solani in Salinated Soil with Rhizosphere Bacteria ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Pre- or post-emergence cotton seedling damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani is a serious problem in many cotton growing countries. Fourteen selected bacterial strains were screened for their ability to control damping-off of cotton seedlings caused by the fungus R. solani in slightly saline (EC 2.3 dS m -1) and saline (EC 7.1 dS m-1) soils. Based on the results of preliminary screening, four efficient strains, Pseudomonas alcaligenes PsA15, P. chlororaphis TSAU13, P. extremorientalis TSAU20 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BcA12 were selected among 14 strains. When cotton was grown in both saline soils without addition of R. solani 45% and 56% of plants were diseased in slightly saline and saline soils, respectively. In the presence of the fungal pathogen the portion of plants, which had disease symptoms, increased from 67% in slightly saline to 73% in saline soils. All bacterial strains, with the exception of B. amyloliquefaciens BcA12, showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) disease control (up to 20%) over the R. solani-infected plants grown in slightly saline soil. The higher salinity reduced the capacity of bacteria to suppress damping-off of cotton caused by R. solani. Only strain P. extremorientalis

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TSAU20 performed well in both saline soils. When cotton seedlings were grown in both saline field soils without addition of the fungal pathogen, all four strains showed a significant (P < 0.05) stimulatory effect on cotton dry weight (up to 57%) in comparison to the non-inoculated l plants. The mechanisms, by which bacteria may use their plant-beneficial properties are also discussed. Those results showed that P. extremorientalis TSAU20 has a great biotechnological potential to stimulate plant growth and protect cotton from damping-off disease under salinated soil condition. Botir Haitov, Nilufar Mamadalieva, Dilfuza Egamberdieva (Uzbekistan) Plant-Derived 20-Hydroxyecdysone Alleviates Salt Stress in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Seedlings ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The action of plant-derived 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) on germination and seedling growth of three cotton varieties under various concentrations of NaCl and MgSO4 were studied. Seed dormancy enforced by salinity (100 mM NaCl) was substantially alleviated and germination was significantly promoted by 20E from 31 to 39% in var. `Namangan-77' and from 8 to 21% in `AH-balut-2'. In contrast, seed germination of `C-6524' variety was less affected by 20E. The 20E significantly stimulated seedling root and shoot growth of `Namangan-77' and `AH-balut-2' varieties at 10-4 M NaCl or MgSO4. Our results showed that the application of 10-4 M 20E improves cotton seed germination and protects seedlings from saline stress, although this effect is dependent upon cultivar. Ali Akhunov, Zamira Golubenko, Elmira Mustakimova, Nigora Abdurashidova, Egor Pshenichnov, Sergey Vshivkov (Uzbekistan), Robert D. Stipanovic (USA) The Effect of Phytohormones on the Dynamics of Protein Biosynthesis and Enzyme Activity in Linted and Naked Cotton Seed ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: We determined the effect of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid, -naphthylene-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid (GA3) on the enzymatic activity of glucansynthase, peroxidase and cellulase in ovule development of naked L-70 and linted AN-Bayaut-2 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds. We isolated a protein­inhibitor of 37 kDa with pI 4.2 from integument tissue of naked cotton seeds. In addition, we studied its inhibitory activity on the biosynthesis of cellulose after GA3 treatment of ovules of linted cottonseed at 10-6 M. The results help to illuminate our understanding of lint development in cotton. Rustam N. Mannanov, Rano K. Sattarova (Uzbekistan) Biocontrol of Cotton Pathogens Using Soil Antagonists ABSTRACT Short Communication: Three antagonistic bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens 41, Bacillus subtilis 23 and Bacillus megaterium 26, were tested in vitro for their ability to control Xanthomonas malvacearum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and Verticillium dahliae, which are agents of major cotton diseases. Bacillus subtilis 23 was the most active against phytopathogens in laboratory experiments and in small-plot trials. In field trials, the biological efficacy of pre-sowing cotton seed treatment with the most effective antagonist was studied on upland variety of cotton Gossypium hirsutum C-6524. Pre-sowing seed treatment with Bacillus subtilis 23 significantly inhibited the development of Xanthomonas malvacearum and Rhizoctonia solani and stimulated cotton yield. The highest control efficacy (64%) was recorded for Bacillus subtilis 23 against Rhizoctonia solani. Munojat Oripova, Jamolitdin Ziyavitdinov, Juilia Oshepkova, Elvira Sultanova, Olga Veshkurova, Shodmon Namazov, Shavkat Salikhov (Uzbekistan) Comparative Characteristic Components of Plant Protective System by Example of Three Varieties of Cotton Plants ABSTRACT Short Communication: High-resistant cotton varieties contain a large number of components of plant protective system against the pathogen and insect pests. The content of gossypol, its enantiomers and sum of cation peptides were determined in three cotton varieties with different resistance to pathogens. The most resistant cotton variety Namangan-77 contains the highest level of total gossypol, (+)-gossypol and total sum of cation peptides in cotton seeds have been detected a correlation. From sum of cation peptides were isolated low molecular proteins by a combination of different chromatographic procedures. It was established that all peptide fractions contain of low molecular protein with molecular mass 10 635 Da, relevant to class of 2S-albumin. Antifungal and antimicrobial activities were tested in sum of low molecular proteins. Cottonseed proteins exhibit

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high antifungal and antimicrobial activities inhibiting growth of hyphae and causing spore destruction in a number of fungal and microbial pathogens. Vyacheslav V. Uzbekov (Uzbekistan), Robert D. Stipanovic (USA), Olga N. Veshkurova, Shadman E. Namazov, Shavkat I. Salikhov (Uzbekistan) Prediction of Cotton Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera Based on the (+)-Gossypol Content in Mature Seed ABSTRACT Short Communication: Various Uzbek commercial cotton varieties were grown in the field and these were exposed to cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) larvae. A significant negative correlation coefficient (r = -0.89) and linear regression (Y = 109.69-5.26X) was observed between the concentration of (+)-gossypol in cotton seed kernels and boll damage. Significant regressions were not observed in similar comparisons with (-)-gossypol or with total gossypol concentrations. This characteristic was used as a phenotypic predictor to guide breeding efforts to increase resistance to H. armigera. Ahmad Hamidov (Germany), Mukhamadkhan Khamidov (Uzbekistan), José Beltrão (Portugal) Application of Surface and Groundwater to Produce Cotton in Semi-Arid Uzbekistan ABSTRACT Research Note: Transition from territorial water management to the basin principle and the establishment of on-farm water users associations were pursued to improve irrigation water management in Uzbekistan. Despite the fact that these new institutions were introduced about a decade ago in top-down fashion, they could not live up to expectations and address the problem of water mismanagement and scarcity without involving some innovative technological tools. A new method called subirrigatciya, i.e. combined use of surface and groundwater, for irrigating cotton was piloted in Khorezm region. The research findings reveal that this environmentally safe and clean technique can be used to moisturize the plant-root zone, increase crop productivity, minimize water scarcity problems, and improve the ecosystem as well as the socio-economic conditions in the region. The results indicate that the best case scenario was obtained at pre-irrigation soil moisture of 70-80-60% in irrigation scheme 0-3-0 with an irrigation rate of 2200 m3/ha. In these circumstances, cotton yield reached 4280 kg/ha. It is suggested that the subirrigatciya method needs considerable attention among scientists as water scarcity becomes more severe. However, additional research is needed to verify the findings.

The European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology

SPECIAL ISSUE: Buckwheat 3. Guest Editors: Judit Dobránszki and István Gondola (Research Institute of University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Hungary), 2012 Anne-Laure Jacquemart, Valérie Cawoy, Jean-Marie Kinet, Jean-François Ledent, Muriel Quinet (Belgium) Is Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Still a Valuable Crop Today? ABSTRACT Invited Review: Cultivation of buckwheat has decreased progressively worldwide over the last 20-30 years because of its low and erratic yield. In this review, we stress out the strengths and weaknesses of this crop. Buckwheat constitutes a multifood-use pseudocereal with nutritional benefits consisting in the absence of gluten in the flour, the richness in water soluble fibres, high quality proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, and appreciable mineral and vitamin content. The anti-oxidative action of buckwheat as a result of the presence of rutin and other phenolic substances is exploited by the pharmaceutical industry. Buckwheat's benefits also include positive cardiovascular effects, regulation of certain types of diabetes, and prevention of gallstones and hormone-dependent cancers. Buckwheat, therefore, offers multiple nutritional advantages and can play a major role in the prophylaxis of several human diseases. From an agronomical point of view, buckwheat represents a good opportunity for environmentally friendly cultivation, with reduced use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. However, various physiological and ecological characteristics result in low and variable yields: (1) sensitivity to abiotic factors, such as frost, heat, water deficit, long photoperiod for photosensitive varieties, and tendency to lodging; (2) self-incompatibility, distyly and pollen transfer limitation; (3) indeterminate flowering and extended seed maturation over time leading to difficulties in determining the optimal time to harvest; and (4) female organ flower sterility. As a result, improvement in cultivar breeding and crop management is still needed.

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Svetlana Radovi, Jovanka Miljus-Djuki, Jelena Samardzi, Bojana Banovi, Dragana Nikoli, Mira Milisavljevi, Gordana Timotijevi (Serbia) Buckwheat as a Model Plant in Molecular Biology ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is a pseudocereal crop, mostly grown in the Northern Hemisphere. It is desirable for human consumption because buckwheat seeds have a high content of proteins (with high concentrations of essential amino acids) and minerals (e.g. iron, zinc and selenium). Concerning their high nutritive value, buckwheat seed storage proteins (SSPs), and genes that code for them, are of importance to study. Our research focus is the structure and the expression profile of selected buckwheat genes coding for proteins of known functions (such as SSPs), as well as proteins of undefined functions possibly involved in protein degradation/processing, and/or in the stress response (e.g. aspartic proteinases and metallothionein). These genes, their promoters and translational products are important, not only from the aspect of fundamental research, but also in regard to their potential biotechnological application in agriculture and land preservation. In particular, we are interested in the processes taking place during the last stage of buckwheat embryogenesis, especially in the analyses of specific gene expression regulation under normal physiological and/or stress conditions, which is the subject of our present research. Asha Panwar, Nidhi Gupta, Rajinder S. Chauhan (India) Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Flavonoids in Fagopyrum spp. ABSTRACT Invited Review: Buckwheat is a multipurpose crop used for both grains and greens and known to have several medicinal and nutritional properties. Buckwheat contains flavonoids such as rutin, anthocyanins, catechins, chlorogenic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechins, p-courmaric acid, ferulic acid etc. Fagopyrum esculentum and Fagopyrum tataricum are the major source of flavonoid called rutin. Seeds of F. tataricum contain higher rutin content in comparison to F. esculentum. This review discusses the physiological and molecular basis of flavonoid biosynthesis and accumulation in plants in general and rutin and anthocyanin content in Fagopyrum species, its correlation with the expression of flavonoid pathway genes and the effect of different environmental factors on flavonoid biosynthesis. The understanding of rutin biosynthesis in buckwheat is expected to supplement for genetic improvement of buckwheat for higher nutritional value. Ralph L. Obendorf (USA), Marcin Horbowicz (Poland), Takashi Ueda (USA), Kathryn J. Steadman (Australia) Fagopyritols: Occurrence, Biosynthesis, Analyses and Possible Role ABSTRACT Invited Review: The discovery, isolation, purification, and molecular structure characterization of six fagopyritols found in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) seeds and milling fractions are described. The proposed roles of fagopyritols in seed maturation, seed desiccation tolerance, agronomic seed performance, and human health are outlined. The similarities in molecular structure of fagopyritols to a putative insulin mediator related to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovary syndrome are described. The characterization of genes encoding enzymes capable of synthesizing buckwheat fagopyritols is highlighted. Tatsuro Suzuki, Yuji Mukasa, Tosikazu Morishita (Japan), Sun-Ju Kim, Sun-hee Woo (Korea), Takahiro Noda, Shigenobu Takigawa, Hiroaki Yamauchi (Japan) Possible Roles of Rutin in Buckwheat Plant ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Buckwheat contains rutin, a kind of flavonol, not only in the seeds but also in the cotyledon, leaf, stem and flower. To date, several reports have been published on the physiological roles of rutin. In this review, mainly based on our recent results, we summarize the main aspects of rutin related to its possible physiological roles. The enzymes, which catalyzed a part of rutin synthesis (quercetin glycosyl transferase) and decomposition (rutinosidase), have lower Km especially for quercetin/UDP-glucose and rutin respectively compared to other similar compounds. This indicates that buckwheat developed glycosyl transferase and rutinosidase suit for rutin metabolism. The time course studies for rutin accumulation at seed ripening and leaf/cotyledon expansion show that rutin accumulation pattern is different for each organ. In seeds, rutin content per seed increases along with seed development, and mature seed contains the largest rutin concentration. In leaves, rutin content also increased along with development whereas senescent leaves contain little amount of rutin. In the cotyledon and mature leaves,

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rutin is distributed in the epidermis, and large amount of rutinosidase activity is present on surface of cotyledon during cotyledon expansion. In addition, rutin concentration and rutinosidase activity was increased by some stresses (UV-B radiation, cold and moisture stress) in leaves. Quercetin, the hydrolyzed moiety of rutin, possesses high antioxidant activity and the ability to be a precursor of a kind of anti fungal agents. Therefore, rutin and rutinosidase are suggested to be related to the enhancement of the defense system against stress conditions in buckwheat. Tatsuro Suzuki, Yuji Mukasa, Tosikazu Morishita (Japan), Sun-hee Woo, Sun-Ju Kim (Korea), Takahiro Noda, Shigenobu Takigawa, Hiroaki Yamauchi (Japan) Possible Roles of Lipase, Lipoxygenase and Peroxidase in Buckwheat Flour and Noodles ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: The freshness of buckwheat flour and its unique flavor is important for the quality of buckwheat products. Several reports have shown that lipid degradation and oxidation in buckwheat flour are the main causes of measurable quality deterioration during storage. On the other hand, some flavor compounds are produced by lipid degradation and oxidation pathway. Therefore, understanding lipid degradation and oxidation pathways is important in the quality control of buckwheat flour and products. In some crops, lipoxygenase pathway is important for lipid degradation and oxidation. The pathway includes some enzymes such as lipase (triacylglycerol lipase EC 3.1.1.3) (LIP), lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.12) (LOX) and peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) (POX). This review, mainly based on our recent results, summarizes the main aspects of the possible relation between these enzymes, their substrates and flour deterioration/flavor generation as well as purification and characterization of related enzymes. LIP and POX activity in buckwheat flour apparently plays a role in the lipid degradation and quality deterioration whereas LOX does not have significant influences. LIP and POX activity in buckwheat flour also plays an important role for flavor generation of boiled buckwheat noodles whereas LOX does not have. This indicates that the mechanism of quality deterioration and flavor generation in buckwheat flour is different from that of rice and soybean. Jai C. Rana, Rajinder C. Chauhan, Tilak R. Sharma, Nidhi Gupta (India) Analyzing Problems and Prospects of Buckwheat Cultivation in India ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Buckwheat is a multi-purpose crop grown widely at higher elevations in the Indian Himalayan region. Buckwheat contains high amounts of antioxidant compounds, mainly rutin (a flavonol glycoside) with several medicinal properties. The physiological and biological properties of rutin include anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-hypertension, vasoconstrictive, spasmolitic and positive inotropic effect. Out of 20 species reported world-wide only two, Fagopyrum tataricum and F. esculentum are cultivated in India and elsewhere in the world. The majority of the varieties grown are farmer's own selections, however, five varieties have been released through the All India Coordinated Project on underutilized crops. Besides, around 911 germplasm accessions have been conserved in medium term storage at Shimla; 837 out of these have also been maintained as base collection in the National Gene Bank. Although buckwheat has diverse uses as food, medicinal and industrial plant, the area under its cultivation is decreasing at an alarming rate mainly due to changing cropping patterns, migration, low productivity, changing food habits, and lack of alternative uses/products. Screening of germplasm for biotic and abiotic stresses, restructuring of research and development activities towards value addition by exploiting its potential as fast food, medicinal and beverage plant and awareness of its food and medicinal value at grass root level are some of the new thrust areas for expanding buckwheat cultivation. Saswati Sen, S. K. Dutta (India) Evaluation of Anti-cancer Potential of Ragi Bifunctional Inhibitor (RBI) from Eleusine coracana on Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Finger millet (ragi), a staple food crop, is well known as a super cereal for its excellent nutritional value, long-term storage potential and ethno-medicinal characteristics. Ragi bifunctional inhibitor (RBI) from Eleusine coracana Gaertn. (ragi/finger millet) belonging to cereal alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor family, inhibits alpha-amylase and trypsin simultaneously. Several seed protease inhibitors are known for their protective as well as curative role against many types of human cancers. Recently, the anti-cancer activity of ragi seed extract on K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells was explored. In the present study, RBI was purified from finger millet seeds by affinity chromatography followed by FPLC (Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography) size exclusion separation method. Purified RBI showed cytotoxicity against K562 chronic myeloid leukemia

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cells (IC50 = 20 µg/ml) but, not against normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Reduction of cellular proliferation and induction of apoptosis of K562 cells by purified RBI was determined by MTT (3-4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and flow cytometry analysis. This investigation being the first report on the anti-proliferative potential of RBI from edible ragi seeds, might provide a future preventive as well as curative natural solution for chronic myeloid leukemia. Bojana Filipcev, Olivera Simurina, Marija Bodroza-Solarov (Serbia) Enrichment of Ginger Nut Biscuits with Wholegrain Buckwheat and Rye Flour ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: To broaden the use of common buckwheat in human nutrition, an attempt was made to use wholegrain buckwheat flour in ginger nut biscuit formulations. The aim of the study was to develop a ginger nut biscuit formulation in which wheat flour is partially substituted with buckwheat flour in such doses to obtain nutritionally improved and acceptable product. Buckwheat flour was tested at doses 30, 40, 50% (flour weight basis). Proximate composition (basic chemical composition, fibers, micro elements), physical (height, width, spread, density, color) and textural attributes (hardness, fracturability) of buckwheat enriched ginger nut biscuits were analyzed and compared to those made with wheat flour solely. Since buckwheat tends to increase hardness of the products due to the peculiar gelling properties of buckwheat starch, inclusion of rye flour at 10 and 20% dose was also investigated. The dimension of ginger nut biscuits decreased but since the biscuit height was more affected by the rising doses of buckwheat, the spread increased in the composite biscuits (significant difference was noted at 40 and 50% levels of replacement). This could be attributed to the coarse granularity of buckwheat flour. Hardness and fracturability of ginger nut biscuits increased significantly with the addition of 50% buckwheat. The enriched biscuits were nutritionally improved as they contained more fibers, minerals and proteins (percent increase ranges depending on the replacement level were: for fibers 41.8-141.4%, for Fe 132.3-189.2%, for Zn 115.4-223.1%, for Mn 43.9-72.7%, for Cu 212.5-262.5%, for proteins 6.6-17.1%). Yellow tone decreased in all buckwheat containing biscuits at all substitution levels. All composite biscuits over 40% buckwheat substitution level showed an increased red tone. The majority of composite biscuits did not differ significantly from the control regarding darkness. Danuta Zieliska, Jacek Kwiatkowski, Henryk Zieliski, Dorota Szawara-Nowak, Malgorzata Przygodzka, Grzegorz Lamparski (Poland), Fridrich Zeller (Germany) Antioxidant Properties and Flavonoid Composition as Quality Index of the Hulls and Groats from Common, Tartary and an Interspecific Hybrid of Buckwheat ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The interest in buckwheat flavonoids as therapeutic agents against diseases involving free radical damage and possible allelopathic compounds is growing. This paper presents a field program addressed to buckwheat genotypes with the aim to develop cultivars of high antioxidant capacity and high flavonoid concentration in the hulls and groats. Therefore, both parameters were considered as new quality index of buckwheat cultivars. The antioxidant capacity of groat and hull separated from buckwheat seed was evaluated against stable, non-biological radicals such as 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical cation (ABTS·+) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·), and against the key reactive oxygen intermediate ­ superoxide anion radical (O2-·) while the reducing capacity was measured directly by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method. The extent of variation in the content of rutin, quercetin and flavone C-glucosides in hull and groat was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The content of flavonoids determined in the hulls and dehulled seeds of common, tartary and hybrid buckwheat varieties was correlated with antioxidant capacity determined by updated analytical strategies. The applied analytical strategy for the determination of the antioxidant capacity, based on the four analytical assays offering different chemical principles, created a useful quality parameter for buckwheat. The applied methods provided the same rank of the antioxidant capacity among hulls and groats however the real antioxidant capacity values differed according to the methods. The rank of values of the antioxidant capacity vs. applied methods was as follows: ABTS assay PCL assay > DPPH RSA CV assay. The rutin and flavone C-glucosides content in the groats from common buckwheat cultivars and the interspecific hybrid were lower than those noted in the hulls. In contrast, groat and hull from tartary buckwheat accession contained comparable high level of flavonoids. The extent of variation in the content of rutin, quercetin and flavone C-glucosides in the hull may be useful for researchers working on the resistance of buckwheat lines against pathogens and diseases whilst extent of variation in the flavonoid composition in groats should be important from the nutritional point of view. Therefore, flavonoid composition of the hulls and groats from different buckwheat genotypes may serve as a quality index.

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Andrea Brunori, Gerardo Baviello (Italy), Ferenc Kajdi (Hungary), Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva (Japan), Tibor Gyri, György Végvári (Hungary) Grain Yield and Rutin Content of Common and Tartary Buckwheat Varieties Grown in North-Western Hungary ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Grain yield and rutin content was assessed in 31 common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and three tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) varieties grown in the summer of 2008 at the Research and Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of West Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary. Grain yield of common buckwheat varied from a high of 0.98 t/ha in `Vlada', 0.94 t/ha in `Koto' and 0.92 t/ha in `Anita Belorusskaya' to lows of 0.31 t/ha in `Arakawa Village', 0.47 t/ha in `Kora' and 0.48 t/ha in `Springfield'. Much lower grain yield was observed in the three tartary buckwheat varieties: 0.12 t/ha in `Ishisoba', 0.37 t/ha in `Donan' and 0.38 t/ha in `Golden'. As expected, and unlike grain yield performance, the rutin content observed in F. tataricum was as much as two orders of magnitude higher than that of F. esculentum, ranging between 974 mg/100 g DW in `Golden' and 1196 mg/100 g DW in `Ishisoba'. In common buckwheat, grain rutin content ranged from 8 mg/100 g DW in `Darja' and `Kitawasesoba' to 24 mg/100 g DW in `La Harpe'. The best compromise between grain yield and rutin content in common buckwheat was observed in var. `Vlada', which had the top yield and ranked third in rutin content. Tartary buckwheat grain was a valuable source of rutin. In general, grain yield and rutin content were largely not correlated, almost as if grain development and rutin accumulation were not competing processes. Rather, rutin accumulation appeared to be the function of a variety's aptitude likely related to origin. European varieties, regardless of their yield potential, expressed quite clearly a somewhat higher rutin content than varieties originating from Pacific areas, namely Japan and Canada. Aleksey Fesenko, Olga Romanova, Nikolay N. Fesenko (Russia) Peculiarities of Common Buckwheat Adaptation to Growing Conditions ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: All buckwheat populations have a complex structure. They are comprised of 1 or 2 most numerous morphotypes (the adaptive nucleus of a population) and several less abundant ones (insurance morphotypes). The main adaptive element of buckwheat is the number of vegetative nodes per plant. In the first place, this indicator changes at the expense of the vegetative nodes on the main stem. Adaptation of buckwheat to conditions of the East European part of its distribution area was linked with the decrease in the average number of vegetative nodes per stem (from 10.1 in the East Asian populations down to 3.4 in those from the Russian North). The structure of populations is characterized by predominance of SBZ-3, SBZ-4, SBZ-5, SBZ-6 and SBZ-7 morphotypes. Duration of the vegetation period has decreased from 119 down to 66 days, respectively. SPECIAL ISSUE: Millets, 2012 Arun Gupta, Salej Sood, Pawan Kumar Agrawal, Jagdish Chandra Bhatt (India) Floral Biology and Pollination System in Small Millets ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: The flowers and flowering of small millets are poorly understood taxonomically. The knowledge of floral structure, floral biology and pollination behaviour are pre-requisite for understanding the system and its manipulation for developing a proper crossing technique, which is largely lacking in small millets. The present manuscript deals with floral morphology of small millets in particular in the light of the Poaceae family. Shantharaj Deepak, Sathyanarayana Niranjan-Raj (India), Axel Mithöfer (Germany), Shekar H. Shetty (India) Nutritional Bio-fortification in Pearl Millet ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Research on millets and their food value is in its infancy and its potential is vastly untapped. This review focuses on nutritional enhancement and improvement in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.), a staple food crop of the semi-arid tropics largely grown for food and fodder in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of India. Climate change will greatly affect

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what crops we grow and where we grow it. Two of the most comprehensive models of climate change suggest that pearl millet is among the winner crops which are likely to be most suited and widely cultivated in future. Pearl millet is mainly grown for grain but it is also valued for its stove and/or forage. Apart from being used as food for human consumption and feed for livestock and poultry, pearl millet grain is also gaining importance as a cheap source of starch for fine quality brewing and in other diversified food uses. However, pearl millet being a crop grown and consumed by the poorest farmers needs nutritional bio-fortification by conventional and transgenic approaches to counteract the present nutritional deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of India. Kajal Srivastava, A. K. Sharma (India) Nutraceutical Importance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) for Improved Human Health ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Diet is a major focus of public health strategy aimed at maintaining optimum health throughout life thus preventing early onset of chronic diseases as well as promoting healthier ageing. Studies on the different properties of foods have shown that consumption of certain foods may provide greater health benefits. One such group of healthy food is the nutraceutical, which can be any substance that is a food or component of a food that provides medical, health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease. They are often used in nutrient premixes or nutrient systems in food and pharmaceutical industries. Such foods items or food components that help in prevention or treatment of diseases are made from herbal/botanical raw materials. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is one of the oldest cereal grains in the Indian sub-continent having high nutraceutical value. It grows well in harsh environments and on poorly fertilized and dry soils where other crops give poor yield. It also grows well in hot climates with short rainfall periods and cool climates with warm summers. A multitude of small farmers grow finger millet with limited water resources and in many countries this crop is often referred as "poor people's crop". Finger millet as compared to the other crops is a very rich source of calcium; the calcium content is thirty times more than that of rice and wheat. It is not only a rich source of calcium but contains also other micronutrients essential for good health. It can replace or complement traditional crops and, with vertical integration into agriculture and manufacturing, it will also have impact on rural economic development. Gábor Gyulai, László Holly, Richárd Lágler, Lajos Horváth (Hungary) The Hungarian Gene Bank Collections of Common Millet (Panicum miliaceum) and the Application for Conservation Genetics ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Over the past decades gene bank of RCAT (Research Center of Agrobiodiversity, Tápiószele, Hungary), specialized for field and vegetable crops, has collected 250 accessions of heirlooms, old varieties, landraces and breeding materials of common millet (Panicum milaceum). The accessions have been characterized by descriptor list and compiled according to the international gene bank standards (IPGRI). In the study presented, short history of the RCAT, and a case study of common millet accession (P. miliaceum) are presented. Molecular analysis of DNA samples of twenty current millets and two archaeological seed samples excavated from the 4th and 15th centuries are compared at loci of gln4 (nuSSR), ISSRs and 18S mtDNA. The in silico analyses at loci of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (nuDNA), rbcL (cpDNA) and protein RuBisCO are also presented to trace molecular events occurred during the evolution and domestication of common millet. Shashi Kumar Gupta, Thirunavukkarasu Nepolean, Kedar Nath Rai, Charles Thomas Hash (India), Ranjana Bhattacharjee (India/Nigeria), Abhishek Rathore (India) Within-line Genetic Variation for Quantitative Characters and SSRs in Long-time Maintained Inbreds in Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Six maintainer (B-) and restorer (R-) lines each from ICRISAT's pearl millet hybrid parental line breeding program were investigated for within-line genetic variation for quantitative characters and simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Thirty two progenies of each inbred line were evaluated under two contrasting seasons and observed for 5 quantitative characters, and for 20 SSRs. Some B- and R- lines had small but significant within-line genetic variation for certain traits. Higher number of significant differences for within-line variation observed among progenies for B-lines (48%) than for R-lines (33%) indicated that ear-to-row procedure of line maintenance was more effective than bulking the phenotypically similar plants, for maintaining the genetic uniformity in inbreds. Amongst B-lines, `ICMB 89111' had the maximum within-line variation for both quantitative characters and SSR markers. Amongst R-lines, `IPC 802' and `IPC 909' had within-line variation for maximum of 4

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quantitative characters. Wide range of variability was observed for all the characters in both B- and R- lines, but genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) was very low. SSRs were able to detect low level of residual heterozygosity in some of the inbreds. Mahalingam Govindaraj, Kedar N. Rai, Ponnusamy Shanmugasundaram, Aluri S. Rao (India) Efficiency of Single Plant Selection for Grain Iron and Zinc Density in Pearl Millet ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Single plant selection, if effective, can make significant contributions to enhance breeding efficiency. This hypothesis was tested for grain iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) density in four populations of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Inbreeding and selection in advancing generations is normally practiced by evaluating progenies in unreplicated nurseries or at most in 2-replication trials. In each population in this study, grain samples of 40 random individual plants (hereafter referred to as S0 plants) and their S1 progenies grown in 2-replication trials for two seasons (called as environments) were analyzed for Fe and Zn density using ICP analytical method. In each population, correlation coefficients between S0 plants and their respective S1 progenies (whether individual environment or the mean of both environments) both for Fe and Zn density were positive, highly significant, and of the similar order as the correlation coefficients between the two environments for the S1 progeny performance. Also, the patterns of correlation coefficients between the S0 plants and either of the two replications of the S1 progenies in each environment were similar to those between the two replications for S1 progeny performance in both environments and in all four populations. While the Fe and Zn density were positively and highly significantly correlated, these were not correlated with grain mass. The patterns of these associations were similar both at the S0 plant level as well as at the S1 progeny level in each population. These results suggest that individual plant selection can be effectively used for simultaneous genetic improvement of both grain Fe and Zn density without compromising on grain size. Kedar N. Rai, Michael Blümmel, Akhilesh K. Singh, Aluri S. Rao (India) Variability and Relationships among Forage Yield and Quality Traits in Pearl Millet ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.], owing to its high photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production ability, fewer disease and insect pest problems, and tolerance to multiple environmental stresses, is a valuable forage crop, especially in view of climate change consequences. Nine open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) and 27 top-cross hybrids made on three male-sterile lines (A-lines) were evaluated in Alfisols at ICRISAT, Patancheru in the rainy season for two years. When harvested at 50 days after sowing, top-cross hybrids out-yielded OPVs, on an average, by about 30%, most likely due to relatively earlier flowering and higher biomass accumulation. At 80 d harvest, the dry forage yield of OPVs was similar to those of the hybrids. Forage nitrogen (N), in vitro digestibility and metabolizable energy content were used as laboratory fodder quality traits. Significant differences among the OPVs and among the hybrids were observed for these three quality traits, both at 50 d and 80 d harvest. While forage N declined by 49% at 80 d harvest, in vitro digestibility and metabolizable energy declined by 16-18%. At 50 d harvest, forage N content, in vitro digestibility and metabolizable energy were all significantly negatively correlated with forage yield both in OPVs and hybrids. At 80 d harvest, forage yield was not associated with any of the three quality traits in OPVs. In hybrids, forage yield was significantly negatively correlated with forage N content, while it was significantly positively correlated with the other two quality traits. These results indicate better prospects of combining high forage yield with high levels of in vitro digestibility and metabolizable energy in hybrids than in OPVs of pearl millet. László Radics, Izóra Gál, Imre Kádár (Hungary) The Effect of Rising Doses of NPK Fertilizers on Weeds of Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum) on a Calcareous Loamy Chernozem Soil ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: The effect of different NPK levels (poor, satisfactory, excessive and toxic) and their combinations on the soil cover percentage of the natural weed flora of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) was studied on a loamy chernozem soil with lime deposit. The N levels were 0 (poor), 100 (satisfactory), 200 (excessive) and 300 (toxic) kg ha-1 year-1; P and K fertilizing was done with 0 (poor), 500 (satisfactory), 1000 (excessive), 1500 (toxic) kg ha-1 P2O5 and K2O refilling doses. Later, only the sustaining of PK levels was targeted, refilling was repeated every 5-10 years. The P and K fertilizers and half of the N fertilizer was spread in autumn before ploughing the plots, the other half of N was spread in spring in the form of 25-28%

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calcium ammonium nitrate, 18% superphosphate and 40-60% potassium chloride. The series of mineral fertilization experiments was established in the autumn of 1973. Different crops were produced on these plots every year. Proso millet was sown in 1996. This long-term series of experiments consisted of 4N × 4P × 4K = 64 treatments, or nutritional levels, in two replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The plot size was 6 × 6 = 36 m2 in mixed factorial design. Weed surveys were done in 4 m2 quadrats in two replications and contained not only weed flora but crop cover too. The number of weed species, the soil cover of weeds and the crop were highly dependent upon the doses and ratio of different fertilizers. Sunita Choudhary, Fran R. Bidinger, C. Tom Hash, Vincent Vadez, Michael Blümmel (India) Gene Action Governing Pearl Millet Stover Nitrogen and in Vitro Digestibility and Opportunities for Improvement ABSTRACT Short Communication: Two pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] stover fodder traits, nitrogen content (N) and in vitro digestibility, were targeted to investigate their modes of inheritance and to assess the scope for improving them relative to a base population. From a full-sib (FS) base population of pearl millet variety `ICMV 221' three high and low nitrogen and three high and low in vitro digestibility FS were selected. Crosses were made for high × high (H × H), low × low (L × L) and high × low (H × L) FS trait contrasts and evaluated at Patancheru in the rainy seasons of 2007 and 2008. The high and low nitrogen FS parents contrasted 0.85 and 0.72% for nitrogen (N). In the crosses stover N contents were: HN × HN = 0.85%, LN × LN = 0.73% and HN × LN = 0.80% (P < 0.05). The high and low digestibility FS parents contrasted 43.3 and 40.3% for in vitro digestibility. In the crosses stover in vitro digestibilities (D) were: HD × HD = 43.7%, LD × LD = 40.3% and HD × LD = 42.2% (P < 0.05). The intermediate results of H × L crosses strongly indicates the additive nature of the stover quality traits nitrogen and in vitro digestibility and suggest the application of cyclic breeding methods for increasing stover nitrogen content and in vitro digestibility in pearl millet. Éva B. Ábrahám, Nóra ri, Sándor Szabó, László Romhány, Lajos Blaskó, György Zsigrai (Hungary) Quality of Grain of Different Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) Varieties ABSTRACT Short Communication: The quality of the grain of 5 millet varieties was examined during our research work. There were 3 varieties with white coloured grain and 2 ones with red coloured grain among the tested 5 varieties. Millet grains were husked with a laboratory rice mill, than we milled them. We determined the total scavenger capacity, the total phenolic content and different mineral element (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn) contents of whole and dehulled millet grains. The tannin content was detectable only in the bran therefore we cannot take this parameter into account during the data analyses. The quality differences of the tested millet varieties were characterized. The total phenolic content of red coloured whole millet grains was significantly higher compared to that of light coloured millet grains, but there was not significant difference between the dehulled millet grains of different cultivars. The dehulling process resulted in a significant decrease in the Fe- and Mn-contents of each variety. SPECIAL ISSUE: Vegetable science and biotechnology in Turkey. Guest Editor: Dr. Ahmet BALKAYA (Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ondokuz, Samsun, Turkey), 2012 Ahmet Balkaya, Onur Karaaaç (Turkey) General Status of Leguminous Vegetable Genetic Resources in Turkey ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: The legume family is of great significance because so many species are used throughout the world as sources of food and medicine. Turkey is described as a microcenter for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) species. Wild, weedy and cultivated forms of Pisum are found in Turkey where the primary and secondary gene centres of origin overlap. The national collection of Leguminosae species at National Gene Bank of Turkey (AARI) consist of many accessions based on collection-related activities which systematically started since the early 1960s: 79.2% of these sources are beans (P. vulgaris L.), 12.4% is faba bean (V. faba L.) 5.8% is pea (Pisum sativum L.) and 2.6% is cowpea (V. unguiculata). In this review, the number of leguminous vegetable accessions of Turkish origin at different seed gene banks around the world is provided. The aim of this review is to outline some of the legume vegetable genetic resources of Turkey, their distribution, collection and characterization, and to describe cultivar breeding programmes.

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Seral Yucel, Mehmet Kececi, Melike Yurtmen, Raziye C. Yildiz, Adem Ozarslandan, Canan Can (Turkey) Integrated Pest Management of Protected Vegetable Cultivation in Turkey ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Protected vegetable cultivation is located mainly in the Aegean and Mediterranean regions having a 93% share within the total greenhouse area in Turkey. Among the major vegetable crops of the regions, tomato, pepper, eggplant and cucumber are the most preferred since they give farmers high income. Diseases and pests are the prime items restricting production in quality and quantity under protected conditions. Integrated pest management (IPM) programmes were initiated under protected cultivation areas such as Antalya, Mersin, Izmir and Mugla provinces in the 1990s, which aimed to adopt a reduced number of pesticide applications. Further activities were performed through field days and broadcasting services as well. Farmers were encouraged to reduce outcome costs and apply environmentally friendly practices including pesticides. The use of solarization practices dates backs to the 1980s in Turkey. It was first introduced to farmers by demonstration projects during 2000-2007 under protected conditions of the Mediterranean region. The use of natural enemies against pests on various crops and pesticides with low side effects to useful insect fauna were also examined. Farmers were trained about IPM applications by conducting field days. To extend IPM practices for the control of pests and diseases under protected vegetable cultivation areas, studies are still in progress in Turkey. Hale Gunacti, Ali Erkilic, Hulya Ozgonen (Turkey) Status of Potato Wart Disease (Synchytrium endobioticum) in Turkey and Control Methods ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is one of the most important global food sources and Turkey is one of the major seed and table potato-producing countries. There are many important pests and diseases preventing the production of potatoes. Potato wart disease caused by Synchytrium endobioticum was recently considered to be the most destructive fungal disease of potato. Typical symptoms of the disease occurring on tubers are cauliflower-like warts or tumours of different size. The disease can cause symptoms on the underground parts of potato plants including the crown, stolons and tubers, but not roots. Solanum tuberosum and other species of Solanum are the primary hosts of the disease. The disease prefers cool climates and is known to exist in 43 countries. Losses due to the disease range between 50 and 100% worldwide. Contaminated potato-growing areas ban seed potatoes because of the disease and there is zero tolerance in production. Recently, the disease has been well managed by strict quarantine measures and resistant varieties. However, it has still causing serious losses due to the existence of different races in different locations. In addition, some cultural methods are important to prevent the dispersal of this disease and, to date, there is no effective chemical application program against it. Despite control methods, the disease still remains economically significant. In this review, some informations about potato wart disease, including general characteristics of the disease, signs and symptoms, status in Turkey, epidemiology and disease management, are presented. Zübeyir Devran (Turkey) Molecular Studies on Root-Knot Nematodes in Protected Cultivations of Turkey ABSTRACT Invited Mini-Review: Turkey is one of the most important agricultural producers in the world. Protected vegetables are widely cultivated in the different regions of Turkey due to its climatic condition. Root-knot nematodes (RKN) cause considerable yield losses in the protected vegetable growing locations of Turkey. They infect plant roots, causing the recession on plant growth by development of root-knot galls draining the plant's photosynthate and nutrients. While infected young plants may be lethal, grown plants mainly cause greater yield losses. Correspondingly, the infection by nematodes leads secondary infection resulting soil borne pathogens. Therefore, they cause considerable yield losses depending conditions occurring in fields of intensively protected cultivations. The purpose of this review is to address identification and investigation of genetic variation of the root-knot nematodes using molecular methods, and explanation of breeding programs currently carrying out for them on tomato in Turkey. Fatih Seyis (Turkey) Towards a Canola Quality Resynthesized Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.): B. oleracea Genotypes as a Basic Resource ABSTRACT

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Invited Mini-Review: Brassica oleracea is a well known species of the Brassica genus. With the other Brassica species, namely B. rapa, B. nigra, B. juncea, B. carinata and B. napus, it forms the so called U triangle. Genotypes derived from several locally distributed members of the genus Brassica have become one of the most important vegetable oil resources worldwide because of substantial progress in breeding and cultivation practices. Efforts to develop low erucic character in several Brassica species led to the discovery of low-erucic acid mutants in the species Brassica rapa (AA), B. napus (AACC) and Brassica juncea (AABB). In amphidiploid B. carinata (BBCC) low erucic acid mutants were not known up to the 1990's. Using different strategies low erucic acid forms were successfully selected in the subsequent years. Up to now low erucic acid forms of B. nigra (BB) have not been cited in the literature. B. oleracea genotypes displaying low erucic acid were discovered at the end of the 1990's. These genotypes were used to develop 0-quality resynthesized rapeseed forms via interspecific crosses with different quality B. rapa forms. The diploid cabbages, one of the progenitors of rapeseed (B. napus), are highly useful as basic breeding material of Brassica napus. With this respect, the low erucic acid cabbage genotypes with their potential use in Brassica breeding and further use will be discussed in this review. Haluk Çalar Kaymak, Mesude Figen Dönmez, Ramazan Çakmakçi (Turkey) N2-fixing Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria: Potential to Increase Yield, Growth and Element Contents of Mentha piperita L. Leaves ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: During 2009 and 2010, plant growth promoting effects of N2-fixing rhizobacteria Pseudomonas putida biotype B C3/101 and Paenibacillus polymyxa RC105, and urea (150 kg ha-1) were tested on yield, growth and element composition of leaves of mint (Mentha piperita L.) grown in the Erzurum province of Turkey. Fresh and dry yield, shoot length and diameter, dry matter content and element composition of leaves were determined in both the 1st and 2nd harvest in both experiment years. P. putida biotype B C3/101, P. polymyxa RC105 and urea treatments stimulated plant growth and resulted in significantly higher total fresh and dry yields than the control. Inoculation of the mint rhizosphere with P. polymyxa RC105 showed better performance than P. putida biotype B C3/101 on total fresh and dry yields and shoot length; moreover, yield obtained from bacteria inoculation was lower than urea treatment but more than control. Thus, the highest total fresh (3181.0 kg decare-1) and dry (622.7 kg decare-1) herbage yield, shoot length (58.9 cm) and diameter (3.2 mm) were obtained in urea application. However, the highest total fresh (1926.7 kg decare-1; in 2010) and dry (402 kg decare-1; in 2009) yield for bacteria strains were observed from P. polymyxa RC105 treatment. Additionally, dry and fresh yield increase in bacteria inoculations compared to control treatment ranged from 15% to 57% in both experiment years. Bacterial applications also increased in element contents of mint leaves as compared to control treatment. Inoculation with P. putida biotype B C3/101 and P. polymyxa RC105 particularly affect on increasing in B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Pb, S, Zn and N contents of leaves. Although the highest values for evaluated parameters were obtained from urea application, the results of this study suggest that P. putida biotype B C3/101 and P. polymyxa RC105 have the potential to increase the yield, growth and element composition of leaves of mint for environmental friendly mint production. Hulya Ozgonen, Ali Erkilic (Turkey) Reactions of 11 Potato Cultivars against Some Important Soil-Borne Pathogens ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: In this study, surveys and the reaction to diseases of some potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars (`Satina', `Vangogh', `Marabel', `Latona', `Marfona', `Vericus', `Jearla', `Cosmos', `Granola', `Hermes', `Agria') against important soil-borne pathogens were conducted. In surveys, the most isolated genus was Rhizoctonia sp., Fusarium sp., Phytophthora sp. and Pythium sp. The isolation ratio of each genus varied between locations. Eleven commercial potato cultivars were evaluated for their reactions to Rhizoctonia solani (stem cancer and black scurf), Fusarium solani (Fusarium wilt), Phytophthora erythroseptica (pink rot) and Pythium deliense (root rot). Cultivars exhibited different levels of susceptibility to the pathogens. The most susceptible cultivars were `Satina' and `Jearla'. `Satina', the most sensitive cultivar, had high disease severity ratios to R. solani, F. solani, P. erythroseptica and P. deliense (40, 100, 80 and 65%, respectively). `Hermes' and `Agria' were resistant to all diseases. Taner Yildiz, Y. Benal Yurtlu, Elçin Yeilolu (Turkey) Determination of Some Physical Properties of Some Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and Winter Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Genotype Seeds ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: In this study, some physical properties of pumpkin line (`14 BO 01') (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and

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winter squash variety seeds (`55 ÇA 15' and `Arican 97') (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) were evaluated at five different moisture content levels. Length, width and thickness increased linearly, as the moisture content increased from 8.62 to 25.49% dry weight basis (dwb) for `Arican 97', from 9.60 to 25.60% for `55 ÇA 15' and from 6.81 to 23.07% for `14 BO 01'. All the diameters of seeds were significantly related with the seed moisture contents (P < 0.05). The sphericity varied from 0.548 to 0.565 for `Arican 97', from 0.548 to 0.565 for `55 ÇA 15' and from 0.482 to 0.504 for `14 BO 01' as the moisture content increased. With the increase in moisture content, the surface area varied from 290.08 to 330.86 mm2 for `Arican 97', from 349.22 to 382.12 mm2 for `55 ÇA 15' and from 333.29 to 398.35 mm for `14 BO 01'. The bulk and true densities decreased from 411.86 to 366.03 kgm , from 390.35 to 347.37 kgm and from 375.54 to 316.55 kgm -3 for `Arican 97', `55 ÇA 15' and `14 BO 01', whereas the seed moisture content increased, respectively. The angle of repose increased from 17.11° to 22.87° for `Arican 97' as the moisture content increased. These values increased from 15.25° to 23.87° for `55 ÇA 15' and from 16.42° to 24.17° for `14 BO 01' with the increase in moisture content. Porosity values ranged between 41.30­43.20%, 45.08­47.36% and 45.47­50.49% with the increasing moisture contents for `Arican 97', `55 ÇA 15' and `14 BO 01', respectively. Mehtap Ozbakir, Onur Karaagac, Ahmet Balkaya (Turkey) Moisture Dependence of Some Physical and Morphological Properties of Chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) Seeds ABSTRACT Original Research Paper: Various physical properties of chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) seed were determined as a function of moisture content. The lengths of the major, medium and minor axes varied from 5.50 to 4.71, 4.88 to 4.03 and 4.28 to 3.53 mm, respectively, as the moisture content increased from 14.1 to 22.2% (dry basis). In the same moisture range, the arithmetic and geometric mean diameters increased from 4.09 to 4.89 and 4.06 to 4.86 mm, respectively. Studies on rewetted chard showed that the sphericity decreased from 1.152 to 1.135, whereas and projected area increased from 63.23 to 88.17 mm2, respectively, with increase in moisture content from 14.1 to 22.2% (dry basis). The bulk density and true density decreased from 277.78 to 242.72 kg/m3 and 740.74 to 689.66 kg/m3, whereas angle of repose increased from 23.96 to 26.57°, respectively. The static coefficients for friction of chard seeds were determined steel, plywood, wood, glass and galvanized sheet at various moisture contents. The static coefficient of friction increased on five structural surfaces namely, steel (0.300-0.422), galvanized sheet (0.393-0.530), plywood (0.499-0.712), wood (0.576-0.859) and glass (0.200-0.285) in the moisture range from 14.1 to 22.2% (dry basis). Cüneyt Civelek, Ahmet Balkaya (Turkey) The Nutrient Content of Some Wild Plant Species Used as Vegetables in Bafra Plain Located in the Black Sea Region of Turkey ABSTRACT Research Note: Some wild plant species have been used as vegetables in several parts of the world. These species are also used with respect of their aromatic and medicinal properties. Furthermore, these plants are evaluated as alternative food sources in periods where crop vegetables were not available. In this study, nineteen wild plant species, which are used as vegetable by local people in Bafra Plain, were collected and identified systematically. Dry matter, ash, protein, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese and zinc contents were analyzed in order to determine the nutritional values of consumed parts of these wild species. Significant differences were found between species regarding their nutritional values. In fresh plant samples; the highest dry matter content was determined in Trachystemon orientale (14.73 g/100 g) and the highest ash content in Chenopodium album L. (24.73 g/100 g-dry sample). Within the species the highest protein content was observed from Taraxacum officinale Weber (32.03 g/100 g-dry sample) and Coronopus squamatus Forssk. Aschers. (31.73 g/100 g). Species displaying the highest phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese and zinc contents were respectively Chenopodium album L. (0.49 g/100 g), Trachystemon orientale L. (2.90 g/100 g), Chenopodium album L. and Rumex acetocella L. (0.47 g/100 g), Malva silvestris L. (1.54 g/100 g), Coronopus squamatus Forssk. Asch. (583.40 mg/kg), Ocimum basilicum L. (39.86 mg/kg) and Asparagus acutifolius L. (44.13 mg/kg). The results of this study showed that most of these examined nutritional values of these species are higher than cultivated vegetables such as spinach, lettuce and parsley.

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