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Cities in Transition: Shrinking Cities

A sustainable network for leaders from Flint, Detroit, Cleveland, Youngstown, and Pittsburgh supported by the Surdna Foundation and the Kresge Foundation and organized by the German Marshall Fund of the United States

Stakeholder Meeting Detroit ­ October 8, 2010 Summary of Delegation

Mike Brown, Director, Flint Area Reinvestment Office Robert Brown, Director, Cleveland City Planning Commission Andrew Butcher, CEO and Founding Principal, GTECH, Pittsburgh Brad Dick, Deputy Director, Department of General Services, City of Detroit Debora Flora, Executive Director, Lien Forward Ohio Regional Council of Governments, Youngstown John Gallagher, Reporter, The Detroit Free Press Presley Gillespie, Executive Director, Youngstown Neighborhood Development Corporation Kim Graziani, Director of Neighborhood Initiatives, City of Pittsburgh Robert Jaquay, Associate Director, The Gund Foundation, Cleveland Delrico Loyd, President, Flint City Council Erika Poethig, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Bobbi Reichtell, Senior Vice President for Programs, Neighborhood Progress Inc., Cleveland Stewart Sarkozy-Banoczy, Senior Advisor, Office for International and Philanthropic Innovation, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Marja Winters, Deputy Director of Planning and Development, City of Detroit 1

Staff and Fellows Lavea Brachman, Executive Director, Greater Ohio Policy Center; Non-Resident Senior Fellow, The Brookings Institution; Cities in Transition Fellow, German Marshall Fund Alan Mallach, Nonresident Senior Fellow, The Brookings Institution Tamar Shapiro, Director of Comparative Domestic Policy, German Marshall Fund Julie Stern, Program Assistant, German Marshall Fund Julie Wagner, Transatlantic Fellow, The Brookings Institution

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DELEGATE BIOGRAPHIES

MICHAEL BROWN (Flint) Director Flint Area Reinvestment Office Michael K. Brown is a Flint native with more than 35 years of experience in public service in both government and the non-profit sector. He was born and raised in the City of Flint, where he attended and graduated from St. Michael's School. Michael attended Mott Community College and Saint Louis University earning a Bachelor's degree in history from Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan. He furthered his education with Master's Degree in International Relations from the University of Stockholm in 1974. Michael returned to Flint in 1974, where he and his wife, Linda, opened a child care center, (Mamas and Papas) which they operated for five years. He was elected to the Genesee County Board of Commissioners and spent four years in county government, chairing the Board in 1983 and 1984. He left the Board of County Commissioners to work for the Michigan Association of Counties, representing the public policy interests of all 83 counties in Michigan. Michael has also worked in Flint Mayor Matt Collier's administration as Director of Intergovernmental Relations; and Director of Community and Economic Development. Michael left local government in 1991 to work in the non-profit sector for 17 years. He presided over the Red Cross in Genesee and Lapeer Counties and was President of the United Way of Genesee County in Flint and the Capital Area United Way in Lansing, Michigan. In addition he has served as the Executive Vice President at the Genesee Regional Chamber of Commerce. Michael returned to local government to become acting Mayor of Flint in February 2009, upon the resignation of the serving Mayor. He held the position for six months until the election of a new mayor in August 2009. In September 2009, Brown established the Flint Area Reinvestment Office (FARO), to provide technical assistance to public, private, and nonprofit organizations. The primary focus of FARO is to seek grants and utilize federal and state funding for Flint area initiatives. FARO is supported with funds from Charles Stewart Mott Foundation. He and his wife Linda have been married 40 years. They are parents to five children, who were educated in the Flint Community Schools, and grandparents to two grandchildren.

ROBERT BROWN (Cleveland) Director Cleveland City Planning Commission Robert N. Brown is Director of the Cleveland City Planning Commission. He has over 30 years experience as a planning practitioner and has drafted Zoning Codes and Comprehensive Plans for several communities. Mr. Brown served as project manager for the Cleveland Civic Vision 2000 Citywide Plan and participated in development of the Connecting Cleveland 2020 Citywide Plan and the City's sign regulations. He received a Bachelor of 3

Arts degree in Urban Studies from Case Western Reserve University, and participated in the Masters degree in Urban Planning at Columbia University. Mr. Brown is responsible for administering and managing the City of Cleveland's neighborhood and comprehensive planning functions, updating and administration of the zoning code, and facilitating development projects. He is a member of the American Institute of Certified Planners and serves on the Board of the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency.

ANDREW BUTCHER (Pittsburgh) CEO/Founding Principal GTECH Andrew, is an accomplished social entrepreneur with expertise in the fields of community development, renewable energy, social innovation and environmental justice. A Colorado native, and the youngest of 5 older sisters, Andrew is a committed practitioner of creative social and environmental responsibility. He has installed solar panels in South America, deconstructed buildings in Colorado, and farmed Brownfields in Pittsburgh. Since co-founding GTECH in 2007, Andrew has been featured on The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, presented at the Brookings Institute, The National Vacant Properties Conference, The Imagining Solutions Conference and has been honored at the White House as an emerging leader in the field of social innovation. In 2008, Andrew was awarded a prestigious, international Echoing Green Fellowship for social entrepreneurs with business partner Chris Koch. GTECH is a 501(c)3 Social Enterprise based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. GTECH transitions environmental liabilities through creating community development opportunities in the green economy. By reclaiming urban vacancy and empowering communities through green strategies, GTECH helps to establish tangible value and opportunities in the most blighted and marginalized places. He sits on the Boards of GTECH, Nine Mile Run Watershed Association, and Manchester Bidwell's Green Tech Advisory Board. Andrew holds a Masters Degree in Public Policy and Management from the Heinz College at Carnegie Mellon University, and a Bachelors in Political Science from American University in Washington DC. He participated in the Coro Fellowship in Public Affairs in St. Louis, and holds certificates from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute and the National Outdoor Leadership Schools (NOLS).

BRAD DICK (Detroit) Deputy Director, General Services Department City of Detroit Brad Dick has served as the Deputy Director of the General Services Department since it was established in 2006 to centralize city services that were spread across different departments. In his position at GSD, Mr. Dick manages the city's vacant lot management, vehicle fleet, forestry program. In the past four years, Mr. Dick has overseen the redevelopment of the city's forestry operation, including city-wide planting of new 4

trees for the first time in 17 years (4000 trees); increased savings and revenue by over $1.5 million dollars by streamlining procurement processes; and established close relationships with over 30 neighborhood groups to better understand their needs - providing a direct link with communities to city government by implementing the concept that the citizen is the ultimate customer. Prior to joining GSD, Mr. Dick was the general manager of operation as TechCentral LLC, where he Manage the daily operations of 20 direct employees on the deployment of 2,800 contract service personnel for Delphi Corporation and Blue Cross Blue Shield of South Carolina. He is a member of the Southwest Detroit Business Enterprise Development Board and the East English Village Board, as well as the Phi Sigma Kappa Social Fraternity Board of Directors. Mr. Dick served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Tanzania and worked for three years as a recruiter in the Detroit Peace Corps Office. He holds a B.S. in journalism from Ball State University.

DEBORA FLORA (Ohio) Executive Director Lien Forward Ohio Regional Council of Governments Debora Flora has been affiliated with Lien Forward Ohio Regional Council of Governments since the office opened in August 2006. She was selected as executive director in April 2007 and has managed the agency through a period of significant growth and expansion. Since filing its first tax lien foreclosures in August 2007, Lien Forward Ohio has transferred 427 abandoned properties in Mahoning County to new, responsible owners, with transfers of another 400 properties pending as of November 2010. She manages a staff of four full-time and four part-time employees and is responsible for grant writing, fundraising, policy development and marketing/public relations. In addition, Debora is a member of the Youngstown-Mahoning County Vacant Property Initiative steering committee; the Youngstown Neighborhood Development Corp. board of directors; and president of St. Brendan Parish Pastoral Council. Debora earned a Bachelor of Arts degree at Youngstown State University and, immediately after graduation, began a 17-year career as a reporter for the major daily newspaper in Youngstown. She continues to write as a freelance reporter for local publications. She and her husband, Mark, live on Youngstown's West Side with their son, Christopher, 5. Her stepson, Kevin, 31, is a senior customer service representative with Turning Technologies of Youngstown; and stepdaughter Corrin, 30, is a marine scientist in Cape Cod, Mass.

JOHN GALLAGHER (Detroit) Reporter Detroit Free Press John Gallagher is an author and veteran journalist with the Detroit Free Press, where he has been the lead writer o urban development issues for two decades, including creation and authorship of the newspaper's architecture column. His books include Reimagining Detroit: Opportunities for Redefining 5

an American City; Great Architecture of Michigan; and AIA Detroit: The American Institute of Architects Guide to Detroit Architecture. He is an honorary member of AIA Michigan and has received numerous awards for journalistic excellence. Mr. Gallagher has been a Davenport Fellow in Economic Journalism at the University of Missouri and a Bagehot Fellow in Economic Journalism at Columbia University. He holds a BA in history from DePaul University.

PRESLEY L. GILLESPIE (Youngstown) Executive Director Youngstown Neighborhood Development Corporation Presley L. Gillespie is Executive Director of the Youngstown Neighborhood Development Corporation. He is the Chief Executive Officer of the organization, reporting to the board of directors, and is responsible for the organization's consistent achievement of its mission and financial objectives. Mr. Gillespie comes to YNDC after a successful 18 year banking career, primarily focused on community development lending and community revitalization. Previously, Mr. Gillespie served as Vice President for KeyBank where he was responsible for identifying, structuring and closing community development/commercial real estate loans that ultimately led to the creation of affordable housing, economic development and job creation. Mr. Gillespie has structured over $60 million dollars in community development lending, including real estate developers, non-profit corporations, and corporate banking clients.

KIM GRAZIANI (Pittsburgh) Director of Neighborhood Initiatives Office of Mayor Luke Ravenstahl, City of Pittsburgh Kim Graziani serves as the Director of Neighborhood Initiatives for Mayor Luke Ravenstahl in the City of Pittsburgh. Focused on developing and implementing policy, programming and initiatives that bring about neighborhood revitalization, she has targeted innovative strategies for the productive re-use of tax delinquent and abandoned properties. In addition to leading a City-wide land recycling initiative, Ms. Graziani has been instrumental in the creation of Green Up Pittsburgh, a blight reduction program that has transformed hundreds of publicly-owned vacant lots into productive green spaces through community partnerships. Prior to her work with the City of Pittsburgh, Ms. Graziani spent several years working for community development corporations, foundations and social service agencies. Throughout her career, she prides herself in engaging and empowering individuals to be part of positive changes in their lives and their neighborhoods. Kim volunteers her time for several boards and commissions that also work towards the revitalization of Pittsburgh neighborhoods. Ms. Graziani received her Master's Degrees in Public Administration and Social Work from the University of Pittsburgh where she has served as an adjunct professor. Originally from the New York City metro area, Ms. Graziani is proud to call the Pittsburgh neighborhood of Lawrenceville her home.

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ROBERT JAQUAY (Cleveland) Assistant Director The George Gund Foundation Robert Jaquay has been Associate Director of the George Gund Foundation since 1996. Mr. Jaquay directs the Foundation's Economic and Community Development grantmaking, is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Foundation's finances, and serves as in-house counsel. With over $400 million in assets and approximately $20 million in annual grantmaking, the Gund Foundation is Ohio's largest private foundation. Jaquay is active in various philanthropic affinity groups. He currently serves as a co-chair of the PRI Makers Network, is a past chair of the Neighborhood Funders Group and is a member of the Foundation Financial Officers Group. He is also active in the Northeast Ohio community. Among his many activities, Jaquay serves as Vice President of the Fund for Our Economic Future, a philanthropic consortium working to improve the Northeast Ohio economy. He also co-chairs the Northeast Ohio Council of Regional Economic Policy Advisors which annually publishes a Dashboard of Economic Indicators. Prior to joining the Foundation, Jaquay spent over twenty years in government service. With the City of Cleveland, he served as Executive Assistant to Mayor George Voinovich, as an economic development officer and a city attorney. He also has held planning posts with the Cuyahoga County Planning Commission and the Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency, the region's metropolitan planning organization. During much of his local government career, Jaquay was an adjunct faculty member at Cleveland State University's Levin College of Urban Affairs. Before law school, he served as a staff member of the U.S. House of Representatives, Ways and Means Oversight Subcommittee. Robert Jaquay holds an MPA from Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, a JD from Cleveland State University and a BS in Business Administration from John Carroll University. He writes frequently on topics of housing, sustainable development and philanthropy in a wide array of professional and academic publications. He is a member of the National Book Critics Circle.

DELRICO LOYD Member Flint City Council

ERIKA POETHIG Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Erika Poethig is Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy Development in the Office of Policy Development and Research at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Poethig was most recently the Associate Director for Affordable Housing at the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation where focused on regional policy and practice, housing policy and research, and the Foundation's $150 million special initiative for the preservation of affordable rental housing. Ms. Poethig also served as Assistant Commissioner for Policy, Resource and Program Development at the City of Chicago's 7

Department of Housing, where she directed the department's city, state and federal policy agendas. Poethig oversaw a 14-person staff with responsibility for policy and research, program evaluation and program development. She developed the Mayor's campaign to prevent foreclosures and stabilize communities and city support for a state-issued tax credit for donations to not-for-profit organizations developing affordable housing. Previously, she was Associate Project Director of the Metropolis Project, which resulted in the creation of the Metropolis 2020 agenda for regional leadership around the major issues faced by the metropolitan Chicago area. Poethig was a Phi Beta Kappa from the College of Wooster, a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Vienna, and received her master's in Public Policy from the University of Chicago, with concentrated coursework in Urban Poverty and Inequality.

BOBBI REICHTELL (Cleveland) Senior Vice President for Programs Neighborhood Progress, Inc. Bobbi Reichtell is Senior Vice President for Programs at Neighborhood Progress, Inc (NPI), a local community development funding intermediary focused on neighborhood revitalization in Cleveland, Ohio. Ms. Reichtell manages a $2+ million grant-making program for strategic investments and capacity building work with community development corporations (CDCs) and is co-leading a CDC strategic restructuring process aimed at insuring a sustainable and efficient community development system for Cleveland. NPI is a leader in vacant property policy and systems reforms and neighborhood driven plans and pilot projects to reuse and revitalize vacant properties. She recently co-led a city-wide multi-agency planning initiative, "ReImagining A More Sustainable Cleveland", that developed recommendations on productive reuses of vacant land to rebuild neighborhood markets and enhance the city's ecological functions. NPI is collaborating with the City of Cleveland Community Development Department on the development of 50+ demonstration projects in sustainable land reuses including urban agriculture, storm water retention, and energy generation. She is a convener of the Cleveland-Youngstown-Pittsburgh Regional Network, an association of practitioners and policy makers working together to build capacity and knowledge in addressing the challenges of older industrial cities. Prior to this, she spent 20 years at Slavic Village Development where she developed market rate and affordable housing, parks, trails and transportation infrastructure projects, and supervised the organization's community organizing work.

STEWART SARKOZY-BANOCZY (HUD) Director, Philanthropic Research and Initiatives Office of International and Philanthropic Innovation, U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Devlopment Stewart Sarkozy-Banoczy is presently Senior Advisor to the Office for International and Philanthropic Innovation (IPI) at the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Prior to the joining HUD and IPI, Mr. Sarkozy-Banoczy was the vice president and COO for First Nations Oweesta Corporation (Oweesta), a national community development financial institution (CDFI), overseeing the development of the 8

Programs Division of the organization, including training, technical assistance, lending, grantmaking, research and advocacy. Before joining Oweesta, Mr. Sarkozy-Banoczy was the founding executive director of Four Bands Community Fund, Inc., an award winning Native CDFI on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation. Mr. Sarkozy-Banoczy was the first director of the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians' economic development department and the co-founder of the BSB Moscow office in Russia. He has also worked, lived and studied in Germany, Brussels, England, Mexico and the Philippines. Mr. Sarkozy-Banoczy was a delegate for the Rotary International Global Exchange Fellowship and awarded the Appel Prize for Entrepreneurial Vitality from the Price-Babson College Fellows Program. He sits on the board of directors for the Cheyenne River Youth Project (Running Strong for American Indian Youth), the Northern Shores Loan Fund, LaPointe Financial and USDA National Forest Service Rural Advisory Committee. He has authored and contributed to numerous community economic development reports and curriculum, recently co-authoring "Investing in the Double Bottom Line: Growing Financial Institutions in Native Communities", as part of Mobilizing Communities: Asset Building as a Community Development Strategy, Temple University Press, released in May, 2010. Mr. Sarkozy-Banoczy also sits on the international Alumni Network Board for the Thunderbird School of Global Management, where he received his MBA in International Management. He received a Bachelor of Arts with double majors in International Business Management and German, from Alma College.

MARJA WINTERS (Detroit) Deputy Director of Planning and Development City of Detroit On May 14, 2009, Mayor Dave Bing reappointed Marja M. Winters Deputy Director of the City of Detroit Planning and Development Department. In this capacity, she oversees the operations of nearly 200 employees who staff the department's six divisions: Financial and Resources Management, Housing Services, Neighborhood Support Services, Planning, Real Estate Development and the Office of Neighborhood Commercial Revitalization (ONCR). She is also a member of the Board of Directors of the Detroit Economic Development Corporation and Co-Director of The Detroit Works Project. Appointed Director of the Mayor's Office of Neighborhood Commercial Revitalization (ONCR) in March 2006, Winters worked with community development organizations, volunteers, entrepreneurs and local merchants to revitalize older neighborhood commercial districts in targeted areas and encouraged small business creation and growth throughout the City of Detroit. Before joining the City of Detroit, Wayne County Executive Robert A. Ficano appointed Winters as Department Executive for Wayne County Parks. While serving three years in this capacity, she worked on several Special Projects including leading the campaign to renew the Parks Millage, developed the framework for Wayne Reads! a comprehensive literacy program, and managed a collaboration to reduce violence and promote conflict resolution throughout Wayne County.

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A career public servant, Winters displays her commitment to the City of Detroit through her profession and her strong community involvement. Respected among her peers in the young professional community, Winters is a visible and vocal advocate for civil rights, community empowerment and civic engagement. She is 3rd Vice-President of the Detroit Branch NAACP Executive Committee, Chair of the Detroit Branch NAACP's Political Education Committee, Leadership Team Coordinator, Trustee and licensed Minister at Life Changers International Ministries. In January 2008, Winters was appointed by Governor Jennifer Granholm to serve a two-year term on the Michigan Judicial Tenure Commission. She has also been honored by Congresswoman Carolyn CheeksKilpatrick with the Outstanding Public Service Award. In 2005, Winters was honored by the Wayne County Commission during Women's History Month and has also received the University of Michigan African American Alumni Council's "Five Under Ten Award." Marja M. Winters is a current student of The Urban Ministry Institute, a graduate of the University of Michigan and holds a B.A. in Political Science and a Master of Urban Planning.

STAFF AND FELLOWS

LAVEA BRACHMAN Executive Director, Greater Ohio Policy Center Cities in Transition Fellow, German Marshall Fund Nonresident Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution Lavea Brachman is executive director and a founder of the Columbus-based Greater Ohio Policy Center, a think-tank and grassroots organization focusing on state policy reform around land use, economic redevelopment and smart growth issues. She is also a Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program in Washington, D.C. and has been the chief architect in Ohio of the "Restoring Prosperity to Ohio Initiative" which she manages and implements. In 2010, she was a coauthor of the Greater Ohio/Brookings Institution publication, Restoring Prosperity: Transforming Ohio's Communities for the Next Economy, which framed a state policy reform agenda to revitalize Ohio and also co-authored Ohio's Cities at a Turning Point: Finding a Way Forward" which characterizes Ohio's "shrinking" cities and outlines state policy recommendations. Through speeches, presentations and coalition-building around the state, she has been instrumental in promoting this non-partisan research, policy development, and coalition-building initiative aimed at reforming state policy to revitalize Ohio's cities and towns and reinvigorate the state's economic competitiveness. Lavea was appointed 2010-11 German Marshall Fund Fellow to advise and help spearhead GMF's Cities in Transition Initiative, launched to stimulate development of an American cities network and to draw lessons from the European "shrinking cities" experience, particularly for Ohio's similarly situated cities. Lavea also cofounded and directed ReBuild Ohio, the statewide vacant and abandoned property initiative. Before returning to Ohio, Lavea practiced environmental law in Washington, D.C., was a Visiting Fellow at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy in Cambridge, Massachusetts and a principal with a Cambridge, Massachusetts consulting firm advising Fortune 500 companies on brownfield redevelopment strategies. She also served in the Clinton Administration, where she worked at the Department of Energy (DOE) on redevelopment and community involvement strategies for decommissioned DOE sites. 10

As director of Ohio work for the Delta Institute, a Chicago-based non-profit organization, Lavea worked with local community leaders to promote local watershed, brownfield and community redevelopment projects and other sustainable development projects. Lavea has taught as an adjunct professor in the urban studies and planning programs at both the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and The Ohio State University and published articles on the topics of brownfields redevelopment, community redevelopment and neighborhood revitalization. Lavea received her bachelor's degree from Harvard College, her law degree from The University of Chicago Law School, and a master's in city planning from MIT.

ALAN MALLACH Nonresident Senior Fellow, Metropolitan Policy Program Brookings Institution Alan Mallach is a senior fellow at the Center for Community Progress, a non-resident senior fellow at the Metropolitan Policy Program of The Brookings Institution in Washington DC and a visiting scholar at the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. He has been engaged in housing, planning, and community and economic development as a public and private sector practitioner, advocate and scholar for over forty years. He has taught at Rutgers University, Pratt Institute, the New Jersey Institute of Technology and elsewhere, and is serving as a Brookings Scholar at the University of Nevada Las Vegas for the 2010-2011 academic year. His most recent book is A Decent Home: Planning, Building and Preserving Affordable Housing (2009) published by Planners Press, while a revised and expanded edition of his 2006 book Bringing Buildings Back: From Vacant Properties to Community Assets (2006), will appear in the fall of 2010. He is a member of the College of Fellows of the American Institute of Certified Planners, and received his B.A. degree from Yale University.

TAMAR SHAPIRO Director of Comparative Domestic Policy The German Marshall Fund of the United States Tamar Shapiro is the Director of Comparative Domestic Policy at the German Marshall Fund, where she leads GMF's urban and regional policy work, including the Transatlantic Cities Network and a new threeyear initiative on Cities in Transition in the U.S. and Europe. Prior to joining GMF, Tamar was the Director of the Smart Growth Leadership Institute and the Governors' Institute on Community Design at Smart Growth America. In this role, she advised state officials and developed high-level policy workshops for governors and their cabinet members on a range of topics related to transportation, housing, land use, economic development, and environmental protection. Before joining the Smart Growth Leadership Institute, Tamar Shapiro worked as an attorney at Klein Hornig, LLP, a law firm specialized in affordable housing development, where she represented public housing authorities as well as developers in complex, mixed-finance affordable housing development deals. Tamar received a McCloy Fellowship in Environmental Affairs to conduct a 2010 research project on cities in transition and vacant property policies in former East Germany. In 1999-2000, she was a Robert 11

Bosch Foundation Fellow in Berlin, where she worked at the Berlin Administration on Urban Planning and Environment as well as the German Institute for Urban Affairs.

JULIE STERN Program Assistant, Comparative Domestic Policy The German Marshall Fund of the United States Julie Stern joined GMF's Comparative Domestic Policy team in 2008. Her role at GMF includes managing programming and content for the Transatlantic Cities Network with a focus on network engagement and communication strategy. Ms. Stern has also worked on projects in collaboration with GMF's Climate and Energy team focused on providing incentives for and removing barriers to green growth. Her interest in comparative urban policy stems from two college internship experiences with the city governments of San Francisco and Berlin, respectively. Ms. Stern holds a B.A. from Stanford University in History and Urban Studies.

JULIE WAGNER Transatlantic Fellow, Metropolitan Policy Program Brookings Institution

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