Read ORAL PRESENTATION ABSTRACTS text version

Press Release.............................................................................................................................................i-ii

Organizing Committee..............................................................................................................................iii

Oral Presentation List of Authors........................................................................................................iv-ix

Poster Presentation List of Authors.....................................................................................................x-xi

Oral Presentation Abstracts..............................................................................................................1-129

Poster Presentation Abstracts......................................................................................................131-161

Press Release

Graduate students display diverse real-life research at conference

WATERLOO, Ont. (Wednesday, April 21, 2010) - University of Waterloo graduate students will present their diverse scholarly findings to the public next week at the largest research conference of its kind in Canada. At the 10th annual Sharing Discovery graduate student research conference, close to 350 master's and doctoral students will share their research through oral and poster presentations each day next week. The event will also feature several guest speakers, including a Canadian astronaut. "The conference is important because it showcases the diversity of the work that the new generation of researchers are pursuing," said Sue Horton, associate provost, graduate studies. "The public are welcome to come and hear talks from young scholars at the frontiers of their disciplines, whose work will potentially change society and technology in the future." Presentation topics range from diet and obesity to math anxiety, from robot manipulators to BlackBerry users and from women's rights in the government to 3D computer landscape visualizations. All sessions will be held in the William G. Davis Computer Research Centre, starting at 9 a.m each day next week. The event is open to the public. For a program schedule as well as research paper abstracts, visit www.grad.uwaterloo.ca/conference. Astronaut Col. Chris Hadfield, who performed research at Waterloo, will deliver the keynote address entitled Living and Working in Space. His talk will be held Tuesday, April 27, from 5 to 6 p.m. in the Humanities Theatre in the J. G. Hagey Hall of the Humanities. Another guest speaker will be Waterloo graduate Parker Mitchell, co-founder and co-CEO of Engineers Without Borders. He will give a talk on Thursday, April 29 at 3 p.m. in the Davis Centre, room 1351. "The general public are encouraged to attend the two talks by Chris and Parker, to hear from two individuals who studied and researched at Waterloo, and who have gone beyond borders into space and internationally," Horton said. Other feature speakers include: David Harvey, chief member services officer, Alzheimer Society of Ontario; Gordon Willmot, Munich Re Chair in Insurance, department of statistics and actuarial science, University of Waterloo; Dan-Eric i

Nilsson, The Lund Vision Group, department of cell and organism biology, Lund University; and Dr. Gerry Wright, director, Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, McMaster University. About Waterloo The University of Waterloo, located at the heart of Canada's Technology Triangle, is one of Canada's leading comprehensive universities. Waterloo is home to 30,000 full- and part-time undergraduate and graduate students who are dedicated to making the future better and brighter. Waterloo, known for the largest postsecondary co-operative education program in the world, supports enterprising partnerships in learning, research and discovery. For more information about Waterloo, visit www.uwaterloo.ca.

ii

CHAIR Sue Horton ­ Provost, Graduate Studies CONFERENCE FACILITOR Alex Penlidis ­ Faculty, Chemical Engineering CONFERENCE ORGANIZER Marta Bailey ­ Communication Manager, Graduate Studies Office CONFERENCE ASSISTANT Michelle Fluit ­ Graduate Studies Office FACULTY Trevor Charles ­ SCI, Biology GRADUATE STUDENT MEMBERS Tara Armin ­ ENG, Systems Design Engineering Josh Armstrong ­ AHS, Aging, Health & Well-Being Ann Balasubramaniam ­ SCI, Biology Jillian Banfield ­ ARTS, Psychology Shannon Freeman ­ AHS, Health Studies & Gerontology Sospeter Gatobu ­ AHS, Health Studies & Gerontology Kate Hano ­ENV, Geography & Environmental Management Susan Kaii ­ AHS, Health Studies & Gerontology Krista Mathias ­ AHS, Health Studies & Gerontology Andrew Roberston ­ AHS, Aging, Health & Well-Being Trefford Simpson ­ SCI, School of Optometry Priya Sreenivasan ­ SCI, School of Optometry Ray Zhou ­ GSA, VP Student Affairs

iii

Carmen Balian ................................ 11

Oral Presentation Abstracts List of Authors

A Naila Abdulla.................................... 1 Sasan Adibi ...................................... 2 Hossein Ahari ................................... 2 Balsam Alabdulkader ....................... 3 Hamidreza Alemohammad .............. 3 Babak Alipanahi Ramandi ................ 4 Fahad Almoqbel ............................... 4 Noha Alsayed ................................... 5 Majid Altamimi ................................ 6 Mohamad Alwan.............................. 6 Brendan Ames ................................. 7 Afrooz Aryan .................................... 8 Kamelia Atefi Monfared ................... 8 Hussein Attia.................................... 9 Jonathan Aycan................................ 9 B Nasim Bakhshi Zadeh ......................10

iv

Andrea Bartram ............................. 11 Subam Basuthkar Sundar Rao ........ 12 Andrew Bauer ................................ 13 Leandro Becker .............................. 13 Guoshu Bin..................................... 14 Jennifer Boyd ................................. 14 Johny Bozdarov .............................. 15 Melissa Bunn.................................. 15 C Etana Cain ...................................... 16 Rachel Campbell ............................ 17 Cigsar Candemir ............................. 17 Wen Cao ........................................ 18 Corrine Cash................................... 18 Neil Cavan ...................................... 19 Andrew Chater ............................... 19 Bei Chen ......................................... 20 Hao Chen ....................................... 20 Lin Chen ......................................... 21 Lu Cheng ........................................ 21

Youngjik (Vince) Choi ......................22 Tanya Christidis ...............................23 Daniel Cira ......................................23 Jianfa Cong......................................24 Erasmus Cudjoe ..............................24 D Chad Daley ......................................25 Prajna Dash .....................................25 Bonnie De Baets..............................26 Shankar Dhanushkodi .....................27 Neha Dhar.......................................27 Matt Dil ...........................................28 Shannon Dorn .................................28 Tristan Downe-Dewdney ................29 John Dunn .......................................29 Anne Dyer-Witheford .....................30 E Ali Emamian ....................................30 Mohammad Eram ...........................31 F Ahmed Farahat ...............................31

v

Charles Farkas ................................ 32 Amir Fazeli ..................................... 33 Robert Fraser ................................. 33 G Mehrdad Gangeh ........................... 34 Anika Ganness................................ 35 Arlene Garrick ................................ 35 Sospeter Gatobu ............................ 36 Reno Genest .................................. 36 Steve George ................................. 37 Seyed Ghasem Razavipour ............. 38 Travis Gliedt ................................... 38 Samantha Goodman ...................... 39 Will Gornall .................................... 39 Mark Groulx ................................... 40 Jola Gurska ..................................... 41 Myung Gwang Kim ......................... 41 H Rebecca Hader ............................... 42 Noman Hai ..................................... 42 Derrick Hambly .............................. 43

Yougun Han ....................................43 Francis Hane ...................................44 Michele Hang ..................................45 Katarzyna "Kate" Hano....................45 Shahram Hashemi Vaziri .................46 Vimy Henderson .............................46 Lynsi Henrickson .............................47 Erin Hobin .......................................48 Samantha Hodgins ..........................48 Christina E. Hoicka ..........................49 Jennifer Hood .................................50 Jim Huebner ....................................50 Lirije Hyseni & Amy Gray.................51 I Basil Ibrahim ...................................52 Stephen Inglis .................................52 Hadi Izadi ........................................53 J Mousa Jafari ...................................53 Richard Jang ....................................54 Min Ji ..............................................54

vi

Shaojun Ji ....................................... 55 Hyunggu Jung ................................. 55 K Susan Kaai ...................................... 56 Lisa Kadlec ..................................... 57 Ann Kallin ....................................... 57 Reza Karimi .................................... 57 Dhanaraja Kasinathan .................... 58 Kanwarjeet Kaur ............................ 58 Adam Keech ................................... 59 Ashley Kelly .................................... 59 Pooyan Khajehpour Tadavani......... 60 Saad Khan ...................................... 61 Shila Khanal.................................... 61 Mahmoud Khater ........................... 62 Marsha Kisilak ................................ 62 Laura Knap ..................................... 63 Jae Kyung Woo............................... 63 L Zhenning Li..................................... 64 Lien Lien ......................................... 64

Taoran Lin .......................................65 Jun Liu .............................................66 Michelle Liu.....................................66 Yungching Lo ...................................67 Holly Lorentz ...................................68 M Greg MacNeill .................................68 John Makeddah ..............................69 Erin Maloney...................................69 Erin Mandel ....................................70 Grace Martin...................................70 Edgar Mateos-Santillan ...................71 Krista Mathias .................................71 Catherine McAllister .......................72 Elliott McMillan...............................72 Zhongxian Men ...............................73 Wendy Michaud..............................73 Akshaya Mishra...............................74 Andrew Mitchell .............................75 Saman Mohammadi ........................75 Tara Moore .....................................76

vii

Brad Moores .................................. 76 Ignace Moya .................................. 77 Alyssa Murdoch ............................. 78 N Daniel Nadolny............................... 78 Nafiseh Nafissi ............................... 79 Lisa Nagy ........................................ 79 Meyyappan Narayanan .................. 80 Oi Kei Ng ........................................ 80 Shilei Niu ........................................ 81 Jennifer Northmore ....................... 81 O Earl Oliver ...................................... 82 Shane ONeill .................................. 82 Beatrice Orchard ............................ 83 Cesar Ortiz-Guerrero...................... 83 Lana Ozen ...................................... 84 Tedy Ozersky .................................. 84 P Rajesh Palit .................................... 85 Kadambini Pandey ......................... 86

Jennifer Peer ...................................86 Mehrdad Pirnia ...............................87 Homeyra Pourmohammadali ..........87 Mohammad Pournazeri ..................88 Michael Pyne ..................................89 Alex Pytel ........................................89 R Zara Rafferty ...................................90 Sayeh Rajabi....................................91 Mahalakshmi Ramamurthy .............91 Ashley Rammeloo ...........................92 Negar Rasti .....................................93 Paula Reynolds................................93 Kevin Robinson ...............................94 Jonathan Rodriguez ........................95 S Mohamed Salah Abdel Rahman ......95 Sama Samir .....................................96 Stephanie Schaefer .........................97 Nour Schoueri .................................97 Adriano Senatore ............................98

viii

Taryn Sendzik ................................. 99 Amir-Hossein Shabani .................... 99 Yaser Shanjani .............................. 100 Katie Sharp................................... 100 Katlyn Sheldon ............................. 101 Ted Sherk ..................................... 102 Tianxiang Shi ................................ 102 Daryoush Shiri .............................. 102 Ajay Singh .................................... 103 Shivani Singh ................................ 103 Jaspal Singh Shah ......................... 104 Craig Sloss .................................... 105 Neal A. Smithwick ........................ 106 Sal Spitale .................................... 106 Kammy Sra ................................... 107 Vidhyapriya Sreenivasan .............. 107 Peter Stechlinski .......................... 108 Luke Stewart ................................ 109 Danielle Stock .............................. 109 Claus Strommer ........................... 110 David (YeongHo) Suh ................... 110

Karan Sukhija ................................111 Joseph Sun de la Cruz....................112 T Cynthia Tang .................................112 Alisa Tazhitdinova .........................113 Jordan Thompson .........................113 Justine Brooke Toscan Manderson114 Shu Tong (Stephen) Tse ................114 V Renata Valaitis ..............................115 Kevin van Doorn............................115 Vivienne Vance .............................116 Mehrdad Varedi ............................116 Krisztian Vas..................................117 Diogenes Vedoy ............................118 Rodrigo Villar ................................118 Mihaela Vlasea..............................119 W Ishari Waduwara ...........................119 Ishari Waduwara ...........................120 Shuang Wang ................................120

ix

Jennifer Wilkes-Thiel .................... 121 Alexander Wong .......................... 121 Sanders Wong .............................. 122 Alexander Wright ......................... 122 X Xiaoqin Xiong ............................... 123 Y Luke Yaraskavitch......................... 124 Fujisawa Yosuke ........................... 124 Fanny Yuen .................................. 124 Z Ada Zacaj ..................................... 125 Hamzeh Zawawy .......................... 126 Bob Zhang .................................... 126 Hongtao Zhang............................. 127 Yanqiao Zhang ............................. 127 Cui Zhenyu ................................... 128 Rui Zhou ....................................... 128 Lei Zhu ......................................... 128 Andrew Zwart .............................. 129

Poster Presentation List of Authors

A Ommani Abbas .............................131 Andrew Achkar .............................131 Lassalle Amandine ........................132 Osama Amin .................................133 Sarah Anderson ............................133 Carla Arasanz ................................134 Premji Azra ...................................134 B Galen Bourget-Fogarty ..................135 C Aditya Chattopadhyay...................135 Pylin Chuapetcharasopon .............136 D Nava Dabby...................................136 Ross Diener ...................................137 E Ahmed Elmogy ..............................137 Zaidan Esmat ................................138

x

Omid Fotuhi ................................. 138 F Shannon Freeman ........................ 139 Justin Friesen ............................... 139 H Amirhossein (Amir) Hajimiragha .. 140 Ryan Henry .................................. 140 K Andrew Kasurak ........................... 141 Niousha Kazemi ........................... 142 Lee-Anne Khuu ............................. 142 Yeongoon Kim .............................. 143 Kang Kyung-Kuk(Kevin) ................ 143 L G. Daniel Langohr......................... 144 Zichao Li ....................................... 144 Lien Lien ....................................... 145 M Laura Mader ................................ 146 Brooke Manderson, Justine Toscan ..................................................... 146 Jordi McLeod................................ 147

Erika Murray .................................148 N Eva Neufeld...................................148 Patrick K. Nicholson ......................149 Mehrdad Nojoumian.....................149 O Lana Ozen .....................................150 P Jeff Paulitzki ..................................151 Jeanette Prorok ............................151 R Sara Rahmani ................................152 Zhaoxia Ren ..................................152 Mehdipanah Roshanak .................153 S Zhaleh Semnani-Azad ...................153 Mohamed Shams El-Dein ..............154 Punya Singh ..................................154 Stanislav Sokolenko ......................155 Uthaiwan Suttisansanee ...............155 T

xi

Gelo Noel Tabia............................ 156 Herbert Tang ................................ 156 Shi Tianxiang ................................ 157 Shahrzad Towfighian .................... 157 V Mary Vu ....................................... 158 W Tyler Walker................................. 158 Amanda Wudarzewski ................. 159 Z Shiva Zaboli .................................. 159 Asif Zaidi ...................................... 160 Christopher Zehr .......................... 160 Yanqiao Zhang ............................. 161 Angela Ziluk.................................. 161

ORAL PRESENTATION ABSTRACTS

Naila Abdulla Recreation and Leisure Studies "International graduate student experiences at a medium sized Ontario University" International graduate student experiences at a medium sized Ontario University This study examines the theoretical and practical underpinnings of focus groups as a research method to understand the experiences of international graduates at a medium size university in Ontario. The quality of research is based on the nature of questions asked and the quality of group discussions that ensue. Focus groups emphasize the element of group discussions and draw on three fundamental strengths providing for exploration and discovery, context and depth and interpretation (Morgan, 1998). With an increasing enrolment of graduate students at universities in Ontario (Laucius & Barber, 2009), it is surprising that so little empirical research has been conducted on the topic, especially from the perspectives of the international students. Using a qualitative method of inquiry of focus groups, this study explored international graduate experiences while at university and identified themes and patterns that emerged from focus group discussions. A number of questions were identified: 1. What are the experiences of international graduates during their transition times at a medium sized Ontario University? 2. What is the graduate student awareness of assistance programs for the settlement process? 3. What assistance programs have the graduate students accessed? Two groups of a total of 12 participants were conducted ranging from 90 to 100 minutes at a budget of $80.00. The introduction of the topic was met with ground rules for participation and the semi-structured questions and discussions that ensued were tape recorded. The first group was conducted like clockwork and the time allocations were closely respected because the participants were generally academic focused. However, the group dynamics for the second group were entirely different because the question on experiences at university stimulated wide ranging discussions and much interaction among the participants. A free-flow of discussions lead to a strong participant engagement in discussions and provided a clue that this subject was not only topical but that this session was almost a catharsis for the pain they endure. Focus group discussions demonstrated the difficulties faced by international graduates during their period of transition. These problems have adversely impacted their academic performance and compromised their ability to access scholarships and funding accorded to graduates with good grades. Any programs that can assist this student body to overcome the many problems they have been encountering would not only help their academic performance and raise the University's overall grade average but it would attract more international graduates to this university. The discussions suggest that this transition period is even more challenging for international graduates from non English speaking backgrounds (NESB). From

1

the discussions it was apparent that one of the most problematic hurdles in the adjustment of (NESB) graduates is not only poor written and verbal skills but it could also be cultural. Sasan Adibi Electrical and Computer Engineering "An Application Layer Non-Repudiation Wireless System: A Cross-Layer, Traffic Classified Approach" The aim of this thesis is to consider the implementation and analysis of a non-repudiation system, including analytical and experimental results. The security aspect of this thesis incorporates Suite-B Cryptographic algorithms at various layers. National Security Agency (NSA) initiated three efforts to address widespread cryptographic interoperability and security requirements issues, one of such efforts is; Cryptographic Interoperability Strategy (CIS) and Suite-B algorithms are one of CIS's core to protect both classified and unclassified information. An end-to-end security mechanism may include the deployment of Suite-B cryptographic algorithms, including: The Elliptic-Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) for the key agreement, the Advanced Encryption Standard - Galois/Counter Mode (AES-GCM) for the encryptionauthentication, the Elliptic-Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) for the digital signatures, and the Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) for the message digest and integrity schemes. A key aspect of Suite-B is the deployment of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). The non-repudiation aspect of this thesis is based on the Suite-B's digital signature scheme; ECDSA. The digital signature and the hashing function cover the entire multimedia data (i.e., text, video, and voice) and the challenge is to offer such extensive security treatment, while guaranteeing certain Quality of Service settings. These settings include: minimum round trip delay, maximum overhead, and minimum bandwidth allocation. Voice over IP (VoIP) systems require a maximum 150 msec one-way delay to work properly, therefore our system has to conform to this limitation. Hossein Ahari Mechanical and Mechatronics "Optimizing the Manufacturing of Laminated Dies" Layered manufacturing where parts are manufactured layer by layer is one of the most promising technologies to reduce production costs and at the same time make tools and dies with complex shapes. Finding the best set of layer thicknesses in order to have a minimum volume difference between the CAD model and manufactured part has been studied in the field of rapid prototyping; however, no research has been conducted in the field of rapid tooling where the tool manufacturing is limited by the need to use only those sets of thicknesses that are commercially available. Consequently, the objective of this proposal is finding an optimum

2

solution of an ideal set of thicknesses that must be included in the set of available thicknesses. In this research, the optimization of the slicing process, a very attractive research topic in the field of rapid tooling, is investigated. Then, for the first time in the field of rapid tooling, Genetic Algorithm is employed to solve this optimization problem. After the benefits of using G.A. as the optimization algorithm are established, some results that show convergence to the optimum solution are discussed. The optimum solution is in the form of an ideal set of thicknesses; this ideal set not only creates the minimum surface roughness of the final product, but also has the minimum number of slices which turns out to be the minimum manufacturing cost in the production process of slices. Balsam Alabdulkader Optometry "Comparing methods to determine reading glasses (additions) in children and young adults with low vision" Purpose; Reading is one of the most important activities in our daily life. It is our first step in education and a bridge to good job opportunities. Most people with visual impairment need some form of magnification to be able to read normal print size. Reading additions (high plus lenses) are the optimum method of prescribing magnification in most younger adults with visual impairment. This study will investigate whether three different methods to determine reading additions lead to significantly different powers and which method results in the best reading performance. Methods; Thirty seven participants aged 8 to 35 years with visual impairment will be recruited. Reading additions will be determined with a) an objective method using dynamic retinoscopy b) a subjective method based on the participant's response to lenses and c) an age-based formula. Reading performance for a range of font sizes will be measured for each reading addition. Results; Reading speed will be plotted against print size, and critical print size, maximum reading speed and word reading threshold will be determined. Preliminary results indicate that the subjective method gives higher reading additions and better reading performance than the others. Conclusion and significance; This is the first study to compare methods of determining reading additions and their impact on reading performance in young people with visual impairment. This work may lead to clinical guidelines for determining the best reading addition in this population. Hamidreza Alemohammad Mechanical Engineering (Certificate in University Teaching ­ CUT) "Active Learning Methods in Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Program" Active learning, or learning by doing, is a pedagogical technique beyond traditional lecturing to involve students in the learning process. Looking into the available literature on active learning, one can find a huge number of research articles discussing that active learning, which is

3

student-centered method of learning, is superior to the traditional method of teacher-centered lecturing in various aspects. The literature review of educational articles in the fields of engineering, especially Mechanical Engineering, shows that active and collaborative learning is an important topic in engineering education. Various articles can be found discussing the experimental results of implementing active learning methodologies in Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering courses. The literature survey shows that the implementation of active learning methods in undergraduate classrooms has been a primary research area in education since 1990's. However, with the advent of computers and information technology, pedagogical strategies for active learning have promoted significantly. This presentation is concerned with the review of the active learning methods employed in Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering courses. The review encompasses in-class activities and computerbased and laboratory-based active learning strategies. Preparation of university instructors for this method of teaching is also of primary importance; as a result, this presentation will discuss the ways to encourage college professors to switch from traditional lecturing to active learning methods. The presentation will contain recommendations to implement active learning strategies in the course of "Introduction to Microprocessors and Digital Logics" at the University of Waterloo, for which the author has served as a teaching assistant. Babak Alipanahi Ramandi Computer Science "Fast Manifold Unfolding by Euclidean Distance Matrix Completion" The problem of nonlinear dimensionality reduction is most often formulated as an instance of semi-definite programming (SDP). The effectiveness of the SDP-based algorithms is limited by the computational complexity of SDP solvers. We propose a novel SDP formulation for dimensionality reduction based on Euclidean distance matrix completion (EDMC), which leads to a stable, fast, and scalable algorithm. The key observation is that in manifold learning, the structure of a large chunk of the data can be preserved as a whole, instead of dividing it into very small neighborhoods. This observation leads to a new formulation that significantly reduces the size and the number of constraints of the SDP problem. Unlike existing large-scale variations of SDP-based methods, the algorithm is convex and is not prone to local minima or dependent on an initial value. We extend the framework of the proposed algorithm to suggest new formulations for some existing SDP-based algorithms in order to reduce their complexity. Fahad Almoqbel Optometry "Development of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in older children: sweep VEP and psychophysics"

4

Fahad M. Almoqbel, Elizabeth L. Irving, Susan J. Leat. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) represent two important visual functions. The purpose of this study was to determine if VA and CS become adult-like by 12 years of age by comparing the results obtained objectively with sweep visually evoked potentials (sVEP) and psychophysically. Furthermore, this study examines the possibility of applying the signal detection theory (SDT) on children to obtain psychophysical contrast thresholds that are minimally affected by the subject's criterion. VA and contrast thresholds were measured in 16 children (6-8-year-old), 16 children (9-12-yearold), and 16 adults. For sVEP measurements, spatial frequency was swept from 1-40 cpd to measure VA and contrast of sine-wave gratings (1 or 8 cpd) was swept from 0.33-30% to measure contrast thresholds. For psychophysical measurements, VA and contrast thresholds were measured using a temporal two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) staircase procedure. Contrast thresholds were also measured with a yes-no SDT procedure. A mixed ANOVA will be used to show if there are differences in thresholds between age groups and whether any differences exist for objective and subjective measures or both. The criteria of adults and children will also be directly compared. From the results thus far, it can be concluded that it is possible to apply SDT to measure CS in children, and this study is one of the few that have done so. The use of SDT together with an objective measure will give important insights into whether differences are due to physiological development of vision or behavioral differences between adults and children. Noha Alsayed Local Economic Development "The Model of the Economic Body within Ingenious Cities " The underlying economic structures of our societies are undergoing dramatic transformations. Knowledge has become the primary resource of our economies, as a result, the way we acquire it and use it have taken on a new significance. Today, we are witnessing the greatest economic transformation of our time, from what Adam Smith once described as the "Wealth of Nations" characterized by specialization and division of labor, to an era where economic development is described by "The Wealth of Cities" characterized by empowerment and collaboration of labor. In the present day, the majority of people live in cities, and the world is now composed of many cities and mega regions of various sizes, large ones like New York, Tokyo and London, fast growing ones like Shanghai and Bangalore, and highly innovative ones like Silicon Valley. Consequently, economic development within most countries rests upon the growth of its cities. In this research I will investigate the effect of five main pillars that represent a model on how to grow a creative city within an economy, and I will resemble the importance of such pillars to that of critical parts of a human body, presenting what I may call "The Theory of the Economic Body": 1.Knowledge (The Brain) 2.Education as an essential ingredient for skill building (The Bones) 3.Belongingness and Identity (The Lungs) 4.Leadership and Good Governance (The Liver) 5.Entrepreneurship as an essential ingredient for Trade (The Heart) The challenge now rests upon demonstrating the effect of such pillars on the development of cities and that without such pillars a nation would struggle to compete in the global market. Each pillar is in itself a

5

necessary but insufficient condition for economic growth, in order for a city to sustain its development it needs to invest on all five pillars together. The purpose of this research will be to determine the importance of cities in economic development, and to investigate the theory of the Economic Body and the significance of the five pillars of economic development in creating vibrant and well functioning communities. Majid Altamimi Electrical and Computer Engineering "MAC Protocol Design for Parallel Link Rendezvous in Ad Hoc Cognitive Radio Networks" The most significant challenge for next wireless generation is to work opportunistically on the spectrum without a fixed spectrum allocation. Cognitive Radio (CR) is the candidate technology to utilize spectrum white space, which requires the CR to change its operating channel as the white space moves. In a CR ad-hoc network, each node could tune to a different channel; as a result, it cannot communicate with other nodes. This different tuning is due to the difficulty of maintaining Common Control Channel (CCC) in opportunistic spectrum network, and keeping the nodes synchronized in ad-hoc network. The CR ad-hoc network requires a protocol to match tuning channels between ad-hoc nodes, namely, rendezvous channels. In this thesis, two distributed Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols are designed that provide proper rendezvous channel without CCC or synchronization. The Balanced Incomplete Block Design (BIBD) is used in both protocols to provide our protocols a method of rendezvous between CR ad-hoc nodes. In fact, the BIBD guarantees there is at least one common element between any two blocks. If the channels are assigned to the BIBD elements and the searching sequence to the BIBD block, there is a guarantee of a rendezvous at least in one channel for each searching sequence. The first protocol uses a single-BIBD sequence and a multi-channel sensing. Alternatively, the second protocol uses a multi-BIBD sequence and a single-channel sensing. The single-sequence protocol analysis is based on the discrete Markov Chain. At the same time, the sequence structure of the BIBD in a multi-sequence protocol is used to define the Maximum Time to Rendezvous (MTTR). The simulation results confirm that the protocols outperform other existing protocols with respect to Time to Rendezvous (TTR), channel utilization, and network throughput. In addition, both protocols fairly distribute the network load on channels, and share the channels fairly among network nodes. This thesis provides straight forward and efficiently distributed MAC protocols for the CR ad-hoc networks. Mohamad Alwan Applied Mathematics "Stability Results for Stochastic Impulsive Systems with Time Delay"

6

In this work we establish stability of stochastic impulsive systems with time delay (SID). Impulsive systems are a special class of hybrid systems in which the dynamics have behaviour undergoing abrupt changes in their states. The duration of these changes are often negligible when compared to the total duration of the process, so that they can be reasonably approximated as instantaneous changes of the states or as impulses. The evolutionary processes are then suitably modeled as impulsive differential equations (DEs). In numerous mathematical models of the real-world or man-made phenomena, we are led to dynamics involving some inherent randomness. Considering some randomness in a model leads to a more realistic random or stochastic systems. Ordinary DEs as a mathematical tool is fundamental in modeling many dynamics of physical processes. A drawback of these models is that the future state of a dynamical system depends only on present state, but not on the past. To obtain more realistic models, a part of the historical values of the state has to be considered leading us to delay DEs. In this work, we study stability in the Lyapunov sense. Particularly, we utilize Razumaikhin technique. We show that when impulses occur at fixed times and its total effect is bounded, it is guaranteed that the trivial solution of the SID is stable in pth-moment provided that the corresponding impulse-free system is stable in pth-moment. Moreover, under similar conditions on the impulses, it is uniformly asymptotically stable in pth-moment if the corresponding impulse-free system is uniformly asymptotically stable in the same probabilistic sense. Our approach, as we believe, is useful in the control theory and in establishing some further properties of the same systems such as boundedness of the solution. We also believe that one can establish the same qualitative notions for more general cases where impulses are not necessarily bounded and occur at variable times. Brendan Ames Combinatorics and Optimization "Convex Relaxations for the Clique, Biclique, and Clustering Problems" We consider the problems of finding the largest clique in a graph, finding the largest biclique in a bipartite graph, and finding the largest set of vertices comprised of k disjoint cliques, called a k-clique subgraph, of a graph. Our interest in these problems arises from applications in data mining. Each of these problems is a simple model problem for finding patterns hidden in an apparently unstructured data set. Unfortunately, each of these problems is NP-Hard. However, if the input contains a single large clique, biclique, or k-clique subgraph obscured by diversionary edges and nodes, this hidden structure can be recovered efficiently by solving a convex optimization problem. In this talk, we will discuss each model problem's applications to information retrieval and provide two analyses when our algorithm succeeds. In the first, the diversionary edges are placed by an adversary. In the second, they are placed at random.

7

Afrooz Aryan Civil and Environmental Engineering "Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Cold In-Place Recycling" Today, as resources become scarce and by-product materials are more available, recycling techniques for using materials in secondary applications are in demand. Because a large volume of material is required for highway construction, transportation agencies can benefit from using recovered material in their projects. With increasing fuel costs and concern for environmental aspects, pavement recycling has become an important design alternative when selecting rehabilitation strategies. Cold In-place Recycling (CIR) is one of the most successful recycling techniques. Advantages of Cold In-place Recycling can be categorized in three divisions: environmental benefits, economic benefits, and social benefits. In this paper, we address two categories of these advantages, namely, environmental benefits and economic benefits. We present a comprehensive life cycle analysis for CIR technique employed in a 50 year rehabilitation plan and for a traditional mill & overlay method as a benchmark. We consider pavement condition index (PCI) and international roughness index (IRI) as two criteria for the performance of pavement management systems. We model the PCI and IRI deterioration rates of the rehabilitated pavements based on extrapolation of data provided in an MTO (Ministry of Transportation of Ontario) study. We introduce "Green cost" as a new component of the life cycle analysis to jointly address the environmental and economic benefits of CIR method. The results show that the CIR method is more cost-effective than the traditional method in terms of total life cycle cost with/without Green cost. Moreover, the Green cost inclusion in life cycle analysis makes the superiority of the CIR method much stronger. Kamelia Atefi Monfared Civil Engineering "Monitoring Oil Reservoir Deformations by Measuring Ground Surface Movements" Surface deformations as a result of oil production, waste or water reinjection are measurable quantities that are observed as vertical displacements; horizontal displacements; and tilts (gradient of surface deformation). Being easy to monitor and sensitive to subsurface pressure changes, surface deformation data can be used to model subsurface deformations. This is referred to as solving for the inverse case. A numerical model in C++ based on the unidirectional expansion technique using equations from Okada's theory of dislocations (Okada,

8

1985) is developed in this study to solve for the inverse case. The inverse problem is ill-posed because the input is comprised of measured values that contain error. The regularization technique was applied to solve the ill-posed problem. A detailed analysis was done to determine the input data resulting in the best solution. Tilt measurements were found to be much better input than vertical displacement for modeling the inverse problem. Tilts result in a smaller root mean square error (RMSE) and thus a better resolution. Also adding only 0.55 % of the maximum value as error to the surface displacement data increased the RMSE by more than 13 times in the case studied. However, using tilt measurements as input, adding 20 % of the maximum surface tilt value as error increased the RMSE by 7 times, and remodelling the initial subsurface volumetric changes was still possible. A sensitivity analysis of the solution to the depth of the reservoir, observation area, geometry, and number of the benchmarks was also done in this study. Hussein Attia Electrical and Computer Engineering "Analytical Calculation and Measurements of the Far-Field of Planar Antennas with Metamaterial Superstrates" In this paper, the cavity model of a microstrip patch antenna in conjunction with the reciprocity theorem is used to develop a fast analytical solution for the radiation field of a microstrip patch antenna loaded with an engineered magnetic superstrate and to investigate the effect of the artificial superstrate on improving the gain and radiation pattern of the printed patch antenna. The broadside coupled split ring resonator (SRR) inclusions are used in the design of the engineered magnetic superstrate. The proposed antenna configuration has been designed, fabricated, and measured. Good agreement between the analytical solution, numerical simulations and measurements has been recorded. Jonathan Aycan Management Sciences "Inherent Persuasion: The Effects of Hedonic Tone on Individual Risk-taking" Existing research on decision-making clearly demonstrates that logically equivalent alternatives presented in divergent linguistic frames can lead to systematically different choice outcomes. Specifically, subjects demonstrate a tendency towards risk-averse behaviour when information is framed positively and risk-seeking behaviour when information is framed negatively. While the existence of framing effects is well-documented, many studies have led to inconsistent results, and minimal research has attempted to explain why. This research proposes that the hedonic characteristics of a decision scenario determine whether a framing effect will be observed; this hypothesis is tested by manipulating characteristics of decision problems obtained from existing literature to determine the underlying situations in which framing

9

effects are evident. Using a survey-based methodology, 884 subjects were asked to make choices in decision scenarios in which the hedonic tone of the focal object was systematically manipulated. The results demonstrate that when positive characteristics are emphasized, the usual framing effect is observed; that is, subjects demonstrate a preference for risk-averse behaviour in the positive frame and risk-seeking behaviour in the negative frame. Conversely, when negative characteristics are emphasized, participants fail to demonstrate the expected shift in risk-preference. Existing literature has not adequately explained why shifts in preference occur in some problems but not others. The results of this research demonstrate that preference shifts occur in framing problems only when the decision scenario emphasizes focal objects that are of positive hedonic tone; conversely, when focal objects are of negative hedonic tone, the risky-choice framing effect is not observed.

Nasim Bakhshi Zadeh Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering "Effect of Solution Heat Treatment on Age Hardening and Mechanical Behaviour of a Heat Treatable Aluminum Sheet" The precipitation-hardening behaviour during artificial aging of a fine-grained (FG) AA6xxx alloy was investigated. The as-received material was in an overaged state with a fine and uniform distribution of precipitates within the grains. To render precipitation hardening capability to the material, samples were solution heat treated. Solutionizing temperature was varied in order to either fully solutionize the pre-existing precipitates or achieve a partially-solutionized state with a relatively uniform distribution of large precipitates. To study the aging behavior, microhardness tests were conducted on samples which were solution-treated for 15 min either at 500 °C or 560 °C, quenched in cold water and then aged up to 17 hours at 180°C. The results showed that hardness increased with aging time until the peak-aged conditions were achieved in both partially and completely solutionized samples. The peak hardness values were attained after 2 and 7 hours aging for the partially solutionized and fully solutionized samples, respectively. Tensile tests were also conducted on selected aged samples. The results of tensile tests revealed that all combinations of solutionizing and aging treatments were effective in significantly improving the strength of the fine-grained AA6xxx sheet. However, samples which were solutionized at 560 °C had higher levels of yield strength for all aging conditions tested. More work is in progress to model the age hardening behaviour of this material as a function of precipitate distribution.

10

Carmen Balian Optometry "Structure-Function Relationship between Four Threshold Perimetry Tests and the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph in Patients with Glaucoma" Purpose: To evaluate the structure-function relationship between sectoral measures of rim area and corresponding sector measures of visual function. Methods: 57 patients with "glaucoma" have been recruited and tested in a 4 centre study of perimetry instruments (mean age = 59 years, range 18 to 82 years). Selection criteria for patients were (i) Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) Moorfields Regression Analysis (MRA) `Outside Normal Limits' (ONL); rim area >0.5mm2 and (ii) IOP >21 mmHg at referral. One eye of each subject was tested with Standard Automated Perimetry (SAP, 24-2 SITA standard), Frequency Doubling Technology Perimeter (FDT, 24-2 ZEST), Heidelberg Edge Perimeter (HEP) and the Moorfields Motion Displacement Test (MDT). Test order was randomized. Perimetry test locations were divided into 6 groups based on the disc sector classification of the HRT; only the 4 inferior and superior sectors were analyzed. Ordinal Scores of 0, 2, and 5 were assigned to the probability points p>5, p<5 and p<2, respectively; the mean of each sector was calculated. Pearson correlation coefficients (CC) were calculated for rim area versus mean probability score for each visual field test. Results: Moderate CCs were observed between rim area and corresponding visual field sectors for FDT, HEP and MDT, r=-0.60, 0.55, 0.39, respectively (p<0.05). SAP gave a weak CC of r=0.09. Conclusion: Patients with glaucoma showed a moderate correlation between FDT, HEP and MDT when each was compared with HRT rim area. Andrea Bartram Biology "Characterization of Soil Microbial Communities across a pH Gradient using Multi-million 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Datasets" Microbial communities contribute to biogeochemical processes and are characterized by high taxonomic and metabolic diversity. Despite their global importance, a lack of empirical knowledge has persisted due to lack of experimental approaches for measuring microbial diversity. As a large step towards overcoming the limits for assessing such highly complex communities, we have capitalized on the availability of a cloning-independent next generation sequencing platform (Illumina) to sequence a hypervariable region (V3 region) of the 16S rRNA gene. Large ribosomal sequence libraries were constructed using bacteria-specific primers in a

11

`one step' library construction process compatible with the Illumina sequencing platform. Fourteen composite soil samples (from 2006 and 2007) taken from across an artificially maintained pH gradient were used to construct 16S rRNA gene libraries of approximately 500,000 sequences each. The resulting taxonomic profiles show a shift in the proportion of specific bacterial groups seen between the lowest and highest pH soils. Rarefaction analysis (with a cut off of 97% similarity) revealed a larger degree of microbial diversity associated with soils at a higher pH relative to soils with a lower pH. This is consistent with previous studies suggesting a link between pH and microbial diversity. The Illumina 16S rRNA gene libraries generated here represent the largest sequence datasets generated per sample to date at a lower cost than was previously attainable with other sequencing technologies. This study sheds new light on the factors affecting microbial community composition and our novel sequencing approach will transform the way microbial communities are studied. Subam Basuthkar Sundar Rao Optometry "Differential thresholds of the central cornea in lens and non lens wearers." Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate corneal differential sensitivity to pneumatic mechanical stimulation of the cornea in lens and non lens wearers. Methods: The mechanical sensitivity of the central cornea was determined in 10 lens wearers and 10 non lens wearers using a pneumatic esthesiometer. The mechanical threshold of the cornea was first estimated using the method of limits. Once the threshold was obtained, a series of systematically increasing stimuli were presented, with the first stimuli being 25% less than threshold. The subjects were asked to compare the intensity of each stimulus with the preceding one and report if any difference in intensity was detectible. The intensities at which the subjects perceived an increased intensity from the previous was recorded. The difference threshold (DL) was the differences between the stimulus intensities at which an increase was perceived and 5 DLs were measured for each subject. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to compare the DLs in the lens and non lens wearing groups. Results: The functions relating DL to stimulus intensity were slightly different between the two groups. Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant interaction (p=0.04) between the groups, with the first DL measurement being different from the other DLs in both lens wearers and non lens wearers. The difference thresholds became quite close and not significantly different (all p's > 0.29) for higher stimulus intensities. Conclusion: For the first time, differential/discrimination sensitivity of the ocular surface has been measured and it appears that Weber's Law holds approximately for corneal nociceptive sensory processing. Although there are subtle statistical differences in mechanical difference thresholds between lens and non lens wearing groups, their discrimination is very similar.

12

Andrew Bauer School of Accounting and Finance "Splitting Heirs: Evidence from Canada on Income Splitting and "Kiddie Tax" Legislation" The common motivation for income splitting within households is to shift income to a related individual with lower income and marginal tax rate. While there is some research on such behaviour among spouses and the resulting changes to intra-household allocation of wealth, there is very limited empirical research on income splitting between parents and children. We evaluate empirically the effects of Canadian legislation enacted in 2000 to combat specific types of income splitting techniques between parents and minor children. OLS estimates based on data across all provinces between 1997 and 2005 reveal that aggregate dividend income reported by teens aged 19 and under declined significantly after the introduction of the "kiddie tax" legislation. However: (1) aggregate income from capital gains (not covered by the legislation) increased by more than two fold after the enactment of the amendments; and (2) dividend and capital gains income reported by older youths (aged 20 to 24) also increased significantly during the post-legislation period. Our analysis should promote discussion among policymakers and offer insight to other jurisdictions with respect to intra-household income splitting.

Leandro Becker Biology "Environmental and Mating Effects on the Immune System of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha" Salmon aquaculture relies mainly on man-made crosses for mating procedures, although the consequences of this "artificial-selection" remain uncertain. One important aspect to be considered in this context is the fish immune system, since disease outbreaks are very common in fish farms. Non-natural selection forces, like those produced by artificial selection, could jeopardize the capacity of the fish to face pathogens thus having negative effects on fish mass production. This project is assessing the immunological performance of the offspring from parents allowed to breed semi-naturally in spawning channels versus offspring from parents spawned artificially. In addition, two different rearing environments are also being assessed: a) semi-natural gravel based concrete channels, and b) artificial plastic hatchery tanks. A disease challenge using a common bacterium that affects salmon farms was conducted to monitor the fish susceptibility to the pathogen. The artificially-spawned offspring performed well in the hatchery environment and poorly in the semi-natural environment, indicating that there are environmental effects for this group of fish. Environmental effects were not seen when analyzing semi-naturally spawned offspring where mate choice is believed to occur. Tissue samples were taken for immune gene expression analysis and genotyping of major

13

histocompatibility (MH) alleles to determine if particular MH alleles associate to disease resistance or susceptibility. These analyses are currently being undertaken and will hopefully shed light on the forces that are behind these processes in order to understand what effects are produced in artificially mated commercial valuable species and in species propagated artificially for wildlife conservation. Guoshu Bin Geography and Environmental Management "Measuring Buildings for Sustainability: The Ecological Footprint of a Renovated Century Home - The REEP House" The residential sector is recognized as a major energy consumer and thus a great contributor to climate change. Rather than talking only about energy, linking what a house consumes to sustainability is of greater importance and interest. This paper links houses with sustainability from the perspective of the Ecological Footprint (EF), a well-known sustainability indicator. Exemplifying single-detached houses of the early 20th century, the REEP House (20 Mill St, Kitchener) is examined. This research involves a combination of material, energy, CO2 emission, and occupant behaviour. Its scope covers the life cycle of the house, including direct and indirect consumption of material and energy, and concomitant CO2 emissions during its stages of material extraction, construction, operation and demolition. Required data include: i) material and energy use for the building envelope during material extraction, construction and demolition, ii) material and energy use for manufacturing domestic furniture and appliances, and iii) yearly energy and other resource consumption. This paper offers an unusual area-based life cycle view of house retrofits, revealing if or how much an increase in home energy efficiency results in a decrease in the EF. It informs people of how and how much a house affects the environment, and how to effectively lower the impact via behaviour change. It also underpins the effort to establish the EF labelling system, based on which an EF "cap" will be assigned to each community before its construction, enlisting outstanding architectural and urban designing wisdoms to creatively build a liveable community with a minimum EF.

Jennifer Boyd Clinical Psychology "Fun, Friends, and Exercise: The Role of Social Factors on Motivation to Exercise" This ongoing study is aimed at understanding the motivational and social factors underlying initiation and maintenance of an exercise program. For many people, especially new exercisers, exercising with a partner may be more enjoyable and interesting than exercising alone. In order to assess the importance of social condition on exercise motivation, inactive women (current N = 67) were recruited to exercise at a fitness facility three times per week for one

14

month. Participants were randomly assigned to exercise in one of three conditions for the duration of the study: independently, with a partner or with a partner with whom they also interacted socially. Positive motivational change occurred over the month, such that participants became more autonomous in their motivations to exercise (e.g., because they recognize it as personally important or enjoyable, rather than because of external pressures). Further, participants experienced significant reductions in depression, and increased vitality and energy, suggesting that engagement in regular exercise for one month improved psychological wellbeing. The potential impact of social condition on mood, vitality, and motivation will be discussed. This research is expected to contribute to our understanding of social and motivational factors that are important to exercise maintenance, and to have implications for the development of exercise promotion programs. Johny Bozdarov Biology "To Protect Rainbow Trout, Dial 9-1-1: the use of Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (the 9-1-1 complex) Checkpoint Genes and Proteins as a Genotoxicity Biomarker" Cell-cycle checkpoint proteins help maintain genomic integrity by sensing damaged DNA and initiating either repair mechanisms or apoptosis. Cells with DNA damage contain checkpoint proteins with altered expression levels and/or phosphorylation states. The detection of checkpoint proteins with these alterations provides a means to determine whether DNA in a cell is damaged or not. Steinmoeller et al. (2009) showed checkpoint proteins are suitable biomarkers for detecting genotoxins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In this project, three evolutionary conserved checkpoint proteins Rad9, Rad1, Hus1 (the 9-1-1 complex) have been cloned from rainbow trout and antibodies against these proteins are being developed to determine their efficiency as genotoxicity biomarkers. Furthermore, Environment Canada has a list of 2,000 new chemical substances which need to be assessed for environmental effects. Ultimately, rainbow trout and rainbow trout cell lines could be used as a tool to help monitor toxins in aquatic systems.

Melissa Bunn Earth and Environmental Science "The Impact of Mild Heterogeneity on the Numerical Simulation of Vadose Zone Response to Pumping" Pumping tests are an important tool in the determination of aquifer (groundwater source) flow properties. In these tests, a well is pumped at a specified rate, and the response of the aquifer is monitored in adjacent wells. In 2005, a pumping test was conducted in a very well

15

characterized unconfined aquifer system at CFB Borden, Ontario. This data set was unique in that it included detailed information about the response of the vadose zone (the zone in which water pressure is negative). A series of numerical simulations of the pumping test have been conducted using Hydrogeosphere (HGS). The purpose of these simulations is to determine the best practices for the prediction of the vadose zone response pumping. Homogeneous and heterogeneous conceptual models were constructed that served as the basis for two numerical models. Numerical simulations were completed using these models and the results were compared. During early and intermediate times, the heterogeneous model provided a better approximation of the monitoring well response than the homogeneous model. There were no significant differences between the heterogeneous and the homogeneous predictions of the vadose zone response. Given the significant increase in computational time required for the heterogeneous simulations, it can be concluded that a homogeneous approximation may be sufficient for a sandy aquifer with this degree of heterogeneity. However, if a more accurate approximation of hydraulic heads or detailed descriptions of moisture contents in the vadose zone are required, a heterogeneous model is necessary.

Etana Cain Political Science "The `Still Bold' Idea that Women Deserve Equal Representation in Government" In 2007, the non-partisan advocacy group Equal Voice launched the Canada Challenge. Dubbed a `historic commitment,' the Challenge called on each party to "do better than last time" and run higher numbers of female candidates in the upcoming 2008 general election. All parties accepted making it the first multi-partisan commitment to electing more women in Canadian history. This paper engages in an in-depth analysis of the Canada Challenge, including: the goals and objectives which Equal Voice sought to achieve, the approaches taken by the three largest federal parties to meet the challenge and its overall impact on women's representation in government. The conclusion reached in this paper is that the Canada Challenge was successful insofar as it led to a record number of female candidates contesting the 2008 federal election. However, it had limited impact on the overall election results. Women's representation increased by only a little over 2%. This paper arrives argues that the Canada Challenge was not challenging enough. It failed to push parties to go above and beyond prior commitments and, in particular, it failed to push parties to run female candidates in winnable ridings. Both are crucial to increasing women's representation in government.

16

Rachel Campbell Chemical Engineering (Certificate in University Teaching ­ CUT) "Exploring Concept Maps as Study Tools in Engineering Courses" Concept maps can be designed by students as reference maps describing relationships between concepts and specific domains outlining the learner's understanding and knowledge of study material. Concepts are schematically represented using boxes or circles, which are connected by lines representing relationships. Concept maps are powerful metacognitive study tools reportedly used for students to clarify concepts and develop learning with the end goal of providing a means of formative and self-assessment. Mapping can be used by students as an externalisation of knowledge and by researchers as a reconstruction of student knowledge. Structure of maps can also be analyzed and evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by reviewing the number of concepts or domains and links used. The effectiveness of cognitive mapping in student engagement, assessment and integration of concepts will be explored in various applications with a focus on use in engineering courses. Finally, the design and use of concept maps will be investigated in a first-year engineering biology course as a case study. Students will develop concept maps throughout the semester and be allowed to consult their maps during a portion of the final exam with the intent of elucidating the effectiveness of concept mapping in the course. Cigsar Candemir Statistics & Actuarial Science "Testing for Carryover Effects in Poisson Processes" Repeated or recurrent events experienced by processes or individuals occur in many fields, and event counts are widely used in modeling such events. The Poisson process is a mathematical model that is canonical for the analysis of event counts. A feature of some processes, called a carryover effect, leads to a temporary increase (or in some cases decrease) in the event rate after each event occurrence. Models that allow dependence of the event intensity function on past events have been proposed in the literature. However, such models are generally based on assumptions that may be hard to check. Our purpose here is to consider some simple models and tests for carryover effects in homogeneous Poisson processes. The tests are robust and less subject to the criticism that they are carried out after elaborate model fitting. Our approach based on expansion of ideas in Lawless and Thiagarajah (1996) and Cook and Lawless (2007) can deal with single or multiple systems, and cases where the event intensity is either temporarily increased or decreased following an event. The tests are robust in the sense that they retain power to reject the hypothesis of no carryover effect even when model is misspecified. The methods are applied on a data set from an asthma prevention trial in infants.

17

Wen Cao Statistics and Actuarial Science "The Long-Term Equity Premium" We examine when equity investment will dominate bond investment for investors such as pension funds who have long investment horizons. The study is motivated by the long-standing equity premium puzzle, where it is observed that even the short-term (annual) equity return is implausibly higher than bond return in standard economic models. We examine the long-term returns of S&P 500 versus a safe bond from several angles: stochastic dominance, downside risk, extreme values, and potential regime switching. We choose to examine "generational" investing characterized by alternating generations, each of which roughly has a 20-year investment horizon. In particular, in addressing the downside risk of stock investment, we conduct a typical argument by considering an insurance contract on the stock return incorporating analysis into the stock volatility structure. By stressing the potential dominance and its associated risks of equity over the long-term, our findings have strong implications for long-term money managers and can be adapted to more realistic settings allowing for periodic cash outflows for pension fund managers.

Corrine Cash Planning "Planning for Social Equity in the Municipality of Stellenbosch, South Africa" Historical inequality in South African planning practice is reflected in its current spatial layout (Harrison, et al, 2007). The Municipality of Stellenbosch, South Africa is an area where great wealth in the form of wine estates, luxurious hotels, spas and leafy green suburbs exists side by side with displaced farm dwellers and poverty stricken informal settlements situated beyond the main industrial, commercial, and spaces of leisure (Municipality of Stellenbosch, 2009). Post-apartheid South Africa has brought about internationally acclaimed legislation that is designed to create a just society whereby all citizens have equal access to housing and land. Integrated development planning, initially driven by Agenda 21 goals, is meant to be an intergovernmental and interdepartmental method of achieving the national goals of equality and sustainability. Incorporating an extensive review of key documents such as plans and policies with results from over 50 interviews conducted in the Municipality of Stellenbosch, this paper reveals implementation effectiveness as it pertains to the spatial planning of municipal housing projects. As opposed to apartheid's racially discriminatory decision-making practices, a new market-led division has emerged that is now led by a new set of actors of many ethnic

18

backgrounds working collectively. The resulting decisions are clearly manifested in the spatial design of the municipality as vast division persists. While much success has been realized since 1994, the overall spatial architecture does not create an environment that is conducive to stated integrated social goals promoting equity. The paper suggests a project-based approach to planning as opposed to a sectoral approach whereby departments work together to create mixed use developments that take into account social, economic and environmental goals.

Neil Cavan Systems Design Engineering "3D Reconstruction from Image Sequences" There is demand in the underwater asset inspection industry to automate the inspection of long videos of silty, low-visibility underwater scenes using computer vision. Currently, videos are reviewed manually to assess the state of an underwater asset and make maintenance decisions. The process could be streamlined immensely by presenting the reviewer with an automatically generated full-colour 3D model of the asset instead of several hours of video. This presentation describes the implementation of a 3D reconstruction algorithm to generate such a model. A synthetic dataset is used to test the software, consisting of a set of knownpoints that are imaged by virtual cameras in different positions. Measurement noise is added to the observed points, and the resulting image sequence is used to evaluate the performance of the algorithm before applying it to video. Andrew Chater Political Science "Cultural Security in the Writings of Osama Bin Laden" Discussions about the motivations of Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda for the September 11th attacks place too much emphasis on the ideology of Al Qaeda. Current discourse ignores the role that culture and cultural security played in the motivation for the attack. Culture refers to a system of values, beliefs, symbols and identity. Ideology is a coherent system of ideas that progress toward an ultimate aim or agenda. My paper examines the construction of Osama Bin Laden's motivations in the rhetoric of American scholars and politicians. American scholars and politicians construct ideology divorced from culture as the major motivation for the attacks. I examine the writings and statements of Bin Laden to determine his motivations. Bin Laden's grievances are based on cultural understandings of identity related to culturally significant lands. American writers make claims about Bin Laden's writings that ultimately do not correspond with his own writings. My major finding is that American scholars emphasize ideology rather than culture because it constructs Bin Laden as an offensive existential threat to

19

the United States. It is important to understand the motivations of Bin Laden as being either ideological or cultural because it has determined the response to the attacks. My paper is an analysis of the communication, political and legislative strategies of culture war actors. It analyzes the discourses of "cultural warriors."

Bei Chen Actuarial Science and Statistics "Bootstrap Prediction Intervals of Returns and Volatilities in ARCH/GARCH Processes" Analyzing volatilities is of great practical importance for quantifying risk and uncertainty in financial markets. One of the most widely applied tools for modeling volatility are autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (ARCH) models (Engle, 1982) and generalized ARCH (GARCH) models (Bollerslev, 1986). The existing ARCH/GARCH literature mainly focuses on point forecasts of volatility while financial market participants have an increasing interest in prediction intervals for future returns and volatilities. Compared to point forecasts, prediction intervals provide extra assessment of uncertainty associated with the corresponding point forecast, which can better guide risk management decisions. The traditional approach of constructing prediction intervals assumes the distribution of the observed data is known, but the resulting prediction interval can be adversely affected by the departure from the assumption. We propose to apply sieve bootstrap, a distribution-free re-sampling technique, to construct prediction intervals of returns and volatilities in ARCH/GARCH processes (Chen et al., 2009). Our main idea is to transform the stationary ARCH/GARCH model to an autoregressive (AR)/ autoregressive and moving average (ARMA) model, which enables us to utilize the usual sieve bootstrap procedure, i.e., to approximate an observed process by an AR/ARMA model and then generate "new" realizations from the same model but with the re-sampled innovations. Adapting the sieve bootstrap in an ARCH/GARCH framework allows substantially decreased computational costs while providing competitively sharp and well calibrated predictive intervals for both returns and volatilities. Our experimental results of the proposed method are promising, both for simulated and foreign exchange rate data.

Hao Chen Biology "Role of Nutrient and Peat Amendments for Oil Sands Reclamation Wetlands: A Microcosm Study" Nutrient and peat amendments are proposed as possible strategies to increase the rate and type of aquatic fauna and floral colonization in Northern Alberta oil sands wetland reclamation. In this case, the quality of the substrate used in construction may be poor due to physical (low

20

organic content, coarse material ie. sand) and/or chemical characteristics (elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic compounds ie. mature fine tailings, 4.72-374 μg/g, Ganshorn, 2002) which may influence the rate and type of colonization. In theory, the addition of nutrients to simulate phytoplankton and periphyton production and/or the addition of peat could provide a more favorable detrital layer for the colonization of benthos and macrophytes. The objective of this project is to assess the impact of nutrient and peat amendments on the rate and type of primary production and benthic invertebrate and macrophyte colonization. To accomplish this goal, field experiments were conducted in microcosms to optimize primary production in the first year (summer of 2008) and assess benthic invertebrate and macrophyte colonization in the second year (summer of 2009). Results in 2008 showed that peat amendment treatment significantly increased primary production. Nutrient enrichment treatment also suggested an insignificant increasing in production.

Lin Chen Management Sciences "My Success or Our Success? Effects of Individual vs. Group Goal Conflict on Collaborative Behaviour in Group Problem Solving" Organizations today face complex problems requiring individuals to work in groups to develop insightful solutions efficiently through coordination, sharing, and integration of distributed knowledge. This research uses laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of individual vs. group goal conflict on collaborative behaviour and cognition processes in group problem solving. The experiments study 4-person problem solving groups, in which the group solution emerges through coordination and information sharing. Participants are told that they will be rewarded partially for individual performance and partially for group performance. Experiments manipulated the relative weights of individual and group rewards using three ratios (0:100, 50:50, 100:0). Results show that incentive influenced group performance and behaviour by affecting strategies groups used to approach the problem. Individual incentive encouraged the group to focus on the solution while group incentives encouraged random exploration. Task structures influenced group performance and behaviour by varying the amount of incremental search and restructuring required to solve the problem. Incentives also interacted with problem structure. Individual incentive weakened difference on performances among different problem structures; while group incentive amplified differences on performance and behavior among three problem structures. Lu Cheng Actuarial Science and Statistics

21

"Application of Lasso and Random Forest to Select Important Variables that Predict Receipt of PT/OT in RAI-Home Care Clients" Inter-RAI Contact Assessment (CA) is a new rehabilitation assessment instrument (RAI) that serves as a prescreener for needs of home care. It contains fewer and simpler test questions than the Minimum Data Set Home Care (MDS-HC) form. Our interest lies in finding out the most important variables in the MDS-HC form in predicting a home care client's later admission to Physical Therapy or Occupational Therapy. The resulting items are compared to the ones in CA to assess if any of them should be included there so that CA serves as a better screener. Two data sets are used for analysis. One is the whole set of newly opened home care clients, i.e., those that were assessed in the community between October, 2005 and March, 2008, with the period between the case opening and assessment less than 60 days. The other is a subset of the whole set and it is obtained by using a frequency "Matching" to the CA data set so that it resembles the target population of CA. The statistical methods used to do variable selection are generalized group LASSO and random forest. The former does variable selection by producing variables with zero coefficients in a generalized linear regression model. Random forest gives a variable importance rank which has taken interactions into consideration. The two methods give a similar result.

Youngjik (Vince) Choi Biology "Effect of Melatonin on Amyloid Fibril Formation and Toxicity in Relation to Alzheimer's Disease" Amyloid beta 1-42 protein is involved in Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology in the brain. It is able to self-aggregate and form toxic fibril-like structures in vivo, which leads to loss of neurons in the brain. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregations attack and destroy the cell membrane. We studied the interaction between amyloid beta aggregates and the supported lipid membrane surface using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). AFM is a nanoscale imaging technique that utilizes a sharp probe (5 to 10 nm in tip diameter) to interact with and map the surface properties of the membrane sample. We determined the characteristics of amyloid aggregation, growth, and impact on model lipid bilayer structure composed of total brain lipid extract. We observed that amyloid beta alters the physical properties of the membrane. In addition, we have investigated the role of a potential therapeutic melatonin, a hormone involved in setting the circadian rhythm. We observed that, with the addition of melatonin, the formation of amyloid aggregates at the membrane surface attenuated, and also the membrane surface was less disturbed. Our results indicate that melatonin may be protective against the cell damage arising from amyloid beta at the cell membrane level.

22

Tanya Christidis Health Studies and Gerontology "Mindfulness, public transit use and walking behaviours" It has been found that transit users walk 25 minutes per day, which is nearly the suggested amount of exercise per day for health, according to most public health groups. Since public transit use encourages walking, doing so should be related to good health, and decreased levels of overweight and obesity, however this is not the case. Groups with the highest levels of transit use, like those who have a low income or are part of a minority group, are also the groups by which walking to and from public transit can be used as predictor of obesity Recently, a study examined hotel maids who reported being physically inactive, despite their labour intensive jobs. When researchers illustrated to the workers that they were exercising all day through a mindfulness based intervention, weight loss and other health benefits occurred without any lifestyle changes. Since mindset or mindfulness is assumed to play a role in the outcomes of physical activity it can be assumed that health benefits from using public transit can be accumulated through increased mindfulness. There is potential for transit users to realise the full potential of their daily exercise through increased awareness of their daily activity. This creates potential for future interventions with transit users, based on mindfulness, to improve health without changing health-related behaviours. This pilot study will determine what the mindfulness of public transit users is, within the context of transit related walking.

Daniel Cira Optometry "Ex vivo and In vitro Investigation of Diagnostic Dyes Fluorescein and Lissamine Green on Human Corneal Epithelial Cells" Purpose: Investigate the impact of sodium fluorescein (NaFl) and lissamine green (LG) dyes on cells collected non-invasively using the ocular surface cell collection apparatus (OSCCA) and on a confluent monolayer of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC). Methods: Five participants underwent a contra-lateral combination of 0,1 or 6 instillations with 1% NaFl or 0.5% LG on separate occasions. After 2 hours, cells collected using the OSCCA were stained with Hoechst and PI dyes and counted. Dilutions of NaFl (0.5% and 1%) and LG (0.5%) were added to a confluent monolayer of HCEC that had been cultured in a keratinocyte serumfree medium. After a 2-hour incubation, a cellular viability MTT assay was performed. Results: Ex vivo: for 0,1, and 6 instillations, 421±220, 517±342 and 386±262 Hoechst-stained epithelial cells were counted with NaFl, and 440±226, 646±252 and 608±283 with LG. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the number of cells collected per instillation

23

treatment with NaFl or LG dyes and the controls (0 instillation). Following fluorescein instillation, 38±29 collected cells stained brightly with both NaFl and Hoechst. In vitro: after 2 hours, no significant differences in viability between NaFl and control cells were observed. Residual LG may have inhibited the MTT assay. Microscopy revealed that cells exposed to NaFl were rounder and smaller compared to controls and LG. Conclusions: Neither NaFl nor LG instillations appear to significantly increase cell shedding in vivo or cell death in vitro after 2 hours. These findings suggest that the OSCCA and HCEC model are both sufficiently sensitive enough methods to study corneal staining.

Jianfa Cong Statistics and Actuarial Science "Optimal Multi-period Proportional Reinsurance" The problem of optimal reinsurance has been an area of active research in the last few decades. There are many scholars who have studied the optimal reinsurance strategy which minimizes the insurer's ruin probability. However, in the literature, the optimal reinsurance strategy is most commonly explored in the continuous-time framework. Our research focuses on the optimal multi-period proportional reinsurance strategy that minimizes the ruin probability of the insurer. We express the minimal ruin probability inductively, and then show that the dynamic programming approach can be used to solve this problem. Applying the dynamic programming approach, we derive several necessary conditions of the optimal multi-period proportional reinsurance strategy. Based on these results, a new concept, capital threshold of proportional reinsurance, is introduced. In the case of two periods, a lower bound of the capital threshold of proportional reinsurance is derived explicitly. We then prove that it is also a lower bound of the capital threshold of proportional reinsurance in the general case. The significance and properties of this new concept are discussed. Using this new concept, we obtain the optimal multi-period proportional reinsurance strategy and the according minimal ruin probability in some special cases. Finally, we offer some numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results aforementioned.

Erasmus Cudjoe Chemistry "SPME-LC-MS/MS Method Development for Monitoring of Neurotransmitters" Neurotransmitters are endogenous compounds associated with various neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson and Alzheimer's diseases) in humans. Microdialysis (MD) has been a common analytical method for neurotransmitters studies both in vivo and in vitro. Recently, a

24

direct sampling using fused silica capillary has also been developed. Solid phase microextraction (SPME), a simple analytical method capable of tissue sampling when coupled to tandem liquid chromatography mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS, has, however, not well been explored, especially for such small polar molecules in the brain. A very good advantage of SPME is its ability to integrate sampling, sample preparation and pre-concentration of analyte in a single step, and also minimize matrix effect drastically. This work presents an SPME-LC-MS/MS method development for determination of concentrations of underivatized dopamine (DA), glutamic acid (GLU) and -aminobutyric acid (GABA). Factors considered in the process include optimization of analytical limits of detection, selection of appropriate fiber, optimization of gel composition as model to mimic brain and the development of appropriate calibration method for quantitative purposes. Current limits of detection for underivatized GLU, GABA and DA are 30 pg/mL, 60 pg/mL and 0.19 ng/mL respectively. Monitored MS transitions were 148 to 84 for GLU, 104 to 69 to GABA and 154 to 91 for DA respectively. Chad Daley Physics and Astronomy "Direct Evidence of Enhanced Surface Mobility in Molecular Glass Forming System 1,3-bis-(1naphthyl)-5-(2-naphthyl)benzene" We have performed nanoparticle embedding studies on the organic glass forming system 1,3bis-(1-naphthyl)-5-(2-naphthyl)benzene (TNB). The surfaces of thin (350nm) TNB films are covered with 20 nm diameter gold nanoparticles. Atomic force microscopy is used to track the apparent height of specific nanoparticles as a function of time elapsed at embedding temperatures near and below the bulk glass transition temperature (Tg = 347K). The experiments reveal direct evidence for surface mobility at temperatures below the bulk glass transition. In addition to changes in the apparent heights of the nanoparticles, there is clear evidence that material surrounding the nanoparticles is being drawn up to engulf the nanoparticles. These results directly establish the presence of enhanced surface mobility in molecular glass forming systems. This result helps in our understanding of the mysterious glass transition, one of the major outstanding problems in physics. It also has practical implications as thin glassy films are used extensively in the optics and electronics industry. Prajna Dash Electrical and Computer Engineering "Impact of Control Structure on the Stability of a Distributed Generator (DG)" Increased environmental pollution, growth in population, and limited availability of fossil fuel have been the main driving forces behind the research and development of renewable energy resources. Though costs involved in harnessing the energy from renewable energy resources

25

such as wind, solar and converting them to electrical energy is very high, a tremendous growth is observed in different parts of the world in utilizing them for their energy needs. The high costs involved in harnessing the energy from renewables are compensated by setting up generators near to the end user or the customer in a utility system. These generators are capable of operating at low and medium voltages ranging from 400-800 V and are termed as Distributed Generators (DGs). The structure of a DG is very simple involving energy resource, power electronic converter, and control loops. A reliable and robust control design has contribution towards safe and smooth operation of the DG whereas due to poor control design there may be instability and poor power quality, which is not acceptable. Therefore, it is very important to perform a steady-state and transient-state analysis of the DGs before installing them for customer's use. In this proposal, the author studies the impact of control structure on the performance of a DG based on Photovoltaic (PV) system by mathematically modeling the complete system. Stability and instability of the system is quantized in terms of eigenvalues. Through mathematical analysis it is shown that the movement of eigenvalues is dependent on the choice of control scheme. The experiment for this study is performed in PSCAD and MATLAB environment.

Bonnie De Baets Biology "The effects of Reservoirs on Nutrients and Oxygen in the Grand River" The Grand River basin - in southern Ontario - is home to just under 1,000,000 people. It is impacted by agriculture and waste-water discharges; and is hydrologically altered by the construction of dams and reservoirs. Belwood Lake and Conestogo Lake are used for flood control, low-flow augmentation and hydro-electricity production. During times of stratification, there is the possibility of anoxic water being released into the downstream river system from these bottom-draw dams. Samples were taken above, in and below the reservoirs in 2008 and 2009 to assess their impacts on the Grand and Conestogo rivers, respectively. The key sampling parameters included dissolved oxygen (DO), δ18O-DO, nitrate (NO3-), and δ15NNO3-. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below the dams were significantly lower than the surface waters within and above the reservoirs. The oxygen cycle did not return to the concentrations observed upstream of the reservoir for 1.5km (Belwood Lake) and 2km (Conestogo Lake) downstream of the dams. This indicates a direct effect of the hypolimnetic water released from the reservoirs. NO3- concentrations were generally distinct between upstream, downstream and reservoir sites. Depending upon season, the reservoirs can act as either a source or a sink for NO3-; indicating different nitrogen-cycle processes predominating in different seasons.

26

Shankar Dhanushkodi Chemical Engineering "Characterization of porous gas diffusion media for Polymeric electrolyte membrane fuel cell using novel technique" Durability and reliability are two key issues in commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Development of diagnostic tools to characterize fuel cell components such as the gas diffusion layer (GDL) can help improve the understanding of degradation mechanisms and model the pore scale distribution. Mass transport of liquid water generated during fuel cell operation reduces the oxygen diffusivity in the porous GDL and can lead to reactant starvation at the catalyst. In this work, the capillary pressure and water saturation at breakthrough and the relative permeability of liquid water under simulated fuel cell conditions were measured in gas diffusion media (GDM) using an in-house technique. The technique can measure GDL saturation at the breakthrough capillary pressure. The permeability of water vapour through GDM was measured as a function of gas flow and relative humidity. These two experimental techniques are useful in the development and characterization of both fresh and degraded GDM. In addition to this, the hydrophilic porosity of the GDM was measured using gas controlled porosimetry (GCP). The hydrophilic pore size distribution in the degraded GDM was measured to determine the extent of the morphological change in comparison with fresh GDM. Authors: Dhanushkodi.S.R*., Liang.K., Fowler.M.W and Pritzker.M.D *Corresponding author email: [email protected] Neha Dhar Chemical Engineering "Novel Biodegradable Cellulose Nanoparticles" Cellulose is one the most abundant natural polymers and its derivatives have been used in a number of applications, such as cosmetics, textiles, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, coatings and so on. Hence, my research aims at synthesizing and characterizing novel cellulosic systems with potential pharmaceutical and industrial applications. The research project consists of two cellulosic systems: (1) Chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (2) Nano crystalline cellulose (NCC). Chitosan and CMC exhibit beneficial properties like biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity which make them suitable candidates for pharmaceutical applications. Hence, crosslinked nanoparticles exhibiting polyampholytic behavior were prepared from chitosan and CMC. The particles are called polyampholytic nanogels since they are capable of swelling at low and high pH. Due to the pH responsiveness at both low and high pH, these nanogels can be used for potential drug delivery applications. Inverse micro-emulsion polymerization was used to synthesize the nanoparticles in nanometer-sized water droplets. The proposed system has been characterized using several techniques like dynamic light scattering, potentiometric and conductometric titration and zeta-potential measurements. Novel cellulosic nanoparticles

27

called nano crystalline cellulose have attained considerable research interest recently. Produced from native cellulose, these are rod-like nanoparticles possessing a negative surface charge. NCC is touted for its potential applications in personal care products. Hence, binding interaction of NCC with an oppositely charged surfactant has been investigated using surface tensiometry and isothermal titration calorimetry. A study of this nature is imperative since it investigates the stability of NCC solutions when used for cosmetic and personal care applications. Matt Dil Environment and Resource Studies "Application of Nitrogen-enriched Biochar as a Slow-release Fertilizer: Effects on Soil Fertility, Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth" Loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) resulting from intensive agriculture practices has impacts on both climate change, through emissions of greenhouse gases, as well as food security because of declines in soil fertility and structure. One promising solution for rapidly restoring SOC is through additions of biochar to soil. Biochar is a carbon(C)-rich material formed by pyrolysis of biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Two co-products of pyrolysis, bio-oil and syngas, can be captured and used as fossil fuel replacements. Biochar C is resistant to microbial decay and can be sequestered for more than 1000 years. Biochar application can improve crop yields by increasing availability of soil nutrients and providing ideal habitat for beneficial soil microfauna. Much of the biofuel industry is currently focused on the sale of bio-oil; however, there is potential for additional income from the sale of biochar products if they are combined with nitrogen (N) fertilizers. An industrial method has recently been developed which combines biochar, ammonia and carbon dioxide to create solidified ammonium bicarbonate within the mirco-pore structure. In partnership with an Ontario biofuel company, ABRI-Tech, the proposed research will compare the effects of biochar-ammonium bicarbonate and non-enriched biochar on soil fertility, fungal biomass and plant growth. Two potting trials with Ryegrass will be conducted in a controlled growth chamber: first, with different biochar application rates, and second, with different soil textures. Response variables measured will be: plant dry mass, plant and soil N content, SOC and fungal biomass (determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction). Shannon Dorn Biology "Factors Affecting Total Mercury Accumulation in Arctic Charr from Heintzelman Lake, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut" Although standard monitoring studies of high Arctic lakes have demonstrated relationships between total mercury (THg) content in Arctic charr and trophic position, size, 15N,

28

and age in many populations, the strength of the associations varies by population. Small sample sizes may preclude examination of physiological factors likely to influence THg accumulation rates. Key among physiological considerations is growth rate. The availability of a large (n>300) sample of Arctic charr from Heintzelman Lake (81º42'N, 66º56'W) Ellesmere Island, Nunavut that included multiple age-classes displaying high variability in within age-class growth facilitated the explicit testing of the growth dilution hypothesis as an explanation of within lake variability in THg measures. Total trace Hg in dorsal muscle tissue was determined using a DMA-80 direct mercury analyser for a stratified sub-sample of the fish displaying differences in growth rate at age. As a secondary line of evidence, information on the trophic position and carbon sources of individuals was obtained from stable isotope analysis of nitrogen (15N) and carbon (13C), and trends in THg within the population with respect to age, trophic position and growth rate were examined. Preliminary data indicated a negative correlation between THg and growth rate, a weak positive age-related correlation and no apparent trophic correlation. Multiple regression models including all factors were further tested as a means of determining the relative importance of growth rate, trophic position and age as explanations of within population variation in measured THg tissue concentrations. Tristan Downe-Dewdney Political Science "Clausewitz Today: Redeeming On War" Understanding the nature of a conflict is essential in the conduct of international relations where state relationships progress towards warfare. Clausewitz stated that warfare is the continuation of politics, but has been criticized for decades as the architect of the strategic failures leading to WWI, the philosophy of Hitler's total war, and American military failures in the post Cold War era. My research aims to explore recent criticisms of Clausewitzian thought to examine his relevance today. My research to date has revealed that critics and advocates alike fail to attack or draw upon more than a select portion of his work. Furthermore, as seen in both of America's last wars in Iraq, a more complete reading of On War demonstrates that Clausewitz is still relevant today - providing strategic insights that could improve how wars are fought and how we conceptualize military objectives. My research is being broken down into three sections. First is a summary of modern criticisms of Clausewitz since 1990. Second is an exploration of how war has changed throughout history, drawing upon the work of Weltman. Finally I apply these collective considerations to America's engagements in Iraq to test the claims of Clausewitz's critics and to illustrate his continued relevance. John Dunn Physics and Astronomy

29

"Dilatometric Study of LiHoF$_{4 In a Transverse Magnetic Field" Theoretical and experimental work has not presented a consistent picture of the phase diagram of the nearly ideal Ising ferromagnet LiHoF4 in a transverse magnetic field. Using a capacitive dilatometer, we have investigated the thermal expansion and magnetostriction of LiHoF4 in magnetic fields applied perpendicular to the Ising direction. Critical points for the ferromagnetic phase transition have been determined at low fields close to the classical phase transition. Excellent agreement has been found with existing experimental data suggesting that, in this regime, the current theoretical calculations have not entirely captured the physics of this interesting model system. Anne Dyer-Witheford Religious Studies "Is spirituality 'flexible religion'?" Abstract Purpose of research I will examine whether there are grounds for labelling the spirituality ethic , ´flexible religion,' in order to associate it with the `flexible labour' that is a feature of `post-Fordist' economies. The self-confessed `spiritual' orientation is pervasive in Western nations. Practitioners of spirituality only casually and conditionally affiliate with traditional religions, if at all. God is felt to be partly in the material world; not entirely transcendent. Theological ideas are Eastern. Post-Fordism indicates the emergence of new types of jobs out of the `Fordist' era. They are less secure than unionized, assembly-line Fordist work; service-oriented, creative, and social. Employees are individualistic and competitive. Official American statistics now reveal one third of that workforce to be post-Fordist workers. This trend began when Baby Boomers came of age. They also began the spirituality pursuit. Parallels between flexible labour values and the spirituality ethic include a self-developmental and self-reflexive ethic, qualified commitments to institutions, reliance on social networks, emphasis on affect rather than rationality, and a self-reliant attitude. Procedure Through textual analysis, I will explore the above parallels to determine whether a spiritual attitude truly supports post-Fordist employment conditions. As an initial step, I will assess views of scholars of spirituality on material security and employment issues. Value of Study I may answer the question: "Is the new religious consciousness a mere epiphenomenon of larger social structural changes? Or is it both a medium and a source of the cultural and social changes we are experiencing?"

Ali Emamian Mechanical "Study of In-situ Fe-TiC Microstructure Deposition Using Laser Cladding"

30

In-situ laser cladding enables the formation of a uniform clad by melting the powder and substrate to form a composition from pure powder components. Since TiC has desirable properties such as hardness, wear and corrosion resistance, titanium (Ti) and graphite (C) are used as a composite material (i.e. TiC) to increase hardness and wear resistance of AISI 1030 carbon steel. To increase the corrosion, erosion, and wear resistance of a low grade material substrate, the entire substrate surface must be coated by the multi-track cladding. Preliminary experiments indicate that deposition of multi-track of TiC-Fe base composite results in different TiC morphologies which might affect the clad properties. In this paper, effect of different heat input on TiC morphology has been studied. Results show that different heat input, which are designed by laser parameters, affect the TiC morphology. SEM and EDS data show that TiC particles are built up uniformly during the laser cladding process in the iron matrix with dissimilar morphologies. Mohammad Eram Biology "Properties of pyruvate decarboxylase From the Hyperthermophiles" It is known that some hyperthermophiles can produce alcohols. But the enzymes involved in the process are not well characterized. The enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is one of these enzymes which catalyze the non-oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde. Searching the genomes of bacterial and archaeal hyperthermophiles against the pdc gene sequences does not hit any homologue. Although, there is a report on a bi-functional pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR)/PDC enzyme in hyperthermophilic archeon Pyrococcus furiosus, it is still unclear if this is only a property of that particular POR, or it is a common property of hyperthermophilic PORs. The PDC activity was present in cell-free extracts of several hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria. The activity was checked for pure POR from Thermotoga maritima (Tm, bacterium, Topt 80C) and partially pure Thermococcus guaymasensis (Tg, archaeon, Topt 88C). The PDC assay used is based on derivatization of the produced acetaldehyde with 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), and then the resulted hydrazone compound will be measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The POR/PDC activities were co-eluted during different steps of purification from both microorganisms. The enzymes were hetero-tetrameric proteins consisted of four different subunits which is the same as other hyperthermophilic PORs isolated so far. Unlike the POR activity, both PDC activities were ferredoxin independent. The specific activities were about 2 and 0.2U/mg for partially active enzyme from Tg and pure enzyme from Tm, respectively. The optimum pH was about 8 for both activities. The bi-functional POR/PDC is present in the examined bacterial and archaeal hyperthermophiles. Ahmed Farahat Electrical and Computer Engineering

31

"Greedy Nyström Approximation" The Nyström method is an efficient technique for obtaining a low-rank approximation of a kernel matrix based on a subset of its columns. This method has been used for solving largescale problems in machine learning and data mining, including dimension reduction, approximate spectral decomposition of large matrices, and efficient spectral clustering. However, the quality of the Nyström approximation highly depends on the used subset of columns which are usually selected using random sampling. This work presents a novel greedy algorithm for the Nyström method and an effective criterion for column selection. We first propose an efficient recursive algorithm for calculating the Nyström approximation of a kernel matrix based on a given subset of columns. The algorithm starts by selecting one column from the given subset, and then constructs a rank-1 Nyström approximation of the kernel matrix based the selected column. A residual matrix is calculated by subtracting the rank-1 approximation from the kernel matrix, and the same steps are applied to the residual matrices until all columns are selected. Based on this recursive algorithm, we derive an effective criterion for greedy column selection. We first show that the rank-1 Nyström approximation based on one column implicitly projects all data points to the direction of that column. We accordingly propose an efficient criterion to select the column that achieves the least square error. Experiments on different benchmark data sets show that the proposed greedy algorithm obtains more effective low-rank approximations compared to the traditional Nyström method with different random sampling techniques.

Charles Farkas Systems Design "Detecting Neuromuscular Disease and Its Level of Involvement Using Quantitative Electromyography in the Context of Clinical Decision Support" AIM: Sets of motor unit potentials (MUPs) are characterized and aggregated to detect the presence, and measure the level of involvement (LOI) of neuromuscular disease [1]. METHODS: MUP characterizations were obtained using several classification methods: Naïve Bayes (NB); linear discriminant analysis (LDA MED and LDA GED); and pattern discovery (PD) [1]. Muscle characterizations were obtained by aggregating MUP characterizations using: the arithmetic mean (AMC), Bayes rule (BMC), the 'centroid' of the `winning' MUP characterization scores for each category (CMC), and the count ratio of the `winning' MUP characterization scores for each category (NMC). Performance was evaluated in terms of accuracy and correlation between muscle characterization measures and LOI. RESULTS: In total, 320, 360 and 360, normal, myopathic and neurogenic MUPs, respectively, were extracted from simulated EMG signals [2]. The sets of myopathic and neurogenic MUPs were comprised in equal proportions of MUPs detected in muscles modeled to have 25%, 50%

32

and 75% LOI, respectively (i.e. muscle fiber/motor-unit loss). Using the LDA MED classifier and BMC achieved the highest mean accuracy (82%), as well as a good overall balance in accuracy across the various LOI categories. The highest mean correlation with LOI was achieved using AMC with the NB or LDA GED classifiers (0.94). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that BMC-based measures optimize accuracy and AMC-based measures optimize correlation. Such muscle characterization measures could make it possible for a clinician to track the progression of a neuromuscular disorder, forming the groundwork for a clinical decision support system (CDSS). Amir Fazeli Mechanical Engineering "An Air Hybrid Engine Brake Torque Controller" Improvement in fuel economy and reduction in vehicle emission are two key elements required to meet any new vehicle emission standard. The concept of hybrid vehicles that rely on storing and re-using vehicle kinetic energy during braking has attracted significant attention in the past decade. An alternative to an electric-gas engine is the air-gas hybrid engine that converts vehicle kinetic energy during braking into compressed air to assist the vehicle in acceleration. Air hybrid engines have at least four modes of operation: Compression Braking (CB), Air Motor (AM), supercharged and conventional. CB or regenerative mode is activated when the driver applies the brake pedal. At this mode, fuel is shut off and the engine works as a two-stroke air compressor, storing the vehicle's kinetic energy in the shape of pressurized air in the reservoir tank. Thus, there are two separate braking systems contributing in exerting the required braking torque in an air hybrid engine based vehicle: regenerative braking and conventional braking systems. Nevertheless, torque produced by a regenerative braking system changes dramatically with the change in the air tank pressure. Thus, a robust brake torque controller is needed to adjust the engine braking torque in the presence of tank pressure variation. In this paper, an adaptive sliding mode controller based on the Mean Value Model (MVM) of the engine is developed and tested. The designed controller is able to control the engine braking torque and also to estimate the engine model uncertainties.

Robert Fraser School of Computer Science "How to Win a Snowball Fight: Solving Discrete Unit Disk Cover" In this talk, we examine the discrete unit disk cover problem in a context that makes it accessible for a general audience. Consider a scenario where two teams of players wish to have

33

a snowball fight, and you are the captain of team A. Team B has built a set of forts, which they will use to build snowballs and launch attacks. You decide that a good strategy is to build your own forts close enough to those of team B so that your team can hit any of their forts with snowballs. Assuming that all of your teammates can throw the same distance, you can use circles to represent the range that any player can reach. Therefore, given some plausible places to built forts, you want to choose the minimum number so that every one of your opponent's forts is contained in one of your player's circles (assuming each one of your forts contains at least one of your players). This, in essence, is the discrete unit disk cover problem. In this talk, we first discuss the hardness of this problem, and why one would like to approximate the solution. We discuss the time versus accuracy trade-off associated with approximation. First, we examine an approximation technique which allows an arbitrarily accurate solution, followed by faster techniques which have less desirable guarantees on how close the answer will be to the optimal one. By the end of the talk, the audience should have a good grasp of the problem, and be able to take the field with confidence. Mehrdad Gangeh Electrical and Computer Engineering "A Two-Stage Combined Classifier in Scale Space Texture Classification" Purpose of Research: Texture analysis has been applied to various applications in the literature. Textures often show multiscale properties and, therefore, multiscale techniques are considered useful for their analysis. The main issue in multiresolution techniques is the huge dimensionality of feature space as the feature subsets generated from different scales are fused to construct one single feature space to be submitted to a single classifier. The purpose of this research is to propose an approach to overcome this high dimensional feature space. Procedures/Methods: In this research, inspired by scale space theory as a biologically motivated approach, the N-jet of derivatives up to the second order at different scales is used to generate multiscale textures. We propose that each feature subset in a scale/derivative is submitted to a base classifier (BC) of a two-stage combined classifier. This alleviates the requirement for feature fusion and prevents from generating a high dimensional feature space. The decisions made by these BCs are combined in two stages over scales and derivatives. Various combining systems and their significances and differences are discussed. Major Finding/Results: Our results based on the experiments on some textures from Brodatz album and VisTex dataset show that for small sample sizes, combining classifiers performs significantly better than combining feature spaces (CFS). It is also shown for the same datasets that combining classifiers performs better than the support vector machines in multiscale texture classification. Research Conclusion: The approach is mainly proposed as a general framework for multiresolution texture classification problems and is tested on benchmarking databases like Brodatz Album and VisTex. Furthermore, after establishing its viability, we will use it in real

34

world data, e.g., in medical imaging application for the diagnosis of diseases in high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lung. Anika Ganness Political Science "Overcoming Neoliberalism: The Rise of Women's Social Movements" This study will demonstrate that neoliberal policies gave rise to women's movements that were autonomous from the Peruvian state. It argues that unlike women's movements that existed prior to neoliberal policies, women's movements post-neoliberal policies such as the Comedores Populares and Movimiento Manuela Ramos have been more sustainable due to their ability to adapt from their role of resisting the government to one of increased institutionalization and collaboration with the government and non-state actors towards outcomes of influencing positive change. In order to explore the legacy of women's movements, this paper conceptualizes pre-neoliberal women's movements characterized by a struggle to achieve human rights and political freedoms in opposition to military rule. It further demonstrates determinants of the re-emergence of women's movements following the adoption of neoliberal policies by examining case studies of women's movements in Peru. During the 1980s and 1990s, the implementation of neoliberal reforms by the Peruvian government and the prioritization of debt servicing decreased emphasis on participation and social welfare. Efforts of post-neoliberal women's movements in Peru following their disenchantment with neoliberal policies have allowed for an alternative model to participatory government and a new relationship between these movements and external actors. Arlene Garrick Leisure and Recreation Studies "Learntertainment" Traditionally, tourism and hospitality educators have used the lecture method in their classrooms; however, there has been a gradual shift in the teaching and learning process from teacher-centred to student-centred processes. However, one area that has lagged behind this shift in teaching processes is classroom assessment. Testing has remained as the main form of assessing student learning, while development of alternative methods of assessing students has stagnated. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the dynamics of `Learntertainment', and how it can be used as an effective teaching-learning and assessment tool in a tourism and hospitality classroom environment. It discusses how `Learntertainment' tactics and strategies can also be used as assessment tools, thereby, making `Learntertainment' an all-round teaching-learning tool. The methodology used is interpretive phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews recorded on audio-tape, transcribed, and analyzed. A constructivist approach was taken for analysis and interpretation. Findings

35

indicated that `Learntertainment' assessment aids the identification of topics that students do not understand, facilitated easier grading, and eliminated subjectivity, provided on the spot feedback, allowed educators to identify weak students and identify tactics for corrective action. Generally, the findings revealed that the methods were effective, stimulating, and challenged students to think and/or question themselves. This study concludes that `Learntertainment' tactics and strategies can be used both as an effective classroom instruction and an alternative form of assessment, and can be used to eliminate some of the stresses and problems associated with classroom tests and examinations, while at the same time improving students' learning. Sospeter Gatobu Health Studies and Gerontology "Comprehension of Internet-based Numeric Cancer Information by Older Adults" Introduction: Health literacy, and skill in using the Internet to obtain health information, are lower among older compared with younger adults. Presentation format of health information has been shown to influence comprehension. Objective: To determine the influence of information formatting on older adults' comprehension of Internet-based numeric cancer risk information. Method: This cross-sectional study involved a convenience sample of adults, aged 50 years and older from diverse backgrounds. Cancer risk information, from a Canadian Cancer Society web page, was presented as text, graphics or as a combination of text and graphics formats. Comprehension was assessed using six questions focused on basic numeracy skill and ability to perform simple calculations and operations. A three-item general context numeracy and an eight-item health context numeracy instrument were used to describe participants' health numeracy skills. The six-item Newest Vital Sign (NVS) test assessed prose and numeric health literacy. Results: There was no statistically significant effect of presentation format on participants' comprehension of cancer information. Participants' comprehension of basic health numeracy information was positively correlated with education (p≤0.05) and income (p≤0.01) whereas comprehension of information that assessed calculation and operations numeracy skill was positively correlated only with income (p≤ 0.05). Health literacy skill and income explained a significant proportion of the variance in overall comprehension of Internet-based cancer risk information (R2 0.414, p≤ 0.01). Conclusion: Format of numeric risk information was not a significant factor in the comprehension of cancer risk information. However, comprehension of the information was related to health literacy skill and income. Reno Genest Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering

36

"The Effect of Intraocular Pressure on the Geometry of Normal and Myopic Chick Eyes and Its Application to Myopia" Purpose: To investigate the change in geometry of normal and myopic chick eyes with increasing intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods: The pressure-volume curves of twenty-two 7-day old normal and myopic chick eyes were obtained using a computer controlled syringe pump and a digital pressure gauge. Myopia was induced in the right eye of six chicks using -15 D lenses for 7 days and the left eye was used as a control. Two digital cameras were mounted perpendicular to each other to photograph and measure axial and equatorial deformation of the eye. Finally, a finite element model of a normal chick eye was constructed. Results: The maximum axial elongation for normal eyes was 1 mm which equals to ~ 25 D of myopia. The equatorial diameter initially decreased as IOP increased and the decrease was less pronounced for myopic eyes. As pressure further increases, the equatorial diameter started to increase and eventually came back to its original dimension at an IOP of 550 mmHg and 250 mmHg for normal and myopic eyes respectively. The mean IOP at failure was 826 mmHg. The finite element model demonstrates that the oblate geometry of chick eyes leads to greater deformation in the axial direction and initial contraction in the equatorial direction. Conclusions: The way chick eyes deformed as IOP increased is mainly due to their oblate geometry. Elevated IOP is capable of producing axial elongation in chick eyes and this suggests that IOP could play a role in myopia onset and progression.

Steve George Chemical Engineering "Low cost alternative real-time PCR sample preparation for the quantification of baculoviruses" The increasing utility of baculoviruses within the Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS) for the production of recombinant proteins, and as a human gene therapy vectors have stimulated research into identifying and eliminating bottlenecks associated with their production. To achieve this goal, rapid and reliable methods for the quantification of baculovirus stocks are needed. Quantification is important not only for optimal protein production but for batch to batch process consistency. Traditional methods of quantification such as the plaque assay and end-point dilution assays are generally laborious and time consuming, and this has led to the development of other quantification techniques. One of the most rapid techniques developed uses the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), which has been explored and proven to be an accurate method for determining baculovirus titres. Current protocols, however, are labour intensive, expensive and rely on assumptions of achieving theoretical efficiencies in each reaction, which may be erroneous. In

37

this work two primers are compared for the first time for their ability to be used in the quantification of baculovirus. Furthermore, two commercially available "viral DNA" extraction kits are compared and a novel in-house protocol is developed and optimized to yield equivalent results at a fraction of the cost. Seyed Ghasem Razavipour Electrical and Computer Engineering "Waveguide Design for Bi-Modal Operation of THz Quantum Cascade Lasers" The design and fabrication of a bi-modal semi-insulating surface-plasmon waveguide for a quantum cascade laser emitting at 3.6 THz is presented. Different transverse modes are excited under different electric current injection due to their different overlapping with the laterally nonuniform gain profile in the active region. HFSS software is used to simulate the waveguide loss, near field and far field of various waveguide structures. It is found that a 150 μm wide surface-plasmon waveguide allows either co-excitation or selective excitation of the first two transverse modes. The total optical loss (i.e., the combination of waveguide and mirror loss) is found below 20 cm- 1. An electrically controllable dynamic beam pattern steering is predicted. The near field and far field measurements of a fabricated quantum cascade laser device confirm the theoretical results. The dynamic switching of far-field beam pattern by an angle of 25°is observed when the injected current density changes from 1.9 kA/cm2 to 2.3 kA/cm2. Travis Gliedt Geography and Environmental Management "Energy Planning in Businesses: Comparing Manufacturing Firms to the Service Sector" This paper examines energy planning in businesses, which contribute significantly to climate change, are integrated within communities, and employ citizens who also take energy management actions at home. Some energy management initiatives including conservation and efficiency actions, lend themselves well to corporate sustainability because they reduce costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Other initiatives generate large environmental benefits but increase short-term costs to the firm. One example is voluntary green electricity purchasing, which is growing in popularity in North America despite costing more than standard grid electricity (Berkhout and Rowlands, 2007; Gliedt et al., forthcoming). Firms that voluntarily purchase green electricity range from primary and secondary sector corporations, to smaller service sector businesses. Therefore, this paper examines if the decision process to purchase green electricity differs between primary and secondary sector firms, and service businesses. Results from a survey of 140 businesses are used to assess the importance of organizational

38

culture, environmental champions, internal environmental structures (committees, departments), environmental metrics and benchmarking, certification programs (LEED, ISO), and external factors (regulations, stakeholder pressure), to the decision to voluntarily purchase green electricity. Differences between primary and secondary firms (n = 26) and service businesses (n = 114) are expected because the former have a long history with health and safety management programs and structures (Kao et al., 2008), which lend themselves well to energy management. In contrast, services sector businesses generally lack the necessary resources, knowledge and structural/technical capacity to manage their environmental footprint (Parker, Redmond, and Simpson, 2009). Samantha Goodman Health Studies and Gerontology "Use of Nutritional Information in Canada: National trends between 2004 and 2008" Background ­ Obesity is a primary risk factor for a range of chronic diseases, including cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To date, few studies have examined sources and use of nutrition information over time. The present study examines socio-demographic predictors, use of nutrition information sources, product labels, and nutrient content information among Canadian consumers between 2004 and 2008. Methods ­Telephone and internet surveys were conducted with representative samples of Canadian adults in 2004 (n=2,405), 2006 (n=2,014) and 2008 (n=2,001). Results ­ Food product labels were the most common source of nutritional information reported by Canadians in 2008, followed by the internet and magazines /newspapers. The internet was the only information source to significantly increase over the study period; however, Canadians reported reading food product labels more frequently since 2004. Canadians were most likely to select foods based on fibre, protein, and calories/energy. Food selection based on trans fat increased significantly in 2006, one year after the introduction of mandatory labelling of trans fat on packaged foods, while trans fat and sodium were the only nutrients to increase significantly from 2006 to 2008. Taste and nutrition were the primary factors guiding food choice across all survey years. Females, older Canadians, dieters, primary meal planners, and individuals with higher income levels consistently reported using a greater number of information sources and more frequent use of product labels and nutrient information to guide their food decisions. Conclusions ­ The findings highlight the importance of nutrition information sources that have broad reach, including food product labels and the internet. More comprehensive nutrition labelling regulations were associated with increased label use and greater use of nutrient information over time. Will Gornall Statistics and Actuarial Science

39

"Financial Fraud ­ A Game of Cat and Mouse" The financial crisis has exposed a number of large financial frauds that have shaken the world's faith in investment management and in financial regulators. The damage these frauds have caused is clear. What isn't clear is the best way to prevent this type of fraud from occurring. This work provides a partial answer to that question, by constructing a model of financial fraud from the perspective of the fraudster himself, by assuming a von Neumann-Morgenstein utility maximizing fraudster. Using this framework, we work to understand the conditions that could induce an investment manager to start a Ponzi scheme or some other type of fraudulent fund and we look at how to design regulations to prevent these funds from starting. We consider a variety of plausible regulation structures, model how a fraudster would react to these structures and derive regulations that minimize the damage these types of frauds cause. We find that a key component of effective regulations under this model is a "harm reduction" approach and posit that this approach has not been followed by the SEC and other regulators. We hope that this research, along with better monitoring, will help regulators become more effective at preventing financial fraud.

Mark Groulx School of Planning "Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? An Investigation into the Validity of 3D Computer Landscape Visualizations in Urban Planning" The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the human element on the creation of valid computer landscape visualizations used in community engagement. To this end, the public's preferences for calibrated and biased simulations of two urban environments were quantitatively compared using an image sorting exercise. In-depth interviews were also used to investigate motivations for these preferences and to explore links between the simulations and landscape perception. To provide context, an investigation of attitudes regarding visualization use in planning practice was carried out, which included a survey of Canadian municipal planning departments and interviews with key-informants. Results confirm that the process a visualization preparer follows to create a simulation can positively impact preferences for a landscape if techniques are used to enhance the aesthetics of the virtual model. These same techniques also have a considerable influence on landscape perceptions, including aspects of maintenance, social inclusiveness and place identity. Results from the practitioner surveys and interviews confirm that persuasive visualizations are used in public engagement, but are not always viewed by professionals as a problem. The findings of this study strongly suggest that the current context of visualization use in practice is a threat to successful public engagement, as well as to the health of relationships between stakeholders in the planning process. For this

40

reason, a two-pronged approach to the employment of visualizations is proposed, with equal emphasis placed on changing attitudes toward the technology and creating a public that has a deeper understanding of the visualization process. Jola Gurska Biology "The Chronicles of Sarnia: The Ups and Downs of Long-term Phytoremediation Trials" Phytoremediation is a promising, cost-effective remediation approach where plants are used to remediate contaminated soils, sediments or ground water by degrading, immobilizing or sequestering contaminants. However, such use of plants for remediation can be hindered at sites where a high level of contaminants impedes plant growth. Our research has shown that the addition of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) aids phytoremediation by increasing plant growth in contaminated soils. The PGPR enhanced phytoremediation was tested over a 3-year period at a land farm for petroleum hydrocarbons in Sarnia, Ontario. This site had very high starting concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, of approximately 130,000 mg/kg, which presented a great phytoremediation challenge. Plant growth was monitored and changes in the photosynthetic capacity were examined using Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in the soil were measured both gravimetrically and with gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. Plant growth was improved with the addition of PGPR by as much as 40%. Plants under hydrocarbon stress exhibited negative changes in photosynthetic parameters and PGPR alleviated some of these effects. The addition of PGPR resulted in improved remediation rates with as much as 70% remediation achieved over the 3-year period. Myung Gwang Kim Earth and Environmental "Determining Uncertainties in CO2 Simulations due to Atmospheric Modeling Errors: A Geostatistical Approach" Verifying how much CO2 is being emitted and absorbed is a critical part of any policy agreement that may arise out of recent international negotiations in Copenhagen. However, uncertainties in representation of atmospheric tracer transport lead to imperfect estimates of trace fluxes. Uncertainties in quantifying regional scale carbon budgets may raise issues regarding any international regulatory regimes. Thus errors in atmospheric carbon transport over the regional scale need a tight quantitative treatment. We adopt a geostatistical approach to account for errors in simulating atmospheric CO2 transport over North America, making use of direct comparisons of wind products to measurements. Uncertainties in mixed layer height are also addressed. Correlations in errors in both the temporal and spatial dimensions are

41

determined by variogram analysis. Visualization of the spatial distribution of the errors over the study area is accomplished through a Kriging technique. Information from the error statistics is incorporated in the motions of air parcel trajectories as a way to propagate such uncertainties. This research uses the stochastic nature of an atmospheric model (STILT) (Lin et al, 2004) which implements errors in a Monte Carlo fashion. Temporal and spatial correlations are taken into account as well. The resulting errors in CO2 concentrations are computed using a simple representation of biospheric fluxes. Knowledge of such errors provides a way to estimate regional sources/sinks of carbon various vegetation types without being subjected to biases. Rebecca Hader Health Studies and Gerontology "Are migraines a biologically plausible risk factor for dementia?" As the Canadian population ages, the burden on our community and health care systems of age-related conditions, such as dementia, is increasing and research in these areas is becoming more critical. The focus of this literature review is to discuss the possible relationship between migraines and late-life cognitive outcomes, such as dementia. Dementia is a disabling syndrome that most often affects older adults. The most common forms of dementia are Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Although dementia is the most common neurological disease in older adults, headaches are the most common neurological disorder across all ages. Of the many different types of headaches, one of the most debilitating is migraines. Many of the mechanisms involved in migraine neurophysiology, such as inflammation and reduced cerebral blood flow, are also underlying causes of dementia. Repeated exposure to these mechanisms, due to chronic migraine attacks, has been shown to cause permanent neurological damage. Migraines have also been linked to cognitive impairment and may be associated with dementia outcomes in late life. Gender differences in rates of migraines and dementia, as well as overlapping biological mechanisms of migraines and epilepsy; suggest that the association between migraines and cognitive outcomes may vary within subgroups, with stronger associations among women and those with epilepsy. This presentation will describe the evidence for a biologically plausible connection between migraines and cognitive health outcomes, using epidemiologic and neurophysiology studies. These studies indicate the gaps in knowledge, requiring further research to determine the nature of the association between migraines and late-life cognitive health outcomes allowing for possible clinical interventions, recommendations and treatments. Noman Hai Electrical and Computer Engineering "A 12-bit Low Power Analog-to-Digital Converter"

42

Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are used to convert analog signals into digital form. ADCs form an essential link in the signal processing chain by providing the interface between frontend analog transducers and back-end digital computers that can efficiently implement a wide variety of signal processing functions. Since ADCs are a key component in many electronic systems, their power dissipation and die area requirements have been and remain very important design considerations. Of the different ADC architectures, Algorithmic ADCs are well suited for medium to high resolution applications where moderate sampling rates are required and low die area and low power consumption are essential. They are very attractive for portable, consumer, sensing and biomedical applications where conversion rates of tens of mega-Samples per second (MS/s) are required. In this paper a 12-bit 10MS/s algorithmic ADC, utilizing capacitor sharing and capacitor scaling techniques is presented. The proposed capacitor sharing and capacitor sharing technique greatly reduces the power consumption of a typical algorithmic ADC implementation. Power estimates are derived for the proposed technique, and compared with other low power techniques. Circuit implementation details are presented along with the simulation results. The ADC achieves a signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) of 66dB while consuming 1mW from a 1.5V supply. Derrick Hambly

Geography and Environmental Management

"Why didn't the chicken make it across the road?: An investigation of long-term trends and contributing factors in pedestrian-vehicle collisions" Recent media attention has been given to pedestrian-vehicle collisions in Canadian cities. Of particular note, the Greater Toronto Area saw an especially high number of pedestrian fatalities during the first month of this year. This study examines long-term trends in pedestrian-vehicle collisions across several Canadian cities over a 19-year period. Annual road safety statistics and Transport Canada's national collision database are utilized to investigate temporal (e.g., season, day of week, time of day) and situational (e.g., weather and light conditions, speed limit, accident location) factors that contribute to pedestrian-vehicle collisions and to identify conditions in which higher than expected incident rates occur. Potential safety interventions are then discussed. Yougun Han Chemical Engineering & Nanotechnology "Application of the Digital Image Correlation Technique to Characterize Soft Materials"

43

The digital image correlation (DIC) technique has recently been emerging as a novel noncontact method to characterize behaviors of a material, particularly, a soft material under external stress. Soft materials such as polymers, sticky fluids and biological tissues have much more complex behavior and are less understood than pure solids and liquids, but play essential roles in the development of mico and nano technology, and biomedical engineering. Here, we report on a study of the application of the DIC technique to characterize the stress-strain behavior of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The DIC allows tracking of multiple points of interest in successive images by comparing patterns around the points and does not need any conventional strain gauge sensors attached to samples. This study optimized the DIC testing conditions so that it can apply directly to PDMS and other soft materials. We compared the results from DIC analysis with those from a conventional Instron material tester, showing the advantages of DIC in characterizing the deformation behavior in the large strain region and in tolerating the common sample slipping problem in testing soft materials. Hardening, a particular material property of PDMS in large deformation was described and the test was also verified by FEM numerical test. Future studies will apply the optimized DIC to study other complex soft materials (e.g. hydrogels).

Francis Hane Biology "Interaction of Amyloid-beta with Lipid Membranes" Protein misfolding disease is involved in a myriad of diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, diabetes, and Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis. Each one of these diseases has an implicated protein which tends to misfold, forming long thread-like structures called amyloid fibrils. To date, researchers are not sure why these fibrils form, or why they are pathological to Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-beta is the fibril forming protein which has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Using an Atomic Force Microscope, providing resolution on the nanometer scale, we studied the amyloidosis process of amyloid-beta in the presence of lipid bilayers (modeling a cell membrane) of differing charges. We show that due to hydrophobic and electrostatic forces, the rate of adsorption of amyloid-beta into the lipid bilayer changes depending on the charge of the lipid. Neutral lipids show a steady increase in adsorption of amyloid beta, while amyloid beta shows an immediate affinity to charged lipids and incorporates immediately into the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, we show that on lipid bilayers, amyloid-beta tends to form small oligomers as opposed to forming amyloid fibrils. While this may seem to be a positive development, current research hypothesizes that these small oligomers are in fact more neurotoxic than the amyloid fibrils.

44

Michele Hang System Design Engineering "Measuring Students' Understanding of Control Systems Concepts" The purpose of this research is to develop a diagnostic test to measure students' understanding of key concepts in control systems theory. A validated diagnostic test would not only provide students with an assessment of their understanding, but would also afford instructors an evaluation of the effectiveness of proposed teaching methods and learning activities. A collaborative group of researchers, who have taught the Automatic Controls course in the Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering undergraduate programs, are developing a concept inventory and diagnostic test, populated with questions that are designed to be conceptual in nature. To date, the test design has gone through four iterations. It has been administered to students in the Mechanical and Mechatronics 3B classes at the beginning and end of three academic terms. Psychometric analyses of responses to assess the reliability of the test scores will be presented and discussed. Interviews with course instructors will be undertaken to assess validity of test results and to gauge the impact on teaching of the development and use of the test. With the engagement of students and instructors in designing and evaluating the test, the process has been enriching and the expected end-product is promising. Katarzyna "Kate" Hano Geography "The Accessibility of the Jamaican and Arubian All-inclusive Resorts for Physically Disabled Individuals" In this paper, both attitudinal as well as physical barriers are examined, which inhibit the possibility of travel for physically disabled individuals. The researcher focuses upon the Accessibility Attitudinal and barriers model AABM to explain the four main areas which need to be improved in order to make traveling for physically disabled persons a pleasure, and not a hindrance. Through defining the group under discussion, explaining their difficulties, the barriers they experience and identifying international policies, the paper outlines the steps which have already been taken, as well as need to be taken, to make traveling for pleasure available to all individuals. In addition, the researcher addresses the motives for travel of disabled tourists, as well as how travel agents have the power to clench the motives and desires to travel of disabled individuals. Furthermore, the case of Jamaican and Arubian All-Inclusive Resorts will be discussed to obtain a better understanding of the accessibility provisions at allinclusive resorts for physically disabled individuals. The results of the case studies will be discussed in detail, along with the accessibility checklist used to assess the Caribbean allinclusive resorts. Conclusions and future research recommendations will be presented.

45

Shahram Hashemi Vaziri Civil and Environmental Engineering "Improvement in Estimation Accuracy of Piezoelectric Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Sensors in Asphalt Concrete Pavements"

WIM technologies are available in the market such as piezoelectric, load cell, bending plate, capacitive mat and fiber optic sensors. They are different in terms of fixed and operational costs, precision, life cycle and susceptibility to changes in climate, road and traffic conditions. The applications of WIM sensors are in pavement design, traffic management, infrastructure protection, tolling, weight enforcement, truck safety advisory systems, and data collection for research and environmental purposes. Properly installed and calibrated sensors provide quality data for transportation engineers to design and construct new roads and to protect in-service networks. Consistent WIM data quality mainly depends on the variables such as air temperature and vehicle speed. Factorial experiments including air temperature and speed factors designed and performed on three types of installed WIM piezoelectric sensors at Landfill, Waterloo using the test van with GVW of 2780kg. The purpose of this research is to calculate the sensitivity of the sensors to these factors and to recommend the factors' proper level sizes. The Kistler sensors showed insensitivity to air temperature and to speeds higher than 30 km/hr. The MSI and ECM sensors showed sensitivity to air temperature and speed factors. The recalibrated ECM sensors showed insensitivity to speed; however, the MSI calibrated sensors showed sensitivity to speeds less than 30 km/hr. Level sizes including 1oC and higher than 2 km/hr (e.g. 4 km/hr) are recommended for air temperature and speed factors respectively. At the future step of the research, a proper factor is specified for a variable's level considering other variables to be constant. In conclusion, a three dimensional algorithm will be developed for allocating proper calibration factors for the South Ontario's climate and for Low speeds and volume roads specifically for the MSI which are the least expensive piezoelectric WIM sensors.

Vimy Henderson Civil and Environmental Engineering "Maintenance Methods for Pervious Concrete Pavement in Canada"

46

Pervious concrete pavement is a low impact, environmentally friendly and sustainable paving option for low volume, low speed applications. Pervious concrete has been used in warm climates for decades; however, use in freeze-thaw climates such as Canada has been limited. The Centre for Pavement and Transportation Technology (CPATT) at the University of Waterloo, the Cement Association of Canada, and industry members have partnered together to advance and better understand the performance of pervious concrete in Canada. The project includes laboratory and field testing at locations across Canada. The objective of this project is to develop a sustainable pervious concrete that is suitable for the Canadian freeze-thaw climate. This paper focuses on the permeability performance of the five test sites to date. Surface drainage rates are being evaluated regularly. The sites experience various degrees of winter maintenance in the form of snow removal and sand application to prevent icy conditions. The effect of the winter maintenance on the permeability is described in this paper. Maintenance methods have been tested at four of the five sites for research purposes as many of the sites continue to perform more than adequately with no maintenance at over two years of age. The maintenance methods will be described and analyzed in this paper and include sweeping, rinsing, power washing, vacuuming and combinations of these methods. To date the test areas have performed well in terms of permeability and the results indicate a positive future for the use of pervious concrete pavement in Canada's freeze-thaw climate.

Lynsi Henrickson Biology "Heat Shock Protein 70 in Rainbow Trout Blood: Development of a Non-invasive Marker for Cellular Stress" Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a family of highly conserved proteins critical for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. The most widely studied HSPs for stress detection in animals include the 70 kilodalton family. These intracellular proteins are present either constitutively (HSC70) in unstressed cells or induced (HSP70) rapidly in response to cellular proteotoxicity. Recent studies suggest that HSPs are also released into the extracellular fluid, but this is unclear in non-mammalian vertebrates. The objectives of this study were to determine: i) if HSP70 is detectable in fish blood, and ii) if plasma levels of HSP70 are modulated by stressor exposure. To this end, rainbow trout were exposed to different stressors, including heat shock, cadmium and municipal waste water effluent (MWWE), and blood and various tissues collected at different time points either during or after stressor exposure. The expression of HSP70 and HSC70 in the red blood cells, liver and brain were ascertained by western blotting with antibodies specific for trout proteins. Heat shock (1 h exposure of +10oC above ambient) exposure significantly increased the expression of HSP70, but not HSC70, in these tissues after stressor exposure. The plasma levels of HSP70 in rainbow trout were below western blot detection and, therefore, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for trout

47

HSP70 is being developed. Preliminary results suggest the presence of HSP70 in trout plasma. Overall the studies proposed will validate the usefulness of HSP70 levels in plasma and red blood cells as a non-invasive marker of cellular proteotoxicity in fish. Erin Hobin Health Studies and Gerontology "Are Characteristics of the Physical Environment within the School and School Neighbourhood Associated with Significant Variation in the Body Mass Index of Youth?" Introduction: Body mass index (BMI) is known to vary by individual factors among youth, but little is known about whether BMI varies by school and by characteristics of the physical environment within the school and the school neighbourhood. The aims of this study were to: examine the between-school variability in student body mass index (BMI); and, explore relationships between the physical environments of schools, school neighbourhoods and student BMI. Methods: Student-level data were collected from 1,151 from 30 elementary schools in Ontario, Canada. School facilities data were collected using the school-level module. GIS was also employed to create measures of the physical environment such as land-use mix and fast food accessibility within 1km buffers of participating schools. Multi-level analysis was then applied to estimate the relative effects of individual- and school-level factors on student BMI. Results: School-level differences accounted for a significant amount of variation in student BMI even when student demographics were controlled. This significant variation suggests very different environments for students attending schools that are low versus high in average BMI. Further analyses to identify specific factors of the school neighbourhood that may account for the between-school variability in student BMI will be completed. Conclusions: The residual differences in BMI by school suggest that some characteristics of the school neighbourhood environment facilitate higher levels of BMI in schools beyond individuallevel factors. Although most variation in student BMI lies between students within schools, there is sufficient between-school variation to be of interest to practitioners and policy-makers. Samantha Hodgins Biology "Characterization of the immune response against coldwater disease in rainbow trout." Coldwater disease is an increasingly prevalent issue and has a deleterious impact on farmed populations in Canadian aquaculture. Mortalities can approach approximately 80% in infected populations, causing significant monetary losses. However, the immune response to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of coldwater disease in rainbow trout, has yet to be fully elucidated. This project will assess that response using several measures. Firstly, Major Histocompatibility genes, genes that play an important role in initiating the immune

48

response and specific alleles of these genes can be related to resistance or susceptibility to disease. Thus DNA of individual rainbow trout from six British Columbia strains will be extracted and sequenced to identify allelic differences between subpopulations. Secondly, the immune response to the bacteria will be characterized utilizing various immunological assays such as chemiluminescent detection of oxygen burst responses, qPCR for comparing immune system gene expression levels and ELISA for assessing antibody production. Thirdly, since there is anecdotal evidence that triploid fish are more susceptible to disease, the differences in immune response between triploid and diploid fish will be examined using the techniques mentioned above, as well as quantifying and comparing the mature immune cell populations. While these tests are currently underway the outcome of this project will be able to provide concrete results and aide in the production of new management tools for the aquaculture industry. This will lead to an overall decrease in the loss of farmed rainbow trout and a greater control over coldwater disease in the aquaculture industry.

Christina E. Hoicka Geography and Environmental Management "Information, incentives, or more money: What influences the level and type of retrofit activity resulting from residential energy efficiency programs?" Demand side management and energy conservation programs aimed at homeowners typically offer combinations of information and incentives intended to motivate home retrofits which conserve energy and reduce pollution emissions. Energy analysts and researchers commonly ask: what determines the level of retrofit activity? Information or incentive? Further, which types of retrofit activity takes place? Much research emphasizes that retrofit activity is affected by a combination of discount rate, comfort with risk of implementing new technologies, knowledge and capabilities. According to Natural Resources Canada, households use 17% of consumed energy in Canada. This research analyzes over 10,000 initial and 3,000 final home energy audits made by the Residential Energy Efficiency Project (REEP) between May 1999 and February 2009 in the Waterloo Region. During that time period, both the governments of Canada and Ontario offered audit (information) and incentive programs aimed at lowering household energy consumption. Due to changes in these programs, four policy periods are identified, each of which provides insights into the motivations of homeowners to perform home energy retrofits. These are: (1) incentives offered for initial audits (i.e., information); (2) incentives offered for retrofits; (3) no incentive (i.e., only information provided); (4) both provincial and federal incentives offered for retrofits (i.e., double incentives).These data are

49

analyzed to determine the extent of retrofit changes during these policy periods. The intention of this research is to provide insights into economic, psychology and feedback approaches to determine the effectiveness of energy conservation programs. Jennifer Hood Biology "Waste Water Has An Impact on Benthic Macrophyte Communities, Even in a Heavily Agricultural Catchment: Going beyond TP/Biomass Relationships" Benthic macrophyte (aquatic plant) communities are key to riverine environments. They provide complex habitat and food for many river inhabitants. However, in urban and agricultural rivers, their biomass can reach nuisance levels, and their respiration at night can contribute to night time hypoxia in open water. Most agree that nuisance levels of biomass are a result anthropogenic nutrient enrichment; however, demonstrating empirically that nutrients (N and/or P) produce more biomass is not so easy as rivers are heterogeneous environments and macrophytes are frequently light limited. This has complicated modeling efforts and made riverine eutrophication management difficult. Over several years, canoe surveys were conducted in the Grand River watershed, Ontario, in cooperation with the Grand River Conservation Authority to assess the biomass of macrophytes over many kilometres of river. The data show that macrophytes respond to sewage effluent even in a heavily agricultural landscape, suggesting that nutrient enrichment is the cause. We show how this response can be obscured in a riverine setting by the use of the simple linear regression model that has been successfully applied for lake algae management, and we make suggestions for how macrophyte response to point source nutrient inputs could be modeled in rivers. Jim Huebner School of Planning "Transforming Society: Social Networking and Citizen Engagement" This presentation outlines preliminary results of recent research investigating social networking and public participation in municipalities, and particularly, Citizen Relationship Management systems (CiRM). While public participation in municipal elections continues to decline, citizen engagement in other forms, including online social networking, is expanding rapidly in many social contexts. Municipalities are struggling to connect citizens' capacity for more engagement with municipal participatory goals and practices. CiRM is emerging as a valuable eGovernment technology, but does little to help manage the social engagement and participative aspects of citizen-government relationships when strategically implemented as primarily a transactional system. Municipal strategic planning is evaluated as possible key to the adoption of CiRM as a public participation technology by helping to reduce the complexity of CiRM planning and

50

aligning CiRM goals with community services and development goals that benefit municipal officials, staff and citizens. The research centers on in-depth interviews with local Mayors, CAOs, politicians, and high-level administrators. Findings suggest a strong receptivity for the application of technology to public participation. However, while current public participation is represented by a broad range of established activities and is supported by high-level municipal strategic objectives, the application of available social networking technologies is limited due to several key perceptual and substantive gaps as evident barriers to progress. This presentation highlights some of the gaps between the vision of public participation and current practices. It attempts to help forge pathways toward achieving public participation objectives, foster discussion around a better understanding of public participation strategies and available technologies.

Lirije Hyseni & Amy Gray Health Studies and Gerontology "An Evaluation Framework for a Homeless Youth Shelter" Purpose of research: To propose an evaluation framework for Argus Residence for Young People, a homeless youth shelter located in Cambridge, ON. Specifically, 1) assess current program processes and capacity for further evaluation; 2) literature review and recommendations for a feasible evaluation plan. Methods: Information about the services provided by Argus was gathered from: 1) Executive Director's presentation about the rationale, functioning and funding of Argus 2) Site visits of both residences (male and female), guided by the Program Manager at each location 3) In-depths interviews with the Executive Director, the Program Managers at each site, and a representative from their major funding agency 4) A comprehensive document review of Argus' evaluation tools (intake forms, goal setting forms, exit interviews, HIFIS data, program objectives and logic model) and preliminary analysis of existing data was completed at the male residence Major Findings: 1) Issues with information collection and data storage procedures, leading to underutilization of information. 2) Concerns regarding the structure of the program logic model, illustrating the program theory. 3) Issues with goal attainment tracking. Conclusion: Program priorities are: improvement of data collection procedures and storage to enhance utilization of data, and adoption of Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) to improve goal attainment tracking. Issues with the program logic model were resolved, and a new logic model was developed as a part of the evaluation framework. The program has been advised to proceed with a process evaluation, and once GAS is adopted an outcome evaluation should also be a priority.

51

Basil Ibrahim Statistics and Actuarial Science "Queueing Analysis of a Priority-based Queueing System" We propose a situation in which a single individual is responsible for processing incoming customers to a queueing system that can be classified as being one of two possible types. More specifically, we consider a priority-based system having separate buffers to store high-priority and low-priority incoming customers. This model can be applied under several contexts such as SMS messaging, queueing in medical clinics, insurance claims and food spoilage. We construct a mathematical model and perform queueing analysis to evaluate the performance of this priority-based system, which incorporates the possibility of customers prematurely leaving their queues. In particular, we derive the probability distribution of the number of customers in the system. We also derive the waiting-time distributions of an arbitrarily arriving high-priority customer and of an arbitrarily arriving low-priority customer. As a result, we examine methods of reducing the computational complexity inherent in calculating these probability distributions. Finally, we discuss current expansions of our research such as generalizing the model by relaxing some of the assumptions to make it more realistic, and conducting statistical inference in order to estimate the parameters and perform hypothesis tests on the model. Stephen Inglis Physics and Astronomy "Kinetic Crystallization: How Quantum Fluctuations Crystallize a Classically Disordered State" Classically frustrated systems are those that are unable to satisfy all of their interactions simultaneously. If we imagine spins on the vertices of a hexagon, one frustrated system is to require spins to be anti-parallel to their neighbours on five of the six edges, and parallel on one of them. A lattice of such hexagons is known as the fully frustrated honeycomb lattice, and its classical ground state is extensively degenerate in the number of sites. This work examined the effects of further disorder, via quantum fluctuations, and how they affect this highly degenerate state. To study this problem, we use the well established method of Stochastic Series Expansion Quantum Monte Carlo. We find that quantum fluctuations, terms that promote hopping on the lattice, cause the degenerate state to condense into a well ordered crystalline state. The nature of the crystallization depends on the configuration of the frustration, but any tiled pattern leads to a crystalline solid. We understand why crystallization occurs by examining the state and finding that it maximizes the kinetic energy of the system while not conflicting with the classical ground state. Further exploration into non-tiling frustration is being pursued.

52

Hadi Izadi Chemical Engineering "Development of Biomimetic Polymer Structures at Small Scales for Responsible and Adaptable Adhesion Applications" Clinging like spiders and lizards that can stick and even walk on walls and ceilings has long been a dream for human beings. The secret of their clinging ability relies on the special structures on their foot pads, the so-called dry adhesion system, which allows them to attach readily to, and detach rapidly from, walls and ceilings. The overall objective of this work is to develop biomimetic materials having fine-tuned chemical and physical structure and properties for responsible and adaptable adhesion applications in chemical, materials, and biomedical engineering. Using advanced micro-fabrication techniques, we have fabricated micron-sized patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces. The surface features of patterned PDMS showing gecko foot pad-like structure at micro-scale were characterized by SEM. The wetting and adhesion properties of these PDMS surfaces were studied using water contact angle measurements. It was found that the water contact angle increases from ~90° on a nonpatterned surface to ~150° on a micro-patterned surface. Future studies will involve different polymers such as amphiphilic diblock copolymers with more advanced properties and enhanced adhesion. In addition, micromechanical characterization, including indentation tests, will be applied to visualize the tailored structure and properties of these fabricated polymeric surfaces. Mousa Jafari Chemical Engineering "Gene delivery to mammalian cells by a new class of peptides" Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are 21-23 nucleotide-long double-stranded RNA molecules that can trigger RNA interference (RNAi) pathways both in vitro and in vivo. RNAi is a posttranscriptional gene silencing process whereby siRNAs induce the sequence-specific degradation of complementary messenger RNA (mRNA). Despite their promising therapeutic capacities, siRNA-based strategies suffer from enzymatic degradation and poor cellular uptake during their delivery. To reach the target site effectively and safely, most therapeutic agents require a delivery system. Recent developments in the field of Nanobiotechnology have been opening up new opportunities in targeted delivery of therapeutics. As an outcome, peptidemediated delivery systems have recently emerged as a promising means to substitute or improve conventional drug and gene delivery technologies. In particular, amino acid pairing, self-assembling peptides were discovered recently, which are versatile and easily designed to incorporate a number of specific attributes required for efficient drug/gene delivery. These peptides facilitate the delivery of various types of therapeutics, including chemical drugs, oligonucleotides, small molecules and proteins, into cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this proposal, a library of peptides designed as potential siRNA delivery carriers is presented.

53

Several parameters such as size, surface charge, self/co-assembly, siRNA interaction and loading capacities have been considered in the design. A new class of peptides, which are combinations of amino acid pairing sequences and functional segments of well-known cell penetrating peptides, is introduced. The designed peptides are able to interact with siRNA through non-covalent interactions, which can protect siRNA bioactivity and provide its convenient release at the target.

Richard Jang Computer science "Automating Structure-based NMR Resonance Assignment" NMR-based technologies are not only important for protein structure determination, but also for studying protein dynamics. One of the main bottlenecks in these studies is backbone resonance assignment. We propose an automated pipeline for solving the structure-based assignment problem that starts directly from automatically picked peaks from only N-labelled spectra, and uses the 3D structure of a related protein. This has implications for NMR studies on different mutants of a given protein, where the assignment step must be repeated. Assignments and 3D structures determined from previous steps can be used to accelerate subsequent assignment steps. Moreover, the information from the previous steps allows one to use only N-labelled data and avoid the added expense of using C-labeled data. By using automatically picked peaks, our method allows one to avoid manual inspection of the spectra at the cost of increased noise. The core of the pipeline is our automated spin system compilation and 0-1 integer programming model for resonance assignment. On automatically picked peaks from a publicly available data set for Ubiquitin, we achieved 86-97% assignment accuracy using various known assignments from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank (BMRB). To our knowledge, this is the first automated structure-based resonance assignment system that starts directly from automatically picked peaks from N-labelled spectra. Without using such peaks and assignments from the BMRB, on various simulated data sets from the Xiong-PanduranganBailey- Kellogg's contact replacement method, which to our knowledge is the most errortolerant structure-based method on N-labelled data, our method reduced the assignment error by 5 folds on average. Min Ji Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science "A Multiple State Model for Pricing `Non-recourse' Provision in Joint-Life Reverse Mortgages" Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM) insurance funds initially assumed that the loans will be repaid with a probability of 1.3 times the mortality rate of the youngest borrower in the family. Subsequent experience study has shown the initial termination assumption underpredicts terminations at young ages and over-predicts terminations at late ages. Multivariate

54

statistical models have thereafter been applied in order to improve accuracy in predicting HECM repayment rates. However, multivariate statistical models need much economic and non-economic information about the borrowers, and the model specification is data-driven. My research extends a semi-Markovian joint-life mortality model to incorporate three main termination modes of reverse mortgages: death, long-term care (LTC) entry, and non-health related termination, which arises when the mortgagee moves out for non-health related reasons. This research develops a practical and intuitive termination model for joint-life reverse mortgages. Based on this flexible and transparent framework, it is easy to capture dynamic termination patterns of reverse mortgages. Combined with an appropriate interest rate model and house price appreciation rate model, the proposed approach gives a comprehensive evaluation of the embedded ``non-recourse"" provision in the reverse mortgages.

Shaojun Ji Geography and Environmental Management "Perceived Destination Images of Qingdao, China" Individuals' perceptions about a tourist destination have a significant impact on their travel choices. Consequently, a better understanding of how visitors perceive a destination would contribute to the place's image marketing. The purposes of this research are to investigate the images perceived by first-time and repeat visitors to Qingdao, China, and to determine whether these perceived images are influenced by information sources, socio-demographic characteristics, place attachment, motivations, and previous travel experience. The data were collected by a self-administered survey from 578 visitors in May and June 2009. The results indicated that the images perceived by first-time and repeat visitors were coherent in most of the image attributes. However, significant differences were founded on two image attributes: seafood and special events. It was also revealed that information sources, socio-demographic characteristics, and previous travel experience affected the cognitive images of visitors, while place attachment and motivations only influenced their affective images. These findings suggest that marketers in Qingdao should adjust their city's image according to the preferences of visitors rather than using an image concocted by tourism agencies alone. Additionally, it was also implied that destination marketers should consider the factors influencing the formation of visitors' images when designing and promoting their destination images. Hyunggu Jung Computer Science

55

"A Model for Reasoning about Interaction with Users in Dynamic, Time Critical Environments for the Application of Hospital Decision Making" Our research is in the subfield of computer science known as artificial intelligence. We develop a model for reasoning about interaction with users in dynamic, time critical scenarios, in a way that is sensitive to the cost of bother. In particular, we are concerned about weighing in this cost of interaction, compared to the benefit derived from asking the user with the highest expected quality of decision. We take as a starting point the hybrid interaction model of Cheng and adjust the equations that are provided in order to operate in the context of real-time decision making. In addition, we project our model into the application of healthcare, reasoning about how to find the right person, at the right time, to assist with the care of patients who are arriving at a hospital emergency room, by effectively modeling the doctors in the environment. We conduct simulations of hospital settings that reason about which doctors to ask to attend to patients, based on our proposed model. Our simulations demonstrate valuable improvements introduced due to the modeling of bother. In brief, our research extends previous efforts in reasoning about interaction with users, as part of either mixed-initiative or adjustable autonomy multiagent systems. We conclude by pointing to future research to explore methods for setting the parameter values and learning about our users, over time. Susan Kaai Health Studies & Gerontology "Perceived stigma among patients receiving antiretroviral treatment: A prospective randomized trial comparing an m-DOT strategy with standard-of-care in Kenya" Introduction: After more than two decades, HIV and AIDS remains a highly stigmatized disease across the world. Modified directly observed therapy (m-DOT) or supervised ingestion of antiretroviral treatment (ART), is an innovative model used to support ART adherence. However, little is known about its association with perceived stigma in resource-constrained settings. Methods: In 2003, 234 HIV-infected adults enrolled in a two-arm randomized trial comparing a health centre-based m-DOT strategy with standard self-administration of ART in Kenya. Data on perceived stigma were collected using Berger's HIV stigma scale prior to starting ART and after 12 months. This was a secondary analysis to examine whether perceived stigma was related to how treatment was delivered. Results: Perceived stigma scores declined after 12 months of treatment from a mean of 44.9 (sd=7.6) to a mean of 41.4 (sd=7.7), (t=6.14, P<0.001). No differences were found between the mean scores of participants in both study arms. Also, no difference in scores was detected using generalized linear models (GLM), controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline scores. Conclusion: Findings indicate that a well managed clinic-based m-DOT does not increase perceived HIV-related stigma.

56

Lisa Kadlec Biology "Examining immune responses in walleye to infection by viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus" Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is a disease currently affecting both marine and freshwater fish worldwide. Caused by the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), this disease is of great economic importance in Canada, where fisheries (commercial and recreational) bring in about $11.4 billion annually. Over 25 species in all 5 Great Lakes have been affected by VHS. The purpose of this research is to provide information needed to manage walleye stocks with the continued presence of VHSV in the Great Lakes by examining the immune reaction of walleye to VHSV infection. DNA sequencing of major histocompatibility genes will establish a genetic immunological basis for resistance and susceptibility of different walleye strains, while qPCR and western blotting will determine what gene expression patterns constitute protective (P) and non-protective (NP) responses in these fish. Effects of temperature and stress will be monitored by qPCR and western blotting in P and NP responses during infection trials to examine changes in gene expression. A previously reported neutralizing antibody response to VHSV vaccination will be examined during infection trials to assess occurrence of this response in naturally infected walleye using qPCR and western blotting. Primers for PCR reactions that will assess levels of expression of immune genes have been designed and tested and recombinant protein for the development of antibodies to be used in western blot assays has been initiated. Results of this research will provide the base knowledge for effective stocking strategies that produce resistant fish having increased survivability in the infected waters of the Great Lakes. Ann Kallin Physics and Astronomy "Measuring Renyi Entanglement Entropy with Quantum Monte Carlo" Entanglement has arisen as a new paradigm for the study of correlations in condensed matter systems. Measurement of entanglement has been inaccessible to quantum Monte Carlo simulations until recently - we have developed a method of measuring the so-called Renyi entropy. In this talk I'll discuss the implementation of this new method of measuring entropy and show some of the results of this measurement on the groundstate of one- and twodimensional Heisenberg spin systems.

Reza Karimi Physics and Astronomy

57

"iOvercoming enhanced ionization and identifying noncoulombic dissociation channels of CO2n+ (n=3-6) with few cycle laser pulses" In this work we try to image simple molecules like CO2 by using intense femtosecond laser pulses. This light source has two important properties. One is the shortness(one femtosecond is one thousand million millionth of one second) which allows us to image a moving molecule in the same way that a camera with a fast shutter speed can allow you to record a picture of a moving person. The other is the intensity which is extremely high and causes the molecule to explode. The later may seem surprising, but we need to explode the molecule to make an image of it. Coulomb explosion imaging (CEI) is the general technique where a molecule is ionized and fragmented. The structure of the molecule is then inferred from the measurement of the momentum of all the fragments.

Dhanaraja Kasinathan Applied Mathematics "Optimal Actuator Location" In engineering applications, actuators are frequently used as mechanisms to introduce or to prevent motion. Actuators are control devices which transform an input signal into motion and vice versa. For example, in aerospace engineering, the fin of a fighter jet is mounted with square shaped piezoelectric patches which are placed at an optimal location to suppress the vibration. The effectiveness of an actuator is improved by placing it at an optimal location. The central focus of my research has been on finding the optimal actuator location for optimal $H_{infty}$ control cost criterion. The objective function for $H_{infty}$ criterion is the optimal disturbance attenuation achieved at that particular actuator location. Although state-space for the original problem modeled by partial differential equation is infinite-dimensional, control engineers used only an approximated problem and have published several results. The theory that guarantees optimality of the cost and existence of the corresponding actuator location for the original model is not available to date. The conditions necessary for the existence of an optimal actuator location has now been established in my own research. Also, several methods available in the literature for computing optimal attenuation have been evaluated. The next step is to develop a suitable algorithm for optimizing the actuator location for $H_{infty}$ cost function. Kanwarjeet Kaur Physics "Protein Adsorption on Gold Nanoparticles: Influence of Nanoparticle Size on the Binding Activity of the Adsorbed Proteins"

58

We used UV-visible extinction spectroscopy to study the adsorption of proteins onto gold nanoparticles of various sizes (10-60nm). For these biomolecular binding studies, two proteins with different size and shape, rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Protein A from Staphylococcus aureus were used as model proteins. Protein interaction with the gold nanoparticles was monitored using localised surface plasmon resonance. Protein binding to antibody immobilized on the gold surface causes a detectable shift in the LSPR peak of the gold nanoparticles and, as such, can be used to probe the binding activity of the adsorbed antibody. Detailed calculations were performed using Mie theory. The results show that the thickness of the adsorbed protein layer depends on the size of the gold nanoparticle; the layer thickness increases with the size of the nanoparticles. Different layer thicknesses suggest that proteins adopt different orientations on bigger spheres as compared to smaller spheres. IgG adsorbed on bigger spheres (>20nm) displays no activity towards Protein A. This study shows that the curvature of nanoparticles strongly influences the orientation of adsorbed proteins. This could be useful in the designing of colloidal drug carriers. Adam Keech Optometry "Impact Of Time Between Collection On Human Tear Film Fluid Osmolarity" Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative stability of tear meniscus osmolarity during repeated tear sampling. Methods. Tear fluid from the inferior lateral meniscus was obtained from control (n = 10) and dry eye patients (n = 10) using the TearLabTM Osmolarity System. Four samples from each eye were collected in 15 minute and then 1 minute intervals for a total of eight tear collections per eye, per day. Results. Symptom scores and maximum per-subject osmolarity of the dry eye group {OSDI=40.0±14.8, Osmolarity=321.0±10.7 / 315.9±9.5 (1 min / 15 min intervals)} were significantly higher than controls {OSDI=7.1±4.4, Osmolarity=300.9±6.1 / 297.8±5.9 (1 min / 15 min intervals)}, with p < 0.005 for all groups. Of particular clinical interest, the standard deviation of osmolarity within each eye was significantly increased in the dry eye group as compared to controls. Within each person, no significant difference was found between the osmolarity distributions of 1 minute or 15 minute collection intervals, regardless of whether the person was classified as control or dry eye (p = 0.81/0.16 OD/OS control, p = 0.79/0.54 OD/OS dry eye). Conclusions. No change in osmolarity distribution was observed whether tears were collected in rapid succession or given time to equilibrate between measurements. These data suggest that reflex tearing plays less of a role in determining meniscus osmolarity than previously suspected, and that the inherent tear film instability present in dry eye disease may represent a more substantial source of variance. Ashley Kelly English

59

"Collaborating Across Disciplines" Inspired by Philosophy Professor Dr. Paul Thagard's cross-disciplinary graduate seminar in Cognitive Science at the University of Waterloo and our own multidisciplinary experiences, we have founded a cross-disciplinary student network: Collaborating Across Disciplines (CAD). This network is designed to facilitate multi-/cross- disciplinary work at the graduate student level. In this we hope to contribute to what we feel is an underrepresented area of scholarship discussing the role of the junior-level scholar in multidisciplinary research. In particular, we will discuss issues faced by students from different academic traditions. Speaking broadly from the perspective of the humanities we will discuss issues particular to work outside of that tradition; on the other hand, we will, as a multidisciplinary group, speak as scientists and engineers and the challenges working with humanities scholars and social scientists. Furthermore, we will clearly outline current scholarship on multidisciplinarity as it relates to this junior-level scholarship and how it may be modified to speak specifically to the research practices and teaching of young scholars (Thagard (forthcoming) and 2005). Ultimately, the purpose of our talk will be to explicate some of the strategies that we have developed for negotiating disciplines outside of our own. Finally, we will provide a short overview of the goals of CAD and how we would like to be involved with the UW community and how the community can involve itself with our efforts. Authors: Kelly, Ashley; Armstrong, Joshua; Abbott, Nike; Gallagher, Kaitlin; Liu, Jie (Jade) Pooyan Khajehpour Tadavani Computer Science "Learning an Affine Transformation for Non-linear Dimensionality Reduction" The foremost nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithms provide an embedding only for the given training data, with no straightforward extension for the test points. This shortcoming makes them unsuitable for problems such as classification and regression. On the other hand, linear dimensionality reduction algorithms are capable of handling the out-of-sample examples easily, but their effectiveness is limited by the linearity of the subspace they reveal. In this research, we propose a novel dimensionality reduction algorithm which learns a parametric mapping between the high-dimensional space and the embedded space. The key observation is that when the dimensionality of the data is greater than its quantity, it is always possible to find a linear transformation that preserves a given subset of distances, while changing the distances of another subset. We present a method that first maps the points into a high dimensional feature space, and then explicitly searches for an affine transformation that preserves the local distances while pulling the non-neighbor points as far apart as possible. We formulate this search as an instance of semi-definite programming. The resulted transformation can then be used to map out-of-sample points into the embedded space.

60

Saad Khan Biology "Examination of curcumin-induced heat shock protein gene expression" The heat shock response is a cellular homeostatic mechanism that is activated in response to stressful stimuli causing an increase in unfolded protein, which triggers the expression of heat shock protein (hsp) genes. HSPs are molecular chaperones that assist in protein synthesis, folding and degradation and prevent stress-induced protein aggregation. Additionally, exposure of cells to various stressors or disease states that inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) can induce hsp gene expression. Curcumin, a phenolic compound found in the Indian spice, Curcuma longa (Turmeric), was shown to have antiinflammatory, antitumor and anti-amyloid properties. In the present study, curcumin inhibited proteasomal activity and induced the accumulation of HSPs in the frog model system, Xenopus laevis. Treatment of A6 kidney epithelial cells with curcumin enhanced ubiquitinated protein levels and inhibited chymotrypsin-like activity. Furthermore, exposure of cells to 10 - 50 μM curcumin for 24 h induced HSP30 and HSP70 accumulation. This phenomenon was controlled at the transcriptional level since pretreatment of cells with KNK437, a heat shock factor inhibitor, repressed HSP accumulation. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that curcumin-induced HSP30 was detectable primarily in the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern with minimal detrimental effects on the actin cytoskeleton. Finally, elevation of the incubation temperature from 22 to 30 ºC greatly enhanced the curcumin-induced accumulation of HSP30 and HSP70. These findings are of importance given the interest in identifying agents that can upregulate HSP levels with minimal effects on cell structure or function as a therapeutic treatment of protein folding diseases. (Supported by NSERC) Shila Khanal Civil and Environmental Engineering "Development of Interlocking Concrete Pavement Crosswalk Performance Models" This paper describes a research study which involves the two-way partnership of Centre for Pavement and Transportation Technology (CPATT) located at University of Waterloo and Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute (ICPI) to quantify the structural performance of four interlocking concrete pavement designs under two loading scenarios. Garbage trucks with a maximum load up to 56,000kg are driven on the test track and the volume of traffic on the ring road is similar to that on a typical urban road. There are eight crosswalks of four different designs in these two locations. Sand Set Concrete Base Concrete Headers (SSCBCH) is one of the designs. Similarly, the combination of asphalt base, granular base and steel header, and aluminum header are other designs of the crosswalks. Strain gauges, Moisture probes, Earth pressure cells and thermistors are installed in the crosswalks to monitor the structural and environmental impact upon various loading. The Bituminous Set Concrete Base Concrete Header (BSCBCH) design has outperformed all others. Initial life cycle cost analysis for the

61

period of 40 years is also carried out. BSCBCH is the most expensive design in terms of preliminary cost analysis for the period of 40 years and Sand Set Granular Base Concrete Header shows overall excellent performance. This paper presents the performance model of the crosswalks from completion of construction to date. Mahmoud Khater Systems Design "Dynamic Switching of MEMS Shunt Switches" MEMS switches have many RF applications including signal routing, tunable impedance matching networks, antenna switches, true time-delay (TTD) phase shifters, tunable filters and other high-frequency reconfigurable circuits. MEMS switches are better suited for these applications compared to their solid-state counterparts because they offer low insertion loss, high off-state isolation and better linearity over broad frequency ranges. We use shunt capacitive microswitches where a DC bias is applied between a micro-bridge and a coplanar waveguide (CPW) underneath it. When the DC voltage exceeds the static pull-in limit, it causes the MEMS bridge to collapse on the dielectric layer insulating the transmission line. The main purpose of this research is to introduce a method of reducing the actuation voltage of capacitive MEMS switches. In order to do that, we use a combined DC-AC voltage forcing to actuate the switch compared to the traditional DC actuation method (static switching). We investigate dynamic switching modes of capacitive MEMS shunt switches using a biased AC signal. We show that the voltage requirements for dynamic switching are significantly less than those for traditionally used static switching. We found out that significant reductions in actuation voltage, up to 60%, can be obtained. However, the switching time is longer than that realized using static switching. We also examined various approaches to further reduce the actuation voltage of dynamic switching and introduce a parameter identification technique to estimate the switch properties, namely, bridge thickness and residual stress in addition to the estimation of the damping in the system. Marsha Kisilak Optometry "In Chicks, Imposed Optical Blur and Abnormal Lighting Conditions Increase Components of Astigmatism and the Amplitude of their Diurnal Oscillation" Purpose: In chicks, an animal model of eye development, there are several potential optical signals which might indicate whether eye growth needs to be slowed or increased in order to produce an in-focus image on the retina. One possible signal is astigmatism: unequal powers along different axes. Diurnal rhythms (24 hours) occur in many eye components. Here, we report on changes in astigmatism and its diurnal rhythm as a result of a variety of altered visual experiences.

62

Methods: Seven groups of chicks were raised in various experimental conditions. Some birds were allowed to develop naturally while others wore a goggle on one eye with various powers. For others, the lighting conditions in which they were raised were changed. Components of astigmatism were calculated for all groups at several time points and compared among groups. Results: In naturally developing eyes, larger values of blur due to astigmatism decrease with age and oscillate with a diurnal rhythm. The magnitude of astigmatic components and their amplitudes of oscillation are larger in dark-reared birds. In goggled eyes, blurs for the two components of astigmatism increase with differing time courses. In eyes recovering from imposed optical blur, the magnitude of astigmatic components and their diurnal amplitude increased. Conclusions: Increases in the magnitude of astigmatism and its amplitude of diurnal oscillation may help provide a larger signal to the direction of eye growth when the retinal image is degraded. This may also indicate that normal visual experience reduces astigmatism and its amplitude of diurnal oscillation. Laura Knap Architecture "Eros, Eremos, Eden: Green Space and Desire in North America" On a continent where human influence and activity is steadily expanding and intensifying and that yet remains saturated with myths about our abiding relationship to the natural landscape, green space is an increasingly contested commodity. But what is green space, and what is it for? As Nancy McKinnon writes, the term "green space" is highly ambiguous, "suggesting a lack of value and meaning, the need only for something green regardless of what it is." (1) But while the vagueness of the term "green space" is on one hand frustrating, McKinnon admits that it still succeeds in occupying a powerful place in the imagination. Green space, even as a site for something green regardless of what it is, stimulates enigmatic but real desire. Written on and between major European visions for North America as an Edenic garden, frontier wilderness, site of natural resource, and "new" world, this research explores the trajectories, geometries, temporalities and intersections of greenness and desire, implicating the two - often playfully in mutual processes that rework and complicate boundaries between the natural and the cultural. It exploits the openness and diversity of ideas about greenness, engaging in further elaborations rather than distillations, fleshing-out green space as it opens up amid the dynamic currents of eros, longing and love. 1. Nancy McKinnon, "The Issue of Control in the Contemporary Urban Frontier: Swimming in the Sea," in The Feminist Reconstruction of Space. ed. Louise May (St. Norbert Manitoba: St Norbert Arts and Cultural Centre, 2000), 110. Jae Kyung Woo Mathmatics "Risk analysis for a class of discrete renewal processes"

63

Analysis of a generalized Gerber-Shiu function is considered in a discrete-time (ordinary) Sparre Andersen renewal risk process with time-dependent claim sizes. The results are then applied to obtain ruin related quantities under some renewal risk processes assuming specific interclaim distributions such as a discrete $K_{n}$ distribution and a truncated geometric distribution (i.e. compound binomial process). Furthermore, the discrete delayed renewal risk process is considered and results related to the ordinary process are derived as well.

Zhenning Li Electrical and Computer Engineering "The Approach to Interact with Computer through Gesture: A Vision Based Markerless Human Motion Tracking System" We propose a new vision based markerless human motion capture system, which enables a computer or a robot to understand the human gesture. Other than using the traditional Human Computer Interaction methods, such as a keyboard and a mouse, this new technology sheds light on a completely innovative and more natural interaction approach - through human gesture. This system is designed within the particle filter framework, and the goal is to track the 3D human motion. The monocular image sequence is used as the input, and this makes the challenging task even more difficult. A full body 3D human model is built, which consists of a skeleton model and an outer shape model. A partitioned particle filter is implemented and the system has achieved successful tracking for upper body in near real-time processing. The system has been tested using videos from the Carnegie Mellon University Graphics Lab Motion Capture Database, and the results are available in both tracking videos and quantitative error analysis. Each frame of the test video has the size of 320 by 240 pixels, and our system can successfully track the human subject at a speed of more than 3Hz when 1000 particles are used on a 2.67GHz CPU, with an average error of 8.2cm and error variance of 71.6cm^2. Considering the use of monocular image only, this result demonstrates that our methodology is very promising. In the near future, we will further investigate the full body tracking using stereo camera.

Lien Lien School of Planning

64

"Transboundary Ecology and Conservation" West and Central African rainforests are disappearing at alarming rate of 5% yearly. This phenomenon is facilitated by an increase in human population. Consequently, forest ecosystems of these regions are fragmented into forest patches, significantly inadequate to support biodiversity, conservation goals and other management efforts. To overcome these tendencies, politicicians, ecologists, conservation biologists and environmentalists have opted for large scale natural ecosystems protection. "Trans-boundary protected areas conservation" provides hope for sustainable ecosystems conservation and management strategy. Korup and Cross-river regions constitute a complex of protected areas labeled as a "biodiversity hotspot" of great conservation priority. This region covers over 15,000 km2 of protected and communal lands. National species richness in Nigeria is high with over 4,600 species of plants, 250 species of mammals and 840 species of birds. The region contains the largest intact closed-canopy rainforest, representing 40% of Nigerian's remaining forest. Among its many biologically significant features are small populations of Cross River gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and Preuss red colobus (Procolobus pennantii preussi) monkeys. Cameroon's Korup region is highly rich in species. One quater of all african primates live in this region. However, logging, extensive farming and poaching, coupled with a transboundary land dispute between the two countries have adversely affected biodiversity regime of the region and consequently it ecological functions. We used satellite photos, participatory rural appraisal tools to describe forest ecology along Cameroon and Nigeria border, the impact of human intervention on biodiversity and conservation efforts taken by the two countries to overcome threats on biodiversity. We believe that, the best outcomes will be achieved by peaceful agreements, implementation of social responsibilities and sustainable values. Understanding problems and differences of each border area and reaching collective agreement could positively contribute to the protection and preservation of biodiversity but also to the promotion of peace in the region. Taoran Lin Physics and Astronomy "A Numerical Study of the Nonmonotonic Residual Entropy in Spin Ice Materials" Studies of geometrically frustrated systems create great opportunities for the explorations of a broad range of novel and interesting concepts such as fractional and topological excitations and spin glass dynamics. Among such systems, recent study of pyrochlore spin ice materials dysprosium titanate and holmium titanate renews an historic interest in the residual entropy in water ice. These spin materials possess the same kind of "zero-point" entropy as in water ice, and their lattice structures remain intact while the spins of the magnetic ions are diluted by nonmagnetic ones. Thus, these materials are ideal for experimental and theoretical study of the interplay between quenched disorder and frustrated interactions. We report the results of Monte Carlo simulations of diluted spin ice at temperatures below 10K. We use a microscopic Hamiltonian model which takes into account the short range exchange interaction and the long

65

range dipolar interaction, where the latter is addressed by Ewald's summation technique. Comparing simulated specific heat results with experiment, compelling agreement can be found for most of the dilution levels. At very high dilution, a substantial discrepancy is also presented. Our study supports the validity of our microscopic model Hamiltonian in the presence of dilution. And the model accounts for the interesting nonmonotonic residual entropy observed in experiment. Possible reasons for the discrepancy at very high dilution between theory and experiment are also suggested for future study. Jun Liu Department of Applied Mathematics "Dynamical Behaviors of Delayed Neural Networks with Discontinuous Neuron Activations" Dynamical behaviors of neural networks play important roles in their many applications. In practice, time-delays are inevitable in the applications of neural networks, due to the finite switching speed of amplifiers and communication time. When dealing with dynamical systems with high-slope non-linearity, it is often more desirable to model them with a system of differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides. We investigate the dynamical behaviors of a class of delayed neural networks with discontinuous neuron activations and general mixed time-delays involving both time-varying delays and distributed delays. Due to the presence of time-varying delays and distributed delays, the step-by-step construction of local solutions cannot be applied. This difficulty can be overcome by constructing a sequence of solutions to delayed dynamical systems with high-slope activations and show that this sequence converges to a desired Filippov solution. We then derive two sets of sufficient conditions for the global attraction of the equilibrium point, in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) and $M$-matrix properties (equivalently, some diagonally dominant conditions), respectively. Convergence behaviors of both the state and the output are discussed and numerical examples are also presented to demonstrate our main results. The obtained results extend previous work on global stability of delayed neural networks with Lipschitz continuous neuron activations, and neural networks with discontinuous neuron activations and only constant delays. We also discuss the possibilities and difficulties in extending the results to hybrid systems and stochastic systems, by considering state jumps, switching modes, and stochastic disturbances in the current model.

Michelle Liu Biology "Characterization of p53 Expression in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Cell Lines"

66

The tumour suppressor protein p53 is a critical protein in the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. It acts as a transcription factor that is involved in initiating the apoptotic pathway; disruption of this pathway can lead to various forms of cancer. Previous studies of p53 expression and regulation in lower vertebrate species have shown potential differences in its control, in comparison to the better characterized mammalian pathways. To evaluate its biomarker potential for aquatic toxicology, a rainbow trout specific polyclonal antibody was developed using purified recombinant rainbow trout p53. The purified antibody was shown to be successful in detecting p53 in rainbow trout cell lines and tissues. This antibody is now being used in the characterization of p53 expression in rainbow trout cell lines. Studies are in progress using Western blotting and RT-PCR to determine the basal and dose response expression levels of p53 protein and transcripts in rainbow trout cell lines when DNA damage is induced. Initial dosing with the genotoxicant bleomycin has not yet shown a significant change in p53 expression. These preliminary results infer the possibility of an alternate mechanism of DNA damage checkpoint reaction in these cell lines, which may be independent of p53 induction. Yungching Lo Political Science "Taiwan's Anti-nuclear Movement: A Case Study of the Opposition to the Fourth Nuclear Power Plant" Since Taiwan's anti-nuclear movement emerged in the late 1980s, its development has closely related to the processes of democratization. In particular, the opposition to the construction of the Fourth Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) brought various environmentalists, including local protesters, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and political elites together and attracted broad public attention. However, after a twenty-year struggle, Taiwan's anti-nuclear movement failed to impede the construction of the FNPP. The purpose of my research is to investigate the influence of Taiwan's changing political situations on the political strategies of anti-nuclear movement activists and the result of the opposition to the FNPP. To comprehensively demonstrate the parameters of Taiwan's anti-nuclear movement, this article made a historical review and employed multiple theoretical perspectives, including new social movements, political opportunity structures (POS), and public opinion. This study showed that Taiwan's democratization provided great opportunities for anti-nuclear movement activists to establish their alliance with the major opposition party-the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP). Nevertheless, through this strong coalition, the DPP actually captured Taiwan's anti-nuclear movement and utilized it as an effective political tool to expand its political power. This fact prevented movement activists from obtaining sufficient social support for their anti-nuclear statements. Thus, when the DPP gained the power of central government and Taiwan's economy slowed down, the initiative to oppose the FNPP was abandoned. In conclusion, this article clearly stated that the development of Taiwan's anti-nuclear movement extremely depended on political circumstances, elite calculations and interactions during the processes of democratization.

67

Holly Lorentz Optometry "The impact of tear film components on in vitro lipid uptake to silicone hydrogel and hydrogel contact lens materials" Purpose: To analyze the influence of tear film components on in vitro deposition of a model lipid (cholesteryl oleate; CO) on silicone hydrogel (SH) and conventional hydrogel (CH) contact lens materials. Methods: Balafilcon A (BA), lotrafilcon B (LB), and etafilcon A (EA) were incubated with three different doping solutions for 1 or 7 days: a CO only solution, a lipid doping solution (LDS) containing five common lipids, and an artificial tear solution (ATS) containing the LDS plus lysozyme and mucin, at physiological concentrations. Each doping solution contained the same concentration of radiolabelled 14C-cholesteryl oleate. After soaking, lenses were removed from the doping solution, extracted, and deposition of CO was quantified using a LS6500 Beckman Coulter beta counter. Results: For each doping solution, CO deposition was greater after 7 days than after 1 day (p=0.007). The lens materials deposited statistically different amounts of CO (p<0.0001), with the order of deposition being BA>LB>EA. The doping medium in which the CO was suspended had a significant impact on the amount of CO deposited (p<0.001), with ATS < LDS < lipid alone. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that CO deposition is cumulative over time and that SH materials deposit more CO than a CH FDA group IV material. It also demonstrates that deposition of CO is influenced by the composition of the doping medium and that in vitro models must use more physiologically relevant incubation solutions that mimic the natural tear film if in vitro data is to be extrapolated to the in vivo situation Greg MacNeill Biology "Effect of PGPR on Soil Salinity and Biomass Production During a Two-Year Phytoremediation Field Trial of a Brine Impacted Site" Soil salinity is a major environmental concern, affecting over 1 billion hectares worldwide. These impacts can occur as a result of human activities such as agriculture or upstream oil and gas production. Phytoremediation, a method of remediation that sequesters or degrades contaminants using plants, has been examined as a method of removing salts from contaminated soils. However, high salinity negatively impacts on plant growth which lowers the rate of salt removal. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been shown to improve plant growth under, and used in combination with tolerant plant species in a PGPR enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS). This study follows a two-year remediation field trial of a salt contaminated field site. The seeds of oats and three grass species were treated with PGPR strains (UW3/UW4 or CMH3) to evaluate the effect of PGPR on salt uptake into plants and remediation of soils. The electrical conductivities (EC) of soils were measured three times

68

annually, and plant health, biomass production, and concentration of salt in above ground tissue were monitored to follow the progress of remediation. It was found that plots treated with PGPR showed a more consistent decrease in EC compared to non-PGPR plots, and CMH3 treated plots had better remediation than UW3/UW4 treated plots. Over the two year study, the salinity of the entire site decreased by approximately 25%. John Makeddah Environment and Resource Studies "Investigating the Feasibility of Establishing a Biosphere Reserve on the Northeast Coast of St. Lucia" The feasibility of establishing the northeast coast of St. Lucia as a UNESCO-designated Biosphere Reserve (BR) was investigated. The northeast consists largely of dry forest and communities, but is the next frontier for tourism development. A BR is a concept of sustainability that attempts to harmonize development, the welfare of the people, and the maintenance of a healthy environment. Two hundred and fifty individuals participated in interviews and surveys which constituted the potential stakeholder groups in a BR. They included community members, civil society, government officials, tour operators, tourists, developers, and private land owners. Qualitative analysis within the context of a sustainability framework revealed various themes pertinent to the designation of a BR. Major findings included the weakness of the development process on the island: its lack of rigorous policies, the absence of a national land use plan and low public participation, all hindrances to sustainable development. People need development within their communities and see the dry forest as suitable for large scale development. The northeast coast is not yet ready to be designated a BR as it must overcome certain challenges that impede sustainability. There need to be appropriate polices implemented and enforced that govern development, land use, environmental impact assessments, and public participation. Civil society and local governance are non-existent within the communities and must therefore be built up in order to develop a sense of ownership and control over the development of their surroundings. People must be sensitized and educated about the dry forest as an important ecosystem that needs preservation. Erin Maloney Psychology "The Effect of Math Anxiety on Counting" Individuals with math anxiety have been found to differ from their non-anxious peers on measures of higher-level mathematical processes, but not simple arithmetic. The current work examines differences between math anxious and non-math anxious individuals in more basic numerical processing using a visual enumeration task. In a visual enumeration task, participants

69

are presented with a display of objects (here squares) and are simply asked to identify the number of objects. Math anxious individuals, relative to non-math anxious individuals, showed a deficit when counting five or more objects. Furthermore, working memory was found to mediate this group difference. These findings demonstrate that the problems associated with math anxiety exist at a level more basic than would be predicted from the extant literature. Erin Mandel Kinesiology "Cerebral vascular resistance index and end-tidal CO2 measurements in young and older men and women" Fainting is a concern in both young women and in the elderly. When blood flow to the brain is reduced during an orthostatic stress (sitting or standing), faintness and pre-syncope can occur. We recruited 21 young (24.5±1.2 years) and 19 older (57.2±1.7 years) men and women. We measured the velocity of blood in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with Doppler ultrasound, mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer) and end-tidal CO2 (ET-CO2) while participants were supine, sitting and standing. We hypothesized that greater cerebral vascular resistance (i.e. reduced flow) due to lower ET-CO2 would lead to orthostatic hypotension. In all participants, ET-CO2 and MCA velocity decrease when moving from supine to sitting to standing. MAP increases with standing in the older group and decreases in the younger group, particularly in young women (87.4±2.2mmHg to 82.3±2.6mmHg). We have also shown a tendency for a greater decrease of ET-CO2 with standing in young women (Young men: Sit: 43.1±0.8mmHg; Stand: 40.3±0.9mmHg; Young women: Sit: 41.2±0.7mmHg; Stand: 37.6±0.8mmHg). Age decreases ET-CO2, particularly in the supine position (Young men: 44.7±0.8mmHg, Young women: 42.8±0.7mmHg, Older men: 40.4±1.1mmHg, Older women: 40.8±1.1mmHg; Interaction effect: P=0.03); however there are no age-related changes in MCA velocity (P=0.29). The MCA gets smaller with age (Ozdogmus et al (2008) Zentralbl Neurochir 69:139-143), yet our results show unchanged MCA velocity. These results indicate that lower ET-CO2 during standing in young women may play a role in greater orthostatic hypotension, and that there is reduced brain blood flow in the older group. Grace Martin Biology "Does the Spatial Distribution of Soluble Reactive Phosphorus Support the Role of Allocthonous Inputs and/or Dreissenids in Fostering Cladophora Growth in Lake Ontario?" Despite the success of phosphorus loading controls in remediating eutrophication problems in the Great Lakes during the 1960's and 1970's, nuisance Cladophora glomerata returned to shorelines and water intakes in the 1990's, especially in the lower Great Lakes. In an attempt to quantify the degree to which local inputs and internal cycling by dreissenid mussels contribute

70

to phosphate (PO43-) concentrations that permit Cladophora growth, intense sampling for soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was carried out from May to October, 2009, in a nearshore segment of Lake Ontario near Pickering, Ontario. SRP concentrations ranged from 0.3-6.5µg/L, with the lowest overall concentrations occurring in August and the highest occurring in October. The results suggest higher SRP in the nearshore compared to offshore waters and there is evidence of elevated SRP concentrations in samples taken near point source and nonpoint sources, as well as above dreissenid mussel beds. As the standard SRP assay is known to overestimate PO43- in P-limited waters, alternative methods such as dialysis combined with MAGIC and a steady-state radiobioassay were also utilized and their results will be compared.

Edgar Mateos-Santillan Electrical and Computer Engineering (Certificate in University Teaching ­ CUT) "Clickers for the Software Engineering classroom at University of Waterloo" The introduction of personal response systems also known as "clickers" into the classroom has triggered a series of expectations about how they would modify the learning process. In the last decade the use of clickers in the classroom has increased and so did the number of papers published on this topic. This work synthesizes some of the recent educational research on the use of clickers in teaching. It briefly explains what a clicker is and how it works. It then discusses a series of successful cases where the use of clickers increased the class participation in the engineering classroom and depicts some implications of the use of this technology in terms of class preparation and class delivery. Finally it explores, with few examples, how appropriate could be the adoption of clickers in the first year course Introduction to Methods of Software Engineering at University of Waterloo. Krista Mathias Health Studies and Gerontology "A Care Planning Strategy for Traumatic Life Events in Community Mental Health and Inpatient Psychiatry Based on the interRAI Assessment Instruments" Clinical triggers from the Traumatic Life Events Clinical Assessment Protocol (CAP) identify individuals who require immediate safety interventions as well as those who might benefit from formal services or additional supports to reduce the psychosocial impact of traumatic life events. The objectives of this research are to describe the subpopulations identified by the CAP and to examine the unique needs of these subpopulations across psychiatric hospital and community-based mental health service settings. Persons receiving mental health assessment services in psychiatric hospitals and community-based mental health services were examined using the RAI-MH and the interRAI CMH. Descriptive analysis was conducted across psychiatric hospital and community-based mental health service settings to compare the two triggered

71

groups to those without traumatic experiences (not triggered group). This CAP may help mental health professionals respond to the incidence and consequences of traumatic experiences in two ways. First, the CAP is a standardized case-finding methodology that will help to identify persons who are currently being abused or victimized, as well as those who have experienced lifetime traumatic events. This will help to target interventions at the person level, and provide an evidence-based framework for identifying needs at the population level. The CAP also includes summary guidelines on interventions for immediate safety concerns and for ongoing consequences of trauma, which can be used to inform person-specific care planning. In that sense, the CAP can also be considered an educational intervention that has the potential to improve mental health staff members' awareness of, and responsiveness to, trauma. Catherine McAllister School of Planning "Nature and the Child Friendly City" Researchers have identified some disturbing trends in today's children. Outdoor play is decreasing. The obesity epidemic is well-documented. Children are losing their connection with the natural world and fear their communities. They are rarely asked to be involved in designing or planning their own spaces. Despite the signing of the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991, and despite efforts such as UNICEF's Child Friendly Cities, these issues persist in Canada. Using the City of Waterloo, Ontario as a case study, this research asks: "How do children perceive and interact with their communities and the natural environment within urban settings?" Neighbourhood mapping, surrogate image rating and interviews were used to gather data from elementary school students, teachers and city officials. While children appreciate "nature" images, they prefer groomed spaces. Only about half of the children included natural elements in drawings of their neighbourhoods. Fear is the major barrier between children and nature. Although most officials agree that children's views are important, they are rarely involved in decision-making. Presumed responsibility for fostering the childnature relationship and for promoting community involvement is offloaded from government to teachers to parents. Waterloo could benefit greatly from child-friendly design and participatory decision-making. Child Friendly Cities improve the quality of social interactions, promote healthier lifestyles and help secure the long-term sustainability of natural spaces. This research provides a starting point for the creation of a Child Friendly City, as well as important clues about how to re-connect children with the natural environment. Elliott McMillan Kinesiology "Red and White Muscle Differ in Basal Expression of Apoptotic Protein Expression and Signalling Pathways"

72

Skeletal muscle apoptosis has been implicated in the muscle atrophy observed during aging and several diseases. Currently, analysis of apoptosis in muscle has been predominantly limited to whole tissue, with few comparisons between different muscle/fiber types. Therefore, we examined the expression of several apoptotic indices in rat red gastrocnemius (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscle. There was a higher (p<0.05) protein content of Hsp70, AIF, cytochrome c, Smac, and Bcl-2 in RG versus WG muscle. In contrast, there was no difference in Bax and XIAP protein levels between tissues. In addition, caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity as well as the level of DNA fragmentation were higher (p<0.05) in RG compared to WG muscle. The antiapoptotic protein ARC was also found to be highly expressed in RG muscle. Subcellular analysis on nuclear-, cytosolic-, and mitochondrial-enriched fractions found that the ARC is predominantly cytosolically localized. Collectively, this data suggests that apoptotic signaling is different across muscle/fiber types. It remains to be determined if these differences influence muscle/fiber type loss and/or atrophy in specific disease states. These findings are also important from a methodological perspective as considerations should be made when performing analyses on mixed muscle or in conditions showing fiber type alterations. Zhongxian Men Mathmatics "Asymmetric and heavy tail stochastic volatility models: a slice sampler within Gibbs approach" Univariate Stochastic Volatility (USV) models have been intensively studied in the last several decades. Many methods have been proposed in the estimation of parameters and logvolatilities. In this paper, we look at the USV models by using the slice sampler which avoids the use of the Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) method. From our proposed algorithm, we can obtain a sampled point of the target distribution from each iteration. Since the M-H method is not applied, the proposed slice sampler within Gibbs algorithm is more efficient and the sampled series gets stationary much faster. Simulation studies and real data applications show that our method works well. keywords: Stochastic volatility model; Slice sampler; Metropolis-Hastings method; Stochastic volatility; Asset return; Bayesian framework; Gibbs sampler. Wendy Michaud Biology "Diet specialization of Arctic charr over a latitudinal gradient" In 1972, Roughgarden proposed the niche width of a population could be thought of as a product of the balance between intra- and interspecific competition. In this case, intraspecific competition leads to a selective advantage for individuals who are able to utilize resources less commonly used by conspecifics, while interspecific competition will favor those who are most efficient at utilizing a particular prey source if alternative trophic niches are occupied by other

73

species. Therefore, niche expansion should occur for populations found in ecosystems with fewer heterospecific competitors (presumed reduced interspecific competition). Arctic lakes tend to be species depauperate compared to those at lower latitudes, which follows with the general observation that species diversity generally decreases with latitude. Assuming interspecific competition is directly related to species diversity, fish species found at higher latitudes should experience reduced interspecific competition and wider niche widths than those at lower latitudes. In this study we test the hypothesis that variation in diet (quantified here using δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes) within populations of Arctic charr decreases with latitude. The Arctic charr is a good model species to use for examining these hypotheses because it has a large latitudinal range, with populations subject to differing levels of inter- and intraspecific competition across this gradient. Akshaya Mishra Systems Design Engineering "3D Surface Reconstruction from Scattered Point Clouds" Reconstructing a regular 3D surface from partial measurements has several applications in medical image reconstruction and range data analysis. The current image acquisition devices and 3D scanners often generate incomplete, incoherent and scattered measurements. So, getting a true interpretation of the measured entity from the partial and scattered measurements is a problem of great interest to the computer vision community. The 3D surface reconstruction from scattered point clouds (measurement) is presently carried out using convex hull and quick hull concepts. Quick hull based 3D surface reconstruction techniques such as Delaunay triangulation, Vornoi diagram and their subsequent modifications are widely used for reconstructing a surface from a set of unordered points. These methods are local in nature, so they often produce incorrect triangulation in the presence of noise and high curvature boundaries. Therefore, to handle noisy and high curvature boundaries, incorporation of a global model is essential. A deformable model that uses a global prior has been widely used for 2D and 3D image segmentation. We found these methods can be used for 3D surface reconstruction from point clouds. This paper formulates a deformable model based 3D surface reconstruction method. Let's consider the scattered point clouds as a set of random observations represented using a deformable model and let's assume the deformable model is continuous in slope and curvature. Then the total energy of the deformable model can be represented using the sum of an attractive energy and a repelling energy. The contracting energy enforces a smoothness constraint on the deformable model, while the attracting energy pulls the deformable model towards the point clouds. The internal is defined using a penalty on slope and curvature, while the external energy is computed by diffusing the point clouds using some mathematical diffusion equations. The final reconstructed surface is obtained by minimizing the total energy of the deformable model. The performance of the proposed approach will be demonstrated during the presentation.

74

Andrew Mitchell Kinesiology "Glutathione Depletion Alters Muscle Redox Status and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential while Increasing DNA Fragmentation in Skeletal Muscle" Oxidative stress has been shown to induce cellular damage and apoptotic cell death. Glutathione (GSH) is an abundant thiol that plays an important role in cellular redox status; however, its role in muscle apoptosis has not been investigated. Therefore, this study examined the consequences of glutathione depletion, by L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) administration, on rat skeletal muscle oxidative stress and apoptotic signaling. Compared to controls, BSO-treated rats had a 95% decrease (p<0.05) in whole muscle GSH levels as well as an 84% decrease (p<0.05) in mitochondrial GSH content. In addition, GSH depletion was accompanied by a significant increase (p<0.05) in skeletal muscle catalase protein and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Further analysis showed increased DNA fragmentation in muscle of glutathione depleted animals. Isolated mitochondria experiments also revealed a significant reduction (p<0.05) in membrane potential and increased mitochondrial susceptibility to calcium induced swelling in muscle of BSO-treated animals. Surprisingly, the activity of the proteolytic enzymes, caspase-3 and caspase-9, were not significantly different between groups. The findings of the present investigation show that glutathione depletion alters muscle redox status and mitochondrial membrane potential, but not caspase activity. Studies are currently underway to identify the effect of altered muscle glutathione levels on caspase-independent apoptotic pathways. In addition, future research will investigate whether additional cellular stressors influence apoptotic susceptibility following glutathione depletion. Saman Mohammadi Mechanical and Mechatronics "Artificial Vasculature and Cell Metabolism" "In this research, PNIPAm which is a biocompatible and non-biodegradable polymer has been deposited using direct deposition methods into a 3D cylindrical scaffold with controllable porosity as an artificial vasculature. The unique gelation property of PNIPAm which transforms into a hydrogel at physiological temperature from a water soluble material at room temperature, allows us to easily print it at room temperature onto a substrate at higher temperature. Since the gelation process is temperature dependent, the SEM results showed

75

that the porosity of the 3D structure can be controlled by substrate temperature and the flow rate. The aerosol direct deposition technique allows us to reach wall thicknesses of 40µm in a cylinder with any diameter above 200 µm. A test rig has been designed and manufactured to allow fluid to be pumped through the PNIPAm scaffolds and an optical system has been designed to enable the study of cell metabolism. Phosphorescence quenching microscopy and fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy techniques will be implemented to measure the pH and oxygen concentration close to the artificial vasculature where the different types of cells can be cultured. The purpose of this study is to investigate cell metabolism while exposing them into various environments by implementing a small artificial vasculature. Tara Moore Biology "Discovery and Characterization of Novel Anammox Communities in Contaminated Groundwater" Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), discovered in 1995, is a relatively recent addition to our understanding of nitrogen cycling. Since its discovery, anammox has been estimated to be responsible for up to 67% of global nitrogen losses from marine environments, and anammox-performing organisms have been located in anaerobic environments across the globe. Anammox involves the 1:1 addition of ammonium and nitrite to generate nitrogen gas, and is mediated by a group of five known genera of microorganisms belonging to the Planctomycetes group of the Bacteria. Traditional methods of removal of ammonium from wastewater are costly and produce greenhouse gases; anammox provides a new and ecologically favorable technology for improving groundwater quality in situ. This collaborative effort presents the first investigation of the role of anammox in groundwater environments. Communities of anammox-performing organisms were studied at two sites in southwestern Ontario using culture independent methods including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE; a community fingerprinting technique). Several clones grouped closely with four of the known anammox genera, and it was found that anammox-performing communities exist and vary between contaminated groundwater sites. This project provides the first data on the existence, abundance and importance of groundwater anammox community composition, and will enable potential practical applications for the application of in situ techniques for remediation of groundwater and the treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewater. Brad Moores Physics and Astronomy "Scanning Probe Microscopy to Study Electrostatic Interactions of Amyloid Peptides with Model Surfaces and Lipid Membranes"

76

Many proteins are known to actively interact with biologically relevant, as well as inorganic and synthetic surfaces that are widely used in nano- and bio-technology as biosensing platforms and in tissue engineering. Amyloid fibrils are insoluble protein aggregates in beta-sheet conformation that are implicated in at least 20 diseases for which no cure is currently available. The molecular mechanism of fibril formation, as well as the mechanism of fibril clusters interacting with lipid membrane surfaces, is currently unknown. The lipid membrane surface has a complex biochemical composition and is also electrostatically non-homogeneous. Currently, the experimental data available for amyloid fibril formation both on lipid and artificial surfaces is limited. The goal of our study is to investigate how the physical properties of the surfaces affect binding of amyloid peptides and affect the fibril formation. We seek to elucidate the effect of electrostatic interactions of amyloid peptides with surfaces using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). I will present a study of Amyloid beta (1-42) fibril formation on model surfaces, which are uniformly charged or possess periodicity of charges and hydrophobic functionality based on thiol self-assembly, as well as on model lipid membrane of various composition. Effect of membrane composition, surface charge, and presence of cholesterol will be discussed. Ignace Moya Chemistry "A Potential Drug Target in Trichomonas vaginalis" The anaerobic parasitic protozoan, Trichomonas vaginalis poses a serious health problem in endemic areas, infecting more than 170 million people per year. The parasite is responsible for birth complications in pregnant women; and if untreated, can lead to more severe complications and/or death. In the literature, trifluoromethionine was found to act as an antiparasitic/bacterial compound, when processed by an enzyme found in the cytosol, methionine gamma-lyase (MGL). The physiological role of the enzyme is to convert the amino acid, Lmethionine into alpha-ketobutyrate, methanethiol and ammonia. The enzyme is commonly present in anaerobic organisms, such as Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica (pathogenic amoebas), and Porphyromonas gingivalis (a pathogenic bacterium). The enzyme is absent in humans; and therefore, it is an attractive target for ant-parasitic/bacterial compounds. The purpose of this project is to determine whether difluoromethionine can be turned over by MGL 1 from T. vaginalis (TvMGL1) and can result in cellular toxicity in T. vaginalis. In this study, it was found that difluoromethionine was turned over by TvMGL1 as shown with a lactate dehydrogenase coupled assay, and the compound also inhibited cellular growth in an Escherichia coli model system (that produced TvMGL1) and T. vaginalis. In general, the findings suggested that the turnover of difluoromethionine might produce a very reactive molecule that has the potential to react with basic cellular molecules, which might explain the growth inhibition observed in the E. coli model system and T. vaginalis.

77

Alyssa Murdoch Biology "Effects of temperature on the growth of Arctic charr in Ungava Bay, Nunavik, Québec" Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, is an holarctic salmonid with the most northerly distribution of any freshwater fish species. To increase understanding of how variability in lacustrine and marine temperatures influence Arctic charr growth in the Ungava region of northern Québec, this study will document year-to-year variability in individual growth rates (g), correlating g to local thermal conditions, and develop proxies of individually experienced thermal regimes as measured from otolith oxygen isotopes. In the summer of 2009, lacustrine and anadromous Arctic charr were sampled, respectively, from Lake Tasiapik and the Nepihjee River for otolith stable isotope analysis. In addition, Arctic charr were live captured, measured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags that permit individual identification on recapture. In the 2010 field season, lacustrine and marine temperatures will be logged with data recorders, and PIT-tagged fish will be recaptured, identified and measured. Growth and temperature data will be correlated for PIT-tagged fish, with a sub-sample of the fish being used for stable isotope analysis. Warming temperatures threaten cold-water sensitive species such as Arctic charr, particularly in Polar Regions where climate change impacts are likely to be accelerated. Improved knowledge of Arctic charr growth-temperature relationships in natural environments will allow detailed predictions of biomass changes likely to be observed as a result of specific climate change scenarios. The obtained results will thus aid in the development of precautionary adaptation strategies to deal with implications of climate change. Daniel Nadolny Psychology "Compensatory Control and Prosocial Intentions" The purpose of our research was to explore a novel explanation for the prosocial actions of people. We predicted that when people perceive more randomness and less control in the world, they will compensate by increasing their intentions to act prosocially to reassert order, in line with Compensatory Control Theory. Across several studies, we heightened participants' perceptions that the world was random, and observed greater intentions to act prosocially, but not when people were first provided an alternative way to reassert order and control. We conclude that prosocial activity may be one way that people respond to randomness in the world, with potential real world implications regarding humanitarian responses to natural disasters.

78

Nafiseh Nafissi School of Pharmacy "Construction of an In Vivo Linear Mini-plasmid Production System" Phages N15 and PY54 lysogenize their bacterial hosts as a linear plasmid with covalently closed ends (lcc plasmid), a conformation conferred by the phage telomerase TelN and Tel, respectively, through a single cleaving-joining reaction of the telRL and pal target sequences. This system can be exploited to design a safer DNA vector. Conventional shuttle vectors pose safety risks due to the presence of antibiotic resistant genes, CpG motifs, and may integrate into the host genome potentially resulting in cancer. In contrast, an integration event by an lcc vector would interrupt the chromosome and likely kill the host cell. This project focuses on the construction of an in vivo system for the generation of lcc mini-plasmids with higher safety platform that eliminate the parent prokaryotic backbone. The telN and tel protelomerase genes were cloned downstream of a temperature-sensitive repressor providing thermo-regulated protelomerase expression, and the cassettes were recombined into E. coli (R-cells). A "supersequence" was designed that carries the multipurpose Cre/Flp/TelN/Tel target sites loxPfrt-telRL-pal and flanking 72 bp SV40 enhancer elements to maximize nuclear importation. The sequence was cloned into a eukaryotic vector carrying the EGFP gene to permit the formation of either lcc or ccc eukaryotic mini-plasmid depending on the recombined cell in which it is grown. Results were confirmed by digestion and PCR. This temperature-controlled system enables R-cells to produce and recover lcc and ccc mini-plasmids in a one step reaction in vivo. The frequency of transfection and chromosomal integration of lcc DNA will be assayed by genetic techniques.

Lisa Nagy Applied Mathematics "Dynamics of epidemic models with seasonality and time delay" Mathematical models have been used for decades to model outbreaks of disease. The purpose of these models is to aid in the understanding and prediction of epidemics, and to control outbreaks through determination of appropriate vaccination strategies. Our research uses a dynamical systems approach to study compartment models of epidemics, where the compartments represent groups in the population such as susceptible, infected, and removed individuals and together form a system of differential equations. We use analytical methods to determine conditions for existence, stability and attractiveness of disease-free and endemic equilibria, with numerical simulations used to gain insight into the results. We also discuss the effects of time delay, seasonal variation of contact and infection rates, and pulse vaccination on epidemics.

79

Meyyappan Narayanan Management Sciences "Venture Capital Investment: Initiating and Revising the Deal" Using a principal-agent model, we strive to understand how a VC should put forward an investment offer, given that the entrepreneur possesses private information on his or her own entrepreneurial characteristics, and the conditions under which the VC should choose to revise the offer if rejected. The double-sided moral hazard in the VC-entrepreneur relationship becomes severe due to that private information precluding a solution to the VC's problem, so we allow the VC to take on a belief regarding the entrepreneur's characteristics in order to account for that private information. We suggest, with a numerical analysis, the existence of a critical point in the VC's belief that maximizes the investment deal welfare (the sum of the returns to the two parties). We also present, with a sensitivity analysis of deal outcomes as the VC's belief changes, three revision strategies (1. Do not revise the offer; 2. Revise the offer by reducing the VC's ownership share; and 3. Revise the offer by increasing the entrepreneur's base salary) and propose on a two-dimensional space when each is best. Oi Kei Ng Civil Engineering "Speed Reduction Profiles Affecting Vehicle Interactions at Level crossings in the Absence of Trains" Observed road vehicle speed and deceleration profiles at level crossings in the absence of a train are investigated and linked to safety performance. Results indicate that speed and deceleration profiles can be segmented into two zones along the approach road. From the literature, speed reduction was found to be less pronounced at active crossings as compared to passive crossings. For both types of crossings, this reduction was initiated at an upstream point along the road about 60 m from the track (Zone 1) and this became more pronounced for the road segment 20 to 30 m before the track (Zone 2). While the deceleration rates based on average vehicle speeds were found to be within comfortable thresholds in both approach zones, a safety concern is raised for the worst case scenario where lead vehicles are reducing their speeds at a higher rate than following vehicles. For this scenario, the deceleration rate of the following vehicle can about five times higher than the comfortable threshold for safe vehicle interaction. Safety performance using an average Crash Potential Index (CPI) per vehicle was found to increase in the vicinity of the track for a given case study crossing application. The range of safety performance values was also found to be greater in Zone 2, suggesting possible safety concerns with regard to rear-end crashes taking place near the track and the added possibility of vehicles being pushed onto the track in the path of an oncoming train. This study has provided useful insight for modifying speed profiles in traffic simulation models to account for the presence of a level crossing. The analysis also provides insights into a base crash risk

80

associated with the crossing itself notwithstanding the presence of a train. This can be used to refine previous estimates of countermeasure effectiveness including closures. Shilei Niu Economics "On the Economics of Ramping Rate Restrictions at Hydro Power Plants: Balancing Profitability and Environmental Costs" Regulations on water flow rates are typically imposed to protect downstream fish, fish habitat, and productive capacity of the river. Water flow restrictions negatively impact the profitability of hydro operations and hinder the ability to use hydro to meet peak electricity demands. This may also result in a change in the use of other sources of power generation such as thermal power and a consequent change in air pollution emissions. In this paper, we examine the impact of flow regulations on optimal hydro operations and profitability. We solve a dynamic model of the profit maximizing decision by a private hydro operator given restrictions on flow rates imposed by a regulator. Using data that is representative of a medium-sized hydro operation in Ontario, we examine the sensitivity of profits to ramping rate restrictions. Our results show that hydro profits are fairly insensitive over a range of ramping restrictions. This suggests that for some level of ramping rate restriction, the aquatic environment can be protected while allowing hydro dams to maintain profitable operations. In principle, the optimal ramping rate restrictions can be identified through a cost benefit analysis which includes the lost profit for the hydro operator, the environmental impact of changed reliance on thermal power, and the environmental benefit for the river ecosystem after imposing ramping rate restrictions. We undertake to estimate these impacts to provide a lower bound for the environmental benefit of ramping rate restrictions that would be required in order for them to be worthwhile.

Jennifer Northmore Biology "In vitro Regeneration of Bienertia sinuspersici via Direct Organogenesis" Direct organogenesis provides an efficient means of propagating plants in vitro without the necessity of growing callus cultures. Shoot regeneration was induced from existing apical and axillary meristems of Bienertia sinuspersici using 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). The frequency of regeneration varied based on the concentration of BAP used. After three weeks in culture, the highest rate of induction was observed when explants were plated on culture media containing 1.0 mg/L BAP. The highest number of additional shoots per explant was observed in the treatment containing 8.0 mg/L BAP. Shoots were successfully elongated on media containing

81

gibberellic acid (GA3) and thidiazuron (TDZ). The highest shoot elongation was observed at 0.075 mg/L GA3 and 0.0025 mg/L TDZ. Elongated shoots were rooted using 1.0 mg/L indole-3butyric acid (IBA) and were subsequently transplanted to soil. Light microscopic analysis of in vitro derived leaf cross-sections showed similar compartmentalization of organelles in chlorenchyma cells compared to those observed in leaves grown in the greenhouse. We have developed an efficient and reproducible procedure for plant regeneration via direct organogenesis in B. sinuspersici. Earl Oliver School of Computer Science "Seven Centuries in the Life of BlackBerry Users" No abstract available. Shane ONeill Geography and Environmental Management "An exploration of the use of Home Energy Rating Systems in the preparation of Low Carbon Planning Strategies for use in Community Energy Planning" This research addresses the current gap between top-down and bottom-up process in establishing the latent capacity of neighbourhoods to be adapted to low carbon standards. This presentation reviews the development of housing categories for the generation of Home Energy Efficiency Databases (HEEDs) in the preparation of community energy plans (CEPs). Currently, energy profiles are attached to ubiquitous housing types in Canadian urban settings. This work expands the "house as a system" to a broader context where "the house is a system within a larger system" and recognises that houses have distinct threshold levels of adaptation that can be further improved if interventions also occur at a community level. This research categorizes households by type, and for each type, develops a sequenced, stepwise process of 25-50-75-90% reductions in energy demand directly linked to satisfy current performance standards for sustainable neighbourhoods. This allows synchronization of top-down strategic planning by municipalities to be linked with individual projects and neighbourhood scales, so as to achieve targeted carbon emission reductions and eventually near-zero carbon emissions, advanced through bottom up initiatives. Applications relate to preparation and provision of community green energy projects, assessment of embodied energy and forecasting of potential emissions due to energy improvements, estimation of timescales and expansion of the interpretation of how HEEDs can benefit urban planning for adaptation to climate change and peak oil impacts.

82

Beatrice Orchard History "A Choice of Evils: Pierre Trudeau and Anti-Inflationary Policy" On October 13, 1975, Canadians were shocked by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau's announcement that mandatory controls on incomes and prices would take effect at midnight that evening. Trudeau's announcement generated tremendous shock and anger among his audience who felt betrayed by his complete reversal of his 1974 campaign which emphatically rejected mandatory controls as a solution to the problem of inflation. Trudeau's adoption of controls is historically significant because it was an era-defining policy that had a lasting impact on Canadian political culture, the economy and Trudeau's career as prime minister. Exploring the factors that led to Trudeau's change from rejection of mandatory controls in 1974 to their imposition in 1975 is historically valuable because it connects new sources of historical material with the known political and economic context. For example, the role of Trudeau's economic adviser, Prof. Albert Breton of the University of Toronto, has not been studied previously, nor have documents from the Cabinet Conclusions been previously used by scholars, but both are included in this paper. Studying Trudeau's decision to adopt controls makes a valuable contribution to existing historiography by showing how the failed attempts to reduce inflation without compromising economic growth and social welfare failed, making Canadians more willing to accept stronger anti-inflationary policies. Cesar Ortiz-Guerrero School of Planning "Decline of Resource Based Communities: The Case of the Rainy River District, Ontario" Purpose: The research was oriented to understand the process of rural decline through the analysis of networks, capitals and conflicts. The research focused on the exploration of central features of rural decline from the perspective of local actors and at a regional scale. Method: The research design is based on case study methodology. The research is exploratory and qualitative and applied multiple methodological tools which included a literature and document review, semi-structured interviews, focus groups, network mapping, and group model building. Research findings: The research verified qualitative factors related to uncertainty and instability of the primary sector, and quantitative factors related to economics and demographics, all of them working as limiting factors of the capacity of rural communities to respond to decline in a sustainable way. Six additional factors are proposed for addition to this framework: learning,

83

interaction, cooperation, connectivity, ethnicity, and a series of psychological and institutional factors that hinder the capacity of rural communities to react to decline. Conclusions: The analysis concluded that economic-demographic "size type" indicators are not sufficient to explain the complex, multidimensional, network based, conflictive and highly politicized nature of decline. Public policies based on these "size- type" of indicators are misleading and can reinforce the path dependence process of mono-industrial rural communities. The research demonstrated that the role of networks, capitals, conflicts and ethnicity is significant in the process of decline. Lana Ozen Psychology "Rejecting Familiar Distracters during Recognition in Young Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury and in Healthy Older Adults" The most common cognitive complaint reported by healthy older adults and young adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is memory difficulties. We investigated the effects of normal aging and the long-term effects of TBI in young adults on the susceptibility to incorrectly endorse distracter information on a memory test. Prior to a study phase, participants viewed a `preexposure' list containing distracter words, presented once or three times, and half of the target study words. Subsequently, during the study phase, all target words were presented such that, across lists, study words were viewed either once or three times. On the recognition test, TBI and older adult participants were more likely to falsely endorse `pre-exposed' distracter words viewed three times as being from the target study list, compared to non head-injured young controls. Normal aging and head injury in young may similarly compromise one's ability to reject highly familiar, but distracting, information during recognition. Older adult and TBI participants were also slower to complete the Trail Making task and had poorer output on a Digit Span task, suggesting these two populations share a deficit in executive function and working memory. Similar changes in frontal lobe function may underlie these shared cognitive deficits. Tedy Ozersky Biology "Invasive Dreissenid Mussels Modify Invertebrate Community and Food Web Structure in the Nearshore of a Large Lake" The invasion of the exotic dreissenid mussels is undoubtedly the most important perturbation that occurred in the Great Lakes watershed in the last 30 years. Among other effects, dreissenid mussels are known to impact the community structure of bottom-dwelling invertebrates and are thought to modify food web dynamics in invaded systems. In this study, we used historical

84

and recent information to examine changes caused by the dreissenid invasion to the invertebrate community and food web structure in the nearshore of Lake Simcoe, Ontario. Quantitative sampling of nearshore invertebrates carried out by the Ministry of Natural Resources just prior to dreissenid invasion was repeated by us in 2008, fourteen years following dreissenid establishment in Lake Simcoe. Comparison of pre- and post-dreissenid samples enabled us to describe the changes caused by dreissenids to the seldom-sampled invertebrate communities of rocky nearshore habitats. Changes to the near-shore food web were inferred from stable isotope analysis of pre- and post-dreissenid samples. We show very large increases in the abundance of nearshore invertebrate fauna, as well as important compositional changes of the invertebrate community associated with dreissenid invasion of the system. The food web structure of Lake Simcoe also shows considerable change: it appears that a new source of energy, in the form of dreissenid waste products now form the basis of the nearshore food web. Ours is the first study showing the effects of dreissenid invasion on nearshore food web structure with important implications to understanding of energy flow in dreissenid-invaded systems. Rajesh Palit Electrical and Computer Engineering "Estimating the Energy Cost of Computation and Communication on Portable Wireless Devices" Software applications running on portable wireless devices communicate with the rest of the network over a wireless link. In these portable devices, the communication cost is a large fraction of the total energy consumption. The amount of energy consumed by the communication component of a portable device mostly depends on different parameters such as packet size and packet rate (or bit rate). We present the results of our investigation of the impacts of these communication parameters on energy consumption. First we build a simple analytic model to estimate the energy consumption due to receiving and transmitting data packets, and then we validate our model by conducting experiments. Results show that the analytical model is effective and gives accurate results. By varying data packet lengths, a communication device consumes different levels of energy to achieve the same data rate. When the packet size is very small compared to the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU), the device consumes more energy. These results help us in understanding the energy consumption behaviour of a communication device. They also facilitate us in optimizing the energy cost while designing a wireless application. In presence of a generic resource sharing infrastructure, if devices can share and access each other's hardware and software resources, they become more efficient in term of energy expense, more enhanced in functionality and more essential with respect to usability. Through experiment, we show the efficacy of the proposed model in terms of energy efficiency and functionality. The implementation requires no specialized hardware tools and does not produce any new security threats.

85

Kadambini Pandey School of Planning "Rethinking City Design Model for the 21st Century" One of the most extraordinary things that have happened in the city designing in the last few years is the re-emergence of very large scale development projects. In Early 1980s "Master plan" was considered dirty word, "Designers were not supposed to master plan" because of the opposition to the utopian concept by social activists such as Jane Jacobs and Mumford. But now we are seeing new cities built for hundreds and thousands of millions of people. Some of the largest project ever constructed is going up all over the world, pick up a city and you will find project from Asia, Europe to America. But amazingly very little progress has been made since 1980s; In fact we are still using 1920s models of city design grounded around the technology of car. There is desperate need to adapt new model of city design that meets the 21st century challenges, such as rapid urbanization, sustainability, and universal mobility by taking advantage of new technologies, such as wireless, radio frequency identification and geographic Information system. Through my presentation, I will explore one such new model for the city design known as "New century city" , and discuss the tremendous change brought by technology not only in a way that we design cities but how the city operates and functions as a complex system in the realm of technology. I am not here marketing new model but trying to evaluate potential challenges faced by the second generation engineers and designers for the 21st century. Jennifer Peer Vision Science "Comparative Assessment of Visual Experience with Freeform and Traditional Progressive Addition Lenses" Purpose: To compare the visual experience with wear of a freeform design progressive addition lens (PAL) and a traditional design PAL. Methods: The sample comprised 44 presbyopic subjects (age range 40-65 yrs). All subjects were screened prior to entry in the study and inclusion criteria were: best corrected acuity of 6/6 or better at distance; 0.4M at near; normal binocular vision and no ocular disease. Every subject wore, for one week each, a traditional design PAL and a freeform design PAL in a crossover design. The order of lens wear was randomly assigned across subjects. Prior to the study all subjects were corrected with a presbyopic prescription (single vision readers, bifocals or PALs). Prior to wearing the study lenses, the design of and satisfaction with their current prescription was determined. The study lenses were fitted using a video dispensing system (Visureal by Ollendorf Mess-Systeme, Germany). One day and one week after dispensing each pair of the study lenses, a questionnaire assessing adaptation, vision clarity, distortion and symptoms was

86

completed. After completing study lens wear, subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire that compared the study lenses directly. Results: Time to adaptation was similar between the two study lenses. Subjects reported fewer symptoms and visual limitations with eye and head movement wearing the freeform lens. Otherwise, the study lenses were rated equally well for all vision zones after one weeks wear. However, when comparing the lenses on exit from the study, 28 of the 44 subjects selected the freeform design as their preferred PAL, finding it more comfortable for distance vision, driving, computer use and reading than the traditional PAL. Conclusions: When independent evaluations were made, the majority of subjects rated the performance of the traditional and freeform lenses similarly. However, when making a direct comparison, two-thirds of the subjects were able to discern a distinct preference for the performance of the freeform lens. Mehrdad Pirnia Electrical Engineering "Effect of FIT Mechanism on Social Welfare in Ontario's Electricity Market" We evaluate the effect of feed-in-tariff (FIT) on social welfare, involving a long-term planning mathematical model, promoting investment in renewable energy by FIT programs. It includes binary variables for decisions to invest in FIT-eligible generation and in non-FIT-eligible generation, i.e. it is a mixed integer nonlinear program. Different scenarios with different FIT payments are examined and results are used to calculate the effect of these premiums on the consumers' and producers' surplus. In order to do this analysis, we use Ontario's FIT program and IPSP (Integrated Power System Plan) data. The results show that although FIT mechanism is a good incentive to promote investments in renewable energy and help Ontario to meet its environmental targets, it puts a huge burden on consumers; and therefore consumers might be better off with other mechanisms like taxation. Homeyra Pourmohammadali Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering "Engineering Articular Cartilage Tissue by Mechanical Stimulation" Weight-bearing synovial joints (hips, knees and ankles) allow humans to move by permitting bone ends to slide over each other. During such motion, thin compliant layers of "articular cartilage" form the bearing surfaces. Cartilage has a very limited regenerative capability and thus trauma or disease can permanently damage its surface. One approach to treating a joint with such damage is to patch the surface with a living tissue graft. The new bioengineering field of tissue engineering seeks to improve these grafts by making their properties similar to the healthy natural tissue. Grafts can be grown in the lab starting with the patient's own cells.

87

However, these grafts require stimulation by loads and adequate nutrient supply to grow properly and have sufficient strength to survive when introduced into the body. In my research, a new stimulation device based on a "hydrostatic bearing concept" has been developed. This device was designed to subject the graft to the combined dynamic loading and nutrient supply that it would eventually experience in the body. Because of the similarity to human cartilage, bovine specimens have been harvested for experimental investigations. A prototype stimulation system, including the novel device, has been designed and fabricated. Early experimental results suggest that a hydrostatic fluid film can be created and may serve to control the frictional stimulation and nutrient flow to the tissue graft. This research has the potential to improve the way damaged human joints are treated by supplying surgeons with stronger tissue grafts. Mohammad Pournazeri Mechanical Engineering "Lift Control in Electro-hydraulic Variable Valve Actuation Systems Using Backstepping Method" Conventional cam-follower mechanisms provide accurate and reliable valve operation in a wide range of engine speeds, but due to stringent emission and energy regulations, development of variable valve actuation systems (VVA) is one of the challenges that engine manufacturers are now dealing with. In addition to flexible valve timings, several benefits can also be achieved if the valve actuation system could control the peak valve lift during a particular engine condition. In most electro-hydraulic VVA systems, the maximum valve lift along with valve opening/closing events are adjusted simultaneously by precise control of the spool travel in servo-valves. However, at high engine speeds, due to servo-valve response time, concurrent control of timings and peak valve lift becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. In this paper, a new lift control technique is proposed using a control valve installed in the pressurized line just after the hydraulic pump. Using this technique, it is possible to control the valve lift precisely even during high engine speeds. In contrast to the conventional approaches in which the maximum lift must be controlled within each cycle, in this technique the valve lift can be adjusted after several cycles which prevents actuator saturation and also eliminates the need for ultra high speed devices. A backstepping controller is designed using the system mathematical model and Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the performance of the proposed lift control technique is verified at different operating conditions using simulation results.

88

Michael Pyne Chemical Engineering "A method for the metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli via direct chromosomal gene replacement" Recombineering, or recombinogenic engineering, has become one of the most versatile genetic engineering techniques. Through homologous recombination, chromosomal genes can be replaced with exogenous DNA. However, there are few reports detailing the use of recombineering to generate chromosomal gene replacements in which the exogenous DNA contains a heterologous gene involved in a target cellular pathway. In this sense, metabolic pathways could be grafted onto the chromosome in order to produce a non-native metabolite or enhance pre-existing cellular capabilities. We have proposed a method to explore this chromosome-based strategy for the metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli. To assess the efficacy of this technique, we have conducted a preliminary chromosomal gene replacement using a lipase gene, palB, from Psuedozyma antarctica. A template plasmid was constructed containing a T7 promoter-controlled palB gene upstream of a chloramphenicol-resistance determinant flanked by Flippase Recognition Target (FRT) sites to allow multiple gene replacements via Flippase (Flp)-mediated excision of the drug marker. The replacement cassette was PCR-amplified using primers containing homology to the E. coli dbpA gene and transformed into E. coli BW25141 cells expressing the bacteriophage λ recombination system. Mutants were selected by chloramphenicol resistance and confirmed by colony PCR. The mutant genotype was transduced to BL21(DE3), a strain expressing T7 RNA polymerase, and the chloramphenicol marker was excised from the chromosome by Flp recombinase. Chromosomal palB expression and activity is currently being assessed by means of SDS-PAGE, Western blot, and pH-stat titration. Once verified, this technique could be adapted towards the production of a wide array of industrial chemicals, pharmaceutical drugs, and other desirable bioproducts. Alex Pytel Computer Science "Utilizing Self-Organization for Procedural Modeling of Landscapes" Simulations of material erosion and transport caused by fluvial and aeolian processes are essential for procedurally modeling realistic landscape features. Physical models of such

89

processes that are especially suitable for use in computer graphics are ones characterized by self-organized criticality (SOC). This property refers to the emergent behaviour of the models, which is caused by the attractor states of their fractal growth dynamics. While SOC models of erosion processes are good at producing characteristic landscape features, they lack mechanisms for controlling the locations of the created features and for respecting similar objectives of design. Additionally, realistic modeling tasks require multiple simulations to be applied to the same model in a controlled way. I have developed a general framework for performing SOC simulations using a computational model that incorporates features of voxelbased cellular automata and of a type of multi-agent system used for coordination and composition. This framework can use a combination of simulations to create an object of arbitrary topology. It lays the groundwork for an alternative approach to procedural creation, location, and composition of landscape features. Zara Rafferty Recreation and Leisure Studies "Everybody Can Dance the Colour Pink": A Phenomenological Exploration of the Meanings and Experiences of Inclusive Arts Programs for Practitioners" While the arts have gained a more prominent place in inclusive educational settings, inclusive arts programming in the context of community recreation requires further exploration. In my personal practice I have found that while inclusive arts opportunities are in high-demand, the programs that run are typically infrequent and short-term, leaving many potential participants without a space to explore the arts. In this research, I undertook a phenomenological inquiry into the experience of ten practitioners in the inclusive arts field. Practitioners were drawn from Southwestern and Northwestern Ontario, and came from a variety of arts-based fields. This exploration examined practitioners' images and understandings of inclusion, disability, the arts, and their experiences with inclusive arts programs through interviews. It was found that practitioners' experiences within inclusive arts programs were impacted by the values associated with inclusion and the arts. Those practitioners who embodied those values in their everyday life found inclusive arts programming to be highly rewarding and meaningful, despite sometimes significant financial and emotional challenges. The key essences which emerged as components of the inclusive arts experience for practitioners were: Inclusive Arts as an Enabling Space; Exploring Potential through Creative Expression; Flexibility, Adaptations, and Possibilities for Inclusion; Valuing Sameness and Difference in Ability and the Arts; Practitioners' Experiences of Receiving Gifts and Feeling Strained; and, Embodying Inclusive Arts Values."

90

Sayeh Rajabi Physics and Astronomy "How zero-momentum particles help build scattering amplitudes" We consider tree-level amplitudes of massless particles, gluons in Quantum Chromodynamics(QCD) and gravitons in Einstein's gravity, in a particular on-shell perturbation theory. For simplicity, we restrict our study to amplitudes containing only three negative helicity particles and the remaining particles of positive helicity. The on-shell formalism allows us to use the power of complex analysis to compute scattering amplitudes through a deformation on particles' momenta. The deformation shifts the momenta of some of the external particles into the complex plane. Therefore, the scattering amplitude of interacting particles becomes a rational function of a complex variable. Using the residue theorem, we add up the contribution of different processes to find the physical non-deformed amplitude. This formalism for calculating scattering amplitudes, known as the Britto-Cachazo- Feng-Witten (BFCW) technique, is much simpler than the textbook approach using Feynman diagrams. Although the momentum deformation with one complex variable gives the correct result, our study shows that the generalization of this deformation to multi-variables exposes new features of the analytic properties of amplitudes. In order to find the physical scattering amplitude, we apply the global residue theorem, i.e., the generalization of the residue theorem for several complex variables, and sum over the relevant channels of interaction. In addition to factorization channels, collinear and multi-particle, which are the only singularities probed by a single complex parameter deformation, there are new contributions in our calculations. As it is well known, massless particles can also lead to soft singularities, i.e., taking the momentum of a particle to zero. These are the new contributions in our work! Mahalakshmi Ramamurthy Optometry "Effects of Interchanging the Foreground and Background Colors in the Duochrome's Test on the Endpoint of Refraction" Purpose: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of interchanging the background and foreground colors in the duochrome test on the end point of subjective refraction. Method: One duochrome chart with colored letters (red and green) on black background and another with black letters on colored background were constructed. The end point of subjective refraction was determined for twenty consenting volunteers using the duochrome charts. For each chart, the subjects were asked to indicate for which of the two colors, the comfort,

91

brightness and sharpness of letters were better. Visual acuity was then measured. Appropriate statistical tests were done to see the differences between the two duochrome charts. Results: The mean difference in spherical equivalents of the two refined powers was 0.081D±0.29D (p = 0.08). The mean difference in visual acuity was 0.01 ± 0.034 (p = 0.57). For all the subjective measures, more subjects rated "balanced" for the conventional chart than the new chart. More subjects chose red letters than green in the new chart. Conclusion: Interchanging the foreground and background of the duochrome had no effect on the end point of refraction. However, the conventional chart provides good balance between the two colors. Ashley Rammeloo Biology "Examination of the effect of the natural plant extract, withaferin A, on heat shock protein gene expression in Xenopus laevis" In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) degrades most cellular protein. Inhibition of the UPS has been associated with different disease states and can affect various intracellular processes including the activation of heat shock protein (hsp) gene expression. During cellular stress, HSPs act as molecular chaperones by inhibiting protein aggregation and assisting in their refolding once normal conditions are re-established. In the present study, Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone with possible anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties, was found to inhibit proteasome activity and induce the expression of hsp genes in the amphibian model system, Xenopus laevis. Treatment of Xenopus kidney epithelial A6 cells with WA produced an increase in the accumulation of ubiquitinated protein and a significant decrease in chymotrypsin-like activity. Furthermore, immunoblot analysis revealed that treatment of cells with 10 μM WA for 18 h resulted in the optimal accumulation of HSP30 and HSP70. Pretreatment of cells with KNK437, a heat shock factor 1 inhibitor, reduced the WAinduced accumulation of HSPs. Also, WA acted synergistically with mild heat shock and another proteasome inhibitor to enhance HSP accumulation. Immuocytochemical analysis and laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed that WA-induced HSP30 accumulation occurred primarily in the cytoplasm in a granular or punctate pattern. This study has shown that WA can induce hsp gene expression possibly through its inhibitory effect on the proteasome. Activating the heat shock response is a potential avenue for novel drug therapies, which can confer cytoprotection in disease states involving cytotoxic protein aggregation. (Supported by NSERC).

92

Negar Rasti Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering "Developing a Theoretical Model to Quantify the Effect of Surface Roughness on the Cell Attachment to Surfaces with Different Topographical Scales" In this study, a theoretical model is developed to predict the cell/substrate adhesion in the osseointegration process on surfaces, which have different roughness scales (from Nano to Micron scales). To pursue this goal, different physical and biological processes are considered in the model to calculate the peeling force, which is required to detach cells from the treated surfaces. Two parameters are required for calculation of peeling force: stress accumulated and real contact area between cell and substrate. The stress at the surface is a function of the surface energy and the real contact area. Surface energy itself is a function of the surface roughness. The developed rough surface is considered with a Gaussian height distribution, which has a random wavelength of q and is quantified as a self affine fractal parameter and is defined through the roughness parameter of Power Spectrum Density (PSD). The PSD parameter of the surface is measured through profilometry analysis of the developed rough surface. Normal contact area is calculated based on the rate of spreading cell on the substrate by including the viscoelasticity properties of cell membrane in the model. The real contact area of the surface is then measured based on the profilomerty analysis and the calculated normal area. Based on this model, the increase of the roughness will decrease the surface energy, and the resultant stress accumulation and the peeling force. However, by increasing the roughness, the real surface area will also increase. The optimized roughness parameter which is required to maximize the peeling force is then calculated from the developed model. Paula Reynolds Biology "The Influence of Plant Architecture on the Foraging Efficiencies of Generalist Predators Feeding on Pea Aphids" Plant shape may affect the ability of insect predators to locate herbivorous prey by altering search paths or by providing partial refugia for prey. As a result, predictions about insect predators drawn from data in simple lab environments, or on different plant species may be incorrect. The effect of plant morphology on predator foraging success was tested using multicoloured Asian lady beetles, Harmonia axyridis, and green lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea,

93

preying on pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum. These predators differed in size and therefore might be expected to have different responses to a given plant morphology. Experiments were conducted using four different pea plant morphologies that differed in fractal dimension, but which were controlled for surface area. The morphological differences among pea morphs are the result of a naturally occurring mutation in two alleles. Other than this difference, the pea plants were near-isogenic, and did not differ significantly in nutritional quality. The functional response of each predator on each pea morph was determined by measuring the number of aphids consumed in a 24 hour foraging period at 5 prey densities. Preliminary data suggests that both predators are more successful at capturing prey on plants with a higher edge to surface area ratio (lower fractal dimension). In future work, the precise mechanism that creates this effect will be investigated by tracking predator search paths using 3D video imaging. However, preliminary observations indicate that these relatively large predators are restricted to plant edges where they can maintain a good grip. Kevin Robinson Biology "Comparing the Immune Response of the Brown Bullhead Catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus) From Clean and Contaminated Sites along the Detroit River" Some fish populations are still able to adapt and thrive in contaminated habitats. Survival of populations depends on the ability of the organism to elicit resistance, either due to genetic adaptation or physiological acclimations. The Brown Bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus) are able to survive in very contaminated areas and, due to their benthic and philopatric characteristics, make them a model organism to study chronic exposure. This research attempts to assess the immune function of the brown bullhead catfish at four pre-determined sites along the Detroit River, which are chronically exposed or non-exposed to environmental toxicants. Clean and contaminated sediment used for contaminant exposure was collected by ponar at designated sites of the river. The Bullheads were vaccinated with heat killed V. anguillarum in order to induce an immune response and divided evenly into corresponding contaminant exposure tanks. Respiratory Burst assays to assess innate oxygen radical production, enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to assess antibody production, and real time PCR to assess immune gene expression have been undertaken. To date, respiratory burst data 24 hours post sediment exposure and vaccination has shown an inhibition of neutrophil oxidative activity in adult cleared bullheads collected from clean sites placed on contaminated sediment compared to those placed on clean sediment , while no inhibition was identified in contaminated fish placed on either sediment. Results suggest a genetic or physiological change in the immune function to be examined further.

94

Jonathan Rodriguez Computer Science "Multi-Core Programming: How to Make a Sequential Work-List Algorithm Concurrent" There has recently been a resurgence in interest in techniques for effective programming of multi-core computers. General-purpose concurrent programming is considered by many to be very difficult, which severely limits the number of applications that currently benefit from multi-core computers. This work contributes to the field by proposing a concurrent formulation of the IFDS dataflow analysis algorithm, originally presented in sequential form by Reps, Horwitz, and Sagiv in 1995. This algorithm exhibits significant irregular latent parallelism when applied to most common inputs. This means that there are typically many opportunities to perform operations in parallel, but there are also many dynamic run-time dependencies between operations that must be respected. The implementation of the algorithm is done using the Scala language and its Actors library. Execution timings are taken with varying numbers of threads to determine thread scalability and performance relative to an equivalent sequential implementation. The major finding of this work is that it is possible to transform a sequential work-list-based graph-traversal algorithm into a concurrent algorithm that yields significant performance improvements in a multi-core environment, and these performance gains can be realized without software transactional memory or any other form of optimistic execution. The conclusion is that the Actors model is an abstraction that enables a reasonably straightforward transformation of this type of algorithm into concurrent form, and can in practice provide significant performance improvements on multi-core computers. Mohamed Salah Abdel Rahman Biology "Cloning and expression of Cyt2Aa1 toxin and identification of its mode of action"

The discovery of the pore-forming toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, which are toxic to insects but not to mammalians, has provided a new successful means to control harmful plantfeeding insects biologically. The toxins are also used on insects that don't feed on plants, for example on Anopheles. The Bacillus thuringiensis toxins fall into two structural families, named cry and cyt. All of these toxins act by damaging the cell membranes in the mid gut of the insect. In This study, a reliable system for expression and purification of the recombinant Cyt2Aa1 toxin had been developed. The recombinant Cyt2Aa1 toxin has been produced, characterized, followed by the construction of the cysteine mutantsV186C and L189C by site directed mutagenesis. the new expression system have a noticed increase in inclusion yield that reached 0.4g/L.The activated Cyt2Aa1 toxin had shown the desired activity with a higher noticed activity for V186C mutant more than Cyt2Aa1 toxin and L189C mutant. Calcein release

95

assays experiments have been done to examine the activity of the toxin wild type with different artificial liposomes. It had been found that Cyt2Aa1 toxin was very active with DMPC, DMPC+DMPG liposomes. Cyt2Aa1 toxin had shown no activity with cholesterol contained liposomes. Sama Samir Biology "Comparison of phytoplankton communities in three different states of marshes regeneration in Al-Hawizeh wetland, southern Iraq" Thirteen years of desiccation affected the nature of the Mesopotamian Marshes of southern Iraq. In April 2003, these marshes were inundated again with the expectation that they would be restored. Soon after flooding, ecological surveys were implemented in order to evaluate the restoration progress. One of the main marsh complexes within the Mesopotamian marshes is Al-Hawizeh, which experienced various degrees of desiccation (never dried, partially dried, and completely dried areas). The main objective of the current study was to assess the recovery progress within the Al-Hawizeh marshes utilizing phytoplankton community, diversity, and abundance from the period of April 2006 to January 2007 including one winter survey in February 2008. These were correlated to relevant water quality parameters, including nutrients. To achieve this goal, fourteen stations were established in eight marshes of AlHawizeh that represent the three desiccation histories. Although there were differences among the marshes in water quality, these differences decreased during the sampling period and converged towards the undisturbed marsh condition. A similar and trend was found for the phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most diverse class of phytoplankton, with 164 species. However, in terms of abundance, the present study confirmed the dominance of Chlorophyceae in the marshes that never dried, in the partially dried marshes, and in some of the dried sections within Al- Hawizeh. in contrast to studies before desiccation. The absence of diatoms dominance in the recently-flooded marshes may be attributable to the rather low concentration of silicate. The changes in the dominance could be due also to the new hydrological conditions of slower water current in the feeding rivers and, consequently, less suspended particulate matter delivered to the Al-Hawizeh Marshes. The study concludes that the newly flooded marshes showed signs of recovery over approximately 3 years.

96

Stephanie Schaefer Biology (School of Pharmacy) "Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction: A novel potential treatment for type 1 diabetes" Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease which is characterized by the selective destruction of the insulin producing -cells of the pancreas. Islet transplantation is a successful method in the treatment of type 1 diabetes, but is restricted by the limited availability of islet donors and the need for an immunosuppressive regimen. The identification of genes that improve -cell functionality or increase -cell mass holds great promise towards developing in vivo genedelivery based methodologies in order cure this disease. Ultrasound Targeted Microbubble Destruction (UTMD) is a novel non-viral gene delivery system which has great potential in the treatment of type 1 diabetes as this method possesses the ability to deliver genes in a more specific and less cytotoxic fashion as compared to most viral-based delivery methods. Using this novel methodology, we compared four cationic lipids, including the gemini surfactants 16-7NH16 and 16-3-16 as well as two commercially available transfection reagents, for their ability to introduce a plasmid expressing GFP in HEK 293 and INS-1 832/13 cells. In this experimental setup, we observed that UTMD treatment significantly increases the transfection rate when compared to conditions where the same cationic lipid was applied without ultrasound treatment. We also noticed that the commercial transfection reagents were overall more effective than the gemini surfactants for the introduction of genes. These results provide evidence that UTMD is a promising alternative for the viral-based gene delivery systems in the treatment of type 1 diabetes.

Nour Schoueri Health Studies and Gerontology "Increasing Screening Mammography among Immigrant and Minority Women in Canada: A Review of Past Interventions" Purpose: Screening mammograms can detect breast cancer at earlier and more treatable stages. However, low participation rates have been reported among immigrant and/or minority women. Language, cultural beliefs and norms, and privacy and modesty factors have been

97

reported to be unique barriers to screening among immigrant and/or minority women. The purpose of this review was to examine whether past screening interventions in Canada and other health-care comparable countries have targeted the unique barriers to mammogram screening among immigrant and/or minority women. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to locate studies that focused on increasing screening mammogram participation among immigrant and/or minority women. The Health Belief Model and the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model guided the critical synthesis of the reviewed interventions and the recommendations for the future. Results: Eight studies were retrieved that met the search criteria. Overall, past strategies to increase screening mammogram participation among the target population have, at best, only moderately improved participation. The barriers that were targeted were relatively similar across studies. There was a clear focus on increasing cues to screening and interventions lacked guidance from theoretical frameworks. Discussion: In addition to current population-based recruitment strategies, interventions targeting the unique barriers to screening mammography must be developed and implemented if we are to increase participation among immigrant and minority women. Additional recommendations to be taken in future health promotion strategies and research are discussed. The recommendations are meant to be a starting point for discussion, as future studies are still needed to strengthen and confirm these suggestions.

Adriano Senatore Biology "Characterizing the Functional Impacts of Alternative Splicing on an Invertebrate T-type Calcium Channel" Alternative splicing of voltage-gated T-type calcium channels has been shown to significantly affect how they conduct calcium and respond to voltage changes. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of the first non-mammalian T-type homologue, from the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. This invertebrate channel bears all of the hallmarks of T-types, despite significant divergence in amino acid sequence from the three vertebrate homologues. We believe that alternative splicing occurs in Lymnaea to generate variants of the singleton invertebrate T-type gene producing channels with distinct electrophysiological and functional characteristics. These variants may be differentially expressed to play specialized roles in various types of excitable cells, such as those of the heart, central nervous system and endocrine glands. In addition, we hypothesize that some alternative splicing events are regulated differently throughout development, where variants that promote constitutive calcium entry are expressed early in snail development to promote cell proliferation, and forms that conduct less constitutive calcium current are expressed at later stages and in the adult. We are carrying out comprehensive electrophysiological characterization of key splice isoforms, and are performing mRNA expression assays to quantify the temporal and spatial expression of these isoforms. Physiological and functional characterization of the Lymnaea T-type, made

98

more tractable by the simplicity of the snail nervous system, will provide significant insights into how these channels contribute to electrogenic and signaling processes in invertebrate cells. These observations may be applicable to vertebrate systems, and will help shed light on the evolution of nervous system complexity and function. Taryn Sendzik Health Studies and Gerontology "An Examination of Planned Quit Attempts among Ontario Smokers and Its Impact on Abstinence" Relevance/Context: Planning has long been assumed to be an important element of any successful quit smoking strategy. However, recent research findings indicate that unplanned, or spontaneous quit attempts, may lead to more successful and longer cessation periods than planned attempts. This calls into question continued advice to plan and the validity of planning based behaviour change theories as they apply to smoking cessation. Purpose: To: 1) assess the prevalence of planning; 2) identify the attributes of planners; 3) examine the association of planning and use of quit aids; and 4) examine the impact of planning on smoking cessation outcomes. Methods/Analyses: Data from the longitudinal Ontario Tobacco Survey (OTS) ­ a provincially representative telephone survey of smokers, were examined. Respondents were asked about their smoking; personal attributes; quitting behaviour; planning of their most recent quit attempt ("just did it" -> planned some time beforehand); use of cessation dates, aids, services, and health professionals; and amount of time smoke free/since last their cigarette. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using specialized survey analysis procedures to account for the complex sampling and design features of the OTS. Results/Significance: I will present data on: the prevalence of planning, characteristics of planners and non-planners; the use of quit aids and resources during the quit attempt; and compare the likelihood of smoking cessation outcomes (e.g., abstinence for at least 1 week, and at least 1 month). The resulting implications of this research for future policy and research in smoking cessation and behavioural planning will be discussed. Amir-Hossein Shabani System Design Engineering "A Tool for Monitoring Well Being of Elderly People: Visual Human Behavior Recognition" Home-based care has been promoted as the population of elder people in Canada and western countries increases. Statistics shows that there will be a considerable gap between this demand and the resources of the current care sectors in near future. Elderly behaviour recognition system is an alternative artificial intelligent means of monitoring well being. For an affordable

99

system, a solution is to utilize a pure vision-based system to accomplish the main tasks of the system: object recognition and action recognition. Recognizing the type of actions performed by an individual is more challenging due to variations in the shapes, the distance from the cameras, and also changes in the motion patterns in different moods. In this talk, I present a bottom-up approach for human action recognition which can be utilized in an online without delay system, in contrast to the existing off-line systems. The consistency of the model with the human's visual processing system is addressed. I present some results regarding recognition of different human actions in the indoor and outdoor scenes. The set of actions include both the motion of a single limb or the body as a whole. I also discuss the potential of this approach in guidance of an elder with Alzheimer disease in completing a task. Yaser Shanjani Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering "Mechanical Behaviour of Layer-by-Layer Fabricated Calcium Polyphosphate Bio-Structures" Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) technology combined with imaging technologies such as CTscan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhance the production of complex-shaped bone implants for tissue engineering purposes using data of the patient's damaged site. The synthesized implants must exhibit specific mechanical properties to be suitable to serve as a load bearing device after implantation. Also, they should gradually transfer the mechanical load to the surrounding bone to stimulate bone healing. The Young's modulus, hardness, mechanical strength, and apparent stiffness represent the material properties and the structural features of the scaffolds. This work addresses the mechanical properties of the Calcium Polyphosphate (CPP) osteochondral implants which are fabricated through a solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique. 35% porous cylindrical structures with pore size of about 50µm are assessed by compression test to measure their fracture strength and mechanical stiffness. Nanoindentation analysis is performed in order to determine the hardness and Young's modulus of the samples. The SFF-made samples with 4mm diameter and 6mm length show about 33 and 47MPa compression strengths if they are produced with vertical and horizontal orientation, respectively. This high strength is comparable to that of human bone tissue. In addition, the results are compared with mechanical properties of CPP cylinders which are produced by conventional molding and sintering procedure. Katie Sharp Health Studies and Gerontology "The Influence of Community Belonging on Physical Activity" Introduction: Current literature reveals that the degree to which one feels connected to their local community is related to wellbeing and self-report health. Further, connectivity has been

100

related to smoking and obesity which are related to health and wellbeing. This suggests that connectivity may impact on health via health behaviours. As participation in physical activity is strongly associated with beneficial health outcomes, it is possible that connectedness may also impact physical activity. Objectives: To determine whether one's sense of belonging to their local community is associated with their engagement in physical activity and their intention to start or increase exercise. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 3.1 will be used to analyze the relationship between sense of community belonging and physical activity. Results: Preliminary results reveal that before and after controlling for a variety of confounding variables such as SES, the odds of engaging in physical activity or intentions to increase exercise are related to how closely connected people are to their local community. Conclusions: This study will provide preliminary results regarding whether important social factors may alter population level physical activity. The results from this study are expected to inform our understanding of barriers and facilitators associated with physical activity and how policies and conditions which affect community connectedness may be used to enhance physical activity. Katlyn Sheldon Biology "Design and construction of a highly controllable ds DNA Phage Display System" Bacteriophage Lambda (λ), has played a historical role as an essential tool in our current understanding of molecular genetics. For λ, the major capsid protein "D" can be observed as 405 to 420 copies in homotrimeric form and functions to stabilize the head and likely to compact the genomic DNA. Our objectives are i) design and construct a highly controllable genetic head decoration system governed by two conditional mutation regulation systems; temperature sensitive repressor expression and bacterial conditional amber mutation suppression; ii) to measure decoration of the λ capsid by a D::gfp fusion under varying conditions. A controllable system has the ability to establish a variable number of fusions that will not compromise the overall viability of the phage. The significance of this work relates to the unique structure of λ's capsid and its ability to exploit gpD in the design of controlled expression, which may lead to future research examining the fusion of different therapeutic peptides and proteins and the use of various lambdoid and morphologically similar phages. At present, we have sequenced an amber mutant of D identifying the mutation to be a replacement of a glutamine codon by a stop codon, this agrees with historical literature which indicates glutamine suppression as the most effective. In order to fulfill these objectives basic bacterial genetics and biochemistry of nucleic acid techniques will be employed for the construction of bacterial strains and molecular constructs and standard fluorimetry techniques will be used in order to quantify and visualize GFP fusions.

101

Ted Sherk Geography and Environmental Management "Attributes of PV Purchasers vs. Non-Purchasers: A Stakeholder Report with Lessons and Opportunities Drawn from an Urban Canadian Case Study (WISE)" There has been a groundswell of support in Ontario recently for clean technologies and technology deployment strategies to reduce environmental impacts. With this growing public interest, governments and industry are looking to solar energy as an alternative to traditional sources of electricity, and yet market uptake has remained slow. This paper has two aims: 1) To present a profile of green early adopters, i.e. to understand the attributes of purchasers of green goods and services, particularly photovoltaic (PV) systems, and 2) To answer the questions: are the environmental and social benefits associated with residential PV worth its higher cost per unit of production, as compared with large centralized power plants. Presented are the results of a study of 160 homeowners in one Canadian municipality who participated in a community bulk purchase of solar energy systems between 2007 and 2008. Attributes of purchaser and non-purchaser households are compared by means of (1) an attitudinal survey, and (2) electricity production and consumption data. Tianxiang Shi Mathematics "Analysis of the Time to Ruin, the Surplus and the Deficit at Ruin" Due to the contingent property of loss claim payments, efficient techniques, such as Value at Risk, are required by the insurance companies to manage the possible adverse impact of claim payments on their balance sheet. Realization of the calculation depends on the knowledge of ruin related distributions. With the introduction of the Gerber-Shiu discounted penalty function (Gerber and Shiu (1998)), the surplus prior to ruin, the deficit at ruin and the time to ruin have been extensively analyzed in many risk models. Efforts are made to obtain expressions for the joint density of these three key random variables in certain models. The directions of future research in Risk Theory would also be discussed. Daryoush Shiri Electrical and Computer Engineering-Nanotechnology program "Strain Induced Modulation of Electronic Properties in Si and Ge Nanowires" Study of strain effects on the electronic properties of narrow diameter Si and Ge nanowires proves useful in exploring new physics and applications of these nanostructures in opto/electro-mechanical sensors. In this work, we investigated the electromechanical response

102

of narrow Ge and Si nanowires under uni-axial strain, using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and semi-empirical 10-orbital sp3d5s* tight binding (TB) methods. It is observed that both compressive and tensile strain cause indirect-to-direct bandgap transition in Ge nanowires. The bandgap of [110] Ge nanowire can be changed by 40 meV for each percent of axial strain. For Si nanowires this change can be as large as 60-100meV per 1% axial strain for [100] and [110] nanowires, respectively. This rate of change is independent of diameter and depends only on the growth direction. As in the case of Ge, the bandgap in Si nanowires can change from indirect to direct as a function of strain. For larger nanowires, the indirect-to-direct transition requires less compressive strain (<1%). Effective mass of electrons and holes in both Ge and Si nanowires are subject to a change of 3 to 4 times in the bandgap transition points. This translates into density of state and as a result conductance modulation. Ajay Singh Physics and Astronomy "Unraveling Mysteries of Extreme Nuclear Matter Using Gravity vity" Recent experiments at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have revealed a new state of nuclear matter, known as the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP). In experiments at RHIC, fire balls of sQGP are produced and then they explode. Our theoretical understanding of the sQGP is based on a mathematical model known as a quantum field theory but in which the interaction strength between the particles is strong. Understanding the real-time dynamics of such a strongly coupled quantum field theory is a challenge beyond any known standard technique. The last decade saw a major breakthrough known as the AdS/CFT correspondence. It proposes that certain `sQGP like' plasmas are dual to classical Einstein gravity in certain limits. As classical gravity is amenable to computations, this correspondence has proven a remarkable tool to study some of the characteristics of the corresponding strongly coupled field theories. To push these `sQGP like' plasmas closer to the real world sQGP, one needs to add quantum corrections to the dual gravity theory. These quantum corrections are manifested as extra terms in the Lagrangian involving `higher derivative corrections'. Unfortunately, these higher derivative corrections are not known precisely and it remains a challenge to calculate them. In our recent work, we have found some remarkable patterns in the behavior of some of the correction terms, which are the building blocks of the exact higher derivative corrections. These patterns are very interesting because they facilitate the calculations of some of the properties of the sQGP without knowing the higher-derivative corrections precisely. Our research provides a framework that can be used to improve the gravitational models for sQGP and simplify the computations in such models. Shivani Singh Political Science

103

"Access to Health in Mumbai's Slum Communities" How do familial linkages affect access to health for women in Mumbai's slum communities? Within the literature there is evidence of the pivotal role held by extended family in the decision-making process, and a preference for traditional health practices. If a couple does not have strong ties to extended family they may choose to seek modern medical treatment. The methodology is a most similar systems design, which would allow for isolation of the variable of social linkages. With many alternate causal explanations for poor health in slum communities it is vital to ensure that the independent variable, being the social tie, is distinct, as well as the dependent variable of the access to healthcare. Interviews will be conducted with women in Mumbai's slum communities to determine their level of education, socioeconomic status, proximity to their extended family, and number of children. Each woman is a unit of analysis, and with the lack of homogeneity within these communities, a cluster will be chosen which has a similar socioeconomic background. This research will show trends in kinship links and access to healthcare, and may lead to further studies in the field of policy evaluation. Trends such as community reactions to public health policies and incentive schemes can be best evaluated when understanding social motivations. This research could then be very valuable to government agencies when designing health programs, and could lead to better targeted interventions. Jaspal Singh Shah Electrical and Computer Engineering "Pseudostatic Logic Based Soft Error Detection" A cosmic neutron or a low energy particle can disturb the charge stored at a node in a combinational circuit which can upset the logic state. Such perturbations are called single event transients (SET) which can eventually be latched leading to a soft error. In memories, when a stored bit is affected, it is called single event upset (SEU). With continuous scaling, node capacitance is decreasing and subsequently, the smallest charge (critical charge) that can result in a soft error is decreasing. Hence, soft error rate is increasing with scaling. In this research, pseudo-static logic (PSL) is proposed as an area efficient approach for soft error detection in logic circuits. The PSL has the ability to recover from an SET. The PSL has speed and power comparable to dynamic logic and robustness of static logic. Simulation results have shown that PSL over various technology nodes have efficient energy consumption compared to dynamic logic. Using PSL time redundant implementation for soft error detection can be realized efficiently. In this work, one of basic building block of a CPU i.e., adder is implemented. The propagate and generate circuits implemented using PSL shows 7% energy saving relative to dynamic logic. Moreover, it saves a transistor in each stage. The simulation results for soft error detection show that 81% of the errors can be detected with negligible area penalty while consuming 42mW of power. Error detection is implemented using parity and 8% of the errors being even in number are not indicated.

104

Nilo Sinnatamby Biology "Juvenile Arctic charr: heat-seeking missiles in the cold, bleak Arctic" Arctic charr are among the most cold water adapted freshwater fish in the world. Despite their ability to withstand cold temperatures, their optimum temperature for growth is comparable to Salmonids with more southerly distributions. This study assesses habitat use by juvenile Arctic charr within Lake Hazen, a large lake located in Quttinirpaaq National Park (QNP) at the northern tip of Ellesmere Island. A habitat preference index was used to estimate preference between cool lake shore and warm stream habitats around the lake. Fish densities were estimated and compared among seven tributary streams of Lake Hazen and one nearby stream within QNP using a three-pass Zippin depletion method. A subsample of fish was retained from each stream for food web analyses (gut contents, stable isotope). Results indicated a preference by juvenile Arctic charr for non-glacier-fed streams over lake shore or glacier-fed streams within Lake Hazen. Among streams, small streams attached to larger stream systems had the highest density of fish. Within streams, fish were found mainly in pool environments, specifically in pools with water velocities below one m/s. The diet of fish within the streams was quite varied, but overall, juvenile Arctic charr fed mainly on chironomid larvae. It is hoped that this research will provide an understanding of the importance of stream use by Arctic charr in Lake Hazen and help inform future management decisions. Craig Sloss Combinatorics and Optimization "Permutations, Factorizations, and a Problem from Theoretical Physics" A permutation is a rearrangement of the first n natural numbers. Given two permutations, we can apply the first followed by the second to obtain a third permutation -- this defines a way to multiply permutations. The reverse problem is called the factorization problem -- given a permutation, how many ways are there to express it as a product of two other permutations, subject to a specified set of restrictions? This is a well-studied problem in algebraic combinatorics, with wide-ranging applications in fields such as geometry, topology, and physics. In this talk, we consider a permutation factorization problem originating in physics, the (p,q,n)dipole problem, for which the existing techniques for solving the factorization problem do not apply. The reason is that the techniques traditionally used to solve the problem only work when the problem does not fundamentally change when the elements of the permutation are arbitrarily relabelled; however, in the (p,q,n)-dipole problem, there are two distinguished elements which cannot be relabelled. We demonstrate how a large subcase of the (p,q,n)dipole problem can be solved by considering what happens when the two distinguished elements are deleted, effectively restating the problem as one which can be solved using known techniques. This technique allows one to write down some explicit formulae describing

105

the solution to the (p,q,n)-dipole problem for small values of p and q. More importantly, the result hints at some underlying structural connections in the algebra used to solve the problem. Neal A. Smithwick Sociology "Predetermined Life Chances: How Schooling Reproduces Class Membership" Large proportions of children from all socio-economic backgrounds in Western societies complete primary and secondary education, but despite this long term trend inequality of opportunity between social strata has been stable. The purpose of this research is to find out whether schools in Canada are institutionally designed to allocate youth into specific future locations in the division of labour. The rise of mass schooling and the development of modern states are deeply interwoven because social relationships in society are simultaneously constituted in the school and the state. There has been much quantitative and qualitative research to support such claims, hence this research draws from varying theories and findings in order to make analytic connections to how schools structure personal experiences which fit macro-societal purposes. Critical perspectives of education suggest the school's primary roles are to control social mobility and reproduce inequality in society. Formal education in Western societies is broadly accepted in the sociology of education to be an effective mechanism of social mobility because it has independent effects on individual life chances and it is a primary means for parents to hand privilege down to their children. After more than four decades of research, schools are generally viewed in the critical sociology of education for the roles they play in maintaining social inequalities in the interests of the dominant classes. Sal Spitale Environment and Resource Studies "Succession in the Understory of Red Pine Plantations in Southern Ontario" Thousands of hectares of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations were established during the early 20th century in southern Ontario in order to prevent soil degradation on abandoned unproductive farm lands. Concern over the declining health of these plantations and a desire to increase the diversity of forests in southern Ontario has prompted a more thorough understanding of the succession of these plantations. The purpose of this study is to determine how conventional thinning regimes for red pine plantations in southern Ontario affect the diversity of the understory vegetation and soil characteristics over time. Age classes were chosen based on the number of thinnings and were compared to reference deciduous forests. The understory was examined by measuring leaf area index (LAI), conducting a stratified random sampling of herbaceous vegetation, a plotless sampling technique for examining tree regeneration, as well as analysis of soil chemical, physical, and biological characteristics. Initial results indicate major limiting factors to understory regeneration in plantations are a deep litter

106

layer and high LAI (darker understory). Patterns of seasonal LAI between plantations and the reference forests became more similar with increasing age of plantation. Understory diversity increased over time in plantations; however, there was little overlap in herbaceous species composition when comparing plantations to the reference forests. These initial findings suggest earlier thinnings would more rapidly increase understory diversity and produce conditions more similar to reference forests. Planting of native herbs is needed if plantations are expected to function ecologically more like reference deciduous forests. Kammy Sra Civil and Environmental Engineering "Persulfate Oxidation for Remediation of Gasoline Contaminated Soil and Groundwater" Petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline are the most extensively used and hence the most widespread of all organic contaminants occurring in soil and groundwater. Accidental spills and leakage of gasoline from nearly 1/3 of all underground storage tanks act as a long term source of contamination releasing acutely toxic and persistent chemicals such benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene. In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using persulfate is an aggressive remediation technology that employs the injection of strong chemical oxidants into the subsurface for treatment of these organics. Successful and costeffective persulfate remedial system depends upon the interactions of aquifer materials (soil and GW) and target organic contaminants with persulfate. This research involved the investigation of persulfate interaction with seven well-characterized aquifer materials collected from across North America. Batch and column tests were setup to develop overall oxidant loading criteria by evaluating the stability of unactivated and activated persulfate in the presence of these uncontaminated materials. It was observed that persulfate degradation was represented by first order degradation rate law for unactivated systems. Degradation half-lives were governed by TOC and FeAm and indicated that persulfate was fairly stable in these aquifer systems. Further investigations on gasoline treatability at bench and pilot-scale revealed high effectiveness and efficiency of persulfate in destruction of the organics occurring in gasoline contaminated water. World Relevance: Design of remediation systems making water and soil resources more usable at numerous sites across the world. Vidhyapriya Sreenivasan Optometry "Comparison of Phoria Adaptation to +2D & -2D Adds In Myopic and Emmetropic Children" Purpose: To compare oculomotor (phoria) adaptation to asymmetric changes in ocular alignment created by +2D & -2D adds in myopic and emmetropic children.

107

Methods: Eight emmetropic-orthophores (EO, Spherical-equivalent= 0.5±0.2D; near-phoria= 1.73± 0.37∆); 7 myopic-orthophores (MO, Spherical-equivalent= -1.8±0.3D; near-phoria= -2.1 ± 0.67∆) and 8 myopic-esophores (ME, Spherical-equivalent= -1.5±0.4D; nearphoria=5.0 ± 0.8∆) between 7-14 years were examined. Participants fixated a 33cm target for 20 minutes through +2D and -2D lenses added over their distance correction on two separate days. Near phorias were obtained at frequent intervals and phoria adaptation was defined in terms of overall phoria change (magnitude) and percentage return to the habitual level (completeness, PC). Results: Introduction of +2D & -2D adds increased exo and esophoria (P<0.01) respectively in all study groups. The lens-induced phorias reduced (P<0.05) with sustained fixation but the pattern of adaptation differed between the groups. In the +2D condition, both myopic groups showed reduced PC compared to emmetropes (P<0.001) and ME exhibited the least magnitude (P<0.001) compared to MO and EO. Through -2D adds, an opposite pattern was found such that ME showed the highest magnitude (p<0.005) and greatest PC (P<0.001) compared to MO and EO. Conclusion: All groups showed asymmetric phoria adaptation to +/- 2D adds. The asymmetry was reversed with myopia and esophoria but not myopia alone. The capacity to adapt to near adds is dependent upon both the refractive state and phoria." Peter Stechlinski Applied Mathematics "Epidemic models with switching" Mathematical models of infectious diseases are vital for trying to understand how a disease spreads and for giving estimates for sufficient vaccination levels. Mathematical epidemic models formulate how a disease spreads in a population by systems of differential equations. Many models in the epidemic literature exhibit the traditional threshold criteria: when the basic reproduction number of the disease is below one, the disease will eventually die out; when the basic reproduction number is above one, the disease will persist. The spread of many infectious diseases varies seasonally, for example, due to a change in population behaviour. Motivated by this, the purpose of my research is to use a new approach to extend classical epidemic models to easily include seasonal variations and long-time population behaviour changes. More specifically, epidemic models with switching are considered to model parameters as timevarying (for example, due to seasonal variations) and to model function forms as time-varying (for example, due to an increase in media coverage of a disease outbreak). This approach is applied to classical epidemic models, including those with constant control and pulse control. Similar to the traditional threshold criteria, it can be shown that if a time-weighted average of the basic reproduction number is below one, then the disease will be eradicated. For models that are intrinsically one-dimensional, it can be shown that if the average basic reproduction number is above one then the disease will persist. Some simulations will be given to illustrate the various models and the threshold conditions established.

108

Luke Stewart History "Cold War Citizens: Reflections on the American Open Society, 1952 to 1968" The administrative control of the citizen by the United States government during the Cold War was politically motivated by anti-communism and anti-radicalism. The height of this control was from 1952 to 1968 when U.S. citizens traveled to the Soviet Union, decolonizing states in Africa, Cuba, China and Indochina. This paper will focus on the transition from the Kennedy to Johnson administration between 1961 to 1963 and 1964 to 1968. I will illuminate why U.S. citizens were traveling to "restricted" countries and what the U.S. government was doing to prevent or punish citizens who traveled to these "restricted" areas. During the Kennedy administration, there was an attempt to reconceptualise the Open Society and liberalize government policies after the Eisenhower administration's attempt to restrict the Open Society at the height of the second Red Scare. During the Johnson administration, there was an attempt to scale back certain elements of the new liberalized reforms as it entered into direct conflict in Southeast Asia. This preliminary research will illuminate the controversy within the State Department about the Open Society concept that encompasses: travel restrictions placed on American citizens, visas and visitors, immigration and refugees. This paper will be based on research at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library, the State Department Records at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland as well as documents obtained by the National Security Archive at George Washington University. Examples will also be drawn from relevant Supreme Court and District of Columbia Appeals Court cases. Danielle Stock English "Decode: Human Genetic Intervention and Death Denial" The mapping of human genetic composition is regarded by many scientists as a direct route to understanding and curing a vast range of human genetic disorders. While enthusiasts predict the advent of scientific breakthroughs that will improve and prolong human existence, a more critical look at genetic technologies and the motives behind their growth asks us to question how human life might be devalued by these pursuits. In the ever-expanding field of genetics, human lives are reduced to bits of code that effectively determine the value of an individual in a society that privileges a healthy, able body. By reducing the intricacies of human embodiment to the cold, hard facts of genetic data, human beings become simply physical bodies independent of the complex consciousnesses that they contain. In this "project of selfovercoming," genetic technology views life in terms of information, making it appear manipulable, and solvable. Citing the work of theorists like Jean Bethke Elshtain, Mark Sagoff, Langdon Winner, and Ernest Becker, this video and accompanying paper explore how genetic technology is directly related to valuations of human life; how the human body is inscribed and reinscribed with value judgments as it is measured against socially determined ideals of

109

perfection; and how death anxiety and the related desire to deny the finitude of human existence propel science forward. Project video (1:18): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TbiiOxXNaVA Claus Strommer Computer Science "Paragraph Context Determination Through Rhetorical Figures - A Practical Approach Using Epanaphora" In this study, we examine the applications of rhetorical figures in natural language processing. We shall focus on rhetorical anaphora (epanaphora). Since epanaphora is simply the repetition of words at the beginning of sentences, phrases, or paragraphs, it can be parsed with minimal machine error. For the purpose of this research, we use the TREC '06 Blog corpus, chosen over a pre-parsed corpus like Penn Treebank because its larger size encompasses a greater variety of styles. Furthermore, due to it being more recent, and because of the sources used, it is more representative of modern, common-day prose. Detection and recording of epanaphora only involves finding well-delimited repetitions. Classification, however, is more challenging. We created three main categories into which we aggregate the found instances of epanaphora: Accidental, designed-intentional, and brute-intentional. We show how to identify and use the markers that let us classify instances of epanaphora into these categories. Once the found instances of epanaphora have been classified, we demonstrate how the classification criteria correlate to the context of the sentences. We show that distinct author goals influence the type of epanaphora used, and that different types of epanaphora may be used as indicators of writing style and author intention. We conclude that epanaphora are a cost-effective method for classifying the context of paragraphs and that this method can be used to complement other natural language processing techniques. We furthermore infer that our classification methods can be applied to other rhetorical figures, and that they are potentially languageagnostic. David (YeongHo) Suh Chemical Engineering "Novel Identification of Thermally Induced Tertiary-Structured Protein Subunit Aggregates" Using micro-differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), energy changes related to the structural transitions of bovine hemoglobin in solution were detected at concentrations between 10 and 100 µM and at temperature scan-rates between 10 to 90 °C/hr. At high concentration and fast scan-rate conditions, large exothermic events were repeatedly detected at temperatures (ca. 62 °C) below the tertiary-to-secondary structural transition (denaturation) Tm (ca. 72 °C). Hypothesizing this to be a form of aggregation, four types of verifications were performed.

110

Repeat scans confirmed that this event was irreversible if the sample was heated beyond 55°C. DSC scans done on samples with 0.02 M urea added showed a clear inhibition of the exothermic event that occurred below the tertiary-to-secondary structural transition temperature. A large difference in the appearance of the heated samples as well as the settling time of the aggregates in samples heated up to 55 °C and 90 °C were additional evidence of a unique aggregation phenomenon distinct from what occurs after the denaturation of hemoglobin molecules. Lastly, unlike the Tm, the intermediate event was found to be sensitive to storage time after 5 weeks. It is believed these experiments suggest that for hemoglobin molecules, which are not completely denatured, significant amounts of tertiary structure aggregation have occurred after the quaternary structure of hemoglobin molecules dissociated into subunits. The results presented here provide necessary insight into factors and ways to assess and promote protein stability both in vitro and in vivo. Karan Sukhija Chemical Engineering "Improved recombineering approach to replace multiple chromosomal genes with removable antibiotic markers" Recombineering (recombinogenic engineering) has recently become an extensively used tool to delete chromosomal genes in a variety of organisms for metabolic engineering. This method allows researchers to delete chromosomal genes with an FRT-flanked antibiotic marker mediated by  Red proteins. The inserted antibiotic resistance marker can be removed from the genome using FLP-FRT recombination system. We have developed an extension of the recombineering protocol, where an antibiotic marker and a promoter-regulated gene of interest are introduced in bacterial chromosomes using  Red recombination, following the excision of the marker from the chromosome using FRT-Flp recombination. We have successfully modelled this strategy in E. coli HB101 strain by replacing the lacZYA genes with the Penicillin Acylase (PAC) gene regulated by the Trc promoter. The regulated expression of the PAC gene by Trc promoter in the recombinant strain with different concentrations of IPTG was also confirmed. Presently, we are replacing the degP gene within our PAC+ recombinant E. coli strain with a lipase gene regulated by an arabinose inducible promoter, to produce a strain that produces PAC under IPTG induction and lipase under arabinose induction. In this presentation, we introduce this chromosomal engineering method which allows researchers to replace multiple chromosomal genes within the host genome with genes of interest regulated by their promoter of choice, resulting in marker-less recombinant strains.

111

Joseph Sun de la Cruz Electrical and Computer "A Comparison of Classical and Learning Control Methods for Robot Manipulators" High performance control of robotic systems, including the newer generation of humanoid, assistive and entertainment robots require accurate knowledge of the dynamic model of the system. However, due to modeling uncertainties, component tolerances, and changes in operating conditions, it is both difficult and impractical to determine a model which accurately describes all aspects of the system. Recent research in the field of machine learning has produced many algorithms that can be used to tackle this problem through regression techniques. Locally Weighted Projection Regression (LWPR) has been applied in many instances as a method of performing online learning of the dynamic model without requiring a-priori knowledge of the system. An LWPR controller for a six degree-of-freedom robot manipulator is presented and compared in simulation to the traditional model-based methods of resolved acceleration control and adaptive computed torque control. It is shown that the machine learning approach is able to learn the dynamic model accurately enough to outperform the traditional control techniques in many scenarios after training for less than one minute. However, performance in untrained areas is less than ideal. For future research, other regression techniques will be investigated along with a method of incorporating prior knowledge of the dynamic model of the system to improve performance in untrained areas. Cynthia Tang Biology "Functional Characterization of the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Chemokine, CK-2" The rainbow trout chemokine CK-2 is the only known CC chemokine in possession of a mucin stalk. CK-2.1 is a related rainbow trout CC chemokine that includes a longer mucin stalk and was originally thought to be a separate gene. Genotyping of outbred individuals showed that CK-2.1 is probably an allele of CK-2. A previous study showed that stimulation by PHA causes a decrease in CK-2 transcript levels in rainbow trout head kidney and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) as well as the rainbow trout macrophage-like cell line RTS-11. CK-2 protein was found expressed in RTS-11 but not in the spleen tissues of stimulated fish. A chemotaxis assay was performed to determine the activity of recombinant CK-2 and CK-2.1. It was observed that CK-2 induces the migration of rainbow trout PBLs as well as RTS-11 cells. Treatment of RTS-11 cells with recombinant CK-2 results in changes in expression profiles of various immune response genes. This study shows that CK-2 is a functional chemokine that has a role in rainbow trout immune response involving, but not limited to, macrophages.

112

Alisa Tazhitdinova Statistics and Actuarial Science "Constrained Mean-variance Portfolio Optimization with Margin Requirements on Trades" We consider a mean-variance portfolio optimization problem, namely, a problem of minimizing the variance of the final wealth that results from trading over a fixed finite horizon in a continuous-time complete market in the presence of convex portfolio constraints, taking into account the cost imposed by margin requirements on trades and subject to the further constraint that the expected final wealth equal a specified target value. Market parameters are chosen to be random processes adapted to the information filtration available to the investor and asset prices are modeled by Itô processes. To solve this problem, we use an approach based on conjugate duality: we start by synthesizing a dual optimization problem, establish a set of optimality relations that describe an optimal solution in terms of solutions of the dual problem, thus giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the given optimization problem and its dual to each have a solution. Finally, we prove existence of a solution of the dual problem, and for a particular class of dual solutions, establish existence of an optimal portfolio and also describe it explicitly. The method elegantly and rather straightforwardly constructs a dual problem and its solution, as well as providing intuition for construction of the actual optimal portfolio. We conclude by discussing how margin requirements affect optimal portfolio selection and by looking at a few examples. Jordan Thompson Physics and Astronomy "Evidence for Anisotropic Exchange in the Frustated Magnetic Pyrochlore Ytterbium Titanate" Ytterbium Titanate is an example of a frustrated magnetic system, a family of systems that display a staggering array of exotic low temperature behaviours, and provide physicists with a playground to probe many different types of magnetic interactions. Ytterbium Titanate is of particular interest because it displays no magnetic long range order at low temperature, as evidenced by a lack of magnetic Bragg peaks. Measurements also indicate that the system may undergo an analogue of a liquid gas phase transition - a rarity in magnetic systems. As well as displaying interesting low temperature properties, Ytterbium Titanate also displays spontaneous two-dimensional correlations in the paramagnetic phase despite the system being three-dimensional, with cubic symmetry. The paramagnetic correlations between the spins in Ytterbium Titanate provide a window into the interactions of the magnetic moments in the system, and understanding these interactions is the first step in understanding the other properties of the system. By examining these correlations via paramagnetic neutron scattering, we can probe the type of magnetic interactions present in the system. This is done by examining all symmetry allowed nearest-neighbour interactions in the presence of long-ranged dipole-dipole interactions. By varying the relative strengths of each of these interactions, a set

113

of magnetic couplings has been found that reproduce experimental diffuse neutron scattering measurements quite well. The resulting couplings provide strong evidence for the existence of significant anisotropy in the exchange interactions between magnetic moments in Ytterbium Titanate. Justine Brooke Toscan Manderson Health Studies and Gerontology "Pilot Project for Improving Care for Hip Fracture Patients" Due to changing demographics, proactive strategies are needed to enhance the quality of health care for older adults. A key research issue is to understand the need for, use, and exchange of information between health care providers, patients, and caregivers for older persons at critical points of transfer between care settings. Transition points include acute hospital care, in-patient rehabilitation, home care and long term care. The purpose of this qualitative pilot study was to capture the unique lived experiences of the patient, informal caregiver, and relevant healthcare providers at a specific point in transitional care for a hip fracture patient. Guided by phenomenology, six in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted, transcribed verbatim, and coded by two independent raters to elucidate common themes concerning the experience of transitional care. Following individual analyses, the raters combined interpretations to construct a detailed thick description of the health care transition experience. Results suggest that although parties involved in transitional care have several shared experiences, unique needs and perspectives exist depending on one's role in patient care. This research will inform care planning and support efforts to improve outcomes of transitional care for older adults experiencing hip fracture. Future research should focus on broadening the scope of interview data to strengthen findings through confirming common themes and clarifying differences. Shu Tong (Stephen) Tse Computer Science "A very efficient and almost exact simulation of the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross(CIR) process" The CIR process has been widely used in computational finance to model short term interest rate or stochastic volatility. Fast and efficient simulation of the CIR process is an essential ingredient for pricing exotic derivatives under such models. Surprisingly, despite the use of the CIR process for decades, satisfactory simulation schemes have not been developed until recent years. Broadie and Kaya achieved a breakthrough in 2004 by showing that the CIR process can be simulated exactly. Their method is not very useful in practice, however, because of the heavy computational cost involved. Since then, a lot of researchers have developed approximations to the exact schemes which sacrifice a small amount of accuracy for a big boost

114

in performance. In this presentation, a very efficient and accurate approximation to the most time-consuming and complicated step in the exact scheme is proposed.

Renata Valaitis Health Studies and Gerontology "A SWOT Analysis of Student Nutrition Programs: Program Coordinators' Perspectives" Ensuring students are well fed can have positive social, behavioural, and academic benefits. Universal access to student nutrition programs (SNPs) can ensure that children at-risk for poor nutrient intake have access to safe, healthy foods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate SNPs in one region in Canada and determine how public health (PH) staff can better support these programs. This study included a quantitative survey (n=81) and qualitative interviews (n= 21) involving program coordinators. The survey elicited a description of SNPs and variations in components being offered. Coordinator interviews provided information regarding strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Current and future partnerships between programs and health unit staff were also evaluated. Survey results showed that teachers and volunteer coordinators were the most involved in planning and delivering programs. Also, more programs had PH inspectors involved compared to PH nurses or dietitians. PH involvement was positively received by those respondents who had previously accessed the services. Interviews corroborated survey results and highlighted inconsistencies. Strengths included universality, and the ability to reach needy students. Weaknesses included attracting funding partnerships, lack of volunteers, and coordinator workload. Threats included lack of funding, tracking program use and food distribution, unreliable help, and school administration conflicts. Opportunities included assistance with menu planning, expansion of program offerings, and assistance with finding solid community partners. Research implications are targeted towards improving support strategies for SNPs. PH staff can support menu planning and food safety training, help coordinators find healthy food options, and build partnerships to increase collaborations. Kevin van Doorn Optometry "Spectral transmittance of the reptilian spectacle" The eyes of certain reptiles, particularly those of snakes and most geckos, are shielded beneath a protective layer of transparent skin. Termed the "reptilian spectacle", this structure has a dermal component composed of live tissue and an external, corneous scale thought to be composed largely of the protein keratin. A crucial feature of this ocular scale is its transparency to the visible wavelengths of light, a characteristic necessary for the maintenance of clear vision. Presented here are preliminary findings on the spectral transmittance of the ocular scale

115

of several species of gecko and snake in the range covering the far ultraviolet (UVC) to the near infrared (NIR), or 200-750nm. To accomplish this, shed snake and gecko skins were collected from various sources including zoos and pet owners and the transmittances of the spectacle scales were measured using spectrophotometry. It was found that the gecko spectacles exhibit transmittance spectra that closely parallel the spectra of keratin that are widely found in the literature, suggesting a composition very near that of pure keratin. Those of snakes however exhibit attenuation of the shorter wavelengths in the UV spectrum, suggesting the presence of UV-absorbing, scattering or reflecting components, with a putative role in UV-protection. Furthermore, the transmittance spectra of shorter wavelengths and the cutoff frequencies are shown to vary between species of snake. Attempts to correlate UV transmittance and cutoff wavelengths with phylogeny and ecology have been inconclusive.

Vivienne Vance Health Studies and Gerontology "Diet and Exercise Therapy for the Treatment of Obesity in Adults" An alarming increase in obesity prevalence, the impact of these trends on the health of Canadians, and the fact that obesity has proven to be highly resistant to change, suggests a critical need for the development of evidence-based recommendations for treatment. Given that sustained adherence to lifestyle intervention is generally poor, what emphasis to place on diet, exercise or combined treatment is a question of practical clinical and public health significance. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of combined diet and exercise therapy, versus diet or exercise alone, on long-term weight loss and to assess the impact of combined treatment on cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk factors. A systematic review of diet and exercise based weight loss studies among obese adults was conducted using Medline (1966-2009) and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register. The cumulative findings from twenty long-term clinical trials provide sufficient evidence to recommend combined diet and exercise therapy over diet or exercise alone for the treatment of overweight and obesity. While diet only and diet plus exercise treatments seem to be equally effective in producing short-term weight loss, body composition changes and reductions in blood pressure, combined interventions have consistently produced greater improvements in blood lipids and glucose control in the first year of treatment and better weight loss maintenance and chronic disease risk reduction over time. A critical evaluation of the strength of evidence in favor of combined diet and exercise was used to develop summary recommendations for clinical practice. Mehrdad Varedi Management Sciences

116

"Revenue Management, Psychology or Mathematics?" Revenue management techniques usually focus on the optimization aspects of the problem by taking the price-demand relationship as given. Existing models are primarily focused on anticipating sales, regardless of underlying processes in consumers' behaviour. This research proposes a fresh approach by accounting for behaviour related factors. Namely, recognizing the fact that, consumers adapt and react to prices which firms dynamically set over time. In this project, different approaches were carried out to estimate consumers' waiting and reaction behaviour to dynamically priced goods. Particularly, using data obtained from a major airline, we aimed at revealing underlying demand processes and consumer behaviour using various statistical methods. It is expected that this new deterministic model would be adapted by airlines in near future as it provides possibility for agile decision making and would be a tool for competitiveness for every airline. Krisztian Vas Geography "What is involved in Birdwatching Tourism: A grounded theory approach" Previous ecotourism research has proven the value of birdwatching as a tool for ecological conservation and sustainable livelihoods. However, few researchers have dedicated themselves to studying birdwatching from a tourism planners approach. Much research is missing as to how birdwatching tourism should be implemented and even less is known as to what is it exactly that birdwatchers are looking for on trips. After all, none of the conservation or sustainability projects can be accomplished if no or inadequate numbers of tourist are attracted to a destination. Living in an age of electronic information and communication, it seems appropriate to utilize such assets to conduct research. Thus, birdwatching internet blogs from around the English speaking world were randomly selected. The individual blogs were analyzed from a post-positivist grounded theory approach, whereby initial or open coding took place on a line by line basis, followed by axial or focused coding, as categories and themes began to emerge. Finally, selective or theoretical coding took place, whereby themes were compared, contrasted and linked. This research over tuned the simplified answer that birdwatchers only look for birds. Birds are only one major theme birdwatchers seek, as they desire a complex and interrelated combination of geographic accessibility, good accommodations, safety and security, educational opportunities, social interaction and family time as well as to see non-bird, rare and endemic species. The findings of this research can especially be important for future tourism planners who might design birdwatching tourism products, such as ecolodges, birdwatching trails, or product clubs.

117

Diogenes Vedoy Chemical Engineering "Improving the Thermal Stability of Agro-Based Fibers" The utilization of agro-based fibers for manufacturing thermoplastic is enormously impacting the two major economies in Ontario: agricultural and automotive. Currently, the agro-based fibers available in Ontario, such as wheat straw and soy stem, are agricultural residues. The production of car parts using these agricultural residues will provide lightweight and renewable materials to the automotive industry by replacing heavy mineral fillers (e.g., calcium carbonate) and fibers (e.g., glass fiber) for agro-based fibers. Cars produced with agro-based fibers will be more fuel efficient and environmentally friendly. However, in order to extend the use of wheat straw fibers and other agro-based fibers to engineering polymers (e.g. polyamide), the thermal stability of these fibers has to be improved. The objective of this work includes the development of a methodology for preparing agro-based fibers with enhanced thermal stability. The first step towards this objective is an experimental study to evaluate the effect of thermal and chemical treatment of these agro-based fibers regarding properties such as yield and thermal stability. In this experiment, the effect of ammonium chloride, temperature, time, and method of mixing is explored. The extent of chemical modification and thermal stabilization is evaluated by measuring the temperature of thermal degradation and mass loss, changes in the chemical composition (quantified mainly by spectroscopy-FTIR), and moisture absorption. The results of these experiments indicate that ammonium chloride is an interesting alternative to improve thermal stability of agro-based fibers. Also, temperature and time play a major role in the yield obtained after treatment. Rodrigo Villar Kinesiology "Muscle Blood Flow Dynamics During Rest and Exercise in Different Body Positions" This study examined (1) data reproducibility for muscle blood flow in different body positions during rest and (2) muscle blood flow from rest to exercise transitions. For rest, four healthy male subjects performed four trials of the same protocol. All trials were randomly assigned between head-down tilt (HDT) and head-up tilt (HUT) and comprised of: 3 min baseline, 5 min HDT, 5 min prone, and 5 min HUT positions. For exercise, three healthy volunteers performed three protocol tests: maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), low intensity exercise (5% MVC) under prone (LPRO), and head-down tilt (LHDT) positions. The constant workload tests were comprised of 3 min baseline, 5 min exercise (20 cycles∙min-1), and 5 min recovery time. Muscle blood flow velocity was measured in the popliteal artery by Doppler ultrasound;

118

popliteal arterial diameter was measured by ultrasound technique, and mean muscle blood flow was calculated by the product of blood flow velocity and vessel diameter. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were determined on a beat-by-beat basis (Finometer). Cardiac output was estimated from the finger arterial pulse wave. Heart rate was continuously monitored by an electrocardiogram. All dependent variables measured during rest did not differ between the four trials, suggesting the data were reproducible. LPRO position demonstrated higher muscle blood flow in the transition from rest to exercise, and during steady state, than the LHDT position. In conclusion, exercising muscle blood flow was reduced in the head-down tilt position, likely due to reduced muscle perfusion pressure. Mihaela Vlasea Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering "Precision Micro-dispensing System for Solid Freeform Fabrication of Tissue Engineered Hydrogel Scaffolds" A recognized approach in tissue engineering is the design of biocompatible and bioresorbable 3D scaffolds that can be used as templates for growing neo-tissue. Depending on the target tissue, a range of hydrogel polymers may be used to construct anatomically accurate scaffolds using three dimensional solid freeform fabrication approaches. This paper focuses on the modeling and robust real-time control of a positive displacement fluid dispensing process used to fabricate hydrogel scaffolds with specified feature sizes and controlled internal architecture. The actual fluid dispensing process can be characterized as a non-linear time-varying system with a high dependency on fluid properties, which are often unknown. To develop a control paradigm, an analytical model is used to estimate the fully developed laminar flow of an unknown fluid through a pipe-like geometry. Experimental data is used offline to estimate the necessary model parameters. The initial estimated model is used to develop an adaptive control scheme for controlling the hydrogel flow through the deposition nozzle. The developed control strategy is then experimentally tested to investigate and quantify the performance capabilities of the fluid dispensing process in terms of feature size, flow continuity and uniformity. Ishari Waduwara Biology "Life without MTN is Twisted: MTN Deficiency in Arabidopsis Leads to Abnormal Cellular Arrangement" Polyamines, nicotianamine and ethylene biosynthetic pathways use S-adenosyl-L-methionine as their precursor. One byproduct of these reactions, methylthioadenosine (MTA) is re-cycled via the methionine recycling pathway. In this cycle methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (MTN) irreversibly hydrolyses MTA to methylthioribose which is converted ultimately back to

119

methionine. The goal of this project is to determine the functional significance of MTN in plants using a molecular genetic approach. MTN-deficient mutants show pleiotropic effects including organ twisting and transport defects of the plant hormone, auxin. Twisting is seen in almost all organs of the mtn deficient mutants. Interestingly, the twisting direction in these mutants is not consistent in its direction, a trait associated with auxin transport defects. Thus this mutant provides the unique opportunity to study the cellular basis of the twisted growth of plants and its relationship to auxin. We seek to answer the following questions: How does the twisting occur in the organs of these mutants? What is the mechanism behind it? To answer these questions two approaches have been taken: (1) microscopic imaging and (2) in situ localization of auxin accumulation. Compound, dissecting and scanning electron microscopic imaging of the twisted organs along with analysis of stained sections allowed us to propose a novel model for twisted growth. The model suggests that the reduced polar auxin transport increases local auxin levels, which in turn causes local increase in vascular cell differentiation to provide the driving force for twisting. This driving force together with altered cell expansion described by Furutani et al. 2000 results in organ twisting.

Ishari Waduwara Biology (Certificate in University Teaching ­ CUT) "Interactive Teaching Tools for Molecular Biology Classrooms" Most of the Molecular Biology courses taught are still based on the lecture based teaching methods complemented with laboratory components. To motivate, engage and enhance student learning, it is necessary to apply interactive educational approaches in the Biology classrooms. Although there are plenty of interactive approaches available, application of these are highly contextual and discipline specific. Some of these specific interactive approaches include online tasks/ quizzes, group projects, teaching by questioning and practicing by doing. Unfortunately, most of the Molecular Biology educators either are not aware of these approaches or are reluctant to use these approaches in their teaching. Thus, examples of online tasks/ quizzes and group projects which can be used as interactive teaching tools in Molecular Biology classrooms will be presented. The major strengths and weaknesses of each approach will be discussed, to ensure the effectiveness of these interactive teaching tools in student learning. Shuang Wang Biology "Validation of In vivo Detection of Pharmaceuticals in Fish Collected From the Grand River using Solid Phase Microextraction"

120

This study determined the feasibility of using solid phase microextraction (SPME) as an in vivo sampling tool to extract environmental contaminants in live fish exposed to municipal effluents in the Grand River to avoid lethal sampling. We contrasted SPME with solid phase extraction (SPE) and solid liquid extraction (SLE) to assess the relative efficiency of SPME. SPME, SPE and SLE were used to quantify the presence of atrazine, carbamazepine, naproxen, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, bisphenol A, fluoxetine and ibuprofen in water samples, in the muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) used for controlled lab exposure, and in the muscle of greenside darters (Etheostoma blennioides) collected in the upstream and downstream of the Guelph wastewater treatment plant. We also determined the distribution coefficients between sample matrices and extraction phases (SPME fibers) for all target compounds to calibrate results of SPME. Our data showed that six target compounds were detected in the Grand River and SPME was suitable for quantitative determination of these compounds in water samples and fish tissues. Furthermore, SPME allows for non-lethal sampling of fish which creates the opportunity for in vivo monitoring the impacts of sewage effluents on wild fish.

Jennifer Wilkes-Thiel Political Science "Back to the Future: An Analysis of Crime in Cuba" Cuba is known for being an outlier when considering crime in the Caribbean, and its excellent reputation has been as longstanding as the revolution. In recent years, especially after the fall of the Soviet Union, there has been a resurgence of crime in Cuba. This paper will address the underlying issues in the recent rise in criminal activity and conclude that crime in Cuba is likely to escalate in the near future. This paper does not seek to make new empirical discoveries, but serves as a tool for reflection and insight for the evolution and future of illicit activity on the island. At the outset will be a concise historiography of crime in Cuba, including an assessment of how the revolutionary government virtually halted illegal endeavours. The scope will analyze the effects of the liberalizing economy on crime. The effects of the Special Period's reforms have correlated to the increasing crime rate, and can be held accountable for the growing social and wage disparities among the population. As a consequence of this new social dynamic, crimes are persisting and growing. This will continue to increase with the swelling dollarization and contact with the U.S. Alexander Wong Systems Design Engineering "Stochastic Multi-scale Strategies for Biomedical Image Processing and Analysis"

121

Given the advancements and popularity of biomedical imaging technologies, an area of research that has gained tremendous popularity within the last two decades is biomedical image analysis, where the goal is to extract meaningful information from biomedical image data to aid clinicians and researchers in better understanding, diagnosing, and preventing disease. Biomedical image data is often complex in nature, and difficult to analyse and interpret in a meaningful way in its raw form. Given the inherent multi-scale nature of biomedical image data, multi-scale decomposition approaches have shown considerable promise in extracting meaningful information from such data in an efficient manner. A novel strategy that combines multi-scale decomposition with probability theory is proposed for producing robust and structurally localized multi-scale decompositions of biomedical image data. Furthermore, the application of the proposed stochastic, multi-scale decomposition approach for biomedical image processing and analysis is discussed. Finally, a new biomedical image visualization and analysis environment built around this approach for potential clinical deployment is presented. Sanders Wong Civil and Environmental Engineering "Two-dimensional Analytic Series and Numerical Method Modeling in a Multilayer Aquifer with Free-boundary Condition" In this paper, a semi-analytical (analytic series solution) and a numerical solution (finite element method) on a two-dimensional groundwater flow with a free water table condition are derived, demonstrated, and compared on a multi-layer unconfined aquifer with complex (i.e., natural) stratigraphy. The vertical sides and bottom boundaries of the model domain are impermeable, and the water table is a free-boundary condition governed by the Neumann condition. The problem is complicated by the possible intersection of the topographic surface or freeboundary condition with interfaces between different materials. For the analytic series approach, the series coefficients are calculated through a least-squares method, which minimizes errors. For the numerical approach, the aquifer domain is discretized with quadratic quadrilateral elements (an 8-point stencil) and the element's integration is calculated through a 3-point Gauss quadrature. Both series and numerical solutions are updated iteratively until the boundary conditions are met. Alexander Wright Kinesiology "Novel Compliant Flooring to Reduce Fall-related Injury Risk ­ Influences on Balance in Older Women" Purpose of Research: Novel compliant flooring systems are a promising approach for reducing fall-related injuries in seniors as they can decrease the force applied to the hip by 25-50%

122

during simulated falls. This study's purpose was to determine whether these benefits are achieved at the expense of impaired balance and/or balance control responses. Procedures/Methods Used: Thirteen women between 65-90 years of age stood on flooring samples (rigid, SmartCell, SoftTile, Firm-Foam, Soft-Foam) mounted on a motorized perturbation platform. Without moving their feet, participants were required to maintain their balance following a sudden 26.5 cm posterior platform translation. A force-plate and motion capture system recorded centre-of-gravity (COG - balance indicator) and underfoot centre-ofpressure (COP - balance control indicator). We measured how closely the COG and COP approached the anterior base-of-support limit defined by the participant's toes (margin-ofsafety (MOS)). Major Findings and Results: Repeated measures ANOVA indicated flooring type was associated with COG (p<0.001) and COP (p=0.006) margin-of-safety. Compared to the rigid floor, paired ttests demonstrated that COP_MOS was significantly smaller for the Firm-Foam condition (p=0.009), and COG_MOS was significantly smaller for Firm-Foam (p<0.001) and Soft-Foam (p=0.001) conditions. There were no significant differences between outcomes on the rigid, SmartCell, and SofTile floors. Research Conclusions: Novel compliant flooring systems are capable of producing no significant impairment in balance compared to rigid floors. Combined with their demonstrated force attenuative properties during simulated falls, these findings suggest that compliant floors may be a very effective method to reduce the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries. Xiaoqin Xiong Statistics & Actuarial Science "Regression tree based method for longitudinal count data" When the data has more complex structures, the underlying assumptions of parametric models may not be satisfied, thus leading to unfaithful results. In the case that the simple data structure doesn't hold for the entire data but limited to a subset of data, the structure might be better described by a model that partitions the data into subsets, employing separate submodels for each. Classification and Regression Tree based methods are commonly used when the subset data has its own structures. For longitudinal count data, there are very treebased methods, due to its complexity. Lee (2005) proposed a generalized decision tree based method which is based on marginal model (GEE) and marginal residual distribution. However, its underline assumption is that the covariates are time invariant. We propose a longitudinal tree based methods for count data which is based subject specific model (e.g. GLMM). We use conditional residual distribution and permutation test to get the cut off levels for each covariate. This method can deal with both time variant and time invariant covariates. The method is applied to a longitudinal hemodialysis study, trying to find out the C-reactive protein cut-off levels which can be used to predict number of infection events occurred in the past. Key words: classification and regression tree, conditional model, residual distribution, permutation test.

123

Luke Yaraskavitch Physics and Astronomy "Low Temperature Specific Heat of a Geometrically Frustrated System, Pr2Hf2O7" In the physical and biological sciences, frustration describes the inability of a system to satisfy all of its constraints simultaneously. Geometrically frustrated magnetic materials are an exciting family of materials which can display a diverse set of ground states at low temperatures. The frustration in these systems is a result of the form of the crystal lattice. This can be seen in a system of spins on a network of corner-sharing tetrahedra known as the pyrochlore lattice. In some cases, these materials avoid magnetic ordering and may exhibit highly degenerate ground states with residual entropy and various exotic properties. The pyrochlore Pr2Hf2O7 has been shown in prior measurements to exhibit no magnetic ordering down to 400 mK. We measured the specific heat of this material down to 100 mK to determine if ordering occurs. Our measurement suggests that Pr2Hf2O7 persists as a disordered spin liquid, the magnetic analog to a fluid, down to very low temperatures. I will present these results as well as introduce the apparatus and method used to measure specific heat at such low temperatures.

Fujisawa Yosuke Statistics & Actuarial Science "IFRS for Pensions: An Actuarial Perspective" In recent years, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) has made great strides toward significant improvements in pension accounting. For the first step of the amendment, the IASB issued a discussion paper in 2008, but the paper aroused a great controversy in the actuarial profession. Pension accounting is far from mark-to-market that the IASB has been trying to introduce. In this paper, I examine how the possible change in pension accounting affects on actuarial practice. The objectives of this paper are threefold. First, I review current actuarial practice under international accounting standards. Second, I analyze the discussion on a comprehensive review of pension accounting. Third, I explain, on the basis of the discussion paper issued by the IASB, the possible change in pension accounting and the potential impact on actuarial practice. Fanny Yuen Chemical Engineering "Cyclodextrin Assisted Self-Assembly of Double Hydrophilic Block Copolymers in an Aqueous Medium"

124

Recently, there has been significant interest in using stimuli-sensitive double-hydrophilic block copolymers to design novel supramolecular nanostructures. Cyclodextrins (CDs) have the ability to spontaneously complex with water-soluble guest molecules and their complexation with polymers also induces self-assembly. In this research, two stimuli-responsive systems were studied. First, the block copolymers were synthesized by ATRP to achieve well-defined monodisperse polymers. Then, the microstructure and aggregation behaviour in aqueous solutions were studied using a combination of static and dynamic light scattering, isothermal titration and differential scanning calorimetric techniques. The PEO-block-PNIPAM/α-CD system below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM, PEO-PNIPAM is highly soluble. Above the LCST, the thermosensitive PNIPAM block precipitates and the copolymer self-assembles into micelles with a PNIPAM core and a PEO shell. As α-CD was titrated to the polymer, the CDs threaded onto the PEO segments and induced micellization, forming nanostructures comprising of a PEO/α-CD core and a PNIPAM shell. Increasing the temperature of system above the LCST caused the PNIPAM segments to collapse, resulting in the aggregation of the micelles. The PPO-block-PMAA/β-CD system at high pH, PPOPMAA is highly soluble. As acid was titrated into the sample, the MAA segments become protonated and aggregation occurred due to hydrogen bonding with the PPO segments. As β-CD was titrated to the polymer, the CDs threaded onto the PPO segments and induced micellization, forming nanostructures comprising of a PPO/β-CD core and a PMAA shell. At temperatures above the LCST of PPO, the PPO segment became hydrophobic and selfassembled into nanostructures. Ada Zacaj Management Sciences "Women in the Undergraduate Engineering Culture: An Exploratory Study" Despite significant efforts to boost female enrolment levels and retention rates in engineering programs, females continue to make up a only a small portion of the Canadian undergraduate engineering student population. Meanwhile, the traditionally-male engineering education is undergoing a culture change as a result of the recent establishment of a female minority. Forces that are encouraging women to enter the field are also challenging some of the accepted gender differences that legitimize women's low participation. In our study, shortanswer open-ended questions are used to gauge the level of integration experienced by female students in the faculty. Attention is paid to the general academic and social engineering environment as well as the specific dynamics of mixed-gender groups. The results reveal that female engineering students find themselves in a balancing act between their perceived privileged status as a result of their numerical scarcity and the reduced participation and decision making power due to perceptions of engineering projects as stereotypically in the male domain.

125

Hamzeh Zawawy Electrical and Computer Engineering "Log Reconciliation" Purpose: The large sizes of the log files represent a major challenge for the administration and troubleshooting of distributed computer systems. In addition, each computer system/component has its own logging subsystem resulting in multiple log files that require subject matter expertise when used for debugging, thus complicating even further the task of managing such environments. Our research aims at developing a framework for log files reconciliation in order to produce a centralized view of log data. Procedures/Methods: The reconciliation is based on reducing log files sizes and merging the reduced sets into one centralized view. The log reconciliation framework relies on annotated goal models that represent the functional and non-functional requirements for the systems in the distributed environment. The framework incorporates the user's points of interest (such as time intervals, machine names, etc...) into the reconciliation process. The reduction phase is done by generating queries based on the events associated with the requirements goal model and then extracting relevant log data. The outcome is a set of reduced log files. Next, the merging process collapses events from different reduced log files by taking a top down approach starting from the top goal in the sliced goal model and then aggregating events, thus producing one unified log file. Experimental Setup: In order to illustrate the proposed framework and experimentally prove its soundness, we built a test environment that includes a business process orchestration layer sitting on top of a service-oriented layer. The test environment was built using commercial off the shelf software to represent a set of a financial applications and to emulate a real industrial setup. Findings/Conclusions: Due to the lack of standardization of log data format and content in heterogeneous multi-vendor distributed systems, the aggregation of log data into a meaningful unified and centralized view is a complex problem. However, we have reused concepts from requirements engineering, federated database systems and intrusion detection in order to design algorithms and prototypes to generate such a view. Bob Zhang Electrical and Computer Engineering "Microaneurysm (MA) Detection via Sparse Representation Classifier with MA and Non-MA Dictionary Learning" Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes that damages the retina and leads to sight loss if treated late. In its earliest stage, DR can be diagnosed by microaneurysm (MA). Although some algorithms have been developed, the accurate detection of MA in color retinal images is still a challenging problem. In this presentation we propose a new method to

126

detect MA based on Sparse Representation Classifier (SRC). We first roughly locate MA candidates by using multi-scale Gaussian correlation filtering, and then classify these candidates with SRC. Particularly, two dictionaries, one for MA and one for non-MA, are learned from example MA and non-MA structures, and are used in the SRC process. Experimental results on the ROC database show that the proposed method can well distinguish MA from non-MA objects. Hongtao Zhang Electrical and Computer Engineering "Adaptive Impulsive of Complex Dynamical Networks" Network synchronization is a very interesting and significant phenomenon and has been intensively studied recently. In this presentation, I will present an adaptive impulsive control approach, which is designed to synchronize a complex dynamical network to a desired isolated oscillator. This dynamical network consists of different oscillators which can be very arbitrary, such as convergent systems, periodic oscillators, aperiodic oscillators, chaotic attractors and so on. Among these network nodes, there exist some uncertain nonlinear diffusive couplings. Simultaneously, all nodes including network nodes and the isolated oscillator possess some unknown system parameters, which may be constant, time varying but bounded, or bounded in the rates of their variations. Three criteria based on Lyapunov stability theorem are deduced to guarantee the network synchronization under different kinds of unknown system parameters. It will be very useful in practical engineering applications. Finally, numerical simulations are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our synchronization approach. Yanqiao Zhang Statistics and Actuarial Science "A New Class of Time-dependent Regime-switching Models" In finance, there are typically two sources of information available: historical data of underlying assets under the objective measure (P measure) and market prices of financial instruments under the risk-neutral measure (Q measure). Most of the work under P measure assumes that the parameters in the SDE are time independent. On the other hand, calibration to the observed market data dictates the models to be time dependent. Not much work is done towards the statistical estimation problem for time-dependent models. We propose a new class of models, namely the time-dependent regime-switching (TDRS) models and demonstrate that the TDRS models have potential to combine information from P measure and that from Q measure.

127

Cui Zhenyu Statistics and Actuarial Science "Timer-style Options: Pricing, Design and Practice" In this presentation, we discuss a newly introduced exotic derivative: the Timer Option. Instead of being exercised at a fixed maturity date as a vanilla option, it has a random date of exercise linked to the accumulated variance of the underlying stock. In the case of the Hull and White and of the Heston stochastic volatility models, we propose a fast and accurate method to price these securities. The approach is based on Antonelli and Scarlatti [2009] Taylor expansion with respect to the correlation between the underlying stock and its variance. Then we discuss the pricing and the practical interests of the timer-style options available in the marketplace: the capped timer option, the FX Timer option, the Time swap and the Timer out-performance option. Finally we propose several new designs of timer-style options.

Rui Zhou Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science "Pricing Mortality Derivatives" Mortality derivatives are financial contracts that have payoffs linked to the level of a certain longevity or mortality index. These products involve both financial risk and mortality risk. The market is obviously incomplete and difficult to evaluate. Our study develops a framework for pricing mortality derivatives, based on the theory of equilibrium pricing. This framework will provide us not only the equilibrium price of mortality derivatives, but also the optimal amount of derivatives to be traded. Since discrete state space is used in the pricing framework, we approximate the Lee-Carter mortality model with jumps by multinomial tree. We first apply our pricing method to a one-period simple mortality bond. Then we extend the pricing method to multi-period mortality bond, utilizing Markov decision process theories. The prices obtained are reasonable and fairly good. Lei Zhu Electrical and Computer Engineering "New Transmitter Architecture Based on Dual-branch Amplifiers and Quadrature Power Combining Techniques" Wireless communication has become an important part of our daily lives now. In order to make it work, transmitters are used in wireless communication systems to transmit signals over the radio frequency (RF) for receivers to receive. A power amplifier (PA), a critical building block in a

128

transmitter, increases the input signal power to a higher power before delivering it to the antenna. Advanced wireless communication networks are posing stringent requirements on RF transmitters. The PA, being the most power hungry component of a mobile device, presents two challenges: 1) linearity over the range of power operation, and 2) power efficiency. Linearity is the ability to amplify without distortion while efficiency is the ability to convert DC to RF energy with minimal wasted power and heat generation. Both requirements are critical for modern wireless communication systems but mutually exclusive in nature. Also, the variation in operating conditions such as temperature, nearby objects (human body, walls, trees or obstacles) results in a load mismatch between the antenna and PA, which leads to a significant mobile device's performance deterioration. We propose a new transmitter architecture based on dual-branch amplifiers and quadrature power combining techniques. With simulation and experimental results, we demonstrated this new architecture is less sensitive to the load mismatch; the power-added efficiency and maximum output power do not vary significantly under severe antenna mismatch conditions. As a result, the mobile device's performance is improved. Andrew Zwart Mechanical Engineering "Virtual Solutions for Real World Problems" This paper introduces a novel application of MEMS accelerometers in consumer electronics for `Virtual Button' technology. The MEMS accelerometer is designed to measure low-g acceleration and sense tapping motion on a cell phone, consumer electronic, medical user interface, or harsh environment user interface. In this paper we outline this patent pending application and discuss the modeling and analysis of the accelerometer designed for this purpose. Prior art in impulse localization with inertial sensors is discussed. The features of the Virtual Button user interface are presented and applications of Virtual Buttons to medical, touch screen, and hand-held electronic devices are discussed. The initial considerations for the design of an accelerometer with an operating range of 0.5-20 and noise levels of less than 0.124 mg (Hz)^0.5 are also presented.

129

POSTER PRESENTATION ABSTRACTS

Ommani Abbas Department of Optometry Ocular Aberrations in the Older Population (45+) Introduction: Aberrations of the human eye vary greatly between individuals and for a given individual over the course of their life. Ocular aberrations (OA) have an explicit effect on the optical quality both for vision and for visualizing the ocular structures. The current aim of this study is to collect and characterise the statistics of ocular aberrations in a database of aberrations of healthy older (45+) human eyes. Methods: By using a custom-made ocular wavefront sensor developed by us, we obtained a more relevant picture of the state of OA. In conjunction with our collaborators, we have analytical methods to examine sequences of images to minimize random fluctuation and optimize the estimation of the OA. OA data was obtained at a single visit in a dim light room with 5 mm pupil size. The wave aberrations from 21 subjects (41 eyes) were measured using our Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor and calculated Zernike polynomials up to 8th order. Subjects ranged in age 45 to 65 (mean = 53.8). Their equivalent refractive spheres ranged between +2.50 D to -4.750 D. All subjects took off their glasses and did not go under refractive surgery. Results: We have developed and used a reliable protocol to collect the data. We observed an increase in wave-front RMS, specially in higher order aberrations of the 3rd , 4th , 5th and 7th and 8th order compared to published work of younger samples ( r =0.33 , p = 0.042)( r = 0.73, p = 0.0007). It could be the result of some changes in the eye optical properties. We observed the increase in wave aberrations of the eye with age. We saw a significant decrease in the 4th and 5th level. Although in the aged group the errors are usually larger, the slope of the linear fit of the data don't show a strong correlation between the age and RMS error as we expected (correlation was r = 0.16, p = 0.20) this might be due to the sample size (45 to 63) and the small number of the subjects in each age group. It could help to fill some of the gaps in our understanding of ocular aberrations assist in the development of a robust model of ocular aberration statistics to help in the optimisation of Adaptive Optic systems suitable for clinical use in both normal and diseased eyes. Andrew Achkar Physics and Astronomy Bulk Sensitive X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Free of Self-Absorption Effects X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a core-level spectroscopy where a photon excites a tightly bound core electron above the Fermi energy into an unoccupied state. It is a valuable probe of materials, revealing element and orbital information such as the valence, spin-state, orbital symmetry, crystal field interaction, and the hybridization of atoms with their

131

neighbours. Unfortunately, XAS spectra measured by traditional fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield techniques are distorted due to self-absorption and saturation effects. Here, we present a new method of XAS that is not affected by self-absorption or saturation effects and retains the bulk sensitivity of FY. This measure of XAS is achieved by scanning the incident photon energy through an absorption edge and using an energy sensitive photon detector to measure the partial fluorescence yield (PFY). The x-ray emission from any element or core-hole excitation that is not resonant with the absorption edge under investigation is selected from the PFY. It is found that the inverse of this PFY spectrum, which we term inverse partial fluorescence yield (IPFY), is linearly proportional to the x-ray absorption cross-section without any corrections due to saturation or self-absorption effects. We demonstrate this technique on the Cu L and Nd M absorption edges of the high-Tc cuprate LNSCO by measuring the O K edge PFY and comparing the total electron yield, total fluorescence yield and IPFY spectra.

Lassalle Amandine Psychology Brain Correlates Associated with the Modulation of the Gaze Orienting Effect by Dynamic Emotional Faces Previous research has shown that, when a face is presented, the detection of a lateral target is faster when the face is gazing towards it (congruence between the direction of gaze and the side of the target) than when it is gazing away from it (incongruence between direction of gaze and the side of the target). This is known as the gaze orienting effect. Some researchers have investigated whether adding an emotion on the face would impact the gaze orienting effect. Fear seems to trigger a faster detection of the target but whether this is dependent on the anxiety level of the participant is still debated. There is no clear evidence concerning a potential behavioural impact on this effect by other emotions such as anger or joy. None of these studies have looked at surprise, although it is very similar to fear in terms of the features modification. In this study, we aim to study further the impact of an emotional face on the gaze orienting effect using dynamic faces to be closer to what happens in real life and using a wide range of emotions (anger, fear, joy, surprise, neutral) . We will look at the behavioural differences (difference of reaction time and accuracy for detecting a target) as well as between the emotions but also at the brain signal modulations (measured by an electroencephalogram) obtained as a function of the emotion. We hypothesize that the orienting of attention by gaze will be modulated by the type of facial emotion and this will translate both on behavioural and brain responses. This study is important to better understand the brain mechanisms involved in processing facial emotions. It is also relevant to the understanding of some clinical populations such as ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) who have been shown to be specifically impaired in orienting to gaze task when fearful but not neutral faces were used. Because the ability to follow the gaze of someone else (shared attention) has been claimed to be a precursor of the theory of mind, we would also like to investigate how children of different age groups perform

132

at this task and how their behaviour and brain response differ from those suffering a developmental disorder such as autism. Osama Amin Electrical and Computer Engineering Disruption in Classrooms: Challenge and Solutions Disruption in classrooms is considered one of the frustrating obstacles to instructors in universities. In literature, different solutions were introduced through the university policy development, university counsellors and staff training programs. Based on my teaching experience and previous introduced techniques to combat disruption, I suggest a procedure to guide instructors in dealing with different types of disruptions. Each type of disruptive behaviour requires specific type of management. Instructors need to identify the types of disruption they have, then they could be able to perform possible interactions which can discipline such undesirable behaviour. These magical solutions can be implemented in teaching and learning techniques and through collaborative ways. Sarah Anderson Environment and Resource Studies Learning from Water Stories in Waterloo Region My intended masters research in Environment and Resource Studies will focus on personal water narratives and social change in Waterloo Region. Through interviews and an online interactive story-sharing process to be completed between May and October 2010, I will explore the worldviews of new Canadians and long-time Canadians with a common personal or professional interest in water. Although Canadians still largely believe in the myth of Canada's water abundance, climate change and population growth place increasing pressure on renewable freshwater supplies in communities across the country, and a new water ethic is needed. People's use of stories, expressing experiential memories, beliefs, values and priorities, is a powerful way to create common ground between individuals in an increasingly mobile society. By documenting and sharing personal water stories in Waterloo Region, I hope to uncover knowledge and experiences that can contribute to a culture of sustainable water use, while engaging new Canadians and long-time Canadians in local water governance and intercultural learning. Using video, audio and photographs to document participants' childhood memories of water, my objective will be to secure a minimum of 30 in-depth interviews. I will draw my voluntary, non-random sample through the Grand River Environmental Network, Great Lakes United, The Multicultural Centre and The Working Centre. The conceptual framework will be developed iteratively through grounded theory, based on themes emerging from the interview and story-sharing process and a review of bodies of knowledge including oral history, community engagement, public participation, intercultural learning, and sense of place.

133

Carla Arasanz Kinesiology Contributions of the Cerebellum to Sustained Attention: A cTBS Study Attention deficits have been reported in cerebellar patients, independent of motor function or action planning. Sustained attention is the ability to maintain focus and concentration during the presentation of repetitive, non-arousing stimuli. One classic paradigm used to assess this is the sustained attention to response task (SART). Imaging studies have reported cerebellar activation associated with fronto-parietal activity during SART, suggesting its involvement in maintaining the task goal on-line. We investigated the effects of reducing cortical excitability to the left or right posterior/lateral cerebellum using continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS). We hypothesized that the effects of cTBS on the cerebellar cortex would increase the number of commission and omission errors during the retest condition for SART. The experiment consisted of 25 sequences of numbers 1-9 visually presented in a random order, where the task is to quickly respond to all digits except for 3. SART was performed before and after cTBS either the left or right posterior/lateral cerebellar hemisphere using separate subject groups. Analysis of the results pre/post stimulation revealed a significant increase in the number of omission errors for both left and right hemisphere groups during retest (p < 0.05), but no significant difference in commission errors. Thus cTBS increased lapses of attention (omission errors) but had no effect on failure of inhibitory processes (commission errors), regardless of localization. Our results suggest that the cerebellum is involved in a neural network necessary for maintaining and coordinating attentional processes. Premji Azra Kinesiology Altering SEPs in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex Using iTBS The cortical excitability within the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) may be modulated using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS); rTMS is capable of altering touch sensation and physiology. Such changes, if robust and long-lasting, may provide one avenue for altering SI physiology in patient populations. One rTMS approach is called intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) and delivers stimulation for a short duration at a low intensity and may induce excitability changes in SI. One method to measure changes in SI physiology before versus after iTBS involves recording somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) following stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist. The goal of the present experiment was to investigate changes in excitability within SI and this was done by measuring subcortical and early cortical SEPs bilaterally before and following iTBS to left-hemisphere SI. Eleven righthanded subjects participated. SEPs were measured from C3' and C4' electrodes and referenced frontocentrally to Fz before (pre) and following (post) iTBS at 5, 15 and 25 minutes. ITBS was applied for 190 seconds(s) and consisted of a 2 s train of TBS repeated every 10 s; TBS consisted

134

of 3 pulses delivered at 50 Hz in a 5 Hz rhythm(600 pulses). Compared to pre iTBS, the amplitude of cortical potentials, N20/P25, in both the unstimulated and stimulated SI were significantly increased following iTBS for 15 and 25 minutes, respectively (p<0.05). In contrast, subcortical potentials remained unaltered. Collectively, these data suggest iTBS has the potential to influence SI cortical excitability in both the stimulated and unstimulated SI." Galen Bourget-Fogarty English Poetry, Prophecy, and Dystopia I intend to examine poetic texts that imagine dystopic futures, especially those concerned with technology and apocalypse. Dystopia is what Tom Moylan calls a type of "social dreaming", where fictional future scenarios are used to deal with contemporary problems. Advances in technology are always surrounded by fears of social decay; dystopic texts attempt to mediate these fears by imagining a future in which a particular form of social decay has reached its limit. Poetry seems particularly well suited to this kind of social dreaming because of its historic association with prophecy and truth. My research has focused primarily on contemporary poetry because of the proliferation of "high" technology since the turn of the twentieth century, although I have examined some earlier texts which focus on the fear of industrialization. Although my project is in its initial stages, I have noticed that poetic texts often draw on conventions from more narrative genres. Where narrative genres create detailed dystopic visions focalized through a central character, poetry relies on images drawn from available narratives to evoke the spirit of dystopia. In studying poetic dystopias, I hope to uncover some of the discursive practices we use to manage anxieties about technology and, more generally, anxieties about the future. Although I am focusing on artistic products, I am largely interested in how they perform cultural work. Aditya Chattopadhyay Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Invariance in the Stress Fields of Weldments The fatigue life of a weldment depends upon the peak stress at the weld toe and the stress distribution in the weld toe plane. Determining the stresses near the weld toe requires a fine three-dimensional finite element mesh, which can be very computationally intensive. In order to bypass the need for a fine three-dimensional mesh, a coarse three-dimensional mesh may instead be used to find the loads and moments at the weld toe. Unfortunately, the nodal stresses returned by the coarse mesh do not correspond to the true stress distribution near the surface of the weld. As a result of this, careful post-processing is needed to estimate the moment acting on the weld. Once the loads and moments acting in the weld-toe cross section have been estimated, the hot spot membrane and bending stresses may be found using classical analysis. These component stresses may then be multiplied by the nominal membrane and bending stress concentration factors to yield the peak membrane and peak bending stress

135

values. The stress distribution through the weld toe plane may then be estimated using the peak stress value and the geometry of the weldment. The procedure outlined above allows for large, complicated geometries to be analyzed quickly without the need for high-performance computers. The technique is especially useful when a critical location occurs in a statically indeterminate section of a structure, where the boundary conditions would be difficult to define if the section was modeled in isolation. Pylin Chuapetcharasopon Psychology Measuring Cultural Mosaic in the Workplace Since Canada established the Canadian Multiculturalism Act in 1988, the term "cultural mosaic," which encourages groups to maintain their unique cultural heritage in a pluralistic society, has become a household term. Although a popular metaphor, there is little scholarly research on the concept. It has not been rigorously defined, and the extent to which it truly represents Canadian society and its workplace is undocumented. For our research, we begin to address these issues by exploring the concept of a cultural mosaic in the workplace, specifically in the work group, and by creating a measurement tool for the construct. In a previous study, we identified and constructed 57 items for our Cultural Mosaic Scale based on our definition of a cultural mosaic, our conceptualization of the construct, and semi-structured interviews with students in culturally diverse work groups. In the current study, we modified these items, which resulted in a 62-item revised Cultural Mosaic Scale. This scale was sent online to 377 working adults in multicultural work groups across Canada. Exploratory factor analysis of the items resulted in six factors that make up a cultural mosaic: "Culture Acceptance/Expression," "Culture Utilization," "Group Diversity," "Group Member Diversity Values," "Group Member Distinctiveness," and "Canadian Team Culture." Our Cultural Mosaic Scale was further reduced to 38 items. Once our measure is refined and validated, the Cultural Mosaic Scale may be used to measure the existence of cultural mosaics in work groups, and to help us understand the increasingly multicultural workplace and diverse work teams. Nava Dabby Environment and Resource Studies Integrated Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change in Orissa, India India's strong agrarian economy, global location and climatic zoning make it highly vulnerable to the effects of rapid climate change. Particularly, shortened cropping seasons make timely sowing essential and agricultural mechanization is an attractive adaptation tool to reduce planting time. Mechanization using biodiesel in place of conventional fossil fuel provides an added opportunity to mitigate carbon emissions. An enterprise model in which farmers invest in machinery for custom hire can be coupled with community produced biodiesel, resulting in an integrated adaptation and mitigation mechanism for climate change. This research analyses

136

agricultural practices and farm mechanization in the state of Orissa, India, drawing on a village case study. Primary data is from key informant interviews and focus groups with farmers, university professors and NGOs in India. Secondary data analysis includes Indian and Orissan government documents and reports from international organizations regarding agricultural mechanization, sustainability, resiliency and climate change. The results of this study indicate that joint mitigation and adaptation mechanisms implemented at the community level can tackle climate change while also emphasizing livelihood benefits, poverty alleviation and income generation. This research contributes to the growing literature on adaptation and mitigation tools for climate change and adds an integral focus on small scale opportunities within the broader scope of sustainable agriculture and biofuel development in India. Ross Diener Physics New Physics at the Large Hadron Collider With the commencement of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment comes the promise of deeper insight into the familiar fundamental particles, known as the standard model, and also the possibility of discovering new physics `beyond the standard model.' This new physics might include new force carriers, new fundamental constituents of matter, or even indicate the existence of extra dimensions. Many theoretical extensions of the standard model predict one or more extra neutral force carriers, referred to as a Z' bosons. It is believed that a Z' boson might be quickly discovered at the LHC, which would naturally lead to questions about its underlying theory. In this talk, I will outline prospective discoveries at the LHC, and then discuss recent theoretical work concerning Z' physics, including the possibility of discovering and determining the origin of a Z' boson at the LHC. Ahmed Elmogy Electrical and Computer Engineering Understanding Learning Styles for Better Education When mismatches exist between learning styles of most students in a class and the teaching style of the professor, the students may become bored and inattentive in class. Learning about our learning styles and/or that of the students will help to develop coping strategies to compensate for the weaknesses and capitalize on strengths. The Behaviorist, Cognitive, and Constructivist learning theories have been used in the literature to achieve better learning and better course design. Also, the Soloman-Felder model is highly seen in the literature to tackle the major approaches to understand learning style preferences and strategies. Aiming for better learning for instructors and students, this paper summarizes and organizes recent research results of learning styles in a way that integrates and adds understanding to the work in the field. It emphasizes the classification, organization, and evaluation of the existing literature in order to help developing a perspective in this area.

137

Zaidan Esmat Geography and Environmental Management (Certificate in University Teaching ­ CUT) Laptop Usage in Higher Education: Benefits and Challenges The increased use of laptops in universities is generating intense debate about the impact of incorporating this technology into the processes of learning and teaching. Some debaters are for, while others are against its use in educational practice. Reports have shown that some lecturers allow and promote the use of the laptop in their class; some ban it, while others allow its use with restrictions such as closing down Internet access in the classroom. Recent studies have given more emphasis on the students' attitudes towards the laptop rather than studies of actual practice. There is a need for more studies on the advantages, disadvantages, as well as the challenges for infusing computer technology into post-graduate classrooms. The proposed poster presentation will address these issues, in addition to providing recommendations for an efficient use of the laptops in classrooms. Omid Fotuhi Psychology Justifying Smoking and Its Effect on Subsequent Quitting Behaviour: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey Previous studies have demonstrated that beliefs about smoking can affect a smoker's behaviour. For instance, Borland et al. (2009) found that smokers who endorsed more riskminimizing and self-exempting beliefs were less likely to intend to quit or to make quit attempts. In the current study, we use a cognitive dissonance framework to build on these findings by proposing that various other forms of beliefs can also contribute to weaken one's motivation to quit smoking. Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger, 1957) proposes that, because quitting is difficult, smokers are more likely to change their beliefs about smoking in order to relieve their dissonance than they are to change their smoking behaviour. We examined whether endorsing greater justifications is one way in which smokers reduce their dissonance. We analyzed data from the first three waves of International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey - a cohort study of over 2000 smokers in each of the four countries: Canada, United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Consistent with other studies, logistic regression analyses revealed that higher levels of justifications at the baseline wave (W1) were predictive of a lower likelihood of having intentions to quit in the same wave, and a lower likelihood of making a quit attempt by W2, but not were not predictive of the likelihood of being successful in a long-term quit attempt at W3. These findings highlight the psychological barriers that diminish motivation to quit and suggest that successful interventions to motivate quitting must deal with the defensive use of justifications.

138

Shannon Freeman Health Studies and Gerontology A Characterization of Centenarians Residing in Long-Term Care Facilities in Ontario Using Data from the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI MDS) The growing population of centenarians represents a heterogeneous cohort that is understudied in Canadian literature. With the continuous developments in medical care, Canadians are anticipated to live longer while the prevalence of individuals living with disabilities and/or disease requiring care is also expected to increase. Data for the current study were collected from the Minimum Data Set (MDS 2.0). Centenarians residing in long term care facilities in Ontario were assessed using the MDS 2.0 between July 1st 2005 and April 1st 2008 (N=423). The MDS 2.0 is a standardized tool that forms the foundation of the comprehensive assessment for each resident using a core set of screening, clinical, and functional status elements. Using MDS 2.0 data, a detailed understanding of centenarians in Ontario will be provided, including the prevalence of various health conditions afflicting this unique population. Cross-sectional analysis of resident care service utilization include indicators of physical and mental health, pain status, and prevalence of disease diagnosis. Understanding issues affecting the increasing number of oldest old will soon become one of the biggest challenges facing governments in industrialized nations. In a time when health care resources are stretched to their limits and the demands of an aging population increase, it is vital to direct research to alleviate this stress. Findings from the current study provide a detailed description of centenarians in Ontario which can assist clinicians to better understand centenarians as a heterogeneous cohort and enable more effective distribution of resources to meet individual patient needs. Justin Friesen Psychology Women and (dis)interest in Government: How the Status Quo affects Attitudes Toward Female Politicians and the Desire to Participate in Politics Past research has shown that when people are motivated to justify their socio-political systems, they come to view the current status quo as the most desirable status quo - a process termed injunctification (Kay, Gaucher, Peach, Laurin, Friesen, Zanna, & Spencer, 2009). We present two studies showing that injunctification processes can affect women's interest in politics. In Study 1, 64 female undergraduates first read a passage designed to heighten their system justification (SJ) motive or a control passage. They were then provided with information about the current

139

status quo suggesting there are many women or few women in federal politics. Participants with their SJ motive heightened construed the status quo as most desirable, so that those who read there were many women in politics showed a more positive attitude towards the inclusion of women in politics than those who read that there were few women in politics. In Study 2, using 90 female undergraduates, we again manipulated the SJ motive and supplied them with information about impending changes in number of women in politics (a fake poll projecting there would be a sharp increase or decrease in the number of female politicians following an upcoming election). Participants with a heightened SJ motive who read there would be increased numbers of women after the upcoming election reported more interest in voting and participating in politics, compared to those who read that there would be decreased numbers of women in politics. Implications for gender inequality and social change are discussed. Amirhossein (Amir) Hajimiragha Electrical and Computer Engineering Sustainable Convergence of Electricity and Transport Sectors in Ontario, Canada in View of Fuel Cell and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Transportation is one of the sectors that directly touches the major challenges that energy utilities are faced with: significant increase of energy demand and environmental issues. In view of these considerations and the problems with the supply of oil, the issue of alternative fuels for meeting the future energy demand of the transport sector has gained much attention. Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are believed to be the future of transportation due to their technical and environmental benefits. Furthermore, billions of dollars in investment on battery technology as well as supportive investment programs demonstrate governments' interest around the world to make this happen. In this research, the main idea was to find how the electricity network can be optimally exploited during off-peak hours for generating hydrogen for FCVs or charging the batteries in PHEVs. In order to do so, comprehensive robust optimization models for transition to these vehicles were developed, considering the constraints of both electricity grid and transport sector as well as the issue of data uncertainty. These studies were finally applied to the case of Ontario, Canada, after developing a zone-based model for the Ontario's electricity transmission network and a zonal pattern of base-load generation capacity procurement in Ontario during the planning horizon. With a reasonable trade-off between optimality and conservatism, it is found that more than 170,000 FCVs and 900,000 PHEVs can be introduced into Ontario's transport sector by 2025 without jeopardizing the reliability of the system or any additional grid investments. Ryan Henry Computer Science Making a Nymbler Nymble using VERBS In this work, we outline a new system that allows websites to selectively blacklist internet users connecting from anonymizing networks (for example, Tor) while maintaining their privacy. Our

140

system provides a privacy-preserving analog of the common practice of IP banning, and is modeled after the well-known Nymble system. However, while we solve the same problem as the original Nymble, we eliminate the troubling situation in which users must place their anonymity in the hands of a small number of trusted third parties. Unlike other approaches that have been considered in the literature, we avoid the use of trusted hardware devices or unrealistic assumptions about offline credential issuing authorities that are responsible for ensuring that no user is able to obtain multiple credentials. To prevent malicious third parties from being able to reveal the identity of anonymous users, we utilize a new cryptographic primitive which we dub verifier-efficient restricted blind signatures, or VERBS. Our approach allows users to perform all privacy-sensitive computations locally, then prove in zeroknowledge that the computations were done correctly in order to obtain efficiently verifiable signatures on the output -- all without revealing the result of the computation, or any potentially identifying information, to the issuing authority. Verification in our proposed VERBS scheme is several orders of magnitude more efficient than verification in any known restricted blind signature scheme.

Andrew Kasurak Geography Developing an Algorithm for AMSR-E Passive Microwave Observations in the Mountains of the Central Yukon Passive microwave (PM) remote sensing (RS) of physical snow quantities such as snow depth (SD) provides significant advantages over other methods due to year-around, frequent-repeat, weather-independent observations that are not limited by physical access. For these reasons, it is an ideal tool in the mountains. However, current PM algorithms do not work well in this terrain, due to a lack of field data to drive algorithm development. Fieldwork in 2008 and 2009 provided field data, and an algorithm was developed to produce an instantaneous, peakaccumulation snow map for the central Yukon, for areas below the tree-line. Using this new data set, a new set of coefficients for the PM algorithm is developed by stepwise mixed-effects regression, which allows for simultaneous estimation on all land-cover classes, using the limited data more efficiently. This new algorithm is better adapted to mountainous terrain. This new algorithm is compared against the current operating algorithms for Environment Canada (EC) with favourable results. The development of a new algorithm for use in mountainous regions will greatly expand the scope of the current snow monitoring program, which is limited to the prairies, tundra, and low-relief boreal forest.

141

Niousha Kazemi Chemical Engineering Improving Reactivity Ratio Estimation in Multicomponent Polymerizations Studies of multicomponent polymerization are of utmost significance due to the need of predicting, designing, and `tailor-making' polymeric material properties. Therefore, having a good knowledge of polymerization parameters, among which reactivity ratios are the most important ones, is very helpful. Due to related experimental and computational difficulties within multicomponent systems, studies on polymerizations with more than three components are extremely scarce. In the case of ternary systems, parameters obtained from the binary systems are often used, regardless of the fact that in a ternary system the values of some of these parameters may change considerably. Our research concentrates on enhancements in reactivity ratio estimation by applying a powerful estimation technique directly on terpolymerization experimental data (instead of dealing with three (often non-representative) binary copolymerizations). Conclusions from several case studies and experimental data sets illustrate that using the ternary data is superior to previous practice. Another related issue in multicomponent polymerizations is the existence of an azeotropic point. The feed composition of such a point would result in polymer products with homogeneous composition. Predicting the existence and also calculating the composition of the azeotropic point can reduce the effort of running costly experiments, in that computational results can be used to narrow the experimental search space. Although many attempts have been made to clarify issues around azeotropic points of multicomponent polymerization systems, the question is still open. We thus propose a general numerical approach that reliably finds any and all azeotropic compositions in multicomponent systems.

Lee-Anne Khuu Biomedical Vision Science Retinal Hemodynamics and Systemic Markers of Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Purpose: To investigate the associations between retinal hemodynamics, systemic markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Methods: Retinal blood flow measurements and blood serum samples were obtained from 38 NPDR type 2 diabetes subjects and 12 healthy subjects. Diabetes subjects were stratified into mild-to-moderate (n=25, mean age: 61.4 ± 8.3 yrs) and moderate-to-severe (n=12, mean age: 60.0 ± 11.1 yrs) DR groups by stereo fundus photography. Retinal hemodynamic parameters were assessed in retinal arteriole using the Canon Laser Blood Flowmeter. A minimum of 6 measurements were acquired to determine vessel diameter, blood velocity, pulsatility and blood flow. Blood samples were collected to derive levels of vascular inflammatory /

142

endothelial dysfunction markers, comprising intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Retinal hemodynamic parameters were correlated with markers of vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction Results: Baseline retinal hemodynamics, in terms of pulsatility, was moderately correlated with VCAM-1 (r=0.294, p=0.05) and vWf (r=0.331, p=0.028). Diameter, velocity and flow were the same across the groups. Pulsatility, however, was significantly elevated in the moderate-tosevere NPDR group (p=0.007). Moreover, E-selectin (p=0.027) was elevated in patients with diabetes, as was A1c (p<0.002). ICAM-1 showed a tendency to increasing with increasing severity of NPDR (p=0.51). Conclusions: A reduction in the compliance (i.e. increased rigidity) of the arteriolar circulation with increase in severity of NPDR from mild-to-moderate to moderate-to-severe was found. An association between endothelial function and inflammation was revealed. Yeongoon Kim Physics and Astronomy Surface Tension of Nano-Cellular Polymeric Foam It is well known that surface tension is a critical factor in the foaming process. Compared to micro-cellular foam, the size of nano-cellular foam is comparable to the polymer size. Therefore, we see the surface of a nano-sized polymer bubble as a curved surface, whereas we treat the surface of the micro-sized bubble as a flat surface. We expect the curvature of a bubble to have an effect on the surface tension. By using self-consistent field theory, we have investigated how the curvature of the surface affects the surface tension. Also, we expect to be able to check the nucleation rate in classical nucleation theory by comparing with our selfconsistent field theory results. Kang Kyung-Kuk(Kevin) Geography The Analysis in Ice Phenology on Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada, from Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures: 2002-2009 Lake ice is significant component of the terrestrial cryosphere for several months of the year in high-latitude regions. Lake ice is not only a sensitive indicator of climate variability, but it also plays a significant role in the energy and water balance at the regional scale. Knowledge about the spatial and temporal variability of ice phenology such as ice-on/ice-off dates is significant for enhancing our understanding of surface-atmosphere interactions at high latitudes within the context of a changing climate. Obtaining ice phenological parameters with optical satellite sensors such as MODIS is, however, difficult, especially during the freeze-up period due to polar darkness and extensive cloud cover. Passive microwave satellite remote sensing can provide regular and weather-independent information on ice phenology over large northern lakes such

143

Great Bear Lake (GBL) and Great Slave Lake (GSL). In this paper, the time series of brightness temperature at 18.7, 23.5, and 36.5 GHz from passive microwave brightness temperature measurements is analyzed to establish freeze-onset/melt-onset, ice-on/ice-off, and ice cover duration on GBL and GSL. In order to examine the interannual variability in ice cover on two large lakes, the horizontal polarized brightness temperature at various frequencies is explored to estimate ice phenological parameters for ice seasons 2002-2003 to 2008-2009. Preliminary results show a difference of approximately two to four weeks in melt-onset/ice-off dates between cold and warm winters. Passive microwave is shown to be a viable tool for observing lake ice phenology and the potential to replace the lost ground-based-observational icenetwork for GBL and GSL. G. Daniel Langohr Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Cervical Total Level Spinal Arthroplasty The cervical spine moves through flexion of the intervertebral discs and, by sliding of the synovial facet joint surfaces, both carry axial load and torque and degenerate with age. Up to 62% of neck pain cases arise from the facet joint. Surgical intervention for spinal degeneration includes fusion and disc arthroplasty. Spinal fusion removes the disc and fuses adjacent vertebrae severely limiting motion and causing high stress levels in adjacent discs. Disc replacement inserts an articulating device that attempts to mimic the healthy spine. Current designs lack rotational constraint causing increased facet contact pressure at the operated and adjacent levels, possibly facilitating facet degradation. A literature review was conducted to evaluate the present spinal surgical procedures and implant design in terms of past performance and patient outcomes. It was determined that there is a need for an integrated solution allowing for combined replacement of the disc and facet joints to give a total level spinal arthroplasty (TLSA). The ability to replace failed discs and facets individually or in tandem would be advantageous. A disc replacement is advocated that preserves the facet joints as well as a device for facet arthroplasty that can act together with the disc implant. Such a device is to be the focus of the engineering design process. The structural performance of this TLSA is to be investigated by applying finite element analysis to a cervical spine model to verify accurate reproduction of load sharing and spinal kinematics. Wear testing will provide insight into material selection.

Zichao Li Management Sciences Optimizing Airfreight Forwarder's Decisions We consider a shipment decision problem faced by international airfreight forwarders, focusing on freight consolidation decisions on the network level. We provide a nonlinear integer

144

programming formulation that accounts for volume and weight constraints and uses piecewise air cargo price rates. Several optimization methodologies will be presented. Lien Lien School of Planning Transboundary Ecology and Conservation West and Central African rainforests are disappearing at alarming rate of 5% yearly. This phenomenon is facilitated by an increase in human population. Consequently, forest ecosystems of these regions are fragmented into forest patches, significantly inadequate to support biodiversity, conservation goals and other management efforts. To overcome these tendencies, politicicians, ecologists, conservation biologists and environmentalists have opted for large scale natural ecosystems protection. "Trans-boundary protected areas conservation" provides hope for sustainable ecosystems conservation and management strategy. Korup and Cross-river regions constitute a complex of protected areas labeled as a "biodiversity hotspot" of great conservation priority. This region covers over 15,000 km2 of protected and communal lands. National species richness in Nigeria is high with over 4,600 species of plants, 250 species of mammals and 840 species of birds. The region contains the largest intact closed-canopy rainforest, representing 40% of Nigerian's remaining forest. Among its many biologically significant features are small populations of Cross River gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and Preuss red colobus (Procolobus pennantii preussi) monkeys. Cameroon's Korup region is highly rich in species. One quarter of all African primates live in this region. However, logging, extensive farming and poaching, coupled with a transboundary land dispute between the two countries have adversely affected biodiversity regime of the region and consequently ecological functions. We used satellite photos, participatory rural appraisal tools to describe forest ecology along Cameroon and Nigeria border, the impact of human intervention on biodiversity and conservation efforts taken by the two countries to overcome threats on biodiversity. We believe that the best outcomes will be achieved by peaceful agreements, implementation of social responsibilities and sustainable values. Understanding problems and differences of each border area and reaching collective agreement could positively contribute to the protection and preservation of biodiversity but also to the promotion of peace in the region.

145

Laura Mader Kinesiology Attention and Age-related Components of Visual-tactile Modulation of Somatosensory Cortex and Motor Implications Successful interaction with the external world requires continual sensory detection, sensorimotor translations, and goal-directed motor execution. Attention and unimodal task relevancy are known to facilitate sensory detection and to aid in motor performance, yet the extent of modulatory effects following crossmodal stimulation is less known. As prior studies have shown that incoming information from one modality can influence early cortical processing of a different sensory modality, it was predicted that combining visual and tactile stimulation would facilitate somatosensory activation over unimodal stimulation, correlating with improved motor performance. Basic trends were anticipated to be constant across age; however, as increased age tends to be associated with a reduced ability to filter incoming stimuli, it was predicted that irrelevant stimulation would degrade sensory processing of relevant stimuli. Somatosensory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded as healthy young (20-35yrs) and older (60-85yrs) adults performed a sensorimotor integration task. Pairs of crossmodal (visual-tactile) or unimodal (tactile-tactile) stimuli with varying task relevancy were presented; following a cue, subjects responded by squeezing a pressure-sensitive bulb graded to the combined additive amplitude of the two stimuli. Subjects were trained on response requirements prior to ERP recording. Analysis within young adults revealed crossmodal stimulation to facilitate ERP amplitudes from approximately 150 to 250 ms poststimulus (N140 and P230) above unimodal recordings; however facilitation was not paired with functional motor improvement. Manipulating task relevancy within crossmodal stimulation did not differentially affect ERPs. Preliminary analyses within older adult ERPs suggest similar waveform morphologies. These results support the hypothesis that visual-tactile interaction modulates cortical activation, but that task relevancy and motor requirements may not be dependent on early sensory processing.

Brooke Manderson, Justine Toscan Health Studies and Gerontology Health Information Use in Home Care There is growing recognition of the role and importance of health information systems in supporting an effective and sustainable health system; however, limited research exists to identify appropriate strategies, especially with home care providers. Research is crucial to accelerate proactive strategies to influence the quality of life of seniors, as well as the potential

146

fiscal impact of an aging population on the healthcare system. Home care is the foundation of care for a substantial proportion of the aging population and is an increasingly crucial sector of the health care system (Romanow, 2002). Despite major investments in health information systems in home care, there has been limited use of these systems for care planning and decision-making (Egan, et al., 2009). We engaged multiple home care stakeholders, including home care administrators, case managers and service providers, in small group discussion sessions at three workshops in London, Waterloo, and Toronto, Ontario. The purpose of these workshops was to determine the current facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for using health information in home care. The results suggest that health professionals recognize the potential of these systems to enhance communication; however, there was a lack of agreement on the current facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for future interventions. Ongoing research should strive to achieve consensus before strategies for improvement can be initiated.

Jordi McLeod Health Studies and Gerontology The Role of Information Sharing in Care Transitions for Older Patients with a Hip Fracture Introduction: Transitions between health settings are a high-risk period for care quality and patient safety. Patients with complex needs who undergo treatment in multiple care settings such as hip fracture patients - may be at higher risk for poor transitions. Challenges with information transfer and communication across the continuum of care are major health system issues and are detrimental to transition quality. Methods: This research examines current processes used to share information among and between health care providers, patients, and caregivers, particularly at admission and discharge, focusing on hip fracture patients. Information was gathered in an iterative process using key informant interviews with various health care providers in settings relevant to the continuum of care for older hip fracture patients. Blank copies of pertinent documents involved in admission and discharge were indexed. Results: We found that the care trajectory for hip fracture patients depends on several variables, for instance, ability to perform activities of daily living, pre-hospital living situation, and presence of multiple comorbidities or cognitive impairment. Information sharing occurred through formal and informal routines as well as standardized and non-standardized methods. Gaps in information sharing were found within and between care settings. Conclusions: While information sharing mechanisms are in place, there is considerable variability depending on the patient's medical complexity and care trajectory. This variation is compounded by the use of multidisciplinary teams across different care sectors. Our findings will inform a cross-national study aiming to enhance musculoskeletal rehabilitation through the better use of health information.

147

Erika Murray Chemical Engineering Proteomic Analysis of Expanded Human Islet Cells Treated with INGAP Diabetes is characterized by the impairment of insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. Xeno and donor-derived pancreatic islet transplantation have confirmed potential; however, the supply of human islets remains severely limited. Isolated islets cultured in vitro have potential for application in islet replacement and diabetes treatment as islet-derived cells can be expanded exponentially in culture. These proliferative cells have not yet been fully characterized; however, they are often described as fibroblast-like or duct-like and have been identified as a source of human islet-derived precursor cells (hIPCs). Proteomic approaches have the potential to reveal the molecular basis of cellular differentiation through quantitatively identifying and comparing protein expression profiles following cell stimulation. INGAP (islet neogenesis associated protein) induces the proliferation of duct epithelial cells, endocrine cell differentiation, and islet neogenesis in the pancreas. It was hypothesized that INGAP has a dedifferentiation effect on hIPCs towards islet-like cells. In animal studies, INGAP increases β-cell mass and insulin secretion, and is thought to act by inducing a reversion of proliferative duct-like epithelial structures of non-β cell origin to islet-like structures. To further elucidate the regenerative potential of hIPCs and INGAP, we cultured hIPCs in the presence of INGAP. Using differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE), combined with long term live cell imaging (LTLCI), we identified a time-dependant change in the expression of specific proteins both up-regulated and down-regulated by INGAP. Together, these studies provide new insights into the reprogramming of cultured hIPCs and the identification of potential pathways in which INGAP affects hIPCs.

Eva Neufeld Health Studies and Gerontology "Let's Not Talk About It": A Portrait of Depression and Purposeful Self-injurious Behaviour among Older Adults in Long-Term Care Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders among the elderly population, yet it is often under-diagnosed and undertreated. A significant characteristic of depressive disorder is the increased risk for self-injurious behaviour. The purpose of this research is to present a portrait of depression and purposeful self-injurious behaviour among older adults in Canadian long-term care. Data for this study were collected with the Minimum Data Set (MDS 2.0), which is part of the Resident Assessment Instrument 2.0. The MDS 2.0 is an assessment tool that provides a standardized approach to assessing the health, functional, psychosocial needs and strengths of individuals living in long-term care. Long-term care assessment data collected from two Canadian provinces between April 2003 and July 2006 were examined for this study (N =

148

1972). Descriptive statistics demonstrate that one-quarter of the sample experience either major or minor depression, with one-third of the current sample displaying indirect selfinjurious behaviours. Additional cross-sectional findings are provided with clinical and functional indicators to complete the current psychological portrait of older adults in Canadian long-term care. Open discussion regarding depression and purposeful self-injurious behaviour among older adults assists to dispel the existing stigma often attached to mental health issues. Findings of this research can assist health professionals effectively address seniors' needs through improved care planning and programs. The need to screen for depression and selfinjurious behaviour in long-term care facilities is discussed. Patrick K. Nicholson Computer Science Experiments on Range Searching over Untangled Monotonic Chains Motivated by applications in oceanographic information systems, we study the problem of searching through large two-dimensional datasets. In particular, we study the problem of orthogonal range search: given a rectangle as a query, identify all of the points located inside. We present experimental results for the first adaptive data structure for orthogonal range search in two-dimensions [Arroyuelo et al., Isaac 2009]. The structure is static and requires only linear space for its representation, meaning that it scales well to larger datasets. Roughly, the structure works by connecting points to form chains, which are restricted to grow in a similar direction, for example north-east. Chains with this directional restriction are said to be monotonic, and the structure also requires the chains to be non-crossing. The running time for answering a query is O(lg k lg n + min(k,m) lg n + m), where n is the number of points, k is the number of non-crossing monotonic chains into which we can partition the set of points, and m is the size of the output. Our experimental results show that this structure is competitive with the state of the art for real datasets, using six different types of generated queries: tall, wide, random, medium, tiny and tile. We also compare different methods for partitioning the set of points into non-crossing monotonic chains, testing their impact on the performance of the data structure. (Joint work with Francisco Claude and J. Ian Munro) Mehrdad Nojoumian David R. Cheriton School of Computer Science Social Secret Sharing Scheme The growth of Internet has created remarkable opportunities for Secure Multiparty Computations (SMC), where various users, intelligent agents, or computer servers cooperate in order to conduct computation tasks based on the private data they each provide. As mentioned in the literature, a practical method used in SMC is the Secret Sharing Scheme, where a secret divided into different shares for distribution among participants (private data), and a subset of participants then cooperate in order to reveal the secret (computation result). We introduce

149

the notion of a Social Secret Sharing Scheme, in which shares are allocated based on a player's reputation and the way he interacts with other participants. During the social tuning phase, weights of players are adjusted such that participants who cooperate will end up with more shares than those who defect. Alternatively, newcomers are able to be enrolled in the scheme while corrupted players are disenrolled immediately. In other words, this scheme proactively renews shares at each cycle without changing the secret, and allows trusted participants to gain more authority. Our motivation is that, in real world applications, components of a secure scheme may have different levels of importance (i.e., the number of shares a player has) as well as reputation (i.e., cooperation with other players for the share renewal or secret recovery). Therefore, a good construction should balance these two factors respectively. We believe such a mathematical construction advances modern secure paradigms where intelligent agents or software components are major players. Lana Ozen Psychology Persistent Attention and Memory Impairments in Young Adults Who Have Experienced a Mild Head Injury Residual attention deficits and memory complaints are the most frequently documented cognitive problems resulting from a mild head injury (MHI). Research shows that standard neuropsychological tests repeatedly fail to detect these problems. The goal of this study was to use self-report scales developed at the University of Waterloo (in addition to neuropsychological tests) to examine if high-functioning university students who experienced an MHI at least 6 months in their past would report more everyday attention errors and memory failures compared to those who have never had a MHI. All participants completed a battery of questionnaires and neuropsychological tests that measured different aspects of memory and attention. We found that MHI participants reported significantly more attentionrelated errors (on the Attention-related Cognitive Error Scale; ARCES) and memory failures (on the Memory Failures Scale; MFS) in everyday life compared to controls. MHI participants also had lower performance on the Digit-span Forward Task (measure of attention span) and longer mean response times on a computerized version of the Stroop Task compared to controls. ARCES scores were inversely related to Digit Forward scores and positively correlated to MFS scores. The perceived residual memory problems experienced long after a MHI may be due to deficits in attention and general slowing of processing speed. This slowing may be a result of the additional cognitive resources required to maintain accurate performance, making one more susceptible to memory and attention lapses throughout the day.

150

Jeff Paulitzki Psychology Understanding Habit-like Avoidance: When Bad Habits Collide with Good Intentions Models for how goals and habits interface with each other (e.g. Wood & Neal, 2007) suggest that top-down regulatory capacity is required when goals to behave in a certain way conflict with old habits. Study 1 investigated whether chronic-avoidance patterns can become habitual (i.e. entrenched to the point of becoming habit-like) by assessing differences between infrequent and frequent avoidance patterns. The results confirmed the expectation that frequent-avoidance patterns are experienced as occurring relatively automatically and that habitual avoidance is a reliable and valid construct. Using a longitudinal design, Study 2 assessed prospective task completion when good intentions to carry out unpleasant tasks conflicted with pre-existing habitual-avoidance patterns. Several computer tasks at Time 1 assessed inhibitory control (e.g. the ability to resist an eye reflex). Initial intentions for task completion and the habit-like nature of avoidance patterns were also measured. For individuals who were poor inhibitors, good intentions to engage in tasks did not result in action when habitual-avoidance patterns were present. However, good inhibitors followed through with their initial intentions irrespective of whether habit-like avoidance patterns existed. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that breaking habit-like avoidance patterns requires more than just good intentions. When appreciating why people avoid unpleasant tasks, it is important to understand both the nature of one's avoidance patterns and whether one has the underlying inhibitory-control capacity necessary to overcome dominant tendencies. Jeanette Prorok Health Studies and Gerontology Evaluation of a Dementia Education Program for Family Medicine Residents Introduction: Dementia diagnosis and management is an increasingly important topic in primary care and the training of family physicians. This study evaluated a dementia education program for family medicine residents regarding its effects on residents' knowledge, attitudes and confidence toward dementia assessment and management. A questionnaire was developed and validated for these purposes. Methods: The questionnaire consisted of a knowledge-based component, a component ascertaining preferences working with various age groups, and an attitudinal/comfort component. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was assessed and a content validity matrix was completed. Participants completed the questionnaire at baseline, interim and at the program's completion. Willing residents also participated in program feedback interviews. Approximately three months after the program's conclusion, participants completed the questionnaire for long-term follow-up. Differences in scores were examined between the participants and a comparison group of family medicine residents who did not receive the program.

151

Results: Each questionnaire component demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's A: 0.83-0.91) and high intraclass correlation coefficients (0.74-0.91). Participants in the program scored significantly higher on the knowledge component compared to residents who did not, in addition to reporting greater comfort communicating diagnoses, managing dementia, prescribing pharmacotherapy, and making referrals. Residents indicated that the program was a valuable part of their residency education. Discussion: The developed questionnaire is a reliable and valid measure for assessing dementia knowledge, attitudes and confidence. Results from the program indicate that it is effective in improving family medicine residents' knowledge on dementia diagnosis and management, as well as in increasing the residents' comfort levels. Sara Rahmani Chemical Engineering Novel Amphoteric Nanogels for Drug Delivery Application One attractive method of drug delivery is by using nanogels which have become recognized as environmentally responsive systems that have a great potential in smart, controlled and regulated applications. The porous polymeric structures of synthetic nanogels provide an ideal reservoir for loaded drugs, protect them from environmental degradation and hazards, and offer a template for the therapeutic drug carriers. The sterically stabilized functional polymeric nanogels were synthesized by emulsion polymerization of poly (2(diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) and poly (methacrylic acid) and crosslinked with ethyl glycol dimethacrylate. The physical characteristics of nanogels such as size, surface charges distribution, and chemical composition were quantified by using dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analyzer and potentiometric and conductometric titration, respectively. The results revealed that synthetic nanogels swell in both acidic and basic conditions due to the electrostatic repulsion between charged groups distributed throughout the hydrogel network. To study the synthesized nanogels' potential as suitable particulate carriers for controlled and targeted drug delivery systems, the following fundamental issues need to be addressed, namely: (1) The synthesized nanogels will be loaded with model drug; the drug will be partitioned to the free volume within the swollen polymeric nanogels; (2) Thermodynamic analyses on the binding of model drug and nanogels; (3) the release kinetics of model drug from the nanogels will be studied. Zhaoxia Ren Statistics and Actuarial Sciences Testing for a Change of the Frequency of Jumps in Levy Processes The model we consider are Levy processes. Our goal is to detect jump observations and then test for a change of the frequency of jumps. There are two main parts. The first one is jump detection. Given a series of observations, we try to distinguish which ones are due to jumps, and which ones are simply because of the discretization of a diffusion process. For this part, we

152

consider two different methods. Secondly, we test if the frequency of jumps has been changed. This problem is a special case of change-point analysis. We extend the existing methods to suit our case of dealing with the misspecification errors. We believe this topic would draw some practitioners' interest as well, especially during the current economic recession. Mehdipanah Roshanak Health Studies and Gerontology Urban Aboriginal Health: Using Individual and Contextual Approaches to Better Understand the Health of Aboriginal Populations Living in Toronto While Aboriginal health has improved in the last few decades, life expectancy continues to be lower for Aboriginal people compared to the rest of the population. The focus of current Aboriginal health research tends to be on those living in rural or remote Aboriginal communities. Yet, more than half of the Canadian Aboriginal population currently reside in urban centres. Despite the importance of neighbourhood and contextual factors for understanding health in urban areas, the importance of neighbourhood characteristic for urban Aboriginal health has not yet been examined. We examined Toronto as a city of interest with just over 13,600 Aboriginal individuals living in its 140 neighbourhoods. The objective of the study was to determine what factors at both the individual and neighbourhood level impact self-rated health status. A series of logistic regression models were constructed in order to understand the effects of individual and neighbourhood-level predictors on self-rated health (self-reported health, hospitalization, diabetes and smoking status). Individual-level predictors included gender, age, education, employment and income, while neighbourhood-level predictors included average yearly income, Gini coefficient, housing, employment and education. The 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey and 2006 Census and the City of Toronto data sets were used. Through this study we gained an understanding of neighbourhood-level influences on Aboriginal health while visualizing Aboriginal urban settlement in Toronto. As expected, Aboriginal individuals living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods were more likely to have poorer health outcomes. While neighbourhood-level predictors such as average household income were significantly associated with health outcomes, individual-level predictors had somewhat stronger effects on predicted health outcomes. Zhaleh Semnani-Azad Psychology YouTube on TV: Examining Reactions to Negotiation Deadline Across Three Cultures Prior research shows that collectivist cultures, like Japan, tend to be more relationship-oriented in negotiation than individualist cultures, like the U.S. (Gelfand & McCusker, 2001). It is recommended that when negotiating with East Asians, one needs to allow a lot of time for building relationships (MacDuff, 2006). However, researchers have not explored Middle Eastern cultures, which are also collectivist and relationship oriented. We designed a vignette study to

153

test negotiators' relationship versus issue focus when given 1 versus 4 hours to negotiate a contract with a TV station to air reruns of their personal video blogs. We sampled Canadian (individualist), East Asian (collectivist), and Middle Eastern (collectivist) students and the results indicate that with a 1 hour deadline, compared to the other cultures, Middle Eastern students selected more statements pertaining to relationship focus, and ranked those statements higher on importance. For the 4 hour deadline, Middle Eastern students selected a higher number of statements associated with both relationship and issue focus. They also ranked those statements higher on importance. The findings will help us understand Middle Eastern attitudes and perceptions in negotiation, including a strong relationship focus when deadlines are short and moderate levels of both relationship and issue focus when more time is given. Mohamed Shams El-Dein Electrical and Computer Engineering Novel Configurations for PhotovoltaicArrays and Farms to Reduce Partial Shading Losses Partial shading is the condition of having different insolation levels at different parts of a photovoltaic structure. This structure can be a module, array or farm. The difference in insolation levels causes miss-match in the elements of the photovoltaic structure. This missmatch has undesirable effects such as reduction in generated power from the elements of the structure and hot spots inside the structure. The severity of these effects can be considerably reduced by reconnecting the structure in such a way that miss-match is reduced. This paper proposes novel configurations for modules inside arrays and arrays inside farms, that result in considerable reduction in partial shading losses. The improvement over the existing photovoltaic configurations has been demonstrated by extensive simulation results. Punya Singh Psychology Functional Analysis of Concealment: A Novel Application of Prospect and Refuge Theory According to prospect-refuge theory, humans prefer to be in spaces that afford protection from threat (refuge), but also provide large fields of view (prospect). These preferences are said to arise from the adaptive advantages of such locations with respect to both avoidance of predation from refuge and survey of opportunities for resource collection by prospect. Prospect-refuge theory has traditionally only been applied to human beings, but many of the same contingencies governing spatial preference ought to also hold true in animals. If people's spatial preferences are influenced by prospect-refuge considerations, then such preferences ought to be found in animals that are subject to the same pressures to find safety and resources. The overall objective of this study was to explore spatial preferences of the Mongolian gerbil in situations in which prospect-refuge theory makes specific predictions about which regions of an environment will be preferred. Gerbils were placed in an arena containing three dome shaped refuges that varied in the amount of prospect and refuge. A predator was

154

released during the trial to examine how contextual factors may influence the degree to which prospect and refuge are preferred. When the animals were exposed to a threatening stimulus, there was a shift towards preferring refuges with greater concealment rather than prospect. These findings indicate that shelter preference does in fact depend on contextual factors. In conclusion, the present study suggests that spatial preferences in animals are also influenced by prospect-refuge considerations. Stanislav Sokolenko Chemical Engineering Cell Size Distribution Deconvolution Existing approaches for cell size distribution modeling generally attempt to describe the behavior of the entire distribution with respect to time. Although some advances have been made in this area, the modeling process requires a large number of culture-specific parameters and an a priori assumption of the distribution nature (Poisson, Gaussian, etc). In my work, I propose a deconvolution of the distribution into component size ranges and an iterative regression process with respect to a single culture variable such as viability. Following this approach, two example applications are outlined using data collected with the Coulter Counter Multisizer. In the first, traditional biovolume measurement is corrected to account for the noneven distribution of non-viable cells. These corrections amount to an average increase of 7-65% in the calculated biovolume from 24 to 72 hours post infection. In the second example, viability is predicted from the cell size distribution using both linear and exponential regressions. In the inter-quartile ranges of the prediction error (for 50% of the values), the predicted values were within 7-10% of the true viability. Although only viability relationships were tested, my approach yielded significant results for both applications, allowing the possibility for further development. Uthaiwan Suttisansanee Chemistry Investigation on the Metalloenzyme Glyoxalase I from Clostridium acetobutylicum The glyoxalase system catalyses the conversion of toxic, metabolically produced ketoaldehydes, such as methyglyoxal (MG), into their corresponding nontoxic 2hydroxycarboxylic acids, leading to detoxification of these cellular metabolites. The first enzyme in the glyoxalase system, glyoxalase I (GlxI), converts a hemithioacetal, a non-enzymatic product of MG and the cofactor glutathione (GSH), to S-D-lactoylglutathione. Previous studies in yeast, protozoa, animals, human, plants and Gram-negative bacteria divide GlxI into two classes according to its metal activation, Zn2+- or Ni2+/Co2+-activated (non-Zn2+ activation being observed). However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the Glyoxalase system from Gram-positive bacteria. The X-ray crystallographic structure determined as a result of high throughput proteomics investigations indicates that Clostridium acetobutylicum GlxI possesses

155

a Zn2+ atom and one water molecule in its active site (PDB: 2QH0). However, further biochemical investigation on metal specificity suggests that the enzyme is in fact Ni2+/Co2+activated and is inactive with Zn2+. The active site geometry of this Ni2+-activated enzyme possesses an octahedral coordination (PDB: 3HDP), while it becomes trigonal bipyramidal in its Zn2+-bound inactive form. These results correspond to the reported active site geometry of active and inactive E. coli GlxI (also Ni2+/Co2+-activated enzyme). However, instead of forming an active site at the interface of a homodimer similar to other dimeric enzymes in this family, a dimeric C. acetobutylicum GlxI forms an active site within one subunit (two active sites per dimer). This is the first GlxI from Gram-positive bacteria that has been studied with respect to its structure and metal specificity. Gelo Noel Tabia Physics Exploring Qutrits through Symmetric Informationally Complete Measurements By representing quantum states as a set of probabilities induced by symmetric, informationally complete measurements (or SICs), we uncover basic properties of the three-level quantum systems not readily apparent in the usual Hilbert space formulation. We also present a detailed study of the non-unitarily equivalent families of SICs in dimension three, the intimate connections among the probabilities they yield, and the algebraic structure coefficients they give rise to. An experiment realizing a qutrit SIC-POVM via weak measurements by the Steinberg group at the University of Toronto highlights the practical significance of some of our theoretical results. Herbert Tang Applied Mathematics Mathematical Modeling of Pattern Formation using Stochastic Processes Patterns are ubiquitous: they appear as galaxies in the cosmos, as spots on a leopard, and as chemical expressions within biological organisms. In 1952, Turing proposed a mathematical mechanism through which spatial patterning could be generated. It is a remarkable result that has since been used in many biological and chemical applications. Nevertheless, Turing's mechanism is limited by unphysical assumptions generating unnatural patterns. Turing's model of pattern formation relies upon deterministic partial differential equations (PDEs). He demonstrated that systems in a homogeneous, stable equilibrium can be driven to instability through the addition of diffusion, thereby creating patterns. PDEs describe average behaviour, however, obscuring any natural deviations from the mean. As Turing noted, it is important that deviations exist, otherwise all organisms would be perfect spheres and all patterns would be straight lines. The goal of our research is to include the inherent deviations found in real systems by using stochastic processes. Extending Van Kampen's Linear Noise Approximation method to allow for diffusive transport, we have shown that Turing's original conditions for

156

pattern forming instability are relaxed. Moreover, it is possible for patterns to arise in one species alone - behaviour that is impossible in a deterministic model. The research has farreaching consequences, not only in the mathematical study of pattern formation, but in simulation of these systems and parameter inference from experimental data. A coupling of fluctuations and pattern formation are essential to elucidate the microscopic mechanisms responsible for such diverse phenomena as embryonic development and tumour morphology. Shi Tianxiang Statistics and Actuarial Science Analysis of the Time to Ruin, the Surplus and the Deficit at Ruin Due to the contingent property of loss claim payments, efficient techniques, such as Value at Risk, are required by the insurance companies to manage the possible adverse impact of claim payments on their balance sheet. Realization of the calculation depends on the knowledge of ruin related distributions. With the introduction of the Gerber-Shiu discounted penalty function (Gerber and Shiu (1998)), the surplus prior to ruin, the deficit at ruin and the time to ruin have been extensively analyzed in many risk models. Efforts are made to obtain expressions for the joint density of these three key random variables in certain models. The directions of future research in Risk Theory would also be discussed. Shahrzad Towfighian Mechanical Engineering Communication Skills and Effective Teaching Improving teaching skills is a goal for many graduate students seeking future teaching careers, in which a significant difference can be made by effective communication skills. Although solid knowledge in the subject of a course is a necessity, it is not sufficient for a successful teaching experience. Teachers should be able to effectively convey their message and that can only be achieved by having decent interactions. In this study, an example of the influence of communication skills on teaching will be described. Methods for enhancing communications will be introduced that include but are not limited to: positive attitude, body language, sense of humour, listening, getting feedback, and presentation skills. We are not born with communication skills and we can always improve our teaching abilities. Teachers can provide a favourable learning environment by having a positive attitude in their classroom. Students can feel teachers' confidence and motivation, which draws their attention. Body language and vocal tone keep the students motivated and a sense of humour breaks the tension in the class. Students feel closer and get encouraged to participate in such a class, and the teachers can benefit by careful listening to students' concerns, their strengths and weaknesses. Active student participation then helps to create a friendly environment where the teachers can get feedback on the way and constructively improve their teaching skills. And last but not least, strong presentation skills and proper use of visual aids can contribute to students' learning in

157

the classroom. Mentioned communication skills will be expanded to provide graduate students/teachers with tips to improve their teaching capabilities.

Mary Vu Health Studies and Gerontology Examining Predictors of Different Cigarette Access Behaviours Among Canadian Youth: Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (2006) Purpose: Point-of-sale restrictions aim to prevent youth from acquiring cigarettes; however, often these restrictions do not work as youth still access cigarettes from both tobacco retailers and social sources. The purpose of this study was to examine school- and student-level characteristics that predict whether youth smokers access cigarettes from social sources or if they purchase directly from retailers. Methods: Nationally representative data collected from 41,886 grade 9 to 12 students attending 143 secondary schools who participated in the 2006-07 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were examined for descriptive analyses. Three multi-level logistic regression models provide school and student characteristics associated with the odds of a smoking student (a) usually buying his/her own cigarettes, (b) usually getting cigarettes from a family member, and (c) usually getting cigarettes from a friend or someone else. Results: When more social sources are available, youth are less likely to buy their own cigarettes and are more likely to acquire cigarettes from social sources. The less spending money that youth have, the more likely they access cigarettes from social sources. Finally, youth who attend a school with a higher prevalence of older smoking students are more likely to obtain cigarettes from social sources. Conclusions: The ability for underage youth smokers to successfully undermine laws restricting tobacco access is a major public health issue. A better understanding of school and student factors associated with youth cigarette access behaviour will be useful for public health decision-makers to develop effective policies and programs to counter youth smoking. Tyler Walker Architecture NeuroPlastic Architectonic Space Traditionally, architectural theses stray away from current scientific discourse because of the friction generated between art and science and the belief that it inhibits design. This thesis proposes that stream as folly and investigates architectonic space through a neuroscientific lens. What does architecture and the built world become when we design based on how it fosters and inhibits growth at the level of the neuron? Is it possible to calibrate architectural spaces to act as tools for advancing the human brain? The current acceptance of neuroplasticity within the medical professional community is opening up new fields of research regarding

158

rehabilitation and advancement of the human mind through atypical means. At the Arrowsmith School in Toronto, a program has been developed and founded on neuroscience research that is "demonstrating it is possible for students to strengthen the weak cognitive capacities underlying their learning dysfunctions through a program of specific cognitive exercises." In a similar vein to Arrowsmith's work, this study will show that it is possible to utilize highly calibrated spatial sequences and experiences, registered through atypical sensory inputs, as exercises that expand and strengthen our proprioceptive spatial senses and enhance other cognitive capacities. As the study examines how architecture relates to the biological development and well being of the human brain and body at the neuroanatomical level, the results will have significant implications for the future of architectural design and simultaneously the development of the spatial cognition of the architect. Amanda Wudarzewski Psychology False Past Experiences Can Shape Current Preferences We conducted a large scale experiment in which we falsely suggested to some participants that, before the age of 20, they had either loved white wine, or had gotten sick from drinking white wine. Those who fell sway to the suggestive manipulation substantially increased their confidence that the event had occurred in their past. More importantly, these "believers" also showed changes in consumption patterns of wine. These results demonstrate that it is possible to change peoples' alcohol consumption patterns (i.e., how much one consumes) simply by falsely suggesting to them that an alcohol-related event occurred in their past. Shiva Zaboli Systems Design Engineering Organ Recognition using Gabor Filters The aim of this research is to investigate the possibility of using medical image information to extract unique features and classify different patients' organ tissues, such as the prostate, based on concepts related to what is already done in iris recognition. This paper therefore presents a new approach in medical imaging, an organ recognition system, tested on a standard database of grey scale prostate images in order to validate its performance. In this research, features of the prostate image were encoded by convolving the normalized organ region with a 2D Gabor filter and then quantizing its phase in order to produce a bit-wise biometric template. Our experiments prove that prostate patterns have a low degree of freedom to be used in organ recognition systems and inter-class and intra-class distributions are highly correlated. However, there are still open issues that need to be addressed for future work on organ recognition, including precise segmentation and intensive computation cost.

159

Asif Zaidi Physics Laser Induced Polyyne Formation in Alkanes Linear chain alkanes in liquid phase show convincing evidence for the formation of polyyne CnH2 when irradiated with 800 nm femtosecond pulsed laser. Ti:Sapphire laser system used in irradiation of alkane liquids generates stable pulses of duration of 100 fs. Irradiated liquid was analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy SERS and time of ight mass spectrometry. A mechanism has been proposed to explain formation of larger polyynes in liquid phase than original starter alkanes.

Christopher Zehr Health Studies and Gerontology Individual Differences in Executive Function and Intention-behaviour Continuity for Physical Activity: The Effects of Compensatory Strategy Provision Purpose: Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of implementation intentions in translating intentions into health-protective behavior. However, no research has examined the capacity of this brief goal setting intervention to compensate for low executive function (EF). Consequently, the present study investigated whether administering an implementation intention intervention designed to increase physical activity would differentially benefit individuals with low executive function compared to those demonstrating high executive function. Methods: 158 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to receive a physical activity intervention or a control condition. Individual differences in executive function and physical activity intentions were measured at baseline. Physical activity was assessed over the subsequent 7 day follow-up interval. Results: Analyses revealed a three-way interaction between physical activity intention strength, executive function, and treatment condition on the amount of physical activity reported at follow-up (INTxEFxCOND=-.156, t=-2.078, p=.041). Analysis of simple slopes revealed that those with low EF showed significantly lower intention behavior correspondence (INT=.398) than their high EF counterparts (INT=.618) in the control condition (INTxEF =.220, t=2.182, p=.034). However, the intention behavior correspondence for high EF and low EF participants was uniformly high in the experimental condition: simple slopes predicting behavior from intention did not differ from each other significantly in this group ( INTxEF =-.091, t=-.972, p=.336). Conclusions: Overall, findings supported the idea that executive function has relevance for intention-behavior correspondence over time for physical activity. The benefits of goal setting was uniformly strong for both low EF high EF individuals, however, it appeared especially pronounced among those with low levels of executive function.

160

Yanqiao Zhang Statistics and Actuarial Science A New Class of Time-dependent Regime-Switching Models In finance, there are typically two sources of information available: historical data of underlying assets under the objective measure (P measure) and market prices of financial instruments under the risk-neutral measure (Q measure). Most of the work under P measure assumes that the parameters in the SDE are time independent. On the other hand, calibration to the observed market data dictates the models to be time dependent. Not much work is done towards the statistical estimation problem for time-dependent models. We propose a new class of models, namely the time-dependent regime-switching (TDRS) models and demonstrate that the TDRS models have potential to combine information from P measure and that from Q measure. Angela Ziluk Kinesiology Influence of Area 5 on Primary Motor Cortex: A Paired-Pulse TMS Investigation in Healthy Adults Area 5, a cortical region largely dedicated to the hand, projects to primary motor cortex (M1), and may influence both the neural activity within M1 and the motor control of the hand. Using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), the nature (excitatory versus inhibitory) and timing of projection from area 5 to M1 was examined in 13 healthy subjects. The conditioning stimulus (CS) delivered to area 5 was set at an intensity of 90% of resting motor threshold. The subsequent test stimulus (TS) was delivered to the representation of first dorsal interosseous muscle within M1 at an intensity necessary to evoke an MEP of ~1 mV. The interval between CS and TS was tested at 6, 8, 10, 12, 30, 40, 50 ms. Neural projections from area 5 to M1 were recorded during 1) rest, 2) simultaneous vibration (23 Hz) of digits 1 and 2, 3) vibration (80 Hz) to tendons of FDI and opponens pollicis and 4) simultaneous vibration to tips of digits 1 and 2 and their corresponding tendons. The data revealed that area 5 influences M1 output at both short and long intervals. Specifically, the influence of area 5 on M1 output is facilitatory when the interval between the CS and TS is 6 ms (p = 0.0076), and inhibitory when the ISI is 40 ms (p = 0.0237). This effect is seen only during digit tip vibration. We conclude that area 5 influences M1 output during the processing of cutaneous input delivered to the fingers.

161

Information

ORAL PRESENTATION ABSTRACTS

175 pages

Find more like this

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

214634