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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi adamianis ZiriTad uflebebTan da TavisuflebebTan dakavSirebiT

Tbilisi 2004

adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precedentuli samarTali

wigni gamoica saqarTvelos axalgazrda iuristTa asociaciaSi aSS-is saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentosa (USAID) da merilendis universitetis IRIS Center-is finansuri mxardaWeriT(xelSekruleba # 114-C-00-01-00136-00).

gamocemaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi ekuTvnis maT avtorebs da SesaZloa ar emTxveodes USAID-is Tvalsazriss.

Targmani:

Tamar mamukelaSvili rusudan tuSuri Tamar TarxniSvili xaTuna yviralaSvili qeTevan xuciSvili

koreqtorebi:

gamocemaze pasuxismgebeli:

aiwyo da dakabadonda saqarTvelos axalgazrda iuristTa asociaciaSi krilovis q. 15 Tbilisi 0102, saqarTvelo (+995 32) 936101 tiraJi 500 cali

redaqciaSi Semosuli masalebi ar recenzirdeba da gamoxatavs mxolod avtorTa Sexedulebebs. akrZalulia aq moyvanili masalebis gadabeWdva, gamravleba an gavrceleba komerciuli mizniT, asociaciis werilobiTi nebarTvis gareSe

© 2004 saqarTvelos axalgazrda iuristTa asociacia

ISBN 99940-804-6-6

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s a r C e v i

winasityvaoba kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

Tanasworoba asakobrivi niSniT; Tanasworoba sqesis niSniT; Tanasworoba erovnuli da eTnikuri warmomavlobis niSniT; Tanasworoba enobrivi niSniT; Tanasworoba seqsualuri orientaciis niSniT; Tanasworoba moqalaqeobis niSniT.

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sicocxlis ufleba wamebis akrZalva Tavisuflebis da piradi usafrTxoebis ufleba Rirsebis ufleba samarTliani sasamarTlo gamoxatvis Tavisufleba Sekrebis Tavisufleba gaerTianebis Tavisufleba gaficvis ufleba ganaTlebis ufleba arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba TavSesafris ufleba Sromis Tavisufleba

63 88 101 133 159 190 230 243 274 283 304 328 346

winasityvaoba

winamdebare gamocema moicavs evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio kontrolis umaRlesi organoebis gadawyvetilebebidan amonakrebs adamianis uflebebTan da ZiriTad TavisuflebebTan dakavSirebiT. qarTul enaze igi pirvelad ibeWdeba. wignis gamocema ramdenime garemoebis Tanxvedram ganapiroba: pirvel rigSi, unda aRiniSnos, rom 2004 wlis manZilze saqarTvelos konstituciam mravali mniSvnelovani cvlileba ganicada da, amasTan, araerTxel iqna gacxadebuli xelisuflebis mier konstituciis fuZemdebluri principebis cvlilebis ganzraxva. Sesabamisad, migvaCnia, rom evropis qveynebis ZiriTadi konstituciuri principebis gadmocema gansakuTrebiT did mniSvnelobas iZens, vinaidan iqmneba SesaZlebloba, kanonmdebelma da mkiTxvelma konstituciuri reforma swored evropul samarTlebriv principebs miusadagos. amasTan, aRsaniSnavia, rom gamocemaSi Tavmoyrilia amonaridebi ara mxolod tradiciuli, dasavleT evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebidan, aramed, agreTve, aRmosavleT da centraluri evropis, yofili sabWoTa kavSiris qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebidanac, romlebsac saqarTvelosTan msgavsi warsuli akavSirebT. amrigad, aRniSnuli qveynebis sakonstitucio samarTalwarmoebis ganviTarebis Secnoba ara marto sainteresoa, aramed saSualebas iZleva, gaziarebuli iyos is principebi da gamocdileba, romlebic ganviTarebis procesSi Camoyalibda. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom dResdReobiT saxelmwifoebrivi mmarTvelobis araerT sferoSi mimdinareobs reforma, romelsac Tan axlavs xSiri sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi, samarTlebrivi sistemis stabilurobis SenarCunebis interesi moiTxovs, TvalsawierSi iyos moqceuli adamianis uflebaTa samarTlis fuZemdebluri principebi, romlebic swored warmodgenil gadawyvetilebebSia gamoxatuli. aucileblad unda aRiniSnos isic, rom sakonstitucio sasamarTlo xSirad politikuri balansis uzrunvelmyoflis rolsac TamaSobs aRmasrulebel, sakanonmdeblo da sasamarTlo xelisuflebaTa Soris. Sesabamisad, evropuli qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis damokidebulebaTa gacnoba da gaziareba mniSvnelovania xelisuflebaTa Soris balansis dacvisaTvis. garda amisa, mxedvelobaSi unda iyos miRebuli, rom saqarTvelos saxelmwifos ganviTarebis prioritetad dasaxulia evropul sivrcesTan harmonizacia. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo ki swored evropuli civilizaciis monapovaria _ ama Tu im formiT damaxasiaTebeli evropis yvela qveynisaTvis _ rac erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi faqtoria imisaTvis, raTa mis ganviTarebasa da xelSewyobaze izrunos saqarTvelos saxelmwifom. swored amis gamo, migvaCnia, rom aRniSnuli qveynebis umaRlesi sakonstitucio kontrolis organoebis gadawyvetilebaTa gacnoba da gaTvaliswineba udavod xels Seuwyobs evropul sivrceSi saqarTvelos integraciis miznis ganxorcielebas. yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, es wigni gansakuTrebiT saintereso wyaros warmoadgens kanonmdeblebis, sajaro politikasTan dakavSirebiT gadawyvetilebis mimRebebis, konstituciuri samarTlis specialistebisa da samarTlis studentebisaTvis. ana doliZe Tavmjdomare saqarTvelos axalgazrda iuristTa asociacia

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

Tanasworoba asakobrivi niSniT

latvia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 20-05-2003 umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb kanonis 27.4 muxlisa da 28.2 muxlis teqstis "... sanam piri miaRwevs 65 wlis asaks" da samecniero saqmianobis Sesaxeb kanonis 29.5 muxlis konstituciis (Satversme) 91-e da e 106-e muxlebTan Sesabamisobis Sesaxeb e samecniero saqmianobis Sesaxeb kanonis gasaCivrebuli debuleba iTvaliswinebs, rom administraciuli Tanamdebobebi (direqtori, direqtoris moadgile da samecniero struqturuli erTeulis mmarTveli) saxelmwifo samecniero institutSi da arCeviT kolegialur samecniero institutebSi SeiZleba daikavon pirebma, romelTac ar SesrulebiaT 65 weli. umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb kanonis gasaCivrebuli debulebebi iTvaliswinebs, rom "profesoris, asocirebuli profesoris, docentis Tanamdebobebi da administraciuli Tanamdebobebi (reqtori, proreqtori da dekani) umaRlesi ganaTlebis institutebSi SeiZleba daikavos pirma, sanam igi miaRwevs 65 wlis asaks" da "profesorebi airCevian eqvsi wliT, am kanonis 33-e muxlis Sesabamisad, Ria konkursis wesiT da reqtori arCeul pirTan gaaformebs SromiT xelSekrulebas mTliani eqvsi wliT an, Tu piri miaRwevs 65 wels am eqvsi wlis ganmavlobaSi, SromiT kontraqts im dromde, sanam piri gaxdeba 65 wlis." yvela momCivanma miaRwia 65 wels. isini amtkiceben, rom gasaCivrebuli debulebebi arRvevs konstituciis (Satversme) 106-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebul garantiebs, riTac dawesda diskriminaciuli SezRudvebi maT uflebaze _ Tavisuflad airCion saqmianoba da samuSao adgili. maTi uflebebi SeizRuda ara maTi unarisa da kvalifikaciis gamo (rogorc amas iTvaliswinebs 106-e muxli), aramed maTi asakis safuZvelze. maT ar daukargavT arc unari da arc kvalifikacia. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom konstituciis 106-e muxlSi saqmianobisa da samuSao adgilis Tavisufleba niSnavs, pirvel rigSi, yvela piris samuSao bazarze Tanabar daSvebas da, meore mxriv,

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

saxelmwifosaTvis akrZalvas _ daawesos SemzRudavi kriteriumebi: mas SeuZlia, daadginos moTxovnebi, romelic dakavSirebulia TanamdebobiT dakisrebuli valdebulebebis SesrulebisaTvis aucilebel unarsa da kvalifikaciasTan. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb kanonisa da samecniero saqmianobis Sesaxeb kanonis gasaCivrebuli debulebebi uaryofdnen im pirebis uflebas, romelTac miaRwies 65 wlis asaks, daekavebinaT zemoaRniSnuli Tanamdebobebi sxvebis Tanaswor safuZvelze. Sesabamisad, es pirebi ar sargeblobdnen samuSao bazarze Tanabari daSvebiT, romelic garantirebulia konstituciis 106-e muxliT. konstituciis 106-e muxlis SezRudvebi unda: gaTvaliswinebuli iyos kanoniT; Seesabamebodes kanonier mizans, romelic gaaCnda saxelmwifos am SezRudvis SemoRebisas; Seesabamebodes proporciulobis princips. vinaidan gasaCivrebul debulebas Seicavda parlamentis (Saeima) mier proceduris Sesabamisad miRebuli da ZalaSi Sesuli kanonebi, sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom ar iyo sadavo, rom SezRudvebi swored kanoniT iyo gaTvaliswinebuli. sasamarTlom ar gaiziara mosazreba, rom SezRudvis kanonier mizans warmoadgenda mecnierebis ganviTareba da modernizacia demokratiuli saxelmwifo struqturis dasacavad. Tumca, vinaidan ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saTanado done saxelmwifos warmatebuli ganviTarebis ganuyofeli nawilia, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gasaCivrebuli SezRudvebis mizani iyo sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis uzrunvelyofa. imisaTvis, raTa ganisazRvros gasaCivrebul debulebebSi SezRudvebis proporciuloba kanonier mizanTan mimarTebiT, es SezRudvebi unda Sefasdes demokratiul sazogadoebaSi maTi saWiroebis safuZvelze. mocemul SemTxvevaSi unda ganvixiloT, SesaZlebelia Tu ara kanonmdeblis mier arCeuli gziT kanonieri miznis miRweva; es mizani SeiZleba Tu ara miRweul iqnes sxva saSualebebiT, romlebic naklebad SezRudavs individebis uflebebsa da kanonier interesebs; da sazogadoebis sargebeli iqneba Tu ara ufro didi, vidre individebis uflebebis dakargva da kanonieri interesebis ziani. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom SeuZlebelia umaRlesi ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis xarisxiani ganviTareba, rodesac samecniero an akademiuri Tanamdebobis gadamwyveti kriteriumi aris asaki da ara profesiuli SesaZlebloba. unda gauqmdes SezRudvebi imis safuZvelze, rom gonebrivi SesaZleblobebi avtomaturad mcirdeba asakTan

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

erTad. gasaCivrebuli debulebebiT gaTvaliswinebuli mxolod asakobrivi SezRudva ar SeiZleba iyos sakmarisi zogadi kriteriumi zogierTi profesiis, Tanamdebobisa da saqmianobis akrZalvisTvis. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom SeuZlebeli iyo saxelmwifos miznis ­ umaRlesi ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis ganviTarebis miRweva mxolod asakis safuZvelze im pirTa wris SezRudviT, romelTac SeiZleba daikavon Tanamdebobebi, rogorc es moxda gasaCivrebul debulebebSi. axalgazrda specialistebis dasaqmebis uzrunvelsayofad kanonmdebels SeeZlo sxva, naklebad mtkivneuli saSualebis gamoyeneba, rac ar SezRudavda pirebis ZiriTad uflebebs (rogoricaa, magaliTad, im pirebis arCeva SedarebiT mokle periodiT, romlebmac miaRwies zemoaRniSnul asaks. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanonebi unda Seicavdes kvalifikaciis ufro zust kriteriumebs saxelmwifo samecniero dawesebulebebis administraciuli TanamdebobebisaTvis, agreTve, profesorebisa da docentebis postisaTvis, raTa uzrunvelyofiliyo gamWvirvaloba da Sesaferisi moTxovnebisaTvis xelSewyoba. [ENGLAT-A-106] konstituciis 106-e muxli iTvaliswinebs, rom ZiriTadi kriteriumi gasaCivrebul debulebebiT gaTvaliswinebuli akademiuri da administraciuli TanamdebobebisaTvis aris unari da kvalifikacia da ara asaki. Sesabamisad, gasaCivrebuli debulebebiT gaTvaliswinebuli asakobrivi SezRudvebi konstituciis 106-e muxliT [ENG-LAT-A-106] garantirebul ZiriTad uflebasTan mimarTebiT ar Seesabameboda proporciulobis princips. sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb kanonis 27-e muxlis pirveli winadadeba da 28-e muxlis meore punqtis sityvebi "an im drois ganmavlobaSi, sanam piri miaRwevs 65 wlis asaks" da samecniero saqmianobis Sesaxeb kanonis 29.5 muxlis pirveli winadadeba ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis 106-e muxls [ENG-LAT-A106] da baTilia am gadawyvetilebis gamocxadebis dRidan.

niderlandebi umaRlesi sasamarTlo 08-05-1998 samoqalaqo kodeqsis 2:252-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis kerZo kompaniis sazedamxedvelo sabWos wevrad arCevis asakobrivi zRvari _ 72 weli _ ar warmoadgens gaumarTlebel diskriminacias asakis safuZvelze 1966 wlis samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb paqtis (ICCPR) 26-e muxlis Sesabamisad.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

parlamentma daaskvna, rom ar gascilebia keTilgonivrulobis sazRvrebs da, rom arsebobda obieqturi da mizanSewonili safuZveli samoqalaqo kodeqsis 2:252 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli asakis safuZvelze diskriminaciis gasamarTleblad. rodesac es SezRudva dawesebulia kanonieri miznis misaRwevad da SeiZleba CaiTvalos am miznis miRwevis saTanado saSualebad, ICCPR-is 26-e muxlis Sesabamisad, ar arsebobs gaumarTlebeli diskriminacia asakis niadagze. Tumca, ukanasknel periodis movlenebma (rac gamoixata kanonis miRebiT, romelic krZalavs samsaxurSi dasaqmebisa da arCevis dros asakis safuZvelze diskriminacias) gamoaaSkarava, rom socialuri klimati Seicvala savaWro kodeqsis 50b (Zveli) muxlis da samoqalaqo kodeqsis 2:252 muxlis miRebis Semdeg; am cvlilebis Sedegad asakis safuZvelze gansxvaveba, savaraudod, ufro metad CaiTvleba gaumarTleblad, vidre es moxdeboda warsulSi. ar SeiZleba iTqvas, rom asakobrivi SezRudvis Camoyalibeba, romelTa zemoTac aRar SeiZleba garkveuli Tanamdebobebis dakaveba, aRar Seesabameba mravalricxovani sazogadoebis kanonis koncefcias. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, zemoaRniSnuli ganviTareba ar niSnavs, rom sadavo sakanonmdeblo debulebebma dakarges gamarTleba. Tundac liberalurad ganimartos ECHR-is pirveli oqmis pirvel muxlSi avtonomiuri termini «possessions», mocemul dros Znelia imis dadgena, sakasacio procesis dros miiCneven Tu ara, rom momCivans gaaCnia ufleba, romelic SeiZleba CaiTvalos qonebad mocemuli debulebis mniSvnelobisaTvis (magaliTad, European Court of Human Rights 23 February 1995, Series A, no. 306-B, gv. 46, §53 da European Court of Human Rights 20 November 1995, Series A, no. 332, gv. 21, §31; Bulletin 1995/3).

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 26-01-2000 ramdenime moqalaqis saCivrisa da kazanis saolqo sasamarTlos Txovnis Semdeg sakonstitucio sasamarTlom Seiswavla, iyo Tu ara konstituciuri kvalifikaciis amaRlebisa da umaRlesi ganaTlebis Semdeg profesiuli swavlebis Sesaxeb federaluri kanonis zogierTi debuleba. am kanonis Tanaxmad, umaRlesi ganaTlebis saxelmwifo da municipalur dawesebulebebSi profesoris Tanamdeboba SeiZleba miiRon mxolod 65 wlamde. Tumca, umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo institutebis akademiis sabWos winadadebiT, reqtorma SeiZleba gaagrZelos asakobrivi SezRudva profesoris

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

Tanamdebobis dakavebis Sesaxeb 70 wlamde. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom gasaCivrebul debulebasTan erTad, romelic daafuZna precedentulma sasamarTlom, ubralod faqti, rom pirma miaRwia dadgenil asakobriv zRvars, sakmarisi mizezia maTTvis, rom datovon gansaxilveli Tanamdeboba da ar aris aucilebeli sxva moTxovnis gaTvaliswineba, maT Soris, mocemuli piris saqmianoba Tanamdebobrivi movaleobebis Sesrulebisas, maTi akademiuri kvalifikacia, janmrTelobis mdgomareoba an profesiuli da pirovnuli niSnebi. amave dros, konstitucia iTvaliswinebs dasaqmebis Tavisuflebas da yoveli piris uflebas, gamoiyenos samuSao unari da airCios saqmianobisa da dasaqmebis tipi. es sakonstitucio debulebebi individebs ar aniWebs uflebas, miiRon gansakuTrebuli samuSao an daikavon raime konkretuli Tanamdeboba. profesiuli urTierTobebis sferoSi muSaobis Tavisufleba ZiriTadad aisaxeba dasaqmebis saxelSekrulebo bunebaSi. moqalaqesa da damqiravebels Soris dadebuli SromiTi xelSekrulebis saSualebiT regulirdeba dasaqmebis sakiTxi mocemul profesiasTan, saqmianobasTan, TanamdebobebTan an specialur kvalifikaciasTan mimarTebiT. amave dros, muSaobis Tavisufleba iTvaliswinebs, rom yvelas aqvs garantirebuli SesaZlebloba, daamyaros profesiuli urTierToba sakuTari muSaobis unaris gamoyenebiT. Tanasworobis konstituciuri principi ar niSnavs, rom parlaments ar SeuZlia SemoiRos gansakuTrebuli regulireba garkveuli samuSaos dakompleqtebis moTxovnebTan dakavSirebiT, rodesac aseTi gansxvavebani obieqturobiTaa gamowveuli da gamarTlebuli da konstituciurad gamarTlebul miznebsa da moTxovnebs emsaxureba. 1958 wlis IMO-s #111 konvenciis Tanaxmad, gansxvavebani, gamonaklisebi an upiratesobani dasaqmebisa da muSaobis sferoSi, romlebic efuZneba konkretuli samuSaos moTxovnebs, ar CaiTvleba diskriminaciad. Sesabamisad, garkveuli Tanamdebobebis dasakaveblad asakobrivi cenzis daweseba dasaSvebia, Tu es SezRudva ganpirobebulia Sesasrulebeli samuSaos gansakuTrebuli niSnebiTa da bunebiT. amave dros, garantirebuli unda iyos Tanasworobis konstituciuri principis pativiscema, rac gamoricxavs sxvadasxva moTxovnis gaumarTlebel SemoRebas im pirebTan mimarTebiT, romlebic asruleben identur funqciebs. sxvagvarad asakobrivi zRvris daweseba gamoiwvevs asakis safuZvelze diskriminacias. marTalia, parlamentma daawesa asakobrivi zRvari profesoris Tanamdebobis dasakaveblad, Tumca, imavdroulad, mas igive zRvari ar daukanonebia sxva saswavlo da profesoris TanamdebobebisaTvis.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

Sesabamisad, 65 wlis miRweva, TavisTavad, ar iwvevs aseTi tipis saqmianobis efeqturad ganxorcielebis SezRudvas. kanonmdebeli ar miiCnevs oficialur samoqalaqo Tanamdebobad profesoris Tanamdebobas saxelmwifo umaRles saganmanaTleblo institutebSi. parlaments ar daukavSirebia am Tanamdebobidan gamomdinare garantiebi da sxva damatebiTi SeRavaTebi saxelmwifo mosamsaxurisaTvis miniWebuli garantiebisa da damatebiTi SeRavaTebisaTvis da ganzraxuli hqonda, aenazRaurebina maT uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebze SemoRebuli garkveuli SezRudvebiT Tanasworobis principisTvis miyenebuli ziani. parlamenti uflebamosilia, daadginos saTanado RonisZiebebi umaRlesi ganaTlebis institutebSi kadrebis marTvis gansaaxleblad da am Tanamdebobebis dasakaveblad _ yvelaze kvalificiuri da imedis momcemi kadrebis mozidvis mizniT. konstitucia pirdapir ar iTvaliswinebs umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo institutebis avtonomias, magram igi umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo institutebis muSaobis saZirkveli da erT-erTi im principTagania, romelzec dafuZnebulia saxelmwifos saganmanaTleblo politika. umaRlesi saganmanaTleblo institutebis avtonomiis mtkiceba gulisxmobs, rom, rodesac wydeba sakiTxi _ 65 wlis zemoT pirma SeiZleba daikavos Tu ara profesoris Tanamdeboba _ institutis mmarTvelebisa da maTi kolegiuri organos mosazreba iqneba gadamwyveti faqtori. arsebuli samarTlebrivi meqanizmi, romlis Tanaxmadac, umaRlesi ganaTlebis institutebis akademiuri sabWo profesoris Tanamdebobaze pirs irCevs faruli kenWisyriT, iTvaliswinebs am sakiTxis gadaWris demokratiul saSualebebs. asakobrivi kriteriumis daweseba, rogorc damateba am urTierTobaze, saxelmwifos gaumarTlebeli Carevaa saxelSekrulebo urTierTobaSi dasaqmebasTan mimarTebiT, rasac mohyveba SromiTi xelSekrulebebis Tavisuflebasa da avtonomiurobaze ukanono SezRudva. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gasaCivrebuli debulebebi arakonstituciuri iyo.

yofili iugoslaviis respublika - makedonia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 19-09-2001 reziume: sasamarTlom daadgina gasaCivrebuli saojaxo aqtis 60.1 muxlis arakonstituciuroba, romlis Sesabamisadac arakanonier bavSvs SeuZlia saCivris wardgena misi mamis vinaobis dasadgenad 21 wlis

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

asakamde. momCivnis azriT, aseTi debuleba zRudavda bavSvis uflebas mamobis dadgenis procesis dawyebis Sesaxeb maSin, rodesac pirs, romelic iTxovda mamobas, gaaCnda SeuzRudavi ufleba, wamoewyo aseTi procedurebi bavSvis asakis miuxedavad. momCivani acxadebda, rom es debuleba ar Seesabameboda Tanasworobis konstituciur princips. sasamarTlom, gaiTvaliswina ra ojaxis aqtis mTliani Sinaarsi, daadgina, rom mSoblebs gaaCniaT sarCelis wardgenis SeuzRudavi ufleba maT dedobas an mamobasTan dakavSirebiT bavSvis asakis miuxedavad. misi mosazrebis ganmartebisas sasamarTlom gaiTvaliswina saojaxo aqtiT regulirebuli urTierTobebi mTlianobaSi: Tanasworobis principi, bavSvis interesebis dacvis da ojaxis dacvis principi. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom saojaxo urTierTobebis samarTlebrivi mniSvneloba moicavda specialur samarTlebriv kategorias, sadac ojaxis wevrebs Soris uflebebi da movaleobebi batonobs. es elementebia: araqonebrivi xasiaTis uflebebi da movaleobebi (loialoba, daxmareba, pativiscema), qonebrivi xasiaTis uflebebi da movaleobani (meuRleebs Soris urTierTrCenis ufleba, agreTve, mSoblebsa da Svilebs Soris) da uflebebi da movaleobani meuRleebs Soris da mSoblebsa da Svilebs Soris. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanoni adgens garkveuli uflebebis misaRebad proceduris dawyebis an Sewyvetis asakobriv zRvars. amitom am konkretul saqmesTan dakavSirebiT sasamarTlom daadgina, rom debuleba arakonstituciuria. misi mosazreba daefuZna im faqts, rom kanoni uflebas aZlevda mSoblebs, waredginaT saCivari maTi mamobis an dedobis dasadgenad bavSvis asakis miuxedavad maSin, rodesac bavSvs ar hqonda aseTi SeuzRudavi ufleba. sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom aseTi diferenciacia ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebul Tanasworobis princips.

ukraina sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 18-04-2000 parlamentSi uflebamosili adamianis uflebebis warmomadgenlis Sesaxeb kanonis 5.2. muxlis konstituciuroba (asakobrivi moTxovna) xalxis warmomadgenlebi acxadebdnen, rom adamianis uflebebis sakiTxze parlamentSi (Verkhovna Rada) uflebamosili pirisaTvis asakobrivi zRvris daweseba ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciis zogierT debulebas, vinaidan konstituciis 101-e muxli ar iTvaliswinebs

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

raime asakobriv zRvars moqalaqeebisaTvis, romlebmac parlamentSi unda daikavon adamianis uflebebis sferoSi uflebamosili warmomadgenlis vakanturi adgili. konstitucia ar Seicavs sityvas "moTxovna." amis nacvlad igi adgens garkveul sakvalifikacio moTxovnebs sajaro samsaxuris Tanamdebobebis kandidatebisaTvis. es moqmedebs xalxis warmomadgenlebis, profesiuli mosamarTleebisa da sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mosamarTleebis mimarT. konstitucia adgens garkveul sakvalifikacio moTxovnebs prezidentobis kandidatebisaTvisac. xSirad sajaro mosamsaxureebis garkveuli kategoriisaTvis sakvalifikacio moTxovnebi Camoyalibebulia Sesabamis kanonebSi, gansakuTrebiT, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos, umaRlesi saarbitraJo sasamarTlos mosamarTleebis, iusticiis umaRlesi sabWos wevrebisa da centraluri saarCevno komitetis wevrebisaTvis. sakvalifikacio moTxovnebi nakarnaxevia zemoaRniSnuli Tanamdebobebis pirebis saqmianobis tipiTa da bunebiT, amitom ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos, rom zRudavs moqalaqeebis uflebas, Tanabrad hqondeT sajaro samsaxuris dakavebis SesaZlebloba. konstituciisa da sxva kanonebis mier sakvalifikacio moTxovnebis Camoyalibeba ar arRvevs Tanasworobis konstituciur princips, vinaidan yvela moqalaqe uflebamosilia, daikavos zemoaRniSnuli Tanamdebobebi specifikuri sakvalifikacio moTxovnebis Sesabamisad. gaiTvaliswina ra adamianis uflebebis sakiTxebze parlamentSi uflebamosili warmomadgenlis saqmianobis gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba, romlis mizanicaa sakonstitucio uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis Sesrulebis saparlamento kontrolis ganxorcieleba, parlaments aqvs ufleba, daadginos sakvalifikacio moTxovnebi am Tanamdebobis kandidatebisaTvis. konstitucia amas ar krZalavs. sxva sakvalifikacio moTxovnebTan erTad unda arsebobdes gamocdileba da socialuri gamocdileba, romlis SeZenac SeiZleba mxolod garkveuli asakis miRwevis Semdeg.

ukraina sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 02-06-1999 konstituciis 46-e muxlSi cvlilebis Setanis Sesaxeb kanonproee qtis ukrainis konstituciis 157-e da 158-e muxlebTan Sesabamisobis e e Sesaxeb saqme (konstituciis 46-e muxlis cvlilebis Sesaxeb saqme) e

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

"ukrainis konstituciis 46-e muxlis Sesworebis Sesaxeb" kanonproeqtSi moqalaqeebis ufleba socialuri dacvis Sesaxeb dakavSirebulia garkveul asakTan, romelsac maT unda miaRwion; kerZod, pirebs gaaCniaT socialuri dacvis ufleba, rac moicavs garantirebul asakobriv pensias _ 55 wlis asakidan qalebisaTvis da 60 wlidan kacebisaTvis. SeTavazebuli cvlilebebi zRudavs pirTa uflebas moxucebulobaSi socialur dacvaze. konstituciaSi cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb proeqti Seesabameba konstituciis 158-e muxls, magram ar Seesabameba 157-e muxls, vinaidan igi gansazRvravs moqalaqeTa socialuri dacvis uflebas moxucebulobis dros maTi asakis saSualebiT. moqalaqeTa ufleba socialur dacvaze ar aris damokidebuli maTs asakze, ra Tqma unda, 46-e muxli ar Seicavs miTiTebas "asakze". ra sakvirvelia, aRniSnuli ufleba garantirebulia yvela moqalaqisaTvis miuxedavad maTi asakisa. amave muxlis Sesabamisad, moqalaqeebis ufleba pensiis miRebasTan dakavSirebiT gansakuTrebuli asakis miRwevaze ar aris damokidebuli, aramed mTlianad damokidebulia socialuri saxelmwifos socialur valdebulebasa da ukrainaSi sakanonmdeblo praqtikaze. sibereSi moqalaqeebis socialuri dacvis ufleba Sedgeba ara mxolod garantirebuli pensiisagan, aramed moicavs kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul sxva SeRavaTebsac. moqalaqesa da konstitucias Soris urTierTobis, adamianis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis ganuyoflobis kanonieri safuZvlis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi pirobaa konstituciis stabiluroba, romelic TavisTavad gansazRvrulia ZiriTadi kanonis samarTlebrivi bunebiT. konstituciaSi zedmetad dawvrilebiTi debulebebis Cadeba, romelic gamomdinareobs axlandeli kanonmdeblobidan, migviyvans xSiri Sesworebebis aucileblobamde, rac uaryofiTad aisaxeba ZiriTadi kanonis stabilurobaze.

Tanasworoba sqesis niSniT

avstria sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 08-03-2000 sasamarTloSi sarCeli waradgina CineTis moqalaqem, romelic daibada venaSi 1997 wlis 29 seqtembers (warmoadgenda mama) da 1997 wlis 18 noembers avstriaSi misi sacxovreblis dadgenis Sesaxeb

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

Txovna waradgina. Sinagan saqmeTa ministrma uaryo misi Txovna, radganac gancxadeba unda wardgeniliyo qveynis garedan, vinaidan dedamisi federaciis teritoriaze Sevida mxolod turistuli viziT avstriis teritoriaze cxovrebis uflebis gareSe (ucxoelTa aqtis §14.2 - Fremdengesetz). amitom momCivans ar SeeZlo moeTxova ucxoelTa aqtis §23.2-iT garantirebuli ufleba, romlis Tanaxmadac, bavSvebi maTi sicocxlis pirveli sami Tvis ganmavlobaSi Tavisufldebian savizo moTxovnebidan, Tu maT dedas gaaCnia sacxovreblis ufleba an sargeblobs savizo moTxovnebisagan TavisuflebiT an dasaxlebis TavisuflebiT. momCivani amtkicebda, rom dairRva konstituciiT garantirebuli piradi da ojaxis ufleba, agreTve, "qalebisa da kacebis Tanasworobis ZiriTadi ufleba." aqedan gamomdinare, igi kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebda gamoyenebuli debulebis (§28.2) konstituciurobas. sasamarTlom ganaxorciela Sesabamisi debulebebis ex officio ganxilva da ganacxada, rom kanonma SeiZleba migviyvanos mcirewlovanis dedis da mamis araTanabar mopyrobamde sqesis niadagze gansxvavebis gamo, romelsac ar gaaCnda obieqturi gamarTleba. federaluri mTavroba amtkicebda, rom kanonis mizani iyo borotad TviTnebobis Tavidan acileba. ucxoelebis avstriaSi dabadebuli bavSvi ar aris avstriis moqalaqe, amitomac ar unda gaTavisufldes savizo moTxovnebisagan da ar unda CaiTvalos avstriaSi macxovreblad, Tu orive mSobeli sxva qveynis moqalaqea da mxolod mama cxovrobs kanonierad sacxovrebeli nebarTviT. aseTi bavSvis ZiriTadi sacxovreblis dadgenis Sesaxeb gancxadeba ­ im bavSvisagan gansxvavebiT, romlis dedasac gaaCnia cxovrebis nebarTva ­ unda daregistrirdes saimigracio kvotaSi, vinaidan mTlianad avstriis saimigracio sistema kvotazea damyarebuli. kanonis Secvla sistemis Zlier destabilizacias gamoiwvevs. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom mTavrobis argumentma damakmayofileblad ver upasuxa sasamarTlos ZiriTad SekiTxvas araTanabari mopyrobis Sesaxeb, romelic gamoiwvia kanonis upirobo redaqciam. sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom arsebobs SemTxvevebi, rodesac bavSvze mxolod mamam unda izrunos dedis gardacvalebis, seriozuli avadmyofobis an sxva msgavs situaciebSi, rac safrTxes uqmnis bavSvis keTildReobas. vinaidan gansaxilveli debuleba ar iTvaliswinebs romelime am situaciis mxedvelobaSi miRebis SesaZleblobas, igi iwvevs araTanabar mopyrobas ucxoelebs Soris maTi sqesis niadagze. Sesabamisad, igi gauqmda (Tumca, gauqmebis ZalaSi Sesvla gadaido erTi wliT).

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

azerbaijani sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 12-03-1999 im piris mier sacxovreblis uflebis dakargva, romelsac misjili aqvs Tavisuflebis aRkveTa eqvs Tveze meti xniT, ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciis debulebebs. pirisaTvis, romelsac misjili aqvs Tavisuflebis aRkveTa 6 Tveze meti xniT, sacxovreblis CamorTmevis sasjelis dakisreba gasaCivrebis uflebis gareSe, unda CaiTvalos qmedebad, romelic miayenebs mas materialur, moralur da fsiqologiur zians. uzenaesma sasamarTlom iTxova gansaxlebis kodeqsis 60.II.8 muxlis (romelic iTvaliswinebs, rom piri, visac misjili aqvs Tavisuflebis aRkveTa eqvs Tveze meti xniT, kargavs sacxovreblis uflebas) Sesabamisobis dadastureba ekonomikuri, socialuri da kulturuli uflebebis Sesaxeb paqtis 11.1 muxlTan. gansaxlebis kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs, rom pirisaTvis Tavisuflebis aRkveTa eqvs Tveze meti periodiT aris misTvis sacxovreblis uflebis CamorTmevis safuZveli. Tumca, sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebs pirisaTvis sacxovreblis CamorTmevas, rogorc ZiriTad an damatebiT sasjelis saxes. amrigad, gansaxlebis Sesaxeb kodeqsis 60.II.8 muxli SeiZleba CaiTvalos debulebad, romelic arRvevs adamianis uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs. gansaxlebis kodeqsis 60.II.9 muxlis Tanaxmad, pirebi, romlebsac ar miuRweviaT 18 wlisaTvis, kacebi 50 wlis, xolo qalebi 45 wlis zemoT, romelTac miusajes Tavisuflebis aRkveTa muSaobis valdebulebiT, agreTve, isinic, romelTac Tavisuflebis aRkveTa miusajes gaufrTxilebeli danaSaulisaTvis, SeinarCuneben sacxovreblis sakuTrebas sasjelis vadis amowurvamde. Sesabamisad, kanonmdeblebi ar iyvnen Tanamimdevrulni da SezRudes konstituciaSi Camoyalibebuli debulebebi da moqalaqeebis uflebebis da Tavisuflebebis Tanasworobis principi maSin, rodesac moaxdines moqalaqeTa diferencireba maTi asakisa da Cadenili danaSaulis xasiaTis mixedviT. aseTi gansxvaveba (diferencireba) zRudavs moqalaqeTa sacxovreblis uflebas, romelsac iTvaliswinebs konstituciis 43-e muxli da ewinaaRmdegeba adamianebisa da moqalaqeebis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis Tanasworobis princips (konstitucia, 25.I da 25.II muxlebi). sakonstitucio sasamarTlo baTilad acxadebs gansaxlebis kodeqsis 60.II.8 da 60.II.9 muxlebs.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

belgia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 20-01-1999 is faqti, rom TviTdasaqmebuli pirebis pensia 1997 wlis 1 ivlisamde Semcirda 25%-iT (Tu isini arCeven pensiaze gasvlas adre ­ 60 wlis asakSi) maSin, rodesac qalebis pensia 60 wlis asakSi ar eqvemdebareboda raime SezRudvas, ar aris diskriminaciuli reJimi. reziume: saqme Seexeba gardamaval periods, rodesac xdeboda qalebisa da kacebis sapensio sqemebis harmonizacia. manamde TviTdasaqmebuli pirebisaTvis sapensio asaki iyo: kacebisaTvis _ 65 weli, xolo qalebisaTvis ­ 60 weli. 1997 wlis 1 ivlisidan ZalaSi Sevida etapobrivi cvlileba TviTdasaqmebulTa sapensio sqemaSi im mizniT, rom Tanabari uflebebi mieniWebina orive sqesisaTvis Tanabari sapensio asakis (65 weli) dawesebiT; Tanabari reJimi SemoRebul iqneba 2009 wlis 1 ianvrisTvis imave gamonaklisiT pensiaSi adre gasulTaTvis ­ 5% Semcireba yovel welze Tanabrad kacebisaTvis da qalebisaTvis. gardamaval periodSi kacebs SeeZlebaT pensiaze gasvla 60 wlis asakSi, magram maTi pensia yovelwliurad 5%-iT Semcirdeba. amis sawinaaRmdegod, qalebi, romlebic pensiaze gadian 60 wlis asakSi, uwindeburad srul pensias miiReben. sasamarTlos sTxoves, gadawyvetileba gamoetana Sromis sasamarTlos mier wamoyenebul samarTlis sakiTxze, romelic ganixilavda im piris sarCels, romelmac Semcireba gaasaCivra, vinaidan es ukanaskneli miiCnia konstituciis me-10 da me-11 muxlebiT garantirebuli Tanasworobisa da diskriminaciis dauSveblobis darRvevad. Tavdapirvelad unda dadgindes, gasaCivrebuli reJimi gamomdinareobda Tu ara sakanonmdeblo aqtidan da ara aRmasrulebeli aqtidan, vinaidan sasamarTlos iurisdiqcia moicavda mxolod kanonebis konstituciurobas. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom gansxvavebuli reJimi daadgina sakanonmdeblo organos mier damtkicebulma samefo dekretma, sakanonmdeblo organom aiRo pasuxismgebloba gansaxilvel debulebaze, romelic Tavdapirvelad aRmasrulebelma xelisuflebam miiRo. sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom ukanaskneli aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi, romelic mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli, arsebobda gansxvaveba TviTdasaqmebuli qalebisa da kacebis karieras Soris, ramac SeiZleba obieqturad gaamarTlos maTi gansxvaveba sapensio asaks Soris. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom evropis kavSirmac gaiTvaliswina wevr saxelmwifoebSi qalebisa da kacebis sapensio sqemebSi gansxvaveba da daadgina droTa ganmavlobaSi am gansxvavebis aRmofxvris aucilebloba (Article 7.1.a of Council Directive 79/7/EEC of 19

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

December 1978 on the progressive implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women in matters of social security and CJEC judgments De Vriendt and others (joined cases C-377/96 to C-384/96 of 30 April 1998) and Wolfs (C-154/96 of 22 October 1998)). sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom TviTdasaqmebul muSaTa sapensio sqemis SenarCunebas ar SeeZlo gaemarTlebina qalebsa da kacebs Soris gansxvavebis SenarCuneba maT sapensio asakTan dakavSirebiT _ gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac qalebis de facto diskriminacia samuSao sferoSi TandaTanobiT Semcirda. Tumca, man miiCnia, rom parlamenti pasuxismgebeli iyo, ganesazRvra detalebi da saWiro ganrigi qalebisa da kacebis pensiebTan dakavSirebiT Tanabari reJimis misaRwevad da rom parlamenti ar iyo aramarTlzomieri, vinaidan axali kanonmdebloba, romelic ZalaSi Sevida 1997 wlis 1 ivliss, iTvaliswinebda TviTdasaqmebul muSaTa pensiebis sqemis etapobriv adaptacias, raTa Tanabari uflebebi mieniWebinaT qalebisa da kacebisaTvis.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 24-01-1995 saxanZro brigadebSi savaldebulo samsaxuris SemoReba da Semcvleli mosakreblis daweseba kacebisaTvis arRvevs sqesis safuZvelze diskriminaciis akrZalvas. specialuri gadasaxadebis daSvebis SesaZleblobis xarisxis principi gamoiyeneba agreTve gadasaxadebis mimarTac, romelsac mokrebs Länder. zogierT germanul Länder­Si saxanZro brigadis Sesaxeb kanonebi iTvaliswinebs valdebulebas kacebisaTvis, imsaxuron aseT erTeulebSi. faqtobrivad, amis gakeTebas maT aravin aiZulebs, vinaidan yovelTvis iyo sakmarisi moxalise. zogierTi kanoni saxanZro brigadebis Sesaxeb kacebs avaldebulebs, gadaixadon mosakrebeli, Tu isini ar msaxuroben saxanZro brigadaSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom es debulebebi arRvevdnen sqesis safuZvelze diskriminaciis akrZalvas. miuTiTa ra Tavisave dadgenil precedentul samarTalze, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom qalebisa da mamakacebis mimarT gansxvavebuli reJimi dasaSvebia, Tu amis Tavidan arideba SeuZlebelia im sakiTxebis regulirebisaTvis, romlebic TavianTi bunebiT gavlenas axdenen romelime sqesze. erTaderTi gamonaklisi Seexeba upirates reJims romelime sqesisaTvis, raTa moxdes faqtobrivi araxelsayreli mdgomareobis kompensireba.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

ar arsebobs sakmarisi mizezi imisaTvis, rom qalebi saxanZro brigadaSi samsaxurisgan gamoiricxon maTi fizikuri agebulebis gamo. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo afuZnebs mis motivacias sociologiur da samedicino monacemebze. saxanZro brigadaSi samsaxurTan dakavSirebiT kacebis winaaRmdeg diskriminacia ar aris gamarTlebuli qalebis faqtobrivi araxelsayreli mdgomareobis kompensaciiT, vinaidan misi mizania ara sqesTa Soris socialuri diferenciaciis gadalaxva, aramed misi dadgena specialur sferoSi. sagangebo gadasaxadi, romelic ikrifeba saxelmwifos specialuri amocanebisaTvis da romelic dakisrebulia mxolod mosaxleobis garkveul nawilze, misaRebia mxolod Zalian SezRudul pirobebSi. magaliTad, maTi mizani unda iyos tvirTis Tanasworobis dadgena im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac valdebuleba gaTvaliswinebulia kanoniT pirTa jgufze da ara is, am jgufis yvela wevri asrulebs Tu ara am valdebulebas. gansaxilveli Semcvleli mosakrebeli am moTxovnas ar Seesabameba, vinaidan faqtobrivad aravis aqvs valdebuleba, imsaxuros saxanZro brigadaSi. amitom fuli saxanZro brigadebisaTvis gadaxdil unda iqnes saerTo biujetidan.

niderlandebi uzenaesi sasamarTlo 20-10-1995 diakvnis kursebze qalis Caricxvaze uari ar warmoadgens damamcirebel mopyrobas ECHR-is me-3 muxlis Sesabamisad. qalebsa da kacebs Soris diskriminaciis akrZalva ar gamoiyeneba saeklesio msaxurebisaTvis mosamzadebel kursebze CaricxvasTan mimarTebiT. reziume: am saqmis safuZveli iyo qalis gancxadeba diakvnis mosamzadebel kursebze Caricxvis Sesaxeb hetrogenboSis eparqiaSi. qalma agreTve ganacxada, rom surda diakvnad kurTxeva kursis dasrulebis Semdeg. mas Caricxvaze uari uTxres, vinaidan romanul kaTolikur eklesiaSi mxolod kacebis kurTxeva SeiZleba mRvdlad. aqedan gamomdinare, nebismieri piri, romelsac diakvnad kurTxeva ar SeeZlo, ar SeiZleboda kursebze Caricxuliyo. qali procesSi iTxovda gadawyvetilebas, romelic episkoposs mosTxovda misTvis nebarTvis micemas, Caebarebina eparqiis diakvanTa mosamzadebel kursebze. saapelacio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom ar SeiZleboda gaeziarebinaT qalis mier ECHR-s me-3 muxlze miTiTeba, vinaidan aRniSnuli debulebis mniSvnelobiT damamcirebel mopyrobas ar warmoadgenda mis Caricxvaze uaris Tqma mxolod imitom,

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

rom igi qali iyo. uzenaesma sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom am gadawyvetilebaSi ar iyo ECHR-is me-3 muxlis araswori interpretireba "damamcirebel mopyrobasTan" dakavSirebiT. uzenaesma sasamarTlom agreTve daadgina, rom me-3 muxlis gamoyeneba ar aris damokidebuli imaze, rom piri grZnobda Tavs damcirebulad gansaxilveli mopyrobis gamo. uzenaesma sasamarTlos dadgenilebiT, Tanabari SesaZleblobebis aqtidan udavod naTeli iyo, rom kanonmdeblis ganzraxva, rodesac mouwodebda konstituciis me-6 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis pativiscemisaken saeklesio samsaxurebSi daSvebasa da momzadebasTan dakavSirebiT, iyo sayovelTaod miRebuli gamonaklisi qalebsa da kacebs Soris diskriminaciis akrZalvaze.

poloneTi sakonstitucio tribunali 31-03-2000 debulebebi, romlebic awesebs ufro dabal savaldebulo asaks qali maswavleblebis pensiaze gasvlisaTvis, vidre mamakaci maswavleblebisaTvis, arakonstituciuria. debulebebis mier SemoRebuli sxvagvari mopyroba CaiTvleba diskriminaciad sqesis niadagze. reziume: tribunalma saqme Seiswavla ombudsmenis Suamdgomlobis safuZvelze. ombudsmeni amtkicebda, rom Seswavlili debulebebi exeboda socialuri dazRvevis samarTals. arsebuli urTierTobis (kavSiris) Sedegad SromiTi urTierTobebi qal maswavlebelTan mTavrdeba 5 wliT adre, vidre mamakac maswavlebelTan. Sesabamisad, debulebebi arRvevs Tanasworobisa da socialuri samarTlianobis wess. tribunalma aRniSna, rom naTelia, Zalis mqone kanonebs ar SeuZliaT gansxvavebuli samarTlebrivi reJimi daaweson qalebisa da kacebisaTvis, Tu es gansxvaveba ar aris dafuZnebuli keTilgonivrul, konstituciur moTxovnebze. Tu aseT moTxovnebs ar efuZneba, maSin gansxvaveba aris diskriminacia da ewinaaRmdegeba Tanasworobis Sesaxeb konstituciur wess. tribunalma xazi gausva, rom konstitucia krZalavs inter alia wesebs, romlebic axdens qalebisa da kacebis uflebebis diferencirebas "dasaqmebasa da dawinaurebasTan" dakavSirebiT. aseTi wesebi SemoRebulia gansaxilveli debulebebiT. tribunalma aRniSna, rom maswavleblis statusi uzrunvelyofs dasaqmebis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

uwyvetobas (certainty). Seswavlili debulebebis Sedegad, qalma maswavlebelma ara marto unda Sewyvitos misi saqmianobis ganxorcieleba 5 wliT adre, aramed ase unda moiqces maSinac, rodesac mamakaci maswavlebeli kvlav iRebs sargebels saqmianobis uwyvetobis garantiebidan.

rumineTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 19-12-2001 gadawyvetileba saojaxo kodeqsis 53-e da 54.2 muxlis e debulebebis arakonstituciurobis Taobaze pretenziis Sesaxeb saojaxo kodeqsis 54.2 muxlis debulebebi, romlis Tanaxmadac, mxolod savaraudo mamas aqvs ufleba, Seitanos sarCeli savaraudo mamobis Sesaxeb, arakonstituciuria, vinaidan ignorirebulia dedisa da qorwinebaSi dabadebuli bavSvis kanonieri interesebi analogiuri uflebis ganxorcielebisas. reziume: 2001 wlis 28 marts alba iulias pirveli instanciis sasamarTlom mimarTa gancxadebiT, romelSic kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebda saojaxo kodeqsis 53-e da 54-e muxlebis konstituciurobas. gancxadebis Tanaxmad, gasaCivrebuli sakanonmdeblo debulebebi ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis 16.1.2, 26.2, 44.1 da 45.1 16.1 muxlebs. saojaxo kodeqsis 53-e muxlis Tanaxmad, "qorwinebaSi dabadebuli bavSvis mama aris dedis qmari. ganqorwinebis, qorwinebis gauqmebis an baTilad gamocxadebis Semdeg dabadebuli bavSvis mama aris dedis yofili qmari, Tu bavSvi Caisaxa qorwinebis periodSi da daibada, sanam dedam gaaforma sxva qorwineba." 53-e muxlis arakonstituciurobis sakiTxis gamokvlevisas sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom igi ar ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis 16.1.2, 26.2, 44.1 da 45.1 muxlebs. saojaxo kodeqsis 54.2 muxli iTvaliswinebs, rom sarCeli mamobasTan dakavSirebiT SeiZleba Seitanos mxolod qmarma. mis mier dawyebuli sarCelis gagrZeleba SeuZliaT mis memkvidreebs. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom arakonstituciurobis sarCeli exeboda ojaxisa da piradi uflebis sakiTxs da, agreTve, RCHR-is me-8 muxliT dacul uflebas. 1994 wlis 27 oqtombris gadawyvetilebaSi saqmeze kruni da sxvebi niderlandebis winaaRmdeg (Kroon and others v. the Netherlands (Bulletin 1994/3 [ECH-1994-3-016]) adamianis uflebaTa evropulma sasamarTlom

20

kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

gadawyvita, rom RCHR-is me-8 muxls ewinaaRmdegeboda erovnuli kanonis mier dawesebuli akrZalva, romlis Tanaxmadac, daqorwinebul qals SeuZlia qmars uTxras uari savaraudo mamobaze im bavSvis mimarT, romelic maTi qorwinebis dros Caisaxa. amitom sasamarTlom aucileblad miiCnia, ganexila misi precedentuli samarTali saojaxo kodeqsis 54.2 muxlis arakonstituciurobasTan dakavSirebiT, vinaidan man miiCnia, rom [kodeqsis] teqsti ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis 16.1, 26, 44.1 da 45. muxlebs. Sesabamisad, saojaxo kodeqsis 54.2 muxlis pirobebi savaraudo mamis uflebebis Sesaxeb, rom Seitanos sarCeli misi mamobis dadgenasTan dakavSirebiT da dedisa da qorwinebaSi dabadebuli bavSvis gamoricxva, arRvevs konstituciis 16.1 muxlSi Camoyalibebul Tanasworobis princips. is faqti, rom bavSvis savaraudo mamasa da dedas, TiToeuls aqvs piradi da gancalkevebuli (sakuTari) motivi mamobis prezumfciis gabaTilebasTan dakavSirebiT, ar amarTlebs gasaCivrebuli teqstis diskriminaciul Sedegebs. konkretuli motivebi SeiZleba iyos gansxvavebuli, magram saerTo logika Sedgeba imis uzrunvelyofisagan, rom simarTle imarjvebs sicrueze da imave mizeziT gadawyvetilebebic identuri unda iyos. sasamarTlom agreTve aRniSna, rom saojaxo kodeqsis 54.2 muxli arRvevda meuRleebs Soris Tanasworobis Sesaxeb konstituciis 44.1 muxls, vinaidan ar iTvaliswinebda dedis uflebas, Seetana sarCeli savaraudo mamobis gasasaCivreblad. rac Seexeba piradi, ojaxuri da kerZo cxovrebis Sesaxeb konstituciis 26.1 muxls, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom debulebebi mamobis gasaCivrebis mizniT savaraudo mamis uflebis Sesaxeb ar asaxavda sakonstitucio debulebis pirveli punqtis moTxovnebs. man agreTve daadgina, rom gansaxilveli teqsti arRvevda konstituciis 26.2 muxls, vinaidan ar iTvaliswinebda bavSvis uflebas, Seetana sarCeli savaraudo mamobis gasaCivrebis mizniT. Sesabamisad, aRiniSna, rom am uflebis bavSvisaTvis miniWeba, rac iqneboda yvela pirisaTvis konstituciuri TviTgamorkvevis uflebis gamoxatuleba, ar daarRvevs arc sxva adamianebis uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs da arc sajaro politikasa da morals. dabolos, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom saojaxo kodeqsis 45.1 muxli arRvevda konstituciis 45.1 muxls, romelic iTvaliswinebda bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis dacvisa da daxmarebis specialur sistemas maTi uflebebis ganxorcielebisas.

21

evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo pirveli palata 23-07-1996 sqesobrivi diskriminacia (espaneTis konstituciis me-14 muxli) ar Semoifargleba piris mimarT araxelsayrel mopyrobaSi sqesis niadagze, aramed, aseve, vrceldeba msxverplis sqesTan pirdapir da naTlad dakavSirebuli mizezebis an garemoebebis kombinaciazec. rodesac damqiravebeli amtkicebs, rom adgili hqonda formalur diskriminaciul gaTavisuflebas, rac dafarulia sakontraqto xelSekrulebebis SewyvetiT da arRvevs daqiravebulis ZiriTad Tavisuflebebs, mas akisria valdebuleba, daamtkicos, rom samsaxuridan gaSveba ganpirobebulia marTlzomieri mizezebiT, romlebic ara aris dakavSirebuli ZiriTadi uflebebis darRvevis ganzraxvasTan. momCivani, romelic gaaTavisufles samsaxurSi ganmeorebiT gaumarTlebeli gamoucxadeblobisa da orsulobis dros arapunqtualurobis gamo, kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebda sxvadasxva sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebs, romlebic mxars uWerda (amarTlebda) misi damqiraveblis qmedebas da miiCnevda, rom igi sqesobrivi diskriminaciis msxverpli iyo Tanasworobis principis darRvevis safuZvelze (espaneTis konstituciis me-14 muxli). sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom orsuli qalis mimarT araxelsayreli mopyroba, vinaidan es SeiZleba ganxorcieldes mxolod qalis mimarT, warmoadgens sqesobriv diskriminacias espaneTis konstituciis me-14 muxlis Sesabamisad. man agreTve aRniSna, rom formalurad diskriminaciuli gaTavisuflebis yvela SemTxvevaSi, romelic realurad SeniRbulia sakontraqto urTierTobis gawyvetiT da arRvevs daqiravebulis ZiriTad uflebas, ar aris sakmarisi mxolod imis mtkiceba, rom gaTavisufleba diskriminaciuli iyo. arseboba unda dadasturdes iribi (arapirdapiri) mtkicebulebebiT, romlebmac unda warmoSvas eWvi aseTi mtkicebis sasargeblod. mxolod maSin, rodesac arsebobs aseTi arapirdapiri mtkicebuleba, damqiravebels ekisreba valdebuleba, daamtkicos, rom kontraqtis gawyvetis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis gamomwvevi faqtebi samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebisaTvis kanonieri safuZveli iyo. Sesabamisad, isini marTlzomierad SeiZleba CaiTvalos faqtebad, romlebic aranairad ar ukavSirdeba ZiriTadi uflebebis darRvevis motivs. gansaxilvel saqmeSi, gaiTvaliswina ra garemoebebi, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miiCnia _ is faqti, rom daqiravebulma (muSakma) ver SeZlo samsaxurSi gamoucxadeblobis gamarTleba saTanado samedicino cnobis wardgeniT da man dauyovnebliv ar acnoba damqi-

22

kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

ravebels Tavisi uZlurebis Sesaxeb, udavod warmoadgenda sakmaris safuZvels imis mtkicebisaTvis, rom SromiTi xelSekrulebis gawyvetis mizezi ar yofila misi orsuloba. ZiriTadi uflebis SezRudva da yvelaze mkacri disciplinuri sanqciis gamoyeneba moxda mxolod da mxolod sawarmos interesebis dacvis mizniT.

Tanasworoba erovnuli an eTnikuri warmomavlobis niSniT

belgia saapelacio sasamarTlo 18-04-2001 federalur parlaments, romelic pasuxismgebeli iyo belgiaSi ucxoeli muSebis dasaqmebis maregulirebeli moTxovnebis SemoRebaze, ar daurRvevia Tanasworobisa da diskriminaciis dauSveblobis principi (konstituciis me-10 da me-11 muxlebi), rodesac samuSao bazarze daSvebis pirobad gaxada damqiraveblis mier dasaqmebis nebarTvis miReba da muSis mier muSaobis nebarTvis miReba. debulebebi, romelTa Tanaxmadac, samefo xelisuflebas SeeZlo gamonaklisebis daSveba, ganimarteboda imgvarad, rom saxelmwifo xelisufleba gamoricxavda im ucxoelebis kategoriebs, romelTaTvisac maTi erovnulobis statusis gamo ar SeiZleboda nebarTvis moTxovna belgiaSi muSaobis dasawyebad. am gamonaklisiT gansakuTrebiT sargeblobdnen evrokavSiris wevri saxelmwifoebis moqalaqeebi da belgiaSi ltolvilad aRiarebuli pirebi. reziume: 1999 wlis 30 aprilis kanonma ucxoeli muSebis dasaqmebis Sesaxeb Camoayaliba ucxoeli muSebis dasaqmebis axali samarTlebrivi CarCo. parlamentma miiRo es kanoni CarCo-kanonis principis gamoyenebiT, raTa aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas SeZleboda swrafad gamoeyenebina saTanado debulebebi gauTvaliswinebeli SemTxvevebisa da dasaqmebis bazris tendenciebis mimarT. 1999 wlis 30 aprils arakomerciulma "moZraobam rasizmis, antisemitizmisa da qsenofobiis winaaRmdeg" (Mouvement contre le racisme, l'antisémitisme et la xénophobie) daayena sakiTxi kanonis gauqmebis Sesaxeb imis safuZvelze, rom parlamenti Caeria regionebis pasuxismgeblobis sferoSi da ugulebelyo konstituciuri wesebi Tanasworobisa da diskriminaciis dauSveblobis Sesaxeb (konstituciis me-10 da me-11 muxlebi).

23

evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

sasamarTlom daadgina, rom federaluri sakanonmdeblo organo uflebamosili iyo, Camoeyalibebina ucxoeli muSebis muSaobis debulebebi. ra Tqma unda, mas gaaCnda kompetencia, daedgina ucxoeTis moqalaqeebis belgiaSi muSaobis moTxovnebi. aseTi moTxovnebi SeiZleba yofiliyo belgiaSi ucxoeli muSebis daSvebis Sesaxeb da, Tu ucxoelebi qveyanaSi Semodiodnen muSaobis surviliT, damqiravebels hqonoda dasaqmebis nebarTva. Tanasworobisa da diskriminaciis dauSveblobis wesebis dacvis sakiTxze sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanoni iTvaliswinebda erTnair reJims ucxoeli muSebisaTvis, romlebic gansxvavdebodnen statusiT mniSvnelovan sakiTxebTan mimarTebiT. evrokavSiris wevrsaxelmwifoebis moqalaqeebi da belgiaSi ltolvilad aRiarebuli pirebi warmoadgendnen Sesabamis or mdgomareobas. am ori kategoriis mimarT kanonis debulebebi TiTqos arRvevda belgiis saerTaSoriso valdebulebebs, romlebic gamoricxavdnen belgiis SromiT bazarze daSvebaze uaris Tqmas. meore kategorias ganekuTvnebodnen is ucxoeli moqalaqeebi, romelTa ufleba muSaobis dawyebasTan dakavSirebiT ar SeiZleboda damokidebuli yofiliyo nebarTvis aRebaze. sasamarTlom ar gaauqma kanoni, magram arCia misi kvalificiuri uaryofa (rogorc miTiTebulia gadawyvetilebis sarezolucio nawilSi) da sasamarTlos ufleba ganmarta, rogorc valdebuleba, rom gansakuTrebuli kategoriis muSebs mianiWos privilegiebi maTi erovnebis an statusis safuZvelze. man aRniSna, rom travaux préparatoires iTvaliswinebda am ganmartebas. sasamarTlom ar miiCnia diskriminaciulad momCivnis mier wamoyenebuli sxva gansxvavebani. misi azriT, sakanonmdeblo RonisZiebebi, romlebic Seexeboda qveyanaSi samuSaod Semomaval muSebs da ewinaaRmdegeboda im ucxoeli muSebis Semosvlas, romelTa momaval damqiravebels ar miumarTavs an jer ar miuRia nebarTva, iyo gamarTlebuli da proporciuli. es mizani Seesabameboda mTlianad kanonis mizans, romelic iTvaliswinebda axali muSebis daSvebas mxolod maSin, rodesac belgiis SromiT bazars SeeZlo maTi miReba. parlamentma agreTve gaafarTova muSaobis nebarTvaze uaris an CamorTmevis gasaCivrebis SesaZlebloba, oRond mxolod belgiaSi kanonierad mcxovrebi muSebisaTvis. sasamarTlos azriT, keTilgonivruli iyo im ucxoeli muSebis gamoricxva, romlebic belgiaSi ukanonod cxovrobdnen. ucxoelTa belgiaSi daSvebis da cxovrebis politikis safuZveli Seiryeoda, Tu erTnairi moTxovnebi imoqmedebda kanonierad da ukanonod mcxovrebi ucxoeli muSebis mimarT. gasaCivrebis akrZalva ucxoeli muSebisaTvis, romlebic kanonierad cxovrobdnen sazRvargareT da surdaT belgiaSi muSaobis

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

dawyeba, gamarTlebuli iyo imave safuZvelze. dabolos, sasamarTlom saWirod ar CaTvala, ganexila, gamoiyeneboda Tu ara am SemTxvevaSi ECHR-is me-6 muxli da aRniSna, rom "1999 wlis 30 aprilis ucxoeli muSebis dasaqmebis Sesaxeb kanonis miznebisaTvis kompetenturi xelisuflis" gadawyvetilebebi SeiZleba gasaCivrdes maTi gauqmebis moTxovniT an gasaCivrdes Conseil d'Etat-Si (saxelmwifo sabWoSi) maTi aRsrulebis SeCerebis moTxovniT. dazaralebulma ucxoelma an damqiravebelma SeiZleba yovelTvis gaasaCivros samuSao nebarTvaze uaris Tqma an misi ukan gamoiTxova damoukidebeli tribunalis winaSe.

bosnia-hercogovina h sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 15-12-2000 zogadi wesis Tanaxmad, kerZo mesakuTres, romelic gadawyvets gayidos an gacvalos Tavisi sakuTreba, Cveulebriv ar SeuZlia am binaze an qonebaze uflebis dacva, Tu gayidva ar SeiZleba Sefasdes "aranebayoflobiT garigebad", romlis namdvilobac aRiarebulia kanoniT. 1995 wlis 10 agvistos momCivanma q-nma s.z-m dado sakuTrebis gacvlis kontraqti baton b.v-sTan priJedorSi. am kontraqtis Sesabamisad, batonma b.v-m Tavisi qoneba _ registraciis #2308/1 202 kvadratuli metris farTobiT _ romelic ganlagebuli iyo xorvatiis kunZul brakze, gadasca momCivans misi qonebis sanacvlod, romlis registraciis nomeri iyo # 10/118 459 kvadratuli metris farTobiT da mdebareobda priJedorSi. 1996 wlis 8 marts momCivanma wamoiwyo procesi priJedoris municipaluri sasamarTlos winaSe da iTxovda gacvlis kontraqtis gauqmebas. igi amtkicebda, rom kontraqti gaaforma muqariT da ar warmoadgenda misi mxridan nebayoflobiT aqts. 1996 wlis 27 dekembers municipalurma sasamarTlom gadawyvita momCivnis saCivris uaryofa; momCivans ubrZana priJedoris saxlis datoveba ojaxTan erTad, misi gadacema batoni b.v-saTvis 15 dRis vadaSi da daemuqra Zaladobrivi gamosaxlebiT. momCivanma gadawyvetileba gaasaCivra bania lukas umaRles sasamarTloSi, romelmac 1997 wlis 25 seqtembris gadawyvetilebaSi miiCnia, rom gacvlis kontraqti namdvili iyo valdebulebebis Sesaxeb kanonis Tanaxmad da uaryo s.z-s apelacia. momCivanma gaasaCivra gadawyvetileba sprsk-is respublikis uzenaes sasamarTloSi, romelmac 1999 wlis 26 maiss uaryo saCivari. 1999 wlis 21 oqtombers momCivanma saCivari waradgina bosniahercogovinas sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi sprsk-is respublikis

25

evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis winaaRmdeg. momCivani amtkicebda, rom gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba, agreTve, pirveli da meore instanciis sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi, efuZneboda materialuri samarTlis araswor gamoyenebas im faqtis gamo, rom omis pirobebi, romelSic man gacvlis xelSekruleba dado, agreTve, xorvatiuli umciresobisadmi kuTvnilebis gamo, priJedorSi sirTuleebi ar iqna gaTvaliswinebuli. garda amisa, igi amtkicebda adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis zogierTi debulebis darRvevas zemoaRniSnuli sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebis mier, romelTac daadastures xelSekrulebis namdviloba. 1999 wlis 15 noembers momCivanma sTxova sakonstitucio sasamarTlos droebiT SeeCerebina municipaluri sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis aRsruleba. 1999 3 dekembers sasamarTlom saproceduro wesebis 75-e muxlis Sesabamisad, gamoitana ganCineba gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis aRsrulebis SeCerebis Sesaxeb imis safuZvelze, rom mas SeiZleba gamousworebeli saziano Sedegebi mohyoloda momCivnisaTvis. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom sprsk-is respublikis uzenaesi sasamarTlos, bania lukas umaRlesi sasamarTlosa da priJedoris municipaluri sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebi wamowevdnen sakiTxebs bosnia-hercogovinas konstituciis I muxlis, ECHR-is me-8 muxlis da ECHR-is I oqmis pirveli muxlis Sesabamisad, romlebic bosnia-hercogovinis konstituciis I .2 muxlis mixedviT warmoadgens bosnia-hercogovinis samarTlis nawils da sxva normatiul aqtebTan SedarebiT upiratesi Zala gaaCniaT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom binisa da sakuTrebis uflebis dacvis dakargva xdeba mxolod maSin, rodesac adgili aqvs uZravi qonebis gayidvas, romelic SeiZleba CaiTvalos "nebayoflobiT garigebad" da romlis namdvilobac aRiarebulia kanonis mier. sasamarTlos msjelobis Tanaxmad, gayidvis nebayoflobiTi xasiaTi SeiZleba kiTxvis niSnis qveS dadges bevr SemTxvevaSi: Tu es moxda saCqarod an gamyidveli iyo Zlieri zewolis qveS an seriozul safrTxeSi. mocemul saqmeSi aravin amtkicebda, rom batoni b.v. momCivans emuqreboda an sxvagvarad aiZula igi, gaeformebina masTan xelSekruleba. Tumca, arsebobda sxva garemoebebi, romlebic sakonstitucio sasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi unda miiRos momCivansa da baton b.v-s Soris dadebuli xelSekrulebis Sefasebisas. sasamarTlom SeniSna, rom saxli, romelic momCivanma gadacvala, iyo adgili, sadac igi cxovrobda mTeli cxovreba da romlis mimarTac mas hqonda gansakuTrebuli miziduloba. Cveulebriv garemoebebSi igi albaT ar moisurvebda saxlis datovebas, raTa sacxovreblad wasuliyo daSorebul adgilas, romelTanac ar gaaCnda raime gansakuTrebuli

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

kavSiri. ufro metic, Canda, rom brakSi saxls mniSvnelovnad dabali fasi hqonda, vidre saxls priJedorSi da gacvlis xelSekruleba momCivnisaTvis araxelsayreli iyo ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiTac. yvela am garemoebis gamo kontraqti ar aris normaluri garigeba, romelic ganxorcieldeboda Cveulebriv garemoebebSi. ufro metic, vinaidan garigeba Sedga omis pirobebSi, sasamarTlos eWvi ar epareba, rom batonma b.v-m icoda momCivnis mowyvladi da rTuli mdgomareoba da swored es iyo imis mizezi, rom momCivani binis gacvlaze daTanxmda. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom bosnia-hercogovinaSi mSvidobis Sesaxeb zogadi CarCo xelSekrulebisa da bosnia-hercogovinas konstituciis (romelic SeTanxmebis me-4 danarTia) mizani iyo eTnikuri wmendis winaaRmdeg brZola, romelsac adgili hqonda omis dros. amitom bosnia-hercogovinis konstituciis I .5 muxlis erTi mniSvnelovani mizani, inter alia, iyo ltolvilTa da iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa dabruneba maTi warmoSobis adgilze da maT Zvel saxlebSi. saqmis yuradRebiT ganxilvis Semdeg sakonstitucio sasamarTlom dadasturebulad miiCnia, rom momCivanma gacvlis xelSekruleba misi mowyvladi mdgomareobis gavleniT dado, vinaidan igi eTnikuri umciresobis warmomadgeneli iyo, xolo im dros bosnia-hercogovinas umetes nawilSi eTnikuri wmenda mimdinareobda. amitom sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom aseT garemoebebSi kontraqtis ganxorcieleba ar Seesabameboda ECHR-is me-8 muxlis Sesabamisad misi saxlis pativiscemis uflebas, bosnia-hercogovinas konstituciis I .3.v muxls da ECHR-is pirveli oqmis Sesabamisad sakuTrebis uflebas da bosnia-hercogovinas konstituciis I I.3.l muxls.

estoneTi uzenaesi sasamarTlo sakonstitucio ganxilvis palata 03-05-2001 momCivans, qalbaton arendis, surda saxelis Secvla arendi elita von volskiT. Sinagan saqmeTa ministrma uari ganucxada Txovnaze. qalbatonma arendim gaasaCivra ministris gadawyvetileba talinis administraciul sasamarTloSi da ganacxada, rom surda Tavisi ojaxis gvaris SenarCuneba. sasamarTlom gaauqma gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba da uzenaes sasamarTlos warudgina peticia saojaxo samarTlis Sesaxeb aqtis 140.1 muxlis konstituciurobis Taobaze. am muxlis Sesabamisad, 1934 wlis gvarebis Sesaxeb aqtis debulebebi gamoiyeneba saxelis Secvlisas. gvarebis Sesaxeb aqti iTvaliswinebda, inter alia, rom araestonuri

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

gvaris moTxovna ar SeiZleboda, Tu piri iyo estonuri warmomavlobis an hqonda estonuri gvari. administraciulma sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom gvarebis Sesaxeb aqtis es debuleba diskriminaciuli iyo estonuri warmomavlobis mqone pirebis mimarT maTi eTnikurobis safuZvelze da arRvevda konstituciis me-12 muxls. uzenaesi sasamarTlos sakonstitucio ganxilvis palatam aRniSna, rom saojaxo samarTlis aqtis 140.1 muxli ar Seicavs wesebs saxelebis SecvlasTan dakavSirebiT da, Sesabamisad, ar arRvevs individebis ZiriTad Tavisuflebebs. es muxli mxolod miuTiTebs gvarebis Sesaxeb aqtis saTanado debulebebze, maT Soris, aqtis me-11 muxlze, romelic dakavSirebulia am saqmesTan. uzenaesma sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom gvaris Secvlis ufleba SeiZleba moxvdes konstituciis zogierTi debulebis dacvis sferoSi _ magaliTad, konstituciis 26-e muxli (piradi da saojaxo cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis ufleba), konstituciis me-19 muxli (TviTganviTarebis Tavisuflebis ufleba) da a.S. vinaidan qalbatoni arendi acxadebda administraciuli sasamarTlos winaSe, rom mas surda qaliSvilobis gvaris damateba mis saxelze, uzenaesma sasamarTlom yuradRebis koncentrireba moaxdina piradi da ojaxuri cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis uflebaze. uzenaesma sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom gvarebis Sesaxeb aqtis me-11 muxlis mizani iyo estonuri warmomavlobis (identity) dacva. konstituciis preambulis Sesabamisad, saxelmwifo uzrunvelyofs estoneli eris da kulturis dacvas samaradJamod. sasamarTlom aRiara erovnuli warmomavlobis (identity) dacvis mniSvneloba konstituciis Seqmnis dros, Tumca, iqve aRniSna, rom erovnuli warmomavlobis (identity) dacvis mizeziT gvarebis Secla ar unda dayovndes. am daskvnas mxars uWerda evropuli qveynebis praqtikis analizi, romelic warmoadgina adamianis uflebebis evropulma sasamarTlom saqmeSi _ sterna fineTis winaaRmdeg (Stjerna v. Finland (Bulletin 1994/3 [ECH-1994-3-019]). uzenaesma sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom gvarebis Sesaxeb aqtis me-11 muxlis akrZalva araproporciuli iyo da arRvevda konstituciis 26-e muxls. uzenaesma sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom gvarebis Sesaxeb aqtis me-11 muxli diskriminaciuli iyo araestonelebis mimarT, romelTac estonuri gvari hqondaT. aqti ukrZalavda aseT pirebs gvarebis Secvlas araestonuri gvarebiT maSin, rodesac araestonels, romelsac hqonda araestonuri gvari, SeeZlo misi Secvla sxva araestonuri gvariT. es gansxvaveba gaumarTlebelia da arRvevs konstituciis 12.1 muxls. sakonstitucio ganxilvis palatam gvarebis Sesaxeb aqtis me11 muxli baTilad gamoacxada.

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litva sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 21-10-1999 konstituciis me-14 muxlis Sesabamisad, saxelmwifo ena iqneba litvuri. es niSnavs, rom litvuri savaldebuloa mxolod litvis sajaro (oficialur) cxovrebaSi. litvis respublikis moqalaqis pasporti aris oficialuri dokumenti, romelic adasturebs samarTlebriv kavSirs individsa da saxelmwifos Soris, e.i. piris moqalaqeobas. is faqti, rom moqalaqeobis sakiTxi miekuTvneba sajaro sferos, niSnavs, rom pasportSi individis saxeli da gvari unda daiweros saxelmwifo enaze. reziume: 1991 wlis 31 ianvars litvis respublikis uzenaesma sabWom (axla Seimas) daadgina, rom aralitveli pirebis saxelebi da gvarebi daiwereba litvuri asoebiT, rac aisaxa litvis respublikis pasportebSi saxelebisa da gvarebis marTlweris Sesaxeb dadgenilebaSi ("dadgenileba"). momCivani ­ vilniusis regionaluri sasamarTlo _ kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebda aRniSnuli debulebis litvis respublikis konstituciasTan Sesabamisobis sakiTxs da acxadebda, rom igi arRvevda piradi cxovrebis uflebas, Tanasworobis princips da erovnuli umciresobebis uflebebs. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom saxelmwifo enis savaldebulo gamoyenebis sferoa litvis sajaro (oficialuri) cxovreba. amrigad, ar aris savaldebulo litvuri enis gamoyeneba kerZo cxovrebaSi, sadac pirebi maT mier arCeul enas iyeneben. dadgenileba ar aregulirebs kerZo cxovrebas, aramed, ubralod, adgens, Tu rogor daiwereba litvis respublikis pasportebSi saxelebi da gvarebi. debuleba iTvaliswinebs, rom litvis respublikis moqalaqis pasportSi individebis saxelebi da gvarebi daiwereba litvuri asoebiT maTi gamoTqmis Sesabamisad. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom agreTve aRniSna, rom debuleba gamoiyeneba yvela moqalaqis mimarT gamonaklisebis gareSe, maTi erovnebis an sxva niSnebis miuxedavad. individis garda sxva aravinaa uflebamosili, gadawyvitos misi erovnuli kuTvnileba, amitom dauSvebelia saxelmwifo enis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT gamonaklisebis dadgena pirovnebis erovnulobis gaTvaliswinebiT. individs arc piris erovnulobis safuZvelze aqvs ufleba moiTxovos, rom saxelmwifo enis statusidan gamomdinare mis mimarT wesebi ar iqnas gamoyenebuli. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aseve aRniSna, rom dadgenileba aregulirebs erovnuli sazogadoebebis urTierTobebis sxvadasxva bunebas, amrigad, man daadgina, rom dadgenileba Seesabameba konstitucias.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

slovenia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 28-01-1999 konstituciiT, adgilobrivi italiuri da ungruli erovnuli erTobebi da misi wevrebi sargebloben uflebiT, Tavisuflad gamoiyenon maTi erovnuli simboloebi. Sesabamisad, maT SeuZliaT gamoiyenon italielebisa da ungrelebis simboloebi, rogorc sakuTari, imis miuxedavad, es simboloebi italiisa da ungreTis saxelmwifo simboloebis identuria, Tu ara. sloveniis respublikis gerbis, erovnuli droSisa da saxelmwifo himnis Sesaxeb da sloveniis erovnuli droSis Sesaxeb aqtis Sesabamisad, oficialur SemTxvevebSi adgilobrivma erovnulma erTobebma da maTma warmomadgenlebma erovnuli simboloebi unda gamoiyenon mxolod sloveniis respublikis simboloebTan erTad da Tanac imgvarad, rom upiratesoba am ukanasknels hqondes. aRniSnuli kanonis debulebebi, romelic iTvaliswinebs, rom zogierT SemTxvevaSi sloveniis respublikis simboloebTan erTad gamoiyeneba italiuri da ungruli erovnuli erTobebis droSa da erovnul (sloveniur) himnTan erTad SeiZleba aJRerdes am erTobebis himnic, ar aris arakonstituciuri. reziume: erovnulma sabWom sTxova sakonstitucio sasamarTlos, konstituciis gaTvaliswinebiT gadaewyvita, adgilobrivi italiuri da ungruli erovnuli erTobebis simboloebi SeiZleba iyos Tu ara sxva saxelmwifoebis simboloebis msgavsi. momCivani asaCivrebda sloveniis respublikis gerbis, erovnuli droSisa da saxelmwifo himnis da sloveniis erovnuli droSis Sesaxeb aqtis (SemdgomSi aqti) debulebebs, romelic iTvaliswinebs, rom zogierT SemTxvevaSi erovnul droSasTan SeiZleba gamofenil iqnes italiuri an ungruli erovnuli erTobebis droSebi da sloveniis erovnul himnTan erTad daukran am erovnuli erTobebis himnic. erovnuli erTobis droSa gamoifineba iq, sadac cxovroben italiuri da ungruli erovnuli erTobebi, (sloveniis respublikis) erovnul dResaswaulebze, glovis dRes, romelsac gansazRvravs mTavroba, saxelmwifosaTvis mniSvnelovan sajaro ceremoniebze, adgilobrivi erTobebis dResaswaulebze, Tu droSis gamoyeneba ar ewinaaRmdegeba aqts (mux. 13.2 da 14.3). erovnuli himni SeiZleba daukran am erTobis mier mowyobil ceremoniazec (aqtis 21.2 muxli). italiuri da ungruli erovnuli erTobebis simboloebis buneba da forma ar aris daregulirebuli kanoniT, Tumca, momCivani amtkicebs, rom aqtma, sul mcire, unda

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gansazRvros, rom es simboloebi italiisa da ungreTis saxelmwifoebis simboloebis identuri ar iyos. konstitucia icavs adgilobriv italiur da ungrul erovnul erTobebs da mis wevrebs ori saSualebiT: pirvel rigSi igi iTvaliswinebs yvelasaTvis da, Sesabamisad, am individebisaTvisac Tanaswor uflebebs da ZiriTad Tavisuflebebs erovnuli kuTvnilebis miuxedavad (konstituciis 14.1 muxli). agreTve, igi aniWebs calkeul wevrebs da maT erovnul erTobebs zogierT specialur uflebas (konstituciis 64-e muxli). am institucionaluri CarCos mizania maTi erovnuli kuTvnilebis SenarCuneba da socialur cxovrebaSi orive adgilobrivi erovnuli erTobis da maTi wevrebis Tanaswori monawileoba. am konteqstSi konstitucia iTvaliswinebs, rom orive adgilobriv erovnul erTobasa da maT wevrebs aqvT erovnuli simboloebis gamoyenebis ufleba (konstituciis 64-e muxli). termini "maTi sakuTari erovnuli simboloebi" ukve gulisxmobs, rom igi exeba im erebis simboloebs, romelTa nawilsac warmoadgenen italiuri da ungruli erovnuli erTobebi, anu italiisa da ungreTis erebis simboloebi. magram italiuri da ungruli erebi ganviTarda istoriulad da ar unda iyos damokidebuli vinmes arCevanze. es erovnuli somboloebi Camoyalibda italieli da ungreli erebis istoriis ganmavlobaSi. adgilobrivi italiuri da ungruli erovnuli erTobebi da maTi warmomadgenlebi uflebamosilni arian, konstituciis Sesabamisad, gamoiyenon italiuri da ungruli erovnuli simboloebi rogorc sakuTari, miuxedavad im faqtisa, rom isini SeiZleba italiisa da ungreTis saxelmwifoebis erovnuli simboloebis identuri iyos. mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu konstitucia pirdapir akrZalavda, rom maTi simboloebi sxva saxelmwifoebis simboloebis msgavsi ar yofiliyo, maSin konstituciis 64-e muxlis sxvagvari ganmarteba SeiZleboda. aqtidan gamomdinare, simboloebi, romlebsac adgilobrivi erovnuli erTo bebi da maTi wevrebi rogorc sakuTar erovnul simboloebs, ise iyeneben, SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes oficialur SemTxvevebSi mxolod sloveniis respublikis simboloebTan erTad da imgvarad, rom upiratesoba am ukanasknels hqondes. im SemTxvevebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebTan mimarTebiTac gamoiyeneba gasaCivrebuli me-13, me-14 da 21-e muxlebi, gasaCivrebuli debulebebis teqstidan gamomdinare, adgilobriv erovnul umciresobaTa simboloebi gamoiyeneba mxolod sloveniis respublikis simboloebTan erTad. amis gamo sityva "agreTve" gamoiyeneba samive debulebaSi. gasaCivrebuli sakanonmdeblo debulebebi gamoricxavs adgilobrivi erovnuli erTobebis droSis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas saxelmwifo vizitebis dros ­ sloveniis respublikis umaRlesi pirebis vizitebi sazRvargareT an vice versa warmodgenebisa da sajaro Tavyrilobebis (Sekrebebis) dros, romelSic warmodgenilia an monawileobs sloveniis respublika. amrigad, momCivnis mtkiceba, rom adgilobrivi erovnuli erTobebiT dasaxlebul teritoriaze SesaZloa moxdes, rom "sloveniis armia marSirebs italiis (an ungreTis) droSis qveS da mReris italiis (an ungreTis) himns," ar aris marTali. aqtis me-6 muxlidan gamomdinareobs, rom sxva oficialur SemTxvevebSi, romelic araa gaTvaliswinebuli aqtiT, adgilobrivi erovnuli erTobebis simboloebi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes mxolod sloveniis respublikis simboloebTan erTad. am debulebis Sesabamisad, sloveniis respublikis gerbi da droSa unda ganTavsdes sapatio adgilas, rodesac ukraven an ganTavsebulia sloveniis erovnul droSasTan erTad, italiuri an ungruli erovnuli erTobebis droSasTan erTad, adgilobrivi erTobebis droSasTan erTad, samxedro an ucxoeTis droSasTan an sxva simboloebTan erTad, Tu aqti ar iTvaliswinebs sxvagvarad. debulebis sityvieri ganmartebidan gamomdinareobs, rom es ar exeba im SemTxvevebs, rodesac saxelmwifo an sxva simboloebi gamoiyeneba araoficialurad. Tu debuleba ganimarteba amgvarad, ganmartebis sxva dadgenili meTodebic ar aris winaaRmdegobaSi. araoficialur SemTxvevebSi saxelmwifo simboloebis farglebi Camoyalibebulia aqtis sxva debulebebSi. maT Soris, yvelaze mniSvnelovania me-7 muxli. aqti ar aregulirebs sxva simboloebis gamoyenebas araoficialur SemTxvevebSi. (arg. a contrario from Article 1). meore mxriv, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom oficialur SemTxvevebSi sxva erovnuli simboloebis damoukidebeli gamoyeneba ar xvdeba aqtis regulirebis sferoSi, magram aseTi interpretacia agreTve niSnavs, rom, magaliTad, sloveniis respublikisaTvis mniSvnelovani sazogadoebrivi warmodgenebis dros, humanitarul, samxedro an sxva SemTxvevebSi, romlebSic warmodgenilia sloveniis respublika an romelSic igi monawileobs, SesaZlebelia ucxo saxelmwifoTa simboloebis gamoyeneba, Tu ar aris aucilebeli sloveniis respublikis droSis gamoyeneba. aseTi ganmarteba ar Seesabameba saxelmwifo simboloebis pativiscemis valdebulebas, rac Camoyalibebuli Cveulebaa civilizebul sazogadoebaSi. Sesabamisad, me-6 muxli SeiZleba ganimartos, rom krZalavs sxva simboloebis damoukideblad gamoyenebas oficialur SemTxvevebSi. oficialuri SemTxvevebia, agreTve, romlebSic monawileoben adgilobrivi erovnuli erTobebi an monawileoben maTi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis saSualebiT, rogorc

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sajaro samarTlis erTeulebi. ufro metic, erovnuli erTobebis warmomadgenlebma sakonstitucio sasamarTlos winaSe procesis mimdinareobisas daadastures, rom adgilobriv erovnul erTobebs esmodaT sakanonmdeblo regulireba aRwerili formiT da maT erovnul simboloebs am wesis Sesabamisad iyenebdnen.

Tanasworoba enobrivi niSniT

belgia saarbitraJo sasamarTlo 31-05-2001 sasamarTlom unda ganixilos eupenSi, germanulenovani regionis centrSi momuSave ramdenime mosamarTlis mier Setanili saCivari 1999 wlis 7 maisis kanonis gauqmebis (anulirebis) Sesaxeb, romelmac Sesworebebi Seitana samosamarTlo kodeqsis debulebebSi mosamarTleTa administraciuli sistemis Sesaxeb. momCivnebi amtkicebdnen, rom gasaCivrebul kanonSi ar iyo debulebebi erovnuli disciplinuri sabWos germanulenovani danayofis Sesaxeb. maT miaCndaT, rom germanulenovani mosamarTlis winaaRmdeg procesis dawyebisas, Tu igi iTxovda procesis germanulad Catarebas, mTliani procesis germanulad Casatareblad mxolod erTi germanulenovani mosamarTlis daswreba sakmarisi ar iyo. maT Tavi diskriminebulad miiCnies frangulenovan da holandiurenovan mosamarTleebTan SedarebiT, romelTac SeeZloT gamosuliyvnen disciplinuri komitetis winaSe, sadac yvelas esmoda maTi ena. sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom reJimis gansxvaveba dafuZnebuli iyo obieqtur garemoebaze _ enaze. man agreTve ganacxada, rom debuleba keTilgonivrulad gamarTlebuli iyo imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom germanulenovani mosamarTleebis ricxvi, romelTac SeeZloT daekmayofilebinaT erovnul disciplinur sabWoSi arCevis pirobebi, SezRuduli gaxldaT; es garemoeba aRniSnuli iyo kanonis mosamzadebel dokumentebSi. sasamarTlom agreTve daadgina, SeeZloT Tu ara erovnuli disciplinuri sabWos wevrebs germanulenovani mosamarTleebis gageba da ganxilva saTanadod. am konteqstSi man mxedvelobaSi miiRo Semdegi faqtebi: kanonis Tanaxmad, eupenis regionis mosamarTleebs moeTxovebodaT, daemtkicebinaT xarisxis sertifikatiT, rom samarTlis xarisxi miiRes frangulad Catarebuli gamocdiT, an

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

daedasturebinaT frangulis codna; germanulenovan mosamarTles SeeZlo eTxova procesis Catareba germanulad da aseT SemTxvevaSi saWiroebis dros gamoiyenebdnen mTargmnelebs/Tarjimnebs. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom maRali instanciebis sasamarTloebTan (Conseil d'État, saarbitraJo sasamarTlo da sakasacio sasamarTlo) dakavSirebuli kanonebi gansazRvravda germanulis codnis Sesaxeb analogiur moTxovnebs an aseT moTxovnebs saerTod ar Seicavda. aRniSnul debulebebs arasdros SeuSlia xeli mosamarTleebisaTvis, rom advokatis gamosvla moesminaT germanulad, SeeswavlaT wardgenili germanuli dokumentebi an gancxadebebi an gadawyvetileba gamoetanaT germanulad, rodesac kanoni amas moiTxovda. momCivanma mosamarTleebma germanulenovani mosamarTleebis mdgomareoba, romelTa winaaRmdegac disciplinuri procesi mimdinareobs, Seadares imaT mdgomareobas, romelTa winaaRmdegac aRZruli iyo sisxlis samarTlis saqme. sasamarTlos pasuxi am konteqstSi iyo is, rom ar arsebobda gansxvaveba ori saxis process Soris: kanonmdeblobis Seqmnisas gaiTvaliswines, rom zogjer SeuZlebeli iyo iseTi sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlos Seqmna, romelic gadawyvetilebas gamoitanda germanulad. aseT SemTxvevebSi procesi tardeboda frangulad da SesaZlebeli iyo Tarjimnebis gamoyeneba erT-erTi mxaris Txovnis SemTxvevaSi an uSualod sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT. saarbitraJo sasamarTlos winaSe mimdinare procesSi CarTulma mxarem _ germanulenovani erTobis mTavrobam _ Tavis mxriv ganacxada, rom irRveoda Tanasworobisa da diskriminaciis dauSveblobis konstituciuri principebi (konstituciis me-10 da me-11 muxlebi) ECHR-is me-6 muxlis gaTvaliswinebiT. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos mier 1999 wlis 8 dekembers pelegrinis saqmeze (Pellegrin judgment) gamotanil gadawyvetilebaze miTiTebiT, saarbitraJo sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom mosamarTleebisaTvis Camoyalibebuli disciplinuri sistema ar xvdeboda ECHR-is me-6 muxlis farglebSi. Tumca, es garemoeba imas ar niSnavda, rom disciplinur sakiTxebTan ar SeiZleboda zogierTi garantiis gamoyeneba, magaliTad, mosamarTleTa miukerZoeblobis principi. Tumca, es principi ar darRveula, vinaidan ar arsebobda sakmarisi mtkicebuleba imis dasadastureblad, rom erovnuli disciplinuri sabWos germanulenovani mosamarTle SeZlebda gavlenis moxdenas yvela etapze. vinaidan sabWos wevrebs, romlebic sakmarisad gamarTulad ver flobdnen germanul enas, SeeZloT Tarjimnis momsaxurebiT sargebloba, saSualeba hqondaT, pirdapiri kavSiri hqonodaT procesTan dakavSirebul dokumentebTan da SeeswavlaT masalebi (saqme). sasamarTlom uaryo saCivari.

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

belgia saarbitraJo sasamarTlo 22-12-1994 sasamarTlos ar SeuZlia ganaCeni gamoitanos konstituciis avtorTa gadawyvetilebis Sesaxeb (B. 2.3 da B.3.5). ECHR-is pirveli oqmis me-3 muxli iTvaliswinebs xmis micemisa da arCevis uflebas, magram mxolod iseTi asambleis arCevnebisaTvis, romelic axorcielebs sakanonmdeblo uflebamosilebas amomrCevelTan mimarTebiT an kandidatebisaTvis, romlebmac miuTiTes am muxlze (B.4.6 to B.4.8, B.4.15 and B.4.16). samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb samoqalaqo paqtis 27-e muxli Seexeba eTnikuri, religiuri da lingvisturi umciresobebis dacvas da ukrZalavs wevr-saxelmwifoebs, inter alia, uari uTxras am pirebs kulturul cxovrebaze aRniSnuli jgufis wevrebis sazogadoebaSi. Tanasworobis da diskriminaciis dauSveblobis Sesaxeb konstituciuri wesebi, romlebsac moicavs samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb paqtis 27-e muxli, ar irRveva sakanonmdeblo debulebiT, romelic flemiSis regionis frangulenovan mosaxleobas aRar aZlevs franguli erTobis sabWoSi arCevis uflebas; am ukanasknels ar gaaCnia sakanonmdeblo Zalaufleba aRniSnul macxovreblebze, magram ar CamourTmevia maTTvis kulturuli cxovrebis ufleba maTi jgufis wevrebis sazogadoebaSi an kulturuli garTobis saSualebebi, romelzec pasuxismgebelia franguli sazogadoeba (B.4.12 to B.4.14). adamianis uflebebis Sesaxeb evropuli konvenciis precedentuli samarTlis gaTvaliswinebiT (Mathieu-Morin and Clerfayt case, Series A no. 113, para. 57,Special Bulletin ECHR [ECH-1987-S-001]) da, agreTve, imis mxedvelobaSi miRebiT, rom arCeuli warmomadgenlebis mier dadebuli fici imave mniSvnelobisaa maTTvisac, vinc am process xelmZRvanelobs da maTTvisac, vinc fics debs, konstituciis me-15 muxlis Sesabamisad, specialuri kanoniT dawesebuli valdebuleba holandiurad ficis dadebis Taobaze, flemiSis sabWos yvela wevrisaTvis, maT Soris, frangulad mosaubre wevrebisaTvisac, aradiskriminaciuli xasiaTisaa. es valdebuleba ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis 27-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebis aramarTlzomier SezRudvad; es muxli iTvaliswinebs yvela piris mier misi jgufis wevrebis sazogadoebaSi sakuTari enis gamoyenebis uflebas. sxva sakanonmdeblo sabWoebSi gamoyenebuli sxvadasxva sistemebi asaxavs maT specialur xasiaTs (B.4.18 to B.4.24). briusel-hal-vilvordis saarCevno ubnis Seqmna, romelic moicavs or sxvadasxva regionSi ganlagebul erTobebs (flemiSis regioni da briuselis-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

dedaqalaqis regioni) federaluri palatebis da evropis parlamentis arCevnebis miznebisaTvis, gamoiwvia saerTo kompromisis miRwevis aucileblobam da belgiis respublikaSi sxvadasxva erTobisa da regionis interesebis arsebiTi balansis dacvam. am mizanma SeiZleba gaamarTlos gansxvaveba, romelic arsebobda amomrCevelsa da kandidats Soris briusel-hal-vilvordSi da sxva regionebSi, Tuki ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi marTlzomierad SeiZleba CaiTvalos proporciulad (B.5.5 to B. 5.10). reziume: es gadawyvetileba Seexeba saCivars sxvadasxva debulebebis gauqmebis Taobaze; gasaCivrebuli debulebebi aregulirebs federaciis (warmomadgenelTa palata da senati) da federaluri erTeulebis (erTobebisa da regionebis sabWoebi) saparlamento asambleaTa arCevnebs. erT-erTi saCivari iyo is, rom senatis pirdapiri arCevnebisaTvis ar aris specialuri saarCevno ubani germanulenovani mosaxleobisaTvis, rogorc es xdeba holandiurenovani da frangulenovani regionebisaTvis. konstitucia iTvaliswinebs, rom holandieli amomrCeveli irCevs 25 senators, xolo frangi amomrCeveli _ 15-s; sami erTobis (flemiSis, frangulenovani da germanulenovani) sabWoebma da damoukideblad arCeulma senatorebma unda daasaxelon fiqsirebuli raodenobis senatorebi. saCivris im nawilTan dakavSirebiT, rom dairRva Tanasworobisa da diskriminaciis dauSveblobis principebi, sasamarTlom aRniSna: Tavad konstitucia aregulirebs pirdapir arCeuli senatorebis dasaxelebas da [sasamarTlos] ar SeuZlia gadawyvetileba gamoitanos saCivarze, romliTac mas mouwevs konstituciix avtorebis arCevanis Sefaseba. igive pasuxi gaeca saCivars, romelic Seexeboda warmomadgenelTa palatis Semadgenlobas. fizikurma pirebma, rogorc frangulenovani amomrCevlis parlamentis wevrebma, waradgines sxva saCivari kanonmdeblobis winaaRmdeg, romlis Tanaxmadac, hal-vilvordis administraciuli raionis (flemiSis regionis nawili) frangulenovan mosaxleobas aRar SeuZlia warmodgenili iyos franguli erTobis sabWoSi. franguli erTobis sabWos dekretebs ar gaaCnia samarTlebrivad savaldebulo xasiaTi holandiurad mosaubre regionSi. Tavdapirvelad, ganisazRvra ra ECHR-is pirveli oqmis me-3 muxlis farglebi, sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom rogorc holandiurenovan, aseve, frangulenovan macxovreblebs aqvT monawileobis ufleba sakanonmdeblo asambleis arCevnebSi, romelic maTzea pasuxismgebeli da arc erT jgufs ar SeuZlia xmis micema sakanonmdeblo asambleis arCevnebSi, romelic araa maTze pasuxismgebeli. am kuTxiT ar arsebobs diskriminacia, erTi mxriv, hal-vilvordSi frangulenovan mosaxleobas da, meore mxriv, hal-vilvordis

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holandiurenovan mosaxleobas Soris, briusel-dedaqalaqis holandiurenovan mosaxleobasa da briusel-dedaqalaqis frangulenovan mosaxleobas Soris. sasamarTlo miiCnevs, rom ar darRveula Tanasworobisa da diskriminaciis dauSveblobis principi, rogorc amas iTvaliswinebs samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis 27-e muxli am gadawyvetilebaSi miTiTebuli sasamarTlos mier aRniSnuli debulebis ganmartebis gaTvaliswinebiT. amave konteqstSi sasamarTlo miiCnevs, rom flemiSis sabWos wevrebze, maT Soris, frangulenovan wevrebzec, dakisrebuli holandiuri ficis valdebuleba ar arRvevda ECHR-is pirveli oqmis me-3 muxliT da paqtis 27-e muxliT dacul Tanasworobisa da diskriminaciis dauSveblobis principebs. rac Seexeba saCivars, rom erTiani saarCevno ubnis Seqmna, romelic moicavs or regions (briusel-halvilvordi (mdebareobs orenovan briusel-dedaqalaqis regionSi) da erTenovani flemiSis regioni), arRvevda Tanasworobisa da diskriminaciis dauSveblobis konstituciur wesebs, vinaidan igi awesebs gansxvavebas amomrCevelsa da kandidatebs Soris erTsa da imave enobriv regionsa an provinciaSi. zogierTi maTganis sasamarTlo RonisZiebas gamarTlebulad miiCnevs; gamarTlebis safuZvlebia: saerTo kompromisis dacvis saWiroeba, risi saSualebiTac Catarda institucionaluri reformebi belgiaSi; da is faqtis, rom adamianis ZiriTad uflebebSi Careva ar yofila araproporciuli. gasaCivrebuli debulebebi arc araproporciulad arRveven yoveli piris Tavisuflebas, xma miscen kandidats arCevanis mixedviT da kenWi iyaron arCevnebze da arc amcireben da auqmeben individis saarCevno uflebis arss. es arc imas niSnavs, rom zog amomrCevels naklebi gavlena aqvs kandidatis dasaxelebisas, vidre sxvebs an erT kandidats upiratesoba aqvs meoresTan SedarebiT. nivelesa da luvanis raionebis briusel-hal-vilvordis saarCevno ubanSi gaerTianebaze uari SeiZleba aixsnas (gamarTldes) im faqtiT, rom yvela gansxvavebuli erToba, romlebsac gaaCniaT specialuri statusi administraciuli miznebisaTvis enis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT, ganlagebulia hal-vilvordis raionSi.

ukraina sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 16-12-1999 ukrainuli, rogorc saxelmwifo ena, savaldebulo urTierTobis enaa ukrainis mTel teritoriaze ukrainis saxelmwifo organoebis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebisaTvis maTi uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebisas (aqtebis, muSaobis, dokumentebis da a.S. ena), agreTve, cxovrebis oficialur sferoSi kanonis Sesabamisad (konstituciis 10.5 muxli). oficialur enasTan erTad aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis adgilobriv organoebs, yirimis avtonomiuri respublikis organoebs da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs SeuZliaT rusuli enis da erovnuli umciresobebis sxva enebis gamoyeneba kanoniT dadgenili wesiT. ganaTlebis ena ukrainis winasaskolo, zogad, profesiul da saxelmwifo, aseve, komerciul umaRles saswavleblebSi aris ukrainuli. oficialur enasTan erTad SeiZleba gamoiyenon da iswavlebodes erovnuli umciresobebis ena saxelmwifo da saerTo saganmanaTleblo institutebSi konstituciis 53.5 muxlis debulebebis Sesabamisad. xalxis warmomadgenlebma wamoWres sakiTxi konstituciis me-10 muxlis debulebebis formalurad ganmartebis Taobaze, romelic dakavSirebulia saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organoebis da maTi TanamSromlebis mier oficialuri enis gamoyenebasTan, agreTve, ukrainuli enis gamoyenebasTan saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi. termini "saxelmwifo ena" aRniSnavs enas, romelic airCia saxelmwifom, rogorc savaldebulo urTierTobis saSualeba sazogadoebis cxovrebis oficialur sferoSi. konstituciis me-10 muxlis Tanaxmad, ukrainuli aris oficialuri ena. preambulis Tanaxmad, es sruliad Seefereba ukraineli eris rols saxelmwifos formirebaSi; ukraineli eri istoriulad cxovrobda ukrainis teritoriaze, warmoadgenda ukrainis mosaxleobis absolutur umravlesobas da saxelmwifos misca saxeli. oficialuri enis koncefcia "konstituciuri wesrigis" komponentia, romelic ufro didia Tavisi SinaarsiTa da farglebiT. meore komponentia erovnuli simboloebis koncefcia. ukrainaSi konstituciuri wesrigis gansazRvrisa da Secvlis ufleba ekuTvnis xalxs (konstituciis 5.3 muxli). sazogadoebrivi sferoebi, sadac gamoiyeneba oficialuri ena, aris is sferoebi, sadac sakanonmdeblo, aRmasrulebeli da sasamarTlo xelisuflebis samsaxurebi, saxelmwifo xelisuflebis sxva uwyebebi da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi axorcieleben Tavis uflebamosilebas (muSaobis, aqtebis, ofisis samuSaos da dokumentebis, am organoebs da samsaxurebs Soris urTierTobis da a.S. ena). sxva sferoebi, romlebic konstituciis me-10 muxlis me-5 nawilisa da 92.1.4 muxlis Sesabamisad gansazRvrulia kanoniT, SeiZleba agreTve dakavSirebuli iyos oficialuri enis gamoyenebasTan. amas garda, kanoniT gaTvaliswinebulia ukrainuli da sxva enebis gamoyeneba saxelmwifo saganmanaTleblo institutebSi. konsti-

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

tuciis 92.1.4 muxlis Sesabamisad, enis gamoyenebis procedurebi ganisazRvreba mxolod kanoniT. ukrainuli enis kargad codna oficialuri Tanamdebobebis dakavebis savaldebulo moTxovnaa (konstituciis 103-e, 127-e da 148-e muxlebi). sakonstitucio samarTlis safuZvelze, ukrainuli enis gamoyeneba oficialur enad, savaldebuloa. konstituciis 10.3 muxlis Sesabamisad, rusuli da ukrainis erovnuli umciresobebis sxva enebis Tavisufali ganviTareba, gamoyeneba da dacva garantirebulia. konstituciis 24.2 muxlis Sesabamisad, dauSvebelia privilegiebis miniWeba an SezRudvebis daweseba enis safuZvelze.

Tanasworoba seqsualuri orientaciis niSniT

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 04-09-2002 aucilebelia, rom sisxlissamarTlebrivi debuleba araZiriTadi uflebebis diferencirebis (gansxvavebis) Sesaxeb ar gamoiyenebodes gaumarTleblad, anu ar iyos mikerZoebuli xasiaTis da ar daarRvios adamianis ganuyofeli Rirseba. heteroseqsualuri da homoseqsualuri orientacia Tanabrad ekuTvnis adamianis Rirsebis arss; Sesabamisad, gansakuTrebuli gamarTleba aucilebelia maTi erTmaneTisagan gancalkevebisa da mocemuli pirebis Rirsebaze araTanasworad mopyrobisaTvis. konstituciis 67.1 muxlidan [ENGHUN-A-67] gamomdinare, valdebuleba, rom saxelmwifom daicvas bavSvi, ar aris sakmarisad Zlieri konstituciuri gamarTleba Semdeg SemTxvevaSi: bavSvebis janmrTeli seqsualuri ganviTarebis mozrdilebis gavlenisagan damcavi sisxlissamarTlebriv debulebebSi daculi asaki gansazRvrulia sxvadasxvagvarad imis safuZvelze, seqsualuri qmedeba ganxorcielda erTi sqesis Tu sxvadasxva sqesis pirebs Soris. ex post facto normis ganxilvis Sesaxeb gancxadebisa da sasamarTlos mier wamowyebuli ganxilvis ganmavlobaSi, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gaauqma homoseqsualizmis Sesaxeb debulebebi ungreTis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi (ussk), romlebic Seexeboda erTi sqesis adamianebs Soris seqsualur kavSirs (danaSaulebi piris TanxmobiT arabunebrivi seqsualuri kavSiris damyarebis Sesaxeb da piris Tanxmobis gareSe pirTan arabunebrivi seqsualuri kavSiris

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damyarebis Sesaxeb). sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis debulebebis Sesabamisad, 18 wlis zemoT piri amyarebs arabunebriv seqsualur kavSirs, rodesac igi seqsualur kavSirSi Sedis imave sqesis 14-18 wlis pirTan misi TanxmobiT an Tanxmobis gareSe. Tumca 14-18 wlis pirebisaTvis danaSaulad ar iTvleba seqsualuri kavSiris damyareba erTmaneTTan, miuxedavad imisa, isini erTi sqesisani arian, Tu ara. ungreTis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi iyenebs erT mosazrebas danaSaulis Cadenis da misi dasjis mimarT, Tumca, gancalkevebuli samarTlebrivi debulebebiT, rodesac saqme exeba pirTan seqsualuri kavSiris damyarebas misi survilis sawinaaRmdegod. danaSaulis saxelwodebaa "danaSauli sircxvilis winaaRmdeg (ussk, mux. 198), rodesac damnaSave da msxverpli sxvadasxva sqesis adamianebi arian; danaSauls ewodeba "arabunebriv seqsualur aqtSi Cabma am piris survilis sawinaaRmdegod" (ussk, mux. 200), rodesac damnaSave da msxverpli erTi sqesisani arian. kanonmdebeli ganasxvavebs or danaSauls imiT, rom danaSauli sircxvilis winaaRmdeg dasjadia mxolod piradi saCivris safuZvelze maSin, rodesac arabunebriv seqsualur kavSirSi Cabma piris survilis winaaRmdeg dasjadia momCivnis survilis miuxedavad (ussk, mux/ 209). samarTlebrivi istoriis dawvrilebiTi gamokvlevisa da Sedarebis Semdeg sakonstitucio sasamarTlom Seiswavla evropuli forumis sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebi da gansaxilveli debulebi gamoacxada arakonstituciurad. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, ussk-s 199-e muxli ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciis 70/A.1 muxls [ENG-HUN-A-70/A] imis safuZvelze, rom misi [199-e muxlis] gamarTleba ar SeiZleba obieqturi faqtebis safuZvelze da, Sesabamisad, axdens mikerZoebul gansxvavebas 18 wlis zemoT pirebis seqsualuri orientaciis safuZvelze, Tu isini seqsualur kavSirs amyareben 14-18 wlis pirebTan maTi TanxmobiT. 1. ussk-s 199-e muxlis konstituciurobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba ar daumyarebia e.w. aucileblobis testze, aramed gamoiyena racionalurobis testi, romelic agreTve gamoiyena 203.3 muxlis sakonstitucio ganxilvisas, romlis Tanaxmadac, "arabunebrivi" seqsualuri kavSiris damyareba erTi sqesis warmomadgenlebs Soris ukanonoa (Bulletin 1999/3 [HUN-1999-3-005]). sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesabamisad, ussk-s 199-e muxlis SemTxvevaSi iqmneba SedarebiTi jgufi 18 wlis zemoT pirebisagan, romlebic seqsualur kavSirs amyareben ufro arasrulwlovanebTan 14 wlis zemoT, maTi TanxmobiT. ussk-s 199-e muxlis Tanaxmad, gansxvaveba am jgufis SigniT xdeba gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi mxolod da mxolod 18 wlis zemoT pirebis seqsualuri orientaciis safuZvelze.

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

kanonmdebeli miuTiTebs, rom ussk-s 199-e muxlis danaSaulis mizania, axalgazrdebis janmrTeli seqsualuri ganviTareba. konstituciis 67.1 muxlis safuZvelze [ENG-HUN-A-67] saxelmwifos gaaCnia valdebuleba, daicvas am asakobrivi jgufis yvela warmomadgeneli, uzrunvelyos maTi saTanado fizikuri, fsiqologiuri da moraluri ganviTareba. maTi janmrTeli seqsualuri ganviTareba aseve xvdeba am dacvis qveS. ussk-s 199-e muxlis Sesabamisad, 14-18 wlis jgufis wevris _ gogonas an biWis _ seqsualuri orientacia konkretul SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gaxdes saxelmwifos Carevis mizezi sisxlis samarTlis saSualebiT, Tu igi amyarebs seqsualur kavSirs mozrdilTan. heteroseqsualuri da homoseqsualuri orientacia Tanabrad miekuTvneba adamianis Rirsebis arss da, Sesabamisad, mniSvnelovani gamarTlebaa saWiro maTi erTmaneTisagan gansasxvaveblad da am pirebis Rirsebis araTanabrad mopyrobisaTvis. aseTi gamarTlebaa, magaliTad, homoseqsualuri orientaciis gansxvaveba qorwinebis uflebis miniWebisas (Bulletin 1995/1 [HUN-1995-1-002]). socialuri garemo udavod ganamtkicebs SesaZlo heteroseqsualur da homoseqsualur ganviTarebas. gansxvavebaze SeiZleba miTiTeba agreTve mozardi gogonasa da biWis pirad ganviTarebaSic. istoriulad am gansxvavebebis Sedegi iyo ­ inter alia ­ sisxlis samarTlis gansxvavebuli reJimi qalebsa da mamakacebs Soris seqsualuri kavSiris Sesaxeb evropis umetes qveyanaSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesabamisad, es gansxvavebani warmoadgens keTilgonivrul da obieqtur gansxvavebas saxelmwifosaTvis, rom gansazRvros daculi asaki gansxvavebulad. 2. agreTve, konstituciis konstituciis 70/A.1 muxlis darRvevis

gamo sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom ussk-s me-200 muxlic arakons 2 stituciuria. kanonmdebels ar hqonda marTlzomieri gamarTleba, rom gansxvavebul danaSaulebad mieCnia danaSauli sircxvilis winaaRmdeg da

arabunebriv seqsualur aqtSi Cabma am piris survilis sawinaaRmdegod, mxolod damnaSavis seqsualuri orientaciis safuZvelze. rac Seexeba danaSaulis dasjasa da Cadenas, frazebi "arabunebriv seqsualur aqtSi Cabma am piris survilis sawinaaRmdegod", rogorc ganmartebulia 200.1 muxlSi, da "danaSauli sircxvilis winaaRmdeg", rogorc gaTvaliswinebulia 198.1 muxlSi, zustad igiveobrivia. garda amisa, maT aqvT erTnairi damamZimebeli garemoebebi da sasjelebi. gansxvaveba aRniSnul sisxlissamarTlebriv debulebebs Soris dafuZnebulia mxolod damnaSavis seqsualur orientaciaze. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ver daadgina aseTi gansxvavebis marTlzomieri da obieqturi safuZveli.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom diskriminacias iwvevda kidev erTi gansxvaveba; kerZod, is, rom damnaSave sircxvilis winaaRmdeg danaSaulisaTvis isjeboda mxolod msxverplis saCivris SemTxvevaSi maSin, rodesac damnaSave (arabunebriv seqsualur aqtSi Cabma am piris survilis sawinaaRmdegod) dasjas eqvemdebareba, miuxedavad msxverplis survilisa. iZulebiTi seqsualuri aqtebis dasjadobis kerZo braldebis saqmed ganxilvis mizania msxverplis piradi cxovrebis dacva. sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebis kompetenciaa, gadawyvitos, ra ufro mniSvnelovania _ msxverplis piradi cxovrebis dacva Tu damnaSavis dasja. sakanonmdeblo xelisufleba gadawyvetilebas miiRebs sazogadoebis interesebis (saxelmwifos valdebuleba, dasajos damnaSaveebi) da kerZo interesebis (msxverplis piradi cxovrebis pativiscema) Sefasebis Semdeg. sircxvilis winaaRmdeg danaSaulis da piris survilis sawinaaRmdegod arabunebriv seqsualur aqtSi Cabmis msxverplni qmnian erT mTlian jgufs. msxverplis TvalTaxedvidan, mxolod SemTxveviTobaa, igi gaxdeba Tu ara heteroseqsuali Tu homoseqsuali damnaSavis msxverpli; misi piradi cxovrebis dacvis mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, damnaSavis seqsualur arCevans ar aqvs mniSvneloba. seqsualuri danaSaulebis msxverplTa mTliani jgufis SigniT msxverplTa Soris gansxvaveba xdeba mikerZoebulad da am TvalsazrisiT arakonstituciuria. ufro metic, damnaSavesTan mimarTebiT diskriminaciulia is faqti, rom sircxvilis winaaRmdeg danaSaulis dasja xdeba kerZo saCivris safuZvelze, xolo arabunebriv seqsualur kavSirSi Cabmis dasja xdeba msxverplis survilis miuxedavad. ar aris gamarTlebuli gansxvavebis daweseba heteroseqsualuri da homoseqsualuri Zaladobis erTnairad dasjad damnaSaveebs Soris, romlis Tanaxmadac, pirvel SemTxvevaSi msxverplis neba mxedvelobaSi miiReba, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi _ igi miuRebelia.

gaerTianebuli samefo saapelacio sasamarTlo 05-11-2002 aRmoCnda, rom kanoni naklebad icavda homoseqsual partniorebs, vidre heteroseqsual partniorebs. Sesabamisad, iyo diskriminaciuli da ewinaaRmdegeboda ECHR-is me-14 muxls ([ENG-ECH-0-14] Article 14 ECHR). diskriminacias hqonda didi konstituciuri mniSvneloba da ECHR-is me-14 muxls gaaCnia farTo sazRvrebi; kanonmdebels

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

gaaCnia ganmartebis viwro farglebi, rodesac saqme exeba diskriminaciis sakiTxebs. ar arsebobda diskriminaciuli politikis gasamarTlebeli safuZveli. seqsualuri orientaciis safuZvelze diskriminacia axla ukve iseTive dauSvebelia, rogorc ECHR-is me-14 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli safuZvlebis SemTxvevaSi. m-ma, binis gardacvlili moqiravnis homoseqsualma partniorma, gaasaCivra sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, rom mas SeeZlo mieRo mxolod dazRveuli arenda da ara sakanonmdeblo arenda 1977 wlis qiravnobis aqtis Sesabamisad; gadawyvetileba efuZneboda lordTa palatis gadawyvetilebas saqmeze Fitzpatrick v. Sterling Housing Association Ltd. fitcpatrikis gadawyvetilebis Tanaxmad, marTalia gardacvlilis homoseqsuali partniori SeiZleba CaTvliliyo gardacvlilis ojaxis wevrad qiravnobis aqtis Sesabamisad (da, amgvarad, uflebamosili iqneboda, moeTxova dazRveuli arenda), igi ar miiCneoda "meuRled" aqtis Sesabamisad (da, amrigad, sakanonmdeblo arendidan gamomdinare, ufro did dacvas ver miiRebda). gadawyvetileba niSnavda, rom gardacvlilis heteroseqsual dauqorwinebel partniors hqonda ukeTesi dacva, vidre homoseqsual partniors imave mdgomareobaSi. m-ma mimarTa saapelacio sasamarTlos. mTavari sakiTxi iyo, SeeZlo Tu ara m-s, dayrdnoboda ECHR-is me14 muxls. vinaidan ECHR-is me-14 muxli gamoiyeneba adamianis uflebebis evropuli konvenciis sxva materialur debulebebTan erTad, sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom SeiZleba gamoeyenebinaT ECHR-is me-14 muxlis farTo ganmarteba. Tu sasamarTlo darwmundeboda, rom saqme xvdeboda adamianis uflebebis Sesaxeb konvenciis sxva muxlis farglebSi, maSin gamoiyeneboda me-14 muxli. sasamarTlom gaiziara farTo ganmarteba, vinaidan batoni m-is uflebebi xvdeboda ECHR-is me-8 muxlis farglebSi ([ENG-ECH-0-8] Article 8 ECHR) da, Sesabamisad, baton m-s SeeZlo dayrdnoboda ECHR-is me-14 muxls. ECHR-is me-14 muxlTan dakavSirebul saqmeebSi unda daisvas Semdegi oTxi SekiTxva: 1. faqtebi xvdeba Tu ara adamianis uflebebis evropuli konvenciis erTi an meti materialuri muxlebis sferoSi; 2. Tu asea, momCivnis am uflebasTan mimarTebiT iyo Tu ara gansxvavebuli mopyroba sxva pirebTan SedarebiT? 3. arCeuli kompatatorebi iyvnen Tu ara momCivnis mdgomareobaSi analogiur garemoebaSi? 4. Tu asea, gansxvavebas hqonda Tu ara obieqturi da marTlzomieri gamarTleba, anu gaaCnda Tu ara mas kanonieri mizani da iyo Tu ara gansxvavebuli mopyroba misaRwevi miznis proporciuli. dadginda ra, rom faqtebi xvdeboda adamianis uflebebis Sesaxeb

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

evropuli konvenciis erTi an meti uflebis farglebSi da meore da mesame SekiTxvaze pasuxi dadebiTi iyo, sasamarTlom ganagrZo meoTxe SekiTxvis ganxilva: arsebobda Tu ara obieqturi da marTlzomieri gasamarTlebeli garemoeba gardacvlili moqiravnis homoseqsuali da heteroseqsuali partniorebis diskriminaciisaTvis. mopasuxe eyrdnoboda or arguments imis mtkicebisas, rom arsebobda marTlzomieri da obieqturi gamarTleba: 1. aseTi gansxvaveba xvdeboda saxelmwifos Sefasebis kanonier sferoSi, rom ganesazRvra gansaxlebis politika; 2. homoseqsuali da heteroseqsuali wyvilebis gansxvavebuli mopyroba kanonieri da marTlzomieri iyo da amas moiTxovda konvencia da evropis sasamarTlo (ECJ). sasamarTlom daadgina, rom parlamentis nebis mimarT pativiscemaze dayrdnoba ar SeiZleboda. [ENG-ECH-0-14] rodesac saqme Seexeba ECHR-is me-14 muxls da adgili aqvs diskriminacias, diskriminatori valdebulia, amtkicos, rom diskriminacia gamarTlebuli iyo. es moiTxovs pozitiur arguments; Sefasebis Tavisuflebaze dayrdnoba ar iyo sakmarisi. amasTan, marTalia, kanonmdebels gaaCnia SedarebiT farTo Sefasebis Tavisufleba socialuri an ekonomikuri sakiTxebis gadawyvetisas, rogoricaa dasaxlebis politika, Sefasebis Tavisufleba iqneba bevrad ufro viwro, rodesac saqme Seexeba konstituciurad mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs. diskriminacias ki gaaCnia didi konstitiuciuri mniSvneloba. sasamarTlom agreTve daadgina, rom ar arsebobda am diskriminaciis marTlzomieri gamarTleba. Tu kanonmdeblis mizani iyo heteroseqsuali ojaxebis cxovrebis dacva, ar iyo misaRebi, rom am miznis miRweva xdeboda xelis SeSliT imaTTvis, visac ar SeeZlo an ar surda aseTi urTierTobis damyareba. mizani ar SeiZleba iyos binis mesakuTris interesebis dacva da sabinao bazarze moqnilobis xelSewyoba, vinaidan parlamentma gaavrcela sruli sakanonmdeblo dacva dauqorwinebel heteroseqsual partniorebze, romlebic qmnidnen ufro did jgufs, vidre homoseqsuali partniorebi. sasamarTlom agreTve uaryo mopasuxis miTiTebani evropuli sasamarTlosa (ECJ) da adamianis uflebebis evropuli sasamarTlos precedentul samarTalze. evrokavSiris samarTali ar krZalavs seqsualur diskriminacias iseT farglebSi, rogorc ECHR-is me-14 muxli. momCivnis mier miTiTebuli evropis sasamarTlos saqmeebi Seexeboda diskriminacias sqesis da ara seqsualuri orientaciis safuZvelze. vinaidan saqme Seexeboda adamianis uflebebis evropul konvencias, sasamarTlom konvencia unda ganixilos, rogorc cocxali dokumenti. 2002 wels seqsualuri

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orientacia iTvleboda diskriminaciis dauSvebel safuZvlad imave doneze, rogorc ECHR-is me-14 muxlis teqstiT gaTvaliswinebuli magaliTebi. gamoiyena ra 1998 wlis adamianis uflebebis aqtis me-3 muxlis implementaciis wesebi, rom SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi kanoni unda ganimartos adamianis uflebebis Sesaxeb evropuli konvenciis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlom daadgina _ qiravnobis Sesaxeb aqtis debulebebi unda ganimartos imgvarad, rom Seesabamebodes adamianis uflebebis evropul konvencias. gamomdinare aqedan, rodesac aqti iTvaliswinebs, rom "piri, romelic cxovrobda Tavdapirvel moqiravnesTan erTad, rogorc misi coli an qmari, CaiTvleba Tavdapirveli moqiravnis meuRled. es sityvebi unda ganimartos, rogorc: piri, romelic cxovrobda Tavdapirvel moqiravnesTan, TiTqos isini iyvnen coli da qmari".

avstria sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 21-06-2002 konstituciaSi araferi ewinaaRmdegeba imas, rom kanonmdeblis mizani iyo bavSvebisa da mozrdilebis dacva zogadad, aseve, naadrevi seqsualuri cxovrebisagan (miuxedavad misi heteroseqsualuri an homoseqsualuri xasiaTisa) da seqsualuri eqspluataciisagan. samarTlebrivi debuleba, romelic krZalavs seqsualur kavSirs 19 wlis zemoT mamakacsa da 14-18 wlis biWs Soris, aris TviTneburi xasiaTis da, Sesabamisad, arakonstituciuri. reziume: insburkis saapelacio umaRlesma sasamarTlom (Oberlandesgericht Innsbruck) waradgina meore gancxadeba sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi, raTa ganexila sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis (Strafgesetzbuch) §209, amtkicebda ra, rom es debuleba ewinaaRmdegeboda kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis princips da ECHR-is me-8 muxls. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis §209-is Tanaxmad, homoseqsualuri kavSiri axalgazrdebs Soris ar iyo dasjadi, sanam romelime ar miaRwevda 19 wlis asaks, ris Semdegac igi dasjadi xdeboda da kvlav gaTavisufldeboda sasjelisagan, rodesac meore partniori miaRwevda 18 wels. Sesabamisad, debuleba iTvaliswinebda kanonis winaSe araTanabar reJims individebisaTvis. garda amisa, saapelacio umaRlesi sasamarTlo acxadebda, rom sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis §209-is msgavsi debulebebi aRar xvdeboda erovnuli kanonmdeblobis Sefasebis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

Tavisuflebis sferoSi. Rirebulebebis Secvlam, romelsac adgili hqonda evropaSi ukanaskneli 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi, migviyvana homoseqsulizmis mimarT loialobamde, rac aisaxa adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis wevri saxelmwifoebis samarTlebrivi ganviTarebis zogierT standartSi. gaiziara ra aRniSnuli msjeloba (mosazreba) kanonis winaSe Tanaswori mopyrobasTan dakavSirebiT, sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom gansaxilveli debuleba iwvevs dasjad da dausjel homoseqsualur kontaqts mamrobiT mozard partniorebs Soris. homoseqsualuri kavSiri 19 wlis zemoT aRar iyo dasjadi; aseTi kontaqti ar iyo dasjadi, rodesac partniorebs Soris asakobrivi sxvaoba iyo 1 welze meti. seqsualuri kavSirebi ar iyo dasjadi maSinac, rodesac partniorebs Soris asakobrivi sxvaoba iyo weliwadnaxevari, magram dasjadi xdeboda, rodesac ufrosi aRwevda 19 wlis asaks. es kavSiri dasjadi aRar iyo maSinve, rodesac umcrosi partniori xdeboda 18 wlis. xangrZlivoba, rodesac aseTi kavSiri dasjadi iyo kanonis Sesabamisad (sami weli da 11 Tve), mTlianad damokidebuli iyo [partniorebs] Soris asakobriv gansxvavebaze. sasamarTlom gaumarTleblad miiCnia, rom sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 209-e muxli gamoiyeneboda homoseqsuali mamakaci partniorebis mimarT maSin, rodesac sxva dros es urTierToba ar iyo dasjadi. ra Tqma unda, kanonmdeblis mizani ar iyo, daesaja homoseqsuali partniorebi 14 wlis zemoT, aseve, partniorebi, romelTa Soris asakobrivi sxvaoba iyo 1 welze meti, magram 5 welze naklebi. Sesabamisad, kanonis winaSe araTanabar mdgomareobas iwvevda is, rom es urTierToba dasjadi xdeboda, rodesac ufrosi partniori miaRwevda 19 wlis asaks, sanam umcrosi ar gaxdeboda 18 wlis. sasamarTlom gaauqma es debuleba, Tumca, daawesa dro, romlis ganmavlobaSic igi unda Sesworebuliyo. damatebiTi informacia: es iyo sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis @§209-is mesame ganxilva. 1989 wels sasamarTlom uaryo saCivari, romelic amtkicebda, rom am debulebidan gamomdinare, gansxvaveba qal da mamakac homoseqsual partniorebs Soris arakonstituciuri iyo. 2001 wels sasamarTlom uaryo insburkis saapelacio umaRlesi sasamarTlos saCivari procedurul safuZvelze da daeyrdno 1989 (res iudicata) wels gamotanili gadawyvetilebis argumentebs. ar iyo aucilebeli, rom sasamarTlos epasuxa kiTxvaze, mocemuli debuleba agreTve ewinaaRmdegeboda Tu ara ECHR-is me-8 muxls. Tumca, am muxlTan dakavSirebuli ramdenime saqme adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos ganxilvis molodinSia.

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ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 13-03-1995 erTsa da imave sqesis pirebisaTvis qorwinebis ardaSveba ar warmoadgens negatiur diskriminacias sqesis safuZvelze. Tumca, ori piris xangrZlivma kavSirma SeiZleba warmoSvas iseTi Rirebulebebi, rom mas SeeZlos samarTlebrivi aRiarebis moTxovna. amitom is faqti, rom saTanado samarTlebrivi reglamentebi aRiarebs qorwinebis gareSe partniorobas mxolod maSin, rodesac qali da mamakaci cxovroben erTad saerTo binaSi da qmnian erTian emociur da ekonomiur kavSirs, ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias. reziume: momCivanma iTxova qorwinebis, ojaxisa da meurveobis Sesaxeb 1952 wlis kanonis 10.1 muxlis konstituciurobis ganxilva, romlis Sesabamisadac, "srulwlovan qalsa da mamakacs SeuZliaT daqorwineba." momCivanma agreTve iTxova 1959 wlis samoqalaqo kodeqsis im debulebebis gadaxedva, romlebic aregulirebda Tanamcxovrebi pirebis finansur damokidebulebas da gansazRvravda partniorebs saojaxo partniorobis miznebisaTvis, rogorc "kaci da qali, romlebic cxovroben erTad saerTo sacxovrebelSi da qmnian emociur da ekonomikur kavSirs qorwinebis gareSe". momCivnis azriT, gansaxilveli ori samarTlebrivi debuleba axdenda diskriminacias sqesis safuZvelze, vinaidan ar rTavda erTi sqesis adamianebs daqorwinebis nebas da ar aRiarebda maT ojaxur partniorobas. procesi sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daiwyo im ideiT, rom ungrul kulturasa da samarTalSi qorwineba tradiciulad aris mamakacisa da qalis kavSiri. qorwinebis cnebisaTvis ar aris savaldebulo moTxovna bavSvebis Casaxvisa da gaCenis SesaZlebloba, magram idea, rom partniorebi sxvadasxva sqesis warmomadgenlebi unda iyvnen, gamomdinareobs qorwinebis Tavdapirveli da tipiuri daniSnulebidan. konstitucia icavs qorwinebis instituts agreTve im faqtTan mimarTebiTac, rom igi xels uwyobs ojaxebis Seqmnas saerTo bavSvebiT. swored amitomaa, rom konstituciis me-15 muxli erTdroulad miuTiTebs dacvis or subieqtze: "ungreTis respublika icavs qorwinebisa da ojaxis institutebs." qalebisa da mamakacebis Tanasworobas azri aqvs mxolod maSin, Tu vaRiarebT qalsa da mamakacs Soris arsebul bunebriv gansxvavebas da Tanasworoba ganxorcieldeba amasTan mimarTebiT. konstitucia mxolod iTvaliswinebs sxvadasxva sqesis pirebis qorwinebis pirobebis Tanaswori regulirebis moTxovnas, rac gamoricxavs erTi sqesis pirebis qorwinebis samarTlebriv SesaZleblobas.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

zemoaRniSnulis analogiur safuZvelze, sakonstitucio sasamarTlo mivida daskvnamde, rom gasaCivrebuli debuleba ar iwvevs diskriminacias arc sqesisa da pirobebis safuZvelze da, Sesabamisad, ar arRvevs konstituciis 70/A muxls. gasaCivrebuli debulebebi ar SeiZleba davakavSiroT konstituciis 66.1 muxlTan; am debulebebs araferi aqvs saerTo qalisa da mamakacis TanasworobasTan. saojaxo uflebebis Sesaxeb kanonis debulebebi Tanabrad ukrZalavs qalebsa da kacebs maTive sqesis adamianebze daqorwinebas. rac Seexeba partniorobas qorwinebis gareT, erTaderTi samarTlebrivi ganmarteba mocemulia samoqalaqo kodeqsis 578/G muxlSi. am ganmartebis Sesabamisad, "partniorebi saojaxo partniorobaSi arian kaci da qali, romlebic cxovroben erTad saerTo sacxovrebelSi da qmnian emociur da ekonomikur kavSirs qorwinebis gareSe". faqtia, rom saojaxo partnioroba arsebobs qalsa da mamakacs Soris da sazogadoebrivi azris Tanaxmadac, aRniSnuli cneba ase ganimarteba. magram saojaxo partniorobis aRiarebas bevrad mokle istoria aqvs, vidre ojaxs. sasamarTlo praqtikaSi saojaxo partniorobis aRiareba daiwyes 1950-ian wlebSi da aseTi urTierTobebis inkorporireba mniSvnelovan samarTlebriv dokumentebSi moxda 1961-1977 wlebSi. erTi sqesis pirebis Tanacxovreba, rac Zalian hgavs saojaxo partniorobis partniorTa Tanacxovrebas da iTvaliswinebs saerTo sacxovrebels (meurneobas), agreTve, emociur, ekonomiur da seqsualur partniorobas da mesame pirebTan urTierTobis yvela aspeqtis erTad gaZRolas, moiTxovs (Tumca, naklebi xarisxiT) samarTlebrivi aRiarebas, rogorc es moxda 50-ian wlebSi saojaxo partniorobis aRiarebiT. partniorebis an naTesavebis seqsi SeiZleba mniSvnelovani iyos, rodesac saqme exeba saerTo bavSvs an sxva pirTan qorwinebas. Tumca, rodesac es mosazreba ar gamoiyeneba, saojaxo partniorobidan erTi sqesis pirebis gamoricxva, romlebic cxovroben erTad da qmnian erTian emociur da ekonomikur kavSirs, TviTneburia da, Sesabamisad, amcirebs adamianis Rirsebas. samoqalaqo kodeqsSi mocemulia saojaxo partniorebis samarTlebrivi ganmarteba. amis konstituciuroba ar SeiZleba ganisazRvros TavisTavad, aramed damokidebulia imaze, erTsa da imave situaciaSi myof pirebs Soris uflebebisa da movaleobebis ganawileba xdeba Tu ara imgvarad, rom adamianis Rirseba daculi iyos Tanabrad. es niSnavs pirebis Tanabar mopyrobas da maTi azris Sefasebas Tanabari sifrTxiliT, yuradRebiT da samarTlianad. kanonmdebels SeuZlia Seqmnas situacia, romelic Seesabameba konstitucias, Tumca, xelSeuxeblad datovos moqmedi saojaxo part-

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niorobis ganmarteba. amrigad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ar gamoitana gadawyvetileba samoqalaqo kodeqsis 578/G.1 muxlis konstituciurobis Sesaxeb, aramed amis nacvlad Sewyvita procesi 1996 wlis 1 martamde.

Sveicaria federaluri sasamarTlo sajaro samarTlis meore palata 25-08-2000 sxvadasxva erovnebis lesboseli wyvilis ufleba, ganaxorcielon maTi urTierToba SveicariaSi. ECHR-is me-8 muxli ECHR-is me-14 muxlTan erTad; federaluri konstituciis me-8, 13.1, me-14 da 36-e muxlebi (Tanaswori mopyroba, piradi cxovrebis dacva, daqorwinebis da ojaxis Seqmnis, ZiriTadi uflebebis SezRudvis safuZvlebi); ucxoelebis sacxovrebeli adgilisa da dasaxlebis Sesaxeb federaluri aqti (LSEE). erTi sqesis partniorebis Tanacxovreba ar aris qorwineba arc ECHR-is me-8 muxlis da arc federaluri kodeqsis 13.1 muxlis Sesabamisad. miuxedavad amisa, ucxoeli partniorebisaTvis sacxovrebelze uarma SeiZleba zogjer daarRvios piradi cxovreba imgvarad, rom SeizRudos kantonis xelisuflebis ufleba, miiRos gadawyvetileba LSEE-is me-4 muxlis Sesabamisad (recital 4c; precedentis Sesworeba). sasamarTlom ganixila ori momCivnis mier wardgenili saapelacio saCivari, romlebic cxovrobdnen erTad 6 wlis ganmavlobaSi da daadgina, rom nebarTvaze uaris Sedegad pirad cxovrebaSi Careva gamarTlebuli iyo ECHR-is me-8 muxlis da federaluri konstituciis 36-e muxlis Sesabamisad. reziume: 1994 wels axal zelandiaSi mogzaurobisas qalbatonma p-m (Sveicariis moqalaqe) gaicno qalbatoni s, axali zelandiisa da gaerTianebuli samefos moqalaqe. maTi Sexvedris Sedegi iyo homoseqsualuri urTierTobebis damyareba. 1995 wlis TebervalSi p. dabrunda SveicariaSi Cinuri masaJis swavlis dasamTavreblad da s. estumra mas 1995 wlis maisidan ivlisamde. swavlis damTavrebis Semdeg p. wavida qrisCercSi (axali zelandia) da cxovrobda s-sTan 20 Tvis ganmavlobaSi. profesiuli da piradi mizezebis gamo p. dabrunda SveicariaSi 1997 wlis aprilSi da daiwyo eqimad muSaoba. s. regularulad Camodioda SveicariaSi mis sanaxavad. 1998 wels ciurixis kantonis saimigracio samsaxurma uari uTxra s-s SveicariaSi Semosvlis nebarTvasa da cxovrebis nebarTvaze, rac mas saSualebas miscemda, ecxovra p-sTan momgebiani saqmianobis dawyebis gareSe.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

ciurixis kantonis saxelmwifo sabWo da administraciuli tribunali daeTanxmnen am gadawyvetilebas. administraciuli samarTlis saCivarSi p. da s. sTxovdnen federalur sasamarTlos kantonis gadawyvetilebebis gauqmebas da s-saTvis cxovrebis nebarTvis micemas. saCivari uaryves. samarTalwarmoebis Sesaxeb aqti ar iTvaliswinebs administraciuli samarTlis saCivars saimigracio kontrolis sferoSi, romlis uflebasac ar awesebs federaluri samarTali. ucxoelebis sacxovrebeli adgilisa da dasaxlebis Sesaxeb federaluri aqtis (LSEE) me-4 muxlis Sesabamisad, xelisufleba Tavisuflad gadawyvets sacxovreblis nebarTvis miniWebis sakiTxs kanonisa da sxva saxelmwifoebTan dadebuli xelSekrulebebis Tanaxmad. aqedan gamomdinare, aucilebeli iyo imis garkveva, ECHR-is me-8 muxli aniWebda Tu ara momCivnebs aseTi nebarTvis miRebis uflebas. ECHRis me-8 muxli da federaluri konstituciis me-13 muxli iTvaliswinebs yvelasaTvis piradi da ojaxuri cxovrebis pativiscemas. es debulebebi SeiZleba gamoiyenos ucxoelma SveicariasTan mimarTebiT, romelsac aqvs sacxovrebeli adgili da dasaxlebis ufleba. miuxedavad amisa, sasamarTlo praqtikis Tanaxmad, ECHR-is me-8 muxli ar gamoiyeneba erTi sqesis partniorebis mimarT. federalurma sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom homoseqsualuri wyvilebis mdgomareoba ukanasknel wlebSi Seicvala. Sesabamisad, aucilebeli iyo axali gamokvleva. maSin, rodesac termini "ojaxuri cxovreba" gamoiyeneba mxolod heteroseqsuali wyvilebis mimarT, termini "piradi cxovreba" moicavs im situaciebsac, rodesac erTi sqesis partniorebs surT erTad cxovreba. vinaidan es saqme Seexeboda lesboselebis wyvils, romelic, miuxedavad uamravi sirTulisa, ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi erTad cxovrobda, SveicariaSi cxovrebaze uari warmoadgenda maT pirad cxovrebaSi Carevas. ECHR-is me-8 muxlis da federaluri konstituciis me-13 muxli sacxovrebeli uflebis miniWebisas LSEE-s me-4 muxlis Sesabamisad zRudavda xelisuflebis moqmedebis Tavisuflebas da saWiroebda ECHR-is 8.2 muxlTan Sesabamisobis Seswavlas. sacxovreblis miniWebaze uars naTeli da sakmarisi safuZveli hqonda ucxoelebis sacxovrebeli adgilisa da dasaxlebis Sesaxeb federalur aqtSi. igi aris erT-erTi RonisZieba, raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli ucxoelTa araproporciuli zrda da SenarCundes Sveicariis mosaxleobisa da ucxoelebis balansirebuli proporcia. amasTan, igi aris ufro metad xelsayreli ucxoeli muSebisa da rezidentebis integraciisaTvis. proporciulobis sakiTxi ufro rTuli aRmoCnda. rasakvirvelia, SveicariaSi cxovreba momCivnebs sTavazobda bevr SesaZleblobas profesiuli da piradi

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kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba

mizezebisaTvis, magram miuxedavad CamoTvlili sirTuleebisa, maT mainc SesZles erTad cxovreba warsuli ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi. ar upasuxa ra mizanSewonilobis sakiTxs, federalurma sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom arsebiTi garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, sacxovrebel nebarTvaze uari Seesabameboda ECHR-is 8.2 muxls.

gaerTianebuli samefo saapelacio sasamarTlo 05-07-2002 saSinao saqmeebis saxelmwifo mdivani z-is winaaRmdeg i homoseqsualis gasaxleba im qveyanaSi, sadac iseTi seqsualuri cxovrebiT cxovreba, rogorc mas surda, socialuri da sakanonmdeblo zewolis qveS mouxdeboda, aucileblad ar warmoadgens homoseqsualis uflebis darRvevas ECHR-is me-3 da me-8 muxlebis Sesabamisad. es yovelive, saqmis faqtebis gaTvaliswinebiT, sasamarTlos gadasawyvetia. reziume: z-s homoseqsualuri urTierTobebi hqonda zimbabveSi. zimbabves kanonmdebloba homoseqsualizms kanongareSe acxadebs. igi Camovida gaerTianebul samefoSi. Sinagan saqmeTa mdivans surda misi gasaxleba. z-ma moiTxova TavSesafari. es Txovna uaryves. z amtkicebda, rom Sinagani saqmeebis mdivnis mier misi dabruneba daarRvevda mis uflebebs adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis Sesabamisad. es gaiziara imigraciis saapelacio tribunalma, romelmac ganacxada: adamianis uflebaTa evropulma sasamarTlom daadgina saCivarze #15070/89, Modinos v. Cyprus (modisoni kviprosis winaaRmdeg), rom TviT homoseqsualizmis amkrZalavi debulebebis arseboba arRvevda piris piradi cxovrebis uflebas maSinac ki, rodesac isini ar gamoiyeneboda. saapelacio sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom es iyo modisonis saqmis araswori ganmarteba. tribunals agreTve unda gamoekvlia, arsebobda Tu ara sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebis albaToba da ratom da ra pirobebSi SeeZlo zimbabves xelisuflebas sisxlis samarTlis saqmis aRZvra z-is piradi cxovrebis Sesaxeb. orive mxare cdilobda sasamarTlos darwmunebas, raTa saimigracio tribunalisaTvis zogadi xasiaTis mimarTuleba mieca. z. acxadebda, rom piris pirad seqsualur cxovrebaze nebismieri zewola warmoadgenda ECHR-is me-3 muxliT akrZalul qmedebas da rom z-is gasaxleba qveyanaSi, sadac mas ase moepyrobodnen, TavisTavad iyo zis uflebebis darRveva. adamianis uflebaTa evropulma sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom piris gancalkeveba ojaxisagan da misi gasaxleba sxva

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

qveyanaSi Cveulebriv ar Seicavs araadamianur an damamcirebel mopyrobas, romelic absoluturad akrZalulia. sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom Tu igi ar Seicavda damamcirebel an araadamianur mopyrobas, maSin homoseqsuali partnioris dacileba partniorisagan ar iqneboda araadamianuri an damamcirebeli mopyroba. sasamarTlom ar miiCnia, rom daniSnulebis saxelmwifoSi mxolod im kanonebis arseboba, romlebic krZalavda seqsualuri urTierTobis konkretul saxeobas mozrdilebs Soris, TavisTavad iwvevda gamsaxlebeli saxelmwifos mier ECHR-is me-3 muxlis darRvevas, Tu es saxelmwifo apirebda im piris gasaxleba, visac surda seqsualuri moTxovnilebis dakmayofileba akrZaluli formiT. z-ma gaakeTa alternatiuli gancxadeba ECHR-is me-8 muxlis Tanaxmad. man ganacxada, rom nebismieri gancxadeba, romelic arTmevda vinmes normaluri cxovrebis uflebas mis seqsualur arCevanTan mimarTebiT, arRvevda mis Rirsebas da praqtikulad ar SeiZleboda gamarTlebuliyo. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom vinaidan ECHR-is me-3 muxlis Sesabamisad, saxelmwifo mosazrebebis gamo gasaxleba ar iyo (an Zalian iSviaTad iyo) gamarTlebuli, msgavsi Sinaarsis saCivris ganxilva umjobesi iqneboda ECHR-is me-3 muxlis konteqstSi. aSkarad igulisxmeboda, rom ECHR-is me-8 muxli Seicavda ECHR-is 8.2 muxlis mosazrebebs. iseTi saqmeebis qvejgufis Seqmna, sadac ECHR-is 8.2 muxli gamoiyeneboda, ar iyo saukeTeso saSualeba daniSnulebis qveyanaSi ECHR-is me-8 muxlis saSineli darRvevebis gadasaWrelad. Sinagan saqmeTa mdivanma ganacxada, rom nebismieri gasaxlebis Sedegi sakmarisi ar iqneba imisaTvis, rom gamsaxlebeli saxelmwifos pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi daayenos. sasamarTlom uaryo es mosazreba da ganacxada, rom yvela mizezobrivi kavSiri da adamianis uflebebis sakiTxi yovelTvis mgrZnobiare iyo da araswori iqneboda saqmeze abstraqtuli gadawyvetilebis gamotana. aseve, sasamarTlom uaryo zis gancxadeba, rom araviTar saimigracio politikis mosazrebas ar SeeZlo piris gasaxlebis gamarTleba iseT qveyanaSi, sadac misi seqsualuri cxovrebis gamoxatuleba zrdasrul partniorTan piradi cxovrebisas kanongareSe iqneboda. sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom es rTuli sfero iyo. mas mxedvelobaSi hqonda saxelmwifoebi, romlebmac miiRes kanonebi da akrZales ojaxis Seqmna an ojaxis dafinanseba, Tu erTze meti Svili hyavdaT, magaliTad, kanonebi, romlebic krZalavs qorwinebas sxvadasxva rasis pirebs Soris an kanonebi, romlebic Zalian araxelsayrel mdgomareobaSi ayenebs maT, visac erTze meti Svili hyavT. sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom samarTali unda ganviTardes precedentul samarTalze dayrdnobiT da konkretuli saqmis faqtebis gaTvaliswinebiT da ara abstraqtulad wesebze miTiTebiT.

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Tanasworoba moqalaqeobis niSniT

avstria sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 19-06-2000 federalur kanonmdebels udavod SeuZlia daadginos asakobrivi zRvari, romelic umravlesobis asakze naklebia, rodesac adgens mesame saxelmwifoebis moqalaqeebis uflebas ojaxis [qveyanaSi] Semoyvanis Sesaxeb. Tumca, kanoni, romelic iTvaliswinebs ojaxis Semoyvanis uflebas mxolod meuRleebisTvis da 14 wlis qvemoT asakis mcirewlovani bavSvebisaTvis, ar SeiZleba obieqturad gamarTlebulad CaiTvalos da, Sesabamisad, arRvevs Tanaswori mopyrobis princips ucxoelebs Soris. reziume: TurqeTis moqalaqes, romelic iyo 14 wlis da erTi Tvis, uari uTxres sacxovreblis dadgenaze, erTi mxriv, ucxoelTa Sesaxeb aqtis (Fremdengesetz) §21.3-Si dadgenili asakobrivi zRvris gamo da, meore mxriv imitom, rom mas ar SeeZlo saarsebo minimumis mopoveba. man Seitana saCivari sasamarTloSi gamoyenebuli kanonis arakonstituciurobis Sesaxeb da misi warmomadgeneli iyo mama. sasamarTlom daiwyo ex officio ganxilva da miiCnia, rom gasaCivrebuli kanoni warmoadgenda araTanabar mopyrobas 14 wlamde da mis zemoT arasrulwlovanTa mimarT da misi obieqturi gamarTleba ar SeiZleboda. federaluri mTavroba icavda asakobriv zRvars da amtkicebda, rom mcirewlovnebs 14 wlis zemoT, 14 wlis qvemoT arasrulwlovnebisagan gansxvavebiT, aqvT sxva perspeqtiva avstriaSi Sesvlisas. aseTi arasrulwlovnebi, Cveulebriv, avstriaSi modian samuSaod. amrigad, aseTi jgufi naklebad aris damokidebuli mSoblebze da, Sesabamisad, ojaxuri kavSirebic SedarebiT naklebad mWidroa. mTavrobam daaskvna, rom mSoblebs, romelTac surT ojaxis erTianoba, Svilebi unda Camoiyvanon SeZlebisdagvarad adre da ar elodon, sanam maTi Svili 14 wlis gaxdeba. sasamarTlo ar daeTanxma mTavrobis mosazrebas da ganacxada, rom arasrulwlovnebi 14 wlis zemoT kvlav mSoblebze arian damokidebulni. maT, rogorc wesi, ar SeuZliaT saarsebo minimumis gamomuSaveba da arc damoukidebelni arian. mTavrobam daadgina, rom sxva samarTlebrivi wesebic ewinaaRmdegeboda mTavrobis mosazrebas. skolaSi savaldebulo daswrebis Sesaxeb kanonis (Schulpflichtgesetz 1985) Tanaxmad, zogadsavaldebulo skolaSi daswreba iwyeba 1 seqtembers mas Semdeg, rac mcirewlovani miaRwevs 6 wlis asaks da grZeldeba 9 wlis ganmavlobaSi. mcirewlovanTa da bavSvebis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

dasaqmebis Sesaxeb samarTlebrivi wesebi (Bundesgesetz über die Beschäftigung von Kindern und Jugendlichen 1987) ar rTavs nebas (mxolod mcire gamonaklisebiT), rom bavSvebs miscen nebismieri saxis samuSao. es wesebi Seexeba 15 wlamde asakis bavSvebs. vinaidan kanoni iTvaliswinebda ucxoelebis araTanabar mopyrobas, sasamarTlom igi gaauqma. gauqmebis ZalaSi Sesvla gadaido naxevari wliT.

avstria sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 11-03-1998 sagangebo daxmarebaze ufleba dakavSirebulia umuSevarTa dazRvevis fondSi Senatanebze. sagangebo daxmareba aris ECHR-is pirveli oqmis pirveli muxlis miznebisaTvis materialuri ufleba. umuSevrobis dazRvevis aqtis Sesabamisi debulebebi, romlebic iTvaliswinebs gansxvavebul reJims avstriis moqalaqeebisa (zogierTi aramoqalaqis CaTvliT) da araavstrielebis jgufisaTvis sagangebo daxmarebis uflebasTan mimarTebiT, ar emyareba obieqtur da marTlzomier safuZvels. Sesabamisad, es debulebebi diskriminaciulia da ewinaaRmdegeba ECHR-is me-14 muxls ECHR-is pirveli oqmis pirvel muxlTan erTad. umuSevrobis dazRvevis aqtis (Arbeitslosenversicherungsgesetz) 33-e muxli iTvaliswinebs sagangebo daxmarebas pirebisaTvis, romlebmac amowures umuSevrobis daxmareba an dekretuli daxmarebebi. 33.2.a muxli sxva sakanonmdeblo pirobebTan erTad iTvaliswinebs, rom sagangebo daxmarebis misaRebad piri unda iyos avstriis moqalaqe. 34.3 muxlSi CamoTvlili iyo ucxoelTa is jgufebi, romlebzec vrceldeboda avstrielebis msgavsi reJimi; 34.4 muxli iTvaliswinebda sagangebo daxmarebas ucxoelTa sxva jgufebisaTvis mxolod erTxel 52 kviris ganmavlobaSi. maTi sagangebo daxmareba SezRuduli iyo, Tumca, es jgufi ixdida Senatanebs umuSevarTa fondSi avstriis moqalaqeebis msgavsad. aseTi gansxvaveba arakonstituciuri iyo ECHR-is me-14 muxlis Sesabamisad, romelic moiTxovda, rom konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebiT da TavisuflebebiT sargebloba unda iyos aradiskriminaciuli xasiaTis. vinaidan ECHRis me-14 muxls ar gaaCnia damoukidebeli arseboba (aramed avsebs konvenciis da oqmebis sxva materialur debulebebs), gansaxilveli debulebebi unda moxvdes erTi an meti debulebebis farglebSi. uaryo ra mTavrobis mosazreba, rom sagangebo daxmareba ar unda CaiTvalos sadazRvevo daxmarebad (aramed, es aris mTavrobis mier

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gaWirvebaSi myofi pirebis daxmareba), sasamarTlom daadgina Semdegi: aSkaraa, rom sagangebo daxmareba Seicavs saqvelmoqmedo fondebis xarjze daxmarebis komponentebs. magram masze ufleba warmoiSoba umuSevrobis fondSi SenatanebiT. umuSevrobis dazRveviT garantirebuli daxmarebebi ifareba ZiriTadad am SenatanebiT. amrigad, sagangebo daxmareba xvdeba ECHR-is pirveli oqmis pirveli muxlis farglebSi. aqedan gamomdinare, am SemTxvevaSi gamoiyeneba ECHR-is me-14 muxli ECHR-is pirveli oqmis pirveli muxlTan erTad. gadauxvia ra Tavisive precedentul samarTlidan, sakonstitucio sasamarTlo daeTanxma adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos mosazrebas (ix. Gaygusuz v. Austria - gaugusus avstriis winaaRmdeg; 1996 wlis 16 seqtembris gadawyvetileba, Reports of Judgments and Decisions 1996-IV), rom sagangebo daxmareba aris materialuri ufleba ECHR-is pirveli oqmis pirveli muxlis Sesabamisad. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precedentuli samarTlis Sesabamisad, gansxvavebuli reJimi diskriminaciulia ECHR-is me-14 muxlis miznebisaTvis, Tu mas ar gaaCnia "obieqturi da marTlzomieri gamarTleba", rac niSnavs, rom ar arsebobs "proporciulobis marTlzomieri urTierToba gamoyenebul saSualebebsa da misaRwev mizans Soris." sakonstitucio sasamarTlos ar SeuZlia monaxos gansxvavebuli reJimebis gamoyenebis gamarTleba. Sesabamisad, man gaauqma debulebebi araTanabari reJimis Sesaxeb. vinaidan debulebebis arakonstituciuroba efuZneba konvenciis darRvevas, sasamarTlom uari Tqva, daedgina vada maTi gauqmebisaTvis. damatebiTi informacia: saqmeze _ ~gaugusus avstriis winaaRmdeg~ _ adamianis uflebebis evropuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebasTan dakavSirebiT, avstriis kanonmdeblebma ukve moamzades umuSevrobis dazRvevis aqtSi cvlilebebis proeqti. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mier zemoaRniSnuli debulebebis gauqmebam aiZula kanonmdeblebi, ganexorcielebinaT proeqti ufro adre, vidre igegmeboda.

avstria sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 29-06-1995 Tanasworobis principi, romelic savaldebuloa sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebisaTvis, moicavs ucxoelebs Soris diskriminaciis srul akrZalvas; samarTalma SeiZleba gaiTvaliswinos gansxvavebuli reJimi sxvadasxva SemTxvevebSi mxolod maSin, Tu es gansxvaveba gamarTlebulia da saTanado.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

reziume: avstriaSi arsebul sakonstitucio sivrceSi kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis ufleba daculia yvela moqalaqisaTvis (1867 wlis 21 dekembris ZiriTadi kanoni moqalaqeebis zogadi uflebebis Sesaxeb da 1929 wlis konstitucia). 1973 wels rasobrivi diskriminaciis yvela formis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb konvenciis Sesabamisad, gamoica kanoni, romelsac konstituciis Tanabari Zala aqvs. sasamarTlos azriT, aRniSnuli aqti federaluri konstituciis regulirebis wesebTan mimarTebiT, savaldebulod miiCnevs, rom ucxoelebis mimarT kanoni iTvaliswinebdes Tanabar mopyrobas. aqedan gamomdinare, kanoni SeiZleba iTvaliswinebdes, rom saimigracio politikam daadginos sacxovrebeli nebarTvebis zRvari wlis ganmavlobaSi. konstituciis Sesabamisad, sacxovrebeli nebarTvis gacemaze uaris Sesaxeb administraciuli gadawyvetilebis sabolooba imis safuZvelze, rom dadgenili kvota ukve Sevsebuli iyo, SeiZleba Seexebodes situacias gadawyvetilebis dros. mocemul SemTxvevaSi, ucxoelma moqalaqem Seitana saCivari administraciuli gadawyvetilebis winaaRmdeg, romelmac uari uTxra sacxovrebel nebarTvaze kvotis Sevsebis mizeziT. ucxoeli amtkicebda, rom misi konstituciuri ufleba dairRva arakonstituciuri kanonis da ukanono reglamentis gamoyenebiT. sasamarTlom uaryo gancxadeba subsidiis miRebis Taobaze.

CexeTis respublika sakonstitucio sasamarTlo mesame palata 06-06-2002 mxolod is faqti, rom piri ucxoeTis moqalaqea, ar aris sakmarisi mis dasakaveblad. es faqti qmnis abstraqtul, potenciur, Tumca, ara specifikur safrTxes, rasac adasturebs SemTxvevebi, romelTa aRmofxvra SesaZlebelia piris zedamxedvelobis qveS ayvanis Semdeg. sakonstitucio saCivarSi momCivani asaCivrebda saboloo gadawyvetilebas dakavebis Sesaxeb da acxadebda, rom igi arRvevda mis ZiriTad uflebebs. Tavis gadawyvetilebaSi regionulma sasamarTlom ganixila gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebis mizezebi. momCivani braldebuli iyo miTvisebaSi. prokuroris Txovnis safuZvelze, raionuli sasamarTlos mosamarTlem gadawyvita, braldebulisaTvis preventiuli da aRmkveTi RonisZiebis Sefardeba. momCivanma gaasaCivra es gadawyvetileba. saapelacio sasamarTlos Sesabamisad, ar arsebobda dakavebis gamamarTlebeli

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faqtebi. Tumca, momCivani germaniis moqalaqe iyo da preventiuli dakavebis mizezebi sakmarisad miiCnies. gaTavisuflebis Sesaxeb ramdenime warumatebeli gancxadebis Semdeg momCivani gaaTavisufles TavdebiT. saapelacio sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, dakavebis safuZveli kvlav arsebobs. konstituciuri sarCeli marTlzomierad miiCnies. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo uflebamosilia Caerios Cveulebrivi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi dakavebis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, Tu Cveulebrivi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba dakavebis Sesaxeb ar efuZneba samarTlebriv msjelobas an piris dakavebis safuZvlebi ukiduresad ewinaaRmdegeba respublikis konstituciur wesrigs an saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebs konstituciis me-10 muxlis Sesabamisad (III. US 18/96, file 6). momCivnis winaswari dakavebis Sefardebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebas mxars uWerda zogadi (braldebuli piri ucxoeli iyo da ar hqonda mudmivi misamarTi CexeTis respublikaSi) da hipoTeturi xasiaTis (mas, savaraudod, hqonda ojaxuri kavSirebi sazRvargareT) faqtebi. zemoaRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom momCivans SeeZlo samarTlebrivad daetovebina CexeTis respublika. es daskvnebi zogadia, arakonkretuli da, Sesabamisad, dakavebisaTvis arasakmaris safuZvels warmoadgenen. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom manamde ganmarta, rom "proceduruli TvalsazrisiT, sajaro xelisuflebis gadawyvetilebebis saTanado da amomwuravi gamarTlebis moTxovna aris erT-erTi arsebiTi piroba, romlis Sesrulebac aucilebelia, raTa gadawyvetileba konstitucias Seesabamebodes" (I. US 303/01, jer ar gamoqveynebula). sakonstitucio sasamarTlos azriT, momCivnis saqmeSi mocemuli mizezebi ar iyo sakmarisi. aucilebelia gansakuTrebul safrTxeze miTiTeba faqtebze dayrdnobiT (II. US 347/96, file 9). is faqti, rom momCivans nebismier wuTs SeeZlo CexeTis respublikis datoveba, ar warmoadgenda sakmaris mizezs momCivnisaTvis aRmkveTi zedamxedvelobis SefardebisaTvis. konstitucia icavs gadaadgilebis Tavisuflebas da, am uflebis gamo, piris zedamxedvelobaSi ayvanis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis safuZvlebi ar SeiZleba nagulisxmevad miiCnion damatebiTi mtkicebulebis gareSe (I. US 645/99, file 18). gasaCivrebul gadawyvetilebaSi moyvanili mizezebi ar efuZneboda faqtebs, romlebic konstituciurad gaamarTlebda momCivnis dakavebas, xolo Cveulebrivi sasamarTlos prezumfcia ar akmayofilebda dakavebis safuZvlebze miTiTebis aucileblobis moTxovnas (III. US 188/96, file 16). am daskvnisaTvis mniSvnelovani ar iyo raionuli sasamarTlos gancxadeba, rom gadawyvetileba momCivnis dakavebis Sesaxeb miiRo gamoZiebis sawyis etapze. aseTma gadawyvetilebam ar SeiZleba

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Secvalos faqtebi, romlebic qmnian preventiuli dakavebis safuZvels. am mosazrebis gamoyeneba gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos daskvnebisagan gansxvavebiT, saapelacio sasamarTlo miiCnevs, rom dakavebis mizezebi ar arsebobda.

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 29-11-2001 miuxedavad imisa, rom Sekrebis Tavisufleba aris erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi samoqalaqo Tavisufleba, igi SeuzRudavi araa. ra Tqma unda, misi SezRudva SesaZlebelia sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. Sekrebis Tavisuflebis uflebis Sesaxeb aqtis debulebebi, romlebic, agreTve, aregulirebs mSvidobian Sekrebebs da iTvaliswinebs, rom Sekrebis organizatori SeiZleba iyos mxolod ungreTis moqalaqe an visac gaaCnia sacxovrebeli adgili an dasaxlebis ufleba ungreTSi da moiTxovs, rom organizatorebma dagegmili Sexvedris (mitingis) Sesaxeb acnobon [uflebamosil pirebs], ar arRveven Sekrebis Tavisuflebis konstituciur uflebas. momCivnebma iTxoves Sekrebis Tavisuflebis uflebis Sesaxeb aqtis debulebebis konstituciurobis ganxilva. pirveli, isini amtkicebdnen, rom aqti agreTve moicavs mSvidobian Sekrebebsac da, Sesabamisad, policias SeuZlia borotad gamoiyenos Sekrebebis akrZalvis da daSlis uflebamosileba. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom Tu policia gaumarTleblad akrZalavs an daSlis Sekrebas, dazaralebul pirs gaaCnia ufleba, moiTxovos policiis mier xelisuflebis borotad gamoyenebisagan dacvis saSualeba. meore, momCivnebi agreTve asaCivrebdnen aqtis debulebebs, romelTa Tanaxmadac, Sekrebis Tavisuflebam ar unda daarRvios sxva adamianebis uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi. momCivanTa azriT, es debuleba metismetad bundovania, raTa SezRudos iseTi mniSvnelovani ZiriTadi ufleba, rogoricaa Sekrebis Tavisufleba; Sesabamisad, arRvevda samarTlebrivi garkveulobis princips. sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom arsebobs mTeli rigi samarTlebrivi debulebebisa, romlebic unda gamoiyenon xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebma ZiriTadi adamianis uflebebis SezRudvisas. erT-erTi aseTi debulebaa konstituciis 8..2 muxli, romlis Sesabamisadac, wesebi ZiriTadi uflebebis da valdebulebebis Sesaxeb unda ganisazRvros kanoniT, romelsac ar SeuZlia SezRudos uflebis

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arsebiTi Sinaarsi. garda amisa, aRiniSna, rom am saqmeSi policiam unda Seasrulos sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebi, rodesac ganixilavs Sekrebis akrZalvis an daSlis sakiTxs sxva pirebis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT. Sekrebis Tavisuflebis uflebis Sesaxeb kanonis kidev erTi gasaCivrebuli debuleba iyo me-5 muxli, romlis Tanaxmadac, Sekrebis organizatori SeiZleba iyos mxolod ungreTis moqalaqe an visac gaaCnia sacxovrebeli adgili an dasaxlebis ufleba ungreTSi. momCivnebs gaumarTleblad miaCniaT, rom aqti ucxoelebs, sacxovrebeli an dasaxlebis nebarTvis gareSe, ukrZalavs Sekrebis organizebas ungreTSi. Tumca, sasamarTlom gansaxilveli debuleba ar miiCnia arakonstituciurad. sasamarTlos azriT, am gansxvavebis mizani is iyo, rom Sekrebis organizeba moexdina pirs, romelmac icis ungreTis samarTlebrivi sistema da wesebi mSvidobiani demonstraciebis Sesaxeb, agreTve, vinc SeiZleba pasuxismgebeli yofiliyo Sekrebis dros damdgar zianze. dabolos, momCivnebma gaumarTleblad miiCnies, rom aqti moiTxovs dagegmili mitingis Sesaxeb winaswari cnobis wardgenas, vinaidan aseTi gziT kanonmdebeli krZalavs spontanur Sekrebebs. sasamarTlom daikava pozicia, rom aqti moiTxovs Ria cis qveS, sazogadoebriv adgilebSi dagegmili Sexvedrebis Sesaxeb moxsenebis gakeTebas. amis mizezi isaa, rom mSvidobiani Sekrebis uflebis ganxorcieleba dakavSirebulia sxva ZiriTad uflebasTan ­ gadaadgilebis TavisuflebasTan (konstituciis 58-e muxli). Sekrebis Tavisuflebis uflebis ganxorcielebis ZiriTadi adgilia quCebi, moednebi da a.S. dagegmili mitingis TariRisa da adgilis policiisaTvis moxseneba aucilebelia, raTa xelisuflebam icodes, rom viRac gegmavs Sekrebis Catarebas Ria cis qveS sazogadoebriv adgilas. rac Seexeba momCivanTa arguments, rom Setyobinebis gareSe Sekrebis Catarebis akrZalva ar aris Sekrebis uflebis proporciuli SezRudva, sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom dagegmili Sekrebis Sesaxeb Seutyobinebloba SeiZleba warmoadgendes gaufrTxileblobas, magram, agreTve, SeiZleba iyos Sekrebis uflebis borotad gamoyenebis pirveli nabiji. dagegmili Sekrebis Sesaxeb informirebis gareSe xelisuflebas ar SeuZlia ganixilos, dagegmili Sekreba arasaTanadod daarRvevs Tu ara transportis moZraobas an sasamarTloebisa da parlamentis saqmianobas Seuqmnis Tu ara seriozul safrTxes. Tu SesaZlebelia Sekrebis Catareba sxva adgilas da sxva dros da ara iq, sadac dagegmilia, Setyobineba usargebloa. garda amisa, sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom policiis uflebamosileba, daSalos Sekreba, romlis Sesaxebac Setyobineba ar gakeTebula, ar niSnavs, rom policia yovelTvis gamoiyenebs am uflebas.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

erTma mosamarTlem, romelsac sami mosamarTlec daeTanxma, gamosca gansxvavebuli mosazreba, romlis Tanaxmad, Sekrebis Tavisufleba adamianis da ara mxolod moqalaqis uflebaa. amitom am aqtis me-5 muxli, romelic iTvaliswinebs, rom mxolod ungreTis moqalaqesa da mas, visac aqvs cxovrebis an dasaxlebis nebarTva, SeuZlia Sekrebis organizeba ungreTSi, arRvevs Sekrebis ZiriTad uflebas. gansxvavebuli mosazreba xazs usvams, rom "Sekrebis" cneba, romelsac iyenebs aqti, Zalian bundovania da, amitom SesaZlebelia policiam gamoiyenos Zala saamisod sakmarisi mizezis ararsebobis drosac. mosamarTle kurokelim gansxvavebul mosazrebaSi aRniSna, rom ar arsebobs konfliqti Sekrebis Tavisuflebasa da gadaadgilebis Tavisuflebas Soris. es ukanaskneli ar niSnavs, rom sajaro mitingis monawileebs ufleba aqvT, gamoiyenon konkretuli marSruti. Sekrebis Tavisufleba xandaxan ewinaaRmdegeba Seuferxebeli transportirebis interesebs. mosamarTle kurokelim uaryo, rom Semdgomi samarTlebrivi dacvis saSualeba sakmarisia policiis mier Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebis winaaRmdeg. rodesac ganixilaven, ZaliT daSalon Tu ara Sekreba, policiam mxedvelobaSi unda miiRos is, arRvevs Tu ara Sekreba sxvaTa uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs an warmoadgens Tu ara igi aseTi uflebebis darRvevis naTel da arsebul safrTxes. policiam ar unda gamoiyenos Zala, sanam ar Seecdeba monawileebis darwmunebas, rom daasrulon Sekreba. es mniSvnelovania, vinaidan Sekrebis Tavisufleba adamianis TviTgamoxatvis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani uflebaa.

lixtenSteini saxelmwifo sabWo 25-10-2000 maSin, rodesac aRar arsebobs samarTlebrivad daculi interesi at stake, sakonstitucio saCivris wardgenis mizezic aRar aris. erTaderTi gamonaklisi am wesidan aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac sakonstitucio sasamarTlos SeuZlia ganixilos saCivari ZiriTad Tavisuflebebze dayrdnobiT mxolod maSin, rodesac samarTlebrivad daculi interesi aRar arsebobs. moqmedi samarTlebrivad daculi interesis wesidan gamonaklisis nebis darTvisas, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos SeuZlia Seasrulos "konstituciuri gzamkvlevis" funqciebi. amitom sazogadoebis interesebSia, rom sasamarTlom ganixilos faqtebi, romlebic exeba ZiriTadi Tavisuflebebis savaraudo darRvevas maSinac ki, Tu

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momCivans aRar gaaCnia gansakuTrebuli, samarTlebrivad daculi interesi at stake. saCivrebi, romlebic Seexeba ltolvilTa bavSvebs, romlebic ekuTvnian sxva kulturul da enobriv jgufebs, epyrobian araTanabrad Cveulebriv saganmanaTleblo sistemaSi integrirebasTan mimarTebiT, SesaZlebelia, rom saxelmwifo sasamarTlom arasdros gamoitanos gadawyvetileba aseTi araTanabari mopyrobis konstituciurobaze, vinaidan sanam igi ase moiqceva, msxverpli an datovebs qveyanas, an moxdeba misi integrireba Cveulebriv klasSi. ECHR-is pirveli oqmis me-2 muxlis Sesabamisad, ganaTlebis ufleba ar niSnavs, rom bavSvi uflebamosilia adgilze konkretul saxelmwifo skolaSi. udavo obieqturi mizezebis gamo ltolvilma bavSvebma sxva bavSvebis msgavsad, romlebic saubroben sxva enaze, unda miiRon specialuri ganaTleba imis uzrunvelsayofad, rom isini daeuflon germanul enas sakmarisad kargad, raTa Seewyon Cveulebriv ganaTlebas. erT welze xangrZlivi specialuri ganaTleba xalxisaTvis, romlebic saWiroeben daxmarebas, ar arRvevs ECHR-is pirveli oqmis me-2 muxlis Sesabamisad ganaTlebis uflebas. Tu ltolvilebi darwmunebulni arian, rom TavianT qveyanaSi male dabrundebian, aseT SemTxvevaSi specialuri ganaTleba, romelic grZeldeba ufro did xans ltolvilTa bavSvebisaTvis, vidre sxva, ucxo enaze mosaubre bavSvebisaTvis, CaiTvleba prima facie diskriminaciulad, vinaidan, Tu maT SeuZliaT saxlSi dabruneba uaxloes momavalSi, arsebobs uamravi obieqturi mizezi maTTvis specialuri ganaTlebis gagrZelebisaTvis ufro xangrZlivi periodiT da Cveulebriv saganmanaTleblo sistemaSi ramdenime TviT an kviriT integrirebis gareSe. Praeter legem reglamentebi (reglamentebi im sferoebis Sesaxeb, romlebic srulad araa regulirebuli kanoniT) Seesabameba konstitucias erTi pirobiT, rom isini ar aris ZiriTadi, mniSvnelovani, arsebiTi da winaaRmdegobrivi. praeter legem administraciul praqtikas (romelic Sedgeba daculi kosovodan ltolvilTa bavSvebis ganaTlebisagan specialur klasebSi ufro didi xniT, vidre es aucilebelia maTi integrirebisaTvis Cveulebriv saSualo ganaTlebis sistemaSi) ar aqvs samarTlebrivi safuZveli. igi Seexeba mgrZnobiare da winaaRmdegobis albaTobis mqone sferos. amitom igi arakonstituciuria. reziume: ltolvili mSoblebis Svils uari uTxres Cveulebriv adgilobriv dawyebiT skolaSi Sesvlaze. skolaSi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb reglamentis Tanaxmad, imigrantma bavSvebma, romlebmac sakmarisad kargad ar ician

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

germanuli ena, unda gaiaron specialuri intensiuri kursi ara umetes erTi wlisa. ltolvilTa Sesaxeb aqtis Tanaxmad, saganmanaTleblo institutebma Seqmnes aseTi intensiuri kursebi, rogorc kosovodan ltolvili bavSvebis droebiTi dacvis saSualeba, Tumca, ar Seasrules maqsimum erTwliani periodis moTxovna. marTalia, momCivans misces adgili saSualo skolaSi, saxelmwifo sasamarTlom gamoitana gadawyvetileba saqmeze da momCivans darTo gasaCivrebis neba, magram gaauqma gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba imis safuZvelze, rom igi ar efuZneboda (emyareboda) kanons.

poloneTi sakonstitucio tribunali 19-05-2003 ucxoelTa Sesaxeb aqtis debuleba, romelic iTvaliswinebs ufro xelsayrel pirobebs im ucxoelTa dasaxlebis Sesaxeb, romlebic poloneTSi modian ojaxTan SesaerTeblad, aseve, [poloneTSi] yofnis SedarebiT mokle periods, romlis Semdegac, pirs SeuZlia cxovrebis uflebis Sesaxeb gancxadebis wardgena, ar ewinaaRmdegeba Tanasworobisa da socialuri samarTlianobis konstituciur principebs. debuleba, romelic iTvaliswinebs mxolod ucxoelisaTvis gancxadebis wardgenis uflebas ojaxis gaerTianebis mizniT da poloneTis moqalaqes ar aZlevs aseT uflebas, qmnis polonur-ucxouri ojaxisaTvis samarTlebriv reJims, romelic naklebad xelsayrelia, vidre ucxoeli ojaxebisaTvis. amitom, debuleba ar Seesabameba ojaxis dacvis konstituciur princips. kanonmdebels Tavisuflad SeuZlia kanonis sasazRvro moZraobasTan dakavSirebul cvlilebebTan SesabamisobaSi moyvana da Secvla. Sesabamisad, mas SeuZlia SezRudos an Secvalos debulebebi poloneTSi sacxovrebel nebarTvasTan dakavSirebiT. tribunalma Seiswavla ombudsmenis mier wardgenili saCivari. ojaxis dacvis konstituciuri principisa da saxelmwifos politikis gaTvaliswinebiT, kanonmdebels SeuZlia mianiWos ufro xelsayreli uflebebi ucxoelTa kategorias, romelic poloneTSi modis ojaxTan SeerTebis mizniT. gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi, kanonmdeblis mier Camoyalibebuli gansxvaveba e.i. ojaxis gaerTianeba, Seesabameba gansxvavebis standartebs da konstituciurad gamarTlebulia. ojaxis gaerTianebis idea xels uwyobs pirobebs, romlebic ganapirobeben erTiani ojaxis arsebobas poloneTis teritoriaze.

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gancxadebis wardgenis ufleba unda SeeZloT ucxoelebs da poloneTis moqalaqeebs, rac Seesabameba sakanonmdeblo moTxovnebs. ucxoelTa Sesaxeb aqtis debuleba, romelic poloneTis moqalaqeebs ar aZlevs uflebas, waradginon gancxadeba ucxoelisaTvis poloneTSi dasaxlebis nebarTvis Sesaxeb ojaxis gaerTianebis mizniT, ewinaaRmdegeba Tanaswori mopyrobis konstituciur princips. ucxoelTa Sesaxeb aqtis debuleba, romelic iTvaliswinebs naklebad xelsayrel pirobebs, vidre amas iTvaliswinebda aqti Sesworebebis Setanamde sacxovrebeli nebarTvis misaRebad, Seesabameba moqalaqis saxelmwifosadmi ndobis princips da saxelmwifos mier miRebul samarTals. kanonis uzenaesobis morCili demokratiuli saxelmwifos principi akisrebs kanonmdebels valdebulebas, gansazRvros saTanado vacatio legis, gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac awesebs ufro mkacr moTxovnebs poloneTSi sacxovrebeli nebarTvis misaRebad. gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi, Sesagueblad dawesebuli Svidkviriani periodi, gardamaval debulebebTan erTad, saSualebas aZlevda dainteresebul mxareebs, daecvaT maTi interesebi da uflebebi, romlebic maT wina debulebebis safuZvelze SeiZines.

sicocxlis ufleba

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 28-04-2003 evTanaziis SemTxvevaSi, piradi Rirsebis ufleba ar warmoadgens sicocxlis uflebis ganuyofel nawils, aramed piriqiT, erT-erTis arseboba SesaZloa niSnavdes imas, rom meore ufleba Tavidanve SezRudulia. miuxedavad piradi Rirsebisa da sicocxlis uflebebis kategoriuli xasiaTisa, ganukurnebeli pacientis mier TviTmkvlelobasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gansazRvra ar warmoadgens mis absolutur uflebas. TviTgamorkvevis ufleba SesaZloa SeizRudos ZiriTadi uflebis zogadi testisa da konstituciis me-8Gmuxlis me-2 punqtis safuZvelze. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aseve xazi gausva im faqts, rom samarTlebrivi regulirebis sferoSi pacientis TviTgamorkvevis uflebis ganxorcielebis konstituciur da arakonstituciur regulirebas Soris zRvari sabolood ar aris dadgenili. codnis dones,

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

konkretuli institutebis mdgomareobas, maT ganviTarebasa da ramdenime sxva faqtors SeuZlia zegavlena moaxdinos am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mier miRebul gadawyvetilebaze. janmrTelobis Sesaxeb kanonis me-15 muxlis Tanaxmad, pacients aqvs TviTgamorkvevis ufleba. amave kanonis me-20 muxli ki aRniSnuli uflebis ganxorcielebas zRudavs. pacients, romelsac Seswevs gadawyvetilebis miRebis unari, ufleba aqvs, uari ganacxados samedicino mkurnalobaze garda im SemTxvevebisa, rodesac igi safrTxes uqmnis sxvaTa sicocxlesa da fizikur xelSeuxeblobas. avadmyofobis xasiaTisa da misi Sedegis gaTvaliswinebiT, pacients ufleba aqvs, uari ganacxados sicocxlis SenarCunebasa da sicocxlisTvis aucilebel RonisZiebebze mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki igi daavadebulia ganukurnebeli seniT, romelTanac Tanamedrove medicina uZluria da gamoiwvevs pacientis sikvdils xanmokle periodSi. pacientis uari samedicino mkurnalobasTan dakavSirebiT gamarTlebulad CaiTvleba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac sami eqimisagan Semdgari komisia gasinjavs pacients da werilobiT daadasturebs, rom moTxovna efuZneba pacientis gaazrebul gadawyvetilebas. pacientis gadawyvetileba ZalaSi Seva mxolod maSin, Tuki es ukanaskneli ori mowmis TandaswrebiT daadasturebs survils, ar miiRos mkurnaloba samedicino komisiis mier moxsenebis momzadebidan me-3 dRes. rodesac pacienti uars acxadebs eqimTa komisiis mier mis Semowmebaze, misi survili, ar miiRos samedicino mkurnaloba, ar SeiZleba iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli. mTavrobis dadgenileba 117/1998 moicavs sakiTxis Semdgom mowesrigebasa da garkveuli saxis samedicino mkurnalobaze uaris TqmasTan dakavSirebul wesebs. momCivnebi acxadebdnen, rom pacientis ufleba pirad Rirsebaze, romelic garantirebulia konstituciis 54-e muxlis 1-li punqtiT [ENG-HUN-A-54] moicavda aseve TviTgamorkvevis uflebas, romlis nawilsac, Tavis mxriv, evTanazia warmoadgenda. momCivnebi acxadebdnen, rom janmrTelobis kanoniTa da mTavrobis dadgenilebiT gansazRvruli SezRudvebi araproporciuli da, Sesabamisad, arakonstituciuri iyo. momCivnebi aseve aRniSnavdnen, rom aqtiuri evTanaziis akrZalva Seusabamo iyo konstituciasTan. ufro metic, momCivnebis mtkicebiT, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi ar moicavda evTanazias, ar gansazRvravda specialurad im SemTxvevebs, romlebic TviTmkvlelobis ganxorcielebaSi moicavs daxmarebas da erTmaneTisagan ar ganasxvavebda TviTmkvlelobaSi daxmarebasa da mkvlelobas.

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sakonstitucio sasamarTlom srulad uaryo momCivnebis argumentacia da sakiTxisadmi midgoma. gadawyvetilebis gamotanisas sasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi miiRo saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi organizaciebis, ucxoeTis sasamarTloebisa da sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis praqtika iseve, rogorc ucxoeTSi moqmedi da saerTaSoriso regulirebis normebi, romlebic saCivarSi aRniSnul sakiTxebs awesrigebs.

poloneTi sakonstitucio tribunali 08-10-2002 policiis Sesaxeb kanonSi CamoTvlili is garemoebebi, romelTa drosac nebadarTulia cecxlsasroli iaraRis gamoyeneba, Seesabameba adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciiT gansazRvrul pirobebs da, aseve, sicocxlis uflebas, romelic konstituciis 38-e muxliT aris uzrunvelyofili [ENG-POL-A-38]. imaze Civili, rom CamonaTvali - Tu romeli garemoebebis arsebobisas aris SesaZlebeli cecxlsasroli iaraRis gamoyeneba ­ ar uzrunvelyofs policielis sicocxlis dacvas im xarisxiT, ra xarisxiTac es uzrunvelyofilia nebismieri pirisaTvis, ar aris gamarTlebuli. tribunalma ganixila saqme, romelic mas warudgina policielTa damoukidebeli profkavSirebis erovnuli aRsrulebis komitetma. sadavo debulebebis Tanaxmad, policiels ufleba aqvs, gamoiyenos cecxlsasroli iaraRi, rodesac policiis Sesaxeb kanoniT gansazRvruli uSualo iZulebis RonisZiebebi ar aris sakmarisi an, rodesac maTi gatareba Seqmnil konkretul situaciaSi ar xerxdeba. cecxlsasroli iaraRis gamoyeneba nebadarTulia mxolod CamoTvlil situaciebSi. ganmcxadebeli acxadebda, rom kanonmdebloba amgvarad zRudavs policiis Zalebis mier cecxlsasroli iaraRis gamoyenebas, rac Seusabamoa adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacvis konvenciaSi Camoyalibebul garantiebTan, romelic, ganmcxadeblis azriT, `nebas rTavs yovel adamians, waarTvas sxvas sicocxle~, rodesac mis mimarT gamoiyeneba Zala. tribunalma aRniSna, rom konvenciaSi mocemul debulebaTa Sinaarsi naTlad warmoaCens, rom igi ar `uSvebs~ an `eTanxmeba~ piris sicocxlis xelyofas. konvenciis debulebebSi ar aris CamoTvlili is situaciebi, rodesac sicocxlis xelyofa ar arRvevs konvencias im mizeziT, rom es gamarTlebulia konkretuli garemoebebiT. sxvagvari ganmarteba winaaRmdegobaSi movidoda xsenebul debulebaTa amomwurav ganmartebasa da logikasTan.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

avstria sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 14-12-1994 xelSekrulebis monawile saxelmwifos gadawyvetilebam, ganaxorcielos ucxoelis eqstradicia, SesaZloa warmoSvas garkveuli problemebi adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlTan mimarTebiT da, Sesabamisad, daayenos saxelmwifos pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki arsebobs imis dasabuTeba, rom, Tuki ucxoeli dabrundeba konkretul saxelmwifoSi, mas aSkarad daemuqreba wamebis, araadamianuri an damamcirebeli mopyrobis safrTxe. winamdebare iuridiuli doqtrina gamoiyeneba kanonis analogiis saxiT uflebis mimarT, romelic uzrunvelyofilia konstituciaSi evropuli konvenciis me-6 oqmis 1-li muxliT, federaciis konstituciis 85e muxlTan erTobliobaSi da exeba sikvdiliT dasjas. Sesabamisad, administraciulma gadawyvetilebam SesaZloa daarRvios gansaxilveli fundamenturi ufleba. winamdebare saqmeSi sakonstitucio sasamarTlom SeaCera im administraciuli gadawyvetilebis ganxorcieleba, romelic iqna gasaCivrebuli da romelSic administraciuli organo acxadebda, rom piri, romelic uars ambobda saxelmwifo samsaxurze yofil `iugoslaviis federaciul respublikaSi~, SesaZlebelia yofiliyo deportirebuli. ganmcxadebeli ­ albaneli erovnebis mqone piri kosovodan, romelic aris iugoslaviis moqalaqe ­ amtkicebda, rom mas emuqreboda wamebisa da sikvdiliT dasjis aSkara safrTxe. administraciulma organoebma ar ganixiles ganmcxadeblis mier wardgenili mtkicebulebebi da ar daakmayofiles misi saCivari avstriaSi yofili iugoslaviis respublikis mier miwodebuli informaciis safuZvelze. aSkara proceduruli xarvezebis gamo ganmcxadeblis fundamenturi ufleba iqna darRveuli. xelisuflebis administraciul organoebs unda ganexilaT, emuqreboda Tu ara ganmcxadebels deportaciis SemTxvevaSi wamebis, araadamianuri an damamcirebeli qmedebis Sedegad sikvdilis aSkara safrTxe ­ aucilebeli ar iyo konkretulad sikvdiliT dasja.

bulgareTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 21-11-1997 Tavdacva, romelic mimarTulia Selaxuli uflebis dacvisaken, rasakvirvelia, gamarTlebulia, magram ise ar unda ganimartos, rom gadaWarbebuli ziani miadges uflebis xelmyofs.

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mokle Sinaarsi: parlamentis wevrTa jgufma gaasaCivra sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi cvlilebebis Semtani kanonis 1-li nawilis Sesabamisoba samoqalaqo da politikur paqtTan, romlis wevric aris bulgareTi. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom 12.3.1, 12.3.2 da 12.3.3 muxlebis debulebebi Semdeg sityvebze miTiTebiT: `sasoflo qoneba Tu sawarmoo saSualebebi~, da sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi cvlilebebis Semtani kanonis 1.1 nawilis muxlebi 12.3.4 da me-12.3.5 ewinaaRmdegeboda konstitucias da uaryo sarCeli sxva nawilebSi. miTiTebuli teqstis Tanaxmad, miuxedavad dacvis saxeobisa da saSiSroebisa, ar unda moxdes Tavdacvis farglebis gadameteba da unda gamoiyenon im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki: Tavdamsxmelebi arian orni an orze metni; Tavdamsxmeli SeiaraRebulia; Tavdamsxmelma mimarTa Zaladobas an SeaRwia sacxovrebel saxlSi, sasoflo sameurneo daniSnulebis sakuTrebaSi an sawarmoSi; Tavdasxma xdeba transportSi, TviTmfrinavSi, gemze an matarebelSi; Tavdasxma xorcieldeba Ramis ganmavlobaSi; ar arsebobs araviTari sxva saSualeba Tavdasxmis mosagerieblad. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom Tavdacva, romelic ganxorcielebulia im mizniT, rom dacul iqnes ufleba, romlis xelyofac xorcieldeba, ar unda moicavdes uflebas, gadaWarbebuli ziani miayeno Tavdamsxmels. rodesac pirovneba Tavad axorcielebs danaSaulebriv Tavdasxmas, igi sargeblobs konstituciiT garantirebuli uflebebiTa da dacviT. sasamarTlos mier konstituciasTan Seusabamod gamocxadebuli debulebiT, nebadarTulia Tavdasxmis acileba ise, rom ziani miadges Tavdamsxmels da amgvarad scdeba aucilebeli mogeriebis farglebs. xsenebuli debulebebi ar moicavs moTxovnas, rom Tavdacva proporciuli unda iyos Tavdasxmis xasiaTsa da saSiSroebasTan. im pirs, vinc Tavs icavs, SeuZlia gadawyvitos, Tu ra saxis ziani miayenos Tavdamsxmels Tavisi interesebis dasacavad, romelTac xelyofa emuqreba. es debulebebi calkeul SemTxvevaSi amarTlebs Cadenil mkvlelobas an mkvlelobis mcdelobas da, Sesabamisad, scdeba Tavdacvis farglebs. amgvarad, isini zegavlenas axdenen da zians ayeneben sicocxlis uflebas, romelic fundamentur konstituciur uflebas warmoadgens. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gamoTqma `Tavdamsxmelma mimarTa Zaladobas an SeaRwia sacxovrebel saxlSi...~ Seesabameba samoqalaqo

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da politikuri uflebebis paqtis me-6 muxlis 1-l punqts. aseT SemTxvevebSi Tavdasxma arRvevs iseT fundamentur uflebas, rogoricaa sacxovreblis daurRvevloba da garantirebulia konstituciis 33-e muxliT. rodesac erTmaneTs upirispirdeba ori konstituciuri ufleba ­ Tavdamsxmelis ufleba sicocxleze da sacxovreblis daurRvevloba ­ Tavdamsxmelis sicocxlis uflebas ar unda mieniWos upiratesoba. amitomac miuxedavad Tavdacvis xasiaTisa da saSiSroebisa, CaiTvala, rom Tavdacva ar scdeba aucilebel farglebs, rodesac xdeba danaSaulebriv SeRweva sacxovrebel saxlSi. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 12.3.6 muxli gamoxatavs Tavdacvis xasiaTs im saqmeebSi, sadac piris mier danaSaulebriv Tavdasxmas ver moigeriebs sxvagvarad, Tu ar iqneboda gamoiyenebda im xerxs, romelsac am pirma mimarTa.

safrangeTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 27-06-2001 kanonTan dakavSirebiT, romelic fexmZimobis SewyvetisaTvis samarTlebriv vadas zrdida 10-dan 12 kviramde (fexmZimobis dawyebidan), sakonstitucio sasamarTlom uaryo pretenziebi, romelTa Tanaxmadac, xsenebuli kanonebi xelyofda adamianTa pativiscemis princips misi sicocxlis dawyebidanve, arRvevda pirovnebis Rirsebisa da yvela formis damamcirebeli mopyrobisagan dacvis uflebas da sazogadoebrivi jandacvis samsaxurebis xelmZRvanelTa sindisis Tavisuflebas. mokle Sinaarsi: sakonstitucio sabWom uaryo saCivari, romelic warmoadgina samocze metma senatorma da exeboda kanons fexmZimobis TviTnebur Sewyvetasa da kontraceptivebs da daadgina, rom fexmZimobis SewyvetisaTvis nebadarTuli samarTlebrivi vadis 10-dan 12 kviramde gazrda (fexmZimobis dawyebidan) im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac qals fexmZimobasTan dakavSirebiT garkveuli problemebi aqvs, Seesabameba konstitucias. kerZod, sasamarTlom uaryo pretenziebi, romlebic efuZneboda sicocxlis dawyebidanve adamianis pativiscemis principis xelyofas, pirovnebis Rirsebisa da yvela formis damamcirebeli mopyrobisagan dacvis uflebis darRvevas, sazogadoebrivi jandacvis samsaxurebis xelmZRvanelTa sindisis Tavisuflebis Selaxvas. kanonmdebelma balansi daadgina konstituciaSi dasaxelebul yvela faqtors Soris, maT Soris, igulisxmeba im qalTa piradi Tavisufleba, romlebsac SeeqmnaT garkveuli problemebi fexmZimobasTan dakavSirebiT.

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safrangeTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 27-07-1994 bioeTikasTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetileba ayalibebs yvela formis damonebisa da damcirebisagan pirovnebis Rirsebis dacvis princips. parlamentma daadgina zemoxsenebul or kanonSi da gaamyara principTa mTeli wyebiT, maT Soris, sicocxlis dawyebisTanave adamianis pativiscemisa da misi xelSeuxeblobis principebiT, romlis Tanaxmadac, adamiani ar aris sagani. amitomac debulebebi, romlebic exeba adamianis organoebis an nivTierebebis gamoyenebas da samedicino saSualebiT STamomavlobis gamravlebas, aseve, winasamSobiaro diagnozs, Seesabameba konstitucias. kanonmdebloba ar amaxvilebs yuradRebas fertilizebuli embrionebis uvadod dacvasa da gansakuTrebul garemoebebze, xolo Sefasebis sakiTxSi sakonstitucio sabWos parlamentisagan gansxvavebuli uflebamosilebebi gaaCnia. rac Seexeba debulebebs fertilizebuli embrionebis gadanergvasa da xelovnur garemoSi maTi Senaxvis Sesaxeb, dadginda, rom isini konstitucias Seesabameba.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 21-07-1997 zogadi kanonis 103.2 muxli da braleulobis principi ar dairRveva, Tuki germaniis demokratiuli respublikis saxalxo armiis sazRvris dacvis jarebis yofili generlebi msjavrdebulebi iqnebian sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis Sedegad, romelic aRZrulia germaniaTaSoris sazRvarze gaqceulTa mkvlelobasTan dakavSirebiT. momCivnebi _ germaniis demokratiuli respublikis saxalxo armiis sazRvris dacvis jarebis yvela yofili generali _ msjavrdebul iqnen 1996 wlis 10 seqtembers mkvlelobisaTvis an mkvlelobis mcdelobisaTvis, ramdenime saqmeSi ki _ mkvlelobaSi xelis SewyobisaTvis. maT miesajaT patimroba 3 welsa 3 Tvidan 6 welsa da 6 Tvemde. msjavrdebas safuZvlad daedo 1980-1989 wlebSi germaniaTaSoris sazRvarze gaqceulTa mkvlelobis 15 individualuri saqme. 10 adamiani daiRupa naRmebis afeTqebisa da sazRvris dacvis jarebis mier srolis Sedegad, rodesac gaqceulebi cdilobdnen sazRvarze damontaJebuli damcavi mowyobilobebis gverdis avlas. 5 sxva saqmeSi gaqceulebma naRmebis namsxvrevebiT gamowveuli seriozuli Wrilobebi miiRes.

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1997 wlis 30 aprilis gadawyvetilebiT, federalurma sasamarTlom ukuagdo sasjelTan dakavSirebuli saCivari. momCivnebma saCivari Seitanes sisxlis samarTlis da federaluri sasamarTloebis mier gamotanil gadawyvetilebebTan dakavSirebiT. kerZod, isini acxadebdnen pretenzias Tanasworobis principis (konstituciis 3.1 muxli), kanonis uzenaesobisa (konstituciis 20.3 muxli) da kanonis ukuqceviTi Zalis principebis (konstituciis 103.2 muxli) darRvevasTan dakavSirebiT. federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos me-2 palatis me-2 kolegiam arsebiT ganxilvaze dauSveblad gamoacxada sakonstitucio sarCeli. sarCelis miuReblobis motivad sasamarTlom ganacxada: federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos iurisdiqciis Tanaxmad, sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis struqtura, faqtebisa da garemoebebis mokvleva da Sefaseba, sisxlis samarTlis materialuri da procesualuri kanonmdeblobis interpretacia, konkretul SemTxvevebSi maTi gamoyeneba Sedis kompetenturi sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTloebis kompetenciaSi da ar warmoadgens sakonstitucio sasamarTlos ganxilvis sagans. federaluri sasamarTlo saqmeSi erTveba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac saerTo sasamarTloebi arRveven konstituciur samarTals. federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos SezRudva, romelic exeba saqmeTa ganxilvis kompetencias, aseve moicavs sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTloebis mier im ucxouri samarTlebrivi sistemis ganmartebasa da gamoyenebas, romelzec germaniis federaciul respublikaSi moqmedi sistemis Tanaxmad, damokidebulia sisxlis samarTlebrivi braldeba. Sesabamisad, federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo ver ganixilavs im sakiTxs, Tu ramdenad sworad ganmartavdnen da iyenebdnen sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTloebi germaniis demokratiuli respublikis kanonmdeblobis debulebebs. winamdebare saqmeSi sasamarTloebi SeTanxmdnen, rom sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis ganmartebisas gamoiyenebdnen germaniis federaciuli respublikis kanonmdeblobis debulebebs, romlebic esadageba aRniSnul saqmeebs. momCivnebis pretenziebi exeboda maT monawileobas germaniaTaSoris sazRvris gadakveTis an gadakveTis mcdelobisas germaniis federaciul respublikaSi gadamsvlelTa mkvlelobis waqezebaSi, arapirdapir monawileobasa an TanamonawileobaSi. sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTloebis gadawyvetileba, rom ganmcxadeblebi danaSaulebisaTvis unda daisajon germaniis federaciuli respublikis sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobiT, radganac es ukanaskneli ufro humanuri iyo, ar gamocxadda arakonstituciurad. konstituciis 103.2 muxli ar darRveula im faqtis gamo, rom sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTloebma

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germaniis demokratiul respublikaSi moqmedi praqtikisagan gansxvavebiT uaryves im danaSaulebisaTvis gamamarTlebeli safuZvlis arseboba, romlebic adamianTa mkvlelobas exeboda. gdrSi moqmed praqtikas, romelic germaniaTaSoris sazRvarze gadamsvlel pirTa mkvlelobas amarTlebda, Tundac gdr-is sasazRvro kanonmdeblobis gverdis avliT, ar aqvs aranairi konstituciuri gamarTleba. movaleobis mkacri dacvis Sesaxeb konstituciis 103.2 muxli Seusabamo xdeba, rodesac saxelmwifo xelisufali gansazRvravs sxvadasxva danaSaulis samarTlebriv elementebs umniSvnelovanes danaSaulTa sferoSi (magaliTad, adamianis ganzrax mkvleloba), gamoricxavs pasuxismgeblobas garkveul SemTxvevebSi werilobiTi normebis gverdis avliT da aseT danaSaulebs xels uwyobs. amgvarad, igi uxeSad arRvevs saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis mier universalurad aRiarebul adamianis uflebas. sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis Tanaxmad, momCivnebi regularulad ucvlidnen formas Tavdacvis erovnuli sabWos mier gamocemul brZanebebs sazRvris dacvis mowyobilobaTa gafarToebasa da maT daqvemdebarebaSi myofi pirebis mier cecxlsasroli iaraRis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT. amgvarad, isini mniSvnelovnad uwyobdnen xels sazRvris dacvis reJimis ganmtkicebas da axalisebdnen momsaxure jariskacebs, xeli SeeSalaT gadamkveTTaTvis nebismieri saSualebiT ­ Tundac cecxlsasroli iaraRis gamoyenebiTa da sazRvris gadamkveTTa mkvlelobiT. federaciulma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom momCivnebis xelSewyobiT sazRvris gadamkveTTa sicocxle msxverplad Seewira oficialur institutebs, radgan maTi brZanebiT, sazRvris damcvelebs "nebismier fasad" unda SeeSalaT xeli pirebisaTvis sazRvris gadakveTaSi. TviT gdr-is mier aRiarebuli fundamenturi uflebis amgvari xelyofa politikuri miznebis ganuxrelad realizebisaTvis warmoadgenda yvelaze seriozul danaSauls. bolos, momCivanTa msjavrdeba ar arRvevda braldebis princips. federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos iurisdiqciis Tanaxmad, gdr-is mesazRvres SeeZlo gaeanalizebina Seqmnili situacia da misTvis gasagebi gaxda, Tu ratom dasajes sazRvris gadamkveTTa mkvlelobisaTvis. amitomac sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTloebi konstituciis farglebSi moqmedebdnen, rodesac miiCnies, rom momCivnebs esmodaT Seqmnili situacia, radganac isini maRali Tanamdebobis mxedarTmTavrebi iyvnen. xsenebulidan gamomdinare, sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlos mier gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi gamarTlebuli da konstituciuri iyo.

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ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 23-11-1998 kanoni ar CaiTvleba arakonstituciurad, Tuki igi SesaZlebels xdis fexmZimobis Sewyvetas, rodesac qali krizisul mdgomareobaSi imyofeba. kanonmdebeli aRar atarebs monitorings, Tu ramdenad seriozulia qalis mdgomareoba konstituciiT gansazRvrul krizisTan SedarebiT mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki igi amave dros icavs nayofis sicocxles. kanonmdebeli unda aregulirebdes krizisis mdgomareobis cnebis gansazRvrebas parlamentis mier gamocemuli aqtiT. mokle mimoxilva: ganmcxadebelTa jgufi asaCivrebda nayofis sicocxlis dacvis Sesaxeb 1992 wlis LXXIX kanonis (SemdgomSi kanoni abortis Sesaxeb) konstituciasTan Seusabamobas. momCivnebi asaCivrebdnen, rom abortis Sesaxeb kanonis zogierTi debuleba da mTlianad kanoni arakonstituciuri iyo. sicocxlis mxardamWerebi moiTxovdnen sasamarTlosagan imis dadgenas, warmoadgenda Tu ara nayofi samarTlebriv pirs misi Casaxvis momentidan. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom uaryo saCivrebi Tavis #64/1991 (XII.17) gadawyvetilebaze dayrdnobiT, romelSic man aRniSna, rom mas ar SeuZlia gansazRvros, warmoadgens Tu ara nayofi adamians konstituciis gagebiT. amis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba unda gamoetana parlaments. es gadawyvetileba emyareboda im principebsa da saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebs, romlebic gansazRvruli iyo sasamarTlos wina gadawyvetilebiT da exeboda abortebs. gadawyvetilebaSi #64/1991 (XII.17) sasamarTlom gaauqma janmrTelobis ministris im droisaTvis ZalaSi myofi direqtiva formalur safuZvelze: sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom fundamenturi uflebebi unda regulirdebodes parlamentis mier gamocemuli kanonis safuZvelze da amitomac sasamarTlom arsebiT ganxilvaze Tavi Seikava, ganesazRvra abortis regulirebasTan dakavSirebuli wesebis konstituciasTan Sesabamisobis sakiTxi. Tumca, sasamarTlom Camoayaliba saxelmZRvanelo principebi momaval kanonTan dakavSirebiT abortis Sesaxeb. am saxelmZRvanelo principebis safuZvelze, parlamentma miiRo 1992 wlis kanoni abortis Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmadac, nayofi ar sargeblobda samarTlebrivi dacviT Casaxvis momentidan da, aqedan gamomdinare, iZleoda abortis uflebas fexmZimobis pirvel TveebSi. mimdinare gadawyvetilebaSi sasamarTlom ganixila abortis Sesaxeb kanonis 6.1 muxlis

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konstituciasTan Sesabamisoba, romelic iZleoda abortis uflebas pirveli 12 kviris ganmavlobaSi im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki qali krizisul mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndeboda da sasamarTlomac aseve ganixila saCivrebi nayofis samarTlebriv statussa da sicocxlis uflebasTan dakavSirebiT. abortis Sesaxeb kanonis 12.6 muxlis Tanaxmad, krizisuli situacia niSnavs, rom fexmZime qali SeiZleba aRmoCndes mwvave sulier, fizikur an socialur mdgomareobaSi, rac safrTxes uqmnis nayofis janmrTelad ganviTarebas. imisaTvis, raTa dadasturdes krizisuli situaciis arseboba, fexmZime qalma xeli unda moaweros abortTan dakavSirebul moTxovnas. momCivanTa azriT, nayofi arasakmarisad aris daculi kanoniT abortis Sesaxeb, radganac aravis SeuZlia nayofis azris gamoxatva da im procesze Tvalis devneba, romlis saSualebiTac ganisazRvreba, akmayofilebs Tu ara fexmZime qalis mdgomareoba kanonSi gansazRvrul kriteriumebs. ungreTSi amJamad moqmedi praqtikis Tanaxmad, nayofis interesebis garantirebis sakiTxi ar aris farTo sazogadoebis msjelobis sagani. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos unda gaeca pasuxi kiTxvaze, asrulebda Tu ara saxelmwifo abortis Sesaxeb kanonis amoqmedebiT moTxovnebs, romlebic mas avaldebulebs, daicvas nayofis sicocxle qalis uflebis sapirispirod, rac gulisxmobs misi pativisa da imis arCevanis uflebas, Tu rodis aris is krizisuli situacia, rodesac nebadarTulia qalisaTvis abortis gakeTeba. krizisuli situaciis cneba bundovania. es aris argumenti, romelic ixreba qalis arCevanis uflebisaken da, amave dros, ewinaaRmdegeba daubadebeli bavSvis sicocxlis dacvas. kanonis Sesabamisad, aborti nebadarTulia, raoden paradoqsuladac ar unda mogveCvenos, nayofis interesebidan gamomdinare. sasamarTlos daskvniT, xsenebuli arRvevs naTeli da gasagebi kanonis princips, radganac mizezi, romelic abortis gakeTebis nebarTvas iZleva, ewinaaRmdegeba Tavis Tavs. amitomac Cndeba kiTxva: aris Tu ara arakonstituciuri fexmZimobis Sewyvetis mizezad qalis krizisuli situaciis arseboba. abortis Sesaxeb kanonis Tanaxmad, aborti efuZneba mxolod qalis Sefasebas, rom igi imyofeba krizisul situaciaSi yovelgvari dadasturebisa Tu mizezebis arsebobis Semowmebis gareSe. aRniSnuli xorcieldeba qalis piradi cxovrebis uflebis dacvis motiviT. am saqmesTan dakavSirebiT, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom kanonma SezRuda qalis arCevanisa da Rirsebis ufleba imiT, rom moiTxova qalisagan abortis gamamarTlebeli mizezebis dadastureba. abortis Sesaxeb kanonis amJamad ZalaSi myofi

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Sesabamisi debulebebi praqtikulad Seesabameba qalis arCevanis uflebas, magram ver akmayofilebs saxelmwifoze dakisrebul valdebulebas adamianis sicocxlis dacvasTan dakavSirebiT. aqedan gamomdinare, konstituciuri balansi qalis Rirsebis uflebasa da saxelmwifos valdebulebas Soris darRveulia. abortis Sesaxeb kanonis aRniSnuli debuleba arakonstituciuria, radganac balansi ar aris dadgenili qalis fundamentur uflebasa da saxelmwifos konstituciur valdebulebas Soris. Tavis samotivacio nawilSi sasamarTlom aseve Camoayaliba saxelmZRvanelo principebi parlamentisaTvis. sasamarTlo amtkicebs, rom arsebobs ori SesaZlo gza, romliTac saxelmwifos SeuZlia nayofis sicocxlis uflebis dacva. pirveli SesaZlo gza mdgomareobs imaSi, rom abortis Sesaxeb kanoni ar Seicvalos, aramed masSi Sesworeba Sevides, romliTac disbalansis nacvlad Seva iseTi debulebebi, romlebic mimarTuli iqneba nayofis sicocxlis uflebis dacvisaken (magaliTad, fexmZime qalTan TanamSromloba, fexmZime qalis uzrunvelyofa fizikuri, socialuri da finansuri daxmarebiT). meore SesaZlebeli gza mdgomareobs krizisuli situaciis cnebis dadgenaSi, abortis kvalificirebisTvis SesaZlo da tipiuri miznebis gansazRvriT.

italia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 27-06-1996 sikvdiliT dasja da sasjeli, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba humanurobis principebs, akrZalulia konstituciis 27-e muxliT. es gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis akrZalva yovelTvis gamoiyeneboda italiaSi Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobis ganviTarebis xanaSi, magram irRveoda reaqciisa da Zaladobis Semotevis periodebSi. es unda ganixilos sicocxlis fundamenturi uflebis dasayrdeni principis logikur Sedegad, romelic warmoadgens upirveles da daurRvevel uflebas da rac aRiarebulia konstituciis me-2 muxlSi. sicocxlis uflebis upirobo xasiaTi da sikvdiliT dasjis akrZalva pirdapir ukavSirdeba xelisuflebis organoebis valdebulebas, CaerTos saerTaSoriso mravalmxriv samarTlebriv daxmarebaSi, kerZod ki, eqstradiciasTan dakavSirebul xelSekrulebebSi. rogorc sasamarTlom daadgina, italiis konstitucias ewinaaRmdegeba nebismieri daxmareba iseTi sasjelebis aRsrulebasTan dakavSirebiT, romelTa dakisrebac ar SeiZleba italiaSi raime saxis danaSaulisaTvis.

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mokle mimoxilva: sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 698-e da #225 kanonis (romSi 1983 wlis 13 oqtombers italiasa da amerikis SeerTebul Statebs Soris xelmowerili eqstradiciis xelSekrulebis ratificireba da ganxorcieleba) IX muxlebi ar Seesabameboda konstitucias (ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis me-2 da 27-e muxlebs). konstituciurobis sakiTxi saqmeSi wamoiWra lacios regionaluri administraciuli sasamarTlos mier im samarTalwarmoebis dros, romelic aRZra b-nma veneciam iusticiis ministris winaaRmdeg. b-n veneciaze gacemuli iyo brZaneba floridis sasamarTlos mier pirveli kategoriis mkvlelobaSi braldebasTan dakavSirebiT, romlisTvisac floridis kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebda sikvdiliT dasjas. administraciulma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom, upirveles yovlisa, unda ganxiluliyo konstituciis me-2 muxlTan Sesabamisoba, romelic yvela uflebaze uwinaresad sicocxlis uflebas icavda da romelic sakonstitucio sasamarTlos #54/1979 gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze upiratesad gamocxadda. amave dros administraciulma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom konstituciis 27-e muxli, romelic krZalavs italiaSi sikvdiliT dasjis Sefardebas, ewinaaRmdegeba eqstradiciis kanonis im punqts, romelic iusticiis ministrs aZlevs diskreciul uflebas, bundovani kriteriumebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi miiRos gadawyvetileba. aris Tu ara damajerebeli da myari eqstradiciis momTxovni saxelmwifos mier micemuli garantia. am SemTxvevaSi es damokidebuli iyo imaze, SeeZlo Tu ara garantiebis mimcem organos, zewola moexdina kompetentur samarTlebriv organoze, raTa maT mier ganxorcielebuli qmedebebi da gadawyvetilebebi SesabamisobaSi yofiliyo italiis konstituciasTan. administraciuli sasamarTlos azriT, SeerTebuli Statebis konstituciis me-6 muxlze dayrdnoba am SemTxvevaSi ar SeiZleboda, radganac eqstradiciis xelSekruleba ar avaldebulebda federalur mTavrobas, gaeca konkretuli garantiebi, romlebic, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, zians miayenebdnen individualuri saxelmwifoebis damoukideblobas. administraciulma sasamarTlom aseve daadgina, rom gansaxilveli debulebebi arRvevs italiis konstituciis me-3 da me-11 muxlebs. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom zemoT mocemul principebze dayrdnobiT daadgina, rom namdvilad dairRva konstituciis me-2 da 27-e muxlebi. procedura, romelic uzrunvelyofili iyo sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis 698(2)-e muxliT, emyareboda ormag gadasinjvas sasamarTlosa da iusticiis ministris mier. garkvevas saWiroebda,

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ramdenad adekvaturi iyo eqstradiciis momTxovni saxelmwifos mier sikvdiliT dasjasTan dakavSirebiT warmodgenili garantiebi imis uzrunvelsayofad, rom sikvdiliT ar daisjebodnen gadacemuli pirebi miuxedavad imisa, rom kanonmdebloba amas iTvaliswinebda an es kanoni ar iqneboda gamoyenebuli gansaxilvel saqmeSi. italiis kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad, sikvdiliT dasjis akrZalva iyo upirobo da konstituciiT gansazRvruli, xolo miTiTeba debulebaze `adekvaturi garantiebi~ momTxovni saxelmwifos mier, ar Seesabameboda konstitucias. sicocxlis dacva saWiroebda absolutur garantiebs. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT ar SeiZleba dayrdnoba arc marTlmsajulebis garantiebze da arc SeerTebuli Statebis konstituciis me-6 muxlis interpretaciaze. winamdebare saqmeSi umniSvnelovanes sakiTxs warmoadgenda is, rom sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsiT uzrunvelyofili meqanizmi da implementaciis kanoni ar Seesabameboda zemoxsenebul konstituciur debulebebs.

niderlandebi uzenaesi sasamarTlo 16-06-1995 sicocxlis uflebis dacva, romelic uzrunvelyofilia adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-2 muxliT, ar aris imdenad yovlismomcveli, rom dauSveblad gamoacxados fexmZimobis Sewyveta. winamdebare samarTalwarmoebaSi konkretuli sazogadoeba amtkicebda, rom saxelmwifom ar unda aanazRauros is xarjebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia fexmZimobis SewyvetasTan specialur klinikebSi da rom janmrTelobis dazRvevis fondebis sabWom unda akrZalos fexmZimobis Sewyvetis dafinanseba. sazogadoeba amtkicebda, rom wesebi, romlebic aregulirebda fexmZimobis Sewyvetas, ewinaaRmdegeboda evropuli konvenciis me-2 muxliT garantirebul sicocxlis uflebas. saapelacio sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom sazogadoebis mier warmodgenil argumentacias ver gaiTvaliswinebda, radganac evropuli konvenciis zemoxsenebuli debuleba ar vrceldeba ganviTarebadi adamianis sicocxlis e.i. Canasaxis sicocxlis uflebaze. sazogadoebis mier Setanili sakasacio sarCelis dros uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom, rac ar unda myari yofiliyo is argumentebi, romlebic saapelacio sasamarTlom warmoadgina mis mier gamotanili gadawyvetilebisaTvis, sazogadoebis saCivari ar SeiZleba iqnes miRebuli. uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sicocxlis uflebis dacva,

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romelic uzrunvelyofilia konvenciis me-2 muxliT, ar vrceldeba im doneze, rom aukrZalos konvenciis xelmomwer saxelmwifoebs iseTi sakanonmdeblo debulebebis amoqmedeba, romlebic nebas miscemdnen garkveul pirobebSi fexmZimobis Sewyvetas.

poloneTi sakonstitucio tribunali 28/05/1997 abortis nebarTvis gacema fexmZime qalis mZime ekonomikuri an socialuri mdgomareobis gamo, arRvevs proporciulobis konstituciiT garantirebul princips. am debulebiT, nebadarTulia aborti, rodesac fexmZime qali imyofeba rTul ekonomikur Tu socialur mdgomareobaSi, e.i. igi amarTlebs aborts da amitomac miCneul unda iqnes, rogorc nebarTva zogadad akrZalul qmedebaTa ganxorcielebaze. daubadebeli bavSvi daculia misi Casaxvis momentidan da nebismieri qmedeba, romelic mimarTulia misi sicocxlis xelyofisaken, maT Soris, abortis ganxorcieleba, zogadad akrZalulia. kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, momavali dedis `rTuli ekonomikuri mdgomareoba~ warmoadgens aucilebel pirobas abortis gansaxorcieleblad. Tuki es sakmarisia abortis gasamarTleblad, tribunalis azriT, igi unda niSnavdes, rom daubadebeli da dabadebuli bavSvis sicocxle kanonmdeblis mier sxvagvarad aris Sefasebuli. garda imisa, rom zemoxsenebuli debuleba arRvevs proporciulobis princips, kanonmdebeli aseve ar iyenebs sxva konstituciur wesebs, romlebic savaldebuloa am tipis konfliqtur SemTxvevebSi. kerZod, im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki kanonmdebeli gaamarTlebs qmedebebs, romlebic arRvevs konkretul konstituciur Rirebulebas, igi valdebulia, aRweros is pirobebi da garemoebebi, romelTa arsebobis SemTxvevaSic darRveva nebadarTulia adekvaturi saSualebiT. tribunalis azriT, am konkretul SemTxvevaSi kanonmdebelma ar Seasrula xsenebuli piroba.

portugalia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 17-04-1998 ramdenadac sakonstitucio sasamarTlo pasuxismgebelia, erovnuli referendumis Catarebamde ganixilos misi konstituciuroba da kanoniereba, man aseve unda uzrunvelyos, rom referen-

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dumis sagani arsebiTad konstituciuri iyos: imis gadawyveta, referendumis sagani kanonieria Tu ara, warmoadgens referendumis konstituciurobis sakiTxis ganxilvis nawils. ra Tqma unda, umravlesobis principi unda Sejerdes konstituciurobis principTan. konstituciis 24.1 muxlis Tanaxmad, adamianis sicocxle xelSeuvalia. ganaCeni sakiTxs sam etapad wyvets. abortis dekriminalizaciis sakiTxi unda ganixilos, rogorc sisxlis samarTlebrivi sistemis sagani: sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebis organos SeuZlia gadawyvitos, gamoacxados Tu ara abortis gakeTeba sisxlis samarTlebrivad dasjadad maSin, rodesac sicocxle in utero warmoadgens samarTlebriv sakuTrebas (amgvarad, moicavdes potenciur konfliqts Sesabamisi qalis sxva uflebebTan) da igi ar aris daculi sicocxlis uflebiT, romelic mocemulia konstituciis 24.1 muxliT. amave dros, arsebobs meoregvari midgoma, rom yvela pirisaTvis sicocxlis uflebis uzrunvelyofasTan erTad, 24.1 muxli aseve vrceldeba dedis (obieqtur) saSvilosnoSi myof ganviTarebad sicocxleze (in utero sicocxleze). aqedan gamomdinare, arsebobs sicocxlis dacvis konstituciuri valdebuleba. Tumca, adamianis embrionis dacva ar SeiZleba iyos iseTive arsebiTi (da arc SeiZleba iqnes uzrunvelyofili imave meTodebiT), rogorc sicocxlis subieqturi ufleba, romelic yvela individualur pirs dabadebidan gaaCnia. mimdinare sakanonmdeblo procesi unda uzrunvelyofdes adamianis sicocxles saSvilosnoSi. amave dros, iTvaliswinebdes sxvadasxva interesebs da abalansebdes samarTlebrivi sakuTrebis konstituciur dacvas sxva uflebaTa da RirebulebaTa sapirispirod interesTa Sefasebis principis safuZvelze. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, balansis dadgenam adamianis embrionis dacvasa da qalis sxva uflebebs, maT Soris, personaluri ganviTarebis uflebas Soris (avtonomiurobis, piradi TviTgamorkvevis da sakuTari bedis gadawyvetis WrilSi), gansakuTrebiT im uflebasTan, romelic gulisxmobs dedobas, rogorc gaazrebul arCevans, SeiZleba gaamarTlos pirvel 10 kviraSi fexmZimobis Sewyvetis dekriminalizaciis sakanonmdeblo arCevani. konstituciurad dacul sakuTrebasTan dakavSirebuli nebismieri konfliqti SeiZleba gadawydes kanonmdeblis mier, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi ki, arsebobs konstituciasTan Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo farglebi, raTa gairkves, sisxlissamarTlebriv danaSaulad iqnes Tu ara miCneuli fexmZimobis ganzrax Sewyveta. mesame, im SemTxvevaSic, Tuki aborti ganixileba, rogorc arakanonieri qmedeba, es ar gulisxmobs, rom referendumze dasmul kiTxvaze pozitiuri pasuxi

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arakonstituciuri iqneba, radganac konstituciuri samarTlis Tanaxmad, sisxlissamarTlebrivi kontroli unda iyos kulturul, ekonomikur, socialur da janmrTelobis RonisZiebaTa saboloo saSualeba da ara am saSualebebis Semcvleli. amitomac, radgan konstitucia ar moiTxovs abortis miCnevas sisxlissamarTlebriv danaSaulad, arsebobs sakonstitucio sakanonmdeblo saSualeba imis dasadgenad, iqnes Tu ara dakisrebuli sisxlissamarTlebrivi sanqciebi qalis arCevanis Sedegad fexmZimobis ganzrax SewyvetasTan mimarTebiT pirveli 10 kviris ganmavlobaSi, rogorc es ganisazRvra gansaxilveli referendumis proeqtSi. aseve mniSvnelovania imis ganxilva, rom ekonomiurad uzrunvelyofil qals, survilis SemTxvevaSi, abortis gakeTeba dausjelad SeuZlia evropis nebismier klinikaSi maSin, rodesac Rarib qalbatonebs, romlebsac miaCniaT, rom isini valdebulni arian, gaikeTon aborti, emuqrebaT aramarto ukanono samedicino mkurnalobasTan, aramed sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobasTan dakavSirebuli riski.. miuxedavad amisa, sasamarTlom gansazRvra ramdenime samarTlebrivi RonisZieba da formaluri pirobebi, romlebic mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli, Tuki referendumis pasuxi iqneba dadebiTi. magaliTad, moTxovna, romelic gulisxmobs, rom Tu qals surs abortis gakeTeba, unda gaiaros konsultacia, maT Soris, personaluri interviu specialur sakonsultacio samsaxurTan da mas unda mieces dro, raTa gadaxedos Tavis gadawyvetilebas. konstituciis 115.8 muxlis Tanaxmad, (1997 wlis cvlilebebis Sesabamisad) respublikis prezidentma unda warmoadginos respublikis asambleis an mTavrobis mier gadacemuli referendumTan dakavSirebuli winadadebebi sakonstitucio sasamarTlos winaSe winaswari gadamowmebisaTvis, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnes maTi konstituciuroba da kanoniereba. respublikis asambleis mier prezidentisadmi wardgenil rezoluciaSi dasmulia kiTxva, romelzec pasuxi unda gasces erovnulma referendumma da igi Semdegnairadaa Camoyalibebuli: `eTanxmebiT Tu ara, rom fexmZimobis ganzrax Sewyveta aRar unda CaiTvalos sisxlissamarTlebriv danaSaulad im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki igi ganxorcielebulia qalis arCevaniT fexmZimobis pirveli 10 kviris ganmavlobaSi samarTlebrivad dadgenil samedicino dawesebulebaSi?~ 1989 wlis gadasinjvis Semdgom portugaliis konstituciaSi Sevida debuleba erovnul referendumTan dakavSirebiT. 115-e muxlis Tanaxmad, respublikis prezidents ufleba aqvs, kiTxviT mimarTos eleqtorats, raTa am ukanasknelma gamoxatos Tavisi survili pirdapiri gziT referendumSi, romlis Sedegsac kanonis Zala eqneba. 1997 wlis konstituciurma cvlilebebma sakonstitucio

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sasamarTlos winaSe dasva erovnuli, regionuli Tu adgilobrivi referendumebis Catarebis kanonierebis ganxilvis konstituciurobis winaswar Sefasebis amocana. winamdebare saqmeSi sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miiRo gadawyvetileba imasTan dakavSirebiT, arakonstituciuri iyo Tu ara referendumis sagani ­ anu referendumSi dasmul kiTxvaze ori savaraudo pasuxidan romelime moiTxovda Tu ara iseT kanonmdeblobas, romelic SeewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciur principebs an debulebebs. Tavis saboloo gadawyvetilebaSi sasamarTlom konstituciasTan Sesabamisad da kanonierad gamoacxada referendumi Semdeg safuZvlebze dayrdnobiT: 1. referendumTan dakavSirebuli winadadeba damtkicda kompetenturi organos mier; 2. referendumis sagans warmoadgenda mniSvnelovani sakiTxi, romelic Sedioda eris interesebSi da unda gadawyvetiliyo respublikis asambleis mier kanonmdeblobis miRebis gziT; 3. winamdebare saqmeSi referendumis sagani ar scildeboda referendumis zogad farglebs; 4. is faqti, rom referendumSi gansaxilvel sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT unda miRebuliyo kanoni, romelic isev SemuSavebis procesSi iyo (Sesabamisi kanonproeqti wardgenili iyo kenWisyrisaTvis asambleaSi zogadi debatebis saxiT), ar uSlida xels, es sakiTxi aseve gamxdariyo referendumis sagani; 5. referendumi exeboda mxolod erT konkretul sakiTxs, dasmuli erTi kiTxvis saSualebiT raime sxva kvalificirebis, Sesavlis an axsna-ganmartebiTi komentaris gareSe da, Sesabamisad, masze g SesaZlebeli iyo dadebiTi an uaryofiTi pasuxis gacema; 6. dasmuli kiTxva Seesabameboda obieqturobis, garkveulobisa da sizustis kriteriumebs; 7. referendumTan dakavSirebuli winadadeba Seesabameboda im droisaTvis ZalaSi myof organuli kanonis moTxovnebs referendumis Sesaxeb; 8. is faqti, rom mxolod erovnul teritoriaze registrirebul amomrCevels SeeZlo referendumSi monawileobis miReba, Seesabameboda saarCevno moTxovnebs; 9. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gaaCnda iurisdiqcia, gadaewyvita is sakiTxi, ayenebda Tu ara referendumSi dasmuli kiTxva amomrCevels iseTi dilemis winaSe, rom erT-erTi pasuxi e winaaRmdegobaSi modioda konstituciasTan; 10. kiTxvaze gacemuli arc dadebiTi da arc uaryofiTi pasuxi ar avaldebulebda mTavrobas, mieRo arakonstituciuri gadawyvetileba.

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portugalia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 12-11-1996 eqstradiciasTan dakavSirebuli normis konstituciasTan arsebiTi Seusabamoba unda Sefasdes sakamaTo normis arsebobis droisaTvis ZalaSi myofi konstituciuri teqstis WrilSi. faqtobrivad, portugaliis konstitucia krZalavs eqstradicias, rodesac Cadenili danaSaulisaTvis SesaZloa pirs miesajos sikvdiliT dasja eqstradiciis momTxovni saxelmwifos kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad. radganac konstitucia krZalavs eqstradicias im danaSaulebisaTvis, romlebic eqstradiciis momTxovni sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, samarTlebrivad isjeba sikvdiliT, konstituciasTan Seusabamoa nebismieri garantia, romelsac warmoadgens eqstradiciis momTxovni saxelmwifo imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom igi Secvlis an Tavs Seikavebs sikvdiliT dasjis sisruleSi moyvanisagan. portugaliaSi eqstradiciis absoluturi akrZalva im danaSaulebisaTvis, romlebisTvisac dawesebulia sikvdiliT dasja, momdinareobs 1976 wlis konstituciidan. makao warmoadgens specialuri statusis mqone portugaliis mier marTvad aziur teritorias, sadac portugaliis konstituciis debulebebi, romlebic ukavSirdeba fundamentur uflebebs, pirdapir gamoiyeneba da sadac calkeuli samarTlebrivi normebi, romlebic damtkicebulia portugaliis sakanonmdeblo organoebis mier rogorc 1976 wlis konstituciis miRebamde, aseve, misi miRebis Semdgom, amJamadac ZalaSia. amgvarad, mimdinare kanoni (romelic Seicvala portugaliaSi axali kanonmdeblobiT mravalmxrivi urTierTdaxmarebis Sesaxeb sisxlissamarTlebriv sakiTxebSi), romelic iZleoda eqstradiciis nebarTvas im danaSaulebTan mimarTebiT, romlebic isjeboda sikvdiliT an samudamo patimrobiT, magram eqstradiciis momTxovni saxelmwifo warmoadgenda sasjelis Secvlis garantiebs, makaoSi kvlav ZalaSi rCeboda. miuxedavad amisa, winamdebare norma mainc arakonstituciurad miiCnies sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mier im saCivrebis safuZvelze, romlebic Setanil iqna makaos umaRlesi sasamarTlos 3 gadawyvetilebis sawinaaRmdegod, romlebic nebarTvas iZleodnen eqstradiciaze CineTis saxalxo respublikaSi. gansaxilveli ganaCeni gamomdinareobs konstituciurobis abstraqtuli gadasinjvidan, romelic aRiZra SemdgomSi gaerTianebuli ori sarCelis safuZvelze da romelTagan pirveli

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Setanil iqna respublikis asambleis wevrTa jgufis mier, xolo meore _ generaluri prokuraturis mier (es ukanaskneli analogiuri ganaCenebis gameorebas emyareboda). apelantTa locus standi sakiTxis garkvevis Semdgom sasamarTlom arsebiT ganxilvaze kvlav gaimeora mis mierve dadgenili precedentuli samarTali da gansaxilveli norma gamoacxada arakonstituciurad saerTo samarTlebrivi valdebulebis dakisrebis SedegiT. damatebiTi informacia: debuleba, romelic eqstradicias exeba, gansazRvrulia konstituciis 33.3 muxlSi, romlis Tanaxmad, ar SeiZleba eqstradicia im pirisa, romlis mier Cadenili danaSaulisTvis eqstradiciis momTxovni saxelmwifos kanonmdeblobiT dawesebulia sikvdiliT dasja.

portugalia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 04-07-1995 portugaliis konstituciis Tanaxmad, ar SeiZleba eqstradicia im danaSaulisaTvis, romlisTvisac dawesebulia sikvdiliT dasja `eqstradiciis momTxovni saxelmwifos kanonmdeblobiT~. aRniSnuli akrZalva momdinareobs sicocxlis uflebis absoluturi dacvidan. momTxovni saxelmwifos mier ganxorcielebuli moTxovna unda ganixilos konstituciisa da Cadenili danaSaulisa da misi CadenisTvis dakisrebuli sasjelis WrilSi, rogorc arsebiTi, aseve proceduruli TvalsazrisiT orive saxelmwifoSi moqmedi erovnuli kanonmdeblobis sistemis Tanaxmad. sityvebi konstituciaSi _ `momTxovni saxelmwifos kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad~ _ miuTiTebs am momTxovn saxelmwifoSi ZalaSi myof erovnul kanonmdeblobaze, anu sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobaze, romelic abstraqtulad moicavs sikvdiliT dasjis SesaZleblobas da meqanizmebs. es ukanaskneli imperatiulad miekuTvneba sisxlis samarTlebriv kanonmdeblobasa da proceduras, saidanac unda gamomdinareobdes, rom sikvdiliT dasja dauSvebelia, radganac misi gamoyeneba arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar SeiZleba. mokle mimoxilva: ganmcxadebeli, romelic dakavebul iqna makaoSi (portugaliis mmarTvelobis qveS myofi teritoria, romelsac gaaCnia specialuri statusi, magram, romelSic portugaliis konstituciis is debulebebi, romlebic exeba fundamentur uflebebs, pirdapir gamoiyeneba), iZebneboda CineTis saxalxo respublikis policiis organoebis mier

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sicocxlis ufleba

Tavisi saqmros ganzrax mkvlelobisaTvis. makaos umaRlesma sasamarTlom daakmayofila uSiSroebis saministros mier wardgenili eqstradiciis moTxovna imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom CineTis saxalxo respublikam aiRo valdebuleba (CineTis uSiSroebis saministros saxiT, romelic mowodebul iqna qsinhua-pres saagentos mier. aRniSnul saagentos makaoSi kvazi diplomatiuri funqciebi gaaCnia), ar daesaja eWvmitanili sikvdiliT an samudamo patimrobiTYan gadaeca igi mesame saxelmwifosaTvis. makaos sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, xsenebuli dapirebebi saerTaSoriso xasiaTis valdebulebebi gaxda da gaaCnda CineTis saxalxo respublikaSi moqmedi kanonmdeblobis Zala. Tavis saboloo gadawyvetilebaSi sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gansaxilveli samarTlebrivi norma ar Seesabameboda konstitucias (arRvevda konstituciis 33.3 muxls), radganac iZleoda eqstradiciis nebarTvas im danaSaulisaTvis, romlisTvisac momTxovni saxelmwifos kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli iyo sikvdiliT dasja da aq usafuZvlo iyo im garantiebze dayrdnoba, rom sasjeli Seicvleboda. sasamarTlos azriT, momTxovni saxelmwifos mier warmodgenili garantiebi ufro maRla idga, vidre politikuri da diplomatiuri xasiaTis garantiebi da miuxedavad saerTaSoriso TvalsazrisiT maTi aucileblobisa, ar akisrebdnen samarTlebriv valdebulebas CineTis saxalxo respublikis sasamarTloebs.

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 10-02-1999 danaSaulis Camdeni piris sikvdiliT dasja dauSvebelia, sanam kanoni ar uzrunvelyofs nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo uflebas. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganixila saqme, romelic gamsvlel sasamarTlosTan dakavSirebul sakanonmdeblo debulebebs exeboda. saqme ganxilul iqna moskovis saqalaqo sasamarTlosa da moqalaqeTa mier wardgenili moTxovnis safuZvelze. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina Semdegi: gamsvleli sasamarTlo Seiqmna 1993 wlis 16 ivliss, gamoica federaluri kanoni cvlilebebisa da damatebebis Sesaxeb. kanoni ZalaSi Sevida misi gamoqveynebis dRidanve, magram ruseTis 89 Semadgeneli nawilidan mxolod 9 nawilSi amoqmedda. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 41-e muxlis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo saqmeebs ixilavs raionSi, sadac danaSauli iqna Cadenili. rodesac SeuZlebelia imis dadgena, Tu sad iqna Cadenili danaSauli, saqme im sasamarTlos iurisdiqciaSi xvdeba,

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sadac winaswari gamoZieba an mokvleva iqna dasrulebuli. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 42-e muxlis Tanaxmad, saqmeebi, romlebic sxvadasxva mizezis gamo xvdeba ramdenime Tanabari instanciis sasamarTlos iurisdiqciaSi, ganixileba im sasamarTlos mier, romlis raionSic winaswari gamoZieba Tu mokvleva iqna dasrulebuli. ganmcxadeblebi miiCnevdnen, rom es SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldes im mizniT, raTa maT uari eTqvaT nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo ganxilvaze, rogorc es gansazRvrulia konstituciis me-20 muxlSi im pirebisaTvis, romlebic braldebulni arian iseTi danaSaulis CadenaSi, romlisTvisac gaTvaliswinebulia sikvdiliT dasja, radgan aseTi sasamarTloebi ar Seqmnila Sesabamis teritoriebze. xsenebuli da sxva samarTlebrivi debulebebi gamoyenebul iqna konkretul saqmeebSi nafic msajulTa sasamarTloze uaris Tqmis gasamarTleblad, rac uzrunvelyofilia konstituciis me-20 muxlSi im pirebisaTvis, romlebic braldebulni arian sikvdiliT dasjadi danaSaulebis CadenaSi. konstituciis me-20.2 muxlis Tanaxmad, sikvdiliT dasjis gauqmebamde federaluri kanonis mixedviT, SesaZlebelia gamonaklisis saxiT misi dakisreba pirovnebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSaulebisaTvis im piris mimarT, romelsac ufleba gaaCnia nafic msajulTa sasamarTloze. xsenebuli debulebidan da konstituciis me-18 da 46.1 muxlebidan gamomdinareobs, rom aseT saqmeebSi braldebulis ufleba, romelic ukavSirdeba nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos, warmoadgens konkretul garantias yvela pirisaTvis sicocxlis uflebaze (rogorc fundamenturi, gausxvisebeli ufleba, romliTac sargeblobs yvela dabadebidanve), romelic uzrunvelyofilia TviT konstituciiT. konstituciis me-19 muxlis Tanaxmad, yvela adamiani Tanasworia kanonisa da mis safuZvelze Seqmnili sasamarTlos winaSe. Sesabamisad, nafic msajulTa sasamarTloze ufleba SesaZlebelia uzrunvelyofil iqnes Tanabar sawyisebze da Tanabari xarisxiT yvela pirisaTvis, vinc braldebulia seriozuli danaSaulis CadenaSi, miuxedavad imisa, Tu sad iqna kerZod Cadenili danaSauli, romel sasamarTlos gaaCnia zogadi iurisdiqcia da romel sasamarTlos _ specialuri iurisdiqcia aseT saqmeebze da sxva analogiur garemoebebze. kanonmdeblis gadawyvetilebis gamarTleba, ganaxorcielos nafic msajulTa sasamarTlo ruseTis federaciis mxolod 9 Semadgenel nawilSi wina konstituciis debulebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT da organizaciuli, materialuri da teqnikuri mosazrebebidan gamomdinare, mdgomareobda imaSi, rom nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos sistemis damkvidreba unda momxdariyo TandaTanobiT, radganac ganviTarda

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da ganxorcielda sasamarTlo reforma. Tumca, aRniSnuli ar niSnavs imas, rom ar arsebobda yvela im pirisaTvis nafic msajulTa sasamarTloze uflebis uzrunvelyofis saWiroeba, vinc braldebuli iyo sikvdiliT dasjadi danaSaulis CadenisTvis im dromde, sanam Sesabamisi kanonmdebloba ar iqneboda gamocemuli, anu sanam axali konstitucia Sevidoda ZalaSi da uzrunvelyofda, rom ufleba nafic msajulTa sasamarTloebze unda gavrcelebuliyo mTeli qveynis masStabiT. gasaCivrebuli debulebebi, romlebic Tavdapirvelad gansazRvravs nafic msajulTa sasamarTlos moqmedebas mxolod federaciis 9 Semadgenel nawilSi, ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias. axali konstituciis miRebiTa da sasamarTlo reformis ganxorcielebiT, kanonmdebels moeTxova me-2 Tavis me-6 nawilis 1li punqtis farglebSi (`saboloo da gardamavali debulebani~ da konstituciis 20.2 muxli) uzrunveleyo federaciis mTel teritoriaze Sesaferisi saproceduro meqanizmisa da zemoxsenebul muxlSi gansazRvruli uflebis amoqmedeba im pirebisaTvis, romlebic braldebulni iyvnen seriozuli danaSaulebis CadenaSi. ukve 5 weli gavida konstituciis miRebidan da kanonmdeblisaTvis es warmoadgenda damatebiT dros xsenebuli moTxovnis Sesasruleblad. Tumca, aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT, araviTari cvlileba kanonmdeblobaSi ar ganxorcielebula. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina Semdegi: im danaSaulSi braldebul pirebs, romelTaTvisac federaluri kanonmdebloba gamonaklisis saxiT sikvdiliT dasjas iTvaliswinebs, yvela SemTxvevaSi unda gaaCndeT nafic msajulTa sasamarTloze efeqturi ufleba. Sesabamisad, federalurma asambleam dauyovnebliv unda Seitanos cvlileba kanonmdeblobaSi, raTa uzrunvelyos, rom federaciis teritoriaze yvela pirs, vinc braldebulia sikvdiliT dasjadi danaSaulis CadenaSi, SesaZlebloba hqondes, ganaxorcielos ufleba nafic msajulTa sasamarTloze. sanam ZalaSi Seva kanoni, romelic uzrunvelyofs am uflebas federaciis mTel teritoriaze, ar SeiZleba vinme daeqvemdebaros sikvdiliT dasjas.

ukraina sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 29-12-1999 sicocxlis xelSeuxebeli ufleba warmoadgens adamianis Rirsebis uflebis ganuyofel nawils. rogorc adamianis fundamen-

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turi uflebebi, isini winaswar gansazRvraven sxva uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa realizaciis SesaZleblobas da amitomac dauSvebelia maTi SezRudva an gauqmeba. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis debulebebi, romlebic sikvdiliT dasjas iTvaliswinebs, Seusabamoa konstituciasTan. saxalxo deputatebma mimarTes sakonstitucio sasamarTlos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 24-e muxlis konstituciurobis Sesaxeb, romelic exeba gamonaklisi sanqciis saxiT sikvdiliT dasjis dakisrebas im seriozuli danaSaulebis CadenisaTvis, romlebic kodeqsis specialur TavSia mocemuli. saxalxo advokatebi amtkicebdnen, rom sicocxlis ufleba, romelic uzrunvelyofilia konstituciiT, aris absoluturi xasiaTis da konstituciis ganmartebis dros mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli naTlad gansazRvruli Rrma pativiscema adamianis sicocxlisadmi, rogorc demokratiuli sazogadoebis mSeneblobis fundamenturi principTagani, romelic imarTeba kanonis uzenaesobiT. amitomac konstituciis konteqstSi, sikvdiliT dasjis gamonaklisi sanqciis saxiT dakisreba ganxilul unda iqnes, rogorc `adamianis uflebis TviTneburi warTmeva~. konstitucia gansazRvravs adamians, mis sicocxlesa da janmrTelobas, pativsa da Rirsebas, imunitetsa da usafrTxoebas, rogorc uzenaes socialur sikeTes (konstituciis 3.1 muxli) da uzrunvelyofs, rom adamianis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa dadgena da dacva warmoadgendes saxelmwifos umTavres valdebulebas (konstituciis 3.2 muxli). umTavres sakonstitucio debulebas, romelic aRiarebs uflebas sicocxleze, warmoadgens debuleba, romelic gansazRvravs, rom sicocxle aris ganuyofeli (konstituciis 27.2 muxli), xelSeuxebeli da daurRveveli (konstituciis 21-e muxli). sicocxlis ufleba eniWeba adamians dabadebisTanave da daculia saxelmwifos mier. konstitucia acxadebs, rom konstituciuri uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi, kerZod ki, sicocxlis ufleba, uzrunvelyofilia da ar SeiZleba gauqmdes (konstituciis 22.2 muxli), aseve, akrZalulia iseTi cvlilebebis an alternativebis Setana, romlebic gaauqmebs adamianisa da moqalaqeTa uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs (konstituciis 157.1 muxli). akrZalulia arsebuli uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis farglebis Seviwroeba axali kanonebis gamocemiT an arsebul kanonebSi cvlilebebis SetaniT (konstituciis 22.3 muxli). konstituciis 22.2 muxlis debulebebi avaldebulebs saxelmwifos, uzrunvelyos konstituciuri uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi, pirvel rigSi, sicocxlis ufleba, Tavi Seikavos

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iseTi kanonis miRebisagan, romelsac SeuZlia migviyvanos konstituciuri uflebis an Tavisuflebis, maT Soris, sicocxlis uflebis gauqmebamde. saxelmwifos mier adamianisTvis sicocxlis uflebis CamorTmeva sanqciis ganxorcielebiT, Tundac kanoniT gansazRvruli debulebebis farglebSi, ganixileba, rogorc sicocxlis xelSeuvali uflebis gauqmeba da amitomac ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias. yovel pirs aqvs sakuTari pirovnebis Tavisufali ganviTarebis ufleba im donemde, ra donemdec es ukanaskneli ar arRvevs sxvaTa uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs. konstitucia sicocxlis ganuyofeli uflebiT uzrunvelyofs yovel adamians (konstituciis 27.1 muxli) da garantirebs am uflebis dacvas gauqmebisagan. amave dros, igi gansazRvravs debulebas, romlis Tanaxmad, yovel pirs aqvs ufleba, daicvas rogorc Tavisi, ise sxva pirTa sicocxle da janmrTeloba ukanono xelyofisagan (konstituciis 27.3 muxli). sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsma gansazRvra debulebebi, romlebic ukavSirdeba piris mier ganxorcielebul qmedebebs Tavdacvis garemoebebSi imisaTvis, raTa dacul iqnes misi an sxva pirTa sicocxle da janmrTeloba, Tuki aRniSnulis ganxorcieleba nakarnaxevia mwvave aucileblobiT, rac socialurad saSiSi agresiis neitralizebas gulisxmobs. sicocxlis xelSeuxebeli uflebis konstituciuri mxardaWera, iseve rogorc sxva uflebebisa, emyareba Semdeg fundamentur principebs: yvela gamonaklisi, romelic ukavSirdeba adamianisa da moqalaqis uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs, dadgenil unda iqnes konstituciiT da ara kanonebiTa Tu sxva normatiuli aqtebiT. konstituciis 64.1 muxlis Tanaxmad, `adamianis da moqalaqis konstituciuri uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi ar SeiZleba SeizRudos, garda im SemTxvevebisa, romlebic dadgenilia konstituciiT~. konstitucia ar Seicavs raime debulebas, romelic adgens, rom sikvdiliT dasja aris gamonaklisi konstituciiT gansazRvruli sicocxlis xelSeuvali uflebidan. unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli sikvdiliT dasjis Seusabamoba sasjelis miznebTan iseve, rogorc marTlmsajulebis Secdomis SesaZlebloba. xsenebuli ar Seesabameba adamianis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa konstituciur garantiebs (konstituciis 58-e muxli). sikvdiliT dasja aseve ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciis 28-e muxls, romelic asaxavs evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxls, romlis Tanaxmadac, `ar SeiZleba vinme daeqvemdebaros wamebas, saSinel, araadamianur Tu damamcirebel mopyrobas an sasjels.~

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wamebis akrZalva

latvia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 22-10-2002 ,,sagamoZiebo izolatoris Sinaganawesis" 59.1.6, 66 da 68 punqtebis Sesabamisoba konstituciis 89-e, 95-e da 111-e muxlebTan e e e sagamoZiebo izolatoris Sinaganawesis Tanaxmad, patimrobaSi myofi da msjavrdebuli pirebi, romlebic sistematurad da uxeSad arRvevdnen sapatimros reJims, SeiZleba moTavsdnen karcerSi an hauptvaxtSi ara umetes 15 dRisa. Sinaganawesis Tanaxmad, dakavebulma pirma SeiZleba Tan iqonios mxolod piradi higienisaTvis aucilebeli nivTebi da is dokumentebi da Canawerebi, rac sisxlis samarTlis saqmes ukavSirdeba. dauSvebelia SuSis nawarmis, vitaminebis da uxmari tansacmlis, aseve, qaRaldis, kalmisa da wignebis qona. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom pirobebi, romelSic patimari karcerSi imyofeboda da faqti, rom mas ar SeeZlo gaesaCivrebina es sasjeli, arRvevda pirovnebis konstituciiT garantirebul uflebebs. sakonstitucio sarCelSi orma dakavebulma mosarCelem daayena sagamoZiebo izolatoris Sinaganawesis konstituciis 89-e, 95-e da 111-e muxlebTan (saxelmwifos valdebuleba _ aRiaros da daicvas adamianis ZiriTadi uflebebi, aRmofxvras sastiki an damamcirebeli mopyroba da daicvas adamianis janmrTeloba), adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlTan da evropis sasjelaRsrulebiTi dawesebulebebis Sinaganawesis 37-e punqtTan Sesabamisobis sakiTxi (evropis sabWos rekomendacia, nomeri R(87) 3). 2001 wlis 9 maiss sapatimro dawesebulebebis departamentis ufrosis mier damtkicebul sagamoZiebo izolatoris SinaganawesSi mocemuli sapatimro reJimis Tanaxmad, patimrobaSi myofi pirebi SeiZleba moTavsebul iqnen karcerSi an hauptvaxtSi. rogorc wesi, praqtikaSi gamoiyeneba 15 dRiani maqsimaluri periodi. rac Seexeba "karcerSi moTavsebas", sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom adgili ar hqonda adamianis sayovelTao uflebaTa darRvevas. uflebaTa Selaxvaze saubrisas yuradReba unda gamaxvilebuliyo ZiriTadad im pirobebze, romelSic karcerSi myofi pirovneba imyofeboda da faqtze, Tu ramdenad safuZvliani iyo es sasjeli. unda

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ganxiluliyo is sakiTxic, rom karcerSi moTavsebul patimars ar hqonda am sasjelis gasaCivrebis SesaZlebloba. garda amisa, sasamarTlos unda ganexila, iyo Tu ara SinaganawesiT sayovelTao uflebebis SezRudva kanonieri, proporciuli da emsaxureboda Tu ara kanonier mizans. sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom sayovelTao uflebebis SezRudva SesaZlebelia kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevaSi sxva pirovnebebis uflebebis, saxelmwifos demokratiuli struqturisa da sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis, keTildReobisa da moralis dasacavad. magram sadavo normebSi mocemuli SezRudvebi ar iyo kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli. sadavo normebi miRebul iqna iusticiis ministris Sinaganawesis gardamavali debulebebis safuZvelze, amrigad, kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli ar yofila. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sagamoZiebo izolatoris Sinaganawesis sadavo normebi ar Seesabameboda konstituciis 64-e, 89-e an 111-e muxlebs. sadavo normebi gadawyvetilebis gamoqveynebis dRidan baTilad da Zaladakargulad gamocxadda.

norvegia uzenaesi sasamarTlo 21-03-2003 pirovnebas, romelsac deportacias upirebdnen, saWiro informaciis miwodebiT SeeZlo bolo moeRo im mdgomareobisaTvis, romelic, misi azriT, uflebaTa darRveva iyo. es mniSvnelovani faqtia imis dasadgenad, deportaciis Sesaxeb brZaneba warmoadgenda Tu ara adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlis darRvevas. A-s 1988 wels mieniWa norvegiaSi cxovrebisa da muSaobis ufleba. 1994 is msjavrdebul iqna narkotikebTan dakavSirebuli danaSaulis damamZimebel garemoebaSi CadenisaTvis oTxi wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT. imave wels gaica misi deportaciis Sesaxeb brZaneba. A-s mier mowodebuli informaciis Tanaxmad, iyo misi deportaciis mcdeloba ugandaSi, romelmac A-s miRebaze uari ganacxada. mas Semdeg, rac mopovebul iqna axali informacia misi ganadan warmomavlobis Sesaxeb, 1997 da 1998 wlebSi saubari daiwyo swored am qveyanaSi deportaciaze, Tumca mis miRebaze aqac uari ganacxades. amis Semdeg A-m Seitana sarCeli saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg, romelsac imigraciis sabWo warmoadgenda. mosarCelis gancxadebiT, mdgomareoba, romelSic is imyofeboda, warmoadgenda adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlis darRvevas, rac

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krZalavs araadamianur da damamcirebel mopyrobas. igi iTxovda deportaciis Sesaxeb brZanebis gauqmebas. raionulma sasamarTlom gadawyvetileba A-s sasargeblod miiRo, Tumca, saapelacio sasamarTlom raionuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba saxelmwifos sasargeblod gaauqma. uzenaesma sasamarTlom ucvlelad datova saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba. 1996 wlidan A patimrobidan gaaTavisufles, Tumca, sakuTari momavali gaurkvevlad esaxeboda. A-s CamoerTva muSaobis ufleba da Tavs mxolod socialuri daxmarebebiT irCenda. mas arc daqorwinebis ufleba hqonda. uzenaesma sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom zemoaRniSnuli SezRudvebi, mTlianobaSi, iseTi masStabis ar iyo, rom adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlis darRvevad miCneuliyo. arsebobda utyuari sabuTi imis dasamtkiceblad, rom A warmoSobiT ganadan iyo, rasac Tavad uaryofda. is faqti, rom TviTon mosarCeles SeeZlo, bolo moeRo im mdgomareobisaTvis, romelic, misi azriT, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlis darRvevas warmoadgenda, sasamarTlo msjelobisas didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda imis gadasawyvetad, namdvilad hqonda Tu ara adgili darRvevas. deportaciis Sesaxeb brZanebis gauqmebis an baTilad cnobisaTvis ki sxva safuZveli ar arsebobda.

gaerTianebuli samefo lordTa palata saapelacio sasamarTlo 30-07-2002 A da sxvebi Sinagan saqmeTa saministros winaaRmdeg antiteroristuli, danaSaulisa da uSiSroebis aqti 2001 ("aqti 2001"), romelic SesaZlebels xdida saerTaSoriso terorizmSi eWvmitanili ucxoelebis dakavebas sasamarTlos gareSe, ewinaaRmdegeboda 1998 wlis adamianis uflebaTa aqts ("HRA"). Sesabamisad, aqtis safuZvelze cxra ucxoelis dakaveba arakanonieri iyo, radgan maT mimarT gamoyenebuli Zalaufleba diskriminaciuli iyo da ewinaaRmdegeboda adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-14 muxls. marTalia, gaerTianebuli samefos mTavrobam daadgina sagangebo mdgomareobis arsebobis faqti da is, rom saerTaSoriso teroristebis dakavebis mizniT (romlebic realur safrTxes uqmnidnen qveynis usafrTxoebas), maT ufleba hqondaT, gadaexviaT konvenciis me-5

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muxlidan, adamianis uflebaTa aqti moiTxovda, rom 2001 wlis aqts SezRuduli interpretacia miscemoda. 2001 wlis aqti 2001 wlis 11 seqtembers amerikaSi ganxorcielebuli teroristuli Tavdasxmebis Semdeg iqna SemoRebuli. is Sinagan saqmeTa saministros aniWebda uflebamosilebas, daedasturebina, rom pirovneba eWvmitanili iyo saerTaSoriso terorizmSi da imigraciis Zalebis mier igi sasamarTlos gareSe daekavebinaT. am gziT SesaZlebeli iyo mxolod arabritanelebis dakaveba, vinaidan dakaveba xorcieldeboda saimigracio kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad. Tumca, imisaTvis, rom gadalaxuliyo problema, romelic gamoiwvia adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebam Cahalis saqmeze (gadawyvetileba #22414/93, romlis Tanaxmad, saimigracio uflebamosilebis safuZvelze piris dapatimreba konvenciis me-5 muxlis 1-li punqtis Tanaxmad kanonierad CaiTvleboda mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac qmedeba ganxorcieldeboda am piris deportaciis mizniT), me-5 muxlTan mimarTebiT gaerTianebuli samefos mTavrobas gakeTebuli hqonda gadaxvevis daTqma. mTavrobis mier gakeTebuli gadaxveva ganisazRvra sityvier notaSi (note verbale), romelic waredgina evropis sabWos. adamianis uflebaTa aqtis Tanaxmad, aucilebeli iyo, rom ministrs gaeca brZaneba gadaxvevis nebarTvasTan dakavSirebiT. aRniSnuli ganxorcielda imave debulebebiT, romlebic gansazRvrul iqna sityvier notaSi. 2001 wlis aqti agreTve miuTiTebda, rom aqtis kanonierebis an mis safuZvelze ganxorcielebuli dakavebis sakiTxis ganxilva unda momxdariyo imigraciis specialur saapelacio komisiaSi (SIAC) da ara Cveulebriv sasamarTloebSi. es komisia uflebamosili iyo, mieRo da ganexila "daxuruli masalebi" (magaliTad, mtkicebuleba, romelic sazogadoebisaTvis, mosarCeleebisa Tu maTi iuridiuli warmomadgenlebisaTvis ar aris xelmisawvdomi). cxra mosarCelem ganacxada, rom maTi dakaveba da 2001 wlis aqti arRvevda adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-5 muxls, radgan ar arsebobda sagangebo situacia, rac britaneli xalxis sicocxles safrTxes Seuqmnida. maTi mtkicebiT, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis arc erT xelmomwer qveyanas ar gadauxvevia nakisri valdebulebebisagan teroristuli aqtebis gamo da sagangebo mdgomareobis drosac ki am konkretul SemTxvevaSi gatarebuli RonisZiebebi aucilebel zRvars scildeboda. Semdgom maT ganacxades, rom gaerTianebuli samefos mTavrobam valdebulebebidan gadaxveva moaxdina mxolod im moculobiT, rogorc es note verbale-Si iyo asaxuli da, amrigad, mxolod konvenciis me-5 muxlidan gadauxvia. ase rom, 2001 wlis aqti ar Seesabameboda konvenciis me-3, me-6 da me-14 muxlebs.

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komisiam daadgina, rom mTavroba ar tyuoda, roca daaskvna, rom arsebobda sagangebo mdgomareoba, romelic qveynis usafrTxoebas saSiSroebis winaSe ayenebda. adamianis uflebaTa evropulma sasamarTlom gansazRvra, rom aseTi mdgomareoba arsebobs maSin, rodesac safrTxe eqmneba qveynis mTel mosaxleobas. gaerTianebuli samefo 11 seqtembris Semdeg aseTi safrTxis winaSe idga. xelisufleba ver daelodeboda, sanam mas mosalodneli Tavdasxmis Sesaxeb acnobebdnen. igi mxolod amis Semdeg ver daiwyebda prevenciuli qmedebebis ganxorcielebas. Tuki saWiro zomebi ar iqneboda miRebuli, Tavdasxmis realuri riski sakmarisi sababi iyo imisaTvis, raTa arsebuli situacia sagangebo mdgomareobad aRqmuliyo. 11 seqtembris movlenebis Semdeg gaerTianebuli samefo SeerTebuli Statebis Semdeg teroristebis mTavar samizned iTvleboda. cxadi iyo, rom msgavsi movlenebi inglisSi yovelgvari gafrTxilebis gareSe ganxorcieldeboda da eris sicocxles safrTxis qveS daayenebda. sakiTxi, gadauxvies Tu ara adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis xelmomwerma sxva qveynebma konvenciiT nakisr valdebulebebs, ar iyo arsebiTi mniSvnelobis _ gaerTianebul samefos, evropis sxva qveynebTan SedarebiT, gacilebiT didi safrTxe emuqreboda maTi mxridan, vinc 11 seqtembris teraqtze pasuxismgeblobas iRebdnen. komisia ar daeTanxma arguments, TiTqos ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebi aucilebel zRvars scildeboda. is, rom ufro nakleb intensiur RonisZiebebs igive gavlenis moxdena SeeZlo, ar iyo ganmsazRvreli. komisiam uaryo argumenti, rom dakavebisas Zalian farTo uflebebiT sargeblobdnen, radganac 2001 wlis aqtis safuZvelze, teroristis gansazRvrebamac farTo mniSvneloba SeiZina. adamianis uflebaTa aqti viwro definicias moiTxovda. am ukanasknelis Tanaxmad, mxolod al-qaidasTan asocirebuli pirebis dakaveba unda momxdariyo. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis 15.3 muxlsa da samoqalaqo da politikur uflebaTa saerTaSoriso paqtis 4.3 muxlSi mocemuli diplomatiuri korespondenciebi miTiTebiTi xasiaTis iyo da ara _ aucilebeli. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciisa da samoqalaqo da politikur uflebaTa saerTaSoriso paqtiT nakisri gaerTianebuli samefos saerTaSoriso samarTlis valdebulebebis Tanaxmad, gadaxveva gascda note verbale-is da, amrigad, mxolod konvenciis me-5 muxlis farglebs. mosarCeleebma ver warmoadgines me-3 da me-6 muxlis raime darRveva, Tumca, komisiam aRmoaCina adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-14 muxlis darRveva. 2001 wlis aqti ucxoelebis winaSe diskriminaciuli xasiaTis iyo. saerTaSoriso terorizmSi

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eWvmitanili britanelebi, am debulebebis Tanaxmad, ar SeiZleboda daekavebinaT. msgavsi xasiaTis diskriminacia ar iyo racionaluri an gamarTlebuli _ debuleba, romelic ministrs uflebamosils xdida, daekavebina eWvmitanili saerTaSoriso teroristebi, unda gavrcelebuliyo yvela eWvmitanil saerTaSoriso teroristze, miuxedavad erovnebisa. amrigad, komisiam miiRo mosarCeles saapelacio saCivari da daadgina, rom 2001 wlis sadavo normebi ewinaaRmdegeboda adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-14 muxls.

fineTi uzenaesi administraciuli sasamarTlo 29-02-2000 ucxoelTa Sesaxeb aqtis 30-2 paragrafis Tanaxmad, ucxoels SeiZleba mieces TavSesafari da cxovrebis nebarTva, Tuki rasobriv, religiur, erovnul niadagze, garkveuli socialuri jgufis wevrobis an politikuri mosazrebisaTvis devnis safuZvliani SiSis gamo, is cxovrobs misi warmoSobis qveynis an im qveynis gareT, sadac is Cveulebriv cxovrobda da ar surs, miiRos aRniSnuli qveynis daxmareba. imave aqtis 31-e paragrafis mixedviT, fineTSi mcxovreb ucxoelze SeiZleba gaices am qveyanaSi cxovrebis nebarTva, Tu is saWiroebs dacvas, vinaidan misi warmoSobis qveyanaSi an im qveyanaSi, sadac is Cveulebriv cxovrobda, mas emuqreba sikvdiliT dasja, wameba an sxva araadamianuri an damamcirebeli mopyroba, anda, Tu ar SeuZlia iq dabruneba SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis an ekologiuri katastrofis gamo. uzenaesma administraciulma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom TavSesafris maZiebelTa mier, devnis safuZvlebis da daxmarebis Txovnisas, gaTvaliswinebuli unda yofiliyo am aqtis sakanonmdeblo masalebi da 1951 wlis konvenciisa da 1967 wlis (ltolvilTa statusis Sesaxeb) oqmis Tanaxmad, ltolvilis statusis dadgenis Taobaze gaeros ltolvilTa umaRlesi komisris mier gacemuli instruqciebi. UNHCR mTavar principad ayalibebs, rom bundovani situaciebis dros mosarCele SeiZleba upiratesi uflebiT sargeblobdes. mocemul saqmeSi ar miiCnies, rom TavSesafris maZiebeli sakuTar qveyanaSi devnis saSiSroebis winaSe idga. maSasadame, mas TavSesafars ver miscemdnen. Tumca, maSin, roca zogadad gaiTvaliswines mosarCelis qveyanaSi adamianis uflebaTa dacvis kuTxiT arsebuli mdgomareoba da garemoebebi, miiCnies, rom TavSesafris maZiebeli

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idga araadamianuri da damamcirebeli mopyrobis safrTxis winaSe, anu is saWiroebda saerTaSoriso dacvas, rogorc es ucxoelTa Sesaxeb aqtis 31 punqtSi iyo gaTvaliswinebuli.

fineTi uzenaesi administraciuli sasamarTlo 04-02-1997 fineTis konstituciuri aqtis Tanaxmad, dauSvebelia qveynidan ucxoelis gandevna, Tu Sedegad mas sikvdiliT dasja, wameba an sxva damamcirebeli mopyroba emuqreba. ucxoelTa Sesaxeb aqtis Tanaxmad, roca ucxoelis gaZevebis sakiTxi ganixileba, gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnes yvela Sesabamisi aqti da garemoeba. bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb konvenciis Tanaxmad, yvela SemTxvevaSi, roca saqme bavSvs exeba, iqneba es sasamarTlo Tu administraciuli organoebi, upiratesi mniSvneloba unda mieniWos bavSvis interesebs. monawile saxelmwifom unda uzrunvelyos, rom bavSvi Tavisi nebis sawinaaRmdegod ar daaSoros mSoblebs garda im SemTxvevisa, roca kompetenturi organoebi, romlebic eqvemdebarebian sasamarTlo gadaxedvas, Sesabamis kanonmdeblobasa da procedurebze dayrdnobiT daadgenen, rom es ganSoreba bavSvis interesebSi Sedis. imigraciis direqtoratma gamosca gandevnis Sesaxeb brZaneba ucxoelebze (deda "A", mama "B", ori arasrulwlovani "C" da "D"). amrigad, isini deportirebulni unda yofiliyvnen sakuTar qveyanaSi. uzenaes administraciul sasamarTloSi Setanil saapelacio saCivarSi ucxoelebi moiTxovdnen direqtoratis gadawyvetilebis gauqmebas. "A" mZime posttravmul stresul mdgomareobaSi da seriozul depresiaSi imyofeboda. uzenaesma administraciulma sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom "A"­s gaZeveba damamcirebeli garemoebis tolfasi iyo. saTanado faqtebisa da garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, ar arsebobda "A"­s qveynidan gaZevebis sakmarisi safuZveli. "A" da "B" mcirewlovan SvilebTan erTad erT ojaxs warmoadgenda. Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT ojaxur siaxloves, mSoblebsa da Svilebs Soris arsebul urTierTobas, princips, rom upiratesad bavSvis interesebi unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli da misi nebis winaaRmdeg bavSvis mSoblebisagan moSoreba dauSvebelia, aseve, imas, rom "A"­s qveynidan deportacia ar SeiZleba, ~B", "C" da "D"­s gaZevebac sadavo xdeboda. amrigad, uzenaesma administraciulma sasamarTlom, oTxi xmiT erTis winaaRmdeg, direqtoratis gadawyvetileba gaauqma.

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germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 29-05-1996 espaneTis moqalaqe germaniaSi yofnisas teroristul aqtSi monawileobaSi daadanaSaules. espaneTma am pirovnebis eqstradicia moiTxova. pirovnebam ganacxada, rom espaneTis policiam masze informacia mxolod imitom miiRo, rom man sxva pirovneba awama. braldebebi politikuri xasiaTis iyo. amas garda, espaneTis cixeSi yofniT safrTxe eqmneboda mis janmrTelobas, radganac SidsiT iyo daavadebuli, xolo cixeSi saTanado mkurnalobis kursiT ver iqneboda uzrunvelyofili. espanelma TavSesafari iTxova. germaniis sasamarTlom miiRo gadawyvetileba misi eqstradiciis Sesaxeb. federalurma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom individualuri saCivari ar daakmayofila. man ganacxada, rom sasamarTlom eqstradiciis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebiT ar daarRvia TavSesafris miRebis Sesaxeb sayovelTao ufleba, radgan espanelis saqmianobas, risTvisac misi eqstradicia moiTxoves, ar SeiZleboda politikuri kvalifikacia miscemoda. teroristul jgufSi monawileoba, raSic mas brali edeboda, ar SeiZleboda ganxiluliyo, rogorc politikuri aqti mxolod imitom, rom mas am jgufSi gaerTianebisas politikuri motivebi amoZravebda. teroristuli aqtis Camden pirovnebas Cveulebriv TavSesafrisaTvis mimarTvis ufleba ar aqvs. gamonaklisia gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevebi, pirovnebis gaZlierebuli devna, roca arsebobs safuZveli, vifiqroT, rom yovelive es politikur safuZvelze xorcieldeba. federalurma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sasamarTlos ar daurRvevia konstituciuri akrZalva piris iseT qveyanaSi eqstradiciis Sesaxeb, sadac sajaro saerTaSoriso samarTlis minimaluri standartebi sisxlis samarTlis devnisas ar aris daculi. saxelmwifo organoTa mier sxva pirovnebis uflebis darRvevis erTi faqti ar warmoadgens riskis safuZvels im pirovnebisTvis, romlis eqstradiciac unda moxdes. wamebis da araadamianuri an damamcirebeli mopyrobisa da dasjis Sesaxeb evropuli konvenciis safuZvelze, wamebis winaaRmdeg komitetis angariSis gaTvaliswinebiT, federalurma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom ar arsebobda garemoebebi, ris gamoc espanels espaneTis cixeSi ise moepyrobodnen, rac misi eqstradiciis sakiTxs eWvis qveS daayenebda. sabolood, federalurma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ver aRmoaCina veraviTari faqti, rac safuZvels mogvcemda gvefiqra, rom espaneTis sasamarTlo arakanonieri gziT Segrovebul mtkicebulebebs espanelis winaaRmdeg gamoiyenebda. es espaneTis kanonmdeblobiT dauSvebelia. mtkicebulebis gamoyeneba,

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romelic espaneTis organoebis mier sxva piris wamebis Sedegad iyo mopovebuli, saerTaSoriso samarTliT akrZaluli ar aris da arc ZiriTadi kanonis minimaluri standartebis darRvevas warmoadgens.

lixtenSteini saxelmwifo sabWo 23-05-1996 uzenaesma sasamarTlom gamoitana gadawyvetileba amerikeli moqalaqe B-is TaRliTobasTan dakavSirebuli sxvadasxva danaSaulisaTvis amerikaSi eqstradiciis Sesaxeb. am danaSaulTaTvis maqsimaluri patimrobis vada lixtenSteinis kanonmdeblobiT, savaraudod, 10 wels Seadgenda. amerikaSi gamoyenebuli kumulaciuri formis gamo, aRniSnulma sasjelma Cadenil danaSaulebze erTobliobaSi 310 weli Seadgina. uzenaesma sasamarTlom gaiTvaliswina, rom gamotanili ganaCeni ufro mkacri ver iqneboda, vidre lixtenSteinSi arsebuli maqsimaluri sasjeli, vinaidan B-is Tanamonawiles 10 welze naklebi miusajes. B-m konstituciuri sarCeli Seitana saxelmwifo sabWoSi da ganacxada, rom adgili hqonda adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlis darRvevas. uzenaesi sasamarTlosagan gansxvavebiT, saxelmwifo sabWom miiCnia, rom realurad arsebobda safrTxe, gamotanili ganaCeni gacilebiT mkacri yofiliyo, vidre lixtenSteinSi arsebuli maqsimaluri sasjeli, radganac B-is Tanamonawiles, winaswari saproceso SeTanxmebis Sedegad, 10 welze naklebi miusajes. mosarCelis eqstradicia, im detalebis gareSe, ris Tanaxmadac misTvis gamotanili ganaCeni ar iqneboda gacilebiT mZime, vidre lixtenSteinSi arsebuli maqsimaluri sasjeli, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlis darRvevad iTvleboda. meore mxriv, adamianis uflebaTa evropul konvencias Seesabameboda eqstradicia, romelic mTavrobam amerikis xelisuflebas werilis sanacvlod SesTavaza. aRniSnul werilSi Camoyalibebuli iqneboda pirobebi, rom eqstradirebul pirovnebas maqsimum 12-wliani patimroba Seefardeboda. am pirobebis miuxedavad, saxelmwifo sabWom ar daakmayofila B-is konstituciuri sarCeli im safuZvliT, rom mTavrobas da ara saxelmwifo sabWos ekisreboda eqstradiciis pirobebis gansazRvris pasuxismgebloba. miuxedavad amisa, saxelmwifo sabWom acnoba mTavrobas mis mier gamotanili gadawyvetilebis Sesaxeb, sadac aSkarad daafiqsira, rom B-is eqstradicia, Tuki amerikis sasamarTloebs ar daekisreboda Sesabamisi valdebuleba maqsi-

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maluri sasjelis dacvasTan dakavSirebiT, ewinaaRmdegeboda adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxls.

niderlandebi uzenaesi sasamarTlo 01-10-1996 saapelacio samarTalwarmoebisas gansasjeli acxadebda, rom amocnobis procedura da interviuebi imgvarad Catarda, rom xeli Sewyoboda mtkicebulebebis ukanonod Segrovebas da gamamarTlebeli ganaCenis gamotanas. gansasjelis gancxadebebi efuZneboda faqts, rom ramdenime SemTxvevaSi amocnobis mizniT mxolod erT suraTs iyenebdnen da mowmeebs awamebdnen, xolo eWvmitanilebs gamoZiebis procesSi, sruli TanamSromlobis safasurad, maqsimalurad mcire droSi pirdebodnen gaTavisuflebas. saapelacio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom es garemoebebi, Tavisi arsiT, arasakmarisi piroba iyo mtkicebulebis arakanonierad gamocxadebisaTvis. amocnobis procedurebisa da interviuebis arakanonierad miCnevisaTvis damatebiTi faqtebi iyo saWiro. kasaciisas, uzenaesma sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom saapelacio sasamarTlos mosazreba, TiTqos mowmeebis wameba informaciis mopovebis mizniT arasakmarisi iyo mtkicebulebebis ukanonod cnobisaTvis, warmoadgenda kanonis, gansakuTrebiT ki, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlisa da samoqalaqo da politikur uflebaTa saerTaSoriso paqtis me-7 muxlis araswor interpretacias. saerTaSoriso dokumentebSi mocemuli debulebebis Tanaxmad, Tu mowmis Cveneba mopovebulia wamebis Sedegad, es TavisTavad niSnavs, rom arakanonierad mopovebuli nebismieri aseTi gancxadeba ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos mtkicebulebad. vinaidan saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba moicavda mosamarTlis gadawyvetilebas, romlis Tanaxmadac dauSvebeli iyo mowmis gancxadebebis mopoveba wamebis Sedegad, saapelacio saCivari ar dakmayofilda.

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 28-02-1994 mosarCele, patimari, asaCivrebda cixis administraciis gadawyvetilebas, cixis zedamxedvelis wesebis daumorCileblobis gamo misTvis disciplinuri sanqciis SemoRebis Sesaxeb. es wesebi

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iTvaliswinebda gaCxrekis dros suliad SiSvel mdgomareobaSi varjiSebis gakeTebas. mosarCelis gancxadebiT, is araadamianuri da damamcirebeli mopyrobis msxverpli iyo da, amas garda, irRveoda misi piradi xelSeuvalobis ufleba. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom saqmis garemoebebis Seswavlis Semdeg daadgina, rom pirveli uflebis darRvevas adgili ar hqonda, xolo piradi xelSeuvalobis ufleba Selaxuli iyo. cixis administraciis qmedebis gamarTleba ar SeiZleboda arc maSin, roca safrTxe eqmneboda cixis usafrTxoebasa da wesrigs da arc maSin, roca patimari cdilobda saxifaTo nivTebisa an nivTierebebis Setanas. amrigad, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sadavo RonisZiebebi ar Seesabameboda konstituciis 18.1 muxliT garantirebul piradi xelSeuvalobis uflebas.

Sveicaria federaluri sasamarTlo 05-06-1998 E iusticiis departamentis, vaudis olqis policiisa da samxedro Zalebis xelmZRvanelis winaaRmdeg obre pleinis cixeSi (kantonis olqi) patimar E-s cixis xelmZRvanelma marixuanas mowevisaTvis xuTdRiani sasjeli miusaja _ samuSaos gareSe. is sasjelis daniSvnas ar SewinaaRmdegebia. ramdenime dRis Semdeg E-m saCivriT mimarTa iusticiis departamentis, vaudis olqis policiisa da samxedro Zalebis xelmZRvanels im pirobebis gamo, romelSic is karcerSi imyofeboda: iq iyo mxolod erTi gaumWvirvale fanjara, romlis gaRebac SeuZlebeli iyo, arc ventilacia muSaobda saTanadod. patimarma, agreTve, ganacxada, rom WurWlis garecxva uxdeboda im wyliT, romelic sapirfareSoSi Cadioda. mas Semdeg, rac departamentis Tavmjdomarem E-s moTxovna ar miiRo, man saapelacio saCivari Seitana federalur sasamarTloSi gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis mizniT. federalurma sasamarTlom saCivari ar daakmayofila da procedurebTan dakavSirebiT aRniSna, rom E-s gaaCnda aSkara praqtikuli interesi _ misi sarCeli miRebuliyo imisda miuxedavad, rom man es sasjeli ukve moixada. rac Seexeba saqmis arss, federaluri sasamarTlo daeyrdno adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 da samoqalaqo da politikur uflebaTa saerTaSoriso paqtis me-7 muxlebs, aseve, gaeros 1984 wlis konvencias da 1987 wlis evropis konvencias wamebis dauSveblobis Sesaxeb. man, amas garda, gaiTvaliswina 1987 wels evropis sabWos ministrTa komitetis mier miRebuli sapatimros wesebi. am wesebis ZiriTad mizans

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Cveulebrivi dakavebis adgilebSi saTanado pirobebis Camoyalibeba warmoadgens. Tumca, miRebulia, rom mcirexniani sadamsjelo reJimi garkveulwilad mkacr pirobebsac iTvaliswinebdes. amis miuxedavad, msgavs SemTxvevebSi sapatimros xelmZRvaneloba ar unda gascdes im zRvars, rom mis mier Cadenili qmedeba ganixilebodes, rogorc araadamianuri an damamcirebeli. konkretuli saqmis Sefasebisas yvela garemoeba unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli. marTalia, karcers mxolod erTi gaumWvirvale minis fanjara hqonda, magram E-s ar ganucxadebia pretenzia cudi ganaTebis gamo, Tumca, is ukmayofilo iyo arasaTanado saventilacio sistemiT da acxadebda, rom mas awuxebda asfiqsia da mousvenroba, Tavis tkivilebi, Tavbrusxveva, uWirda sunTqva. sapatimros xelmZRvanelobam federalur sasamarTloSi aRniSna, rom wamebis da araadamianuri an damamcirebeli qmedebis an dasjis sawinaaRmdego evropuli komiteti 1996 wels ewvia sapatimros da mis pirvel vizitTan SedarebiT sagrZnobi progresi SeniSna. Tumca, zogadi xasiaTis dakvirveba saapelacio saCivris miRebaze uarisaTvis sakmarisi safuZveli ar aris. rodesac patimari ramdenime dRis ganmavlobaSi erT oTaxSia Caketili (rogorc am konkretul SemTxvevaSi iyo), unda moxdes oTaxis saTanado ganiaveba. miuxedavad imisa, rom karceris saventilacio sistema nawilobriv mwyobridan iyo gamosuli, mis janmrTelobas safrTxes ar uqmnida. janmrTelobis mdgomareobis gauareseba ufro metad gamowveuli iyo ara haeris ukmarisobiT, aramed Caketil sivrceSi yofniT da imiT, rom igi eweoda sigarets. Zalian mniSvnelovania isic, rom E-s aRmouCines saTanado samedicino daxmareba. cixis samedicino samsaxurs ecnoba, rom mas karcerSi upirebdnen Casmas, eqimma moinaxula is da daadastura, rom fizikurad da fsiqologiurad mzad iyo am sasjelis gadasatanad. realurad, mosarCeles ar mouTxovia samedicino daxmareba imis gamo, rac awuxebda. rac Seexeba mis kameraSi arsebul sanitarul mdgomareobas, unda aRiniSnos, rom sadamsjelo reJimSi myof patimrebs SeuZliaT miiRon Sxapi dReSi erTxel kamerisagan gancalkevebul adgilas, aseve, SeuZliaT darecxon WurWeli oTaxSi, sadac aris pirsabani da cxeli wyali. maSasadame, mosarCele ar eqvemdebareboda araadamianur an damamcirebeli mopyrobas. Sveicaria federaluri sasamarTlo 03-09-1986 X ciurixis raionis saxalxo bralmdeblis departamentisa da ciurixis saolqos saxalxo bralmdeblis departamentis winaaRmdeg ciurixis sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa Ziebaze pasuxismgebeli pire-

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bi X-s brals sdebdnen ciurixSi bankze ganxorcielebul TavdasxmaSi Y-Tan erTad monawileobaSi. Zarcvis Semdeg igi male daakaves. am droisaTvis X wver-ulvaSs ar atarebda. winaswari dakavebis stadiaze man wveri moizarda. xelmZRvanelobam gadawyvita misTvis wveris moSoreba, raTa mowmeebs misi amocnoba SeZlebodaT. X amis winaaRmdegi iyo. mas Semdeg, rac olqis saxalxo bralmdeblis departamentma aRniSnuli moTxovna ar daakmayofila, man federalur sasamarTlos mimarTa. mosarCelis azriT, irRveoda misi piradi Tavisufleba, proporciulobis principi da adgili hqonda damamcirebel mopyrobas. federalurma sasamarTlom moTxovna ar daakmayofila. federaluri konstituciis mixedviT, ufleba pirad Tavisuflebaze ZiriTadi uflebaa, romelic ara marto gadaadgilebisa da Seuvalobis Tavisuflebas icavs, aramed yvela ZiriTad uflebasac, romlebic pirovnebis srulyofilebisaTvis aris saWiro. maTi SezRudva mxolod im SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli, Tu arsebobs realuri samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi, gamarTlebulia sazogadoebrivi interesiT da Seesabameba proporciulobis princips. Tumca, misi sruli akrZalva da aRmofxvra yovlad dauSvebelia. federalurma sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila saapelacio saCivari. mosarCelis SemTxvevaSi saqme exeboda wveris iZulebiT gaparsvas, rac misi fizikuri xelSeuvalobis uflebis darRvevas niSnavda. rodesac saqme konstituciuri uflebebis seriozul darRvevas exeba, federaluri sasamarTlo mxolod Zireulad Seiswavlis olqis kanonis interpretaciisa da gamoyenebis sakiTxs. Tu is nakleb seriozulia, mxolod gamoZiebiT Semoifargleba da daadgens, sworad moxda Tu ara olqis kanonis interpretireba da gamoyeneba. am etapze naTelia, rom seriozul darRvevas adgili ar hqonia. wveris gaparsvasa da Tavis mTlianad gadaparsvas Soris sxvaobis povna advilia. iseve, rogorc Sveicarieli mamakacebis umetesoba, mosarCelec didi xnis ganmavlobaSi atarebda gaparsul wvers. yovelive amas sakmarisi sakanonmdeblo safuZveli gaaCnia. ciurixis sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsSi naTladaa Camoyalibebuli debuleba eWvmitanilTa amocnobis proceduris Sesaxeb. es procedura azrs dakargavs, Tu cota xnis win gazrdili wveris gamo, dacvis qveS myofs dakarguli aqvs msgavseba im sufTad gaparsul pirovnebasTan, romelmac monawileoba miiRo ZarcvaSi. proporciulobis principi gamoiyeneba, Tu danaSaulis adgilze monawileTa Soris erTi pirovneba mainc niRbis gareSe imyofeboda da mowme misi suraTis naxvisas ganacxadebda, rom mosarCele SeiZleboda erT-erTi TavdamsxmelTagani yofiliyo. sabolood, wveris iZulebiT gaparsva ar SeiZleba moviazroT, rogorc damamcirebeli mopyroba adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlis farglebSi, gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevaSi, roca TviT mosarCele didi xnis manZilze wvers ar

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atarebda. vinaidan ganxorcielebuli qmedebebi emsaxureboda seriozul danaSaulSi monawile piris gamorkvevas, iZulebis ZaliT gaparsva sruliad gamarTlebulia da mocemul pirovnebasTan mimarTebiT ar SeiZleba ganixilebodes, rogorc damamcirebeli mopyroba.

Tavisuflebisa da piradi usafrTxoebis ufleba

italia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 18-10-1995 sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gamoitana ramdenime ganaCeni sasjelis savaldebulo SeCerebasTan dakavSirebiT, sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, im pirebisaTvis, vinc daavadebulni arian SidsiT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom mouwoda kanonmdebels, moeZebna gzebi imisaTvis, raTa Seejerebina erTmaneTTan iseTi sakiTxebi, rogoricaa, erTi mxriv, seriozulad daavadebuli pirebisTvis sasjelis savaldebulo SeCereba, e.i. patimrobidan gaTavisufleba da, meore mxriv, sazogadoebis dacvis fundamenturi moTxovna. daavadebulTaTvis patimrobis moxsna gamonaklisia da aucileblobiT gamowveul droebiT RonisZiebas warmoadgens. sakiTxis gadawyvetisas kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebs sxvadasxva Rirebulebebs, rogoricaa sasjelis gamasworebeli mizani, cixeSi myofi adamianebis janmrTelobaze zrunva, aseve, sazogadoebis dacva damnaSaveebisgan. amitom prioriteti ar unda mieniWos SidsiT daavadebul msjavrdebulTaTvis sasjelis avtomaturad SeCerebas, radgan aseTi praqtikiT am pirebs uqmnian prezumfcias, rom maTi mdgomareoba Seusabamoa cixis cxovrebasTan. amitom Tavi unda Seikavon imis Sefasebisagan, cixeSi Tavisuflebis SezRudva ra zians ayenebs patimris sicocxles. kanonmdeblobis mkacri prezumfcia, rom SidsiT daavadebulTaTvis cixeSi adekvaturi pirobebi ver Seiqmneba, niSnavs imas, rom SesaZlebelia kompromisis gakeTeba sicocxlis, usafrTxoebis, sakuTrebis, pirisa da sazogadoebis janmrTelobasa da sasjelis damsjel xasiaTs Soris. winamdebare gadawyvetileba acxadebs SidsiT daavadebuli piris mimarT sasjelis savaldebulo SeCerebas konstituciasTan Seusabamod, radgan xsenebuli moklebulia gonivrulobas im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mosamarTle gadaamowmebs, rom cixeebs gaaCnia Sesabamisi saSualebebi an xeli miuwvdebaT im saSualebebze, romelTa

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meSveobiT sasjelis aRsrulebis garemoeba Seesabameba msjavrdebulis janmrTelobis mdgomareobas da arsebobs imis pirobebi, rom sasjeli moxdil iqnes sxva patimrebisaTvis zianis miyenebis gareSe.

portugalia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 18-10-1994 konstituciis 30.1 muxli, romelic krZalavs ganusazRvreli an daukonkretebeli vadiT sasjelis an aRmkveTi RonisZiebis gamoyenebas, niSnavs, sasjeli dadgindes da ganisazRvros imgvarad, rom daculi iyos piris Tavisufleba da xelSeuxeblobis ufleba. `fardobiTad ganusazRvreli sasjelebi~, romlebic minimalur an maqsimalur sazRvrebs awesebs, ar warmoadgens ganusazRvreli vadis sasjelebs. gansaxilvel sagans warmoadgenda sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis debulebaTa konstituciuroba, romelic ayalibebs `fardobiTad ganusazRvrel sasjels~ loTebisa da narkomanebisTvis, an alkoholizmTan Tu narkotikebTan dakavSirebuli danaSaulisaTvis (patimrobis sasjelis gamoyeneba). 1982 wlis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi miTiTebuli `fardobiTad ganusazRvreli~ sasjelis daniSnulebas warmoadgens damnaSavis braleulobisa da gamosworebis principebis mxedvelobaSi miReba. minimaluri da maqsimaluri sazRvrebis dadgeniT sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi uzrunvelyofs damnaSaveTa socialur gamosworebas maTi adamianuri Rirsebis damcirebis gareSe.

ukraina sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 08-07-2003 sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 150-e muxlSi gansazRvrul garemoebaTa CamonaTvali, romelic Tavisuflebis aRmkveTi RonisZiebis Sefardebisas unda iqnes mxedvelobaSi miRebuli, ar aris amomwuravi. aRmkveTi RonisZiebebis ganxilvisas, im danaSaulis simZime, romlis CadenaSic piri eWvmitanilia an braldebuli, SesaZloa gaTvaliswinebul iqnes sxva garemoebebTan erTad. ukrainis konstituciis Tanaxmad, piris dakaveba da cixeSi moTavseba SesaZloa ganxorcieldes sasamarTlo brZanebiT, romelSic aRmkveTi RonisZiebis gamoyenebis mizezebia asaxuli da xorcieldeba mxolod kanoniT dadgenil safuZvlebze da kanoniT gansazRvruli proceduris Sesabamisad (muxli 29.2). konstituciis

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29.3 muxlis Sesabamisad, danaSaulis SeCerebis an aRkveTis mwvave aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi, kanoniT uflebamosil organoebs SeuZliaT daapatimron piri droebiTi aRmkveTi RonisZiebis saxiT. konstituciis xsenebuli debulebebis mixedviT, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi ayalibebs, rom aRmkveTi RonisZiebebis, magaliTad, patimrobis, ganxorcieleba SesaZlebelia sasamarTlo brZanebis Sesabamisad, romelic gansazRvravs mizezebs mxolod 148e, 149-e, 150-e da 155-e muxliT dadgenili procedurisa da safuZvlebis Sesabamisad. pirebis dapatimreba, rogorc droebiTi xasiaTis aRmkveTi RonisZieba (149.2 muxli), arasasamarTlo xasiaTis proceduris Tanaxmad, sagamoZiebo organom unda ganaxorcielos im safuZvlebisa da procedurebis Sesabamisad, romlebic kodeqsis 106e, 106.1, 115-e da 165.2 muxlebSia mocemuli. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis 148-e, 149-e, 150-e da 155-e muxlebis analizi gvaCvenebs, rom 150-e muxli amomwuravad ar ayalibebs safuZvlebsa da im garemoebebs, romlebic gasaTvaliswinebelia aRmkveTi RonisZiebis Sefardebisas yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi da yoveli saxis Tavisuflebis aRkveTis RonisZiebisaTvis (werilobiTi valdebuleba gausvlelobasTan dakavSirebiT, patimroba da sxv.). sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 150-e muxliT, aRmkveT RonisZiebaze gadawyvetilebis miRebis dros mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli im danaSaulis simZime, romlis CadenaSic piri aris eWvmitanili an braldebuli sxva garemoebebTan erTad. 150-e muxli am yovelives konstituciasTan Sesabamisobas uzrunvelyofs.

avstria sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 11-03-1999 sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miiRo winaT miRebuli precedentisagan gansxvavebuli gadawyvetileba da daeTanxma adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos samarTlebriv argumentebs. imisaTvis, raTa ganisazRvros, aRekveTa Tu ara pirs Tavisufleba konvenciis me-5 muxlis mniSvnelobiT, aucilebelia arsebuli situaciis ganxilva. amasTan, mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli kriteriumTa mTeli wyeba, rogorebicaa gansaxilveli RonisZiebis saxeoba, xangrZlivoba, Sedegebi da ganxorcielebis manera. sxvaobas Tavisuflebis aRkveTasa da SezRudvas Soris warmoadgens intensiuroba an xarisxi da ara xasiaTi da arsi. ucxoelTa saerTaSoriso zonaSi moTavseba moicavs Tavisuflebis SezRudvas, Tumca, es SezRudva sxvagvarad vrceldeba im pirebisTvis, romlebic deportacias eqvemdebarebian. aseTi saxis

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dapatimrebas Tan axlavs Sesabamisi pirisaTvis uzrunvelyofili garantiebi da dasaSvebia mxolod imisaTvis, raTa saxelmwifoebs mieceT SesaZlebloba, aRkveTon arakanonieri imigracia. aseTi xasiaTis patimroba ar unda gagrZeldes zedmetad, sxvagvarad, iarsebebs imis safrTxe, rom Tavisuflebis Cveulebrivi SezRudva gadaizrdeba saerTod Tavisuflebis aRkveTaSi (ix. saqme Amuur v. France 25/06/1996 ganaCeni, Reports of Judgments and Decisions 1996-III, Bulletin 1996/2 [ECH-1996-2-011]). administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis gadamwyvet sakiTxTan dakavSirebuli faqtebis gaurkvevloba, romlebic exeba ucxoelebs, ucxoelTa Tanaswori mopyrobis wesebs arRvevs. sam indoel moqalaqes venis aeroportSi avstriis teritoriaze Sesvlaze uari ganucxades im mizeziT, rom maT ar gaaCndaT samogzauro dokumentebi. ucxoelTa Sesaxeb 33.1 muxlis Tanaxmad, (Fremdengesetz) maT mogzaurobis gagrZelebamde aeroportis tranzitul zonaSi gaCereba mosTxoves. maT 22 dRe aeroportis tranzitul zonaSi, 6 dRe ki gancalkevebul satranzito adgilas (Sondertransitraum) unda gaetarebinaT, romelic konteinuri tipis konstruqciaa da mdebareobs aeroportis Senobis gareT, amasTan, TviTmfrinavebsa da asafren bilikebTan siaxlovis gamo imyofeba mkacri zedamxedvelobis qveS. saCivrebi Setanil iqna sasamarTloSi, romelSic ganmcxadebeli amtkicebda, rom konstituciuri uflebebis sxva darRvevebTan erTad ganmcxadeblebis tranzitul zonaSi yofna arRvevda maTi Tavisuflebisa da xelSeuxeblobis uflebas (evropuli konvenciis me-5 muxli). sasamarTlo daeyrdno adre miRebul precedentul samarTals, kidev ufro ganamtkica Tavisi mosazreba, rom ganmcxadeblebs aeroportis tranzitul zonaSi arc gadaadgilebis Tavisufleba SezRudviaT da arc konstituciiT garantirebuli ufleba CamorTmeviaT. maTi iq yofnis mizani ar iyo momCivnis Tavisuflebis SezRudva, ubralod, isini ar unda Sesuliyvnen avstriaSi. momCivnebs nebismier dros SeeZloT avstriis datoveba da TavianTi mogzaurobis gagrZeleba. rac Seexeba momCivnebis gaCerebas gancalkevebul satranzito zonaSi, sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom xelisuflebis organoebma ver moiZies is mniSvnelovani faqtebi, romelTa safuZvelzec momCivnebs aRekveTaT Tavisufleba adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos zemoT xsenebuli precedentuli samarTlis Tanaxmad. aseTi ugulebelyofa da daudevroba warmoadgens samarTalwarmoebis iseT defeqts, rom igi TavisTavad arRvevs ucxoelTa Tanasworad mopyrobis uflebas. Sesabamisad, sasamarTlom uaryo administraciuli gadawyvetileba.

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azerbaijani sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 27-04-2001 policiis Sesaxeb kanonis 21.3 muxlis mixedviT, gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi policiels SeeZlo, dauyovnebliv daepatimrebina nebismieri piri sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gareSe araumetes 48 saaTiani vadisa. administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsis 399.3 muxlis Tanaxmad, administraciuli danaSaulis CadenaSi eWvmitanili piri SesaZloa dapatimrebul iqnes araumetes 24 saaTisa. kanonis 21-e muxliT gansazRvruli vada, romelic ar unda aWarbebdes 48 saaTs, sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, exeba pirebs, romlebmac danaSauli Caidines. administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis gamo patimrobisas aucilebelia, rom vadebi kodeqsis 399-e muxlTan Sejerdes.Uuzenaesma sasamarTlom TxovniT mimarTa sakonstitucio sasamarTlos, raTa ganemarta administraciuli dakavebis vadebis Sesaxeb kanonis 21.3-e muxli. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo aRniSnavs, rom yvelas aqvs Tavisuflebis ufleba (konstituciis 28-e muxli). misi SezRudva dasaSvebia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac es gansazRvrulia kanoniT, dapatimrebis, dakavebisa Tu cixeSi moTavsebis saSualebiT. adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis me-3 muxlis Tanaxmad, yvelas aqvs sicocxlis, Tavisuflebisa da xelSeuxeblobis ufleba. samoqalaqo da politikur uflebaTa Sesaxeb paqtis 9.1 muxlis Tanaxmad, yvelas aqvs Tavisuflebisa da xelSeuxeblobis ufleba. dauSvebelia vinmes TviTneburad dakaveba an dapatimreba, garda kanoniT gansazRvruli SemTxvevebisa. kodeqsis me-2 principi dadasturebulia gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis generaluri asambleis mier da exeba nebismieri formiT dapatimrebul an cixeSi moTavsebul pirTa dacvas: `dakaveba an dapatimreba unda ganxorcieldes kanonis Sesabamisad da mxolod kompetenturi organoebisa Tu pirebis mier~. amave dros, konstituciuri da saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi normebi ar gamoricxavs Tavisuflebis SezRudvas kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi. sasamarTlo brZanebis gareSe piris dauyovnebliv dapatimreba gansazRvrulia kanoniT. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 148-e muxli gansazRvravs sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gareSe danaSaulis CadenaSi eWvmitanili piris patimrobis safuZvlebs. am muxlis debuleba, rom `piris dakaveba ar unda aRematebodes 48 saaTs, Seesabameba patimrobis Sesaxeb kanonis 21-e muxls. administraciul samarTaldarRvevebis Sesaxeb kanonis 398e da 399-e muxlebi awesrigebs administraciul patimrobasa da patimrobis vadebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs. kodeqsis 398.1-e muxlis Tanaxmad, administraciuli dakaveba, rac pirisaTvis Tavisuflebis mcire xniT SezRudvas warmoadgens, gamoiyeneba gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi. aseTi RonisZiebebi aucilebelia administraciul

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danaSaulTan dakavSirebuli saqmis jerovnad ganxorcielebisa an gadawyvetilebis implementaciis uzrunvelyofisaTvis. Tumca, kodeqsis 399.2 muxlis Tanaxmad, sasazRvro reJimis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi, piris 3-saaTiani dakavebis nacvlad, nebadarTulia piris 24-saaTiani patimroba. Tu piris piradobis damadasturebeli dokumentebi ar aris saxeze, SesaZlebelia 3-dRiani patimrobis Sefardeba sasamarTlo brZanebis safuZvelze. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom administraciuli patimrobis vada sasamarTlo brZanebis gareSe arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar unda aWarbebdes 24 saaTs. es ugulebelyofs 48-saaTian vadas, romelic gansazRvrulia kanonis 21-e muxlSi. aqedan gamomdinare, rodesac policia iyenebs administraciuli xasiaTis patimrobas, romelic ar aRemateba 48 saaTs da gansazRvrulia kanonis 21-e muxlSi, aucilebelia, rom dakaveba Cveulebriv saqmeebSi Seesabamebodes da eyrdnobodes 3 an 24-saaTian wess kodeqsis 399-e muxlis Tanaxmad.

kviprosi uzenaesi sasamarTlo 15-04-1994 piris Tavisuflebaze konstituciurad daculi uflebiT dauSvebelia mtkicebulebis saxiT iseTi Cvenebis gamoyeneba, romelic eWvmitanilma arakanonieri patimrobis periodSi misca. SeiaraRebuli Zarcvis gamoZiebis procesSi policiis Zalebis warmomadgenlebma SeaCeres TavianTi manqana da pirebs sTxoves, policiis ganyofilebaSi dasakiTxad wahyolodnen, Tumca, ar hqoniaT sakmarisi mtkicebuleba, rac maT danaSaulze miuTiTebda. erT-erTma braldebulma werilobiTi gancxadeba gaakeTa, romlis mowerazec uari ganucxades. xsenebuli gancxadeba dauSvebel mtkicebulebad iqna cnobili gamsvleli sasamarTlos mier, radganac igi mopovebul iqna piris Tavisuflebis uflebis darRvevis safuZvelze, romelic daculia konstituciis me-11 da evropuli konvenciis me-5 muxlebiT. zemoxsenebul saqmeSi gamsvleli sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas uzenaesi sasamarTloc daeTanxma.

CexeTis respublika sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 12-08-1998 policiis mier arakanonieri dakavebis dros gamoTvlis mniSvneloba patimrobis nebadarTuli maqsimaluri vadisaTvis nebismier SemTxvevaSi, rodesac eWvmitanili dapatimrebulia sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisi debulebe-

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bis safuZvelze an moqmedi kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, an, rodesac piris Tavisufleba SezRudulia kanonis moTxovnaTa sawinaaRmdegod (contra legem), patimrobis periodi gamoTvlil unda iqnes, rogorc 24-saaTiani maqsimaluri vadis nawili, romelzec fundamenturi uflebebisa da ZiriTadi Tavisuflebebis Sesaxeb wesdebis 8.3 muxli iZleva nebarTvas, rom eWvmitanili patimrobaSi iqnes moTavsebuli, sanam igi sasamarTlos winaSe wardgeba. 1997 wlis 12 ivniss sisxlis samarTlis saqmesTan dakavSirebiT, momCivani Tavisi nebiT wardga policiis ganyofilebaSi im uwyebis sapasuxod, romliTac mas iZaxebdnen Cvenebis misacemad. igi 10 saaTidan da 20 wuTidan iZulebiT imyofeboda mosacdel oTaxSi, romelsac hqonda karebi, xolo gareT myofi piri iRebda gadawyvetilebas, vis hqonda oTaxis datovebis ufleba. mTliani drois ganmavlobaSi mas policieli yaraulobda, romelmac Seatyobina, rom mas ar SeeZlo oTaxis datoveba. rogorc werilobiTi Canawerebidan irkveva, 13 saaTsa da 10 wuTze mas brali waeyena, xolo 14 saaTsa da 25 wuTze daapatimres sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis 75-e da 76-e muxlebis Sesabamisad. igi sasamarTlos winaSe 1997 wlis 13 ivniss 13 saaTsa da 6 wuTze wardga, anu daculi iyo sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli 24-saaTiani vada (magram misi fizikuri, da ara formaluri, dakavebidan 24 saaTze meti iyo gasuli). raionuli sasamarTlos mosamarTlem SemdgomSi gasca brZaneba misi cixeSi moTavsebasTan dakavSirebiT. mogvianebiT, saolqo sasamarTloSi saCivris ganxilvisas, man konstituciuri pretenziebi wamoWra aRniSnuli gadawyvetilebis sawinaaRmdegod. igi asaCivrebda, rom cixeSi misi moTavseba ukanono iyo, radgan sasamarTlos winaSe wardgenamde igi policiis mier 24 saaTze meti xniT iyo dakavebuli, rac fundamenturi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis Sesaxeb wesdebis 8.3 muxls arRvevda, romelic moiTxovda, rom eWvmitanilebi dakavebulni yofiliyvnen araumetes 24 saaTisa manamde, sanam isini wardgebodnen sasamarTlos winaSe. saolqo sasamarTlom uaryo misi saCivari. amis Semdgom man aRniSnuli gadawyvetilebis sawinaaRmdegod sakonstitucio saCivari warmoadgina. saolqo sasamarTlo amtkicebda, rom momCivnis cixeSi moTavseba Seesabameboda zemoxsenebuli wesdebis me-8 muxls. igi ar yofila dapatimrebuli sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad 14 saaTsa da 25 wuTamde. moqmedi kanonis me-14 muxlis Tanaxmad, am dromde mas ar yaraulobdnen (Tavisuflebis SezRudvis me-2 forma). oficialuri Canawerebic mianiSnebs imaze, rom igi oficialurad patimrobaSi aiyvanes 14 saaTsa da 25 wuTamde. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, oficialur CanawerebSi ar iyo miTiTeba, rom igi policiis Senobidan gasvlas moiTxovda. raionulma sasamarTlom

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gadawyvita, rom mis dakavebamde ganvlili dro sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos piris Tavisuflebis uflebis SezRudvad sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 75-e da 76-e muxlebis Sesabamisad. amgvarad, igi ar ewinaaRmdegeba dakavebis 24-saaTian maqsimalur vadas, romelic wesdebis me-8.3 muxlSia gansazRvruli. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daakmayofila mosarCelis sarCeli. miuxedavad imisa, rom ganmcxadebeli ar yofila 1997 wlis 12 ivniss 14 saaTsa da 25 wuTamde dapatimrebuli sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis 75-e da 76-e muxlebis Sesabamisad, ar niSnavs mis pirad Tavisuflebas. faqtobrivad, Tavisufleba SeizRuda kanonieri uflebamosilebis gareSe, fundamenturi uflebebisa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa wesdebis 8.2 muxlis moTxovnaTa sawinaaRmdegod, romlis Tanaxmadac, patimroba `unda efuZnebodes da ganxorcieldes kanoniT gansazRvruli proceduris Sesabamisad~. romelime piris Tavisuflebis SezRudva aseve exeba fundamentur uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa Sesaxeb wesdebis me-8 muxls, romlis Tanaxmad, TavisuflebaSezRuduli piri sasamarTlos winaSe unda wardges 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi. radganac igi mosacdel oTaxSi imyofeboda da am oTaxis datovebis SesaZlebloba ar hqonda, misi piradi Tavisufleba realurad SezRuduli iyo 1997 wlis 12 ivnisis 10 saaTidan da 20 wuTidan. igi mosamarTlis winaSe meore dRes, 13 saaTsa da 06 wuTze miiyvanes, rodesac maqsimaluri 24-saaTiani vada ukve gasuli iyo. Sesabamisad, mosarCele ganmcxadebeli cixeSi imyofeboda aseve wesdebis me-8 muxlis Tanaxmad. mniSvneloba ar aqvs, rom ganmcxadebelma moiTxova mxolod Sesabamisi oTaxis datoveba daJinebuli moTxovnis gareSe, es ar amarTlebs misi piradi Tavisuflebis SezRudvas. miuxedavad wesdebisa, me-8 muxli miuTiTebs piradi Tavisuflebis aRkveTaze, SezRudva gansxvavebulia xarisxSi da ara iseTi xarisxiT, romelic 24-saaTiani vadis gamouyeneblobas gaamarTlebda, rac wesdebis 8.3 muxliT gansazRvrulia. jvaredini miTiTeba: 1996 wlis 28 noembers sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gamoaqveyna ganaCeni, romelSic gadawyvita, rom dairRva wesdebis me-8.3 muxli analogiur garemoebebSi. policiaSi eWvmitanili imyofeboda 24 saaTze met xans. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom calkeuli sakanonmdeblo uflebamosileba, romlis Tanaxmadac, izRudeboda piris Tavisuflebis ufleba, ra mizeziTac ar unda yofiliyo igi Sefardebuli, ar SeiZleboda gagrZelebuliyo maqsimalur 24saaTian vadaze met xans. Sesabamisad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom amis safuZvelze kanonis me-14 muxli wesdebis 8.3 muxlTan Seusabamod cno.

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safrangeTi sakonstitucio sabWo 11-08-1993 kanoni, romelic cvlida 93-2 of 04/01/1993 kanons da cvlilebebi Sehqonda sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsSi sakonstitucio sasamarTlom dagmo xsenebuli kanonis ori debuleba da ganacxada, rom policiis patimrobis qveS myofi pirebis ufleba, gaemarTaT konsultacia advokatTan, dacvis uflebis ganxorcielebas warmoadgenda. sakonstitucio sabWom aseve dagmo debuleba, romlis mixedviT, nebadarTuli iyo 13 wlamde mcirewlovnis policiis patimrobaSi moTavseba. man aRniSna, rom es debuleba ewinaaRmdegeboda adamianisa da moqalaqis uflebaTa Sesaxeb wesdebis me-9 muxls, romlis Tanaxmadac, yovelgvari ukanono patimroba mkacrad unda daisajos kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad.

germania federaciuli sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 18-06-1997 Tuki `organizaciuli patimrobis~ Sesabamisad, sasjelis moxdas (romelic ar aris kanoniT uzrunvelyofili, magaliTad, msjavrdebuli piris droebiTi patimroba, romlisTvisac narkomanTa dakavebis centrSi imJamad adgili ar aris) mivyavarT Tavisuflebis aRkveTis gagrZelebamde, arakonstituciuria. II. 1992 wels momCivans miusajes 45 TviT patimroba. garda amisa, nabrZanebi iqna misi narkomanTa dakavebis centrSi moTavseba. im momentSi, rodesac bolo instanciis sasamarTlos ganaCeni ZalaSi Sevida, igi ukve 6 Tve imyofeboda patimrobaSi. radganac narkomanTa dakavebis centrSi misi moTavseba SeuZlebeli iyo, saboloo sasjelis Semdeg igi 3 Tvis ganmavlobaSi `organizaciul patimrobaSi~ imyofeboda. amis Semdeg man 25 Tve narkomanTa dakavebis centrSi gaatara, xolo darCenili 15 Tve _ cixeSi. patimrobis vadis gamoangariSebisas, sapatimro sasjeli, romelic 3 welsa da 9 Tves moicavda, Semcirda, raTa mxedvelobaSi yofiliyo miRebuli winaswari patimroba da sasjelis aRsruleba Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT: `winaswari patimroba~ (eqvsi Tve), `patimroba organizaciaSi~ (sami Tve) da 25 Tve narkomanTa dakavebis centrSi, mTlianobaSi ki 3 weli da 9 Tve maSin, rodesac sisxlis samarTlis

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kodeqsis 67.4 muxli sasamarTlos mier Sefardebuli sasjelis araumetes 2/3 Semcirebas iTvaliswinebs. gamoTvlis meTodma gviCvena, rom 4-Tviani patimroba, romelic man sinamdvileSi moixada, mTlian sasjelSi ar iyo gaTvaliswinebuli. mosarCelem warmoadgina sakonstitucio sarCeli sasjelis gamoTvlis meTodTan dakavSirebiT, romelic saolqo sasamarTlom ganaxorciela. igi asaCivrebda, rom zemoxsenebuli arRvevda konstituciis 2.2 da 104.1 muxlebs. II. sakonstitucio sarCeli dakmayofilda nawilobriv. rac Seexeba `sxva tipis~ patimrobasTan dakavSirebul gamoTvlebs, rasac ganmcxadebeli asaCivrebda, federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos me-2 palatis me-2 kolegiam ar dauSva arsebiT ganxilvaze. sasamarTlom konstituciiT uzrunvelyofili Tavisuflebis uflebasTan mimarTebiT daadgina, rom patimrobis, narkomanTaTvis gankuTvnil centrSi moTavsebis brZanebis gacemis dros xelisuflebis organoebi ar moiTxovdnen gamoTvlis TanmimdevrobiT warmarTvisa an msjavrdebuli pirisaTvis sasjelis gamoTvlis yvelaze xelsayreli meTodis gaTvaliswinebas. Tumca, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina konstituciis darRveva sarCelis im nawilTan, romelic `organizaciul patimrobas exeboda~. masTan dakavSirebiT sasamarTlom ganacxada: sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi gansazRvravs normebs, romlebic patimrobasa da sxva RonisZiebebs Soris Tanmimdevrobas exeba. Sesabamisad, sxva RonisZiebebi win unda uswrebdes patimrobas. msjavrdebuli piri, romlis moTavsebac narkomanTaTvis gankuTvnil centrSi SeuZlebelia gansazRvrul momentSi, garkveul periods atarebs `organizaciul patimrobaSi~. Tuki aRniSnuli normebis darRvevas Tavisuflebis aRkveTis periodis gaxangrZlivebamde mivyavarT, konstituciis 2.2 da 104-e muxlebi moiTxovs, rom am Seusabamobis Sedegebi Sesaferisad ganeitraldes patimrobis vadis gamoTvlisas. winamdebare saqmeSi gamoyenebuli gamoTvlis meTodi, romlis Tanaxmad, `organizaciul patimrobaSi~ araregularulad gatarebuli dro saboloo jamSi amcirebda narkomanTa dakavebis centrSi piris mier gatarebul dros, mivyavarT misTvis Tavisuflebis uflebis CamorTmevis gaxangrZlivebamde, risTvisac ar arsebobs samarTlebrivi safuZveli. amitom patimrobis vadis gamoTvlis es meTodi arRvevs mosarCelis erT-erT ZiriTad uflebas. aRmasrulebelma xelisuflebam unda gamoasworos mosarCelis mdgomareoba imgvarad, TiTqos igi Tavis droze iyo moTavsebuli narkomanTa dakavebisaTvis gankuTvnil centrSi ­ anu sasamarTlos mier Sefardebuli sasjelis ZalaSi SesvlisTanave.

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malta sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 17-01-2001 jovani psaila generaluri advokatis winaaRmdeg ganmcxadebeli aRniSnavda, rom sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 522.2 muxli ewinaaRmdegeboda evropuli konvenciis 5.1, 5.4 da maltis konstituciis 34.1 muxlebs. sadavo muxlis Tanaxmad, `sasamarTlos ufleba aqvs gasces brZaneba, rom nebismieri piri, romelic uars ganacxadebs ficis dadebaze, daakavon, xolo mogvianebiT, patimrobaSi iqnes ayvanili aucilebeli an, sasamarTlos azriT, Sesabamisi vadiT, mowmeTa daumorCileblobisa da gansaxilveli sakiTxis mniSvnelobis gaTvaliswinebiT. kanoni iZleoda garantiebs, romlebic mowmis mier dasmul SekiTxvebze pasuxis gacemis valdebulebis Sesrulebas icavda. mosamarTleebs unda gamoeyenebinaT Tavisufleba imis Sefasebisas, Sesrulda Tu ara es valdebuleba marTlmsajulebis jerovnad ganxorcielebis uzenaesi interesebis mxedvelobaSi miRebis safuZvelze. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi ar awesebs raime saxis SezRudvas patimrobis periodze. es ki evropuli konvenciis 5.1 da konstituciis 34-e muxlebs arRvevda. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sadavo muxlis Tanaxmad, SesaZlebelia agresiulad ganwyobili mowmis patimroba gagrZeldes sasamarTlo ganxilvis Semdegac ki. kodeqsis 522.2 muxli aseve Seusabamod iqna miCneuli evropuli konvenciis 5.4 muxlTan, radganac igi ar aZlevda mowmes SesaZleblobas, gaesaCivrebina sasamarTlos brZaneba da moeTxova misi gadasinjva. ganmcxadebeli gamoZaxebul iqna, rogorc mowme sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis periodSi, romelic mkvlelobaSi braldebuli mxaris mimarT aRiZra. mis mier ficis qveS werilobiTi Cvenebisas ganmcxadebelma uari ganacxada, epasuxa prokuraturis warmomadgenlis mier dasmul kiTxvaze, romliTac mas piris vinaobis gamJRavnebas sTxovdnen. magistrantebis sasamarTlom gasca brZaneba misi dakavebis Sesaxeb sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 522.2 muxlis Sesabamisad. ganmcxadebeli amtkicebda, rom igi patimrobaSi imyofeboda 7 dRis ganmavlobaSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom xazi gausva im faqts, rom sasamarTlos gaaCnda yvela ufleba, ganexorcielebina kanonieri RonisZiebebi, romlebic gaTvaliswinebuli iyo kanonmdeblobiT da miznad isaxavda, rom agresiulad aRiarebul mowmes eTqva simarTle da araferi simarTlis garda. mowmes ar gaaCnda araviTari ufleba, uari ganecxadebina piris vinaobis gamJRavnebaze. es ar iyo is SemTxveva, rodesac mowmes SeeZlo, profesiuli saidumloebis privilegias dayrdnoboda. misi saCivari efuZneboda im dapirebas, romelic man informaci-

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is momwodebels aRuTqva, rom ar gaamJRavnebda mis vinaobas. sadavo debulebis Tanaxmad, patimrobis mizans mowmis mier dasmul kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemis valdebulebis aRsruleba warmoadgenda. patimroba im m izniT, r om u zrunvelyofili i qnes valdebulebaTa Sesruleba, da ara imitom, rom dawesdes sasjeli aseTi v aldebulebis S eusruleblobisaTvis, a r S eiZleba gamarTlebul i qnes e vropuli k onvenciis 5 .1 m uxliT. kanoni gansazRvravda mowmeTa dapatimrebis kriteriumebs sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 522.2 muxliT da acxadebda, rom isini efuZneboda ara dros, aramed mowmis midgomasa da garemoebebs, romelTa gamoc man TanamSromlobaze uari ganacxada. Tumca, sasamarTlom dauSva gamonaklisi debulebis im nawilSi, romelic mowmis dapatimrebis maqsimalur periods ar adgenda. mowmis valdebuleba, warmoadginos mtkicebuleba, unda arsebobdes mxolod samarTalwarmoebis mimdinareobis periodSi. sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoebis dasrulebisas mowmis valdebuleba aRar arsebobs da mis mtkicebulebas aRar gaaCnia mniSvneloba. sityvebs _ `patimrobaSi yofna im vadiT, ra vadac aucilebelia an rogorc es sasamarTlos miaCnia Sesaferisad~ _ raime sxva SezRudvis an ganmartebis gareSe, logikurad SeuZlia migviyvanos iseT situaciamde, rodesac mowme imyofeba cixeSi patimrobaSi miuxedavad imisa, rom sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoeba damTavrda. garda amisa, kanoni TavisTavad ar uzrunvelyofda mowmes apelaciis an patimrobis gasaCivrebis uflebiT sasamarTlos mier mowmis dapatimrebis brZanebis gacemisa Tu patimrobis ganmavlobaSi. dadginda, rom evropuli konvenciis 5.4 muxli exeba yvela im SemTxvevas, sadac SesaZlebelia pirisaTvis Tavisuflebis uflebis CamorTmeva. konvenciis mizans warmoadgens pirisaTvis patimrobis gasaCivrebis uflebis uzrunvelyofa nebismier situaciaSi, Tundac maSin, rodesac misi dakaveba kanoniT gansazRvruli valdebulebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT sasamarTlos kanonieri brZanebis Seusruleblobidan momdinareobs. saxelmwifom unda uzrunvelyos sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis ufleba yvela SemTxvevaSi, anu gamarTlebulia Tu ara patimroba 5.1 muxliT. amitom, miuxedavad imisa, rom patimroba adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis kuTxiT kanonierad CaiTvala, konvenciis 5.4. muxli mainc unda iqnes mxedvelobaSi miRebuli. mopasuxe amtkicebda, rom sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 137-e muxlis Sesabamisad, magistrantebis sasamarTlos hqonda ufleba, ganexila samarTlebrivi saCivari ukanono patimrobasTan dakavSirebiT. amitomac agresiulad ganwyobili patimris winaswar patimrobaSi moTavseba sasamarTlo ganxilvas eqvemdebareboda. Tumca, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miuTiTa adamianis uflebaTa evropuli

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sasamarTlos mier T.W. v. Malta (App. Number 25644/94) 1999 wlis 29 aprils gamotanil gadawyvetilebaze da ganacxada, rom gadasinjva avtomatur xasiaTs unda atarebdes. garda amisa, 137-e muxlis Sesabamisad, ganxorcielebuli mimarTvis konteqstSi da 353-e nawilis gaTvaliswinebiT, ver dadginda, rom gadasinjviT SesaZlebeli iyo patimrobis arsebiTi mxaris ganxilva. garda 48-saaTiani vadis gadacilebisa, mTavrobam ver miuTiTa iseT SemTxvevaze, rodesac sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 237-e muxlze dayrdnobiT sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulis Cadenis eWvi kanonierad gasaCivrebuliyo an gamarTlebuliyo. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom mowmis dakaveba im mizniT, rom mas warmoedgina mtkicebuleba da pasuxi gaeca kiTxvebze, samarTlebriv RonisZiebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos marTlmsajulebis jerovnad ganxorcielebisTvis. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 522.2 muxli ewinaaRmdegeboda piris fundamentur uflebebs, radganac igi ar gansazRvravda, rom patimrobis periodi ar SeiZleba aWarbebdes im sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoebis xangrZlivobas, romelSic Sesabamisi piri gamoZaxebuli iyo Cvenebis misacemad. garda amisa, kanonis es debuleba ar uzrunvelyofda sistemas, romlis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlos brZanebis gasaCivreba SesaZlebeli iqneboda. am konkretul saqmeSi patimrobis periodi ar iyo sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsiT gansazRvruli farglebis disproporciuli. sasamarTlom ar mianiWa anazRaureba ganmcxadebels. sasamarTlos azriT, evropuli konvenciis me-5 muxlis pirveli oTxi punqtidan erT-erTis darRveva TavisTavad ar warmoadgens sakmaris safuZvels kompensaciis mikuTvnebisaTvis.

moldova sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 13-02-2001 sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 82-e da 223-e muxlebis kone e stituciuri gadasinjva sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 82-e muxli uzrunvelyofs, rom iq, sadac es aucilebelia, SesaZloa gauqmdes aRmkveTi RonisZieba an Seicvalos SedarebiT naklebad mkacri RonisZiebiT, Tu amas saqmis garemoeba moiTxovs da xorcieldeba im piris mier, romelic warmarTavs sisxlissamarTlebriv gamoZiebas, sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze braldebulis an prokuroris, an sasamarTlos mier dasabuTebuli gadawyvetilebis saSualebiT. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 223 muxlis Tanaxmad, saqmis ganxilvis ganmavlobaSi sasamarTlo uflebamosilia, gadawyvetilebis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

saSualebiT warmoadginos, Secvalos an gaauqmos aRmkveTi RonisZiebebi, romlebic Sefardebuli aqvs gansasjel pirs. saapelacio sasamarTloSi mosmenisas prokurorma da dacvis advokatma warmoadgines moTxovna uzenaesi sasamarTlos winaSe, raTa am ukanasknels winadadebiT miemarTa sakonstitucio sasamarTlosaTvis. uzenaesma sasamarTlom saCivari Seitana sakonstitucio sasamarTlos winaSe, romliTac sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis 82-3-e da 223-e muxlebis konstituciurobis gadasinjvas moiTxovda. sadavo muxlebi aRmkveTi RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebas aregulirebs. pirs, romelic warmarTavs sisxlissamarTlebriv gamoZiebas, ar SeuZlia Sewyvitos an Secvalos prokuroris mier Sefardebuli aRmkveTi RonisZieba prokuroris Tanxmobis gareSe. aRmkveTi RonisZieba, romelic sasamarTlo brZanebis safuZvelze iqna Sefardebuli, ar SeiZleba gauqmdes an Seicvalos prokuroris an im piris mier, romelic sisxlissamarTlebriv gamoZiebas warmarTavs. aRmkveTi RonisZieba dakavebis brZanebis saxiT SesaZloa gaauqmos an Secvalos mosamarTlem im piris mier Setanili Suamdgomlobis safuZvelze, romelic warmarTavs sisxlissamarTlebriv gamoZiebas, an prokuroris, eWvmitanilis, mopasuxis mier, dacvis advokatis an eWvmitanilis an mopasuxis samarTlebrivi warmomadgenlis mier. Suamdgomlobis ganxilvisas mosamarTle gamoscems gadawyvetilebas, romliTac auqmebs an cvlis dakavebis brZanebas an uaryofs aRmkveTi RonisZiebis gauqmebas an Secvlas. rodesac mosamarTlis mier dakavebis brZanebaSi an patimrobis gagrZelebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebaSi dadgenili patimrobis periodi amoiwureba da moTxovna ki axal gagrZelebaze ar aris warmodgenili, prokurori gamoscems piris dauyovnebliv gaTavisuflebis brZanebas. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlos winaSe mosmenisas sasamarTlo uflebamosilia, gadawyvetilebis saSualebiT warmoadginos cvlileba an gaauqmos aRmkveTi RonisZieba, romelic mopasuxes ekisreba. piradi Tavisufleba da pirovnuli usafrTxoeba xelSeuxebelia (konstituciis 25.1 muxli). samoqalaqo da politikur uflebaTa Sesaxeb paqtis Tanaxmad, nebismier pirs aqvs Tavisuflebisa da xelSeuxeblobis ufleba. TviTnebur dakavebas an dapatimrebas aravin unda daeqvemdebaros. aravis unda aRekveTos Tavisufleba, garda im SemTxvevisa, Tu es kanoniTaa aucilebeli. piris ufleba Tavisuflebasa da pirovnul xelSeuxeblobaze niSnavs, rom dauSvebelia piris dapatimreba an dakaveba Sesabamisi brZanebis gareSe. piris Tavisuflebisa da fizikuri xelSeuxeblobis dacva uzrunvelyofilia konstituciuri debulebiT, romelic apelaciis da Sesabamis sasamarTloSi dakavebis Sesaxeb sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebis uflebas moiazrebs (konstituciis 20.1 muxli). nebismieri problema, romelic

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Tavisuflebisa da piradi usafrTxoebis ufleba

mosmenisas iCens Tavs, gadaWrili iqneba sasamarTlos mier gamotanili gadawyvetilebiT (sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis 219.1 muxliT). sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis 82-e da 223-e muxlebi, romlebic dakavebis Sesaxeb brZanebis gacemasa Tu gauqmebas gansazRvravs, magram ar iZleva dakavebasTan an mis SecvlasTan dakavSirebiT pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos mier gacemuli brZanebis gasaCivrebis SesaZleblobas, ewinaaRmdegeba moqalaqeTa konstituciur uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo sakonstitucio iurisdiqcias axorcielebda. misi dadgenilebiT, sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis 82-e da 223-e muxlebis nawilebi, sasamarTlo gamocdilebidan gamomdinare, ar uzrunvelyofs pirs, saapelacio uflebiT gaasaCivros mis mimarT aRmkveTi RonisZiebis SefardebasTan an SecvlasTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebebi. aqedan gamomdinare, isini Seusabamoa konstituciasTan.

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 14-03-2002 pirTa patimrobaSi yofna, maTi dakaveba an droebiTi patimroba 48 saaTze meti xniT sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gareSe, rogorc es sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobiT aris gansazRvruli, ar Seesabameba konstitucias. saqmis ganxilva wamowyebul iqna im saCivrebis safuZvelze, romlebic Setanil iqna moqalaqeebis mier ruseTis federaciis sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis sawinaaRmdegod, romlis Tanaxmad, danaSaulis CadenaSi eWvmitanili piris Tavisuflebis aRkveTa da pirovnuli xelSeuxeblobis SezRudva 48 saaTis vadiT prokuroris brZanebis safuZvelze sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gareSe dasaSvebia. ganmcxadeblebi Tvlidnen, rom xsenebuli debulebebi ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis 22.2 muxls, romlis mixedviT, dakaveba, patimroba da droebiTi patimroba nebadarTulia mxolod sasamarTlo ganaCenis safuZvelze da, aseve, piri ar SeiZleba darCes cixeSi 48 saaTze met xans sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gamotanis gareSe. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom pirovnuli Tavisuflebisa da xelSeuxeblobis ufleba, romelic konstituciaSia uzrunvelyofili, adamianis fundamentur uflebas warmoadgens. specifikuri konstituciuri garantiebi sisxlis samarTlis sferoSi am uflebis sasamarTlo gziT dacvisaTvis uSualo kavSirSia da, Sesabamisad, gansazRvravs sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis debulebebis mniSvnelobasa da Sinaarss.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

1993 wlis konstitucia daskvniTi da droebiTi debulebebis TavSi acxadebs, rom iqamde, sanam ruseTis procesualuri kanonmdebloba Seesabameba moyvanili konstituciis debulebebs, dakavebasTan, dapatimrebasa da cixeSi moTavsebasTan dakavSirebiT, winaT moqmedi normebi unda iyos daculi da ZalaSi datovebuli. konstitucia sakanonmdeblo organos akisrebs valdebulebas, warmoadginos kanonmdeblobis aucilebeli cvlilebebi gardamavali periodis ganmavlobaSi, romlis xangrZlivobac ar aris gansazRvruli. droebiTi dakaveba, droebiTi patimroba da cixeSi moTavsebasTan dakavSirebuli procedurebi, romlebic kanonmdeblobiT iyo gansazRvruli, dadasturda 1998 wlis federaciuli kanoniT, romelic adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciisa da damatebiTi oqmebis ratificirebas Seexeboda. konvenciis 5.3 da 5.4 muxlebze miTiTebiT aRniSnuli kanoni zRudavda am punqtebis moqmedebas im vadiT, rac kanonmdeblobaSi cvlilebebis Sesatanad iyo aucilebeli. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ufleba konstituciidan gamomdinareobs da kanonis gamocema misi uflebamosilebis garantirebisaTvisaa aucilebeli, aseTi kanoni miRebul unda iqnes maqsimalurad mokle vadaSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom mravaljer gausva xazi, rom konstituciis miRebidan sakmarisi dro gavida, imisaTvis, raTa sakanonmdeblo organos mieRo axali kanoni sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobasTan dakavSirebiT da saproceso kanonmdebloba konstituciasTan SesabamisobaSi moeyvana. radganac es ar ganxorcielda, konstituciis droebiTma debulebam konstituciuri Rirebuleba dakarga. anu maT realobaSi gaaCniaT permanentuli Sedegebi da amgvarad, arRveven rogorc konstituciis 22-e muxliT garantirebul uflebas, aseve adamianisa da moqalaqis uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs. es ki niSnavs dadgenil uflebaTa, kerZod, samoqalaqo da politikur uflebaTa Sesaxeb paqtis 9.3 da 5.3 muxlebiT gansazRvrul uflebaTa dacvasTan dakavSirebiT marTlmsajulebis meqanizmis garantiis uaryofas. garda amisa, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom sisxlis samarTlis axali saproceso kodeqsi 2001 wlis 18 dekembers iqna miRebuli. axali kodeqsis debulebebis Tanaxmad, mxolod sasamarTlos SeuZlia patimrobis RonisZiebebTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebis gamoitana. Tumca, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis ZalaSi SesvlasTan dakavSirebiT miRebuli federaluri kanonis Tanaxmad, kodeqsis debulebebi ZalaSi unda Sesuliyo 2004 wlis 1 ianvridan, manamde ki patimrobasa da dakavebasTan dakavSirebul gadawyvetilebebs miiRebda isev da isev prokurori, rogorc es uwin xdeboda. radganac SenarCunebuli iyo wina procedura xsenebul TariRamde, samarTlebrivi moTxovna, romelic gansazRvruli iyo konstituciis damaboloebeli da droebiTi debulebebis TaviT,

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Tavisuflebisa da piradi usafrTxoebis ufleba

sakanonmdeblo organos mier formalurad gamoiyeneboda da amiT debulebis realur mniSvnelobas arRvevda. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom ruseTis federaciis sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis gasaCivrebuli debulebebi ar Seesabameboda konstitucias da, amgvarad, maTi gamoyeneba SeuZlebeli iyo 2002 wlis 1 ivliss. federalurma asambleam dauyovnebliv unda Seitanos cvlilebebi da uzrunvelyos samarTlebrivi standartebis ganxorcieleba, romelic dakavebasTan, winaswar patimrobasa an eWvmitanilis saxiT piris droebiT patimrobasTan dakavSirebiT moicavs sasamarTlo proceduras 48 saaTze met xans.

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 27-09-1999 policiam ucxoeli moqalaqeebi moaTavsa saerTaSoriso aeroportis e.w. `im pirebis nawilSi, romlebsac uari ganecxadaT~. isini espaneTSi arakanonierad SesvlisaTvis daakaves, ucxoeli moqalaqeebi sargebloben konstituciuri garantiebiT, romlebic maTi patimrobis xangrZlivobas zRudavs (konstituciis me-17 muxli). kerZod, dauSvebelia vinmes patimrobaSi moTavseba 72 saaTze met xans, rac xelisuflebis organoebisaTvis maqsimalur vadas warmoadgens imis gadasawyvetad, gaaZevon patimari Tu ara, gaagzavnon igi konkretul qveyanaSi Tu dauyovnebliv gaaTavisuflon. mosamarTles ar SeuZlia, arsebiT ganxilvaze dauSveblad miiCnios nebismieri ganacxadi sasamarTlos mier saqmis ganxilvasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic warmodgenilia im ucxoelis mier, romelic patimrobaSi imyofeba saerTaSoriso aeroportis `im pirebis nawilSi, romlebsac uari ganecxadaT~. mosamarTles ar SeuZlia, imsjelos prefeqturis organoebis mier dadgenili patimrobis kanonierebaze, sanam igi ar gamoiZaxebs da piradad ar dakiTxavs patimars. CineTis moqalaqe liji Cuni dakavebul iqna kanaris kunZulebis policiis mier espaneTis teritoriaze SesvlisaTvis. 2 wliT adre igi gaZevebul iqna da aekrZala espaneTis teritoriaze Sesvla. 72 saaTiani vadis gasvlamde Sesabamisi piri gadayvanil iqna policiis ganyofilebidan gran kanarias las palmasis aeroportis `im pirTaTvis gankuTvnil zonaSi, visac uari eTqvaT~. momdevno dRemde man ar icoda, rom xelisuflebis Sesabamisma organom misi deportaciis brZaneba gamosca, romelic gadaido CineTSi daniSnuli Semdegi reisis ganxorcielebamde. patimarma sasamarTlos mosTxova misi saqmis ganxilva patimrobis xangrZlivi drois motiviT. aRniSnuli moTxovna uaryofil iqna mosamarTlis mier, radgan

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

gaZeveba samarTlebrivad dasabuTebuli iyo. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganmcxadebels mianiWa konstituciuri dacva, radgan konstituciiT garantirebuli misi fundamenturi ufleba dairRva or safuZvelze: patimroba gadaWarbebulad xangrZlivi iyo da mosamarTles ar unda uareyo sasamarTlos mier saqmis ganxilvis moTxovna. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom Tavis gadawyvetilebaSi miuTiTa im mravalgvar situaciaze, romelSic SesaZloa saerTaSoriso aeroportis satranzito zonaSi policiis mier dapatimrebuli ucxoelebi aRmoCndnen. im ucxoelTa mdgomareoba, romlebsac uari ganecxadaT espaneTSi Sesvlaze da fexic ki ar daukarebiaT espanuri miwisaTvis, sruliad gansxvavdeba im ucxoelTa mdgomareobisagan, romlebic espaneTSi daakaves, Tundac iyvnen isini aralegaluri emigrantebi, romlebsac ekrZalebaT qveyanaSi cxovreba. am ukanasknel saqmeSi is garantiebi, romlebic policiis mier ganxorcielebuli patimrobis xangrZlivobas zRudavs, mTlianad gamoiyeneba, gansakuTrebiT konstituciiT gansazRvrul patimrobis maqsimalur 72-saaTian vadasTan mimarTebiT, romlis gagrZelebac dauSvebelia. ucxoeli patimrobaSi imyofeboda 72 saaTis ganmavlobaSi, sanam mas aeroportSi gadaiyvandnen. garda amisa, mas 24 saaTis gasvlamde ar Seatyobines deportaciis brZanebis Sesaxeb. Sesabamisad, patimrobis konstituciiT gansazRvruli maqsimaluri periodi gagrZelebul iqna. konstituciis 17.4 muxlis Sesabamisad, ganxorcielebuli sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoebis mizans administraciuli patimroba warmoadgens.

gaerTianebuli samefo saapelacio sasamarTlo 25-10-2002 a da sxvebi Sinagan saqmeTa ministris winaaRmdeg evropuli konvenciis me-15 muxlis Sesabamisad, parlaments hqonda ufleba, antiteroristuli RonisZiebebi SeezRuda ise, rom gavlena moexdina mxolod ucxoel moqalaqeebze, romlebic teroristul kavSirebSi iyvnen eWvmitanilni: gadaxveva konvenciis me-5 muxlidan nebadarTulia mxolod im moculobiT, rasac moiTxovs situaciis simwvave. parlaments ufleba gaaCnda, gadaewyvita, rom mxolod saerTaSoriso terorizmSi eWvmitanil ucxoelTa ganusazRvreli patimroba iyo mkacrad moTxovnili da rom RonisZiebebis gavrceleba britanel moqalaqeebze scildeboda moTxovnis farglebs. antiteroristuli da uSiSroebis Sesaxeb kanoni, romelic sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoebis gareSe saerTaSoriso terorizmSi eWvmitanili ucxoelebis ganusazRvrel patimrobaze uflebas

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Tavisuflebisa da piradi usafrTxoebis ufleba

iZleva, ewinaaRmdegeba konvenciis me-5 muxls. magram 1998 wlis adamianis uflebaTa Sesaxeb aqtTan mimarTebiT 2001 wlis brZaneba samarTlebrivi iyo da, Sesabamisad, 9 ucxoeli moqalaqis patimroba 2001 wlis brZanebis safuZvelze kanonieri iyo, radgan patimrobis uflebamosilebis ganxorcieleba diskriminaciul xasiaTs ar atarebda da ar arRvevda me-14 muxls. mTavrobam saapelacio saCivari Seitana pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebasTan dakavSirebiT. gaerTianebuli samefos konvenciis me-5 muxlidan nawilobrivi gadaxveva da misi sakanonmdeblo RonisZiebebi, romlebic saerTaSoriso terorizmSi eWvmitanilTa ganusazRvreli vadiT dakavebaze iZleodnen nebarTvas, diskriminaciul xasiaTs atarebda da ewinaaRmdegeboda me-14 muxls, radganac asxvavebda saerTaSoriso terorizmSi monawile eWvmitanil ucxoel da britanel pirebs. saapelacio sasamarTlom daakmayofila mTavrobis saCivari da gadawyvita, rom debulebebi, romlebic patimrobis nebarTvas iZleoda, ar iyo diskriminaciuli xasiaTis Semdeg mizezTa gamo: britaneli moqalaqeebi ucxoelebisgan gansxvavebul mdgomareobaSi imyofebodnen, radganac britaneli moqalaqeebis gaZeveba ar SeiZleba qveynidan, maSin, rodesac ucxoeli moqalaqeebis gaZeveba dasaSvebia, roca saqme britanelebis usafrTxoebas exeba. aseT ucxoel moqalaqeebs ar gaaCndaT qveyanaSi darCenis ufleba. saerTaSoriso samarTalSi arsebobs bevri sxva magaliTi, romlebic saxelmwifoebs aZleven nebarTvas, moaxdinon gansxvaveba moqalaqeebsa da moqalaqeobis armqone pirebs Soris. magaliTad, saimigracio kanonmdebloba emyareboda diskriminaciul safuZvlebs erovnul niadagze da, amgvarad, ver daamtkicebdnen, rom imigraciuli kontroli ewinaaRmdegeboda me-14 muxls. diskriminacia moqalaqeebsa da moqalaqeobis armqone pirebs Soris ufro damaxasiaTebelia sagangebo mdgomareobis pirobebSi. maSin, rodesac sasamarTlos gaaCnia mTavrobis mier gamocemuli kanonmdeblobis adamianis uflebaTa aqtTan Sesabamisobis ganxilvis uflebamosileba, sagangebo mdgomareobis pirobebSi aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebas sasamarTloze ukeT SeuZlia gansazRvros, Tu ra RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebaa aucilebeli. Sesabamisad, mTavrobas unda gaaCndes Sefasebis SedarebiT farTo diapazoni.

belgia saarbitraJo sasamarTlo 08-05-2001 is faqti, rom mopasuxes ar gaaCnia advokatis daxmarebiT sargeblobis ufleba da saSualeba, gaecnos sisxlis samarTlis saqmes

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

gamomZiebeli mosamarTlis mier mis pirvel dakiTxvamde, ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciur debulebebs, romlebic Seexeba Tanasworobas da diskriminaciis akrZalvas miuxedavad imisa, ganixileba Tu ara isini evropuli konvenciis me-5 da me-6 muxlebTan erTobliobaSi. es ar ewinaaRmdegeba aseve zemoxsenebul debulebebs im pirTan mimarTebiT, romelic imyofeba patimrobaSi da ar xerxdeba, rom misi saqme ganxilul iqnes 7-dRian maqsimalur vadaSi, romelic aiTvleba im dRidan, rac gamomZiebeli mosamarTle gamoscems dakavebis brZanebas. 1990 wlis 20 ivlisis kanoni winaswari patimrobis Sesaxeb gansazRvravs, rom mopasuxe unda dakiTxos gamomZiebelma mosamarTlis mier dakavebis brZanebis gamocemamde, magram ar uzrunvelyofs mopasuxisaTvis advokatis daxmarebiT sargeblobis uflebas dakiTxvis periodSi an imas, rom mas dakavebamde xeli miuwvdebodes sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze. erT-erTma pirma, romelsac emuqreboda sisxlissamarTlebrivi braldebis wayeneba, warmoadgina saCivari zemoxsenebulTan dakavSirebiT da yuradReba gaamaxvila im faqtze, rom 2000 wlis 28 martis kanoni uzrunvelyofda aseT garantiebs dakavebis SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlos winaSe dauyovnebliv wardgenis TvalsazrisiT da SesaZlebels xdida swrafi sasamarTlo ganxilvis Catarebas, rodesac damnaSave dakavebul iqna qmedebis Cadenisas an danaSauli Cadenil iqna sul axlaxan da igi isjeba sul mcire 1 wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT. Sesabamisi piris moTxovnis safuZvelze, saarbitraJo sasamarTlos eTxova winaswari kiTxvis ganxilva imasTan dakavSirebiT, mopyrobis es sxvaoba mopasuxeebs Soris ewinaaRmdegeboda Tu ara Tanasworobis konstituciur principebsa da diskriminaciis akrZalvas, miuxedavad imisa, ganixileboda Tu ara isini konvenciis me-5 da me-6 muxlTan erTobliobaSi. sasamarTlom gamoitana gadawyvetileba, romelSic aRniSna, rom adgili ar hqonia zemoxsenebuli debulebebis darRvevas. man mxedvelobaSi miiRo konstituciis debuleba, romlis Tanaxmadac, piris dakaveba SesaZlebelia danaSaulis Cadenis momentSi an iseTi brZanebis safuZvelze, romelic Seicavs mosamarTlis mier dadgenil mizezebs da romlebic unda gamoyenebuliyo dakavebis periodSi an ara ugvianes 24 saaTisa dakavebis momentidan. aRniSnuli vada ar utovebda dros advokats saqmeSi CarTvisaTvis. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom gamoiyeneboda sxva garantiebi da daaskvna, rom gamoZiebis saidumlod Senaxvasa da dacvis uflebis ganxorcielebas Soris dadgenili iyo balansi. sasamarTlom aRiara, rom SesaZlebeli iyo ori gansxvavebuli proceduris gamoyeneba identur faqtebTan mimarTebiT ­ sasamarTlos winaSe dauyovnebliv wardgenis procedura da cixeSi patimrobasTan dakavSirebuli procedura. magram sasamarTlom xazi gausva im faqts, rom kanonmdebeli SesaZleblobas

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Tavisuflebisa da piradi usafrTxoebis ufleba

aZlevda sagamoZiebo organoebs, Tavad gadaewyvitaT, Tu ra RonisZieba unda miRebuliyo msgavs garemoebebSi im saxelmZRvanelo principebis mixedviT, romlebic winaswar iqna dadgenili. Sesabamisad, saarbitraJo sasamarTlos ganxilvis sagans ar warmoadgenda kanonis realuri gamoyenebis Sefaseba. meore winaswari kiTxva daisva im sxvaobasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic arsebobda sasamarTlos winaSe dauyovnebliv wardgenis proceduras (romelic unda ganxorcielebuliyo 7 dRis vadaSi) da Cveulebriv proceduras Soris, romelic ar uzrunvelyofda mopasuxes sasamarTlo ganxilviT am droSi. sasamarTlom CaTvala igi gamarTlebulad kanonmdeblobisaTvis, raTa am ukanasknels gaeTvaliswinebina debuleba, romelic ukavSirdeboda swraf proceduras, rodesac piri dakavebuli iyo qmedebis Cadenis momentSi, raTa Tavidan yofiliyo acilebuli dausjeloba. Sedegad sasamarTlom gamoitana azri, romlis Tanaxmadac, Cveulebrivi procedura ar warmoadgenda diskriminaciuls.

xorvatia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 02-12-1998 konstituciuri qmedeba, romelic exeba konstituciuri uflebis darRvevas patimrobis periodSi, nebadarTulia. rodesac ganixileba RonisZiebebi braldebulis adgilze yofnis uzrunvelyofasTan dakavSirebiT, sasamarTlom ar unda gamoiyenos SedarebiT mkacri RonisZieba, Tuki imave miznis miRweva SesaZlebelia naklebad mkacri iZulebis RonisZiebiT. arsebiTi mizezebi unda ganapirobebdnen patimrobis gagrZelebas. wina poziciisgan gansxvavebiT, romlis Tanaxmadac, patimrobis periodSi konstituciuri uflebis darRvevasTan dakavSirebuli saCivris warmodgena da gadawyveta SesaZlebelia sisxlis samarTlis proceduriT gaTvaliswinebuli saboloo dadgenilebiT, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom Tavisuflebis, Rirsebisa da patimarTa uflebebis efeqturi dacva moiTxovs konstituciur dacvas TviT patimrobis periodSic. danaSauli, romelSic momCivans edeboda brali, uSualod gamomdinareobda misi oficialuri movaleobebidan da misi Cadena SesaZlebelia mxolod dasaqmebuli piris mier. ramdenadac mosarCelis SromiTi xelSekruleba Sewyda, aRar arsebobda imis saSiSroeba, rom igi kvlav Caidenda analogiur danaSauls. imis abstraqtuli SesaZlebloba, rom igi iSovida sxva samsaxurs, ar iyo patimrobis gagrZelebisaTvis sakmarisi mizezi. Sesabamisad, mosarCelis sakonstitucio sarCeli dakmayofilda.

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germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo

winaswar patimrobaSi gatarebuli dro, garda sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoebis droisa, SesaZlebelia mxedvelobaSi iqnes miRebuli msjavrdebuli piris mier Sefardebuli sasjelis moxdisas, Tuki sakmarisi kavSiri arsebobs or samarTalwarmoebas Soris. 1998 wlis dekemberSi ganmcxadebels, romelic maSin srulwlovani ar iyo, miesaja 1 wliT patimroba arasrulwlovanTa cixeSi probaciis gareSe, romelic man 1999 wlis Tebervlidan moixada. 1999 wlis agvistoSi sasjelis darCenili nawili Seicvala probaciiT. momCivnis mimarT aseve mimdinareobda gamoZieba sisxlis samarTlis sxva danaSaulebTan, maT Soris, gaupatiurebasTan dakavSirebiT. mosarCele winaswar patimrobaSi iqna ayvanili gamoZiebis procesSi 1998 wlis ivnisidan 1999 wlis Tebervlamde. 1998 wlis 15 dekembers kompetenturma adgilobrivma sasamarTlom am braldebis gamo miusaja mas erTi wliTa da 6 TviT patimroba arasrulwlovanTa cixeSi probaciis gareSe. saapelacio sasamarTlom gaamarTla momCivani. 1999 wlis ivnisis gadawyvetilebiT, adgilobrivma sasamarTlom, romelsac gaaCnda iurisdiqcia ganaCenis sisruleSi moyvanasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebTan mimarTebiT, uari ganacxada, sasjelSi CaeTvala is winaswari patimroba, romelsac igi ixdida sxeulis dazianebasTan dakavSirebiT gamotanili msjavrdebisaTvis. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 51.1.1 muxli ar gamoiyeneba arc pirdapir da arc analogiis saxiT. aRniSnuli wesi miuTiTebs, rom winaswari patimrobis CaTvla ZiriTad sasjelSi SesaZlebelia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki igi am winaswar patimrobas ixdis im danaSaulSi braldebisTvis, romelSic igi saboloo jamSi iqna msjavrdebuli. sasamarTlos azriT, aRniSnuli wesi ar gamoiyeneba winamdebare saqmeSi, radganac msjavrdebul pirs exeboda 2 sxvadasxva sisxlis samarTalwarmoeba. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom ar arsebobda aranairi kavSiri or samarTalwarmoebas Soris. ganmcxadeblis saapelacio saCivari ar iqna dakmayofilebuli saapelacio sasamarTlos mier. is faqti, rom pirs miiCnevdnen damnaSaved orive saqmeSi da orive danaSauli daeqvemdebareboda kumulatiur an globalur sasjels axalgazrdebTan dakavSirebuli sisxlis samarTlis kanonis Tanaxmad, ar warmoadgenda sakmaris safuZvels imisTvis, rom winaswari patimroba kanonis mixedviT yofiliyo miRebuli mxedvelobaSi. Sesabamisad, ganmcxadebelma sarCeli Seitana xsenebuli gadawyvetilebis sawinaaRmdegod sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi da amtkicebda fundamenturi

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uflebis darRvevas, romelic daculia konstituciis 2.2 da 3.1 muxlebiT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gamoitana saolqo sasamarTlos sapirispiro gadawyvetileba, radganac igi ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis 2.2 muxliT gansazRvrul Tavisuflebis uflebas da konstituciis 3.1 muxliT gansazRvrul kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis uflebas. amis dadgenis Semdeg saqme daubrunda gansaxilvelad adgilobriv sasamarTlos. gadawyvetilebebi, romlebic iZleva imis saSualebas, rom winaswari patimroba mxedvelobaSi iqnes miRebuli sasjelis gamoangariSebisas, damokidebulia imaze, Tu ra xarisxiT aRsruldeba sasjeli da amgvarad axdens zegavlenas pirad Tavisuflebaze, romelic garantirebulia konstituciis 2.2 muxliT. rodesac sasamarTlos mier ganimarteba da gamoiyeneba sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 51.1 muxli da axalgazrdebTan dakavSirebuli sisxlis samarTlis kanoni, es unda ganxorcieldes im didi mniSvnelobis WrilSi, romelic kanonmdeblobam daakisra piradi Tavisuflebis uflebas. konstituciuri samarTali moiTxovs, rom sisxlis samarTlis Sesaxeb kanonis 51.1 muxlis da arasrulwlovanTa sasamarTlos Sesaxeb kanonis 52.a muxlebi ganimartos imgvarad, rom winaswar patimrobaSi gatarebuli dro mxedvelobaSi iqnes miRebuli, Tuki arsebobs funqciuri da faqtobrivi kavSiri winaswar patimrobasa da im danaSauls Soris, romlis CadenaSic msjavri iqna gamotanili. 1998 wlis 28 seqtembriTa da 7 noembriT daTariRebul gadawyvetilebebSi federalurma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom arakonstituciurad gamoacxada calkeuli punqtebi, romelSic winaswari patimroba ar iqna CaTvlili misi mcire mniSvnelobis gamo im samarTalwarmoebasTan SedarebiT, romlis Sedegadac moxda msjavrdeba. adgilobrivi saolqo sasamarTloebis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi, romelTa winaaRmdegac saapelacio saCivari iqna Setanili, sakmarisad ar uzrunvelyofs imas, rom samarTalwarmoeba, romelSic winaswari patimroba iqna ganxorcielebuli da danaSauli, romlisTvisac igi iqna msjavrdebuli, erTmaneTs ukavSirdebodes. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT piris Tavisuflebis fundamentur mniSvnelobas, xsenebuli urTierToba ar unda iqnes ugulebelyofili. Tu gaupatiurebis braldebasTan mimarTebiT mosarCele ar gaamarTla saolqo sasamarTlom, mas mxedvelobaSi unda mieRo 1998 wlis saboloo msjavrdeba sxeulis dazianebasTan dakavSirebiT da daekisrebina axali sasjeli arasrulwlovanTa cixeSi patimrobis saxiT. ueWvelia, rom saerTo sasjelis dawesebiT proceduruli kavSiri sxvadasxva danaSaulebs Soris iarsebebda sxvadasxva samarTalwarmoebaSi, rac gulisxmobs winaswar patimrobaSi gatarebuli drois CaTvlas. igive exeba im faqts, rodesac piri gamocxade-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

bulia udanaSaulod. udanaSaulod miCneuli arasrulwlovani ar SeiZleba Cayenebul iqnes uares situaciaSi, vidre maSin, Tu igi msjavrdebuli iqneboda. sisxlis samarTlis kanoni, romelic ukavSirdeba axalgazrda damnaSaveebs, moiTxovs, rom saganmanaTleblo mizans mieniWos upiratesoba da aqedan gamomdinare, samarTlebrivi Sedegebi SemoisazRvros im farglebiT, ra farglebiTac aucilebelia sasurveli saganmanaTleblo Sedegebis miReba, aRniSnuls ki mivyavarT specialur kavSiramde im danaSaulebs Soris, romelTa gamoZiebac xdeba sxvadasxva samarTalwarmoebaSi. aRniSnuli mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli, rodesac gamoiyeneba da ganimarteba arasrulwlovanTa sasamarTlos Sesaxeb kanonis 52a1 punqti.

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 08-09-1999 sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis debuleba, romlis Tanaxmadac, sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoebis periodSi SesaZlebelia patimrobis Sefardeba, Tuki piri braldebulia im danaSaulis CadenaSi, romelic isjeba patimrobiT da arsebobs safuZvliani eWvi, rom igi Caidens sxva danaSauls gaTavisuflebis SemTxvevaSi, arakonstituciuria, radganac igi zRudavs piris Tavisuflebis uflebas, romelic uzrunvelyofilia konstituciis 55.1 muxliT. TavisTavad patimroba ar aris arakonstituciuri da sinamdvileSi zogierT saqmeSi igi Zalian mniSvnelovania, radganac warmoadgens aRmkveT RonisZiebas da ara sasjels. winaswari patimroba ar arRvevs udanaSaulobis prezumfciis konstituciur princips, romelic uzrunvelyofilia konstituciis 57.1 muxliT da romlis Tanaxmadac, piri SeiZleba CaiTvalos damnaSaved, sanam misi sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba ar dadasturdeba sasamarTlo ganaCeniT. konstituciis 55.2 muxlis Sesabamisad, nebismieri piri, romelic daakaves danaSaulis CadenaSi eWvis gamo, dauyovnebliv unda gaTavisufldes an wardgenil iqnes mosamarTlis winaSe. mosamarTles eTxoveba, mousminos mas da swrafad gadawyvitos werilobiTi dasabuTebiT, piri gaTavisufldes Tu braldebul iqnes. sazogadoebis dacvis mizniT, zogjer gamarTlebulia danaSaulis CadenaSi eWvmitanili piris cixeSi moTavseba sasamarTlos samarTalwarmoebis mimdinareobis periodSi. aRniSnuli gamomdinareobs konstituciis 55.2 muxlidan, romelSic nagulisxmevia sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoebis periodSi patimrobis SesaZlebloba. sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, ar SeiZleba arakonstituciurad

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CaiTvalos, rom sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad patimrobis Sefardeba dasaSvebia, Tuki piri braldebulia iseTi danaSaulis CadenaSi, romlisTvisac gaTvaliswinebulia cixeSi moTavseba. Tumca, kanonmdeblis mier dasaxul misaRwev mizanTan araproporciulia da, Sesabamisad, konstituciis 55.2 muxls ewinaaRmdegeba saproceso kanonis 92.1c muxli, romelic iZleva nebarTvas piris dakavebaze im mizniT, rom xeli SeuSalos mas sxva danaSaulis CadenaSi.

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 02-07-1997 aRsrulebasTan dakavSirebuli debulebebisa da sadamsjelo elementebis gamo, romelsac organizaciul danaSaulSi monawile eWvmitanili piris 30 dRemde administraciuli patimroba moicavs, es ukanaskneli iTvleba iZulebiT RonisZiebad, romelic Sedis sisxlis samarTlis farglebSi. Tumca, aseTi RonisZiebebi SesaZloa dadgenil iqnes federaluri kanoniT. damatebiT unda aRiniSnos, rom xsenebuli RonisZieba, gulisxmobs ra 30-dRian vadas, ar Seesabameba konstituciur debulebas, romlis Tanaxmad, 48 saaTze meti xniT dakaveba SesaZlebelia mxolod sasamarTlo brZanebis safuZvelze. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganixila saqme, romelic exeboda moldaveTis respublikis kanonis _ `danaSaulTan brZolis Sesaxeb droebiTi RonisZiebebi _ konstituciurobas. samarTalwarmoeba aRiZra im saCivris sapasuxod, romelic Setanil iqna sasamarTloSi moqalaqe xairovis mier zemoxsenebuli kanonis arakonstituciurobasTan dakavSirebiT. mizezi, romlis gamoc samarTalwarmoeba iqna aRZruli, mdgomareobda im gaurkvevlobasa da bundovanebaSi, rac ukavSirdeboda im sakiTxs, rom gansaxilveli kanoni, romelic moldaveTis Sinagan saqmeTa saministros aZlevda uflebas, prokuroris TanxmobiT gamoeyenebina organizebuli kriminaluri jgufebis wevrebis administraciuli patimroba 30 dRemde, SesabamisobaSi iyo ruseTis federaciis konstituciasTan. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom moqalaqe xairovi, romelic muSaobda, rogorc SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis kompaniis `tonus-eqstras~ menejeris moadgiled, dakavebul da winaswar patimrobaSi iqna moTavsebuli administraciuli patimrobis safuZvelze. droebiTi patimrobidan igi gaTavisuflda dakavebidan 1 kviris Semdgom adgilobrivi prokuroris mier. Tumca, araviTari sisxlis samarTalwarmoeba ar aRZrula b-ni xairovis mimarT, rogorc misi patimrobis periodSi, aseve patimrobis Semdgom. mas, agreTve, ar wayenebia brali sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulis CadenaSi.

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ganmcxadebeli amtkicebda ra, rom patimrobam ziani miayena mis pirovnul da profesiul reputacias, b-nma xairovma sarCeli Seitana raionul sasamarTloSi moraluri zianis anazRaurebasTan dakavSirebiT moldaveTis Sinagan saqmeTa saministros winaaRmdeg. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom policiis oficrebi moqmedebdnen moldaveTis respublikaSi moqmedi kanonis `danaSaulTan brZolaSi droebiTi RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb" Sesabamisad da uaryo ganmcxadeblis pretenziebi. moldaveTSi am kanonma Sewyvita moqmedeba im dros, rodesac sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daiwyo saqmis ganxilva. amis miuxedavad, federaluri sakonstitucio kanonis `ruseTis federaciis sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb~ Tanaxmad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos winaSe aRZruli samarTalwarmoeba ar SeiZleba Sewyvetiliyo, radganac zemoxsenebuli kanonis moqmedebis Sedegad irRveoda moqalaqeTa konstituciuri uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi. kanoni moldaveTis respublikis Sinagan saqmeTa saministros uflebas aZlevda, prokuroris TanxmobiT ganexorcielebina organizebuli danaSaulebrivi jgufis wevris administraciuli patimroba. 1996 wlis 30 dekembers cvlileba, romlis Tanaxmadac, Sinagan saqmeTa saministros uflebamosileba eZleoda daepatimrebina is pirebi, romlebsac Sexeba hqondaT kriminalur jgufebTan, Setanil iqna kanonSi debulebis saxiT. aRniSnuli RonisZieba unda gamoyenebuliyo konkretulad `organizebuli kriminaluri jgufebis mimarT~. Tavisi bunebiT, agebulebiT, SinaarsiT, ganxorcielebis meTodiT, masSi sisxlissamarTlebrivi elementebis arsebobis gamo kanoniT dadgenili patimroba warmoadgens iZulebiT RonisZiebas, romelic ganekuTvneba sisxlis samarTlisa da saproceso kanonmdeblobis sferos. aRniSnuli naTlad Cans im direqtividan, romelic exeba kanonis ganmartebas da romlis Tanaxmadac, dapatimrebuli piris organizebul jgufTan kavSiris mtkicebulebebi warmodgenili unda iqnes im piris mier, romelmac ganaxorciela dapatimreba. administraciuli patimrobis safuZvels warmoadgens piris kuTvnileba da wevroba organizebuli jgufisadmi. dapatimrebuli piris organizebuli jgufis wevrobis mtkicebulebebi moicavs im piris moxsenebas, romelic iTxovs dapatimrebas, oficialuri wyaroebidan mowodebul informacias (maT Soris, igulisxmeba masmedia), rac mtkicdeba operatiuli informaciiT da mowmeTa Cvenebebs. kriminaluri dajgufebis wevrebis patimroba gamoiqviTeba dakisrebuli sasjelidan. debulebebi, romlebic exeba konstituciiTa da federaluri kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvrul sisxlis samarTlis kanons, saproceso kanonmdeblobasa da sasjelis aRsrulebas, uflebas iZleva aRmkveTi RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebaze droebiTi patimrobis saxiT mxolod im pirebTan mimarTebiT, romlebmac Caidines konkretuli danaSauli. isini aseve akonkreteben mizezebs,

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vadebs da proceduras moklevadiani da droebiTi patimrobis ganxorcielebisaTvis braldebis wardgenamde. gansaxilveli kanonis debuleba, romelsac konkretuli gansazRvreba da gamoxatuleba mieca Sesabamisi direqtiviT, SesaZlebels xdis piris organizebuli jgufisadmi kuTvnilebis dadgenas im meTodebisa da mtkicebulebebis gamoyenebiT, romlebic mocemuli ar aris konstituciasa da sisxlis saproceso federalur kanonmdeblobaSi. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, igi arsebiTad aRiarebs pirs, rogorc kriminals da mis winaaRmdeg iyenebs iZulebiT RonisZiebas 30 dRemde administraciuli patimrobis Sefardebis gziT. amitomac ukve ZalaSi Sesuli konstituciis 49-e muxli darRveulia, radgan mis Tanaxmad, nebismieri piri, romelsac bralad edeba sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulis Cadena, udanaSaulod unda iqnes miCneuli, sanam misi braleuloba ar dadgindeba federaluri kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvruli proceduris Sesabamisad sasamarTlo ganaCeniT. konstituciis 22-e muxlis Sesabamisad, yvelas aqvs ufleba Tavisuflebasa da pirad xelSeuxeblobaze; dakaveba, patimroba da cixeSi moTavseba daSvebulia mxolod sasamarTlo brZanebis safuZvelze. sasamarTlo brZanebis gareSe dauSvebelia piris patimroba 48 saaTze meti xniT. moldaveTis respublikis kanonis gansaxilveli debuleba, romelic Sinagan saqmeTa saministros uflebas aZlevs, prokuroris TanxmobiT gamoiyenos, administraciuli patimroba 30 dRemde im pirebTan mimarTebiT, romlebic arian organizebuli kriminaluri jgufebis wevrebi, ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciis 22-e muxls. damatebiT unda aRiniSnos, rom sakiTxis ganxilvis Semdeg, romelic eqskluziurad exeboda sisxlis samarTlis farglebs, sisxlis saproceso kanonmdeblobasa da sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulis ganxorcielebas, moldaveTis respublikis asamblea Caeria federaluri kanonmdeblis kompetenciaSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom moldaveTis respublikis Sesabamisi kanoni arakonstituciuri iyo.

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 13-06-1996 sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdebloba, romlis Tanaxmadac, braldebulisa da misi damcvelis mier saqmis gacnobis periodi ar iTvleba winaswar patimrobad, arakonstituciuria, radganac igi zRudavs piris uflebas Tavisuflebasa da xelSeuxeblobaze da am uflebis samarTlebriv dacvas.

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samarTalwarmoeba aRiZra moqalaqis mier Setanili saCivris safuZvelze. igi acxadebda, rom konstituciuri uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi irRveoda ruseTis federaciis saproceso kanonmdeblobis 97.5 muxliT, romlis Tanaxmadac, is dro, romelsac braldebuli da misi damcveli moandomebdnen saqmis gacnobas, ar iTvleboda winaswar patimrobad da ar gamoiqviTeboda msjavrdebis Sedegad dakisrebuli sasjelidan. ganmcxadeblis azriT, aRniSnuli wesi ar Seesabameboda konstitucias, radganac igi zRudavda mis uflebas pirad Tavisuflebasa da xelSeuxeblobaze iseve, rogorc samarTlebriv dacvaze da arRvevda mis uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs, rac warmoiSoboda sxva pirebis mier TavianTi uflebebis ganxorcielebis Sedegad. winaswari patimrobis usafuZvlo gaxangrZliveba gamomdinareobda ara mxolod saproceso kanonmdeblobis 97.5 muxlidan, aramed, aseve, im normebis xasiaTidan, romlebic uzrunvelyofen braldebulis uflebas, miiRos sruli da amomwuravi informacia braldebis arsze da im mtkicebulebebze, romlebsac igi emyareba. Sesabamisad, mxolod sadavo normis arakonstituciurad miCneva TavisTavad ar iyo sakmarisi dacvisa da braldebis uflebis dasacavad. sisxlis samarTlis kanonis gamoyenebis saSualebiT sazogadoebis danaSaulisagan dacvis amocanidan gamomdinare, kanonmdebelma unda ecados zemoxsenebuli sakiTxebis gadawyveta Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobisa da normebis saSualebiT. sisxlis samarTlebrivi saproceso RonisZiebebis konstituciurobis uzrunvelyofis yvelaze efeqtur gzas kanonmdeblisaTvis warmoadgens saWiro cvlilebebis Setana moqmed saproceso kanonmdeblobaSi an axali samarTlebrivi aqtebis Seqmna. im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki sasamarTloebi samarTlebriv dacvasTan dakavSirebul samarTlebriv process Seasworebdnen pirdapiri ise, rogorc gansazRvrulia konstituciaSi, mainc Zneli iqneboda moqalaqeTa kanonisa da sasamarTloebis winaSe Tanasworobis uzrunvelyofa samarTlebrivi normebis praqtikuli gamoyenebis gziT. Sesabamisi sakanonmdeblo gadawyvetilebebis miReba, romlebic iTvaliswinebs sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mier gamoTqmul moTxovnebs, garkveul dros saWiroebs. am SemTxvevaSi sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom saproceso kanonmdeblobis 97.5 muxli ar Seesabameba konstitucias. Sesabamisad, xsenebuli muxli imoqmedebs mxolod 6 Tvis ganmavlobaSi aRniSnuli gadawyvetilebis gamocxadebis dRidan. ruseTis federaciis federalurma asambleam winamdebare ganaCenis gamocxadebidan eqvsi Tvis vadaSi unda gadawyvitos sakiTxi sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis SecvlasTan dakavSirebiT Tavisuflebis uflebasTan mimarTebiT imgvarad, rogorc es uzrunvelyofilia ruseTis federaciis konstituciiT. konstituciis 46.1 muxlis Sesabamisad, manamde, sanam

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Tavisuflebisa da piradi usafrTxoebis ufleba

Tavisuflebis uflebasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi gadawydeba kanonmdeblobiT, danaSaulis CadenaSi braldebuli pirebi uflebamosilni arian, sasamarTlos winaSe waradginon saCivari winaswari patimrobis marTlzomierebasTan dakavSirebiT sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis yvela etapis, maT Soris, braldebulisa da damcveli advokatis mier saqmis gacnobis periodis Taobaze.

slovakeTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo kolegia 10-07-2002 ukanono patimrobis sawinaaRmdego garantiebi, romelic gansazRvrulia konstituciis 17.5 muxliTa da evropuli konvenciis me-5.1 muxliT, ar moiTxovs, rom gonivruli eWvi, romlis safuZvelzec piri aris dapatimrebuli, unda efuZnebodes mtkicebulebebs, romlebic piris braleulobas adasturebs, aseve, rodesac mtkicebuleba arakanonieri gziT aris mopovebuli. ganmcxadebeli amtkicebda, rom igi daapatimres im mtkicebulebaTa safuZvelze, romlebic ar adasturebs mis braleulobas Sesabamisi sisxlis samarTlebrivi danaSaulis CadenaSi da, romlebic ukanono gziT iqna mopovebuli. ganmcxadeblis azriT, konstituciis me-17 da evropuli konvenciis me-5.1 muxliT gansazRvruli misi uflebebi dairRva, radganac xsenebuli debulebebi mTavrobas avaldebulebs, warmoadginos iseTi mtkicebulebebi, romlebic ara marto adasturebs piris braleulobas misi dapatimrebis momentSi, aramed es mtkicebulebebi mopovebul unda iqnes kanonTan srul SesabamisobaSi. sasamarTlom pirvel rigSi ganixila sakiTxi, aris Tu ara xelisuflebis organoebis valdebuleba dapatimrebisaTvis mtkicebulebebis wardgena im moculobiT, rac daamtkicebda Sesabamisi piris danaSaulSi monawileobas. daeyrdno ra adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precedentul samarTals, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aseve daadgina: miuxedavad imisa, rom evropuli konvenciis 5.1c muxli moiTxovs `gonivrul eWvs~, rogorc TviTneburi dapatimrebis sawinaaRmdego garantiebis erT-erT komponents, es moTxovna dakmayofilebulia, Tuki arsebobs faqtebi an informacia, romelTa safuZvelzec miukerZoeblad SeiZleba iseTi daskvnis gamotana, rom braldebuls SeeZlo danaSaulis Cadena. amitomac braldebulis braleulobis damadasturebeli mtkicebuleba ar aris moTxovnili. rac Seexeba ganmcxadeblis arguments imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom misi dakavebis brZaneba efuZneboda saproceso kanonmdeblobis darRveviT mopovebul mtkicebulebebs, sasamarTlo SemoizRuda imis gancxadebiT, rom samarTlebrivi

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

daskvnebi srulad gamoiyeneboda ukanonod mopovebul mtkicebulebebTan mimarTebiT. sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom Sesabamisi samarTaldamcavi organoebis mier ganxorcielebuli ukanono qmedebebi, maT Soris, mtkicebulebebis ukanonod mopoveba, zegavlenas ar axdenda patimrobis safuZvlebze, magram SesaZloa mas didi mniSvneloba hqonoda arsebiTi samarTalwarmoebisaTvis sasamarTlos winaSe.

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 15-04-1996 is, Tu ra moculobiT unda Seafasos gamomZiebelma mosamarTlem pirobebi da moTxovnebi, romlebic Tan axlavs winaswar patimrobas da braldebulis Tavisuflebis uflebas, gansxvavdeba im proceduris Sesabamisad, romlis Tanaxmadac, unda daekisros an dadasturdes aRmkveTi RonisZiebebi. gamoZiebis dasawyisSi winaswari patimrobis konstituciuri moTxovnebis dacvis mizniT, gamomZiebeli mosamarTlis xelT arsebuli informaciis safuZvelze, SesaZlebelia gamarTlebul iqnes patimroba mxolod im danaSaulis xasiaTis da im sasjelis simkacris safuZvelze, romelic gaTvaliswinebulia am danaSaulis CadenisaTvis. gamoZiebis nebismier sxva etapze sxva mniSvnelovani informacia ganxilul unda iqnes, raTa Sefasdes braldebulis mimalvis safrTxe ara marto Cadenili danaSaulis seriozulobis ganxilviTa da sasjelis simkacriT, aramed saqmis yvela garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rac gulisxmobs: braldebulis pirovnebas, ojaxur kavSirebs, samsaxurisa da socialur kontaqtebs, sxva qveynebTan kavSirebs, finansur situacias. sakonstitucio sarCeli warmodgenil iqna sxvadasxva sasamarTlo ganaCenebis sawinaaRmdegod, romelTa Tanaxmadac, ganmcxadebeli ar iqna pirobiT gaTavisuflebuli da dadasturebul iqna msjavrdeba. ganaCeni, romelic mas msjavrs sdebda da ar iyo saboloo, radganac saapelacio saCivari jer ar iyo ganxiluli, ufardebda mas sasjels patimrobis saxiT Tavdebobis gareSe. sakonstitucio sarCelis mizans warmoadgenda imis gansazRvra, arRvevda Tu ara sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebi mis uflebas pirad Tavisuflebaze, radganac isini ar moicavdnen sakmaris safuZvlebs, ukanonod zRudavdnen Tavisuflebas da mosarCelis azriT, ar gansazRvravdnen safuZvlebsa da pirobebs aRmkveTi RonisZiebis SefardebasTan dakavSirebiT. rac Seexeba pirvel sakiTxs, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom CaTvala, rom sasamarTlo ganaCenebi akmayofilebda konstituciur moTxovnas miuxedavad zedmeti lakonurobisa, rac gakicxul iqna. unda yofil-

130

Tavisuflebisa da piradi usafrTxoebis ufleba

iyo warmodgenili mizezebi, radganac Tavdebobis gareSe winaswari patimrobis periodi ar yofila Sefardebuli arc erT ganaCenSi garda im ganaCenisa, romliTac mas msjavri daedo da moicavda mizezebis aRweras. igi aRniSnavda braldebulis monawileobas gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSaulSi da amiT amarTlebda winaswar patimrobas. rac Seexeba patimrobis samarTlebriv safuZvelsa da pirobebs, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom yuradReba gaamaxvila Tavis precedentul samarTalSi moxseniebul or pirobaze, romlebic aucileblad unda dakmayofildes: gonivruli eWvis arseboba, rom danaSauli Cadenil iqna im piris mier, romlis winaaRmdegac aRmkveTi RonisZieba iqneboda gamoyenebuli da Sefasebuli iqneboda am piris mimalvis safrTxe. winamdebare saqmeSi sakonstitucio sasamarTlom xazi gausva im faqts, rom winaswari patimroba gadawyda msjavrdebis sakiTxTan erTad. mniSvnelovani iyo situaciis Sefaseba, romelic sasamarTlom miiRo mxedvelobaSi, rodesac gasca brZaneba apelantis winaswar patimrobaze. arsebobda imis safrTxe, rom igi miimaleboda mosalodneli 9-wliani mkacri sasjelidan gamomdinare. miuxedavad imisa, rom msjavrdeba ar iyo saboloo, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sakmarisad garkveuli da naTeli safuZvlebi arsebobda imis dasadgenad, rom msjavrdebuli piri Cabmuli iyo danaSaulSi (narkodilerobaSi), risTvisac sakmaod mkacri sasjelia gaTvaliswinebuli. sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki ganaCeni dadasturdeboda, msjavrdebuli piri miimaleboda. yovelive zemoTqmulis da im garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlebic zogadad Tan axlda analogiur danaSaulebs, amarTlebda winaswar patimrobas.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 16-03-1994 narkomanebi SeiZleba moTavsdnen mxolod samkurnalo centrebSi, rodesac imedi gvaqvs, rom isini ganikurnebian. patimroba da samkurnalo RonisZiebebi SesaZlebelia Seefardos erTsa da imave dros. pirovnuli Tavisuflebis fundamenturi ufleba moiTxovs, rom xsenebuli orive RonisZieba gaerTiandes imgvarad, rom piris Tavisuflebis ufleba ar SeizRudos imaze metad, vidre es aucilebelia. pirovnuli Tavisuflebis ufleba ar moiTxovs, rom samkurnalo RonisZiebis mTliani xangrZlivoba CaTvlil iqnes sasjelSi. amasTan, proporciulobis principi unda iqnes daculi. germanuli kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, sisxlis samarTlis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

sasamarTlos SeuZlia miusajos pirs patimroba da amave dros Seufardos mas samkurnalo RonisZiebebi, rogoric aris, magaliTad, misi moTavseba narkomanTa samkurnalo centrSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ar gamoTqva pretenziebi am SesaZleblobasTan dakavSirebiT. Tumca, proporciulobis principis pativiscema moiTxovs, rom piris moTavseba samkurnalo centrSi dasaSvebia im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki mosalodnelia am piris gankurneba. amgvarad, imisaTvis, rom samkurnalo centrSi moTavseba CaiTvalos sasjelis nawilad, misi xangrZlivoba unda gamoiqviTos patimrobis xangrZlivobidan.

slovenia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 24-10-1996 bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb gaerTianebuli erebis konvencia warmoadgens SedarebiT Tanamedrove da konkretul saerTaSoriso aqts, vidre paqti samoqalaqo da politikur uflebaTa Sesaxeb. im ganmartebasTan zogadi wesebis Sesabamisad, rom axali normebi auqmeben adre miRebul normebs da rom axla moqmedi konkretuli normebi auqmeben Zvel, zogad normebs, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos azriT, aucilebeli iyo saproceso kanonmdeblobis debulebaTa Sesabamisobis ganxilva konvenciasTan, rogorc ufro Tanamedrove da konkretul samarTlebriv aqtTan. radganac sisxlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis gasaCivrebuli debulebebi SesaZlebelia ganmartebul da gamoyenebul iqnes mxolod arasrulwlovnebis winaaRmdeg warmarTuli proceduris CarCoebSi, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom isini ar ewinaaRmdegeba konvenciis 37-e muxls. saproceso kanonmdeblobaSi arsebuli yvela samarTlebrivi normidan, romlebic exeba arasrulwlovanTa adgils sisxlis samarTalwarmoebaSi, udavod gamomdinareobs, rom procedurebSi, romlebic moicaven arasrulwlovans, yvela organo valdebulia, maqsimalur doneze pativi sces axalgazrda piris emociur ganviTarebas, mgrZnobelobasa da pirovnebas imisaTvis, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnes, rom sisxlis samarTalwarmoebas ar gaaCnia zianis momtani zegavlena maT ganviTarebaze. (saproceso kanonmdeblobis 453.2 muxli). konstituciis me-8 muxlis safuZvelze ratificirebuli da gamoqveynebuli saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebi gamoyenebul unda iqnes pirdapiri gziT, rac niSnavs, rom arasrulwlovanTa sasamarTloSi mosamarTle valdebulia, pativiscemiT moepyros konvenciis 37-e muxlis debulebebs, Tundac isini ar iyos inkorporirebuli saproceso kanonmdeblobaSi kodeqsis gasaCivrebuli debulebebis da

132

Rirsebis ufleba

zemoxsenebuli konvenciis debulebebis safuZvelze. mosamarTles SeuZlia, mxolod gamonaklis SemTxvevaSi brZanos arasrulwlovnis moTavseba srulwlovanTa cixeSi da mxolod im pirobiT, rom patimroba Sedis arasrulwlovnis interesebSi.

Rirsebis ufleba

azerbaijani sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 31-05-2002 kanoni, qonebriv zianTan erTad, cnobs araqonebrivi zianis koncefcias da iTvaliswinebs pasuxismgeblobas amgvari zianis mimyenebeli pirebisaTvis. zaralis miyeneba xelyofs fizikuri an iuridiuli piris subieqtur uflebebs. amasTanave, samoqalaqo samarTliT, zianis miyenebas socialuri mniSvnelobac gaaCnia, vinaidan subieqturi uflebebis xelyofas Tan axlavs kanoniT daculi obieqturi uflebebis xelyofac. araqonebrivi ziani moicavs zarals, romelic dazaralebulis cnobierebaze zemoqmedebas axdens da zianis mimyenebeli piris qmedebebis Sedegad iwvevs dazaralebulis negatiur reaqcias. amgvari zarali warmoadgens moqalaqis uflebebis darRvevisagan damoukidebel Sedegs. is anazRaurdeba rogorc qonebrivi zianis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, ise mis gareSec. araqonebrivi zianis anazRaurebisas mxedvelobaSi miRebul unda iqnes dazaralebulis fsiqikuri gancdis xasiaTi da xarisxi, zianis gamomwvevi mxaris braleuloba, misi finansuri mdgomareoba da sxva mniSvnelovani faqtorebi. yovel konkretul saqmeSi amgvari zaralisaTvis gasawevi kompensaciis detalebis dadgena unda moxdes sasamarTlos Sexedulebisamebr. misi Sinaarsisa da formis mixedviT, ziani SeiZleba miadges rogorc qonebriv, ise araqonebriv Rirebulebebsac. reziume: uzenaesma sasamarTlom moiTxova "zaralis" ganmarteba samoqalaqo kodeqsis konteqstSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom samoqalaqo kodeqsis 21-e muxlis pirveli nawili iTvaliswinebs, rom pirs, romlis uflebac iqna xelyofili, uflebamosilia, moiTxovos misTvis miyenebuli zaralis sruli kompensacia, Tu kanonmdebloba an SeTanxmeba ar iTvaliswinebs amgvari danakargis kompensacias ufro dabali odenobiT.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

"danakargi" niSnavs piris mier gaweul da momavalSi gasawev xarjebs misi darRveuli uflebis aRsadgenad, misi qonebis dakargvas an qonebisadmi miyenebul zarals ("realuri zarali") iseve, rogorc dakargul sargebels, e.i. sargebels, romlis miRebac pirs SeeZlo Cveulebriv pirobebSi, Tuki misi ufleba ar dairRveoda (samoqalaqo kodeqsis 21-e muxlis me-2 nawili). maSasadame, mocemuli zarali Sedgeba realuri zaralisagan da dakarguli sargeblisagan. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 21-e muxli SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc individualuri uflebis xelyofiT gamowveuli materialuri zaralis anazRaurebis maregulirebeli norma. samoqalaqo kodeqsis 23-e muxlis me-4 nawilis mixedviT: "fizikuri piris pativis, Rirsebis an saqmiani reputaciis Semlaxveli mcdari informaciis gavrcelebis SemTxvevaSi, pirs gaaCnia ufleba, miiRos kompensacia amgvari gavrcelebisaTvis da moipovos gancxadeba imis Taobaze, rom es informacia sinamdviles ar Seesabameba". igive debulebebi ZalaSia iuridiuli piris mimarT (samoqalaqo kodeqsis 23-e muxli, nawili 6). amasTanave, ar arsebobs pirdapiri miTiTeba imisa, SeiZleba Tu ara amgvari zarali qonebrivi Tu araqonebrivi xasiaTis iyos. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac ilaxeba piris pativi, Rirseba an saqmiani reputacia, is ganicdis Soks an SeSfoTebas da, Sesabamisad, fsiqikur tanjvas. anu, pirs adgeba rogorc qonebrivi, ise araqonebrivi ziani. araqonebrivi zianis anazRaurebis mniSvneloba aRiarebulia mTeli rigi saerTaSoriso dokumentebiT. rogorc wesi, araqonebrivi zianis miyeneba xdeba maSin, rodesac ilaxeba moqalaqeTa araqonebrivi uflebebi. araqonebrivi zarali niSnavs zaralis iseT formebs, romelTac ar aqvT pirdapiri ekonomikuri mniSvneloba. amgvari zarali xelyofs moqalaqeTa araqonebriv sagnebTan dakavSirebul uflebebs (rogoricaa pativi, Rirseba, saqmiani reputacia, ojaxis piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxebloba, Tavisufali gadaadgilebisa da sacxovrebeli adgilis arCevanis ufleba, saavtoro uflebebi, sxva piradi araqonebrivi da araqonebrivi nivTebis mimarT gamoyenebadi uflebebi), romlebic mas gaaCnia dabadebidan an kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze, vinaidan es iwvevs fizikuri piris Soks da SeSfoTebas. konstituciis 46-e muxli iTvaliswinebs yoveli piris uflebas, daicvas misi pativi da Rirseba da garantirebs am dacvas yoveli piris Rirsebis safuZvelze samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos CamoyalibebiT. adamianisa da moqalaqis fundamentur uflebaTa Soris, konstitucia axorcielebs piris socialuri, politikuri da ekonomikuri uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis garantiebis dacvas, rogorc kanonis uzenaesobis principebze marTuli demokratiuli saxelmwifos ganuyofel nawils. ufro metic, is am uflebebs ganix-

134

Rirsebis ufleba

ilavs rogorc individTa, sazogadoebisa da saxelmwifos ganviTarebis an moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis aspeqts. amave dros, unda aRniSnos, rom sazogadoebis ganviTarebis erT-erT umTavres princips warmoadgens azrisa da sityvis Tavisufleba. es ufleba asaxulia konstituciis 47-e muxlSi. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-10 muxli, inter alia, iTvaliswinebs: "yvelas aqvs ufleba azris gamoxatvis Tavisuflebaze". xazi unda gaesvas im garemoebas, rom samoqalaqo kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs pativis, Rirsebis, saqmiani reputaciis, ojaxis piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobisa da piradi usafrTxoebis Selaxvis Sedegad miyenebuli zaralis anazRaurebas; amasTanave, is ar iTvaliswinebs zaralis anazRaurebas araqonebriv uflebaTa an aramaterialuri nivTebTan dakavSirebul uflebaTa xelyofisaTvis. zemoaRniSnul mosazrebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom samoqalaqo kodeqsis 21-e muxli iTvaliswinebs realuri zaralis, iseve rogorc dakarguli sargeblis anazRaurebas. kodeqsis 23-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli zarali moicavs pativis, Rirsebisa da saqmiani reputaciisaTvis miyenebul rogorc araqonebriv (fizikuri da fsiqologiuri tanjva), ise materialur ziansac.

safrangeTi sakonstitucio sabWo 27.06.2001 kanoni orsulobis nebayoflobiTi Sewyvetisa da kontracepciis Sesaxeb sakonstitucio sabWom uaryo momCivanTa argumentebi im kanonTan mimarTebiT, romelic ganagrZobs orsulobis Sewyvetis samarTlebriv vadas 10-dan 12 kviramde (orsulobis dawyebis momentidan); momCivnebi varaudobdnen adamianis sicocxlis momentidan pativiscemis principis darRvevas, adamianis Rirsebisa da damamcirebeli mopyrobis yvela formisagan dacvis uflebis darRvevas, aseve, sajaro samedicino samsaxurebis xelmZRvaneli pirebis sindisis Tavisuflebis uflebis xelyofas. sakonstitucio sabWom ar daakmayofila samocze meti senatoris mier Semotanili saCivari orsulobis nebayoflobiTi Sewyvetisa da kontracepciis Sesaxeb kanonis mimarT da daadgina, rom orsulobis Sewyvetis samarTlebrivi vadis gangrZoba 10-dan 12 kviramde (orsulobis dawyebis momentidan) im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac qali gansacdelSi imyofeboda misi mdgomareobis gamo, ar ewinaaRmdegeba

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

konstitucias. kerZod, man uaryo argumentebi, romlebic eyrdnoboda adamianis sicocxlis momentidan pativiscemis principis darRvevas, adamianis Rirsebisa da damamcirebeli mopyrobis yvela formisagan dacvis uflebis darRvevas, aseve, sajaro samedicino samsaxuris xelmZRvaneli pirebis sindisis Tavisuflebis uflebis xelyofas. kanonmdebelma SeZlo, daemyarebina balansi konstituciis yvela Sesabamis faqtors Soris, orsulobis mdgomareobis gamo gansacdelSi myof qalTa piradi Tavisuflebis CaTvliT.

safrangeTi sakonstitucio sabWo 19.01.1995 yvelasaTvis Rirseuli sacxovreblis floba aris sakonstitucio mxardaWeris mqone mizani. 1946 wlis 27 oqtombers miRebuli konstituciis preambulidan naTelia, rom adamianis Rirsebis dacva damamcirebeli mopyrobis yvela formisagan aris konstituciuri donis norma; erma unda uzrunvelyos "individebi da ojaxebi maTi ganviTarebisaTvis saWiro pirobebiT"; da bolos, "nebismieri adamiani, [...] romelsac ar SeuZlia muSaoba, uflebamosilia, miiRos misi arsebobisaTvis aucilebeli saSualebebi sazogadoebisagan". es iyo meore SemTxveva, rodesac sakonstitucio sabWom adamianis Rirsebis koncefcia ganmarta, rogorc damamcirebeli mopyrobis yvela formis akrZalvaze dafuZnebuli (ix. gadawyvetileba # 94-343/344 DC), da daadgina, rom yvela pirisaTvis Rirseuli sacxovreblis floba aris sakonstitucio mxardaWeris mqone mizani.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 10-11-1998 momCivani, avstrieli mxatvari, monawileobas iRebda saientologiis eklesiis gamocemiT saqmianobaSi 1972 wlidan da, aseve, gadioda mis saswavlo kursebs. 1975 wlidan moyolebuli, ramdenime Jurnali mas saientologs uwodebda an mis saientoligiasTan am Tu im kavSiris arsebobis eWvs gamoTqvamda. 1994 wels momCivans daevala saarbriukenSi mdebare yofili sakoncentracio banakis _ "noie bremis" _ teritoriis samxatvro dizainis modelis Seqmna. orma seqtantizmTan mebrZolma asociaciam scada momCivnis

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CamoSoreba proeqtSi monawileobidan. am mizniT, maT Ria werili gaugzavnes mediisa da politikuri wreebis warmomadgenlebs, romelSic maT, sxvaTa Soris, ganacxades: "media da politikosebi mfarvelobas uweven danaSaulebrivi asociaciis sareklamo agents, romelic propagandas uwevda saientologias uamrav gamocemaSi da, romelic sakuTar Tavs "mociquls" uwodebs (saientologiis Jargonze, "auditori IV", anu piri, romelic miekuTvneba morwmuneTa absolutur jgufs, romlebic savaldebulo hipnozuri zemoqmedebis procesSi, sicruis deteqtoris gamoyenebiT, anadgureben individebis fsiqikas maTi kontrolis mizniT). SezRuduli raodenobis liTografiuli nawarmis gayidvis qviTrebi, romelTac, sxvaTa Soris, awarmoebda "xelovnebis galerea 48" saarbriukenSi, misamarTze iulius kiferis quCa # 105, rogorc gamoaSkaravda, gadaecemoda saientologiis saidumlo samsaxurs (OSA miunheni). miecema Tu ara neba danaSaulebriv, cinikur asociacias "saientologia", zemoqmedeba moaxdinos saarlandis sazogadoebriv-kulturul cxovrebaze? Cven viTxovT saswrafo zomebis miRebas..." momCivanma uaryo mis winaaRmdeg werilSi gamoTqmuli braldebebi. misi sarCeli _ am gancxadebebis mimarT uzrunvelyofis zomebis gamoyenebis Taobaze _ warmatebuli aRmoCnda pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi; Tumca, saapelacio instanciaSi aRniSnuli gadawyvetileba gauqmebul iqna im safuZvliT, rom pirs, romelic damamcirebel gancxadebebs akeTebs mesame pirebis misamarTiT, es gancxadeba ar gamomdinareobs misi sakuTari gamocdilebidan da ver Semowmdeba WeSmaritebis dasadgenad, SeuZlia, dasabuTebis mizniT, gamoiyenos presaSi gamoqveynebuli masalebi, romelTa mimarTac ar gamoTqmula protesti. federalur sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi am gadawyvetilebis mimarT Setanil saCivarSi, momCivanma ganacxada, rom dairRva konstituciis me-2 muxlis pirveli nawiliT misTvis garantirebuli ufleba ZiriTadi kanonis pirvel muxlTan erTobliobaSi (piris pativiscemis zogadi ufleba). momCivanma ganacxada, rom is "mociquli" ar aris, arasodes gauvlia momzadeba mociqulis saqmianobisaTvis, ar auRia amgvari funqcia sakuTar Tavze da arc mociquli daurqmevia. federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos pirvelma palatam gasaCivrebuli sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba CaTvala momCivnis pirovnebis pativiscemis zogadi uflebis Semlaxvelad da, Sesabamisad, gaauqma igi. samotivacio nawilSi pirvelma palatam daadgina, rom pirovnebis pativiscemis zogadi ufleba pirs icavs garkveul asociaciasa da jgufSi wevrobis yalbi braldebisagan, Tu amgvar braldebas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba gaaCnia pirisaTvis da misi reputaciisaTvis. amasTan erTad, sasamarTlo gadawyvetile-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

bebi, romlebic uSvebs piris mimarT iseTi gancxadebebis gamoqveynebas, romelTac es piri crus uwodebs, arRvevs ZiriTadi kanonis me-2 muxlidan gamomdinare uflebebs. pirvelma palatam miuTiTa, rom am konkretul saqmeSi, momCivnisTvis saientologiasTan axlo kavSiris dabralebas SeeZlo am ukanasknelis reputaciis Selaxva. miTumetes, rom am SemTxvevaSi moxsenebuli organizacia cxare sajaro debatebis sagani iyo, mis mimarT saxelmwifom araerTi gafrTxileba gasca da masze presaSi mravali kritikuli statia gamoqveynda. garda amisa, momCivnis mimarT gamoTqmul eWvs, TiTqos igi maRali Tanamdebobis saientologia, SeuZlia xeli SeuSalos mis samxatvro saqmianobas, vinaidan misi reputaciisadmi miyenebul nebismier zians SeiZleba gavlena hqondes mis momaval samxatvro SekveTebsa da misi namuSevrebis gayidvaze. fundamentur uflebaTa Sefasebis konstituciurad savaldebulo procesis farglebSi, rodesac saqme exeba pirovnebis pativiscemis zogad uflebasa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas, zogadad, gamoiyeneba principi, rom SefasebiT msjelobaSi pirovnebis dacvas, sityvis TavisuflebasTan mimarTebiT, prioriteti eniWeba, Tuki gakeTebuli gancxadeba SeiZleba ganixilos, rogorc adamianis Rirsebis Seuracxyofa, cilismwamebluri kritika an cilismwamebluri ganacxadi. gancxadebebi, romlebic simarTles Seesabameba, Cveulebriv, moTmenil unda iqnes im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac maT arasasurveli Sedegi moaqvT dainteresebuli pirisaTvis; cru gancxadebebis Tmena savaldebulo ar aris. pirovnebis Rirsebis dacvis sferoSi arsebuli samoqalaqo sasamarTloebis praqtikis Tanaxmad (romelic SesabamisobaSia konstituciasTan), piri, romelic gamoTqvams sxva pirisaTvis arasasurveli Sedegebis mqone eWvs, valdebulia, gamoiCinos garkveuli sifrTxile, romelic yovel konkretul saqmeSi damokidebulia garemoebaTa garkvevis SesaZleblobebze da, romlis moTxovnac ufro mkacria sainformacio saSualebaTa mimarT, vidre kerZo pirebis mimarT. amasTan, samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebaSi pirs, romelic akeTebs Seuracxmyofel gancxadebas mesame piris Sesaxeb, akisria faqtebis mtkicebis ufro mZime tvirTi, romelic misgan moiTxovs gancxadebis simarTlesTan Sesabamisobis damtkicebas. Tu es piri ver SeZlebs Tavisi gancxadebis WeSmaritebis mtkicebulebis wardgenas, amgvari gancxadeba ganixileba rogorc mcdari. amas garda, faqtebis wardgenis tvirTis moTxovnaTa dakmayofileba ar niSnavs, rom piri bolomde Tavisufldeba WeSmaritebis dadgenis moTxovnisagan. gancxadeba, misi damtkicebis SemTxvevaSic ki, SeiZleba mcdari iyos. Sesabamisad, pirovnebis Rirsebis pativiscemis zogadi principi moiTxovs, rom pirs, romlis interesebsac zians ayenebs eWvi

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garkveuli faqtebis Sesaxeb, ar unda waerTvas saSualeba, amtkicos gancxadebis mcdaroba mxolod imis gamo, rom faqtebis dadgenis samarTlebrivi tvirTis moTxovnebi daculi iyo. mxolod mas Semdeg, rac es piri ver waradgens verafers, rac gaaqarwylebs mis winaaRmdeg warmodgenil mtkicebulebas, SesaZlebelia sadao gancxadeba WeSmaritad CaiTvalos. ufro metic, proceduruli moTxovnebis dakmayofilebis Semdeg unda dadgindes gancxadebis Sinaarsis WeSmariteba. es gamoiyeneba im SemTxvevaSic, rodesac sadavo faqti moipoveba informaciis saSualebebSi gamoqveynebuli masalebidan. pirveli palatis TvalsazrisiT, gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba ar pasuxobda pirovnebis Rirsebis dacvis uflebis am zogad moTxovnebs. sasamarTlom aseve ganixila momCivnis argumenti imis Taobaze, rom is ar daTanxmebia im statiis gamoqveynebas, romlis mixedviTac man TiTqos sakuTar Tavs "mociquli" uwoda. aseve, unda Semowmebuliyo mxatvris argumenti imis Taobaze, rom 1992 wels man Tavi daaneba saientologias, vinaidan es argumenti sakmaod seriozulia. garda amisa, mxedvelobaSi unda mieRoT momCivnis mier imis uaryofa, rom man gaiara momzadeba "auditorad" da rom mas arasodes es funqcia ar ganuxorcielebia; amis dasturad, man warmoadgina germaniis saientologiis eklesiis gancxadeba. bolos, pirvelma palatam daadgina, rom momCivnis winaswari uzrunvelyofis zomebis Sesaxeb Suamdgomlobis ardakmayofileba Semdegi gancxadebis mimarT ­ "[is] miekuTvneba morwmuneTa absolutur jgufs, romlebic savaldebulo hipnozuri zemoqmedebis procesSi sicruis deteqtoris gamoyenebiT anadgureben individebis fsiqikas maTi kontrolis mizniT" ­ aseve warmoadgenda momCivnis pirovnuli Rirsebis dacvis zogadi uflebis darRvevas. am mxriv, qvemdgomma sasamarTlom araadekvaturad gaiTvaliswina is faqti, rom pirveli procesis dros momCivanma dacvis mxaris argumentebs daupirispira misi saientologiisaTvis Tavis danebebis faqti. es Secdoma, aseve, ganpirobebuli iyo pirovnebis Rirsebis dacvis zogadi uflebis dacvis xarisxisa da farglebis araadekvaturi aRqmiT qvemdgomi sasamarTlos mier.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 10-10-1995 sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mouxda msjeloba sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTloebis mier gamotanili oTxi gadawyvetilebis konstituciasTan Sesabamisobaze, romlebSic pirebi msjavrdebulni

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

iyvnen ciliswamebisaTvis imis gamo, rom isini jariskacebs sajarod uwodebdnen mkvlelebs. dadgenili praqtikis gaTvaliswinebiT, sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom konstituciis me-5 muxlis me-2 nawilis Tanaxmad, sityvis Tavisufleba izRudeba mxolod piris pativis damcveli kanonebiT, Tumca, amasTan, mxedvelobaSi aucileblad unda iqnes miRebuli sityvis Tavisuflebis mniSvneloba. imisda miuxedavad, rom, zogadad, Cveulebrivi normebis formulireba da gamoyeneba saerTo sasamarTloebis kompetenciaSi Sedis, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos SeuZlia gadaamowmos, Tu ramdenad sakmarisad gaiTvaliswines aRniSnulma sasamarTloebma fundamenturi uflebebis mniSvneloba. azris gamoxatva, romelic aSkarad miznad isaxavs sxva piris ciliswamebas, unda ganimartos, rogorc piris Rirsebis Seuracxyofa. sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlom unda daadginos, SeiZleba Tu ara konkretul saqmeSi azris gamoxatuleba dakvalificirdes rogorc ciliswameba, Tu igi aseve SeiZleba gulisxmobdes sxva ganmartebasac. ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi, piris msjavrdeba ciliswamebisaTvis dauSvebelia. Tu sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlo daakvalificirebs pirTa krebiTi jgufis Seuracxyofas rogorc ciliswamebas misi wevrebisadmi, es ar arRvevs piris fundamentur uflebebs. amasTan, rac ufro didia amgvari jgufi, miT ufro naklebia SesaZlebloba, rom misma wevrebma negatiurad aRiqvan jgufis Seuracxyofa. "msoflios yvela jariskacis" Seuracxyofis kvalifikacia, rogorc ciliswameba, warmoadgens sityvis Tavisuflebis darRvevas. amasTan, konstituciur doneze misaRebia, rom federaluri jaris wevrebis Seuracxyofa gulisxmobs misi yvela wevris Seuracxyofas. konstituciurad misaRebia, rom jariskacTa mkvlelebad dasaxeleba dakvalificirdes, rogorc ciliswameba. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom mis winaSe wardgenil oTx saqmeSi sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTloebma arasakmarisad daadgines is faqti, rom gamonaTqvami "yvela jariskaci mkvlelia" namdvilad niSnavda federaluri jarebis wevrTa Seuracxyofas. Sesabamisad, man saqme gansaxilvelad daubruna Sesabamis saerTo sasamarTloebs. gadawyvetileba miRebul iqna 5 : 3 umravlesobiT. gamoqveynebuli gansxvavebuli azris Tanaxmad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetenciaSi ar Sedis Cveulebrivi sasamarTloebis mier dadgenili faqtebis Sefaseba, vinaidan sxvagvarad sakonstitucio sasamarTlos eqneboda super-saapelacio sasamarTlos funqcia. ufro metic, gansxvavebuli azri akritikebs umravlesobis mier faqtebis Sefasebas. damatebiTi informacia: gadawyvetileba imave sakiTxze sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miiRo 1994 wels, sami mosamarTlisagan Semdgari

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kolegiis SemadgenlobiT. am SemTxvevaSi, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom arCia, gadawyvetileba mieRo palatis (Senat) SemadgenlobiT, vinaidan pirveli gadawyvetileba mkacri sajaro kritikis qveS moeqca. rac Seexeba sityvis Tavisuflebis samarTlebriv konstruqcias, is asaxavs dadgenil sasamarTlo praqtikas.

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 19.07.2002 momCivanma moiTxova "sportis Sesaxeb" kanonis zogierTi debulebis konstituciuri gadasinjva im safuZvliT, rom isini arRveven pirad monacemTa dacvis (konstituciis 59-e muxli) da samarTliani sasamarTlosa da samarTlebrivi dacvis saSualebis uflebas (konstituciis 57-e muxli). "sportis Sesaxeb" kanonis Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva sportuli RonisZiebis organizatorebma unda ganaxorcielon TvalTvali sajaro usafrTxoebisa da pirTa qonebis dacvis uzrunvelsayofad. "sportis Sesaxeb" kanonis 85-e muxlis me-4 nawilis mixedviT, amgvari TvalTvalis Sedegad gadaRebuli fotosuraTebi SeiZleba gaegzavnos maTze aRbeWdil pirebs, garkveul saxelmwifo organoebs da msgavsi sportuli RonisZiebebis organizatorebs. sasamarTlom daadgina _ imis miuxedavad, rom arsebobs sakmarisi garantiebi xelisuflebis organoebis mier informaciis gankargvis TvalsazrisiT, samarTlebrivi debulebebi, romlebic aregulireben piradi monacemebis Segrovebasa da gadacemas kerZo pirebis mier (rogorebic arian, magaliTad, sportuli RonisZiebebis organizatorebi), ar moipoveba ungreTis samarTlebriv sistemaSi. Tavis #1991/15 gadawyvetilebaze miTiTebiT, sasamarTlom xazgasmiT aRniSna, rom piradi monacemebis gadacema SeiZleba moxdes mxolod konkretuli da samarTlebrivad dasabuTebuli miznebisaTvis, romelTac informaciis gadacemis procesis yvela stadia unda Seesabamebodes. amdenad, "sportis Sesaxeb" kanonis 85-e muxlis me-4 nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli moTxovna, romlis mixedviTac, piradi monacemebi unda gadaecemodes kerZo organizaciebs da pirebs, romlebic organizacias uweven msgavs momsaxurebas, samarTlebrivad dasabuTebuli Sesabamisi mizezis gareSe ar iyo sakmarisi pirad monacemTa gadacemis nebarTvisaTvis. monacemTa Segrovebisa da gadacemis procesi iyo zedmetad farTo, vinaidan nebadarTuli iyo ara mxolod im pirTa monacemebis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

gadacema, romlebsac ekrZalebodaT sportul RonisZiebebSi monawileobis miReba, aramed sportuli RonisZiebis yvela monawilis monacemTa gadacemac. kanonis 85-e muxlis me-4 nawilis mizani iyo arapirdapiri saSiSroebis Tavidan acileba. am debulebiT, pirad monacemTa Segroveba miznis misaRwevad gaxda ara mxolod saSualeba, aramed mizanic. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aseve ganixila "sportis Sesaxeb" kanonis 82-e muxlis me-5 nawilis konstituciasTan Sesabamisoba, romlis mixedviTac pirs, romelsac uari eTqva sportul RonisZiebaze daswrebaze, SeuZlia am gadawyvetilebis gasaCivreba sportis sakiTxTa arbitraJSi an momxmarebelTa dacvis organoSi. momCivanTa azriT, es debuleba xelyofs samarTliani sasamarTlos uflebas, kerZod, samarTlebrivi dacvis saSualebis uflebas. rac Seexeba sportis sakiTxTa arbitraJs, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom amgvari procesi moiTxovs mxareebs Soris SeTanxmebas maTi davis arbitraJSi gadacemis Sesaxeb. am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, erT-erTi amgvar mxares warmoadgens sportuli RonisZiebis organizatori, romelmac gasca brZaneba matCebsa da stadionebze meore mxaris ardaSvebis Sesaxeb; Sesabamisad, mas SeuZlia gadawyvitos, gadaeces Tu ara arbitraJs mas da meore mxares Soris arsebuli dava. amgvari procesi, sasamarTlos azriT, konstituciuri TvalsazrisiT ar warmoadgens samarTlebrivi dacvis efeqtur saSualebas. rac Seexeba samarTalwarmoebas momxmarebelTa dacvis organos winaSe, sasamarTlom xazi gausva im garemoebas, rom es procedura, "sportis Sesaxeb" kanonis 82-e muxlis me-5 nawilis Tanaxmad, alternatiulia: misi, rogorc samarTlebrivi aRsrulebis saSualebis arCevani mxareebis nebazea damokidebuli da Sesabamisi materialuri da procesualuri normebi "sportis Sesaxeb" kanonSi ar moipoveba. amis Sedegad, "sportis Sesaxeb" kanonis debulebebi _ sportis sakiTxTa arbitraJsa da momxmarebelTa dacvis organos procesis Sesaxeb _ xelyofs samarTliani dacvis saSualebis uflebas. damatebiTi informacia: erT-erTma mosamarTlem gadawyvetilebas daurTo Tanmxlebi mosazreba. mosamarTle hamarTim xazgasmiT aRniSna, rom sakonstitucio sasamarTlos "sportis Sesaxeb" kanonis gasaCivrebuli debulebebi unda ganexila ara informaciis dacvis, aramed Rirsebis uflebis WrilSi. mosamarTleebma kisma da kurkorelim damatebiT aRniSnes, rom sasamarTlos mxedvelobaSi unda mieRo "sportis Sesaxeb" kanonis sruli koncefcia sportuli RonisZiebebis TvalTvalis Sesaxeb, aseve, adamianis uflebaTa xelyofis is faqtebi, romlebsac amgvari strategia warmoSobs. meore mxriv, sasamarTlos unda ganexila kanonis konstituciasTan Sesabamisoba im mxriv, rom kanoni kerZo seqtoris pirebs mosTxovs

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piradi xasiaTis informaciis Segrovebas, maT Soris, im informaciis, romelic samarTaldamcavma organoebma SeiZleba danaSaulis CadenasTan dakavSirebuli mtkicebulebis mopovebisas gamoiyenon.

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 08.11.2000 samoqalaqo uflebaTa saparlamento komisarma da erovnul da eTnikur umciresobaTa ombudsmenma saCivari Seitanes sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi da sasamarTlos sTxoves, ganemarta konstituciis 70/E muxli socialuri uzrunvelyofis uflebaze da daedgina, warmoadgens Tu ara sacxovreblis ufleba socialuri uzrunvelyofis uflebis nawils. konstituciis 70/E muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad, ungreTis yvela moqalaqes gaaCnia socialuri uzrunvelyofis ufleba. xandazmulobis asakis miRwevisas, avadmyofobis, invalidobis, daqvrivebis, daoblebis an, piris nebisgan damoukidebeli mizezebis gamo, umuSevrobis SemTxvevaSi, pirs gaaCnia arsebobis uzrunvelsayofad aucilebeli daxmarebis miRebis ufleba. konstituciis 70/E muxlis me-2 nawili ungreTis respublikas avaldebulebs, moaxdinos daxmarebis miRebis uflebis implementacia socialuri uzrunvelyofisa da socialuri daxmarebis dawesebulebaTa sistemis meSveobiT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos praqtikaSi naTlad Camoyalibda principi, rom sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebas gaaCnia farTo uflebamosileba konstituciiT dadgenili saxelmwifo miznebisa da socialuri uflebebis uzrunvelyofis meTodebisa da xarisxis dadgenaSi. konstituciis darRvevas SeiZleba adgili hqondes mxolod mosazRvre xasiaTis SemTxvevebSi, rodesac saxelmwifo miznis an dacvis qveS myofi institutis an uflebis uzrunvelyofa aSkarad SeuZlebeli xdeba saxelmwifos Carevis an, ufro xSirad, misi umoqmedobis gamo. amasTanave, am minimaluri moTxovnis miRma ar arsebobs raime sakonstitucio kriteriumi ­ garda sxva ZiriTadi uflebis darRvevisa ­ imis dasadgenad, Seesabameba Tu ara konstitucias kanonmdebloba, romelic adgens saxelmwifoebriv mizans an socialur uflebas. Tavis gadawyvetilebaSi 43/1995 (biuleteni 1995/2, [HUN-1995-2-004]), sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom saxelmwifo asrulebs konstituciis 70/E muxlSi moyvanil valdebulebas, Tu is organizebas uwevs da aamoqmedebs socialuri dazRvevisa da keTildReobis SeRavaTebis sistemas. mis farglebSi, sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebas SeuZlia, sakuTari iniciativiT

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

daadginos socialuri politikiT miznebis misaRwevad saWiro saSualebebi. amasTan, mniSvnelovania, rom socialuri daxmareba dayvanili ar iqnes im minimalur zRvars dabla, romelic SeiZleba moeTxovebodes konstituciis 70/E muxlis Sesabamisad. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom socialuri uzrunvelyofis konstituciuri ufleba moicavs saxelmwifos valdebulebas, moaxdinos sicocxlis minimaluri pirobebis garantireba; Sesabamisad, saxelmwifo valdebulia, uzrunvelyos usaxlkaro pirebi sacxovrebliT, Tu adamianis sicocxles gardauvali safrTxe emuqreba. amasTan, TavSesafris uzrunvelyofis valdebuleba ar aris sacxovreblis uflebis (misi farTo gagebiT) identuri, vinaidan saxelmwifos mxolod moeTxoveba TavSesafris uzrunvelyofa, rodesac adamianis sicocxles uSualod emuqreba safrTxe sacxovreblis uqonlobis gamo. moqalaqis minimaluri sasicocxlo pirobebis uflebis uzrunvelsayofad saxelmwifo valdebulia, marTos da SeinarCunos socialuri dacvis sistema. adamianis sicocxlisa da Rirsebis dacva (konstituciis 54-e muxli) fundamenturi xasiaTis principia, romelic gansakuTrebiT zedmiwevniT unda iqnes gatarebuli socialur debulebaTa sistemis SemuSavebisas.

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 27.10.2000 jgufma saCivari Seitana "janmrTelobis Sesaxeb" kanonis im debulebebis Sesabamisobaze konstituciasTan, romlebic exeboda pacientebis, gansakuTrebiT, fsiqikurad daavadebulTa uflebebs. momCivanTa mtkicebiT, es debulebebi arRvevda Rirsebis dacvis konstituciur uflebas, pacientTa Tavisuflebis uflebas da, Sesabamisad, maT uflebas pirad avtonomiaze. "janmrTelobis Sesaxeb" kanonis mixedviT, SezRuduli qmedunarianobisa da SezRuduli uflebaunarianobis mqone pacientebs ar SeeZloT, ganexorcielebinaT maTi samedicino samsaxurze Tanxmobis micemis ufleba da uari eTqvaT mkurnalobis garkveul formebze. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom es wesi araproporciulad da, Sesabamisad, arakonstituciurad arRvevda SezRuduli samarTalunarianobis mqone pacientebis uflebas pirad avtonomiaze. sasamarTlos TvalsazrisiT, meTodebi da procedurebi, romlebic zRudaven fsiqiatriul saavadmyofoSi myofi pacientebis uflebas pirad Tavisuflebaze, ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos samar-

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Tlianad, Tu amas Sedegad mohyveba damamcirebeli da araadamianuri mopyroba. amasTan, piradi Tavisuflebis uflebis SezRudva unda Seesabamebodes sasamarTlos mier gamoyenebul konstituciur tests. am testis mixedviT, fundamenturi uflebis SezRudva unda iyos aucilebeli da proporciuli misaRwev mizanTan. kanoni "janmrTelobis Sesaxeb" ar Seesabameba am konstituciur moTxovnas, vinaidan iZulebis RonisZiebaTa gamoyenebis sakiTxis regulirebisas kanoni ar Seicavs im ZiriTadi meTodebis CamonaTvals, romlebic SeiZleba gamoiyenebodes fsiqikurad daavadebuli pacientebis mimarT. is, aseve, ar gansazRvravs mizezebs iZulebis RonisZiebaTa gamoyenebisaTvis. Sesabamisad, kanoni "janmrTelobis Sesaxeb" ar gamoricxavs kanonis TviTnebur gamoyenebas. sasamarTlom arakonstituciurad ar cno "janmrTelobis Sesaxeb" kanonis debuleba, romlis Tanaxmadac, saWiro ar aris pacientis Tanxmoba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac samedicino momsaxureba aucilebelia sxva pirTa sicocxlisa da janmrTelobis mimarT arsebuli seriozuli safrTxis Tavidan asacileblad. sasamarTlom aseve mxari dauWira kanonis debulebas, romlis Tanaxmadac, SezRuduli qmedunarianobisa da SezRuduli samarTalunarianobis mqone pacientebs aqvT samedicino momsaxurebaze Tanxmobis micemis ufleba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mkurnalobis miznebisaTvis saWiroa pacientis sxeulSi SeRweva. bolos, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom arakonstituciurad ar cno "janmrTelobis Sesaxeb" kanonSi moyvanili damatebiTi wesebi, romlebic gamoiyeneba mxolod fsiqikurad daavadebuli pirebis mimarT.

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 23.11.1998 momCivanTa jgufma moiTxova 1992 wlis "Canasaxis sicocxlis dacvis Sesaxeb" LXXIX kanonis (SemdgomSi "kanoni abortis Sesaxeb") konstituciasTan Sesabamisobis dadgena. momCivanTa mtkicebiT, "abortis Sesaxeb" kanonis zogierTi debulebebi da kanoni mTlianobaSi arakonstituciuria. sicocxlis dacvis proponentma momCivnebma sasamarTlos sTxoves daedgina, rom Canasaxi samarTlis subieqts warmoadgenda Casaxvis momentidan. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom saCivari ar daakmayofila. Tavisi #64/1991 (XII.17) gadawyvetilebis gaTvaliswinebiT sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom mas ar SeeZlo imis dadgena, warmoadgenda Tu ara Canasaxi samarTlis subieqts konstituciis konteqstSi.

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aRniSnul sakiTxze Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobis miRebis uflebamosileba parlaments gaaCnia. mocemuli gadawyvetileba eyrdnoboda sasamarTlos winamorbedi gadawyvetilebiT abortis sakiTxze dadgenil principebsa da miTiTebebs. sasamarTlos # 64/1991 (XII.17) gadawyvetilebiT, sasamarTlom gaauqma jandacvis ministris dadgenileba, romelic im dros moqmedebda formalur safuZvlebze: sasamarTlos TvalsazrisiT, fundamenturi uflebebis dadgena parlamentis mier gamocemuli sakanonmdeblo aqtis prerogativaa. amis gamo, sasamarTlom Tavi Seikava saqmis arsebiT nawilSi abortis sakiTxze arsebuli wesebis konstituciasTan Sesabamisobis gadawyvetisagan. amasTan, sasamarTlom daadgina saxelmZRvanelo principebi "abortis Sesaxeb" kanonis momavali variantisTvis. am principebze dayrdnobiT, parlamentma 1992 wels miiRo kanoni "abortis Sesaxeb", romelmac ar aRiara Canasaxis samarTalsubieqtoba Casaxvis momentidan, Sesabamisad, dasaSvebad cno abortis Catareba konkretuli mizezebis safuZvelze da orsulobis pirvel TveebSi. mocemul gadawyvetilebaSi sasamarTlom ganixila kanonis me-6 muxlis 1(d) qvepunqtis konstituciasTan Sesabamisobis sakiTxi, romlis mixedviT, abortis Catareba nebadarTulia orsulobis pirveli 12 kviris ganmavlobaSi, Tu qali krizisul mdgomareobaSi imyofeba; sasamarTlom aseve ganixila Canasaxis samarTlebriv statusTan da sicocxlis uflebasTan dakavSirebuli saCivrebi. "abortis Sesaxeb" kanonis me-12 muxlis me-6 nawilis Tanaxmad, krizisul mdgomareobas warmoadgens iseTi mdgomareoba, romlis Sedegadac qali imyofeba ukiduresad mZime fsiqologiur, fizikur an socialur garemoebebSi da amgvari mdgomareoba safrTxes uqmnis Canasaxis jansaR ganviTarebas. imis dasamtkiceblad, rom namdvilad arsebobs krizisuli mdgomareoba, qalma xeli unda moaweros ganacxads abortis Taobaze. momCivanTa azriT, Canasaxi ar aris sakmarisad daculi "abortis Sesaxeb" kanoniT, vinaidan process, romlis safuZvelzec dgindeba, Tu ramdenad pasuxobs orsuli qalis mdgomareoba kanoniT dadgenil pirobebs, ar meTvalyureobs Canasaxis interesebis damcveli arc erTi piri. ungreTSi arsebuli praqtikiT, amgvari dadgenileba ar aris sajaro sazogadoebisaTvis da arc im pirisaTvis, romelic uzrunvelyofs Canasaxis interesTa garantirebas. Sesabamisad, kiTxva, romelzec sakonstitucio sasamarTlos pasuxi unda gaeca, iyo Semdegi: ramdenad Seasrula saxelmwifom "abortis Sesaxeb" kanonis miRebiTa da qalisaTvis krizisul situaciaSi abortis daSvebiT Canasaxis sicocxlis dacvis valdebuleba _ qalis Rirsebisa da arCevanis uflebis sapirispirod.

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krizisuli mdgomareobis gansazRvreba bundovania, vinaidan is, faqtobrivad, warmoadgens arguments qalis arCevanis uflebis sasargeblod da Canasaxis sicocxlis sazianod, vinaidan, kanonis Sesabamisad, iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom, ramdenadac paradoqsuli ar unda iyos, aborti daSvebulia Canasaxis uflebaTa dacvisaTvis. sasamarTlos azriT, es arRvevs kanonis naTeli formulirebis konstituciur princips, vinaidan abortis daSvebis mizezi sakuTari Tavis sawinaaRmdegoa. Sesabamisad, ganxilvis sagans warmoadgens is, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba konstitucias qalis krizisul mdgomareobaSi yofna _ rogorc abortis daSvebis safuZveli. "abortis Sesaxeb" kanonis Sesabamisad, aborti SeiZleba efuZnebodes mxolod qalis mtkicebas imis Taobaze, rom is krizisul mdgomareobaSi imyofeba. mas ar uwevs mtkicebulebis wardgena an Semowmebis gavla amgvari mizezebis arsebobis dadgenisaTvis. es keTdeba qalis piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis dacvis mizniT. amasTan, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom am konkretul saqmesTan mimarTebiT ganacxada, rom qalis arCevanisa da Rirsebis uflebis aramarTlzomier SezRudvad ar CaiTvleboda, Tuki kanoni qals abortis mizezebis dasabuTebas mosTxovda. "abortis Sesaxeb" moqmedi kanonis gasaCivrebuli normebi akmayofilebs qalis arCevanis uflebasTan dakavSirebul moTxovnebs, magram ar asrulebs saxelmwifos valdebulebas, daicvas adamianis sicocxle. amis Sedegad, konstituciuri balansi qalis Rirsebis uflebasa da sicocxlis dacvis saxelmwifoebriv valdebulebas Soris darRveulia. "abortis Sesaxeb" kanonis es debuleba arakonstituciuria, vinaidan ar aris daculi balansi qalis fundamentur uflebasa da saxelmwifos konstituciur valdebulebas Soris. gadawyvetilebis samotivacio nawilSi sasamarTlom aseve Camoayaliba saxelmZRvanelo principebi parlamentisaTvis. sasamarTlos TvalsazrisiT, saxelmwifosaTvis arsebobs ori SesaZlo gamosavali, romliTac is daicavs Canasaxis sicocxles. pirvel SesaZleblobas warmoadgens "abortis Sesaxeb" kanonis ucvlelad datoveba, magram amis sanacvlod kanonmdebelma unda SeimuSaos kanonis normebi, romelTa mizans warmoadgens Canasaxis sicocxlis dacva (magaliTad, TanamSromloba orsul qalTan, misTvis saTanado fsiqologiuri, samedicino, socialuri da finansuri daxmarebis gaweva). meore gamosavals warmoadgens krizisuli mdgomareobis gansazRvrebis Camoyalibeba abortis zogierTi SesaZlo da tipiuri mizezis CamonaTvaliT.

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portugalia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 21-10-1998 sasamarTlos moeTxova gadawyvetilebis miReba or sakonstitucio xasiaTis sakiTxze, romlebic dakavSirebuli iyo mamobis dadgenis proceduris maregulirebel wesebTan. pirvel SemTxvevaSi, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gamoZiebis winaswari stadia ­ romelic mTavrdeba sajaro prokuroris daskvniT mamobis dadgenis moqmedebebis ganxorcielebaze da romelic waredgineba sasamarTlos misi dasaSvebobis an uaryofis gadawyvetilebis gamosatanad ­ administraciuli xasiaTis iyo da samarTalwarmoebas ar warmoadgenda. momCivnisTvis amgvari dasaSvebobis gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebis SeuZlebloba ar arRvevs sasamarTlosadmi piris uflebebisa da interesebis dacvisaTvis mimarTvis uflebas, anu SejibrebiT princips. meore sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sasamarTlom daadgina, rom samoqalaqo kodeqsi sisxlis nimuSis tests miuTiTebs mxolod rogorc mtkicebulebis formas mamobis dadgenis saqmeebSi; kodeqsi ar iTvaliswinebs da ar akanonebs amgvari testis aRsrulebas, vinaidan pirs SeuZlia, ubralod uari ganacxados masze. momCivani valdebuli iyo, eTanamSromla sisxlis nimuSebis analizis warmoebaSi, rac arasrulwlovanis mamobis dadgenis mizniT (marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebaSi TanamSromlobis valdebulebis gaTvaliswinebiT) aucileblobas warmoadgenda; Tu dainteresebuli piri dausabuTebel uars ambobs sisxlis nimuSis testis Catarebaze, sasamarTlo Tavisufalia amgvari uaris mtkicebulebiTi Zalis Sefasebisas.

portugalia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 23-11-1993 sakonstitucio debuleba, romlis Tanaxmad "nebismier sasjels avtomaturad ar unda mohyvebodes samoqalaqo, profesiuli an politikuri uflebebis dakargva", efuZneba adamianis Rirsebis dacvis fundamentur princips da ZiriTad uflebaTa dacvis princips; Sesabamisad, konstitucias ar Seesabameba arCevnebTan dakavSirebuli zogierTi sakanonmdeblo aqtis debulebebi, romelTa Tanaxmad, piri kargavs xmis uflebas, Tu mas daekisra sasjeli Tavisuflebis aRkveTis saxiT ganzrax danaSaulis CadenisaTvis.

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espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 13-12-1999 video-klubSi momuSave gamyidvelis mimarT eqvsTviani kontraqtis pirvel kvirebSi samuSao adgilis mflobelis mxridan adgili hqonda sqesobrivi kavSiris arapirdapiri formiT SeTavazebas da fizikur Sexebas. zafxulis ardadegebis mimdinareobisas, qalTa uflebebis dacvis samsaxurTan da fsiqologTan konsultaciis Semdeg, man aiRo Svebuleba avadmyofobis gamo depresiis safuZvliT da ufross sqesobrivi xasiaTis agresiuli moqmedebebis gamo uCivla, rac mkacradaa akrZaluli espaneTis Sromis kanonmdeblobiT. saolqo sasamarTlom damqiravebels daakisra zaralis anazRaureba dazaralebulisaTvis, magram galiciis marTlmsajulebis umaRlesma sasamarTlom uaryo saCivari imis safuZvelze, rom momCivanma dauyovnebliv ar gamoTqva protesti damqiraveblis moqmedebebis mimarT. amis miuxedavad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom momCivans konstituciuri dacva (amparo) gamoucxada da daadgina, rom misi piradi cxovrebis dacvis ufleba xelyofil iqna (konstituciis me-18 muxlis pirveli nawili). sqesobrivi xasiaTis agresiuli moqmedebebi samuSao adgilze warmoadgens piradi cxovrebis gansakuTrebulad dacul sferos, kerZod, sqesobrivi cxovrebis uxeS xelyofas; sqesobrivi sfero pirdapiraa dakavSirebuli pirovnebis Rirsebis dacvasTan (konstituciis me-10 muxlis pirveli nawili). sqesobrivi xelyofa, Sesabamisad, arRvevs piris fundamenturi xasiaTis uflebas piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobaze (konstituciis me-18 muxlis pirveli nawili) da, zog SemTxvevaSi, xelyofs qalis uflebas aradiskriminaciul mopyrobaze, vinaidan dResac ki ufro meti qali xdeba amgvar agresiul qmedebaTa msxverpli, vidre mamakaci, rac Seusabamoa konstituciur RirebulebebTan (konstituciis me14 muxli). Sromis kanonmdebloba krZalavs garyvnili xasiaTis nebismier sityvier, JestiT gamoxatul an fizikur Seuracxyofas. Sesabamisad, mkacradaa akrZaluli ara mxolod damqiraveblis an TanamSromlebis mxridan Seuracxmyofeli qceva, romelic safrTxes uqmnis samuSaos stabilurobas, waxalisebas, profesiul momzadebas an raime sxva SeRavaTis Tu samuSao pirobas, aramed, aseve, arasasurveli garyvnili qceva, romelic daqiravebulisTvis qmnis usiamovno, Semawuxebel, mtrul, Seuracxmyofel an damTrgunvel samuSao garemos. amgvar situaciebSi muSakis uflebebi irRveva mxolod maSin, rodesac gasaCivrebuli qmedebebi sakmarisad seriozulia zemoT

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aRwerili negatiuri garemos Sesaqmnelad ara mxolod dazaralebulis subieqturi TvalsazrisiT, aramed, aseve, sruliad obieqtur safuZvlebzec. am konkretul saqmeSi, qmedeba warmoadgens calmxrivi xasiaTis aqts, romlis survilic ar gaaCnia im pirs, romlis mimarTac is xorcieldeba: termini "sqesobrivi xasiaTis agresiuli moqmedeba" ar SeiZleba gamoiyenebodes iseTi qcevis mimarT, romelic warmoiSoba Tavisufali TanxmobiT mimdinare urTierTobisas, anu, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, iseTi qcevis mimarT, romlis mimarTac pirs survili gaaCnda an masze pirs Tanxmoba hqonda micemuli an, ukidures SemTxvevaSi, is iTmenda amgvar qcevas. amasTan, qmedeba warmoadgens sqesobrivi xasiaTis agresiul moqmedebas, rodesac piri, romlis mimarTac is xorcieldeba, aSkara formiT gamoxatavs Tavis uars im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac es piri dauyovnebliv ar acnobebs faqts Sesabamis xelisuflebis organoebs da cdilobs morigebas saCivris Setanamde.

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 22/05/1995 momCivnebma sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mimarTes sakonstitucio dacvis mosapoveblad mas Semdeg, rac braldebuli sasamarTlo ganaCeniT gamarTlebul iqna Seuracxyofis faqtze. Seuracxyofis braldeba momCivnebma warudgines gazeTis korespondents, romelmac Tavis statiaSi miuTiTa momCivanTa karierasa da maT zegavlenaze qalaqis politikasa da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaze iseTi formiT, romelic saziano iyo maTi reputaciisaTvis, ufro metic, gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebiT saWiroebas moklebulad iqna aRiarebuli. aq kidev erTxel Tavs iCens dapirispireba azris gamoxatvis Tavisuflebasa da informaciis Tavisuflebasa (orive aRiarebulia konstituciis me-20 muxliT) da piris reputaciis uflebas Soris (konstituciis me-18 muxlis pirveli nawili), romlis gadawyvetac sakonstitucio sasamarTlos valdebulebaa. mTel rig gadawyvetilebebSi sasamarTlom SeinarCuna uflebamosileba, gadaesinja qvemdgomi sasamarTlos mier erTmaneTTan dapirispirebuli uflebebis SedarebiTi mniSvnelobis Sefaseba. gasaCivrebuli ganaCeniT dadgenilad aRiarebuli faqtebis Sefasebis Sedegad sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom dapirispireba arsebobda ara piris reputaciis uflebasa da informaciis Tavisuflebas Soris, aramed piris reputaciis uflebasa da gamoxatvis

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Tavisuflebas Soris, vinaidan ganxilul saqmeSi dominirebda swored am ukanasknelis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi, rac gamoixateboda statiis avtoris SefasebiT msjelobaSi momCivanTa sazianod. momCivanTa sajaro statusisa da sazogadoebis mxridan maTi saqmianobis mimarT arsebuli interesis gaTvaliswinebiT, maTi reputaciis ufleba mainc daculi unda iqnes yovelgvari Seuracxmyofeli an uSualod zianis mimyenebeli komentarebisagan, romlebic udavod mravlad moipoveboda Sesabamis sagazeTo statiaSi; ufro metic, es komentarebi saerTod ar iyo aucilebeli momCivanTa sajaro saqmianobis kritikisaTvis da arc ukavSirdeboda am ukanasknels. sasamarTlos TqmiT, konstitucia araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar iTvaliswinebs romelime piris "Seuracxyofis" uflebas, rac SeuTavsebeli iqneboda konstituciis me-10 muxlis pirveli nawiliT gaTvaliswinebul pirovnuli Rirsebis uflebasTan. gasaCivrebul gadawyvetilebebSi adgili ar hqonia erTmaneTTan dapirispirebuli sakonstitucio uflebebis Sefasebas, vinaidan gadawyvetilebebSi daSvebuli ar unda yofiliyo sityvis Tavisuflebis damadasturebeli romelime argumenti. Sesabamisad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlo valdebuli iyo, gaeuqmebina gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebebi im motiviT, rom maT ver SeZles konstituciuri dacvis momTxovni pirebis reputaciis uflebis dacva. erT-erTma mosamarTlem saqmes daurTo gansxvavebuli azri im safuZvelze, rom sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetenciaSi ar unda Sediodes sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTloebis mier gamotanili gamamarTlebeli ganaCenis gauqmeba.

Sveicaria federaluri sasamarTlo 18-06-2001 b-ni da q-ni v. Jenevis kantonis administraciuli sasamarTlos n n winaaRmdeg 1999 wlis 2 aprils TerTmeti wlis gogona sagzao SemTxvevas emsxverpla. is saswrafod iqna miyvanili Jenevis kantonaluri universitetis saavadmyofoSi, sadac is meore dResve Tavis tvinis mZime travmis gamo gardaicvala. gardacvlilad igi 1999 wlis 3 aprils, 10 sT-sa da 23 wT-ze gamocxadda, Semdeg ki, saRamos 6 sT-sa da 30 wT-ze. maTi Svilis nebis Tanaxmad, b-nma da q-nma v-m SesTavazes misi organoebi donaciis miznebisaTvis. organoTa amoReba dagegmili iyo 1999 wlis 4 aprilisaTvis. mSoblebi am dRes saavadmyofoSi maTi Svilis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

gvamTan Ramis gaTenebis ritualis Sesasruleblad gamocxaddnen; misvlisTanave maT ecnobaT, rom policiis ufrosma, policiis Stabbinis instruqciebis Tanaxmad, gasca brZaneba gvamis eqshumaciis Catarebis Sesaxeb. eqshumacia Catarda 1999 wlis 6 aprils. b-nma da q-nma v-m Seitanes CveulebiTi samarTlis saCivari Jenevis saxelmwifo sabWoSi eqshumaciis brZanebis usafuZvlod gamocxadebis mizniT. saxelmwifo sabWom saqme gadasca Jenevis kantonis administraciul sasamarTlos, romelmac daadgina, rom, rogorc eqshumaciis brZanebis gasaCivreba, ise nebismieri saxis sajaro gancxadebis moTxovna, dasaSvebi ar iyo. amis Semdeg, b-nma da q-nma v-m Seitanes sajaro-samarTlebrivi saCivari da moiTxoves administraciuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis gauqmeba. maTi mtkicebiT, adgili hqonda piradi Tavisuflebisa da sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis uflebis darRvevas (federaluri konstituciis me-10 muxli, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-6 da me-8 muxlebi). federalurma sasamarTlom saCivari dasaSvebad cno. administraciulma sasamarTlom gadawyvita, ar ganegrZo samarTalwarmoeba b-n da q-n v-s saCivris mimarT "sasamarTloebis organizaciis" Sesaxeb kanonis, "administraciuli procesis Sesaxeb" kanonisa da Jenevis kantonis sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis Sesabamisad. federalurma sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom es gadawyvetileba ar warmoadgenda kantonuri samarTlis TviTnebur gamoyenebas. piradi Tavisufleba, romelic garantirebulia federaluri konstituciis me-10 muxliT, ar iyo Semofargluli mxolod piris sicocxlis xangrZlivobiT, aramed grZeldeboda misi gardacvalebis Semdegac, rac yvela pirs aZlevs saSualebas, gadawyvitos, Tu ra daemarTeba mis sxeuls gardacvalebis Semdeg da icavs maT yovelgvari saxis ukanono Carevisagan. gardacvlili piris gvami aseve daculia adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-8 muxliT. amasTan, es garantiebi ar gulisxmobs sasamarTlosadmi upirobo mimarTvis SesaZleblobas, vinaidan adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-13 muxli moiTxovs, rom yvela pirs unda gaaCndes samarTlebrivi dacvis efeqturi saSualeba erovnuli xelisuflebis organoebis, magram ara maincdamainc sasamarTlo organos winaSe. konstitucia aseve ar Seicavs sasamarTlos mier gadasinjvis uflebas. Sesabamisad, Semdegi gadasawyveti sakiTxi iyo, Tu ramdenad gamoyenebadi iyo evrokonvenciis me-6 muxli da ramdenad uflebamosilni iyvnen b-n da q-n v., maTi saqme sasamarTlos mier yofiliyo gadawyvetili. vinaidan saqmeSi ar arsebobda sisxlissamarTlebrivi braldeba, saWiro iyo imis Sefaseba, Tu ramdenad exeboda dava samoqalaqo ufle-

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bebisa da valdebulebebis dadgenas. zogadad, samarTalsubieqturoba ar aris daculi piris gardacvalebis Semdeg, magram sasamarTloebi uSveben dacvis amgvar ganvrcobas. es, upirveles yovlisa, gamomdinareobs sajaro samarTlidan, romelic adgens piris gardacvlilad gamocxadebisa da dasaflavebis wesebs. is, aseve, aRiarebulia kerZo samarTalSic, kerZod, darCenil naTesavTa religiuri da emociuri grZnobebis dacvis mizniT. maSasadame, naTesavebs ufleba hqondaT, daculi yofiliyvnen saxelmwifos mier maTi ojaxis gardacvlili wevris gvamis xelyofisagan. saqme exeboda samoqalaqo uflebas evropis adamianis uflebaTa konvenciis me-6 muxlis konteqstSi. dadgenili sasamarTlo praqtikis mixedviT, sajaro xelisuflebis mier ukanono qmedebiT gamowveuli zianis anazRaurebis ufleba kvalificirdeba rogorc samoqalaqo sarCeli. igive gamoiyeneba im pirebis mimarTac, romlebic moiTxovdnen ara finansur kompensacias, aramed, ubralod, deklaraciuli xasiaTis reparacias. amis Sedegad, b-n da q-n v-s saCivari imyofeba evrokonvenciis me-6 muxlis farglebSi da, Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos mier unda iqnes mosmenili. sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis ufleba SeiZleba SeizRudos procesualuri wesebiT. imis gamo, rom ganxiluli saqme exeboda am uflebis mTavar arss, administraciul sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebis maregulirebeli kantonuri samarTali, romelic gamoyenebul iqna araTviTneburad, ar iyo ganmsazRvreli faqtori am saqmeSi. gadamwyveti arc is argumenti iyo, TiTqos b-n da q-n v-s ar hqondaT realuri interesi saqmeSi, radganac isini ubralod gancxadebas moiTxovdnen. maSasadame, sajaro samarTlis saCivari dasabuTebuli iyo. b-n da q-n v-s ufleba hqondaT, maTi saqme sasamarTlos gadaewyvita. kantonur samarTalSi konkretuli normebis ararsebobis gaTvaliswinebiT, momCivnebs am konkretul saqmeSi kantonis doneze unda mieceT dacvis samarTlebrivi saSualeba _ Tundac adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis moTxovnebis safuZvelze. kantonuri xelisuflebis organoebis prerogativas warmoadgenda Sesabamisi organosa da samarTlebrivi meqanizmis dadgena b-n da q-n v-s saCivris gansaxilvelad.

ukraina sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 29-12-1999 parlamentis wevrebma mimarTes sakonstitucio sasamarTlos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 24-e muxlis konstituciasTan Sesabamisobis dasadgenad; es muxli iTvaliswinebs sikvdiliT dasjas,

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rogorc sasjelis gansakuTrebul zomas, romelic gamoiyeneba kodeqsis kerZo nawilSi moyvanili mZime danaSaulebis mimarT. parlamentis wevrebis mtkicebiT, konstituciiT garantirebuli sicocxlis ufleba absoluturi xasiaTisaa da konstituciis ganmartebisas mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli adamianis sicocxlis, rogorc samarTlis uzenaesobis safuZvelze demokratiuli sazogadoebis mSeneblobisaTvis erT-erTi fundamenturi faseulobis, absoluturi da aSkara formiT gamoxatuli pativiscema. Sesabamisad, konstituciis konteqstSi, sasjelis gansakuTrebuli zomis saxiT sikvdiliT dasjis gamoyeneba unda CaiTvalos "adamianis sicocxlis uflebis TviTnebur xelyofad". konstitucia gansazRvravs adamians, mis sicocxles da janmrTelobas, pativsa da Rirsebas, xelSeuxeblobasa da usafrTxoebas, rogorc uzenaes socialur faseulobas (konstituciis me-3 muxlis pirveli nawili) da iTvaliswinebs, rom adamianis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa danergva da dacva saxelmwifos mTavar movaleobas warmoadgens (konstituciis me-3 muxlis me-2 nawili). mTavar konstituciur debulebas, romelic aRiarebs sicocxlis uflebas, warmoadgens norma, romlis Tanaxmadac, es ufleba ganuyofeli (konstituciis 27-e muxlis me-2 nawili), ganusxvisebeli da xelSeuvalia (konstituciis 21-e muxli). sicocxlis ufleba adamians dabadebidan ekuTvnis da daculia saxelmwifos mier. konstituciis Tanaxmad, konstituciuri uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi, kerZod, sicocxlis ufleba garantirebulia da ar SeiZleba xelyofil iqnes (konstituciis 22-e muxlis me-2 nawili). amas garda, akrZalulia iseTi cvlilebebisa an gadaxvevebis SemoReba, romlebic auqmeben adamianTa da moqalaqeTa uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs (konstituciis 157-e muxlis pirveli nawili). dauSvebelia arsebuli uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis farglebisa da Sinaarsis SezRudva axali kanonebis miRebisas an arsebul kanonmdeblobaSi cvlilebebis Setanisas (konstituciis 22-e muxlis me-3 nawili). konstituciis 22-e muxlis me-2 nawilis debulebebi saxelmwifos akisrebs konstituciuri uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis, maT Soris, pirvel rigSi sicocxlis uflebis garantirebas, aseve, konstituciuri uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis gauqmebisken mimarTuli nebismieri aqtis miuReblobis valdebulebas. saxelmwifos mier adamianisaTvis sicocxlis warTmeva, Tundac kanoniT dadgenili debulebebis safuZvelze, ganixileba rogorc sicocxlis ganuyofeli uflebis gauqmeba da, Sesabamisad, ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias. yovel pirs aqvs misi pirovnebis Tavisufali ganviTarebis ufleba, Tu es ar laxavs sxva pirTa uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs. konstitu-

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cia TiToeul adamians aniWebs sicocxlis ganuyofel uflebas (konstituciis 27-e muxlis pirveli nawili) da garantirebs am uflebis dacvas misi gauqmebisagan. amasTan erTad, is adgens yoveli piris uflebas, daicvas sakuTari sicocxle da janmrTeloba, aseve, sxva pirTa sicocxle da janmrTeloba ukanono xelyofisagan (konstituciis 27-e muxlis me-3 nawili). sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi adgens debulebebs, romlebic dakavSirebulia piris qmedebebTan aucilebeli mogeriebis mdgomareobaSi misi sicocxlisa da janmrTelobis dacvis mizniT, aseve, sxva pirTa sicocxlisa da janmrTelobis dacvis mizniT, Tu es nakarnaxevia socialurad saSiSi xelyofis Tavidan acilebis an Sewyvetis ukiduresi aucileblobiT. sicocxlis ganuyofeli uflebis da sxva uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa sakonstitucio mxardaWera efuZneba Semdeg fundamentur princips: adamianis uflebebTan da TavisuflebebTan dakavSirebul yvela gamonakliss TviT konstitucia unda iTvaliswinebdes da ara sxva kanonebi da normatiuli aqtebi. konstituciis 64-e muxlis pirveli nawilis Tanaxmad, "adamianis konstituciuri uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi ar SeiZleba SeizRudos, garda im SemTxvevebisa, romlebic konstituciiTaa gaTvaliswinebuli." konstitucia ar Seicavs arc erT debulebas, romlis mixedviTac, sikvdiliT dasja warmoadgens sicocxlis ganuyofeli uflebis gamonakliss. aseve, mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli sikvdiliT dasjis Seusabamoba sasjelis miznebTan da sasamarTlo Secdomis SesaZlebloba. es ar Seesabameba adamianis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa dacvis konstituciur garantiebs (konstituciis 58-e muxli). sikvdiliT dasja aseve ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciis 28-e muxls, romlis mixedviTac, "aravin SeiZleba gaxdes wamebis, sastiki, araadamianuri an damamcirebeli mopyrobis an sasjelis obieqti" (adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxli).

gaerTianebuli samefo lordTa palata 29-11-2001 p-m gaasaCivra saolqo sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, romlis mixedviT, sajaro prokuraturis direqtorma (spd) kanonierad ganacxada uari, Tavis Tavze aeRo valdebuleba, ar ganexorcielebina sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna p-s meuRlis mimarT, Tu igi p-s daexmareboda TviTmkvlelobis ganxorcielebaSi. p. daavadebuli iyo motoruli xasiaTis nevrologiuri daavadebiT

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

da mas hqonda darCenili mcireodeni xani sicocxlisaTvis. man arCia, Tavi aeridebina mtkivneuli sikvdilisTvis da gardacvliliyo mis mier SerCeul dros meuRlis daxmarebiT. p-s invalidoba gulisxmobda, rom mas dasWirdeboda daxmareba TviTmkvlelobis gansaxorcieleblad. 1996 wels miRebulma "TviTmkvlelobis Sesaxeb" kanonma danaSaulad aRiara erTi piris mier meoris TviTmkvlelobis daxmareba an waxaliseba. p-s meuRlem spd-s sTxova imis garantia, rom mis mimarT ar ganxorcieldeboda sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna, Tu igi p-s TviTmkvlelobis CadenaSi daexmareboda. spd-m uari ganacxada garantiis micemaze im motiviT, rom mas ar gaaCnda amgvari garantiis micemis uflebamosileba danaSaulis Cadenamde. p-s mtkicebiT, 1961 wlis kanonis danayofi 2.1 ar Seesabameboda adamianis uflebaTa evropul konvencias; evrokonvenciis me-2 muxli, konvenciis me-6 oqmis pirvel da me-2 muxlebTan erTobliobaSi, garantirebs piris mier sicocxlis gagrZelebisa Tu Sewyvetis arCevans; spd-s gadawyvetileba warmoadgenda p-s mimarT arahumanur da damamcirebel mopyrobas konvenciis me-3 muxlis darRveviT; konvenciis me-8 muxli uzrunvelyofs TviTgamorkvevis uflebas, rac aseve moicavs sicocxlis an sikvdilis arCevanis uflebas; konvenciis me-9 muxli garantirebs ps uflebas, gaaCndes rwmena sxva piris daxmarebiT ganxorcielebul TviTmkvlelobaSi; gaerTianebuli samefos samarTliT gaTvaliswinebuli TviTmkvlelobis daxmarebis absoluturi akrZalva araTanazomieri iyo p-s mier misi gonebrivi SesaZleblobebis ganxorcielebis srul kontrolTan, sxva piris mimarT raime zianis ararsebobasTan, misi sikvdilis gardauvalobasTan da mis mzadyofnasTan, Caedina TviTmkvleloba, Tu mas eqneboda amis SesaZlebloba; aseve, darRveul iqna konvenciis me-14 muxli, vinaidan spd-s uari mis (rogorc invalidis) mimarT diskriminaciuli xasiaTis iyo. lordTa palatam daadgina, rom adgili ar hqonia p-s mimarT adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciiT garantirebul uflebaTa darRvevas. konvenciis me-2 muxli (sicocxlis ufleba): am muxlis teqstis ara2 orazrovani forma asaxavs sicocxlis uzenaesobas, icavs sicocxlis uflebas da krZalavs sicocxlis ganzrax warTmevas, garda amomwuravi formiT Camoyalibebuli gamonaklisisa. konvenciis me-2 muxli ar SeiZleba ganimartos, rogorc sikvdilis uflebis momniWebeli an sxva piris daxmarebis damSvebi sakuTari sikvdilis ganxorcielebisas.

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konvenciis me-3 muxli (wamebis akrZalva): es muxli asaxavs 3 demokratiuli sazogadoebis erT-erT yvelaze fundamentur Rirebulebas. mis mier Sesabamisi mopyrobis akrZalva absoluturi xasiaTisaa, romlisganac gadaxveva ar daiSveba omianobisa Tu erovnuli ubedurebis pirobebSic ki. konvenciis me-3 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli mopyrobis absoluturi da upirobo akrZalva monawile saxelmwifosagan moiTxovs, rom "mopyrobas" ar mieces SeuzRudavi an uCveulo mniSvneloba. dausabuTebelia imis varaudi, rom spd an gaerTianebuli samefos sxva Tanamdebobis piri axorcielebda Sesabamis mopyrobas p-s mimarT, romelic ganicdida garkveul tanjvas misive daavadebis gamo. Sesabamisad, aseve SeuZlebelia, spd-s uari p-s meuRlisaTvis sisxlissamarTlebrivi imunitetis micemaze am ukanasknelis mier danaSaulis Cadenis SemTxvevaSi ganmartebul iqnes, rogorc konvenciis me-3 muxlis negatiuri akrZalvis sawinaaRmdego. Tu gamoiyeneba konvenciis me-3 muxli da adgili ar hqonia am muxlis negatiuri akrZalvis darRvevas, saxelmwifos pozitiuri valdebuleba, Tavidan aaridos pirebis daqvemdebareba Sesabamis mopyrobas, ar aris absoluturi da upirobo. Tu saxelmwifoebs absoluturad ekrZalebaT maT iurisdiqciaSi myofi pirebis mimarT Sesabamisi mopyrobis gamoyeneba, is zomebi, romlebic saTanado an aucilebelia pozitiuri valdebulebis SesrulebisaTvis, ufro SefasebiTia da gansxvavebulia sxvadasxva saxelmwifos praqtikaSi, ufro damokidebulia xalxis mosazrebebsa da rwmenaze da naklebad eqvemdebareba raime universalur gansazRvrebas. gaerTianebul samefos ar gaaCnia pozitiuri valdebuleba, uzrunvelyos, rom sruliad Seracxadi da ganukurneblad daavadebuli piri, romelsac surs TviTmkvlelobis ganxorcieleba, magram ar SeuZlia amis Sesruleba, uflebamosili iyos sxva piris daxmarebaze am ukanasknelis sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisuflebiT. konvenciis me-8 muxli (piradi da ojaxuri cxovrebis 8 xelSeuxebloba): sasamarTlom daadgina, rom am uflebas saerTod ar gaaCnda raime kavSiri saqmesTan. strasburgis organoebis praqtikaSi ar moipoveba amis sapirispiro raime mtkicebuleba. es rom simarTles ar Seesabamebodes, maSin darRveva gamarTlebuli iqneboda konvenciis me-8 muxlis me-2 nawiliT. TviTmkvleloba sxva piris daxmarebiT da mkvleloba TanxmobiT ukanonoa konvenciis monawile yvela saxelmwifoSi niderlandebis garda ­ magram am ukanasknelis SemTxvevaSic, p-s meuRles daekisreboda pasuxismgebloba p-s TviTmkvlelobaSi daxmarebisaTvis.

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konvenciis me-9 muxli (azris Tavisufleba): p-s SeiZleba hqonoda 9 guliTadi rwmena sxva piris daxmarebiT TviTmkvlelobis sasargeblo xasiaTSi da SeeZlo, Tavisuflad gamoexata amgvari rwmena. magram amgvari rwmenis uflebas ar SeuZlia daasabuTos moTxovna, romlis Tanaxmadac, misi meuRle unda gaTavisufldes Sedegebisagan im qmedebisaTvis, romelic SeiZleba srul SesabamisobaSi iyos p-s rwmenasTan, magram akrZalulia sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobiT. konvenciis me-14 muxli (diskriminaciis akrZalva): strasburgis 1 sasamarTlom mravaljer ganacxada, rom es ufleba avtonomiuri ar aris, aramed gamoiyeneba mxolod konvenciis sxva muxlebTan erTad da arc erTi ufleba, romelic moyvanil iqna p-s mier, ar iqna darRveulad aRiarebuli; konvenciis me-14 muxli mas ar daexmareba im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu dadgindeboda, rom "TviTmkvlelobis Sesaxeb" kanonis danayofi 2.1-is moqmedeba diskriminaciuli iyo. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, sisxlis samarTlis kanoni ar SeiZleba diskriminaciulad cnobiliyo, vinaidan is yvelas mimarT gamoiyeneba. sisxlis samarTlis kanoni, rogorc wesi, gansxvavebas ar akeTebs danaSaulis Cadenis msurvel dazaralebulsa da sxva dazaralebuls Soris. "mkvleloba SebralebiT" aris kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli mkvleloba. Tu sisxlis samarTlis kanoni akrZalavda im pirTa qmedebebs, romlebic umweo mdgomareobaSi myofT TviTmkvlelobaSi daxmarebas gauwevdnen, magram, amasTanave, pasuxismgeblobisagan gaaTavisuflebda maT, vinc Cveulebriv dazaralebulebs TviTmkvlelobaSi exmarebian, kanoni ar iqneboda samarTliani da ver uzrunvelyofda mis pativiscemasa da Sesrulebas. kanonis gauqmebisa da SeCerebis uflebamosileba, parlamentis Tanxmobis gareSe, mTavrobasa da mis moxeleebs CamoerTvaT 1699 wlis uflebaTa biliT. im SemTxvevaSic, Tu spd-s eqneboda garantiis micemis uflebamosileba, am konkretul saqmeSi is ukanonod imoqmedebda, Tuki amgvar garantias miscemda. mas ar hqonda p-s mier wardgenili moTxovnebis Semowmebis saSualeba. mas ar miuRia informacia im meTodis Sesaxeb, romliTac momCivani cxovrebis dasrulebas apirebda. ar iyo SemoTavazebuli araviTari samedicino zedamxedveloba. es iqneboda spd-s movaleobis daudevari Seusrulebloba da misi uflebamosilebis borotad gamoyeneba, Tuki is daTanxmdeboda sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganuxorcieleblobas jer kidev Caudeneli danaSaulis mimarT.

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samarTliani sasamarTlo

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 24-08-2000 dumilisa da sakuTar Tavze Cvenebis micemisagan Tavis Sekavebis ufleba ukavSirdeba udanaSaulobis prezumfcias. is, agreTve, samarTliani sasamarTlos uflebis mniSvnelovan nawils warmoadgens da Sesaferisi sasamarTlo procesis ZiriTadi funqcionaluri garantiaa. saeWvo qcevis axsnaze uaris Tqma, rogorc dumilis uflebiT kanonieri sargeblobis nawili, sasamarTlom SesaZloa, braldebis safuZvlad gamoiyenos imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom braldebis mxarem warmoadgina danaSaulis mtkicebuleba da msjavrdebulisganac samarTlianad moelian axsna-ganmartebas. Tu gadawyvetileba damtkicebuli ar aris, warmodgenili mtkicebuleba usafuZvloa an, Tu dacvis qveS myofi policiis TandaswrebiT dumilis uflebas inarCunebs, aseTi moqmedeba yovlad dauSvebelia. roca dacvis qveS myofi uaryofs danaSaulSi monawileobas da ar arsebobs pirdapiri mtkicebuleba Tu dasabuTeba imisa, rom danaSauli marTlac man Caidina, sasamarTlo SesaZloa daefuZnos ueWvel faqtebs, an arapirdapir mtkicebulebas, saidanac dasabuTebis procesiT SesaZlebelia danaSaulis Sesaxeb daskvnis gakeTeba. es procesi sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaSi saTanadod unda aixsnas. arapirdapiri mtkicebulebiT amgvarad ganmtkicebuli araerTi braldeba arRvevs udanaSaulobis prezumfciis uflebas. konstituciis 9.3 muxlis principebi ar SeiZleba moyvanil an dacul iqnes konstituciuri sarCelis ganxorcielebis konteqstSi (konstituciis 53.2 muxli da `sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb~ organuli kanonis 41.1 nawili). qalbatoni renSau sandovali daakaves maSin, roca mas fostidan mohqonda misTvis gamogzavnili paketi, romelSic kokaini iyo moTavsebuli. radganac paketi braziliidan igzavneboda, misma Semcvelobam policiis eWvi gamoiwvia da sanam mflobels gadascemdnen, is gaxsnes. dakavebulma uari ganacxada, xeli moewera Cvenebis oqmisaTvis, romelic im mosamarTlis TandaswrebiT Sedga, romlis brZanebiTac gaixsna paketi. mogvianebiT igi sabaJos ofisSi waiyvanes, sadac gamoZieba unda gagrZelebuliyo. man policiis winaSe gancxadebis gakeTebisgan Tavi Seikava. sasamarTlo ganxilva dasrulda madridis provinciuli sasamarTloSi, sadac mas janmrTelobis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

sazianod mimarTuli danaSaulisaTvis brali wauyenes. madridis provinciuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba uzenaesma sasamarTlomac ucvlelad datova. am SemTxvevaSi, braldebis mtkicebiT, dacvis qveS myofi paketis Semcvelobis Sesaxeb informirebuli iyo. braldebulis arapirdapiri mtkicebulebiT, es paketi mis mmarTvelobaSi myofi organizaciis saxelze iyo gagzavnili, misi saxeli arasworad ewera, amitomac man Tavi Seikava gancxadebisa da policiasTan TanamSromlobisagan. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila sarCeli konstituciis dacvasTan dakavSirebiT. sasamarTlom uaryo yvela braldeba, rom mosarCelis dumilis ufleba da misi udanaSaulobis prezumfcia dairRva. man miiRo es gadawyvetileba im faqtis miuxedavad, rom policiis winaSe misi dumilis ufleba mis winaaRmdeg mtkicebulebad iqna gamoyenebuli. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precedentuli samarTlis Tanaxmad, konstituciis 17.3 muxliT garantirebuli dumilis ufleba ar darRveula, radganac policiam, romelmac renSau daakava, pativi sca dumilis uflebas. amas amtkicebda faqti, rom mosarCelis saCivari, romlis Tanaxmadac sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT mas danaSaulSi Tanamonawileoba edeboda bralad, ufro mogvianebiT stadias ganekuTvneboda. am SemTxvevaSi, ZiriTad gansaxilvel uflebas warmoadgenda udanaSaulobis prezumfciis sakiTxi. (konstituciis 24.2 muxli). sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba safuZvliani iyo. rac Seexeba braldebis mier warmodgenil arapirdapir mtkicebulebas, sasamarTloebs SeeZloT, dacvis qveS myofis mier saeWvo qcevis axsnaze uaris Tqma gamoeyenebinaT, rogorc braldebis safuZveli, miuxedavad imisa, rom igi efuZneboda dumilis kanonier uflebas. am SemTxvevaSi, arapirdapiri mtkicebuleba avsebda sxva mtkicebulebas, iyo damtkicebuli da araviTar SemTxvevaSi _ usafuZvlo, Sesabamisad, is ar eyrdnoboda im faqts, rom mosarCelem dumilis ufleba airCia. amrigad, misi ZiriTadi ufleba saTanadod iyo daculi.

malta sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 18-08-1998 miuxedavad imisa, rom sajarooba samarTliani sasamarTlos uzrunvelyofis saSualebaa, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-10 muxlTan mimarTebiT unda arsebobdes balansi

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samarTliani sasamarTlos uflebasa da mediis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas Soris. momxsenebeli mosamarTlis mier gadawyvetilebis gamotanamde calkeuli azris dafiqsirebam ar unda gamoiwvios eWvi mis miukerZoeblobaSi. gansasjelis mier nafic msajulTa samsjavroze gakeTebuli Canawerebis konfiskacia warmoadgens samarTliani sasamarTlo ganxilvis ZiriTadi uflebis Selaxvas. Tumca, dacvis saSualebis micemisas saqme mTlianobaSi unda iqnes ganxiluli. mosarCeles miusajes TxuTmeti wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa. mas bralad edeboda policiis ganyofilebaSi pirisaTvis sxeulis mZime dazianebis miyenebaSi Tanamonawileoba, ramac Sedegad sikvdili gamoiwvia. danaSauli Cadenil iqna maSin, roca mosarCeles policiis komisris Tanamdeboba ekava. 1994 wlis 15 aprils sisxlis samarTlis saapelacio sasamarTlom mxari dauWira sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlos mier gamotanil ganaCens. mosarCelem Seitana konstituciuri sarCeli, romlis Tanaxmadac, sisxlis samarTalwarmoebisas dairRva misi samarTliani sasamarTlos ufleba. miuxedavad imisa, rom sarCelSi mosarCelem daafiqsira ukmayofileba, ZiriTadi arsi mainc imaSi mdgomareobda, rom sisxlis samarTalwarmoebisas momxsenebeli mosamarTle: adgilobriv presaSi gamoqveynebuli sxvadasxva statiebis gamo braldebulis mimarT uaryofiTad iyo ganwyobili; man nafic msajulTa samsjavromde daafiqsira Tavisi mosazreba, rom mosarCele sando pirovnebaTa ricxvs ar ganekuTvneboda; gasca brZaneba, rom sasamarTloSi nafici msajulebis winaSe Cvenebis micemamde gansasjelis sakuTrebaSi arsebuli yvela sabuTi da samarTlis wigni saknidan gaetanaT. 1. presis uaryofiTi kampania rac Seexeba presis mier warmoebul kampanias, romelsac aRniSnavda mosarCele, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gamoTqva mosazreba, rom sajarooba moiazreba, rogorc sasamarTlos samarTlianobis garantia. ufro metic, rogorc es me-10 muxlSia mocemuli, samarTliani sasamarTlos ufleba unda dabalansdes presis TavisuflebasTan mimarTebaSi. zogadad miRebulia, rom sasamarTloebs ar SeuZliaT vakuumSi funqcionireba. vinaidan sasamarTlo davebis gadaWris adgilia, es sulac ar niSnavs, rom maTi saTanado ganxilva dauSvebelia sxva adgilebSi, iqneba es specialuri Jurnali, zogadad presa Tu sazogadoeba. medias, agreTve, akisria valdebuleba, gaavrcelos informacia im sakiTxebze, rac sasamarTloSi ganixileba. realobas Seesabameba is faqti, rom adgilobriv presaSi gavrcelebuli informa-

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cia araobieqturi da mosarCelisaTvis saziano iyo. Tumca, aseTi informaciebi gamonaklisi iyo da ara wesi. garda amisa, mosalodnelia, rom msgavs sasamarTlos, romelic sazogadoebis interess warmoadgens, mohyveba presis mxridan gamoxmaureba. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom statiebi, romelTac ukmayofileba gamoiwvies, gamoqveynda mas Semdeg, rac naficma msajulebma saboloo gadawyvetileba gamoitanes, Tumca, apelacia jer kidev win iyo. amrigad, ar SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom mosarCelis mimarT boroti sagazeTo kampania warmoebda da is avnebda mosarCelis uflebas samarTlian sasamarTloze. miuxedavad imisa, rom nafic msajulTa samsjavroze gacilebiT didia msajulTa sazogadoebrivi azris gavlenis qveS moqcevis riski, amis mtkiceba Znelia, radgan ar arsebobs msajulTa mier mizezTa raime werilobiTi axsna. ar arsebobda mtkicebuleba, rom aRniSnulma statiebma msajulebze an momxsenebel mosamarTleze uaryofiTi gavlena moaxdina. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, uaryofiTi Sinaarsis statiebi samarTalwarmoebisas TviT mosamarTlem ugulebelyo, raTa msajulebs komentarebi mxedvelobaSi ar mieRoT.Uufro metic: is faqti, rom msajulebs gadawyvetilebis gamosatanad didi dro dasWirdaT, xmaTa raodenoba da obieqturi daskvna amtkicebs, rom msajulebi ar moqceulan presis gavlenis qveS. miuxedavad imisa, rom msajulebi profesionali mosamarTleebi ar iyvnen, miukerZoeblobis sruli garantiebi arsebobda. amasTan dakavSirebiT sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom maltis konstituciasa da adamianis uflebaTa evropul konvenciasTan mimarTebiT mosarCelis adamianis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa darRvevas adgili ar hqonia. 2. momxsenebeli mosamarTlis miukerZoebloba mosarCele Cioda, rom nafic msajulTa samsjavroze momxsenebeli mosamarTle ar iyo obieqturi da miukerZoebeli. igi amtkicebda, rom msajulTa mier sakiTxis winaswari ganxilvisas mosamarTlem gamoTqva garkveuli mosazreba, rac, garkveulwilad, mianiSnebda mosarCelis mimarT mis uaryofiT ganwyobas. mosarCelis azriT, ganxilvis dawyebamde momxsenebelma mosamarTlem ukve Camoayaliba mosazreba gansasjelis pirovnebis Sesaxeb. misi mtkicebiT, amis aSkara gamoxatuleba iyo is, rom mosamarTlem ar daakmayofila gansasjelis TavdebiT gaSvebis sakiTxi da mis dauyovnebliv dakavebaze gasca brZaneba. amasTan, im SemTxvevaSi, roca mowmeTa sandooba eWvis qveS dgeba, SeuZlebelia, momxsenebeli mosamarTle obieqturi da miukerZoebeli yofiliyo. mosarCele Semdgom acxadebda, rom sasamarTlo sxdomis dros mas ar uTxovia momxsenebeli mosamarTlis saqmidan acileba, raTa saqmiswarmoeba droSi ar gaweliliyo. msjavrdebuls rom es

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moeTxova da uari mieRo, maSin mikerZoebis xarisxi gacilebiT maRali iqneboda. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom obieqturobis testis Cabarebisas ndobis xarisxi umniSvnelovanesia da demokratiul sazogadoebaSi moqmedi sasamarTloebi sisxlis samarTalwarmoebisas xalxisa da gansasjelis TvalSi swored ndobasa da rwmenas unda imsaxurebdnen. marTlmsajuleba ara mxolod unda ganxorcieldes, aramed dasanaxic unda gaxdes. Semdgom man daadgina, rom adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos iurisdiqciis mixedviT, is faqti, rom mosamarTlem sasamarTlomde daafiqsira gadawyvetilebebi, ar ayenebs mis miukerZoeblobas eWvis qveS. yuradReba unda gamaxvildes am gadawyvetilebaTa xasiaTsa da moculobazec. mopasuxeebma ganacxades, rom sasamarTlos dawyebamde mosarCeles SeeZlo moeTxova momxsenebeli mosamarTlis acileba. amasTan mimarTebiT sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 734-e muxlis Tanaxmad, mosamarTle SeiZleboda CamoSoreboda saqmes, Tu mas am saqmesTan, rogorc mosamarTles, adrec hqonda Sexeba. Tumca, es mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba momxdariyo, Tu mosamarTlis mier gamotanili wina gadawyvetileba saqmis arsebiT mxares ukavSirdeboda. amrigad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom mosamarTlis qmedeba, romelsac ar gamouTqvams azri saqmis arsebiT nawilTan dakavSirdebiT, ar SeiZleba gasaCivrebuliyo. ufro metic: mosamarTles monawileoba ar miuRia saqmis sasamarTlosaTvis momzadebaSi an braldebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi. mosamarTlis mier winaswar gamotanili gadawyvetileba exeboda mosarCelis patimrobaSi darCena-ardarCenis sakiTxs da saqmis arsebiT nawilTan kavSiri ar hqonda. sasamarTlosTvis mimarTvis meore saSualebas warmoadgenda sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlosTvis moTxovna, rom saqme gadaeca samoqalaqo sasamarTlos pirvel instanciaSi, romelic konstituciur samarTalwarmoebas axorcielebda maltis konstituciis 46-e muxlTan mimarTebiT. amasTan, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom, miuxedavad winaswari gadawyvetilebisa, mosamarTles ar gamouTqvams mosazreba mosarCelis pirovnebasTan dakavSirebiT, aRarafers vambobT im faqtze, rom maltis kanonmdeblobis mixedviT, braldebulobasTan dakavSirebuli saboloo gadawyvetileba gamoaqvT nafic msajulebs da ara mosamarTles. ar arsebobda mtkicebuleba, rom momxsenebelma mosamarTlem raime uaryofiTi gavlena iqonia nafic msajulebze. piriqiT: mosamarTlis mimarTva nafici msajulebisadmi kidev erTi mtkicebulebaa imisa, rom mikerZoebas adgili ar hqonia. mosamarTlem gaafrTxila nafici msajulebi, rom gadawyvetileba maT xelT arsebuli faqtebis gaTvaliswinebiT gamoetanaT.

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3. msajulTa samsjavros ganmavlobaSi piradi Canawerebisa da samarTlebrivi dokumentaciis CamorTmeva sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sisxlis samarTalwarmoeba droSi gaiwela da saboloo gadawyvetileba sasamarTloze warmodgenil mtkicebulebaTa utyuarobaze didad iyo damokidebuli. amrigad, mosarCelisTvis umniSvnelovanesi iyo, rom saukeTeso pirobebi Seqmnoda braldebis mxaris mier warmodgenil mowmeTa mtkicebulebebis gasabaTileblad. rogorc sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganacxada, amis misaRwevad mosarCeles ufleba hqonda, gamoeyenebina sxvadasxva Canawerebi, romelic man sasamarTlos msvlelobis dros Seagrova. miuxedavad imisa, rom sisxlis samarTlis saapelacio sasamarTlom konkretuli miniSnebebi gaakeTa aRniSnul faqtTan dakavSirebiT, mainc daaskvna, rom miuxedavad am ukanono qmedebisa, sasamarTlos msvlelobis dros adgili ar hqonia marTlmsajulebis principis Selaxvas. samoqalaqo sasamarTlos pirveli instanciis daskvniT, is faqti, rom Cvenebis micemis garda, sisxlis samarTlis mTeli warmoebisas Canawerebi gansasjels hqonda da am dokumentebze mis advokatsac Tavisuflad miuwvdeboda xeli, imaze metyvelebs, rom mosarCeles SeeZlo dacvisaTvis momzadeba. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gamoiyena samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 583 muxli (maltis kanonTa me-12 muxli) romlis mixedviTac: `mowmes SeuZlia, gaxsenebis mizniT gadaxedos saukeTeso an misi miTiTebiT sxva pirovnebis mier gakeTebul nebismier Canawers im wuTas an Semdgom, an nebismier dros, roca es faqti mas kargad axsovda da icoda, rom igive iyo dafiqsirebuli CanawerSi, Tumca, am SemTxvevaSi, man unda warmoadginos es Canaweri da mowinaaRmdege mxaresac unda mieces naxvis SesaZlebloba~. sasamarTlo mtkicebiT, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 463-e muxlis mixedviT (maltis kanonTa me-9 muxli), sisxlis samarTalwarmoebisas gansasjels ufleba aqvs, warmoadginos mtkicebulebis asli da yvela dokumenti, romelic samarTalwarmoebis nawils Seadgens (sisxlis samarTlis 519-e muxli _ maltis kanonTa me-9 Tavi). amrigad, Tu gansasjels ufleba aqvs, Tan hqondes es dokumentebi, mas imis uflebac unda hqondes, gaakeTos sasamarTloze warmodgenil mtkicebulebebze Canawerebi. 583-e muxlis farglebSi, mas ufleba aqvs, am CanawerebiT aRidginos zogierTi informacia. am muxlis mizania, uzrunvelyos sasamarTloSi warmodgenili mtkicebulebis utyuaroba. es kidev erTi garantiaa imisa, rom samarTalwarmoebisas dadgindes simarTle. sasamarTloze mosarCelis Cveneba erT-erTi saSualeba iyo, riTac mas braldebisagan Tavis dacva SeeZlo. amrigad, sasamarTlos gansasjeli samarTliani sasamarTlos yvela

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garantiebiT unda uzrunveleyo. rac Seexeba samarTlebriv teqstebs, wignebi mosarCeles dacvisaTvis momzadebaSi daexmareboda. gansasjelis saknidan yvela Canawerisa da samarTlebrivi teqstebis gatanis brZanebam uaryofiTad imoqmeda gansasjelis Cvenebaze, rogorc faqtobrivi, ise fsiqologiuri TvalsazrisiT. samarTliani sasamarTlos erT-erTi maxasiaTeblis _ mxareTa Tanasworobis principis gaTvaliswinebiT, TiToeul mxares unda miscemoda SesaZlebloba, warmoedgina sakuTari saqme iseTnairad, rom mowinaaRmdege mxaresTan Tanabar pirobebSi aRmoCeniliyo. miuxedavad imisa, rom sisxlis samarTlis saapelacio sasamarTlos dadgenilebiT marTlmsajulebis principi ar darRveula, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom dairRva mosarCelis samarTliani sasamarTlo ganxilvis ufleba. Tumca, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gamoTqva mosazreba, rom sisxlis saapelacio sasamarTlomde mosarCeles unda moeTxova Cvenebis micema misTvis CamorTmeuli Canawerebis daxmarebiT. garkveuli mizezebis gamo, dacvis es saSualeba man ar gamoiyena. Sedegad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mieca mosarCelisaTvis am SesaZleblobiT sargeblobaze uaris Tqmis ufleba. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom SemdgomSi daadgina, rom msgavs warmoebaSi saqme mTlianobaSi unda iqnes ganxiluli qveynis Sida kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili procedurebis gaTvaliswinebiT, ris Tanaxmadac, samarTalwarmoeba samarTlianad Catarda da mosarCelis saCivrebma mxardaWera ver moipova. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom mosarCelis winaaRmdeg warmoebuli sisxlis samarTalwarmoeba mTlianobaSi unda Sefasdes, rogorc samarTliani.

gaerTianebuli samefo lordTa palata 30-01-2003 X-s brali edeboda 14 wlis gogonaze Seuracxmyofel TavdasxmaSi. bralis wayenebisas X 13 wlis iyo. sasamarTlomde is fsiqiatrebma Seamowmes, romlebic fiqrobdnen, rom igi ver gauZlebda sasamarTlo sxdomis process. msajulebs unda ganesazRvraT, SeeZlo Tu ara mas, 1964 wlis sisxlis samarTlis saproceso aqtis me-4 nawilis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlos gadatana. msajulebma daadgines, rom X Seuracxadi iyo da amdenad, sasamarTlos winaSe misi wardgena aragonivruli iqneboda. 1964 wlis aqtis Semdegi 4a nawili moiTxovs, rom msajulebma arsebuli mtkicebulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT gansazRvron, namdvilad Caidina Tu ara dacvis qveS myofma qmedeba. amdenad, Semdeg sxdomaze,

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mosamarTlis miTiTebiT, sxva msajulma daadgina, rom man Caidina is qmedebebi, romelSic eWvmitanili iyo. Sedegad, X gaaTavisufles da mamamiss mosTxoves, rom igi daeregistrirebina, rogorc seqsualuri moZalade. X-ma gaasaCivra meore msajulis gadawyvetileba. misi gancxadebiT, procedura ar Seesabameboda adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-6 muxls. lordTa palatam daadgina, rom me-4 nawilis procedura ar unda Seesabamebodes adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-6 muxls, radgan is ar gansazRvravs sisxlis samarTlebriv braldebas. lordTa palatam gadawyvita, rom 1964 wlis 4a seqcia SemoRebul iqna pirovnebaTa araaucilebeli dakavebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT. magaliTad, 4a aqtis SemoRebamde, roca gansasjelma aRiara mkvleloba da Semdgom aRmoCnda, rom mas ar SeeZlo sasamarTlos gadatana, is mainc daakaves, rogorc potenciurad saSiSi adamiani. saSiSroeba Cadenili qmedebidan (pirovnebis mkvleloba) gamomdinareobda, romelic, rogorc Semdgomma gamoZiebam aCvena, mas ar Caudenia. lordTa palatam, ixelmZRvanela ra saqmiT Eagle v. The Netherlands, daadgina, rom: 1. Sida kanonmdeblobiT 4 a nawilis procedura ar gansazRvravs sisxlis samarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobas; 2. procedura ar SeiZleba iyos sisxlis samarTlebrivi, radgan Sedegad ar mohyveba sasjeli. amrigad, dadginda, rom 4a proceduris Tanaxmad, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-6 muxlis farglebSi gansasjeli sisxlis samarTlis braldebulad ar iqna miCneuli. gadawyda, rom, Tu procedura sworad warimarTeboda, igi samarTliani iqneboda da gansasjelis uflebebs ar daarRvevda.

azerbaijani sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 13-07-1999 administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis CadenaSi eWvmitanil nebismier pirovnebas unda hqondes dacvis ufleba misi dakavebis momentidan. uzenaesma sasamarTlom dasva administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsis 256-e da 259-e muxlebis konstituciis 61-e muxlTan Sesabamisobis sakiTxi. azerbaijanis respublikis sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsis 256-e muxlis Sesabamisad, pirovnebas, romelsac unda daekisros administraciuli pasuxismgebloba, saqmis ganxilvisas aqvs dacvis ufleba. kodeqsis 259-e muxlis mixedviT, im piris advokatma, vis winaaRmdegac unda aRiZras administraciuli

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pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi, ufleba aqvs saqmis momzadebaSi miiRos monawileoba.Kkonstituciis 61.1 muxlis Tanaxmad, pirovnebas aqvs kvalificiuri dacvis ufleba. konstituciis 61.3 muxlis Tanaxmad, moqalaqes ufleba aqvs misi dakavebis, dapatimrebisa da kompetenturi saxelmwifo organos mxridan braldebis wayenebis momentidan isargeblos advokatis daxmarebiT. administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsis 256-e da 259-e muxlebi ar iTvaliswineben administraciuli samarTaldarRvevisaTvis pirTa samarTlebriv dacvas misi dakavebis momentidan. es ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciis aRniSnul debulebebs. udavoa, rom nebismieri pirisTvis dacvis uflebis xelyofa laxavs mis konstituciur uflebas. garda amisa, konstituciis 63.4 muxli acxadebs, rom marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisas dauSvebelia, gamoiyenebodes mtkicebuleba, romelic kanonis darRveviT iqna mopovebuli. Tu piri, romelsac unda daekisros administraciuli pasuxismgebloba, saqmis momzadebisas ver isargeblebs kvalificiuri advokatis daxmarebiT, SesaZloa, gamoiwvios mtkicebulebaTa ukanono Segroveba im pirTa mxridan, vinc uflebamosilia, mimarTos administraciuli dakavebis RonisZiebas. amrigad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom administraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsis 256-e da 259-e muxlebi, romlebic administraciul pasuxisgebaSi micemul pirs dacvis uflebas uzRudavda, ar Seesabameboda konstituciis 61-e muxlis moTxovnebs. agreTve, aRiniSna, rom Sesabamisi organoebi an Tanamdebobis pirebi, vinc uflebamosilni arian ganaxorcielon administraciuli dakavebis RonisZieba, valdebulni arian, nebismieri piri misi dakavebis momentidan uzrunvelyon dacvis uflebiT.

Cexoslovakia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 25-11-1999 ZiriTad uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa qartiis 37.2 muxli saxelmwifo organoebis winaSe samarTalwarmoebisas uzrunvelyofs dacvis uflebas samarTalwarmoebis dawyebis momentidan. konstituciuri garantiiT, sisxlis samarTalwarmoebisas msjavrdebuls saqmis mosamzadeblad unda hqondes saTanado dro da saSualebebi, maT Soris, advokatis daxmarebis uflebac (ZiriTad uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa qartia, muxli 40.3). am konstituciuri garantiebidan SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 41.3 muxlis debuleba gamonaklisis gareSe vrceldeba sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTloebze. mniSvneloba ar

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

aqvs sasamarTlos Semadgenlobas (erTi mosamarTlea Tu mTeli palata) an imas, Tu ra saxis danaSauli ganixileba, radganac erTi mosamarTlec ki saqmes ismens da gadawyvetileba gamoaqvs saxelmwifos saxeliT, rac, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, sakmarisia imis uzrunvelsayofad, rom, saproceso kodeqsidan gamomdinare, sasamarTlos hqondes yvela uflebamosileba da valdebuleba. sasamarTlo dakiTxvaze, sadac mosarCelis sapatimroSi moTavsebis sakiTxi unda gadawyvetiliyo, mis mier arCeul advokats ar misces daswrebis ufleba da arc ki acnobes, Tu rodis iyo sxdoma daniSnuli. saapelacio sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila mosarCelis saapelacio saCivari sapatimroSi moTavsebis Sesaxeb. man Semdegi interpretacia misca sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis im debulebebs, romlebic gansasjelis winaswar dakavebisa da dacvis uflebas Seexeboda: misi ganmartebiT, winaswari dakavebisas advokatis daswreba savaldebulo ar iyo. kodeqsi moiTxovs, rom mosamarTlem gadawyvitos dakavebis sakiTxi, amave dros, weria, rom advokats ufleba aqvs, daeswros sasamarTlo ganxilvas yvela stadiaze, sadac gansasjeli iqneba. saapelacio sasamarTlos ganmartebiT, sasamarTlom neba unda darTos damcvels, daeswros mxolod im sasamarTlo mosmenebs, sadac mosamarTleTa palataa warmodgenili da ara im stadiebze, roca procedura erTi mosamarTlis monawileobiT xorcieldeba. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo ar daeTanxma am interpretacias da daadgina, rom dacvis ufleba, rogorc es gamoyenebul qartiaSia ganmartebuli, yovelgvari gamonaklisis gareSe unda gavrceldes sasamarTlo ganxilvis yvela etapze, miuxedavad sasamarTlos Semadgenlobisa. saapelacio sasamarTlom, agreTve, daadgina, rom mosarCeles ar uTxovia advokatis daswreba da sasamarTlos mxolod unda ecnobebina advokatisTvis, Tu misi moZebna SesaZlebeli iqneboda. sasamarTlo ar daeTanxma am mosazrebas da aRniSna, rom sasamarTlo movale iyo, ecnobebina gansasjelisTvis misi ufleba dacvis moTxovnis Sesaxeb. rac Seexeba `advokatis moZiebas", saqmis masalebSi ar Cans, rom advokatis povna SeuZlebeli iyo an sasamarTlo ramenairad ecada, moeZebna igi.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 10-08-2001 dacvis ufleba ar unda iyos damokidebuli imaze, Tu ramdenad warmatebuli an warumatebeli iqneba dacvis saSualeba. rodesac sasamarTlo samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis 114.1 muxlis

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gaTvaliswinebiT iRebs gadawyvetilebas dacvis uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb, dauSvebelia samarTlebrivi daxmarebis Taobaze sarCelis warmatebis sakiTxis ganxilva, raTa es damxmare samarTalwarmoeba, SemdegSi mTavar samarTalwarmoebad ar gadaiqces. momCivnebi iyvnen dedmamiSvilebi, dabadebulni 1969 da 1972 wlebSi rumineTSi. deda, dabadebuli 1943 wels, 1986 wlis seqtembridan cxovrobda germaniis teritoriaze. is rumineTidan gaasaxles da 1987 wels miiRo germaniis moqalaqeoba. 1991-1992 wlamde mosarCeleebs rumineTi ar dautovebiaT, TiToeuli miwveviT imyofeboda iq. isini arc germaniidan wamosul emigrantebad iqnen aRiarebulni da arc deportirebulebad, Tumca, ucxoelTa Sesaxeb kanoniT gansazRvruli periodiT mainc miiRes cxovrebis nebarTva. mas Semdeg, rac maTi moTxovna cxovrebis nebarTvis gaxangrZlivebis Taobaze ar dakmayofilda, gaasaCivres qveynis datovebis Sesaxeb brZaneba da axladgamoSvebuli gafrTxileba gasaxlebis Sesaxeb. pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi maT warmatebas ver miaRwies. mogvianebiT, bavariis umaRlesma administraciulma sasamarTlom miiRo maTi saapelacio saCivari da aRmouCina samarTlebrivi daxmareba. samarTalwarmoebisas senatma gamoTqva mosazreba, rom mosarCeleebi unda ganxiluliyvnen, rogorc `germanuli statusis mqone pirebi" da ara pirovnebebi, romelTa statusic ucxoelTa Sesaxeb kanoniT regulirdeba. Sesabamisad, man SeaCera warmoeba ise, rom mosarCeleebs, konstituciis 116.1 muxlis Sesabamisad, SeeZloT ganemartaT, iyvnen Tu ara isini germanelebi. am sakiTxis gadawyveta SeuZlebeli iyo. ucxoeli moqalaqeebis Sesaxeb kanonis Tanaxmad, saapelacio samarTalwarmoebiT mosarCeleebma Seitanes sarCeli deklaraciuli xasiaTis ganaCenis gamosatanad da, amave dros, moiTxoves samarTlebrivi daxmareba. kompetenturma administraciulma sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila gancxadeba samarTlebriv daxmarebasTan dakavSirebiT im motiviT, rom mosarCeleebi am samarTalwarmoebas ver moigebdnen. konstituciis 116.1 muxlis ganmartebiT germanelia is, vinc federalur teritoriaze SemouSves, rogorc germanuli eTnikuri warmomavlobis emigranti, an aseTi pirovnebis meuRle an STamomavali. amdenad, mosarCeleebi, 1987 wlis aRiarebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romelic mSoblebis sakuTar SvilebTan gaerTianebas isaxavda miznad, SeiZleba SemoeSvaT federalur teritoriaze, magram radganac isini qveyanaSi Semosvlisas (1991 da 1992 wlebi) ukve srulwlovanebi iyvnen, maTi am gziT germanelebad aRiarebis SesaZlebloba aRar arsebobda. garda amisa, saeWvo iyo, rom mosarCeleebma, marTlac, dedasTan xelaxali daaxloebis mizniT gadmokveTes sazRvari. sasamarTlom Semdgom daadgina, rom, Tu pirovnebas surs, mudmivad Seicvalos sacxovrebeli mSobelTan

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daaxloebis mizniT, is ar Semodis qveyanaSi droebiTi mowveviT (visitor' s visa) da arc TavSesafris maZieblis statusis mopovebas cdilobs. bavariis umaRlesma administraciulma sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila gancxadeba samarTlebrivi daxmarebis aRmoCenaze uaryofiTi gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebasTan dakavSirebiT. saapelacio sasamarTloSi warumateblobis Semdeg, mosarCeleebma konstituciuri sarCeliT gaasaCivres uari samarTlebrivi daxmarebis Sesaxeb. isini amtkicebdnen, rom dairRva konstituciis 3.1 muxli (kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis principi) da kanonis uzenaesobis principi. meore palatis pirvelma kolegiam gaauqma momCivanTa sawinaaRmdegod gamotanili gadawyvetilebebi da saqme gansaxilvelad daubruna administraciul sasamarTlos. kolegiis gadawyvetilebis samotivacio nawili arsebiTad Semdegi iyo: gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetilebebi xelyofs rogorc kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis, ise kanonis uzenaesobis princips. iuridiuli daxmarebis sakiTxze mimdinare samarTalwarmoebisas es normebi moiTxovs SedarebiT Tanabar mopyrobas rogorc SeZlebul, ise finansuri SeZlebis armqone mxareebs Soris. miuxedavad imisa, rom gaTvaliswinebulia Tanaswori samarTlebrivi dacvis garantia, iuridiuli daxmarebis gaweva SeiZleba damokidebuli iyos samarTlebrivi zomis moTxovnis warmatebis xarisxze. amasTan, warmatebis SesaZleblobis Sefaseba ar unda iqnes gamoyenebuli ise, rom samarTalwarmoeba iuridiuli daxmarebis mosapoveblad warmoadgendes TviT samarTlebrivi zomis Taobaze mimdinare procesis nawils. Tu Sesabamisi sasamarTlo, saqmis SesaZlo warmatebis xarisxis Sefasebisas, gamoiyenebs kriteriums, romelic naklebi finansuri SesaZleblobis mqone mxares SeZlebul mxaresTan SedarebiT, ufro rTul mdgomareobaSi ayenebs, maSin es miuTiTebs Tanabari samarTlebrivi dacvis garantiis arsis fundamenturad araswor ganmartebas. mocemul saqmeSi Sesabamis sasamarTloebs mxedvelobaSi unda mieRoT, rom momCivnebis germaniis teritoriaze daSvebis sakiTxi, konstituciis 116-e muxlis pirveli nawilis SinaarsiT, dakavSirebuli iyo samarTlebrivi xasiaTis sirTuleebTan, romelTac ZiriTadi sasamarTlo procesis farglebSi ganmarteba unda miscemodaT. Sesabamisad, administraciuli sasamarTlos mosazreba, rom Sesabamisi daSvebis nebarTva gacemul iqna arasrulwlovanTa maT mSoblebTan gaerTianebis mizniT, ar iyo gonivruli. nebarTva, aseve, moicavda momCivanTa sxva axlo naTesavebs, romelTac srulwlovanebis asaks miaRwies. kolegiam daadgina, rom, aseve, ar SezRudula daSvebis nebarTvis moqmedebis vada. imdenad, ramdenadac administraciulma sasamarTlom Tavisi uari iuridiul daxmarebaze daasabuTa daSvebis nebarTvasa da

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qveyanaSi Semosvlas Soris mizezobrivi kavSiris ararsebobiT, man, agreTve, ar moaxdina iuridiuli daxmarebis gawevis sakiTxis ganxilva Sesabamisi zomebis safuZvelze. principis saxiT, samarTlebrivad da faqtobrivad gaurkveveli sakiTxebi unda gadawydes ZiriTadi sasamarTlo warmoebis mimdinareobisas.

litva sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 12-02-2001 konstituciis 31.6 muxlis Tanaxmad, eWvmitanili an msjavrdebuli dakavebis an pirveli dakiTxvis momentidan uzrunvelyofili unda iyos dacvis uflebiT. konstituciis 31.6 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli dacvis ufleba niSnavs, rom pirs ufleba aqvs, TviTon airCios advokati, iseve, rogorc moiTxovos saxelmwifos mier daniSnuli advokati. dacvis ufleba, agreTve, iTvaliswinebs, rom pirovneba iyos sworad informirebuli dakavebis an pirveli dakiTxvis momentidan advokatis daswrebis uflebis Sesaxeb. dacvis ufleba, iseve, rogorc ufleba advokatze, absoluturi uflebaa. dauSvebelia raime safuZvlebiT misi SezRudva an garkveuli pirobebis daweseba. eWvmitanilis, iseve rogorc gansasjelis, dacvis ufleba adamianis uflebaTa dacvis erT-erTi garantia. es ufleba aucilebeli pirobaa danaSaulis Camdeni nebismieri piris samarTlianad dasasjelad da udanaSaulo piris gasamarTleblad. Tumca, misi survilisamebr nebismieri advokatis arCeva, advokatis yolis uflebisagan gansxvavebiT, ar warmoadgens absolutur uflebas. mosarCeleebi _ alitusis adgilobrivi saolqo sasamarTlo, vilniusis saqalaqo sasamarTlo da kaunasis regionaluri sasamarTlo _ eWvis qveS ayenebdnen advokaturis Sesaxeb kanonis 26.3 da 26.4 muxlebis konstituciasTan Sesabamisobis sakiTxs. 26.3 muxlis Tanaxmad, `advokati ver ganaxorcielebs sasamarTlo warmomadgenlobas im sasamarTloSi, sadac mas adre umuSavia mosamarTled da ar gasula sami weli, rac man es Tanamdeboba datova~. imave kanonis 26.4 muxlis Tanaxmad, `advokati ver ganaxorcielebs sasamarTlo warmomadgenlobas im sasamarTloebSi, sadac mosamarTled muSaoben misi coli (yofili coli), Svilebi (maT Soris, ayvanili), mSoblebi (maT Soris, mSvileblebi), Zmebi, debi (maT Soris, naxevar-Zmebi da naxevardebi), biZaSvilebi-deidaSvilebi, bebiebi da babuebi, an SviliSvilebi~. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom, advokatis yolis uflebisagan gansxvavebiT, advokatis sakuTari survilisamebr arCeva ar warmoadgens absolutur uflebas. magaliTad, advokati

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ver daicavs or an met eWvmitanils an or an met gansasjels, Tu erTi dacvis qveS myofis interesebi ewinaaRmdegeba meoris interesebs. kanoni SesaZloa iTvaliswinebdes, rom, rodesac pirisaTvis dacvis ganxorcieleba realur sirTules warmoadgens, sasamarTlom SesTavazos mas sxva advokatis arCeva. sasamarTlom, agreTve, aRniSna, rom mosamarTleTa damoukideblobisa da miukerZoeblobis uzrunvelsayofad kanonmdebloba SesaZloa iTvaliswinebdes iseTi samarTlebrivi regulirebis meqanizms, rac aRmofxvrida mosamarTleTa da sasamarTloTa miukerZoeblobasTan dakavSirebiT arsebul nebismieri eWvis safuZvels. eWvis safuZveli SeiZleba arsebobdes, roca advokati axorcielebs dacvas im sasamarTloSi, sadac adre muSaobda da mis mier Tanamdebobis datovebidan ar aris gasuli sami weli, anda, roca advokati damcvelad gamodis im sasamarTloSi, sadac mosamarTleebad muSaoben misi coli, Svilebi, mSoblebi, Zmebi, debi, biZaSvilebi-deidaSvilebi, bebiebi da babuebi an SviliSvilebi. imFfaqtma, rom advokati megobruli Tu naTesauri urTierTobis gamo raime kavSirSia mosamarTlesTan, SesaZloa, eWvis qveS daayenos sasamarTlos miukerZoeblobis sakiTxi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom advokaturis Sesaxeb kanonis 26.3 da 26.4 muxlebi Seesabameboda konstitucias.

niderlandebi uzenaesi sasamarTlo 21-04-1995 gansasjelsa da advokats Soris Tavisufali konsultaciis uflebas awesrigebs adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis 6.1 muxli 6.3 muxlis debulebasTan erTad, romelic gansazRvravs SezRudvebis dasaSvebobas. dakavebul gansasjels ufleba aqvs, Tavisuflad, yovelgvari daZabulobis gareSe, isargeblos Tavisi advokatis piradi konsultaciebiT, Tumca, es ufleba SeiZleba SezRudos kompetenturma xelisuflebam. Tumca, aseTma SezRudvam ar unda gamoiwvios uflebis ZiriTadi arsis darRveva. amas SesaZloa, nebismier saqmeSi hqondes adgili, Tu konsultaciebs monitorings gauwevs xelmZRvaneloba an maTi warmomadgeneli. ufro metic: aseTi saxis SezRudvebi kanonier mizansa da proporciulobis moTxovnebs unda Seesabamebodes; magaliTad, rogoricaa dakavebis adgilidan gaqcevis Tavidan acileba. C daakavebuli iyo mkacri reJimis izolatorSi, sadac moqmedebda zogadi wesi im dakavebulebis mier advokatis

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monaxulebasTan dakavSirebiT, vinc C-s msgavsad, cixidan gaqcevis saSiSroebas warmoadgenda. am wesebis Tanaxmad, C-sa da mis advokats unda gaevloT winaswari daTvaliereba arasasurveli sagnebis amoRebis mizniT. garda amisa, C-s da mis advokats konsultaciebis Casatareblad CamoTvlili sami wesidan erT-erTi unda aerCiaT: 1. konsultacia unda Catarebuliyo ori gamWvirvale kedlis mqone oTaxSi, cixis TanamSromlis zedamxedvelobiT; 2. imave oTaxSi zedamxedvelobis qveS meore advokatis TandaswrebiT; 3. an zedamxedvelobis gareSe, or gancalkevebul oTaxSi, romelTac hyofs gamWvirvale kedeli, sadac C da misi advokati Sidakomunikaciis saSualebiT daukavSirdebian erTmaneTs. aq CamoTvlil arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar moxdeba diskusiis monitoringi an Cawera. C Cioda, rom zemoaRniSnuli wesebi, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis 6.3 muxlTan SesabamisobaSi, arRvevda saqmis saTanado momzadebisaTvis advokatTan misi SeuzRudavi konsultaciis uflebas. uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom am SemTxvevaSi dawesebuli SezRudvebi ar arRvevda adamianis uflebaTa konvenciis me-6 muxls.

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 25-10-2001 moTxovna, rom advokatma eWvmitanilTan dakavSirebis mizniT Tavisuflad moipovos saqmeSi CarTvis uflebamosileba, zRudavs eWvmitanilis konstituciiT garantirebuli dacvis uflebas. samarTalwarmoebas safuZvlad edo ramdenime moqalaqis sarCeli, romlis Tanaxmadac, sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonmdeblobis garkveuli debulebebiTa da iusticiis saministros dakavebis adgilebis SinaganawesiT irRveoda maTi konstituciuri uflebebi. kerZod, am debulebebiT eWvmitanilebsa da braldebulebs ar SeuZliaT advokatTan dakavSireba, Tu advokati ar warmoadgens dokuments, romelic mas samarTalwarmoebaSi CarTvis uflebas aniWebs da romelic gacemuli iqneba samarTlebrivi daxmarebis ofisis uflebamosili piris an organos mier. mosarCeleebi amtkicebdnen, rom maTi gamocdilebiT, aseTi uflebamosilebis mopovebas, xSir SemTxvevaSi, gaumarTleblad didi dro sWirdeboda, rac advokatis dayovnebas iwvevda. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom konstituciis 48.2 muxliT, nebismier pirs unda aRmouCinon advokatis daxmareba policiaSi winaswari dakavebis dros Tu dapatimrebis Semdeg. sisxlis samarTlis sapro-

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ceso kodeqsis sadavo debulebebi ar iTvaliswinebs saqmeSi CarTvis gansakuTrebul wess an kanoniT gaweril gadawyvetilebas, romelic advokats samarTalwarmoebaSi CarTvis nebas miscems. isini arc im sistemis safuZvlad unda moiazrebodes, romelic klientTan vizitis uflebamosilebas aniWebs. eWvmitanilTa da msjavrdebul pirTa dacvis konstituciuri ufleba moicavs masTan komunikaciis uflebas da ar SeiZleba, mocemuli sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze momuSave piris an organos uflebamosilebis gamo pirobiT xasiaTs atarebdes. pirobebi da wesebi, romelic dacvis qveS myofT da eWvmitanilebs advokatTan komunikaciis uflebas aniWebs, regulirdeba ara marto sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsiT, aramed eWvmitanilTa da msjavrdebulTa dakavebis Sesaxeb federaluri kanoniTac. Tumca, kanoni mainc ar ayalibebs amomwurav da zust kriteriumebs, Tu ra pirobebSi unda Sedges viziti da romelma saministrom unda gasces brZaneba. amrigad, konstituciuri samarTlis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi aregulireben sakiTxebs maSin, roca es sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kanonma SeiZleba daareguliros. am uzustobidan gamomdinare, kanonis interpretacia da gamoyeneba sxvadasxvanairad xdeba. Sedegad, advokats SesaZloa, usafuZvlod ar miscen dacvis qveS myofTan vizitis ufleba, Tu mas ar aqvs specialuri dokumenti, romelic mas samarTalwarmoebaSi CarTvis uflebas aZlevs da es dokumenti gacemulia saqmis kvleviT dakavebuli pirovnebis an organos mier. amrigad, praqtikaSi dacvis qveS myofTan vizitis nebarTva SeiZleba gasces gamomZiebelma, prokurorma an mosamarTlem. kanonis sadavo debuleba, rogorc es praqtikaSi gamoiyeneba, zRudavs eWvmitanilis dacvis uflebas. garda amisa, moTxovna, rom advokatma dabrkolebis gareSe moipovos samarTalwarmoebaSi monawileobis uflebamosileba, niSnavs, rom eWvmitanilebma an msjavrdebulebma SesaZloa, ver miiRon kvalificiuri advokatis drouli daxmareba da advokatma obieqturi garemoebebis (gamomZieblis aryofna) gamo ver Seasrulos Tavisi profesiuli da proceduruli valdebulebebi, anda, subieqturi garemoebebis (gamomZiebeli ar aZlevs advokats vizitis uflebas) gamo, ver miiRos aseTi nebarTva. amrigad, arsebobs mxareTa Tanasworobisa da konstituciuri principis Selaxvis saSiSroeba. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis sadavo debulebebi konstituciuri iyo. rac Seexeba eWvmitanil da msjavrdebul pirTa patimrobis federaluri kanonis sadavo debulebebs, isini arakonstituciurad iqna miCneuli.

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ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 27-06-2000 sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis debuleba, romelic sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulis CadenaSi eWvmitanil pirebs dacvis uflebas mxolod mas Semdeg aZlevs, rac policiis mier iqnebian dakiTxulni, an sanam brals wauyenebdnen da ara dauyovnebliv dakavebisTanave, iyo arakonstituciuri. es debulebebi sisxlis samarTalwarmoebisas winaswari dakavebis stadiaze zRudavda dacvis uflebas, rodesac am periodSi ganxorcielebuli qmedebebiTa da RonisZiebebiT irRveoda, an SesaZloa, darRveuliyo dakavebulTa uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi. mosarCele moqalaqem daayena sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 47.1 da 51.2 muxlebis konstituciurobis sakiTxi. 1997 wlis oqtomberSi mosarCelis saxlSi Catarda Cxreka, rac sisxlis samarTalwarmoebas ukavSirdeboda da mosarCele iZulebis wesiT waiyvanes kriminaluri policiis regionalur ganyofilebaSi. is dakavebuli iyo Teqvsmeti saaTis ganmavlobaSi, dakiTxes, rogorc mowme, ganxorcielda sxva saxis sagamoZiebo RonisZiebebic. am xnis ganmavlobaSi, gamomZiebelma mas ar misca advokatis naxvis ufleba, radgan sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 47.1 muxlis Tanaxmad, advokatis Careva mxolod bralis wayenebis Semdeg aris SesaZlebeli, an roca eWvmitanili policiis an winaswari dakavebis sakanSi imyofeba. konkretul SemTxvevaSi mosarCele mxolod mowmis statuss atarebda. mas mogvianebiT acnobes, rom policiis ganyofilebaSi eWvmitanilis statusiT iyo dakavebuli. mas Semdeg, rac mosarCeles brali wauyenes, gamomZiebelma ar misca advokats saSualeba, gascnoboda gamoZiebis Sedegad Sekrebil monacemebs an TviTon gaekeTebina Canawerebi. amis safuZveli iyo sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 51.2 muxli, romlis Tanaxmadac, gamoZiebis damTavrebamde advokats ar aqvs Canawerebis gakeTebis saSualeba. sagamoZiebo procedurebTan dakavSirebiT mosarCelem Seitana saCivrebi. sakasacio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gamoZiebis Sedegad mokrebili masalebis gacnobaze uari da Canawerebis gakeTebis dauSvebloba ukanono iyo. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 47.1 muxli ar Seesabameboda konstitucias, radganac is sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulSi eWvmitanil pirs aZlevs dacvis uflebas mxolod policiis mier dakiTxvis an braldebis wayenebis Semdeg. Sesabamisad, sisxlis samarTalwarmoebisas mas uzRudavs dacvis uflebas. federaluri parlamentis mier axali debulebis miRebamde

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

gamoiyeneba konstituciis 48.2 muxli, rogorc gadawyvetilebaSia mocemuli. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 51 muxli Seesabameba konstitucias, radgan advokats ar ukrZalavs braldebis wayenebamde gamoZiebis mier mopovebuli im masalebis gacnobas, romelic mis klientze uaryofiT gavlenas moaxdens an masTan dakavSirebuli raime Canaweris gakeTebas.

slovenia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 19-06-1997 radganac arasrulwlovanTa sasamarTloSi winaswari mosmenisas arasrulwlovans ar aRmouCines advokatis daxmareba, dairRva konstituciis 29..2 muxliT garantirebuli arasrulwlovanTa dacvis ufleba da winaswari sasamarTlo sxdomis oqmi saqmis masalebidan unda iqnas amoRebuli. uzenaesma sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila mosarCelis advokatis mier kanonierebis dacvasTan dakavSirebiT murska sobotas saolqo sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis winaaRmdeg Setanili sarCeli, romelic exeboda sloveniis respublikis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 127.1 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli mkvlelobisaTvis arasrulwlovani mosarCelis winaaRmdeg warmoebul sisxlis samarTalwarmoebas. es moTxovna 1996 wlis 7 ivlisis mosarCelis sasamarTlo sxdomis oqmis saqmis masalebidan amoRebas exeboda. samive gadawyvetilebaSi sasamarTlom daafiqsira, rom oqmis amoRebis safuZveli ar arsebobda, radganac sasamarTlo ganxilvis dros ar darRveula arasrulwlovanis konstituciuri uflebebi. sasamarTlo ganxilvamde arasrulwlovans acnobes, rom mas hqonda advokatis daniSvnis ufleba, magram man garkveviT ganacxada, rom TviTon daicavda Tavs. misi Txovnis gaTvaliswinebiT, mosamzadebeli sxdoma 1996 wlis 5 ivlisis nacvlad mxolod 1996 wlis 8 ivliss daiwyo. arsebuli situacia ar iyo sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 70.1 TaviT regulirebadi da 454.2 muxlis Sesabamisad, winaswari ganxilvisas advokatis dacva kodeqsiT ar iyo savaldebulo. mosarCele gansxvavebul mosazrebas gamoTqvamda. misi azriT, sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi da konstituciis 29-e muxli dairRva, radganac winaswari ganxilvis dros mas advokatis ayvana SesTavazes, rogorc SesaZlebloba, magram mas ar dauniSnes ex officio advokati, rogorc savaldebulo dacva. swored es iyo oqmis, rogorc Semdgomi sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis mtkicebulebis, amoRebis safuZveli. sasamarTlom gaauqma gadawyvetileba da saqme xelaxali

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ganxilvisaTvis pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos daubrunda. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom konstituciis 29.2 muxlis debulebis Tanaxmad, (sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis samarTlebrivi garantiebi), sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulis CadenaSi braldebuli nebismieri piri dacvis uflebasTan dakavSirebiT sruli TanasworobiT unda sargeblobdes. konstitucia uzrunvelyofs ara marto sakuTari Tavis dacvis uflebas, aramed advokatis mier dacvis uflebasac. es ZiriTadi ufleba unda ganxorcieldes profesionali samarTlebrivi damcvelis mier. igi sisxlis samarTalwarmoebisas, sxva konstituciur uflebebTan erTad, miukerZoebeli sasamarTlos mier samarTliani ganxilvis uflebis uzrunvelyofis erT-erT garantias warmoadgens. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis me-12 muxli Seexeba damoukidebeli da formaluri dacvis konstituciur uflebas, rogorc dacvis qveS myofis ZiriTad uflebas, romelic sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis fundamentur principadac moiazreba. formalur dacvaze uaris gacxadeba sisxlis saproceso debulebebis nawilobriv, zog SemTxvevaSi ki, absolutur darRvevas warmoadgens. Tumca, kanonSi zog instanciebTan mimarTebiT naTlad aris Camoyalibebuli, rom sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gamotana dauSvebelia kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli dacvis uflebis ugulebelyofiT mopovebul mtkicebulebebze dayrdnobiT. erTerT aseT stadias warmoadgens dacvis qveS myofis sasamarTlo mosmena advokatis gareSe, sadac, kanonis Tanaxmad, formaluri dacvac aucilebelia. Tu raime qmedeba ganxorcielda im debulebebis darRveviT, romelic aseT dacvas iTvaliswinebs, sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba ar SeiZleba emyarebodes dacvis qveS myofis dakiTxvis monacemebs (sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 227-e muxli). formaluri dacvis konstituciuri uflebiT sargebloba kvalificiuri advokatis mier dacvas gulisxmobs. es sakiTxi, ZiriTadad, kodeqsis VI Tavis pirveli nawiliT regulirdeba (zogadi debulebebi), romelic advokats Seexeba. formaluri dacva SesaZloa iyos rogorc arCeviTi, ise savaldebulo. savaldebulo formaluri dacva ab initio winaswari ganxilvis stadiidan mocemulia kodeqsis 70.1 muxlSi, romelic akonkretebs, Tu rodis unda daniSnuliyo advokati winaswari mosmenisas, miuxedavad imisa, rom sisxlis samarTalwarmoeba formalurad jer ar dawyebula. formaluri dacva savaldebuloa, Tu gansasjeli aris yru, munji an sxva mizezTa gamo ar SeuZlia Tavis efeqturad dacva, an, Tu sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis safuZvels warmoadgens iseTi danaSauli, romelic kanonis Tanaxmad, 20 wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTas iTvaliswinebs. amave muxlis me-3 da me-4 paragrafebi winaswari

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dakavebisas an mZime sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulis sasjelis moxdisas savaldebulo formalur dacvas iTvaliswinebs. arasrulwlovanis winaaRmdeg warmoebuli samarTalwarmoebisas formaluri dacvis sakiTxi regulirdeba kodeqsis 454-e muxlis specialuri debulebebiT. am debulebebis Tanaxmad, arasavaldebulo, arCeviTi formaluri dacva mosamzadebeli samarTalwarmoebis dasawyisidan aris SesaZlebeli. Tumca, formaluri dacva aucilebelia mosamzadebeli samuSaoebis dasawyisidan, Tu samarTalwarmoeba ukavSirdeba sisxlis samarTlis danaSauls, romelic sam welze meti xniT Tavisuflebis aRkveTas iTvaliswinebs, an sxva sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulisas, Tu mosamarTle CaTvlis, rom arasrulwlovani saWiroebs aseT dacvas. amrigad, arasrulwlovnebis saqmesTan dakavSirebiT savaldebulo dacvis ufleba ufro farTo xasiaTs iZens. cxadia, maTi gonebrivi da socialuri moumwifeblobis an ganuviTareblobis gamo arasrulwlovani SesaZloa saWiroebdes advokats im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu is janmrTelia da aris yru-munji. arsebobs advokatis warmomadgenlobis aucileblobis ganmsazRvreli sxva specialuri maxasiaTeblebic (arasrulwlovanis momwifebis done, ganaTlebis zogadi done da saqmis kompleqsuroba). swored amitom mosamarTlem SeiZleba daaskvnas, rom arasrulwlovanis winaaRmdeg warmoebul samarTalwarmoebis nebismier etapze aucilebelia advokatis CarTva. am konkretul SemTxvevaSi arasrulwlovan mosarCeles acnobes winaswari sasamarTlo mosmenisas arasavaldebulo formaluri dacvis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb, romelic arasrulwlovanTa sasamarTloSi mosarCelis mosamarTlesTan wardgenisas Sedga. es moxda mosamzadebeli samarTalwarmoebis dawyebamde. davis sagans ar warmoadgens is, rom mosarCelem advokatis dacvaze an winaswari ganxilvisas advokatis daswrebaze uari ganacxada. sadavoa, unda aRmoCenoda Tu ara arasrulwlovans winaswari ganxilvisas savaldebulo formaluri dacva, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom is dakiTxes da eWvmitanili iyo sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulis CadenaSi, romelic xuTi wlidan Tavisuflebis aRkveTas iTvaliswinebda (sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 127.1 muxli). ufro metic, aseT garemoebebSi mosamzadebeli samarTalwarmoebisas savaldebulo dacva gaTvaliswinebulia. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom arasrulwlovanTa sasamarTlos mosamarTles winaswari ganxilvisas arasrulwlovani mosarCelisaTvis unda daeniSna damcveli. gadawyvetilebis miRebisas, daeniSnaT Tu ara mosarCelisaTvis savaldebulo dacva sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 454 muxlis Tanaxmad,

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arasrulwlovanTa sasamarTlos mxedvelobaSi unda mieRo is gansakuTrebuli mdgomareoba, romelic arasrulwlovans ekava da unda moeTxova aucilebeli dacva ratio legis, radgan es konstituciur moTxovnebs efuZneba. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 454.2 muxliT arasrulwlovanisaTvis damcvelis daniSvna savaldebuloa mosamzadebeli samarTalwarmoebis dasawyisidan, es valdebuleba, agreTve, Seexeba sisxlis samarTlis yvelaze seriozuli danaSaulis _ mkvlelobis saqmesac. igulisxmeba, rom arasrulwlovani, misi asakisa da momwifebis gaTvaliswinebiT, ver SeZlebda sakuTari Tavis efeqturad dacvas. sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis 70.1 muxlis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu mosarCeles ar SeeZlo sakuTari Tavis dacva, mas winaswari ganxilvisas dacvis uflebiT unda esargebla. arasrulwlovanTa sasamarTlo valdebuli iyo, mocemul SemTxvevaSi daeniSna advokati winaswari ganxilvisas, miuxedavad imisa, rom mosamzadebeli samarTalwarmoeba formalurad jer ar dawyebula. kodeqsis Tanaxmad, sakuTari Tavis dacvis uunaroba warmoadgens savaldebulo dacvis daniSvnis erT-erT ZiriTad kriteriums, Tu dacvis qveS myofi, am konkretul SemTxvevaSi _ arasrulwlovani, ver isargeblebs dacvis uflebiT, misi dacvis ufleba sisxlis samarTalwarmoebisas, romelic kanoniTa da konstituciiTacaa garantirebuli, ubralod deklaraciul doneze darCeba. amrigad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom arasrulwlovanTa sasamarTlom daarRvia konstituciis 29.2 muxliT garantirebuli dacvis ufleba, radgan winaswari ganxilvisas mosarCeles ar dauniSna advokati. gamomdinare iqedan, rom konstituciis darRveviT gamowveuli Sedegebis aRmosafxvrelad aucilebeli iyo warmoebis Tavidan dawyeba, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gaauqma samive gadawyvetileba da saqme pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos xelaxali ganxilvisaTvis daubruna.

Sveicaria federaluri sasamarTlo 22-02-1994 konstituciis me-4 da adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis 6.3-e muxlebi iTvaliswinebs samarTlebrivi dacvis uzrunvelyofas, gansakuTrebiT ki dapirispirebisas. msjavrdebulis samarTlebrivi interesebis dacva oficialurad daniSnuli advokatis mierac ki saTanadod da efeqturad unda ganxorcieldes. xelisuflebis mxridan umoqmedoba, rac SeiZleba gamoixatos msjavrdebulis sazianod advokatis profesiuli valdebulebis seriozuli darRvevis

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SemwynareblobaSi, SeiZleba ganixilebodes, rogorc dacvis uflebebis darRveva. msjavrdebulma da misma advokatma dacvis uflebis pativsacemad drouli da saTanado qmedebebi unda ganaxorcielos. es principi gansakuTrebiT ganaxlebul dapirispirebebze vrceldeba. gadawyvetileba, romelic miRebulia xelisuflebis organos mier da win uZRvis aseTi dapirispirebis gameorebas, am SemTxvevaSi, ar arRvevs dacvis uflebas.

xorvatia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 10-10-2002 obieqturi garemoebebiT gamowveuli gaWianurebuli samarTalwarmoeba, romelsac sasamarTlos umoqmedoba ar udevs safuZvlad, ar arRvevs sasamarTlo ganaCenis misaReb vadaSi gamotanis konstituciis 29.1 muxliT garantirebul uflebas. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos 63-e muxlis konstituciuri aqtis Tanaxmad, mosarCelem 2002 wlis 17 aprils, imis gamo, rom sasamarTlom ganaCeni misaReb vadaSi ar gamoitana, O-s municipaluri sasamarTlos winaaRmdeg Seitana sarCeli. mosarCele moiTxovda municipaluri sasamarTlosTvis P-286/93 saqmesTan dakavSirebiT gadawyvetilebis misaRebad erTwliani vadis dawesebas da konstituciuri uflebis darRvevisaTvis saTanado kompensacias 100,000.00 HRK-s odenobiT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina samarTlebrivad Sesaferisi faqtebi konstituciis 29.1 muxliT garantirebuli uflebis darRvevasTan dakavSirebiT. dadginda, rom municipalur sasamarTloSi samarTalwarmoebis xangrZlivoba P-286/93 saqmesTan mimarTebiT rva wels Seadgenda, roca samarTlebrivad misaReb vadad 1997 wlis 5 noembridan (adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis ratifikaciis Sesaxeb kanonis amoqmedebidan) 2002 wlis 11 aprilamde (mosarCelis mier konstituciuri sarCelis wardgenis dRemde) moiazreboda periodi, rac erTobliobaSi oTx wels, xuT Tvesa da eqvs dRes Seadgenda. municipalurma sasamarTlom samarTalwarmoebasTan mimarTebiT ganaxorciela qmedebebi. ukanaskneli iyo 2001 wlis 10 dekembers saTanado organoebidan gakotrebasa da pensiebis Taobaze informaciis gamoTxovna, rac saqmisaTvis aucilebeli iyo. samarTalwarmoebis gaWianurebas obieqturi garemoebebi edo safuZvlad da ar SeiZleboda, is sasamarTlo umoqmedobas dabraleboda (saomari mdgomareobis gamo xorvatiis respublikasa

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da iugoslaviis federalur respublikaSi, sadac mosarCele cxovrobda, komunikacia ar arsebobda, ramac samarTalwarmoebis xuTi wliT Sewyveta gamoiwvia). sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganixila samarTalwarmoeba sxva msgavsi saqmeebis gaTvaliswinebiT da daadgina, rom mosarCelis konstituciis 29.1 muxliT garantirebuli drouli ganxilvis ufleba ar darRveula. Sesabamisad, man moTxovna ar daakmayofila.

xorvatia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 10-07-2002 sasamarTlos organizaciuli Tu sakadro problemebi ar SeiZleba warmoadgendes sasamarTlos mier samuSaos arasrulfasovnad Sesrulebis gamamarTlebel safuZvels, radganac adamianis uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa dacvis konvenciis xelSemkvreli mxareebi valdebulni arian, ise moawyon maTi samarTlebrivi sistema, rom sasamarTloebma SeZlon adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis 6.1 muxlis moTxovnebis Sesruleba. sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi sarCeli Sevida konstituciuri samarTlis 63-e muxlis safuZvelze misaReb vadaSi sasamarTlo ganaCenis gamoutanlobasTan dakavSirebiT, ramac konstituciis 26-e da 29.1-e muxlebis safuZvelze mosarCelis konstituciur uflebaTa darRveva gamoiwvia. mosarCele sakonstitucio sasamarTlosgan iTxovda eqvsTviani vadis dawesebas, romlis farglebSic kompetentur sasamarTlos unda mieRo gadawyvetileba da gamoetana konstituciuri uflebis darRvevisaTvis 40000 HRK-s odenobiT kompensaciis gacemis gadawyvetileba. konstituciur samarTalwarmoebasTan dakavSirebiT sasamarTlom Semdegi faqtebi daadgina: 1994 wlis 14 marts Setanil iqna sarCeli kompetentur municipalur sasamarTloSi sadazRvevo politikis Sesabamisad gadaxdis Taobaze. saqmesTan dakavSirebuli pirveli ganxilva 1995 wlis 15 marts Sedga da sasamarTlom dacvis qveS myofs gadawyvetilebiT daavala, warmoedgina im qonebis dazRvevis zogadi pirobebi, romelic aRniSnul ubedur SemTxvevamde ar iyo dazianebuli (1991 wlis 11 ivliss daiwva orsarTuliani saxli). imave gadawyvetilebiT, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom Semdgomi sasamarTlo ganxilva mxolod moTxovnili informaciis warmodgenis Semdeg gaimarTeboda. 1995 wlis 24 maiss, 1995 wlis 6 noembersa da 28 oqtombers mosarCelem sasamarTlodan werilobiTi formiT gamoiTxova informacia, Tu

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ramdenad Seasrula dacvis qveS myofma sasamarTlo gankarguleba da sasamarTlos ganxilvis daniSvna mosTxova. mosarCelem kompetentur sasamarTlos, agreTve, acnoba, rom sxva pirovnebis qonebis ganadgurebasTan dakavSirebiT arsebuli sisxlis samarTlis braldebis yvela monacemi inaxeboda Sinagan saqmeTa saministroSi, saxelmwifo municipaluri bralmdeblis ofissa da saolqo sasamarTlos sagamoZiebo centrSi. kompetenturi sasamarTlos TqmiT, naTeli iyo, rom mosarCelis gancxadeba safuZvliani iyo, miuxedavad imisa, rom sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom mosarCelem sarCelSi SemTxveviT dawera dazRveuli Senobis mTlianad dawvis faqti, roca realurad Senoba danaRmuli iyo. amrigad, sasamarTlom usafuZvlod gadaamowma kompetentur organoebSi xanZris gaCenis garemoebebi. sasamarTlom gaamarTla, sasamarTlo sxdoma rom dainiSna, radgan kompetenturi mosamarTle jer biuletenze iyo, Semdeg ki dekretSi, mogvianebiT ki kvlav biuleteni hqonda aRebuli. konstituciuri sarCelis ganxilvisas sasamarTlom gaiTvaliswina konstituciis 29.1 muxli, romelic inter alia miuTiTebs, rom yvelas aqvs damoukidebeli da miukerZoebeli sasamarTlos mier misaReb vadaSi mis uflebebsa da valdebulebebTan dakavSirebiT gadawyvetilebis miRebis ufleba. aseve, man gaiTvaliswina konstituciis 63-e muxli, romlis mixedviTac: `sakonstitucio sasamarTlom, sakonstitucio sarCelis safuZvelze, unda daiwyos warmoeba im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu samarTlebrivi davis meqanizmebi ar amowurula. aseve, maSinac, Tu sasamarTlo misaReb vadaSi ver miiRebs gadawyvetilebas mxaris uflebebisa da movaleobebis Sesaxeb~; gadawyvetilebaSi, romliTac is warmoebaSi miiRebs sakonstitucio sarCels saqmis misaReb vadaSi ganuxilvelobasTan dakavSirebiT, muxlis 1-li paragrafis Tanaxmad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom kompetentur sasamarTlos unda ganusazRvros aqtis miRebis bolo vada, rac gaxdeba safuZveli kompetenturi gadawyvetilebisas mosarCelis uflebebisa da valdebulebebis Sesaxeb. aqtis miRebis bolo vadis aTvla iwyeba sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis oficialur gazeTSi gamoqveynebidan meore dRes; am muxlis me-2 paragrafis Tanaxmad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gadawyvetilebiT unda gansazRvros mosarCelis kompensaciis sakiTxi, romelic mas sasamarTlos mier misi konstituciuri uflebis darRvevisaTvis ekuTvnis da rac gamowveuli iyo imiT, rom uflebebisa da valdebulebebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba misaReb vadaSi ar iqna gamotanili. kompensacia unda anazRaurdes sax-

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elmwifo biujetidan mas Semdeg, rac mxare misi gadaxdis Sesaxeb moTxovnas waradgens~. konstituciisa da konstituciuri samarTlis moyvanili debulebebi Seesabameba saerTaSoriso samarTlis principebs, kerZod ki, adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacvis konvenciasa da 1,4,6,7 oqmebs, romlebic ZalaSi 1997 wlis 5 noembridan Sevida da Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi samarTlebrivi sistemis nawili gaxda. amis Semdeg adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis 6.1 muxlis debuleba samarTliani sasamarTlos uflebaze xorvatiis respublikis Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi kanonmdeblobis nawilia, romelic inter alia adgens: samoqalaqo uflebaTa da movaleobaTa gansazRvrisas yvelas aqvs kanoniT Seqmnili damoukidebeli da miukerZoebeli sasamarTlos mier dadgenil vadaSi ganxorcielebuli samarTliani da sajaro mosmenis ufleba. misaReb vadaSi sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis miRebis ufleba, agreTve, garantirebulia konstituciis 29.1 muxlSi Sesuli cvlilebebiT, romelic 2000 wlis 9 noembers amoqmedda. amrigad, konstituciuri samarTlis 63-e muxlis Tanaxmad, rogorc wesi, 1997 wlis 5 noembramde samarTalwarmoebis xangrZlivobis ganxilva ar SeiZleba momxdariyo konstituciuri samarTalwarmoebiT, radgan am TariRamde xorvatiis kanonmdeblobaSi saerTod ar arsebobda konvenciiT Tu konstituciiT garantirebuli aseTi ufleba. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom samarTalwarmoebis xangrZlivobasTan dakavSirebiT, samarTlebrivad Sesaferisi dro iyo 1997 wlis 5 noembridan (konvenciis ratifikaciis Sesaxeb kanonis amoqmedebis TariRi) 2002 wlis 25 aprilamde (TariRi, roca mosarCelem sakonstitucio sarCeli Seitana), rac sul oTxi weli, oTxi Tve da oci dRe gamodioda. konstituciuri uflebis darRveva, romelic sasamarTlos mier gadawyvetilebis misaReb vadaSi gamotanas ukavSirdeba, unda ganixilebodes TiToeuli saqmis garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. sasamarTlom ganixila mosarCelis konstituciuri sarCelis safuZvlebi da municipaluri sasamarTlos gancxadebebi, ris Semdegac daadgina, rom mocemuli saqme konstituciuri samarTlis 63-e muxlis farglebSi eqceoda. pirvel instanciaSi samarTalwarmoebis msvlelobisas kompetenturi sasamarTloebi amJRavnebdnen srul umoqmedobas samoqalaqo saqmesTan dakavSirebiT. es saqme kompleqsurobiT ar gamoirCeoda, TviTon mosarCeles saqmis warmoebis gaWianurebaSi brali ar miuZRoda, piriqiT, man werilobiT mimarTa kompetentur sasamarTlos da saqmiswarmoebis daCqarebas cdilobda. kompetenturi sasamarTlos gancxadeba, romliTac mas surda, kompetenturi mosamarTlis avad-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

myofoba samarTalwarmoebis gaWianurebis obieqtur garemoebad warmoedgina, ar SeiZleba ganxiluliyo, rogorc adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precedentuli samarTlis Sesatyvisi da, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mosazrebiT, am konkretul saqmeSi kompetenturi sasamarTlos xangrZlivi droiT umoqmedobis mizezi. amrigad, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom konstituciis 29.1 muxliT uzrunvelyofili mosarCelis konstituciuri ufleba dairRva da man kompetentur sasamarTlos daudgina ganaCenis gamotanis eqvsTviani vada. ufro metic, saqmis yvela garemoebisa da xorvatiis ekonomikuri da socialuri mdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiT, sasamarTlom konstituciuri uflebis darRvevisaTvis 4500 HRK-s odenobis Tanxis gadaxda daawesa, romelic mosarCelis mier gadaxdis Sesaxeb moTxovnis wardgenidan sam TveSi saxelmwifo biujetidan unda dafaruliyo.

CexeTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 05-09-2000 sasamarTlo sxdomis gadatana mxolod mniSvnelovani mizeziT SeiZleba. aseT SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo adgens, Tu ramdenad seriozulia sxdomis gadatanis sababi. amasTan, gaTvaliswinebulia samarTalwarmoebaSi CarTul mxareTa uflebebi, romelic moiTxovs, rom saqmis gadawyveta mosarCelis an mis mier arCeuli advokatis TandaswrebiT moxdes. sasamarTlom unda gadados saapelacio mosmena, Tu is winaswar aris informirebuli, rom mosarCelis advokati ver daeswreba sxdomas, ver poulobs Semcvlels an roca TviTon mosarCeleebi ar arian mowveulni sasamarTloze. Tu apelaciaSi mxolod mopasuxis advokati miiRebda monawileobas, samarTalwarmoebisas mxareTa Tanasworobis principi dairRveoda. amasTan, Tu sasamarTlo daaskvnida, rom sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT aucilebeli iyo sasamarTlo mosmenis daniSvna, daculi unda yofiliyo mosarCeleTa konstituciiT garantirebuli uflebebi. mosarCeleebi Ciodnen, rom sasamarTlo procedurebiT ilaxeboda maTi samarTliani sasamarTlos ufleba. mosarCelis advokatma miiRo sasamarTlo uwyeba saapelacio sasamarTloSi ganxilvis daniSvnis Sesaxeb da gagzavna Txovna momavali wlis Tebervlamde janmrTelobis mdgomareobis gamo sxdomis gadatanis Sesaxeb. man daurTo asli, romelic adasturebda, rom gauaresebuli janmrTelobis gamo muSaobas ver SeZlebda. sasamarTlom ar gaiTvaliswina es moTxovna, radgan, misi azriT, moTxovnaSi

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samarTliani sasamarTlo

Camoyalibebuli mizezi pirovnuli damabrkolebeli safuZveli iyo da samarTalwarmoebas xels ar uSlida. kerZo samarTlis praqtikis Sesabamisad, misi Semcvleli unda moZebniliyo. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo darwmunda, rom samarTalwarmoeba daiwyo 1993 wels mosarCelis mier warmodgenili sarCelis safuZvelze da samarTalwarmoebisas Seferxebebs hqonda adgili. pirveli sxdoma 1997 wlis ianvarSi gaimarTa da ganaCeni 1998 wlis ivniss gamocxadda. mosarCeleebma saapelacio saCivari advokatis meSveobiT Seitanes da sasamarTlo 1998 wlis 24 noembers dainiSna. dava jer ar dasrulebula. janmrTelobis mdgomareobis gamo arc mosarCeleebis advokatebi da arc mosarCeleebi, romlebic arc ki miuwveviaT saapelacio sasamarTloSi, ganxilvaSi ar monawileobdnen. sasamarTlom miiRo rezolucia, romelic ar akmayofilebda advokatis moTxovnas ganxilvis gadadebis Taobaze, Tumca, gamocxadda, rom Semdgomi samarTalwarmoebisaTvis calkeuli proceduruli sakiTxebi ganmartebas saWiroebda da amrigad, mosarCeleebis advokatis sasamarTlosTan TanamSromloba aucilebeli iyo. saapelacio ganxilva Sedga. es warmoadgens xangrZliv da rTul sasamarTlo process, rogorc monawile mxareebis TvalsazrisiT, ise mtkicebulebaTa da samarTlebrivi sakiTxebis simravliT. samarTalwarmoebisas sasamarTlos mxridan iseT Seferxebebs hqonda adgili, rom aucilebeli gaxda sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Careva, ris safuZvelzec sasamarTloebma daiwyes moqmedeba. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, saapelacio sasamarTlos argumenti, romelic sasamarTlo ganxilvis gadatanaze uaris Tqmas gamarTlebulad miiCnevda, yovlad miuRebelia. samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsi aregulirebs sasamarTlo ganxilvis gadatanis SesaZleblobas. Tumca, sasamarTlom mxareTa uflebebi unda gaiTvaliswinos. advokatis moTxovna sxdomis gadatanasTan dakavSirebiT misi janmrTelobis mdgomareobiT gamarTlebuli iyo. Cven veTanxmebiT sasamarTlos mosazrebas, rom fexmZimoba samarTalwarmoebaSi monawileobis pirovnuli Semaferxebeli faqtoria, magram, am SemTxvevaSi, Semcvlelis povnasTan dakavSirebiT miuRebelia argumenti. 1993 wlidan warmoebuli sasamarTlo dava sakmaod rTuli iyo da saapelacio ganxilvaze sxva advokatis CarTva sakiTxs ver gadawyvetda. mosarCeleebis advokati sasamarTlo sxdomis gadadebas 1999 wlis Tebervlamde, anu sami TviT iTxovda, rac, warmoebuli davis saerTo xangrZlivobis gaTvaliswinebiT, arc Tu didi mniSvnelobis matarebeli iqneboda. sasamarTlos ufro didi xniT unda gadaewia saapelacio ganxilva, radganac maT winaswar icodnen mosarCeleebis advokatis aryofnis Sesaxeb. amasTan, TviTon mosarCeleebsac ar miuRiaT Setyobineba sasamarTlo ganxilvis

185

evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

daniSvnis Sesaxeb. amrigad, saapelacio ganxilvaze mxolod mopasuxis advokati iyo warmodgenili, riTac dairRva samarTalwarmoebisas mxareTa Tanasworobis principi.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 17-11-1999 konstituciis 2.1 muxliT garantirebuli TviTgamoxatvis (moqmedebis Tavisuflebis) ufleba ilaxeba, Tu samarTlebrivi davebi sasamarTloSi saTanado drois monakveTSi ar gadawyda. I. 1984 wlis agvistos mosarCelem zeda sarTulze mdebare binidan gamosuli xmauris gamo sasamarTloSi samoqalaqo sarCeli Seitana. Semdgom wlebSi hansetikis umaRlesma regionalurma sasamarTlom hamburgSi adgilobrivi da regionaluri sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebi orjer datova ucvlelad. man mosarCelis sarCeli ar miiRo. 1997 wlis 12 Tebervals am gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze mosarCelem saapelacio saCivari umaRles regionalur sasamarTloSi Seitana, romelic jer ar ganxilula. radgan saqmeSi aranairi progresi ar aRiniSneboda, mosarCelem apelaciiT federalur sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mimarTa. konstituciis 2.1 da 20.3 muxlebis gaTvaliswinebiT, is Cioda, rom dairRva misi moqmedebis Tavisuflebisa da kanonis uzenaesobis principebi. I I . pirveli senatis meore palatam warmoebaSi miiRo sakonstitucio sarCeli da ganacxada, rom umaRles regionalur sasamarTloSi samarTalwarmoebis xangrZlivoba, samarTalwarmoebis mTel xangrZlivobasTan mimarTebiT, konstituciis 2.1 muxlidan gamomdinare, kanonis uzenaesobis principTan mimarTebiT arRvevda mosarCelis uflebas. kanonis uzenaesobis principi moiTxovs sasamarTlo davebis misaRebi vadaSi gadawyvetas, rac am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, ar momxdara. 15 welze meti gavida mas Semdeg, rac mosarCelem samarTalwarmoebis dasawyebad gancxadeba Seitana. am xnis ganmavlobaSi mosarCele iZulebuli iyo, aetana xmauri, rac, misi TqmiT, yovlad gausaZlisi iyo. umaRlesi regionaluri sasamarTlo sami wlis ganmavlobaSi umoqmedod iyo. palatam samarTalwarmoebis mTeli xangrZlivobis gaTvaliswinebiT gadawyvita, rom drois es monakveTi yovlad gadametebuli iyo. umaRlesi regionalur sasamarTloSi Sesul saqmeTa raodenoba am faqts aranairad ar cvlis. efeqturi sasamarTlo sistema kanonis uzenaesobis principis moTxovnaa, rac sasamarTloebis TanamSromlebiT saTanado dakompleqtebasac niSnavs. amrigad, kompe-

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samarTliani sasamarTlo

tentur sasamarTlos, samarTalwarmoebis progresis xelSesawyobad dauyovnebliv unda ganexorcielebina saTanado RonisZiebebi da maT droul dasrulebaze ezruna.

irlandia uzenaesi sasamarTlo 19-02-1997 drouli ganxilvis ufleba unda Sefasdes TiToeuli konkretuli saqmis garemoebebidan gamomdinare. Tu braldebuls saxelmwifos mxridan samarTalwarmoebis aramarTlzomieri gaWianureba emuqreba, mas SeuZlia moiTxovos saqmis Sewyveta. aucilebelia, arsebobdes balansi braldebulis saqmis drouli ganxilvis uflebasa da sazogadoebis uflebas Soris. gamoZiebul unda iqnas sisxlis samarTlis danaSauli. am uflebaTa balansisas braldebulis samarTliani sasamarTlos ufleba ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre sazogadoebis ufleba. amrigad, gamokvleul unda iyos, arsebobs Tu ara realuri riski, rom samarTalwarmoebis gaWianurebis gamo braldebuli ver iqneba uzrunvelyofili samarTliani ganxilvis uflebiT. 1992 wlamde ar Sedga sisxlis samarTalwarmoeba im pirovnebaze, romelmac Tavis sam qaliSvilze seqsualuri Zaladoba ganaxorciela. aRniSnuli danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi 1963-idan 1973 wlamde monakveTSi iyo Cadenili. saxelmwifos mxridan samarTalwarmoebis Seferxebas adgili ar hqonda. saqmis gaWianurebis mizezi TviTon dazaralebulebi iyvnen, romelTac Sesabamis organoebs 1992 wlamde ar mimarTes. 1992 wlamde samarTalwarmoebis gaWianureba laxavda mis konstituciur uflebas samarTlian sasamarTloze. kerZod ki, mosarCele aRniSnavda, rom drois lafsusi mas mowmeebisa da mis saqmianobasTan dakavSirebuli dokumenturi masalebis moZiebaSi problemebs uqmnida. uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom daCqarebuli samarTalwarmoebisaTvis konstituciuri safuZveli ar arsebobda. konstitucia garkveviT ar ayalibebs am uflebas. konstituciis 38.1 muxlis Tanaxmad, pirovneba ar SeiZleba gasamarTldes sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulze, garda kanonmdeblobiT daSvebuli SemTxvevebisa. 40.3 muxli saxelmwifos uwesebs valdebulebebs, maT Soris, samarTliani sasamarTlo proceduris dacvis valdebulebas. saqmeebis gaWianureba, romlebic bavSvebze ganxorcielebul seqsualur Zaladobas exeba, gansakuTrebul kategorias miekuTvneba. uzenaesma sasamarTlom ganixila braldebulsa da dazaralebulebs Soris arsebuli urTierToba. dadginda, rom braldebuli akontrolebda mis msxverplT da ojaxSi dominantis roli ekava. amrigad,

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

1992 wlamde is yvelanairad uSlida xels, rom misi pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi ar damdgariyo. saqmis faqtebis ganxilvisas uzenaesma sasamarTlom gaiTvaliswina saxlSi ganxorcielebuli seqsualuri Zaladobis gansakuTrebuli xasiaTi da braldebulis, rogorc dominantis roli. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom braldebulma ver daamtkica samarTalwarmoebis gaWianurebiT misi samarTliani sasamarTlos uflebis darRveva. saqmis ganxilvis dagvianebiT sasamarTlo ufro garTulda, Tumca, procesi arakonstituciuri ar yofila.

italia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 13-10-1999 uflebaTa efeqturi dacva moiTxovs, rom samarTalwarmoebis procedura misaReb vadaSi ganxorcieldes. Tumca, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-6 muxli, romelic yvelasaTvis dadgenil vadaSi drouli mosmenis uflebas uzrunvelyofs, aris konvenciis debuleba, romelic italiaSi Cveulebrivi kanonis saxiT Sevida ZalaSi. amave dros, italiis sakanonmdeblo sistema icavs uflebas konstituciur doneze. pirovnebis uflebebisa da interesebis dasacavad samarTalwarmoebis dawyeba, romelic gonivrul vadaSi unda moxdes, garantirebulia konstituciis me-2 muxliT.

slovakeTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 14-07-1999 pirs aqvs saqmis misaReb vadaSi gadawyvetis ufleba im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu es administraciuli organos uflebamosilebaa. sasamarTlo xelisufleba ar aris erTaderTi organo, romelsac konstituciuri uflebis dacva evaleba. konstituciis 48.2 muxlis Tanaxmad, pirovneba Cioda saqmis gonivrul vadaSi gadawyvetis uflebis darRvevis Taobaze. saqmes administraciuli organo _ bratislavas saolqo sagadasaxado samsaxuri ganixilavda. saqmis ZiriTadi arsi mdgomareobda SemdegSi: ramdenad unda yofiliyo uzrunvelyofili saqmis misaReb vadaSi ganxilvis ufleba administraciuli _ aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis organoebis mier, Tu es mxolod sasamarTlo xelisuflebis organoebis prerogativaa. konstituciis meore Tavi (`ZiriTadi uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi~), nawili Svidi (`sasamarTlo da sxva samarTlebrivi

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samarTliani sasamarTlo

dacvis uflebebi~) exeba saqmis misaReb vadaSi gadawyvetis uflebas. meSvide nawilis saTauris gaTvaliswinebiT, sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom am muxliT uzrunvelyofili ufleba marto sasamarTlo xelisuflebaze ar vrceldeba. am uflebis miznebidan gamomdinare, zogierTi am uflebis ganxorcieleba administraciul organoebSicaa uzrunvelyofili. saqmis gonivrul vadaSi gadawyvetis uflebis mizans warmoadgens piris saxelmwifo organos mier mis samarTlebriv statusTan dakavSirebiT gaurkvevlobis gaqarwyleba. rodesac saxelmwifo organos aqvs ufleba, gaaTavisuflos pirovneba aseTi gaurkvevlobisagan, igi valdebulia, daicvas konstituciuri ufleba da saqme gonivrul vadaSi gadawyvitos, mniSvneloba ar aqvs gadawyvetilebis mimRebi organo sasamarTloa Tu aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis organo. saqmis misaReb vadaSi gadawyvetis uflebasTan dakavSirebiT sakonstitucio sasamarTlo adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precedentuli samarTlis Sesatyvis sam kriteriums iTvaliswinebs. es kriteriumebi, agreTve, administraciulma organoebmac unda gaiTvaliswinon. amis safuZvelze sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom saolqo sagadasaxado samsaxurma konstituciis 48.2 muxliT garantirebuli ufleba daarRvia.

slovakeTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 21-04-1999 saqmis gonivrul vadaSi gadawyvetis konstituciuri ufleba ilaxeba ara mxolod sasamarTlos pasiuri moqmedebiT, aramed sasamarTlos mier arasaTanadod Sesrulebuli saqmianobiTac. pirovnebam sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi Seitana sarCeli, romlis Tanaxmadac, konstituciis 48.2 muxliT garantirebuli ufleba irRveoda. mocemuli muxlis Tanaxmad, `yvela pirs aqvs ufleba, misi saqme ganixilon sajarod, usafuZvlo Seferxebis gareSe~. mosarCelis gancxadebiT, dunaska stredas saolqo sasamarTlom es ufleba daarRvia. 1996 wlis 2 ianvars mosarCelem sasamarTlos arasrulwlovanisaTvis mzrunvelis daniSvnis moTxovniT mimarTa. ganmcxadebeli arasrulwlovanis bebia iyo da saolqo sasamarTlos mis meurved daniSvnas sTxovda. sasamarTlos pirveli sxdoma 1996 wlis 28 Tebervals Sedga. 1998 wlamde kidev Svidi sxdoma Catarda, Tumca, saqme mainc ver gadawyda. bavSvis deda da maminacvali kanadis moqalaqeebi arian. drodadro isini slovakeTSi memkvidreobasa da qonebis restituciasTan dakavSirebuli saqmeebis mosagvareblad Camodian. dunaska stredas saolqo sasamarTlos ar ucdia, miemarTa kanadis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

mTavrobisaTvis, raTa maTTvis samarTlebrivi daxmareba aRmoeCinaT. sasamarTlom mxolod slovakeTis im adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organos mimarTa kiTxvebiT (magaliTad, mSoblebis misamarTi kanadaSi), Tu slovakeTSi yofnis dros sad Cerdeboda orive Camosuli. saolqo sasamarTlom maSin daniSna sxdoma, roca bavSvis deda da maminacvali kanadaSi imyofebodnen. saolqo sasamarTlom droze ar ganixila Suamdgomloba winaswari gadawyvetilebis miRebis Sesaxeb, romelic xels SeuSlida dedas, slovakeTi bavSvTan erTad daetovebina. saolqo sasamarTlom saqmesTan dakavSirebiT garkveuli RonisZiebebi ganaxorciela, Tumca, es RonisZiebebi iSviaTad ukavSirdeboda saqmis arsebiT gadawyvetas. swored es gaxda sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi sarCelis Setanis safuZveli. saqmis misaReb vadaSi ganxilvis uflebasTan dakavSirebiT gadawyvetilebis miRebisas sakonstitucio sasamarTlom adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precedentuli samarTlis Sesatyvisi sami kriteriumi gaiTvaliswina: saqmis sirTule, mosarCeleTa qceva da sasamarTlo xelisuflebis moqmedeba. am konkretuli SemTxvevisaTvis bolo kriteriumi yvelaze Sesatyvisi aRmoCnda. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daiwyo garkveva, Tu ra mizans emsaxureboda saqmis misaReb vadaSi gadawyvetis ufleba. mosarCelisaTvis am uflebis mizani aris, gaTavisufldes saqmesTan dakavSirebuli samarTlebrivi gaurkvevlobisagan. sanam aseTi gaurkvevloba iarsebebs, am uflebis mizani ar iqneba mogvarebuli. mniSvneloba ara aqvs, gaurkvevloba sasamarTlo xelisuflebis pasiurobiTaa gamowveuli Tu arasaTanado saqmianobis ganxorcielebiT. samarTlebrivad Seusabamo qmedebebis sasamarTlos winaSe an TviT sasamarTlos mier ganxorcieleba aranairad ar exmareba saqmis arsebiTi nawilis gadawyvetas. amrigad, Tu arasaTanado qmedebebi ganxorcielda saqmis arsebiTi nawilis gadasawyvetad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlo daadgens, rom saqmis misaReb vadaSi ganxilvis ufleba dairRva.

gamoxatvis Tavisufleba

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 10-10-1995 sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlom, romelmac unda miiRos gadawyvetileba imasTan dakavSirebiT, warmoadgenda Tu ara ciliswamebas konkretuli gamonaTqvami, unda gamoikvlios am

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gamoxatvis Tavisufleba

gamonaTqvamis yvela mniSvneloba. gamonaTqvami, rom yvela jariskaci mkvlelia, ar gulisxmobs maincdamainc federaluri SeiaraRebuli Zalebis wevrebisadmi ciliswamebas da maTi pativisa da Rirsebis Selaxvas. federalur sakonstitucio sasamarTlos unda daedgina, ramdenad konstituciuria sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlos mier gamotanili 4 gadawyvetileba. aRniSnuli gadawyvetilebebis safuZvelze pirebi msjavrdebulni iqnen ciliswamebisaTvis, radganac maT jariskacebs sajarod uwodes mkvlelebi. dadgenili precedentuli samarTlis Sesabamisad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom konstituciis 5.2 muxlis Tanaxmad, gamoxatvis Tavisufleba SezRudulia kanonebiT, romlebic icaven piris pativsa da Rirsebas. xsenebuli kanonebi imgvarad unda iyos Sedgenili, rom gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis fundamentur mniSvnelobas jerovani adgili eTmobodes. zogadad mimdinare normebis agebuleba da gamoyeneba Sedis saerTo sasamarTloebis kompetenciaSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos SeuZlia gadasinjos, sakmarisad iReben Tu ara es sasamarTloebi mxedvelobaSi fundamenturi uflebebis mniSvnelobas. gamonaTqvami, romlis erTaderT mizansac warmoadgens sxva piris ciliswameba, dakvalificirebul unda iqnes, rogorc Tavdasxma adamianis Rirsebaze maSin, rodesac zogadi interesebis momcvel sazogadoebriv sakiTxebze saubari sargeblobs gamoxatvis TavisuflebiT. sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlom unda gamoiZios, gansaxilveli gamonaTqvami eqskluziurad iqneba gagebuli rogorc ciliswameba, Tu mas SeiZleba mieces sxva ganmarteba. am ukanasknel saqmeSi ar SeiZleba gamotanil iqnes mjavrdeba ciliswamebisaTvis. fundamenturi ufleba ar iqneba darRveuli, Tuki sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlo koleqtiuri jgufis Seuracxyofas daakvalificirebs, rogorc jgufis wevrebis mimarT ciliswamebas. Tumca, rac ufro didia aseTi jgufi, miT ufro naklebad exeba mis wevrebs jgufisadmi mimarTuli Seuracxyofa. `msoflioSi yvela jariskacis~ mimarT ganxorcielebuli Seuracxyofis dakvalificireba ciliswamebad daarRvevs gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas. Tumca, konstituciurad SesaZlebelia dadasturdes, rom federaluri SeiaraRebuli Zalebis Seuracxyofa gulisxmobs misi wevrebis ciliswamebas. konstituciurad dasaSvebia armiis wevris, rogorc mkvlelis, moxseniebis kvalificireba ciliswamebad. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gansaxilvel 4 saqmeSi sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTloebma jerovnad ar gamoiZies, gamonaTqvami `yvela jariskaci mkvlelia~ namdvilad niSnavda Tu ara federaluri SeiaraRebuli Zalebis warmomadgenlebs. amitomac sakonstitucio sasamarTlom saqmeebi gadaagzavna ukan, saerTo

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

sasamarTloebSi. gadawyvetileba miRebul iqna 5 xmiT 3-is winaaRmdeg. gamoiTqva mosazreba, rom sakonstitucio sasamarTlos iurisdiqciaSi ar Sedis saerTo sasamarTloebis mier faqtebis Sefasebis gadasinjva, sxvagvarad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos eqneboda umaRlesi saapelacio sasamarTlos funqcia.

Sveicaria federaluri sasamarTlo 05-12-2000 martin stoli ciurixis federaluri xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg gazeTma "Sonntagszeitung" 1997 wlis 26 ianvars gamoaqveyna martin stolis statia saTauriT `elCi jagmeti Seuracxyofas ayenebs ebraelebs~. Jurnalisti miuTiTebda konfidencialur moxsenebaze, romelic aSS-Si Sveicariis elCma warudgina Sveicariis federalur sabWos (mTavrobas) im ganxilvis ganmavlobaSi, romelic exeboda ebraul gadauxdel TanxebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxis ganxilvas. sagareo saqmeTa departamentis saCivris safuZvelze Jurnalisti braleulad iqna miCneuli sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 293-e muxlis darRvevaSi da dajarimda 800 frankiT. xsenebuli debulebis Tanaxmad, dasjad danaSaulad iTvleba saTanado nebarTvis gareSe sajarod gacxadeba im dokumentebisa, romlebic saidumloa kanonis an im gadawyvetilebis Sesabamisad, romelic gamotanilia sajaro xelisuflebis organos mier maTi kompetenciis farglebSi. ciurixis kantonis sasamarTlom daadastura pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba. sakasacio saCivarSi, romelic warmodgenil iqna federalur sasamarTloSi, stoli moiTxovda misi mjavrdebis gauqmebas. igi emyareboda presis Tavisuflebasa da mis funqciebs demokratiul sazogadoebaSi. federalurma sasamarTlom uaryo sakasacio saCivari. oficialuri Canawerebis gamoqveyneba dasjadia sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 293-e muxlis Sesabamisad, rodesac xsenebuli Canawerebi saidumloa kanonis Sesabamisad an oficialuri gadawyvetilebis Tanaxmad. saidumloebis arsi unda ganimartos misi formaluri mniSvnelobiT. elCis moxseneba gankuTvnili iyo mxolod federaluri sabWosaTvis. materialuri ganmartebac rom yofiliyo gamoyenebuli saidumloebis koncefciasTan dakavSirebiT, misi gaxmaureba dasjadi iqneboda saqmis garemoebebidan gamomdinare. saubaria delikaturi sakiTxis ganxilvaze, romelzec im droisaTvis didi polemika iyo wamoWrili. ganmcxadebeli xazs usvamda mediis

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gamoxatvis Tavisufleba

gansakuTrebul funqcias demokratiul sazogadoebaSi da im faqts, rom gansakuTrebiT sazogadoebas ainteresebda Sveicariis elCis moxsenebis Sinaarsi. miuxedavad amisa, federalur sasamarTlosa da xelisuflebis organoebs moeTxovebaT federaluri da saerTaSoriso kanonmdeblobis ganxorcieleba. sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis gamouyenebloba mxolod im motiviT, rom sazogadoebas gaaCnia im informaciis miRebis interesi, romelic saidumlodaa gamocxadebuli xelisuflebis organoebis mier, winaaRmdegobaSi movidoda konstituciisa da konvenciis interpretaciasTan. amgvarad, presis Tavisuflebas ar SeuZlia gaamarTlos qmedeba, romelic warmoadgens sisxlis samarTlebriv danaSauls. konvenciis me-10 muxlis me-2 nawili ar gamoricxavs zogad terminebSi Jurnalistis dapatimrebas sisxlissamarTlebrivi kanonis debulebis darRvevisaTvis, Tundac im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac Jurnalistis qmedeba ganpirobebulia sazogadoebrivi interesebiT me-10 muxlis me-2 nawilis mniSvnelobiT. Jurnalistis ufleba, ar gaamJRavnos Tavisi sainformacio wyaroebi, romelic gamomdinareobs presis Tavisuflebidan da Camoyalibebulia sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 27-e muxlSi, ar warmoadgens dabrkolebas sisxlis samarTlis kanonis debulebebis ganxorcielebasa da JurnalistisaTvis jarimis dakisrebisTvis.

avstria sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 08-10-1996 samauwyeblo normebTan dakavSirebuli debulebebi (romelic iTvleba federalur kanonad), romlebic kerZo sakabelo televiziebs ukrZalavs, awarmoos komerciuli sareklamo mauwyebloba, ar Seesabameba gamoxatvis da anazRaurebisaTvis muSaobis Tavisuflebebs. rodesac sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba am kanonis debulebebis gauqmebasTan dakavSirebiT ZalaSi Sevida, xsenebuli debulebebi arakonstituciurad gamocxadda. sakabelo televiziis ramdenime kompaniam warmoadgina saCivari. isini asaCivrebdnen mauwyeblobasTan dakavSirebul normebs, romlebic krZalavda sareklamo mauwyeblobas, rac, ganmcxadebelTa azriT, arRvevda anazRaurebisaTvis muSaobis da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas. winamdebare teqsti momdinareobs gadawyvetilebidan, romelSic sasamarTlo apirebda, misi gadawyvetileba kanonmdeblis survilebis Sesabamisi yofiliyo da Tavidan aecilebina debulebebis gauqmeba, romelic Zireulad Secvlida kanonis mniSvnelobas

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

(aRniSnuli gamoiwvevda sakabelo televiziaze SeuzRudav sareklamo mauwyeblobas). sasamarTlom daadgina vada, raTa kanonmdeblisaTvis mieca saSualeba, mieRo iseTi kanonmdebloba, romelic Seesabameboda adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precedentul samarTals, evropuli konvenciis me-10 muxlsa da Tanamegobrobis kanonmdeblobas. kanonmdebelma ar gamoiyena es Sansi da Tavi Seikava axali kanonmdeblobis SemuSavebisagan, romelic SesabamisobaSi iqneboda konstituciasTan. sareklamo mauwyeblobis absoluturi akrZalva, romelic ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos Sesabamis gardamaval debulebad, warmoadgens ganmcxadeblebis mier miTiTebuli konstituciuri uflebebis darRvevas. gansaxilveli debuleba aRar iyo gamarTlebuli vadis gasvlis Semdeg, romelic dadgenili iyo 27/05/1995 gadawyvetilebiT gauqmebis Sesaxeb.

belgia saarbitraJo sasamarTlo 30-09-1999 sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis dacvis interesebidan gamomdinare, federaluri kanonmdeblebi uflebamosilni arian, Tambaqos produqtebis reklamaze daaweson zogadi akrZalva. amiT isini ar arRveven Tanamegobrobis wevrebis uflebamosilebas radio da satelevizio mauwyeblobasTan, sazogadoebriv janmrTelobasTan, sportsa da turizmTan an ekonomiur da dasaqmebis sferoSi regionebis uflebamosilebebTan dakavSirebiT. sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis dasacavad, ar aris diskriminaciuli Tambaqos produqtebis mier sponsorobisaTvis an iseTi samarko produqtebis reklamis akrZalva, romlebic asocirdeba Tambaqos produqtTan (e.w. diversifikaciis procesi). garda amisa, gamarTlebulia iseTi gamonaklisebis nebarTva, romlebic krZalavs Tambaqos produqtebis sareklamo saqmianobas Tambaqosa da gazeTebis maRaziebSi, ucxour gazeTebsa da JurnalebSi, magram es gamonaklisi unda gamoiyenebodes, aseve, diversificirebul produqtebTan mimarTebiTac. Tumca, gansxvaveba unda gakeTdes rogorc msoflio doneze organizebul, ise sxva movlenebsa da qmedebebs Soris. Tambaqos produqtebis reklamis akrZalva ar ewinaaRmdegeba gamoxatvis Tavisuflebasa da sakuTrebis uflebas, rogorc es garantirebulia konstituciuri da saerTaSoriso samarTliT an evrokavSiris sxva xelSekrulebebiT saqonlisa da momsaxurebis Tavisuflad moZraobasTan dakavSirebiT.

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saavtomobilo sportsa Tu Tambaqos produqtebis reklamaSi aqtiurad moRvawe ramdenime kompaniam da asociaciam, aseve, valunis regionis mTavrobam ganacxadi warmoadgines 1997 wlis 10 dekembris federaluri kanonis sawinaaRmdegod, romelic belgiaSi Tambaqos produqtebis reklamas krZalavda. sasamarTlom ganixila da daadgina, rom federaluri kanonmdebeli ar arRvevs belgiis sxvadasxva gaerTianebis uflebamosilebebs belgiis federaluri kanonmdeblobis SigniT. aRniSnuli ar arRvevs uflebamosilebebs: radio da satelevizio mauwyeblobis sferoSi, janmrTelobasTan dakavSirebul, ganaTlebis, prevenciuli medicinis, sportis, turizmis sferosa Tu regionebis mier ekonomiur da dasaqmebis sferoebSi. sxvadasxva gaerTianebebis mier ganxorcielebuli uflebamosilebebi SeuZleblad an rTulad ar iyo warmodgenili kanoniT. amis Semdeg sasamarTlos unda gadaewyvita, iyvnen Tu ara diskriminirebulni garkveuli kategoriis pirebi. radgan Tambaqos produqtebis reklamasTan dakavSirebuli akrZalva xels uwyobs kanonmdeblis mizans, daicvas sazogadoebis janmrTeloba, sasamarTlom dauSva aseTi akrZalvis dawesebis saWiroeba Tambaqosa da masTan asocirebul samarko produqtebze. kanonmdebelma, aseve, dasaSvebad miiCnia gamonaklisebi Tambaqos maRaziebsa da ucxour JurnalebSi. gamonaklisebi ar iyo daSvebuli diversificirebul produqtebze, amitom sasamarTlom es faqti diskriminaciulad miiCnia da am nawilSi kanonis moqmedeba gaauqma. sasamarTlom CaTvala, rom diskriminacia exeboda im movlenebsa da qmedebebs, romlebic msoflio doneze imarTeboda (ufro konkretulad, formula 1 trasaze frankor-Cempionatebi). ganmcxadeblebi amtkicebdnen, rom evrokavSiris wevri saxelmwifoebi uflebamosilni iyvnen, gansxvaveba moexdinaT akrZalvaSi Tambaqos produqtebis sponsorobasTan mimarTebiT 2001 wlis 20 ivlisidan 2 wlis ganmavlobaSi. sasamarTlom aRiara, rom akrZalvis debulebebis efeqturoba mniSvnelovnad aris Semcirebuli, rodesac igive saxis qmedebebi xorcieldeba sazRvargareT da maTi naxva SesaZlebelia satelevizio gadacemaSi farTo audienciis mier. sasamarTlos mosazrebidan gamomdinare, am etapze RonisZieba ar Seesabameba im miznebs, romlis miRwevasac igi emsaxureba. sasamarTlom gaauqma muxli, romelic kanonis ZalaSi Sesvlis dRed 1999 wlis 1 ianvars awesebda. sasamarTlom uaryo sxva argumentebi, romlebic Tanasworobis, konstituciiTa da gamoxatvis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli xelSekrulebebiT gansazRvruli sxva principebis darRvevas amtkicebda.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

bulgareTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 04-06-1996 azris da gamoxatvis Tavisufleba da informaciis gavrcelebisa da mopovebis ufleba adamianis fundamenturi uflebebia. maTi SezRudva marTlmsajulebis uflebamosilebaSi Sedis da unda Seesabamebodes konstitucias. bulgareTis prezidentma bulgareTis konstituciis 39-e, me-40 da 41-e muxlebis debulebebis samarTlebrivad savaldebulo ganmarteba moiTxova. konstituciis sami debuleba moicavs erTsa da imave xasiaTis uflebebs: azris gamoxatvisa da gamoqveynebis Tavisuflebas, informaciis moZiebis, mopovebisa da gavrcelebis uflebas, am uflebebTan dakavSirebuli SezRudvebis gansazRvrebas, rogorc es konstituciaSia aRniSnuli. konstituciis zemoxsenebuli muxlebis Tanaxmad, azris gamoxatvisa da publikaciis Tavisufleba, informaciis moZiebis, mopovebisa da gavrcelebis uflebebi fundamenturi uflebebi unda iyos. es debulebebi icavs gamoxatvis Tavisuflebasa da piris Rirsebasa da patiosnebas, rogorc socialuri sazogadoebis Tanabar komponentebs. isini uzrunvelyofen, rom yvelam icodes realoba da sazogadoeba informirebuli iyos cxovrebis pirobebisa da ganviTarebis Sesaxeb. uflebis xsenebuli funqciebi gansazRvravs maT, rogorc pirovnebisa da sazogadoebis ganviTarebisaTvis umniSvnelovanes faqtorebs. isini amyareben demokratiul process da im organoebis institucionalizacias, romlebic konstituciis Tanaxmad, axorcieleben kontrols. konstituciaSi am uflebebis warmoCena da maTi srulad ganxorcieleba dakavSirebulia adamianis sxva fundamentur uflebebTan, rogoricaa piris Rirseba, azrovnebis Tavisufleba da sindisisa da politikuri pluralizmis Tavisufleba. zemoxsenebuli sami debuleba icavs azris gamoxatvisa, publicirebisa da informaciis mopovebisa da gavrcelebis uflebebis sxvadasxva aspeqts. es sami debuleba erTmaneTTan sistemurad da funqciurad aris dakavSirebuli. azris Tavisuflad gamoxatvis fundamenturi uflebasTan erTad konstitucia aseve gansazRvravs princips, romlis Tanaxmadac, presa da masmedia Tavisufali unda iyos. cenzura kategoriulad akrZalulia. nebismieri fizikuri Tu iuridiuli piris ufleba, moiZios, moipovos da gaavrcelos informacia, damokidebulia rogorc piris interesebze, aseve, sazogadoebis uflebaze, miiRos informacia. xsenebuli moicavs presasa da nebismieri sxva saxis medias. meore mxriv, konstitucia uzrunvelyofs, rom moqalaqeebs xeli miuwvdebodeT saxelmwifo organoebis-

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gamoxatvis Tavisufleba

agan nebismier sakiTxTan dakavSirebul informaciaze, romlis mimarT maT kanonieri interesi gaaCniaT. konstituciis zemoxsenebul muxlebSi CamoTvlili uflebebi mTavrobas avaldebulebs, Tavi Seikavos Carevisagan, rodesac xsenebuli uflebebi xorcieldeba. uflebebze SezRudva nebadarTulia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki konstituciaSi Camoyalibebuli sxva uflebebi da interesebi konstituciurad aris daculi. aRniSnuli ar SeiZleba SeizRudos kanoniT garda im safuZvlisa, romlebic konstituciaSia mocemuli. aRmasrulebelma da sasamarTlo xelisuflebam mxedvelobaSi unda miiRon gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis maRali sazogadoebrivi mniSvneloba, mediis Tavisufleba, romelic moiTxovs, rom SezRudvebi gamoyenebul iqnes mxolod konkretuli interesebis dacvis mizniT. aseT safuZvlebs Soris, yvelaze mniSvnelovania sxva piris uflebaTa da reputaciis dacvis interesi, radganac piris patiosneba, Rirseba da reputaciaa daculi. xsenebuli konstituciuri SezRudva ar unda ganimartos ise, rom sazogadoebrivi kritika, gansakuTrebiT politikosebis mimarT, sajaro moxeleebisa da samTavrobo dawesebulebebis mimarT iyos daculi. iseT ganacxadTa SezRudva, romlebic aRvivebs SuRls, emyareba konstituciiT gansazRvrul Rirebulebebs: Sewynarebas, urTierTpativiscemasa da SuRlis gaRvivebis akrZalvas rasistul, erovnul, eTnikur da religiur niadagze. SezRudva ar ukrZalavs dacvas, gaaCndes sawinaaRmdego mosazrebebi. uflebis xasiaTi, romelic gulisxmobs mosazrebaTa gamoxatvisa da gamoqveynebis Tavisuflebas, emyareba im Rirebulebas, romelic gansxvavebul SexedulebaTa urTierTmimarTebas axlavs Tan. gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis uflebasTan erTad, konstitucia aRiarebs presisa da mediis Tavisuflebas da krZalavs cenzuras. cenzuris kategoriuli akrZalva gamoxatavs princips, romelic uaryofs mediis qmedebebSi samTavrobo dawesebulebebis mier formaluri Tu araformaluri gziT nebismier Carevas. samarTlebrivi da teqnikuri mizezebis gamo dasaSvebad miiCneva eleqtronuli mediis organizaciuli, struqturuli da finansuri sakiTxebis kanoniT regulireba. konstituciis gardamavali da daskvniTi debulebebi naTlad da calsaxad uzrunvelyofs aseTi kanonmdeblobis damtkicebas erovnul radiosa da televiziaSi. aseTi kanonmdebloba unda uzrunvelyofdes mediis damoukideblobas organizaciuli, struqturuli, dakompleqtebis, programuli da finansuri TvalsazrisiT. erovnuli eleqtronuli mediis dacva moiTxovs mmarTvelobiTi an zedamxedveli organoebis Seqmnas im gziT, romliTac aRkveTs mTavrobis organoebis mier Carevis mcdelobebs. mTavrobis mier aseTi Careva miCneuli iqneba cenzurad. sazogadoebis ufleba, moipovos sruli, pluralis-

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turi, dabalansebuli da naTeli informacia, warmoCindeba mmarTvelobiTi menejmentis damoukideblobaSi, sagamomcemlo damoukideblobasa da pasuxismgeblobaSi programebis SinaarsTan mimarTebiT, Statebis dakompleqtebasa da dafinansebis meqanizmebSi. pirisa da sazogadoebis ufleba, moipovos sruli, pluralisturi, dabalansebuli da naTeli informacia gansazRvravs parlamentis sakanonmdeblo kompetenciis farglebs da unda ganxorcieldes konstituciiT dadgenil farglebSi Tavisi funqciebis Sesasruleblad. parlamentis sakanonmdeblo kompetenciaSi Sedis aseve kanonebis miReba, raTa dadgindes procedura arasamTavrobo eleqtronuli mediis licenzirebasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic, Tavis mxriv, unda Seesabamebodes konstituciis 40.1 muxlsa da konstituciiT dadgenili SezRudvebis gamoyenebas. igi amave dros unda uzrunvelyofdes procedurebis gamWvirvalobasa da samarTlianobas. RonisZiebebi, romlebic xvdeba marTlmsajulebis kompetenciasa da konstituciiT gansazRvruli pirobebis farglebSi, warmoadgens mediaSi Carevis erTaderT saSualebas. pirvel rigSi es is motivebia, romlebic etiketis dacvasTan aris asocirebuli da aRiqmeba, rogorc sazogadoebrivi zrdilobis kriteriumi, romlis daniSnulebac sazogadoebis dacvaa. sazogadoebis moraluri xelSeuxeblobis dacva saxelmZRvanelo princips warmoadgens. informaciis moZiebisa da mopovebis ufleba moicavs mTavrobis valdebulebas, uzrunvelyos, rom sazogadoebis mier informaciaze xelmisawvdomoba Zalian mniSvnelovania. am valdebulebis Sinaarsi kanonmdeblis mier mis gansazRvrebas eqvemdebareba. mTavroba valdebulia, gasces oficialuri informacia da uzrunvelyos informaciis wyaroebze xelmisawvdomoba. kanonmdebelma unda daasaxelos samTavrobo dawesebulebebi, romlebsac SeuZliaT hqondeT Tavisufali saeTero dro erovnul televiziasa da radioSi da aRniSnos, Tu rodis da ra odenobis dro aqvT maT gamoyofili maTi prerogativebisa da xelisuflebis danawilebis, mediis Tavisuflebisa da informaciis mopovebisa da gavrcelebis gaTvaliswinebiT. es ufleba gaaCnia yvelas, maT Soris, mediasac. uflebis SezRudva moiTxovs, rom kanonmdeblobam gansazRvros erovnuli usafrTxoebis an sazogadoebrivi marTlwesrigis Sesabamisi garemoebebi. SezRudva gamarTlebuli unda iyos im mizniT, Tu informaciis gacema samTavrobo dawesebulebis an samsaxuris mier iqneba uaryofili. aRniSnuli normebiT dadgenili ufleba pirovnulia da dakavSirebulia moqalaqeTa kanonier interesebTan. igi SeiZleba SeizRudos, Tu aseTi informacia warmoadgens saxelmwifo an sxva saxis saidumloebas, romlis dafarvac (gaumJRavnebloba) kanoniT aris daculi.

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xorvatia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 10-05-2000 arakonstituciurad iqna miCneuli sajaro moxelis Cveulebrivi moqalaqeebisagan gansxvavebuli samarTlebrivi dacva sisxlis samarTlis saqmeebSi, romlebic dakavSirebulia dazaralebuli mxaris pirTan da pirovnebis reputaciisa da pativis winaaRmdeg mimarTul sisxlissamarTlebriv qmedebebTan. sasamarTlom gaauqma sisxlis samarTlis kanonis debulebebi, romelTa Tanaxmad, Tuki sisxlissamarTlebrivi qmedebebi Rirsebisa da reputaciis winaaRmdeg Cadenili iqneboda konkretuli saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis pirebis, kerZod, respublikis prezidentis, parlamentis Tavmjdomaris, premier ministris, sakonstitucio sasamarTlosa da uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomareebis winaaRmdeg maT samsaxurebriv saqmianobasTan an TanamdebobasTan dakavSirebiT, sisxlis samarTalwarmoeba ex officio aRiZvreba prokuroris mier mxolod mas Semdeg, rac zemoxsenebuli Tanamdebobis pirebi werilobiT Tanxmobas ganacxadeben samarTalwarmoebis dawyebasTan dakavSirebiT (Tanxmoba SesaZloa ukan iqnes gaTxovnili, sanam sasamarTlo gamoitans saboloo gadawyvetilebas). imis gamo, rom kerZo pirebs unda daecvaT TavianTi Rirseba da reputacia kerZo samarTalwarmoebis meSveobiT, sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom aseT saqmeebSi gansxvaveba moqalaqeebs Soris ar aris gamarTlebuli piris Tanamdebobisa Tu samsaxuridan gamomdinare. yvela moqalaqem unda ganaxorcielos Tavisi konstituciuri ufleba, raTa pativi scen maT reputaciasa da Rirsebas Tanabrad da proceduris Sesabamisad. sadavo debulebebi gauqmda konstituciis me-14, me-16 35-e da 38-e muxlebTan Seusabamobis gamo.

xorvatia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 10-07-1996 miuxedavad imisa, rom, pirovnebis pativisa da reputaciis winaaRmdeg ukanono qmedebebTan dakavSirebiT (romelTa Sorisac aris ciliswameba) samarTalwarmoeba aRiZvreba kerZo saCivris safuZvelze, ar irRveva konstituciurad garantirebuli Tanasworobis principi, Tuki sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi awesebs specialur proceduras sisxlis samarTalwarmoebasTan dakavSirebiT ciliswamebis saqmeebSi, romlebic ex officio aRiZvreba generaluri

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

prokuroris mier, raTa dacul iqnes im piris samsaxuri an Tanamdeboba, romelic konkretul movaleobebs asrulebs. xorvatiis sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, Tu ciliswameba ganxorcielebulia xorvatiis respublikis, sakonstitucio da uzenaesi sasamarTloebis Tavmjdomareebis, prezidentis winaaRmdeg maT saqmianobasTan an TanamdebobasTan dakavSirebiT, sisxlis samarTalwarmoeba aRiZvreba generaluri prokuroris mier xsenebuli pirebisagan werilobiTi Tanxmobis miRebis SemTxvevaSi. Tanxmoba SesaZloa gaTxovil iqnes ukan nebismier dros, sanam ganaCeni Seva ZalaSi. xorvatiis JurnalistTa asociaciam winadadeba wamoayena aRniSnul debulebaTa konstituciurobis Sesamowmeblad. maTi azriT, moqalaqeebs Soris arsebobda sxvaoba socialuri statusis mixedviT, rac zRudavda azris gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas da midioda TviTcenzuramde. sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila sarCeli. sasamarTlos azriT, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi icavda yvela moqalaqes Tanabar sawyisebze ciliswamebisa da Seuracxyofisagan. samarTlebrivi dacva erTnairad xorcieldeba debulebaSi CamoTvlili pirebis Tanamdebobis miuxedavad.

CexeTis respublika sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 08-02-2000 gamoxatvis Tavisufleba da azris gamoxatvis ufleba SezRudulia sxvebis uflebebiT. aRniSnuli SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldes respublikis konstituciuri brZanebiT an kanonis saxiT, romelSic sazogadoebrivi interesebi an Rirebulebebia ganmtkicebuli. damatebiT unda aRiniSnos, rom azris gamoxatvis Tavisuflebam SesaZloa dakargos konstituciuri dacva rogorc formalur, aseve, konceptualur safuZvlebze. nebismieri forma, romliTac azri aris gamoxatuli, mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli konstituciurad garantirebul uflebasTan. Tuki gamoqveynebuli mosazrebebi demokratiul sazogadoebaSi Sesaferisad miCneul wesebs gascdeba, dakargavs jerovani gansjisa da Sefasebis xasiaTs da konstituciuri dacvis farglebs gareT moxvdeba. garda amisa, gamoxatvis Tavisufleba Tanabar donezea piradi Rirsebis, patiosnebisa da kargi reputaciis uflebasTan da swored saerTo sasamarTloebis kompetenciaSi Sedis arsebuli garemoebebis safuZvelze imis gadamowmeba, romelime ufleba prevalirebs meoreze Tu ara. aucilebelia perioduli presis pativiscema, romlis umTavres

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daniSnulebas sazogadoebisaTvis yoveldRiuri informaciis miwodeba warmoadgens. faqtis nebismierma damaxinjebam ar unda migviyvanos piris uflebebis darRvevamde. yvelaze mniSvnelovania, rom konkretuli informacia sruliad Seesabamebodes simarTles. rogorc adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precedentuli samarTali migvaniSnebs, gadaWarbebuli kritika politikosebTan ufroa daSvebuli, misi statusisa sajaro moxeleobidan gamomdinare, vidre kerZo pirebTan. aucilebelia, Zalian frTxilad ganvasxvaoT faqtebi da piradi Sefasebebi. faqtebi SesaZloa dadasturdes maSin, rodesac am faqtebis Sefaseba ar eqvemdebareba mtkicebas. SefasebiT msjelobebTan dakavSirebiT, is moTxovna, rom warmodgenil iqnes maTi damamtkicebeli argumentacia, arasamarTliania da arRvevs azris Tavisuflebis moTxovnas. momCivnebma gamoaqveynes statia, romelic akritikebda yofil artistsa da politikoss 1977 wels maT winaaRmdeg Tanxebis aramiznobrivi gamoyenebis gamo aRZrul gamoZiebasTan dakavSirebiT. gamoZieba Sewyda. statiaSi moyvanili iyo politikosis yofili kolegebis gancxadebebi, romlis mixedviT, mas axlo kavSiri hqonda komunisturi partiis saolqo liderebTan da miuTiTebdnen im faqtze, rom prokurorebis gaTavisufleba im periodSi `arasaxarbielo da Seusabamo iyo~. is ki yofil reJimTan TanamSromlobda. politikosma aRZra sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoeba im motiviT, rom dairRva misi Rirseba da reputacia. saerTo sasamarTloebma daadgines, rom misi uflebebi dairRva ukanonod da brZanes, rom mosarCeleebs gamoeqveynebinaT bodiSis werili, xolo TiToeuls miyenebuli zianisaTvis politikosisaTvis 25 000 krona unda gadaexada. mosarCeleebma Seitanes sarCeli sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi, romelmac gadawyvita, rom igi dasabuTebuli iyo zogadi kriteriumebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlebic exeba gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas. sasamarTlom ganixila sami savaraudod mcdari Sefaseba, romlis safuZvelzec saerTo sasamarTloebma miiCnies, rom dairRva politikosis ufleba pirad Rirsebasa da karg reputaciaze: avtorTa pretenzia imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom isini iyvnen komisiis wevrebi (maSin, rodesac ar iyvnen), raTa meti damajerebloba (Rirebuleba) hqonoda statiaSi gamoTqmul mosazrebas; imis mtkiceba, rom politikosma 140 000 krona miiRo, Tumca, sinamdvileSi man 96 673 krona miiRo; mtkiceba, rom politikosi axlos iyo komunisturi partiis yofil liderebTan da rom sisxlissamarTlebrivi gamoZiebis Sewyveta arasaxarbielo da Seusabamo iyo.

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rac Seexeba pirvel mtkicebas, ganmcxadeblebma aRiares, rom xsenebuli ar Seesabameboda sinamdviles, magram amtkicebdnen, rom amas ar SeiZleboda hqonoda gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba. sasamarTlom CaTvala, rom ganmcxadeblebma meqanikurad gadaiweres Cveneba sxva wyarodan, amasve mowmobs Sinaarsis erTi adgili: `zogierTi informacia, romelic Cven komisiaSi miviReT~. maSin, rodesac aseTi qmedeba warmoadgens profesiul Secdomas, igi ar iyo ganxorcielebuli SecdomaSi Seyvanis an avtorTa CvenebisaTvis meti damajereblobis micemisaTvis. radganac Sesabamisma komisiam miiRo xsenebuli informacia da es ukanaskneli sinamdviles Seesabameboda muxlis mTlian konteqstSi, arasworma formulirebam ver miaRwia im zRvars, rom dadgeniliyo piradi Rirsebisa da patiosani reputaciis uflebis darRveva. meore mtkicebasTan dakavSirebiT, informacia, romelic masSi iyo moxseniebuli, ar SeiZleba daxasiaTdes, rogorc mcdari. politikosis winaaRmdeg aRZruli iyo sisxlis samarTlis saqme. prokurorebma gaauqmes wayenebuli brali. isini acxadebdnen, rom man miiRo Tanxebi, magram am Tanxebis arakanonierad gankargva ver mtkicdeboda. mtkiceba martivad axdenda am informaciis xelaxla warmodgenas. es iyo araswori informacia. mesame mtkicebasTan dakavSirebiT, misi Semadgenlobidan gamomdinare, naTlad Cans, rom igi warmoadgens SefasebiT msjelobas da ara faqtebis mtkicebas. gancxadebis Sedegi iyo Semdegi: avtorebs ar SeeZloT im SegrZnebis ukugdeba, rom politikosis Zvel kavSirebs komunisturi partiis meTaurebTan raime saxis gamarTleba SeiZleba hqonoda. avtorebi ixilavdnen faqtebs (gamoZieba, braldebis moxsna, komunist liderebTan kavSiri) da maT safuZvelze isini mividnen im mosazrebamde, rom kolegebis Sefasebas gaaCnda gamarTleba da rom braldebis moxsna Zalian arasaxarbielo da Seusabamo iyo. aseT garemoebebSi gamoqveynebuli Sefaseba ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos arasworad an gadaxrad zogadad jerovnad aRiarebuli principebidan Sinaarsis formasTan mimarTebiT. bolos, sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom saerTo sasamarTloebma upativcemloba gamoiCines im principis mimarT, romlis Tanaxmadac, konstituciurad garantirebuli fundamenturi uflebebi dabalansebuli unda iqnes. arc informacia da arc pirovnuli monacemebi, romlebic mocemuli iyo statiaSi, ar iyo iseTi xasiaTis, rom daerRvia gamoxatvis Tavisufleba da informaciis gavrcelebis ufleba. xsenebulidan gamomdinare, gamoxatvis Tavisuflebaze SezRudvebis daweseba ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos aucileblad demokratiul sazogadoebaSi.

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CexeTis respublika sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 02-02-1998 samoqalaqo kodeqsis 12.3 muxlis Tanaxmad, piris suraTebi SesaZlebelia aiRon da gamoiyenon Sesabamisi piris Tanxmobis gareSe Sesaferisi formiT im pirobiT, rom igi ar SeewinaaRmdegeba piris interesebs. xsenebuli sakanonmdeblo debuleba ar ewinaaRmdegeba gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas, radganac mis daniSnulebas informaciis politikuri uflebis da misi gavrcelebis uflebis meore uflebasTan harmonizacia warmoadgens. zogierT situaciebSi igi SesaZloa winaaRmdegobaSi movides piris dacvisa da piradi cxovrebis uflebasTan. im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac es ori ufleba, romelTac Tanabari statusi gaaCniaT, ar Seesabameba erTmaneTs, damoukidebelma sasamarTlom yovelTvis unda ganixilos, TiToeul saqmeze erT uflebas meoreze primati samarTlianad gaaCnda Tu ara. daskvnas, romelTac isini aRweven mtkicebulebaTa Sefasebis Semdgom, pativi unda eces, radgan marTlmsajulebis Sedegad miRebul gadawyvetilebas gamoxatavs. kviris gazeTSi gamoqveynda statia saTauriT ~sikvdilisaTvis saukeTeso wamals warmoadgens oqsasepami~, romelic mkvlelobis saqmesTan dakavSirebiT sasamarTlo ganxilvas exeboda. saTaurisa da teqstis `mTvrali buli araadamianurad scems Tavis sayvarels da mihyavs igi sikvdilis piramde~ qveS moTavsebuli iyo im mosamarTlis suraTi, romelic saqmis mosmenas awarmoebda. es suraTi gadaRebuli iyo mosamarTlis nebarTvis gareSe da kerZo xasiaTs atarebda. masze arc mosasxami hqonda da arc raime atributi, romelic mis profesiaze mianiSnebda. sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom es suraTi sazogadoebas ar aZlevda informacias mosamarTlis muSaobis Sesaxeb da arc miniSnebas, rom mosamarTle iyo mkvleli. amiT, ra Tqma unda, mosamarTlis piradi Rirseba ilaxeboda. Sesabamisad, Jurnals daekisra mosamarTlis sasargeblod 100 000 kronis gadaxda miyenebuli zianisaTvis _ mis pirad uflebebSi gaumarTlebeli SeWris gamo. mosarCele amtkicebda, rom misi qmedebebi ar scdeboda marTlmsajulebis pativiscemisa da miukerZoeblobis dadgenil sazRvrebs. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom marTlmsajulebis pativiscemis moTxovnidan gamomdinare, romelic aris kanonis uzenaesobis maRiarebel saxelmwifoSi dacul RirebulebaTa garantia, gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis ganmaxorcielebelma pirma yovelTvis unda gaiTvaliswinos da awonos gamonaTqvamebi da gamoxatvis xerxebi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom saerTo sasamarTloebis gadawyvetileba samarTliani iyo da forma da manera, romliTac

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

fotoa gamoyenebuli, yovelTvis unda Seesabamebodes Cafiqrebul Sedegs. xolo, aseT dros Sesabamisi adamianis Rirsebis Selaxva arakonstituciurad unda CaiTvalos.

dania uzenaesi sasamarTlo 15-06-1999 gamoxatvis Tavisufleba ar gulisxmobs, rom SeiZleba presis mier winaswar patimrobaSi myof sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoebaSi monawile piris dakiTxva. 1999 wlis ianvarSi ganmcxadebeli winaswar patimrobaSi iqna ayvanili da brali waeyena TaRliTobaSi. izolaciis brZanebis gauqmebis Semdeg samma Jurnalistma ganmcxadebelTan vizitis nebarTva moiTxova, raTa mieRoT misgan interviu im saqmesTan dakavSirebiT, romelic presis did yuradRebas iwvevda. raionulma sasamarTlom policiis uari gaauqma, magram kvlav ZalaSi darCa umaRlesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT. uzenaesma sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom ar arsebobda safuZveli policiis mier dafiqsirebuli Sefasebis gasauqmeblad, romlis Tanaxmadac, Jurnalistis vizits SeeZlo ziani mieyenebina gamoZiebis interesebisaTvis. uaris gacxadeba ar ewinaaRmdegeba gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas, romelic daculia konstituciis 77-e da evropuli konvenciis me-10 muxlebiT. Tu ra moculobiT miawvdida policia informacias presas saqmesTan dakavSirebiT, mniSvneloba ar hqonda im sakiTxis gadawyvetisas, unda hqonoda Tu ara apelants saSualeba, gancxadebebi gaekeTebinaT presis winaSe winaswari patimrobis periodSi. xsenebulidan gamomdinare, uzenaesma sasamarTlom daakmayofila umaRlesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba.

dania uzenaesi sasamarTlo 13-02-1989 orma pirovnebam, romlebic muSaobdnen daniis samauwyeblo korporaciaSi, daarRvia daniis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi rasistuli gancxadebebis mauwyeblobiT, romelic samma axalgazrdam gaakeTa. uzenaesi sasamarTlos mosamarTleTa umravlesobam daadgina, rom gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis principi ver gadaZalavda rasistuli gancxadebebisagan dacvis moTxovnas.

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1985 wels daniis samauwyeblo korporaciis mier gadaica interviu 3 axalgazrdasTan, romlebic cnobilni iyvnen, rogorc `mwvane xalaTianebi~. interviuebis periodSi 3 pirma Seuracxmyofeli da damamcirebeli SeniSvnebi misca daniaSi myof emigrantebsa da eTnikur jgufebs, zogierTi eTnikuri jgufi ki cxovelebs Seadara. rasistuli gancxadebebis gakeTebis gamo, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 266-e muxlis Tanaxmad, 3 axalgazrda msjavrdebul iqna. kopenhagenis saqalaqo sasamarTlom da umaRlesi sasamarTlos aRmosavleTis ganyofilebam aseve brali dasdo Jurnalists, romelmac interviu aiRo da daniis radios axali ambebis ufross, romelmac Tanxmoba ganacxada intervius gaSvebasa da 3 axalgazrdis daxmarebasa da waqezebaSi. orive sasamarTlo amtkicebda, rom Jurnalistma gamoiCina iniciativa programis Sesaqmnelad maSin, rodesac kargad icoda intervius periodSi gakeTebuli gancxadebebis Sinaarsi da rom swored igi ubiZgebda `mwvane xalaTianebs~ TavianTi Sexedulebebis gamoxatvisaken. axali ambebis xelmZRvaneli msjavrdebul iqna, radganac man gasca nebarTva programis samauwyeblo eTerSi gaSvebaze, miuxedavad imisa, rom icoda misi Sinaarsi. uzenaesi sasamarTlos umravlesobam xma misca umaRlesi sasamarTlos sasjelis ZalaSi datovebas. mauwyeblobis saSualebiT rasistulad damamcirebeli gancxadebebis sajarod gakeTebiT, Jurnalistma da daniis radios axali ambebis ganyofilebis ufrosma daarRvies sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 266-e da 23-e muxlebi. winamdebare saqmeSi gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis principi sazogadoebrivi interesebSi myof saqmeebze ver gadawonida diskriminaciis sawinaaRmdego dacvis princips. erT-erTma mosamarTlem, romelsac gansxvavebuli mosazreba gaaCnda, xma misca Jurnalistisa da daniis radios axali ambebis ganyofilebis ufrosis gamarTlebis sasargeblod. mosamarTle aRniSnavda, rom programis mizans warmoadgenda sazogadoebisaTvis informaciis miwodeba zogjer emociuri sazogadoebrivi debatebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, programa ki mayurebels `mwvane xalaTianebis~ mosazrebebsa da Sexedulebebs sTavazobda. miuxedavad imisa, rom ~mwvane xalaTianebi~ Seadgenen mosaxleobis mxolod mcire nawils, programas mainc gaaCnda azriani axali ambebisa da informaciis Rirebuleba. gansxvavebuli azris mqone mosamarTlem daadgina, rom is faqti, rom Jurnalistma wamoayena iniciativa interviusTan dakavSirebiT, ar gulisxmobs, rom Jurnalisti da axali ambebis ganyofilebis ufrosi braldebulad unda iqnen miCneulni. umravlesobis azris Tanaxmad, mopasuxeTa saapelacio saCivari ar dakmayofilda uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier.

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jvaredini miTiTeba: uzenaesi sasamarTlos ganaCenis Semdeg, Jurnalistma b-nma iersildma adamianis uflebaTa evropul sasamarTloSi daniis winaaRmdeg Seitana ganacxadi imis safuZvelze, rom misi mjavrdeba arRvevda gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas, romelic evropuli konvenciis me-10 muxliT aris garantirebuli. 1994 wlis 23 seqtembers adamianis uflebaTa evropulma sasamarTlom 12 xmiT 7 xmis winaaRmdeg daadgina, rom dairRva evropuli konvenciis me-10 muxli.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 12-12-2000 Jurnalis beWdvis ufleba SesaZloa dairRves, Tuki gamomqveynebels ekrZaleba reklamis ganTavseba, romelTan dakavSirebiTac gamomqveynebeli sargeblobs gamoxatvis TavisuflebiT. propaganduli saxis reklama, romelic wamoWrida sazogadoebisaTvis kritikul Temebs, SesaZloa sargeblobdes konstituciuri dacviT im debulebebis Sesabamisad, romlebic gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas uzrunvelyofs. kompania benetonma, romelic mTel msoflioSi awarmoebs tansacmlis bizness, gayidvaSi CauSva da gamoaqveyna orgverdiani fotoebi, romelTa leitmotivi Jurnalis sxvadasxva nomerSi iyo `navTobiT dafaruli ixvi~, `bavSvTa Sroma~ da `Sidsis virusis dadebiTi pasuxi~, romelic ganmcxadeblis mier gamoicemoda. TiToeuli fotos qvemoT, marcxena kuTxeSi moTavsebuli iyo logo ` United Colors of Benetton~. reklamebis gamoqveynebidan maleve mis mimarT samarTalwarmoeba aRiZra. bralmdeblebi amtkicebdnen, rom benetonma saqonlis gasasaReblad, miznad daisaxa im momxmarebelTa Sokireba, romlebzec fotoebi iyo mimarTuli. isini xalxis grZnobebze TamaSobdnen damaSineblad da sibraluls iwvevdnen. samarTalwarmoebis aRmZvreli acxadebda, rom reklamebi arRvevda adamianis Rirsebas da ugulebelyofda im pirebis pirad cxovrebas, romlebic suraTze iyvnen aRbeWdilni. mosarCele aseve amtkicebda, rom ganmcxadebeli gamomqveynebeli reklamis dabeWdviT, dauSvebeli meTodiT uwyobda xels benetons. benetonis winaaRmdeg aRZrul samarTalwarmoebaSi, romelic exeboda gakritikebuli reklamebis gamoqveynebas, federaluri sasamarTlo arsebiTad daeTanxma zemoT moyvanil arguments. federalurma sasamarTlom sareklamo kampania daakvalificira, rogorc

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SejibrebiTobis uarmyofeli da gadawyvita, rom igi momxmarebelTa TanagrZnobiT sargeblobda komerciuli miznebisaTvis. federalurma sasamarTlom, rogorc saboloo instanciis sasamarTlom, akrZala e.w. Sokismomgvreli reklamebis gamoqveyneba. ganmcxadebeli ar daeTanxma sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas. igi miiCnevda, rom Sokismomgvreli reklamebis gamoqveynebis akrZalva arRvevda gamoxatvisa da presis Tavisuflebas. konstituciuri sarCelis Setanis Sedegad sakonstitucio sasamarTlom uaryo saerTo sasamarTloebis mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba da ganacxada, rom reklamebis gamoqveynebis akrZalva konstituciis 5.1 muxlis darRvevas warmoadgenda. mesame mxaris mosazrebis gamoqveyneba ­ Tundac komerciuli miznebisaTvis an Tundac mxolod biznesis interesebidan gamomdinare ­ presis Tavisuflebis dacvis qveS xvdeba. xsenebuli, aseve, moicavs gamoxatul warmosaxvas. sasamarTloebma samarTlianad ganmartes, rom benetonis reklamebi warmoadgenda azris gamoxatvas. aRniSnuli reklamebis gamoqveynebis akrZalva zRudavda ganmcxadeblis uflebas presis Tavisuflebaze. presas ar unda ekrZalebodes mesame piris azris gamoqveyneba, Tuki azris mflobels SeuZlia misi gamoxatva da gavrceleba. Tumca, federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo ar daeTanxma samarTalwarmoebis aRmZvrelTa arguments arakeTilsindisier SejibrebiTobasTan dakavSirebiT. man Tavisi akrZalva daawesa da ganacxada, rom igi ar iyo sakmarisad konkretuli da ar SeiZleboda misi gamoyeneba analogiur saqmeebSi. arakeTilsindisier konkurenciasTan dakavSirebuli kanonis 1-li muxli, romelic krZalavs konkurenciasTan dakavSirebul iseT qmedebebs, romlebic sazogado politikas ewinaaRmdegeba, konstituciuri TvalsazrisiT ar iwvevs pretenzias. SejibrebiTobis kanonis WrilSi reklamebis Sefasebisas federalurma sasamarTlom arasworad ganmarta gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis farglebi. gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis SezRudva gamarTlebuli iyos rogorc sazogadoebrivi, aseve, mesame mxaris interesebiT. federalurma sasamarTlom aseTi gamarTleba ar CaiTvala kanonzomierad. dabali instanciis sasamarTloebma benetonis reklamebi sazogadoebriv politikasTan Seusabamod miiCnies. magaliTad, cxovelebisa da adamianebis didi tanjvis gamoxatviT isini aRZravdnen sibraluls da yovelgvari safuZvlis gareSe iyenebdnen am grZnobebs SejibrebiTobis miznebisaTvis. aseTi qmedebebis mimarT mosaxleobis umetesobas negatiuri damokidebuleba eqneboda. is, rom fotoebi asaxavdnen arasasiamovno gamosaxulebebs, romlebic aRZravdnen sibraluls, ar aris imdenad gamaRizianebeli, rom gaamarTlos fundamenturi uflebis SezRudva.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

Sefaseba SesaZloa sxvagvari iyos, Tuki naCvenebi suraTebi amazrzeni, saSineli an axalgazrdobis gamryvneli iqneboda. suraTebs Soris ar arsebobda kavSiri, magram es ar niSnavs, rom isini imdenad dasagmobia, fundamenturi uflebebis SezRudva gaamarTlos. aseTi kavSiris SezRudva axasiaTebs suraTebis Semqmnel bevr sareklamo kompanias. suraTebi gamoiyeneba imisaTvis, raTa gamowveul iqnes didi interesi. is faqti, rom momxmareblebi SeCveulni arian aseT `pozitiur~ suraTebs, ar amarTlebs da asabuTebs im pretenzias, rom Semawuxebeli Sedegebi swored am suraTebs miewereba. am saqmeSi arc sazogadoebrivi interesi ikveTeba. ar SeiZleba imis dadgena, rom reklama, romelic gmobs araadamianur pirobebs da garemos dabinZurebas, amave dros xels uwyobs iseT tendenciebs, rogoricaa araadamianuroba da mgrZnobiarobis Sesusteba. meore mxriv, akrZalva gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis seriozul darRvevas warmoadgenda. am konteqstSi ar aris gadamwyveti, benetonis reklamebi xels uwyobs Tu ara debatebs savalalo situaciebSi, romelTa dagmoba aseve daculia konstituciis me-5 muxliT. radganac akrZalvebi `bavSvis SromasTan~ da `navTobiT dafarul ixvTan~ konkretulad eyrdnoboda `konkurenciis Sesaxeb kanonis~ 1l muxls, federalurma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom isini unda gauqmebuliyo. erT-erTi mizezi, romlis safuZvelzec federalurma sasamarTlom `Sidsis virusis dadebiTi~ reklama akrZala, iyo is, rom sasamarTlos mosazrebiT, es ukanaskneli uxeSad arRvevda pirovnebis pativiscemas, radgan SidsiT daavadebul pirebs warmogviCenda, rogorc adamianuri sazogadoebidan gariyulsa da ganyenebuls. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, reklamebis interpretacia miznad isaxavs SidsiT daavadebul pirTa dagmobasa da sazogadoebisgan gariyvas. imisaTvis, raTa misi qmedebebi konstituciis 5.1 muxlis Sesabamisi yofiliyo, federalur sasamarTlos unda ganexila gansxvavebuli interpretaciebi.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 10-11-1998 pirovnebis pativiscemis zogadi ufleba icavs pirs garkveuli asociaciisa Tu jgufisadmi mis kuTvnilebasTan dakavSirebuli mcdari gancxadebebisagan, Tuki es gancxadebebi pirovnebisa da misi sazoga-

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gamoxatvis Tavisufleba

doebrivi imijisaTvis mniSvnelovania. pirovnebis pativiscemis zogadi ufleba irRveva, roca pirs miaweren mcdar faqtebs da mas ar aqvs saSualeba, uaryos gancxadebebi sasamarTloSi imis gamo, rom ganmcxadebelma faqtebi sakuTari mtkicebis gasamyareblad warmoadgina. mosarCele ­ avstrieli artisti ­ 1972 wlidan Cabmuli iyo saeklesio mecnierebaTa doqtrinebis gamoqveynebaSi da, aseve, eswreboda kursebs. 1975 wlidan ramdenime Jurnali mas mecniers uwodebda an eWvi SehqondaT mecnierebasTan mis sxvagvar kavSirze. 1994 wels mosarCeles `zaarbriukenis sakoncentracio banak neiu bremmis~ artistuli dizainis modelis Seqmna daevala. seqtebTan mebrZol or asociacias ar surda, rom mosarCeles proeqtSi mieRo monawileoba. amitom maT Ria weriliT mimarTes mediasa da politikosebs, romelSic werdnen: ~media da politikosebi yuradRebas uTmoben im pirs, romelic reklamas ukeTebs kriminalur asociacias, romelic, Tavis mxriv, awarmoebs mecnierebis propagandas uamrav gamocemaSi da Tavis Tavs uwodebs kleriks (mecnieruli Jargoni im adamianisa, romelic cru deteqtoris saSualebiT angrevs piris fsiqikas imisaTvis, raTa masze kontroli ganaxorcielos). litografiisa da `galerea 48~ mier warmoebuli gayidvidan Semosuli Tanxa midioda saidumlo samecniero samsaxurebSi. nuTu miecema saSualeba cinikur sazogadoeba `mecniers,~ Tavisi zemoqmedeba ganaxorcielos sazogadoebis kulturul cxovrebaze saarlandSi? Cven vapirebT, dauyovnebliv miviRoT konkretuli zomebi.~ ganmcxadebelma pretenzia gamoTqva werilSi moyvanil mosazrebebTan dakavSirebiT. misi pretenzia dakmayofilda pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi. Tumca, saapelacio samarTalwarmoebisas dabali instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba Seicvala, radgan, Tu piri akeTebs damamcirebel gancxadebebs mesame piris mimarT gadaumowmebel faqtebze dayrdnobiT, es miuTiTebs, rom presaSi saeWvo informacia gavida. sakonstitucio sarCelSi ganmcxadebeli amtkicebda, rom irRveoda konstituciis 2.1 da 1.1 muxlebiT garantirebuli uflebebi. igi acxadebda, rom igi ar iyo mecnieri da arasodes gauvlia momzadeba klerikis mier, ar ukisria aseTi funqcia da ar uwodebia sakuTari TavisaTvis kleriki. federalurma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganixila saapelacio sasamarTlos gasaCivrebuli ganaCeni da daadgina, rom igi arRvevda mosarCelis pirovnuli pativiscemis uflebas. Sedegad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gaauqma saapelacio sasamarTlos mier gamotanili gadawyvetileba.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

samotivacio nawilSi sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom pirovnebis pativiscemis zogadi ufleba icavs adamians mcdari da cru gancxadebebis gakeTebisagan, romlis Tanaxmad, igi miekuTvneba asociacias an jgufs im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki es araswori gancxadebebi mniSvnelovania pirovnebis reputaciisTvis. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom winamdebare saqmeSi mecnierebasTan axlo kavSirs SesaZloa uaryofiTad emoqmeda mis reputaciaze da ziani mieyenebina misi artistuli saqmianobisaTvis. roca adamianis mtkicebebi zians ayenebs sxvebs, maSin pirovnebis pativisa da Rirsebis dacvis Sesaxeb precedentuli samarTlis Tanaxmad, samoqalaqo sasamarTloebi valdebulni arian, konkretul saqmeSi gamoikvlion garemoebebi. es moTxovna ufro mkacria mediasTan mimarTebiT. garda amisa, samoqalaqo samarTalwarmoebaSi faqtebis gamorkvevisas ufro mkacri tvirTi ekisreba pirs, romelic akeTebs Seuracxmyofel gancxadebebs mesame piris Sesaxeb. mas moeTxoveba Tavisi gancxadebebis dadastureba da Tu amas ver SeZlebs, maSin igi iTvleba crud. gancxadeba, Tundac igi gamagrebuli iyos faqtebiT, mainc SeiZleba iyos mcdari da warmoadgendes sicrues. pativiscemis zogadi ufleba moiTxovs, rom pirs, romlis winaaRmdegac gakeTda saziano gancxadebebi faqtebTan mimarTebiT, SeeZlos gancxadebebis sicruis dadastureba sasamarTloSi meore mxareze dakisrebuli mtkicebis tvirTis saSualebiT. mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac pirs ar SeuZlia sadavo gancxadebis sapirispiro mtkicebulebis warmodgena, es ukanaskneli SeiZleba CaiTvalos simarTled. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos azriT, saerTo sasamarTlos mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba ar akmayofilebda piris pativiscemis zemoxsenebul moTxovnebs. mosarCeles ziani miadga gancxadebiT, TiTqos igi ekuTvnoda im jgufs, romelic hipnozuri procesiT angrevs pirovnebebis fsiqikas maTi kontrolis mizniT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom samarTalwarmoebis aRZvris moTxovnis uaryofa aseve warmoadgenda ganmcxadeblis zogadi pativiscemis uflebis darRvevas. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT, dabali instanciis sasamarTlom adekvaturad ar gaiTvaliswina is faqti, rom pirveladi samarTalwarmoebisas ganmcxadebelma gaabaTila mopasuxis argumentebi, TiTqos igi ekuTvnoda mecnierebas. xsenebuli xarvezi aseve Zalian mniSvnelovani da araadekvaturi iyo dabali instanciis sasamarTloebis mier piris pativiscemis uflebis farglebis gansazRvrisaTvis.

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germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 25-08-1994 gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis irRveva, rodesac sasamarTlo msjavrs dasdebs pirs ciliswamebaSi im saqcielisTvis, romelsac SesaZloa ramdenime mniSvneloba hqondes, romelTagan yvela ar warmoadgens ciliswamebas. pirma Tavis manqanaze gaakeTa warwera: `yvela jariskaci mkvlelia. kurt tuColski~. igi daadanaSaules ciliswamebisa da SeiaraRebuli Zalebisgan Semdgari socialuri jgufis SeuracxyofisaTvis. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom zogadi ganmartebiT, `mkvleli~ yovelTvis ar niSnavs pirs, romelmac sisxlis samarTlis danaSauli Caidina. sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlom arasworad ganmarta manqanaze mikruli warwera da ganacxada, rom igi Seuracxyofas ayenebda SeiaraRebuli Zalebis warmomadgenlebs, bundesvers, radganac termini `mkvleli~ mianiSnebs pirze, romelmac Caidina danaSauli. maSin, rodesac yvela gonierma adamianma icis, rom bundesvers arasodes miuRia omSi monawileoba da arc erT mis wevrs saomari mdgomareobis dros ar SeeZlo, vinme moekla.

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 05-12-2001 Sepasuxebisa da Sesworebis uflebebis mizans warmoadgens im cru gancxadebiTa Tu mosazrebiT gamowveuli zianis gamosworeba, romelic arRvevs vinmes pirad uflebasa Tu reputacias. Sepasuxebisa da Sesworebis uflebis miuxedavad, izRudeba presis Tavisufleba, rac gamarTlebulia reputaciis uflebiTa da piradi RirsebiT, magram es im SemTxvevaSi xdeba, Tu kanonmdebelma gansazRvra misi ganxorcielebis farglebi. respublikis prezidentma sarCeliT mimarTa sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kanonis gadasinjvasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic im droisaTvis jer kidev ar iyo gamoqveynebuli, cvlilebebi Sehqonda samoqalaqo kodeqsSi da sTxovda presas, gamoeqveynebina im mosazrebebis uaryofa, romelic, savaraudod, arRvevda pirad uflebebs. prezidenti acxadebda, rom Sesworebebi ewinaaRmdegeboda konstitucias ramdenime aspeqtSi: kanoni daavaldebulebda medias, gamoeqveynebina uaryofa, Tuki statiaSi moxseniebuli piri miiCnevda, rom

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

mis pirad uflebebs an reputacias ziani miadga. kanoni aseve moiTxovda, rom Tu sasamarTlo gamoitanda mediis sawinaaRmdego gadawyvetilebas, sasamarTlo valdebuli iqneboda, Sesabamisi pirisaTvis daekisrebina jarima, mas sxva alternativa ar hqonda. prezidentis azriT, SemoTavazebuli cvlilebebi xels SeuSlida presis Tavisuflebas da jarimis zeda zRvris dadgeniT daarRvevda konstituciis 2.1 muxls. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom rodesac saqme politikur gancxadebebsa da saxelmwifos kritikas exeba, gamoxatvisa da presis Tavisuflebis SezRudva viwrod unda iqnes ganmartebuli. meore mxriv, komerciuli gancxadebebis SezRudva SesaZloa konstituciuri iyos. aseve aRiniSna, rom werilobiTi da eleqtronuli mediis SemTxvevaSi Sepasuxebis ufleba Sepasuxebis gamoqveynebis valdebulebas niSnavda. absoluturad SesaZlebeli iyo, rom presa, samarTlebrivi moTxovnis gareSe, Tavisi surviliT ar gamoaqveynebda Sepasuxebas. aseT valdebulebas SeiZleba gamoewvia iseTi situacia, rodesac presa ar gamoaqveynebda mosazrebas, Tuki vinme mis uaryofas moiTxovda, im motiviT, rom gamoqveynebuli mosazreba arRvevda mis pirad uflebebs. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganixila, Seesabameboda Tu ara aseTi SezRudva konstitucias. sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom Sepasuxebisa da Sesworebis uflebebi miznad isaxavda cru faqtisa Tu mosazrebis Sedegad gamowveuli im zianis gamosworebas, romlebic pirTa pirad uflebebsa da reputacias arRvevda. sazogadoebis srulad informirebis ufleba da sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT yovelmxrivi informaciis miReba sakmaris normebs moiTxovs. amitomac Sepasuxebisa da Sesworebis uflebebi zRudavs Tavisufali presis uflebas, magram gamarTlebulia adamianis reputaciisa da Rirsebis uflebiT. Tumca, sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom gamouqveynebeli kanoni aviwroebda presis Tavisuflebas imiT, rom igi ar zRudavda Sepasuxebis uflebas: Sepasuxeba SeiZleba iyos arakanonieri, ufro mravlismTqmeli, vidre is mosazreba romelTan dakavSirebiTac Sepasuxeba gakeTda da, aseve, Seicavdes ufro met originaluri xasiaTis gancxadebas. rodesac kanonmdebeli uaryofasTan dakavSirebiT awesebs presis valdebulebas, unda gansazRvros Sepasuxebis uflebis sazRvrebi. amitom sakonstitucio sasamarTlom Sesabamisi kanoni gamoacxada arakonstituciurad. rac Seexeba sxva sakiTxebs, sasamarTlom arakonstituciurad ar cno, rom cvlilebis Semtani debuleba, romlis Tanaxmad, Tu dairRveoda vinmes piradi ufleba presaSi, mosamarTles unda daekisrebina presisaTvis jarimis gadaxda. prezidentis azriT, is faqti, rom cvlileba ar gansazRvravda

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jarimis zeda zRvars, ewinaaRmdegeboda kanonis garkveulobis princips. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom rodesac gadawyvetileba miiReboda jarimasTan dakavSirebiT, mosamarTles mxedvelobaSi unda mieRo zianis odenoba. ungreTis samarTlebrivi sistema ar gansazRvravs zeda zRvars arc zianis da arc jarimis SemTxvevaSi. zianis, iseve rogorc jarimis odenoba, damokidebulia gancdili zaralis odenobaze. mosamarTle biharim warmoadgina sapirispiro azri. igi erTmaneTisgan ganasxvavebs Sepasuxebis uflebasa da presis valdebulebas, romelic gulisxmobs `uaryofis~ gamoqveynebas im mosazrebasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic arRvevs vinmes pirad uflebebs.

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 14-05-2001 parlamentma miiRo normebi, romlebic patimrebsa da medias Soris warmoebuli mimoweris cenzuris uflebas iZleoda. es normebi ar izRudeboda im SemTxvevebiT, rodesac saSiSroebis winaSe dgeboda erovnuli usafrTxoeba, saxelmwifo saidumloeba an patimarTa usafrTxoeba da marTlwesrigi cixeSi. respublikis prezidentma uari ganacxada cvlilebaze, romelic Sedioda sakanonmdeblo brZanebaSi sasjelaRsrulebisa da sxva sadamsjelo RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb. SeTavazebuli cvlileba moiTxovda cixis administraciis warmomadgenlis nebarTvas patimarTan intervius gamoqveynebamde an gadacemamde. cixis administraciis warmomadgenels SeeZlo uari ganecxadebina nebarTvaze, Tuki es aucilebeli iyo erovnuli uSiSroebis, sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis, sxva pirebis reputaciisa da piradi uflebebis dacvis, danaSaulis aRkveTis an saxelmwifo saidumloebis gamJRavnebis, konfidencialurad miRebuli informaciis gaumJRavneblobis, cixeSi marTlwesrigis SenarCunebis interesebidan gamomdinare. cvlilebebis gamJRavnebamde prezidentma TxovniT mimarTa sakonstitucio sasamarTlos, gadaesinja im normebis konstituciuroba, romlebic patimrebsa da medias Soris komunikaciis saSualebas zRudavda. prezidentis azriT, cixis normebi zRudavda patimris gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas. erTaderTi konstituciurad gamarTlebuli mizani aseTi cenzurisaTvis sapatimro dawesebulebebSi marTlwesrigis SenarCuneba iqneboda. Tavis mxriv, ar aris arakonstituciuri, rom patimarsa da medias Soris warmoebuli mimowera daeqvemdebaros zedamxedvelobas. Tumca, cixeSi moTavseba ar unda iyos erTaderTi

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

safuZveli da mizezi sityvis Tavisuflebis SezRudvisaTvis. cixeSi moTavsebis Semdeg patimari kargavs mxolod sityvis Tavisuflebis im uflebebs, romlebic Seusabamoa kanonierad dakisrebuli sasjelis miznebTan. es gasaTvaliswinebelia, rodesac ganixileba sakiTxi, Tu ra farglebSi unda mieces patimars mediaze xelmisawvdomobis saSualeba. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom normebis ganxilvisas gadasinja SezRudvis TiToeuli mizezi. Sedegad, sasamarTlom arakonstituciurad gamoacxada gasaCivrebuli debulebis nawili, romelic cixis administraciis warmomadgenels aZlevda uflebas, uari eTqva nebarTvaze, Tuki administraciis TanamSromeli CaTvlida, rom patimris gancxadeba daemuqreboda sazogadoebriv usafrTxoebas, daarRvevda sxva pirebis reputaciasa da pirad uflebebs an aucileblad miiCnevda danaSaulis aRsakveTad da oficialuri saidumloebis gamJRavnebis Tavidan asacileblad. SemoTavazebuli cvlileba sakmaod zRudavda gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas maSinac ki, rodesac ar arsebobda gamarTleba mediasTan kavSiris ganxorcielebis nebarTvaze uaris TqmasTan dakavSirebiT. Sedegad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom arakonstituciurad gamoacxada normebi, romlebic nebarTvas iZleodnen warmoebuli mimoweris farTo cenzuraze patimrebsa da presas Soris. sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom SemoTavazebuli cvlileba arakonstituciuri iyo aseve yvela sxva mizezebidan gamomdinare. normebi moicavda bundovan cnebebs, rogoricaa presis an sxva informaciis gansazRvreba, romelic mopovebulia konfidencialurad da romelsac ar gaaCnia konkretuli mniSvneloba ungreTis kanonmdeblobaSi. rogorc sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, darRveuli iyo kanonis garkveulobis moTxovna. sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, dasaSvebi iyo patimrebsa da medias Soris warmoebuli mimoweris kontroli erovnuli uSiSroebis an saxelmwifoebrivi saidumloebis gaumJRavneblobis an sasjelaRsrulebiT dawesebulebebSi marTlwesrigis dacvis saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi.

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 05-12-1999 konstituciis debulebas, romelic exeba sityvis Tavisuflebas, ar ewinaaRmdegeba im piris dacva, romelic farTo sazogadoebis winaSe uxams gamonaTqvamebs iyenebs ungreTis himnTan, droSasTan da gerbTan mimarTebiT. Tumca, erovnuli simboloebis kritika, mecnieruli Sexedulebebis gamoxatva, romelic exeba istorias, maT

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faseulobebsa da mniSvnelobas, maT warmoCinebas an simboloTa cvlilebasTan dakavSirebuli winadadebebis warmodgena xvdeba konstituciiT garantirebuli gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis farglebSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom Tavisi gadawyvetileba konstituciis 75-e da 76-e muxlebze daafuZna. erovnuli simboloebi konstituciur Rirebulebebs da maTi dacvis obieqtebs warmoadgens. sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, erovnul simboloebs gaaCnia ori mniSvneloba. pirveli, isini ungreTis saxelmwifos suverenulobis simboloebs warmoadgenen. meore, xsenebuli simboloebi SesaZlebelia gamoyenebul iqnes vinmes grZnobebis gamosaxatavad ungruli saxelmwifosadmi an sazogadoebisadmi kuTvnilebasTan mimarTebiT. amitom bevri adamiani gabrazdeba, Sokirebuli iqneba da Seuracxyofilad CaTvlis Tavs simboloebis ugulebelyofiT, romelTac isini Zalian did pativs scemen. ungreTis bolo aTwleulis istoriidan gamomdinare, romlis Sedegadac erovnuli simboloebis mniSvneloba gaizarda, gamarTlebulad unda CaiTvalos xsenebuli simboloebis dacva, Tundac sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsiT. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gasaCivrebuli sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis debuleba gamarTlebuli iyo. erovnuli simboloebis damcvel debulebaze sakonstitucio sasamarTlos azriT, akrZaluli qmedebis Sedegi da zegavlena sazogadoebisaTvis imdenad didia, rom pasuxismgeblobis sxva formebi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobiT gansazRvruli pasuxismgeblobis saSualebebi, araadekvaturi iqneboda aseTi saxis damnaSaveebTan mimarTebiT. sisxlis samarTlebrivi kanonmdeblobis debulebiT gansazRvruli sanqciebi yvelaze umniSvneloa.

italia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 15-11-2000 samxedro kanonmdeblobis debuleba, romelic mSvidobianobis periodSi iTvaliswinebda erovnuli droSis an sxva saxelmwifo simboloebis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis warmomadgenlis mier Seuracxyofas, ewinaaRmdegeboda Tanasworobis princips, romelic gansazRvrulia konstituciis me-3 muxliT. Tumca, gaTvaliswinebuli sasjeli ufro mkacri iyo, vidre sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsiT dadgenili da xsenebuli aranairad ar iyo dasabuTebuli. debulebiT daculi interesi exeboda saxelmwifo simboloebis Rirsebas, romelic, Tavis mxriv, saxelmwifos Rirsebas gamoxatavda. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gverdi auara warmodgenil mraval sakiTxs. sadavo debulebasTan dakavSirebiT gamoTqmuli kritika

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

sakanonmdeblo politikis sakiTxs warmoadgens. Tumca, samxedro kodeqsiT ufro mkacri sasjelis dakisreba ar aris aSkara uTanasworoba, swored kanonmdebels da ara sasamarTlos ekisreba sakanonmdeblo sakiTxebis gadawyveta da im sasjelebis gadaxedva, romlebic dawesebulia samxedro kodeqsis mier mSvidobian periodSi.

litva sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 23-10-2002 rodesac kanoniT dadgenilia mediis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli garantiebi, kanonmdebelma didi yuradRebiT unda ganixilos samoqalaqo sazogadoebis moTxovnebi, romlebic konstituciaSia asaxuli da kanonis uzenaesobis principi da ar unda daarRvios sxvebis uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi. prodiuseris an sazogadoebrivi informaciis gamavrceleblis mflobelisa da Jurnalistis uflebebi gulisxmobs, rom maT SeuZliaT, ar gaamJRavnon informacia im SemTxvevebSic ki, rodesac es aucilebeli da mniSvnelovania demokratiul sazogadoebaSi sasamarTlos mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebis Sesabamisad sazogadoebis sxva interesebidan gamomdinare, an imis uzrunvelsayofad, rom sxva pirTa konstituciuri uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi daculia da marTlmsajuleba xorcieldeba. sazogadoebisaTvis informaciis miwodebis Sesaxeb kanonis me-8 muxli arRvevs konstituciis 25.3, 25.4 da 29-e muxlebs da ewinaaRmdegeba kanonis uzenaesobis princips, radganac, zogierT SemTxvevaSi, informaciis gaumJRavneblobam SesaZloa gamoiwvios ufro mwvave Sedegebi, vidre misma gamJRavnebam. medias ufleba aqvs, informacia miawodos sazogadoebas im pirTa piradi cxovrebis Sesaxeb, romlebic socialur da politikur cxovrebaSi arian CarTulni. informaciis gavrceleba am pirTa Sesaxeb medias SeuZlia maTi Tanxmobis gareSe im SemTxvevaSi, Tu piradi cxovrebis maxasiaTeblebi, yofaqceva da konkretuli garemoebebi mniSvnelovania sazogadoebrivi saqmeebisaTvis. momCivanma ­ litvis parlamentis wevrTa jgufma ­ sarCeliT mimarTa sakonstitucio sasamarTlos da moiTxova imis dadgena, Seesabameboda Tu ara sazogadoebisaTvis informaciis miwodebasTan dakavSirebuli kanonis me-8 muxli konstituciis 29.1 muxls, xolo kanonis 14.3 muxli _ konstituciis 22-e muxls. ganmcxadebeli xazs usvamda, rom kanonis me-8 muxli aerTianebda da amyarebda prodiuserisa da gamavrceleblis, aseve, Jurnalistis uflebebs, ar

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gaemJRavnebina informacia da saidumlod Seenaxa igi. momCivani eWvs gamoTqvamda, ramdenad Seesabameboda konstituciis 29.1 muxli normas, romelic gansazRvravda aseT absolutur uflebas, radganac analogiuri tipis uflebebi sxva kanonebSi SezRudulia. monacemebi, informacia an sxva faqtebi unda gamJRavndes, rodesac sasamarTlo, prokuratura da sxva saxelmwifo samarTlebrivi organoebi moiTxoven sisxlis samarTlis Tu samoqalaqo saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT (romelic imyofeba maTi iurisdiqciisa Tu uflebamosilebis qveS), sxva saqmeebSi ki gansazRvrulia kanoniT. momCivnis azriT, kanonis me-8 muxli prodiusers, gamavrcelebelsa da dasaxelebul gaerTianebebs aniWebda privilegias, maT gaaCndaT ufro meti uflebebi, vidre sxva fizikur Tu iuridiul pirebs. mosarCele amtkicebda, rom kanonis 14.3 muxli gansazRvravda bundovan mizezebs, romlisTvisac piris piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis principi, romelic konstituciis 22-e muxlSia mocemuli, SesaZloa ugulebelyofil iqnes, rodesac qveyndeba informacia piris piradi cxovrebis Sesaxeb. es mizezebi saWiroebs gansxvavebul ganmartebas. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom kidev erTxel aRniSna, rom informaciis moZiebis, mopovebisa da gavrcelebis Tavisufleba samoqalaqo sazogadoebisa da kanonmorCili saxelmwifos erT-erTi umniSvnelovanes fundamentia. es Tavisufleba piris sxvadasxva uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa ganxorcielebis mniSvnelovan winapirobas warmoadgens. piris ZiriTadi sakonstitucio uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi adekvaturad SeiZleba ganxorcieldes mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu pirs aqvs ufleba, daubrkoleblad moiZios, moipovos da gaavrcelos informacia. konstitucia uzrunvelyofs da icavs sazogadoebis interess, miiRos informacia. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom informaciis sazogadoebisaTvis miwodebis Sesaxeb kanonis me-8 muxli ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis debulebebs. piris piradi cxovrebis ufleba moicavs da gulisxmobs piradi da ojaxuri cxovrebis, pativisa da Rirsebis, reputaciis, fizikuri da fsiqologiuri xelSeuxeblobis, piradi faqtebis dacvas, konfidencialuri informaciis gamJRavnebis akrZalvas. piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxebloba ar aris absoluturi ufleba. konstituciis Tanaxmad, piris uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi SesaZloa daeqvemdebaros SezRudvas mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu dakmayofilebulia Semdegi pirobebi: SezRudvebi ganxorcielebulia kanonis safuZvelze da aucilebelia demokratiul sazogadoebaSi imisaTvis, raTa dacul iqnes konstituciaSi mocemuli sxvaTa uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi, aseve, sxva konstituciuri Rire-

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bulebebi. SezRudvebi ar uaryofs da ar amcirebs uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis arss da daculia proporciulobis principiT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom xazgasmiT aRniSna, rom socialur da politikur cxovrebaSi monawile pirebis qmedebebi, maxasiaTebeli niSnebi da maTi piradi cxovrebis zogierTi aspeqti SesaZloa mniSvnelovani iyos sajaro interesebisaTvis. sazogadoebis interesi, moipovos ufro meti informacia konkretul pirebTan dakavSirebiT, emyareba konstitucias. es interesi ar iqneboda uzrunvelyofili, Tu sazogadoebrivi interesebis mqone informaciis gamoqveyneba, romelic socialur da politikur cxovrebaSi monawile pirebs exeba, maTgan Tanxmobis gamoxatvas moiTxovda. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sazogadoebisaTvis informaciis miwodebis Sesaxeb kanonis 14.3 muxli Seesabameboda konstitucias. litva sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 13-02-1997 miuxedavad imisa, rom reklama garkveuli saxis informacias warmoadgens, yvela informacia reklama ar aris. amgvarad, alkoholisa da Tambaqos produqtebis reklama krZalavs mxolod informaciis konkretul tips, romelic informaciis mTeli speqtris sapirispirod SesaZloa Sefasdes rogorc jerovani SezRudva da ar warmoadgens informaciis Tavisuflebis darRvevas. Tambaqosa da alkoholuri produqtebis reklamaze dawesebuli akrZalva ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos diskriminaciad, radganac aseTi akrZalva exeba mTlianad sazogadoebas da ara pirTa calkeul jgufs. meore mxriv, aseTi akrZalvis mizans warmoadgens sazogadoebrivi interesebi, kerZod: axalgazrdebis dacva alkoholis an Tambaqos produqtebis moxmarebasTan dakavSirebiT fsiqologiuri zewolisagan, Tambaqos mowevis gavrcelebis SeCereba da sasmelis SezRudva qalebs Soris, momxmarebelTa dacva zogadi midrekilebis gaRvivebisa da arasruli informaciis miwodebisagan. aRniSnuli miznebi absoluturad eTanxmeba amocanebs, romlebic msoflio savaWro organizaciam sazogado da adamianTa janmrTelobis sferoSi daisaxa. momCivanma ­ parlamentis wevrTa jgufma ­ mimarTa sakonstitucio sasamarTlos TxovniT, daedgina, Seesabameboda Tu ara konstitucias litvis respublikis alkoholisa da Tambaqos kontrolis Sesaxeb kanonis calkeuli debulebebi da alkoholis reklamasTan dakavSirebuli mTavrobis rezolucia #179. momCivnebi amtkicebdnen, rom sadavo normebi krZalavda alkoholisa da Tambaqos pro-

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gamoxatvis Tavisufleba

duqtebis reklamas litvis teritoriaze. dgeba sakiTxi, zemoxsenebuli kanonebi Seesabameba Tu ara konstituciis 25-e muxls, romlis Tanaxmad, pirs unda hqondes ufleba, gaaCndes Tavisi mrwamsi da mosazrebebi da gamoxatos isini Tavisuflad, pirs ar unda SeeSalos xeli informaciisa da ideebis moZiebaSi, mopovebasa da gavrcelebaSi, mosazrebebis gamoxatvaSi. am uflebis SezRudva dasaSvebia mxolod kanonis safuZvelze, rodesac es aucilebelia janmrTelobis, pativisa da Rirsebis, piradi cxovrebis an moralis an konstituciuri marTlwesrigis dacvisaTvis. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos azriT, alkoholisa da Tambaqos reklamis akrZalvasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gadaWra SesaZlebelia mxolod informaciis Tavisuflebis koncefciis garkveviTa da am Tavisuflebis SezRudvis SesaZleblobiT. amave dros, aucilebelia, ganimartos is dapirispireba, romelic arsebobs informaciasa da reklamas da adamianis janmrTelobisaTvis alkoholisa da Tambaqos moxmarebis SesaZlo Sedegebs Soris. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, adamianis uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi SesaZloa SeizRudos, Tu SezRudva akmayofilebs or moTxovnas: 1. SezRudva unda iyos kanonieri; 2. igi aucilebeli unda iyos demokratiul sazogadoebaSi. kanonierebis moTxovna niSnavs, rom SezRudva SesaZloa ganxorcieldes mxolod kanonmdeblobiT, romlis normebic sakmarisad naTeli da garkveuli unda iyos. rodesac ganisazRvreba kanonis gamoyenebis farglebi, aucilebelia Sesabamisi uflebis miznisa da mniSvnelobis dadgena da, konstituciis Tanaxmad, SezRudvis SesaZleblobebis gansazRvra. rodesac ganvixilavT sakiTxs, konkretuli SezRudva aucilebelia Tu ara demokratiul sazogadoebaSi, pirvelad unda gairkves SezRudvis mizani da mizezebi, meore mxriv, gamoyenebuli SezRudvis saSualebebi misaRwevi miznis proporciuli unda iyos. radganac alkoholuri da Tambaqos produqtebis moxmareba adamianis janmrTelobas ueWvelad ayenebs zians, kanonmdebels ufleba hqonda, SeezRuda informacia alkoholisa da Tambaqos produqtebTan dakavSirebiT. gansaxilveli kanonebi warmoadgens komerciuli informaciis SezRudvas, romelic alkoholur da Tambaqos produqtebis gasaRebasa da moxmarebas exeba. aqedan gamomdinare, ganmcxadeblis pretenzia, rom kanonmdebloba krZalavs nebismier informacias, romelic alkoholur da Tambaqos produqcias exeba, ar aris gamyarebuli faqtebiT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom alkoholuri da Tambaqos produqciis reklamaze dawesebuli SezRudvebi

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

Seesabameboda konstitucias. Tumca, alkoholisa da Tambaqos produqciis arapirdapiri reklama iseve, rogorc mTavrobisaTvis reklamis SezRudvis uflebis delegireba da mTavrobis rezoluciis Sesabamisi nawili, ewinaaRmdegeboda konstitucias.

niderlandebi uzenaesi sasamarTlo 02-05-1997 piri, romlis suraTic iqna gamoyenebuli, piradi cxovrebis uflebis xelyofasTan dakavSirebiT samarTlebrivi dacviT sargeblobs. amitom aseT pirs yovelTvis eqneba pretenzia, ar gamoiyenon misi suraTi komerciuli mizniT. respondenti amuSavebda diskoTekas amsterdamSi, sadac saRamoobiT cekvebs rva pirisgan Semdgari jgufi warmoadgenda. 1991 wlis agvistoSi apelanti swored am jgufis erT-erTi wevri iyo. respondentma mas cekvis Sesrulebisas gadauRo suraTi da gamoiyena sareklamo broSuraSi saTauriT `gvesaWiroeba lamazi, welzemoT SiSveli sxeuli SiSveli SekrebebisaTvis~. respondentma foto aseve homoseqsualTa Jurnalis ukana ydaze dabeWda. apelantma samarTalwarmoeba aRZra respondentis winaaRmdeg da moiTxova misgan 10 000 guldeni miyenebuli zianisaTvis, romelic misi mtkicebiT respondentis arakanonieri qmedebebis Sedegad ganicada, kerZod, misi broSurisa da Jurnalis bolo gverdze fotos gamoqveynebis gamo. ganmcxadeblis saCivris mTavar mizezs homoseqsualTa Jurnalis bolo gverdze misi suraTis gamoqveyneba warmoadgenda. amiT igi asocirebul iqna homoseqsualur moZraobasTan, rac mas, rogorc Cveulebrivi seqsualuri orientaciis mimdevars, kategoriulad ar surda. saapelacio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom saqmis yvela garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT apelantis mxridan ar moipoveboda raime safuZveli an argumentacia imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom suraTis gamoqveynebiT dairRva misi piradi cxovrebis pativiscemis ufleba. saapelacio sasamarTlos azriT, diskoTekaze cekviT, ganmcxadebelma TviTon Caiyena Tavi erotizmis sazogado atmosferoSi da garkveulwilad masac miuZRvis brali imaSi, rom diskoTekis mepatroneebma misi suraTebi gamoiyenes. sakasacio saCivris Sedegad uzenaesma sasamarTlom am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT aRniSna, rom saavtoro uflebebis Sesaxeb kanonis 21-e muxlis Tanaxmad, suraTze gamosaxul pirs yovelTvis gaaCnia interesi portretis komerciuli sareklamo mizniT gamoqveynebis sapirispirod. uzenaesi

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sasamarTlo azriT, suraTis reklamaSi gamoyenebiT suraTze gamosaxuli piri sazogadoebis mier asocirebuli iqneboda konkretul produqtTan an momsaxurebasTan. sazogadoeba aseve gulisxmobs, rom suraTi ar iqneboda gamoyenebuli gamosaxuli piris Tanxmobis gareSe. uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom mxolod is faqti, rom suraTze asaxuli piri ukve asocirebulia konkretul periodSi im produqtTan an momsaxurebasTan warmoebuli TanamSromlobis Sedegad, ar niSnavs, rom suraTis publikacia sareklamo mesijSi miznad isaxavda ufro farTo masebis mozidvas, es ki aranairad ar ayenebs zians apelantis piradi cxovrebis uflebas. sakiTxi, Seesabameboda Tu ara publikacia produqtisa Tu momsaxurebis xasiaTs, ar iyo mniSvnelovani imis gansazRvrisas, irRveoda Tu ara saavtoro uflebis Sesaxeb kanonmdebloba. uzenaesi sasamarTlos azriT, piradi cxovrebis ufleba dairRveoda iseTi reklamis gadacemisas, romelic gamosaxul pirs `erotizmisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis~ situaciaSi Caayenebda. bolos, uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gamoxatvis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli interesebi imdenad ar iyo mniSvnelovani, rom gaemarTlebina apelantis piradi cxovrebis uflebis darRveva.

norvegia uzenaesi sasamarTlo 20-11-2001 konkretul garemoebebSi gakeTebuli cilismwamebluri SeniSvnebi, romlebic savaraudo gaupatiurebas exeba, evropuli konvenciis me-10 muxliT garantirebuli gamoxatvis TavisuflebiTaa daculi da amitomac mTlianad Seesabameba sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 247-e muxls. A amtkicebda, rom igi B-m gaaupatiura kolejis wveulebis Semdeg. B uaryofda gaupatiurebis braldebas da amtkicebda, rom seqsualuri kavSiri absoluturi Tanxmobisa da survilis safuZvelze iqna ganxorcielebuli. momCivani da mopasuxe kolejSi Tanaklaselebi iyvnen. A­m ramdenime adamians gaando, rom gaaupatiures. B-m samarTalwarmoeba aRZra ciliswamebisa da zemoxsenebuli gancxadebebis gakeTebisaTvis. A-m ver warmoadgina veraviTari saxis mtkicebuleba gaupatiurebis dasadastureblad. raionulma da saapelacio sasamarTlom B-s moraluri zianis anazRaureba daakisra 20 000 guldenis odenobiT, aseve, sadavo gamoTqmebi dagmo da arasamarTlianad miiCnia. mtkicebulebaTa

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

ganxilvis Semdgom saapelacio sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom braldeba simarTles ar Seesabameboda. A-m gaupatiurebis Sesaxeb auwya TerTmet adamians. saapelacio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom, radganac am adamianTagan Svidi maTgani megobari iyo, dialogebi da gandoba movlenidan axlo monakveTebSi gaimarTa. A-m gaasaCivra moqmedi kanonmdeblobis gamoyeneba uzenaes sasamarTloSi da daeyrdno konstituciis me-100 da evropuli konvenciis me-10 muxlebs. uzenaesi sasamarTlos mTavar amocanas gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis, Rirsebisa da reputaciis dacvas Soris balansis damyareba warmoadgenda. gansaxilvel sakiTxTa nusxaSi Sedioda is oTxi gancxadeba, romelTa safuZvelzec saapelacio sasamarTlom B-s sasargeblod gamoitana gadawyvetileba. xolo uzenaesi sasamarTlos umravlesobam ki daadgina, rom gancxadebebi daculi iyo gamoxatvis TavisuflebiT da, Sesabamisad, iyo gamarTlebuli da mTlianad Seesabameboda sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobas. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom A keTilsindisierad moqmedebda, rodesac acxadebda, rom igi gaaupatiures. misi SeniSvnebi unda Sefasebuliyo, rogorc misi rwmena, romelic dakavSirebuli iyo saklaso situaciaSi mis pirad saWiroebasTan, razec Zalian did zegavlenas axdenda is faqti, rom B isev imave klasis moswavled rCeboda. A-s TvalsazrisiT, misi gancxadebebis mizans skolaSi Seqmnili situaciis daregulireba warmoadgenda. imis ganxilvisas, SeniSvnebi kanonieri iyo Tu ara, aucilebeli iyo inter alia mxedvelobaSi im faqtis miReba, Tu ra esaWiroeboda msxverpls seqsualuri Tavdasxmis Semdeg. uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom axlad amoqmedebuli sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis konkretuli nawili, romelic exeboda kanonier TviTdajerebulobasa da Sinagan rwmenas gaupatiurebis Semdeg, ar gamoiyeneboda winamdebare saqmesTan mimarTebiT. Tumca, norvegiis kanonmdeblobaSi adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis statutidan gamomdinare, ar SeiZleba imis gamoricxva, rom norvegiis sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdebloba ukve Seesabameboda konvencias. uzenaesi sasamarTlo saqmis ganxilvisas daeyrdno evropuli sasamarTlos zogad principebs saqmeSi Bergens Tidende and others v. Norway. ganxilvis Sedegad, rogorc zemoT iqna naxsenebi, sasamarTlom ar gaiziara saapelacio sasamarTlos mosazreba da gadawyvita, rom ganmcxadebeli sargeblobda gamoxatvis TavisuflebiT dadgenili principebiT.

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poloneTi sakonstitucio tribunali 07-06-1994 radio da satelevizio mauwyeblebs ar SeuZliaT, Seuracxyon maTi mayureblis religiuri grZnobebi. azris gamoxatvis Tavisufleba, miuxedavad imisa, rom igi warmoadgens demokratiuli sazogadoebis erT-erT fundamentur instituts, ar sargeblobs absoluturi dacviT. igi SeiZleba daeqvemdebaros aucilebel SezRudvebs im pirobiT, rom igi ar arRvevs Tavisuflebis arss da gansazRvrulia kanonmdeblobiT. radio da satelevizio mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb kanonSi gamoxatuli mayureblis religiuri rwmenisa da grZnobebis pativiscema warmoadgens gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis erT-erT SezRudvas. am SezRudvis samarTlebrivi Sinaarsi Seesabameba piradi interesebis dacvas, rac poloneTis samoqalaqo kodeqsiT aris gansazRvruli. qristianuli faseulobebis pativiscema, romelic moculia kanoniT radio da satelevizio mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb, mocemulia mxolod magaliTis saxiT da gamarTlebulia poloneTis sazogadoebis qristianuli tradiciiTa da kulturiT. tribunalis azriT, mauwyebloba, romelic ar Seesabameba qristianul Rirebulebebs, aseve SesaZloa mayureblis religiuri rwmenis mimarT upativcemlobad CaiTvalos. sakonstitucio tribunals unda ganexila radio da satelevizio mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb kanonis ori debuleba: 1. debuleba ukrZalavda mauwyebels mayureblis religiuri grZnobebis Seuracxyofas; 2. avaldebulebda sazogado mauwyeblobis organizaciebs, pativi ecaT qristianuli RirebulebebisaTvis, romlebic Seesabameba da exmaureba sayovelTao eTikur normebs. ganmcxadeblis azriT, `qristianuli Rirebulebebis~ normatiuli xasiaTi Sedegad iwvevs am Rirebulebebis win wamowevas sxva RirebulebebTan mimarTebiT. es ki ewinaaRmdegeba Tanasworobis konstituciur princips da arRvevs azris gamoxatvisa da gadacemis konstituciur Tavisuflebas, rac niSnavs imas, rom gansaxilveli debuleba amoqmedda kanonis uzenaesobis ZiriTadi principis sawinaaRmdegod. 1994 wlis martSi gansaxilveli debulebebi daeqvemdebara samarTlebrivad savaldebulo ganmartebas, romelic gaica tribunalis mier. tribunalma gadawyvita, rom aRniSnuli debulebebi ar SeiZleba gaxdes radio an satelevizio mauwyeblobis nebismieri xasiaTis cenzuris safuZveli. tribunalis azriT, gamoxatvis Tavisufleba, misi konstituciuri xasiaTis miuxedavad, ar aris

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

absoluturi xasiaTis matarebeli. igi SesaZloa daeqvemdebaros aucilebel SezRudvebs, magram SezRudvebi ar unda arRvevdes Tavisuflebis arss da dadgenili unda iyos gamonaklisis saxiT. winamdebare gadawyvetilebaSi tribunali mxars uWers zemoxsenebul mosazrebas. pirveli debuleba ar axdens diskriminacias romelime religiis sapirispirod, radganac igi icavs yvela saxis religiur mrwamss maTi sxvaobisa Tu aRmsareblobis miuxedavad. aseTi saxis dacva warmoadgens sindisisa da aRmsareblobis erT-erT ZiriTad garantias. meore debulebiT, qristianuli Rirebulebebis pativiscema ar niSnavs maTi ganviTarebis valdebulebas. nebismieri sxva interpretacia ewinaaRmdegeboda saxelmwifos mxridan Tanasworobisa da moraluri neitralitetis SenarCunebas. ufro metic, gansaxilveli debuleba erT-erTia im mravali programuli direqtividan, romlebic radio da satelevizio mauwyeblobas exeba da miuTiTebs im qristianul Rirebulebebze, romlebic eTanxmeba sayovelTao eTikur principebs.

rumineTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 16-04-2002 sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 206-e muxli, romelic gansazRvravs cilismwameblur qmedebebs, rogorc Rirsebisa da pativis winaaRmdeg mimarTul danaSaulebs, icavs sxva pirTa uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs da ar ewinaaRmdegeba gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas. gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis xelSeuxebloba, romelic konstituciis 30.1-e muxlSia gansazRvruli, ar amarTlebs piris pativisa da Rirsebis Seuracxyofas. gamoxatvis Tavisufleba ar warmoadgens absolutur uflebas. SezRudvis farglebi unda iyos kanoniT dadgenili da aucilebeli demokratiul sazogadoebaSi sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis an erovnuli uSiSroebis, kanonmdeblobisa da marTlwesrigis, sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobisa da moralis interesebis dasacavad. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos winaSe manamde warmodgenili iyo pretenzia, romlis Tanaxmad, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 206-e muxli ewinaaRmdegeboda konstitucias. mosarCele mxare TxovniT mimarTavda sasamarTlos, gaeTvaliswinebina konstituciis 30-e muxlis debulebebi da sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 206-e muxli konstituciasTan Seusabamod daedgina nawilobriv mainc, radganac isini Jurnalistis SefasebiT msjelobebs sisxlissamarTlebrivad dasjadad acxadebdnen. sadavo kanoni sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobas akisrebda im sityvebisa da qmedebebisaTvis, romlis

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gamoxatvis Tavisufleba

Sedegadac ziani miadga piris pativsa da Rirsebas, aseve, nebismieri gancxadebisa an mtkicebisaTvis konkretul faqtebTan dakavSirebiT, romelTa namdvilobis SemTxvevaSi pirs daekisreboda sisxlissamarTlebrivi, administraciuli an disciplinaruli sasjeli. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 206-e muxli exeboda sasjels ara SefasebiTi msjelobebisaTvis, aramed konkretuli faqtebisaTvis, romlebic konkretul pirovnebas miewereboda. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aseve daadgina, rom dairRva konvenciis me-10 muxlis 1-li punqti, radgan me-2 punqti moiTxovs, rom SezRudvis RonisZieba iyos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli da aucilebeli demokratiul sazogadoebaSi. im saqmeebSi, romlebsac momCivani mxare eyrdnoboda - Dalban v. Romania da Constantinescu v. Romania - adamianis uflebaTa evropulma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom ssk 206-e muxli Seesabameboda konvenciis me-10 muxls. amgvarad, sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom ssk 206-e muxli, romelic ciliswamebas exeboda, ar ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis 30-e muxls an saerTaSoriso aqtebis debulebebs.

rumineTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 19-11-1996 gamoxatvis Tavisufleba gulisxmobs azris gamoxatvis SeuzRudav uflebas, magram, amave dros, iTvaliswinebs im savaraudo danaSaulis mtkicebulebebis warmodgenas, romelic sajaro moxelis mier aris Cadenili, aseve, moicavs Seuracxyofis miyenebisagan Tavis Sekavebis valdebulebas. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom Setanil saCivarTan dakavSirebiT daadgina, rom ssk konkretuli debulebebi, romlebic xelisuflebis organoebis Seuracxyofas exeboda, arakonstituciuri iyo. konstituciis me-16 muxlis Tanaxmad, moqalaqeebi Tanasworni arian kanonisa da xelisuflebis organoebis winaSe yovelgvari privilegiisa Tu diskriminaciis gareSe. kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis principTan dakavSirebiT, moqalaqis erT-erTi fundamenturi ufleba, kerZod, ufleba gamoxatvis Tavisuflebaze, maT Soris, presis Tavisufleba, ganxilul iqna zemoxsenebul gadawyvetilebaSi. konstituciis Tanaxmad, gamoxatvis Tavisufleba ar unda ewinaaRmdegebodes piris Rirsebas, pativs, pirad cxovrebas. sakonstitucio garantiebi gamoiyeneba Tanabrad yvela moqalaqis mimarT, miuxedavad imisa, axorcielebs igi sajaro funqciebs Tu ara. gamox-

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atvis Tavisuflebaze dawesebul zemoxsenebul SezRudvebTan dakavSirebiT sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoebisas wamoWril iqna sakiTxi: SesaZlebeli iyo Tu ara gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis SezRudva im saqmeebSi, sadac gancxadebebi iqna gakeTebuli sajaro moxelesTan mimarTebiT an piri asocirebulia Tu ara xelisuflebis organoebTan, romlis saxeliTac igi axorcielebs konkretul funqciebs. xelisuflebis organo, romelic 1 pirisagan (prezidenti) Sedgeba, ar SeiZleba gancalkevdes im pirisagan, romelic mas ganasaxierebs da romlis saxeliTac igi, kanonis Tanaxmad, axorcielebs mis funqciebs. gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis ZiriTad arss mosazrebebisa da SeniSvnebis gamoxatvis Tavisufleba warmoadgens. dasaSvebi kritikis zRvari gacilebiT farToa, rodesac igi exeba politikoss da ara moqalaqes. es ki aixsneba sazogadoebaSi politikosis roliT da im faqtiT, rom politika exeba yvelas. Tumca, es ar niSnavs, rom konkretuli gancxadebis Sinaarsi SesaZloa gamoyenebul iqnes politikosis reputaciis Sesalaxavad. aseT magaliTs warmoadgens SemTxvevebi, rodesac politikoss brals sdeben gamogonili danaSaulis CadenaSi, magram ar arsebobs aranairi mtkicebuleba da faqtobrivi safuZveli. swored amitom sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom mosazrebebi politikur da moralur sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT ar warmoadgens iseT faqtebs, romlebsac SeuZlia ziani miayenos sajaro moxelis reputacias. magram Seuracxyofa an gancxadebebi, romlebic daudasturebel danaSaulze miuTiTebs, gamonakliss warmoadgens da ar aris moculi gamoxatvis TavisuflebiT.

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo pirveli palata 30-06-1998 informaciis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebul uflebasa da Rirsebisa da pativiscemis uflebas Soris konfliqtis SemTxvevaSi, prevalirebs informaciis Tavisufleba, Tuki Sesabamisi informacia zustia da sazogadoebriv interesebs exeba. sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi Setanil iqna ganacxadi im sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebasTan dakavSirebiT, romliTac yovelkvireul gazeTs msjavri daedo niderlandebSi espaneTis diplomatiuri warmomadgenlis pativisa da Rirsebis arakanonierad SelaxvaSi. mas miawerdnen iaraRis, avtomanqanebisa da narkotikebis trefikings, aseve, organizacias bralad edeboda espaneTis diplo-

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gamoxatvis Tavisufleba

matiur korpusze ganxorcielebuli ramdenime Tavdasxma. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom informaciis Tavisuflebas specialuri adgili ukavia espaneTis kanonmdeblobaSi Tavisi statusisa da im garantiebiT, romlebsac igi uzrunvelyofda Tavisufal sazogadoebriv azrTan mimarTebiT, rac, Tavis mxriv, politikur pluralizmTan iyo dakavSirebuli. Tumca, informaciis Tavisuflebis ganxorcieleba gamarTlebuli iyo mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki Sesabamisi informacia iqneboda zusti da sajaro interesebs Seexeboda. xolo, Tu orive kriteriumi dakmayofildeboda, am uflebis ganxorcielebas hqonda upiratesoba im piris pativisa da Rirsebis uflebaze, romelsac Seexeboda informacia, radgan informaciis Tavisufleba warmoadgenda demokratiuli sazogadoebis safuZvels. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gamoqveynebuli informacia exeboda mniSvnelovan sazogadoebriv sakiTxebs da, Sesabamisad, maTi interesis sagans warmoadgenda. Tumca, winamdebare saqmeSi konstituciuri kriteriumi ar iqna dakmayofilebuli. igi gamomqveynebels informaciis sizustis Semowmebas akisrebda. winamdebare saqmeSi gamoqveynebuli informacia aRwerilia rogorc ucxouri warmoSobis informacia, romelzec avtorebma pasuxismgebloba aiRes da ganaviTares, rogorc sakuTari, profesiuli movaleobis ganxorcielebis gareSe, rac maT kanoniT ekisrebodaT. moxsenebis avtorebma, valdebulebis miuxedavad, ar gadaamowmes, Seesabameboda Tu ara sinamdviles gacxadebuli faqtebi.

SvedeTi uzenaesi administraciuli sasamarTlo 07-11-2000 presis Sesaxeb kanonSi aris normebi, romlebic icavs nebismieri piris anonimurobas. kanoni gamomqveynebels avaldebulebs, gaiTvaliswinos informaciis momwodebeli piris anonimuroba. igi ukrZalavs xelisuflebis nebismier organos aseTi piris vinaobis dadgenas. normebi aseve gulisxmobs reklamis gamavrceleblebs. konkretuli pirobebidan gamomdinare, es normebi xels ar uSlis sagadasaxado organoebs TavianTi uflebis ganxorcielebaSi, kerZod, sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, nebismieri pirisagan, romelic warmarTavs bizness, maT Soris, sagamomcemlo saqmianobas, moiTxovon saSemosavlo ganacxadi, romelic exeba saqonlis gayidvisa da momsaxurebis Sedegad gadaxdil Tanxebs, aseve, sxva konkretul biznes-sawarmoebs.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

adgilobrivma sagadasaxado ofisma SvedeTis sagazeTo gamomcemlobas SeukveTa, warmoedgina saSemosavlo ganacxadi biznesmen b-sTan dakavSirebiT. moTxovna exeboda invoisebs, romlebic gamowerili iyo b-s mier 1997-98 wlebSi. gamomcemelma moiTxova mis mimarT gamonaklisis daSveba saidumloebis Senaxvis valdebulebasTan dakavSirebiT, rac gansazRvruli iyo kanoniT. sasamarTlom ubrZana gamomcemels, warmoedgina moTxovnili informacia. gamomcemeli amtkicebda, rom mas ar SeeZlo daedasturebina an uareyo gansaxilveli informaciis floba. amgvarad, man ver Seasrula sasamarTlo brZaneba. dabali instanciis sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom gamomqveyneblis uari, warmoedgina informacia, sasamarTlos arTmevda SesaZleblobas, jerovnad ganexila ganacxadi da daekmayofilebina igi. uzenaesma administraciulma sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom, radganac moTxovnili informacia Seexeboda b-s, rogorc reklamis mauwyebels, gamomcemels garkveuli pirobebis dakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa hqonoda gamonaklisis ufleba im valdebulebasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic mas kanoniT ekisreboda. pirvel aseT pirobas warmoadgenda is, rom informacia unda yofiliyo iseTi xasiaTis, rom SesaZlebeli gamxdariyo b-s kavSiris dadgena konkretul reklamebTan. meore, reklamebis Sinaarsi ar unda yofiliyo iseTi, TiTqos b daTanxmda, gaemJRavnebina vinaoba. gamomcemels unda Seesrulebina sasamarTlo brZaneba moTxovnili informaciis wardgenasTan dakavSirebiT. informacia atarebda zogad xasiaTs da gamomqveyneblis mier misi dadastureba ar niSnavda saidumloebis Senaxvis valdebulebis darRvevas. sasamarTlo informacias Seafasebda piris anonimurobis uflebis dacviT da, aqedan gamomdinare, kanonis 3.4 muxliT ver CaiTvleboda gamoZiebad. is faqti, rom warmodgenili informacia sajaro xasiaTs miiRebda sasamarTlo samarTalwarmoebis pirobebSi, saidumloebis Senaxvis moTxovnas ar miayenebda zians, rogorc es oficialuri saidumloebis kanonis Tanaxmad aris moTxovnili. radgan kompaniam nebismieri dokumentis an informaciis warmodgenaze uari ganacxada, sasamarTlos ar SeuZlia saqmis ganxilva da, Sesabamisad, ver dauSvebs raime saxis gamonakliss.

Sveicaria federaluri sasamarTlo 28-03-2002 respublikisa da Jenevis kantonis umaRlesma sabWom miiRo kanoni reklamis ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb. xsenebuli kanoni detalurad awesrigebs sazogadoebrivi sakuTrebis nagebobebze nebismieri xilvadi saxis reklamis warmodgenas im procedurasTan erTad, romlis

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dacvac savaldebuloa. kerZod, igi krZalavs nebismier reklamas, Tuki igi aRemateba sazogadoebrivi sakuTrebis nagebobis moculobis 15%-s. igulisxmeba sazogadoebrivi Senobebi da sazogadoebrivi TavSeyris adgilebi, municipalitetebisa da saqvelmoqmedo sazogadoebebis nagebobaTa rogorc fasadi, ise Sida sivrce. sxvadasxva sareklamo gaerTianebebma da kompaniebma xsenebuli kanonis sapasuxod Seitanes sakonstitucio sarCeli, romelSic federaluri konstituciis ramdenime debulebis darRvevas amtkicebdnen da, Sesabamisad, moiTxovdnen maT gauqmebas. federalurma sasamarTlom abstraqtuli gadasinjvis Sedegad ganmcxadeblis saCivari kanonierad cno im safuZvelze, rom kanoni dacul interesebs exeboda. Tumca, zemoxsenebulis miuxedavad, sasamarTlom ganacxadi arsebiT ganxilvaze dauSveblad gamoacxada. ganmcxadeblebi amtkicebdnen, rom kantonis kanonmdebloba federaluri kanonmdeblobis upiratesobas ewinaaRmdegeboda, rac federaluri konstituciis 49-e muxliT aris garantirebuli. es konstituciuri principi gamoricxavs kantonis wesebis miRebas an ganxorcielebas, Tu isini ar Seesabameba federalur kanonmdeblobas an mis mniSvnelobasa da suliskveTebas, an Tu exeba im sakiTxebs, romelTan dakavSirebiTac federalurma parlamentma miiRo amomwuravi normebi. sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis dacva, romelsac sadavo kanoni exeba, kantonis pasuxismgeblobaSi Sedis. is, rom konstitucia am sferoSi garkveul uflebamosilebebs gadascems konfederacias, ar aris ganmsazRvreli. kerZod, konfederacias gaaCnia uflebamosileba, Seqmnas kanonmdebloba alkoholTan da sakveb saSualebebTan dakavSirebiT. am mizniT, federalurma kanonmdeblobam gansazRvra aRmkveTi RonisZiebebi alkoholizmsa da mowevasTan sabrZolvelad. Tumca, federalurma kanonmdeblobam ar gamoricxa kantonis doneze ufro farTo normebis arseboba. amitomac ver vityviT, rom kantonis kanonmdebloba arRvevs federaluri kanonmdeblobis upirates Zalas. garda amisa, kantonis normebi ar ewinaaRmdegeba Sida bazarTan dakavSirebul kanons. am kanonis Tanaxmad, pirs aqvs saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeTavazebis ufleba SveicariaSi nebismier adgilas, Tuki Sesabamisi saqmianoba nebadarTulia kantonSi, sadac am biznesis mwarmoeblis saTavo ofisi mdebareobs. Ria bazarze xelmisawvdomoba sadavo normebiTaa SezRuduli. Tumca, es normebi TavisTavad ar krZalavs yvela saxis reklamas alkoholsa da TambaqosTan dakavSirebiT, aramed gansazRvravs kanons, romlis farglebic SezRudulia da romelic proporciulobis princips Seesabameba. aqedan gamomdinare, gansaxilveli debulebebi ar ewinaaRmdegeba federaluri Sida bazris kanonis debulebebs. ganmcxadebeli aseve amtkicebda maTi ekonomikuri Tavisuflebisa

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da sakuTrebis uflebis darRvevas. Tumca, aRniSnuli Tavisufleba ar aris absoluturi xasiaTis da SeiZleba daeqvemdebaros SezRudvas, magram mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki igi kanonis safuZvelze xorcieldeba da sazogadoebrivi interesebiT aris ganpirobebuli, amave dros, akmayofilebs proporciulobis princips. sadavo kanoni warmoadgens adekvatur samarTlebriv safuZvels. sazogadoebis interesebidan gamomdinare, mosaxleobis, kerZod ki, axalgazrda Taobis janmrTelobis dasacavad kantonis parlamentma unda miiRos garkveuli zomebi. rac Seexeba proporciulobis princips, reklamaze dawesebulma SezRudvam, Tavis mxriv, unda SezRudos alkoholisa da Tambaqos moxmareba. es simkacre ar vrceldeba kerZo sakuTrebasa da Senobebze, radgan amiT Tavidan avicilebT reklamis ganTavsebas TvalsaCino adgilas. sadavo kanoni ar krZalavs reklamis sxva formas xsenebul produqtebTan mimarTebiT. sxva mxriv, gansxvaveba alkoholur sasmelebsa da alkoholis dabali Semcvelobis sasmelebs Soris misaRebia. centraluri mTavrobis qmedeba, romelic mxolod alkoholuri sasmelebis SezRudviskenaa mimarTuli, ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos Tanaswori mopyrobis sawinaaRmdegod. rac Seexeba reklamis SemzRudavi debulebebis gamoyenebas, Jenevis parlamentma sareklamo saqmianobasTan dakavSirebiT licenzirebadi praqtikis warmoeba arCia. man gamoricxa sareklamo monopoliis sistema kerZo sakuTrebasTan mimarTebiT, rac federalurma sasamarTlom axlaxan gamotanil gadawyvetilebebSi araproporciulad miiCnia. licenziis mopovebis valdebuleba, romlis gacemac materialuri kanonmdeblobis normebs eqvemdebareba, sakmarisia sazogadoebriv interesebSi Semavali miznebisa da proporciulobis principis dasakmayofileblad.

Sekrebis Tavisufleba

xorvatia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 31-03-1999 Sekrebis Tavisuflebis, rogorc konstituciuri uflebis (konstituciis 42-e muxli) SezRudva, gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi, daSvebulia mxolod saxelmwifos mier miRebuli kanonebis da ara adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis mier gamocemuli gadawyvetilebebis safuZvelze.

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Sekrebis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb sadavo debulebis (Naronde novine, 22/1992) Tanaxmad, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs ufleba miecaT, ganesazRvraT adgili, sadac nebadarTuli iqneboda yvela saxis sazogadoebrivi Sekrebis Catareba. debulebis arakonstituciurobis dasamtkiceblad gamoyenebul iqna Semdegi argumenti: im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sazogadoebrivi TavSeyrisaTvis dasaxelebuli iqneba sazogadoebisaTvis mouxerxebeli adgilebi, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs saSualeba miecemaT, akrZalon an SezRudon moqalaqeTa konstituciiT miniWebuli es ufleba. sasamarTlom daadgina (stated), rom kanonmdebels ar SeuZlia, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs mianiWos kompetenciebi, romelTa regulireba, konstituciis Tanaxmad, kanoniT aris gansazRvruli. kanoni naTlad unda ganmartavdes im kriteriumebs, romelTa safuZvelze dauSvebeli iqneba ama Tu im adgilas sazogadoebrivi TavSeyris gamarTva, riTac daculi unda iyos sxvaTa uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi, sazogadoebrivi wesrigi, morali da maTi janmrTeloba. sadavo debuleba gauqmebul iqna sasamarTlos mier.

dania uzenaesi sasamarTlo 16-08-1999 kanoni, romelic policias uflebas aZlevs, Tanamoazreebis TavSeyrisaTvis gankuTvnil teritoriaze ar dauSvas pirovneba, romelic sxva TavSeyris adgilze sxva dajgufebebTan SeiaraRebul konfrontaciebSia SemCneuli, ar ewinaaRmdegeba arc asociaciis Tavisuflebis da arc xelisuflebis danawilebis principebs. motocikletistTa or dajgufebas (Bandidos and Hells Angels) Soris Setakebis Semdeg, 1996 wlis oqtomberSi, daniis parlamentma miiRo kanoni "gansazRvrul teritoriebze (SenobebSi) gaCerebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb," raTa daculi yofiliyo motocikletistebis sacxovrebelTan (adgilsamyofelTan) mosaxle pirTa usafrTxoeba. aRniSnuli kanonis 1-li muxlis Tanaxmad, policia uflebamosilia, Tanamoazreebis TavSeyrisTvis gankuTvnil teritoriaze ar dauSvas is pirovneba, romelic sxva TavSeyris adgilze sxva dajgufebebTan SeiaraRebul konfrontaciebSia SemCneuli, vinaidan am pirovnebis daswreba qmnis Zaladobis warmoqmnis saSiSroebas, ramac SeiZleba udanaSaulo adamianebi daazaralos. mosarCelem, romelsac aekrZala im or SenobaSi yofna, romelic Hell Angels-ebis sacxovrebels, maTi TavSeyris adgils warmoadgenda,

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sarCeli Seitana iusticiis saministros (Justice Department) winaaRmdeg, vinaidan miiCnevda, rom akrZalva ukanono iyo. mosarCelem ganacxada, rom kanonis 1-li muxli ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis 79-e muxls, romlis Tanaxmad: "moqalaqeebs ufleba aqvT, winaswari nebarTvis gareSe moawyon SeuiaraRebeli TavSeyra. policia uflebamosilia, daeswros yvela saxis sazogadoebriv Sexvedras. Ria cis qveS gamarTuli Sekreba SeiZleba aikrZalos im SemTxvevaSi, Tu arsebobs sazogadoebrivi wesrigis darRvevis saSiSroeba." mosarCele amtkicebda, rom Sekreba kanoniT ikrZaleba mxolod Setakebis zogadi saSiSroebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, ramac SeiZleba safrTxe Seuqmnas sxva adamianebis sicocxles. mosarCelis mtkicebiT, mas Semdeg, rac parlamentma aRniSnuli kanonis miRebiT sakiTxi policiis regulirebis sferoSi moaqcia, kanoni winaaRmdegobaSi movida konstituciis me-3 muxlTan xelisuflebis danawilebis Sesaxeb. sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila aRniSnuli sarCeli. uzenaesma sasamarTlom ganmarta, rom sasamarTlos mier kanonis interpretaciis Tanaxmad, akrZalva SeiZleba moxdes mxolod Zaladobrivi Setakebis utyuari saSiSroebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi. zogadi safrTxis arseboba ar aris sakmarisi mtkicebuleba. ufro metic, kanonis mizani iyo, mezoblebisa da gamvlelebis usafrTxoebis dacva da ara SekrebebisaTvis xelis SeSla an misi monawileebisaTvis azris gamoTqmis uflebis akrZalva. eWvmitanili dajgufebisaTvis sacxovrebel SenobebSi Sekrebis akrZalvam es Senobebi maTTvis arasasurvelad aqcia. kanoni naklebad exeba im jgufebs, romlebic SetakebebSi monawileobis Sedegad Zaladobis msxverplad iqcnen. kanoni gulisxmobs sxva moqalaqeebis dacvas. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu Sexvedrebi ukve yvelasaTvis kargad nacnob sacxovrebel adgilebSi gagrZeldeboda, mezoblebis dasacavad policiis intensiuri Careva iqneboda saWiro, rasac SeiZleba ufro seriozuli garTulebebi mohyoloda. uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanoni, romelic gulisxmobs policiis Carevas aRniSnuli sakiTxis mosagvareblad, ar ewinaaRmdegeba xelisuflebis danawilebis princips.

safrangeTi sakonstitucio sabWo 18-01-1995 Tu sakiTxi ar exeba dacvasTan dakavSirebul saqmeebs, video dakvirvebis sistemis dasamontaJeblad aucilebelia departamentis doneze mosamarTlis TavmjdomareobiT Seqmnili komitetis daskvnis miReba. konstituciurma sabWom daadgina, rom komitetis rolis

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TvalsazrisiT, komitetis wevroba, romelic ar ganisazRvra sakanonmdeblo organos mier, unda iZleodes damoukideblobis garantias. sakanonmdeblo organos hqonda ufleba, prefeqtebi aReWurvaT uflebamosilebiT, aekrZalaT iseTi sagnebis tareba an gadazidva, romlebic SeiZleboda gamoyenebuliyo iaraRad iseT SemTxvevebSi, sadac arsebobda sazogadoebrivi wesrigis seriozuli darRvevis saSiSroeba. garda gamonaklisi SemTxvevebisa, sakanonmdeblo organom ufleba darTo, amgvari akrZalvebi SemoRebuliyo mxolod demonstraciebis adgilze an maT uSualo siaxloves. garkveuli debulebebi kritikis safuZveli gaxda, vinaidan isini ar iTvaliswinebdnen moTxovnas, rom akrZalvebis SemoRebis nebarTva miRebuliyo sasamarTlo xelisuflebisgan (romelic pirovnuli Tavisuflebis damcvels warmoadgens) manam, sanam ganxorcieldeboda avtomanqanebis Cxreka iaraRis aRmosaCenad da amosaRebad. demonstraciebSi monawileobis akrZalva, romlis dawesebis ufleba aqvs sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlos, rogorc damatebiTi sasjeli maqsimum sami wlis vadiT da romelic exeba mxolod im sasjelSi miTiTebul adgilebs, arc sasjelTa proporciulobis princips arRvevda da arc pirovnebis Tavisuflebis, Tavisufali gadaadgilebisa da azris gamoTqmis koleqtiuri Tavisuflebis uflebis moTxovnebs ewinaaRmdegeboda. adamianis piradi cxovrebis pativiscemis uflebis Selaxvam SeiZleba SezRudos pirovnebis Tavisufleba. video dakvirvebis sistemis gamoyeneba unda eqvemdebarebodes im garantiebis uzrunvelyofas, romlebic miznad isaxaven am uflebis gamoyenebis dacvas. nebismier dainteresebul mxares hqonda ufleba, video dakvirvebis sistemasTan dakavSirebul nebismieri sakiTxi gansaxilvelad waredgina departamentis doneze Seqmnili komitetisaTvis. am administraciulma proceduram ar unda SezRudos dainteresebuli mxaris ufleba, Sesabamisi sasamarTlos winaSe daayenos xsenebuli sakiTxi, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, daCqarebuli proceduriT. saprezidento arCevnebamde xuTi TviT adre erovnul asambleasa (Sekrebis adgili) da senatSi arsebulma opoziciurma jgufebma ori sarCeli Seitanes sakonstitucio sabWoSi da moiTxoves im kanonis gadasinjva, romelic asaxavda premier-ministris mier gatarebul usafrTxoebis politikas, romelic, amave dros, prezidentobis kandidati iyo. avtomanqanebis CxrekasTan dakavSirebiT sakonstitucio sabWom mxari dauWira 1997 wels daSvebul precedents da SemoiRo araerTi Semamsubuqebeli ganmarteba, ris Sedegadac sakanonmdeblo normebi umoqmedo gaxda. sabWom, agreTve, daadastura 1993 wlis 13 agvistos SemoRebuli gasaCivrebis ufleba da kanonis me-16 muxlis ori punqtis gakritikebiT xelaxla gausva xazi pirovnebis Tavisuflebis dacvis saqmeSi sasamarTlo xelisuflebisaTvis miniWebuli konstitu-

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ciuri rolis mniSvnelobas. pirvelad damyarda kavSiri adamianis piradi cxovrebis pativiscemis uflebasa da pirovnebis Tavisuflebas Soris. sakonstitucio sabWom SezRuda demonstraciis ufleba da ara azris koleqtiuri gamoxatvis Tavisufleba.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 10-01-1995 sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTloebis mier muqariT an daSinebiT iZulebis Sesaxeb debulebis imgvarad ganmarteba, TiTqos mjdomare aqciebi, romlebic gzas an SenobasTan misasvlels ketaven, eqvemdebareba sisxlissamarTlebriv akrZalvas, ewinaaRmdegeba sisxlis samarTalSi (Bestimmtheitsgrundstatz) kanonieri sinamdvilis princips. 60-iani, 70-iani da 80-iani wlebis bolos zogierTi saxis demonstracia miznad isaxavda garkveul Senobebsa da, mogvianebiT, iseT samxedro teritoriebze misasvlelis Caketvas, sadac ganlagebuli iyo kruzisa da perSingis tipis raketebi. vinc amgvar aqciebSi monawileobda, maTgan bevri damnaSaved cnes muqaris an Zalis gamoyenebiT iZulebaSi (sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 240-e muxli). Cveulebrivi sasamarTloebi, romlebic samocdaaTi wliT adre daSvebul precedentze miuTiTebdnen, Tanmimdevrulad acxadebdnen, rom aRniSnul sisxlissamarTlebriv normaSi Zaladobis cneba ar moiTxovda fizikuri Zalis gamoyenebas, magram damnaSaved cnobisTvis sakmarisad miaCndaT, Tuki msxverplis reaqcia ganisazRvreboda damnaSavis saqcieliT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom es arRvevda ZiriTadi kanonis 103.2 muxls, romelic, agreTve, iTvaliswinebs kanonis sinamdvilis moTxovnas, rom "mjdomare" aqcia kvalificirdeba, rogorc Zaladoba sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 240-e muxlis gagebiT (muqaris an Zalis gamoyenebiT iZuleba). damatebiTi informacia: rvidan sami mosamarTle ar daeTanxma da werilobiT gamoTqva Tavisi gansakuTrebuli azri imis Taobaze, rom "mjdomare" aqcia SeiZleba Sefasdes Zaladobad. amgvar ganmartebaze dafuZnebuli sasjeli ar ewinaaRmdegeba sinamdvilis Sesaxeb moTxovnas, radgan igi exeba mxolod Cveulebrivi sasamarTloebis precedentul samarTals. am gadawyvetilebis praqtikuli Sedegebi sadavoa. sazogadod, piri, romelic sasamarTlom damnaSaved cno mogvianebiT arakonstituciurad aRiarebuli kanonis safuZvelze, xelaxla unda gasamarTldes sakonstitucio sasamarTlos wesdebis 79.1 muxlis mixedviT. mocemul SemTxvevaSi, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom sakanon-

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mdeblo norma arakonstituciurad ar miiCnia, aramed moiTxova mxolod misi garkveuli saxiT ganmarteba, romelic konstituciurad cxra wlis winaT iyo cnobili. aqedan gamomdinare, warmoiSva dava, aqvT Tu ara damnaSaved cnobil pirebs maTi saqmis xelaxla ganxilvis ufleba. 1986 wels sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganixila muqaris an Zalis gamoyenebiT iZulebis Sesaxeb sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis debulebis konstituciurobis sakiTxi (Entscheidungen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts 73, 206). am gadawyvetilebiT sakonstitucio sasamarTlom oTxi xmiT oTxis winaaRmdeg daadgina, rom muqaris an Zalis gamoyenebiT iZulebis Sesaxeb sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis debulebis ganmarteba, romlis mixedviTac, "mjdomare aqcia" ar Sedis "Zaladobis" cnebaSi, ar ewinaaRmdegeboda konstitucias.

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 29-11-2001 miuxedavad imisa, rom Sekrebis Tavisufleba adamianis erT-erTi e umniSvnelovanesi uflebaa, is ar aris SeuzRudavi. "Sekrebis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb kanonis" Tanaxmad, romelic mSvidobian Sekrebebsac Seexeba, organizatorebi SeiZleba iyvnen mxolod ungreTis moqalaqeebi an ungreTSi cxovrebis an muSaobis uflebis mqone pirebi. Sesabamisad, kanoniT dawesebuli Sekrebis Sesaxeb winaswari gafrTxileba ar warmoadgens konstituciis darRvevas. peticionerebma moiTxoves, ganexilaT "Sekrebis Sesaxeb kanonis" konstituciasTan Sesabamisoba. Tavdapirvelad isini amtkicebdnen, rom policielis kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli ufleba, akrZalos an SeaCeros spontanuri Sekrebebi, SeiZleba arasworad iqnes gamoyenebuli, vinaidan kanoni mSvidobian Sekrebebzec vrceldeba. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganmarta, rom Tu policia ukanonod akrZalavs an SezRudavs mSvidobian Sekrebas, kanonis Tanaxmad, dazaralebuls ufleba aqvs, zianis anazRaureba moiTxovos. amas garda, peticionerebi eWvqveS ayenebdnen kanonis im debulebis konstituciurobas, romlis Tanaxmadac, erTi mxaris mier Sekrebis uflebis gamoyenebiT ar unda dairRves sxva adamianis uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi. maTi azriT, debuleba metismetad bundovania iseTi fundamenturi uflebis SezRudvisas, rogoricaa mSvidobiani Sekrebis ufleba, e.i. irRveva Legal Certanity. sasamarTlom gaiTvaliswina is ramdenime iuridiuli debuleba, romlebic uflebamosilma pirebma adamianis fundamentur uflebebze msgavsi

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SezRudvebi dawesebisas unda gaiTvaliswinon. erT-erTi aseTi debulebaa konstituciis 8.2. muxli, romlis Tanaxmad, adamianis fundamentur uflebebTan dakavSirebuli wesebi regulirdeba kanoniT, romelmac ar unda SezRudos am uflebebis ZiriTadi arsi. ufro metic, aRniSnuli iyo, rom arsebul saqmeSi policiam unda daicvas sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebebi maSin, rodesac Sekrebis akrZalva an SezRudva sxva adamianebis uflebebis da Tavisuflebebis dacvas exeba. "Tavisufali Sekrebis Sesaxeb kanonis" meore sadavo debuleba aris me-5 muxli, romlis Tanaxmad, Sekrebebis organizatorebi SeiZleba iyvnen mxolod ungreTis moqalaqeebi an ungreTSi cxovrebis an muSaobis uflebis mqone pirebi. sasamarTlom sadavo muxli konstituciurad cno. aRniSnuli debulebis mizania, Sekrebis xelmZRvaneli iyos ungreTis kanonmdeblobisa da Sekrebis organizebis wesebis mcodne piri, romelic pasuxismgebeli iqneba Sekrebis periodSi SesaZlo dazianebebze. kidev erTi da ara ukanaskneli sadavo debuleba: peticionerebma aramarTebulad miiCnies kanonis moTxovna winaswari gafrTxilebis Sesaxeb, romelic, maTi azriT, zRudavs spontanuri Sekrebis Catarebis SesaZleblobas. sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom aseTi saxis gafrTxileba saWiroa mxolod Ria cis qveS, sazogadoebrivi TavSeyris adgilebSi Casatarebeli SekrebebisaTvis. amis mizezia Sekrebis Tavisuflebis pirdapiri kavSiri moqalaqis meore iseT fundamentur uflebasTan, rogoricaa gadaadgilebis Tavisufleba (konstitucia, 58-e muxli). swored am uflebis gamoyeneba xdeba quCebsa da moednebze. policielis gafrTxileba Sekrebis droisa da adgilis Sesaxeb aucilebelia imisaTvis, rom xelisufleba informirebuli iyos aseTi Sekrebebis Taobaze. peticionerebis argumentis sapasuxod, romlis Tanaxmad, gaufrTxilebeli Sekrebis akrZalva warmoadgens Sekrebis uflebis SezRudvas, sasamarTlom ganmarta, rom gaufrTxilebloba warmoadgens kanonis ugulebelyofas da aris pirveli nabiji Sekrebis uflebis araswori gamoyenebisken. winaswari gafrTxilebis gareSe Sesabamisi uwyebebi ver gansazRvraven, SeCerdeba Tu ara satransporto moZraoba quCaSi da Seferxdeba Tu ara sasamarTloebisa da parlamentis muSaoba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu Sekreba Catardeba sxva dros da adgilas, maSin is kargavs azrs. sasamarTlom xazgasmiT aRniSna, rom policiis ufleba, gaufrTxileblobis SemTxvevaSi akrZalos an SeaCeros Sekreba, ar niSnavs imas, rom policia am uflebas aucileblad gamoiyenebs. erT-erTma mosamarTlem, romelsac danarCeni sami daeTanxma, gamoTqva Tavisi

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gansakuTrebuli mosazreba. maTi SexedulebiT, mSvidobiani Sekrebis ufleba warmoadgens adamianis, da ara moqalaqis, uflebas. aqedan gamomdinare, kanonis me-5 muxli, romlis Tanaxmadac, mxolod ungreTis moqalaqeebs an ungreTSi cxovrebis an muSaobis uflebis mqone pirebs SeuZliaT Sekrebis organizeba ungreTSi, arRvevs Tavisufali Sekrebis ZiriTad uflebas. gansxvavebuli azri gamoiTqva kanonSi naxsenebi "TavSeyris" Sesaxeb, romelic sakmaod bundovania, rac policias uflebas aZlevs, gamoiyenos Zala arasakmarisi mizezis arsebobisas. mosamarTle kukorelis azriT, ar arsebobs arsebiTi gansxvaveba Sekrebis Tavisuflebasa da gadaadgilebis Tavisuflebas Soris. Tumca, es ar niSnavs, rom Sekrebis monawileebi sargebloben uflebiT, Tavad airCion esa Tu is marSruti. Sekrebis Tavisufleba da Seuferxebeli trafiki xSirad winaaRmdegobaSia erTmaneTTan. mosamarTle kukoreli miiCnevs, rom kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli zianis anazRaureba arasakmarisi zomaa, Tu mxedvelobaSi iqneba miRebuli policiis mier gamoyenebuli Zala. roca ixileba Sekrebis darbevis sakiTxi, policiam unda gaiTvaliswinos _ arRvevs Tu ara es Sekreba sxvaTa uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs da arsebobs Tu ara am uflebebis darRvevis aSkara saSiSroeba.

litva sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 07-01-2000 konstituciis 36.1 muxlis Tanaxmad, moqalaqeebs ar SeiZleba aekrZaloT uiaraRo mSvidobiani Sekreba. is, rom moqalaqis es ufleba konstituciiTaa garantirebuli, niSnavs, rom is ganekuTvneba adamianis fundamentur uflebebs, warmoadgens demokratiuli sazogadoebis monapovars da mis ganuyofel elements. moqalaqis es ufleba mniSvnelovani elementia Ria, samarTliani da harmoniuli samoqalaqo sazogadoebis mSeneblobis gzaze iseve, rogorc kanonis uzenaesoba, rac litvis konstituciis preambuliTaa gansazRvruli. "Sekrebis Sesaxeb kanonis" 6.2-e muxlis Tanaxmad, adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis organoebs moeTxovebaT, gamoyon specialuri adgilebi Sekrebebis Casatareblad. peticioneri, kaunis regionaluri sasamarTlo eWvqveS ayenebs aRniSnuli muxlis Sesabamisobas kanonTan. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom kanonmdebeli frTxilobs Sekrebis Sesaxeb wesebis dadgenisas, Tumca, aRniSnavs, rom ar SeiZleba adamianis am uflebis ugulebelyofa, vinaidan saxelmwifos Careva am da sxva uflebebis gamoyenebaSi ganixileba,

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rogorc kanonieri qmedeba proporciulobis principidan gamomdinare. nebismieri sazogadoebrivi TavSeyris adgilis Tu Senobis SerCeva, sadac Sekreba unda gaimarTos, kanoniT dadgenili wesiT unda SeTanxmdes adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis organos aRmasrulebeli sabWos aRmasrulebel oficerTan an mis uflebamosil warmomadgenelTan. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom Tu aRmasrulebeli oficeri an misi uflebamosili warmomadgeneli dasabuTebul uars ganacxadebs SemoTavazebul adgilas da dros Sekrebis Catarebaze, valdebulia, ixelmZRvanelos konstituciis 36.2 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli normebiT. uaris Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebaSi man unda daadasturos, Tu rogor SeiZleba moxdes saxelmwifo usafrTxoebis darRveva, sazogadoebrivi wesrigis, janmrTelobis da adamianis sxva uflebebis darRveva. meore mxriv, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom adgilobrivi marTvis organoebma unda gamoyon mudmivi teritoriebi aseTi Sekrebebis Casatareblad. aseT SemTxvevaSi, kanoniT gaTvaliswinebulia Sekrebis Catarebis gamartivebuli procedurebi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanonis sadavo debulebebi, romliTac adgilobriv mmarTvelobas SeuZlia gamoyos droebiTi adgilebi an Senobebi Sekrebebis Casatareblad, ar zRudavs adamianebs Seikribon sxva teritoriebsa Tu SenobebSi. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom ar SeiZleba, kanonis es debuleba gagebuli iyos, rogorc moqalaqeebisaTvis Sekrebis akrZalva im teritoriebze, romlebic adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis organoebis mier aseTi tipis SekrebebisaTvis ar aris gamoyofili. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom konstituciis 6.2 muxli srul SesabamisobaSia konstituciasTan.

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 08-05-1995 Sekrebis ufleba (konstitucia, muxli 21.1) niSnavs, rom Sekrebil adamianebs SeuZliaT, Tavisuflad gamoxaton an daicvan sakuTari azri, ideebi an sajaro gaxadon maTi problemebi da moTxovnebi. konstituciis Tanaxmad, Sekrebis ufleba SeiZleba SeizRudos sazogadoebrivi wesrigis, xalxisa da sazogadoebrivi qonebis dacvis mizniT. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ar arsebobs SezRudvis ufro msubuqi forma, Sekreba SeiZleba aikrZalos. aseT SemTxvevaSi, proporciuloba xdeba mkacri piroba, e.i. sazogadoebrivi interesebi ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre miyenebuli ziani.

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prefeqturis uflebamosilma warmomadgenlebma Banking Trade Union-is federacias neba ar darTes, CaetarebinaT demonstracia axali koleqtiuri xelSekrulebis mxardasaWerad. demonstracia im mizeziT akrZales, rom mas SeiZleboda seriozulad Seeferxebina transportis moZraoba da daerRvia sazogadoebrivi wesrigi. es gadawyvetileba administraciuli gzebiT gasaCivrda, romelsac mxari dauWira sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebam, rac sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi sarCelis Setanis mizezi gaxda Semdegi safuZvlebiT: 1) akrZalva gauqmda; 2) saxelmwifo organoebis mier gacemuli gadawyvetileba (10.01.1983) Sekrebis uflebis SezRudvis Sesaxeb ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias da, Sesabamisad, miRebuli zoma araproporciulia; 3) gancxadeba imis Sesaxeb, rom prefeqturis gadawyvetileba arasworad iqna gagebuli, arakonstituciuria, vinaidan ver damtkicda, rom swored es gadawyvetileba warmoadgenda Sekrebis uflebis SezRudvis mizezs; 4) sakonstitucio sasamarTlom yuradReba gaamaxvila Sekrebis uflebis akrZalvaze, rac gadawyvetilebasa da miRebuli zomis proporciulobaSi aisaxa. gaiTvaliswina ra Sekrebis uflebis dasasrulisaTvis, mniSvneloba, sasamarTlom daadgina (ganacxada), rom es aris adamianis is ZiriTadi ufleba, romelic mas azrisa da moTxovnebis sajarod gamotanis saSualebas aZlevs. am da sxva uflebebis gamoyenebisas konstitucia iTvaliswinebs garkveul SezRudvebs im SemTxvevebisTvis, Tu mimdebare teritoriaze TavSeyra sazogadoebrivi wesrigis darRvevas gamoiwvevs da zians miayenebs garSemomyofebsa da sazogadoebriv qonebas. sasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi miiRo, rom sazogadoebrivi wesebis dacva unda xdebodes situaciidan gamomdinare. Tumca, am mizeziT Sekrebis monawileebis diskriminacia ar unda moxdes, raTa sakuTari Sexedulebebi gamoxaton. sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom es SezRudva SeiZleboda gamoyenebuliyo, Tu namdvilad iqneboda dadasturebuli mizezi, rasac SeiZleboda gamoewvia moZraobis SeCereba. aqedan gamomdinare, prefeqturis nebismieri gadawyvetileba akrZalvaze unda iyos safuZvliani da amtkicebdes, Tu ratom aris SeuZlebeli moqalaqis am uflebis gamoyeneba. uflebamosil organoebs demonstraciis akrZalvamde unda emoqmedaT proporciulobis principidan gamomdinare da yvelaferi gaekeTebina imisaTvis, rom Sekreba Catarebuliyo (Seecvala dro da TariRi), Tumca, zogierT SemTxvevaSi, aseTma cvlilebam Sekrebas SeiZleba azri daukargos. sasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi miiRo, rom warmoebaSi arsebuli saqme sakmaod kargad iyo dasabuTebuli da arsebobda damamtkicebeli sabuTebi. erTma mosamarTlem gamoTqva gansakuTrebuli mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom akrZalva zogadi xasiaTis iyo da demonstraciebis dros trafikis SezRudvas ukavSirdeboda.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

yofili iugoslaviis respublika - makedonia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 16-02-2000 arCevnebTan dakavSirebuli sazogadoebrivi Sekrebebis organizatorebi valdebulni arian, winaswar gaafrTxilon Sinagan saqmeTa saministro aseTi Sekrebebis Sesaxeb maTi usafrTxo reJimSi Catarebis mizniT, rac warmoadgens sazogadoebrivi da im moqalaqeebis usafrTxoebis garantias, romlebic ar monawileoben aseT SexvedrebSi. sasamarTlom baTilad cno fizikuri piris moTxovna _ daedasturebinaT "parlamentis wevrTa arCevis wesis Sesaxeb" kanonis zogierTi debulebis konstituciuroba. aRniSnuli kanonis 53-e muxlis Tanaxmad, Tu Sekreba winasaarCevno periodSi dagegmilia sazogadoebrivi TavSeyris adgilebSi an qalaqis saval gzebze, maSin organizatori valdebulia, Sekrebamde sul cota 48 saaTiT adre Seatyobinos Sinagan saqmeTa saministros aseTi Sekrebis Sesaxeb. meore debulebiT (muxli 116.11), kanoniT dadgenili manifestaciis Catarebis wesis damrRvev politikur partias daekisreba jarima. sasamarTlom gaiTvaliswina konstituciis ZiriTadi Rirebulebebi: politikuri pluralizmi da Tavisufali, pirdapiri da demokratiuli arCevnebi (konstitucia, 8.15 muxli). konstituciis 21-e muxlis Tanaxmad, moqalaqeebs ufleba aqvT, e Caataron mSvidobiani Sekrebebi da gamoxaton sazogadoebrivi protesti winaswari gafrTxilebisa da specialuri licenziis aRebis gareSe. moqalaqeTa aRniSnuli ufleba SeiZleba SeizRudos sagangebo mdgomareobis an omis periodSi. konstituciis 54-e e muxliT, fizikuri pirebisa da moqalaqeebis Tavisufleba da ufleba SeiZleba SeizRudos mxolod konstituciiT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi. parlamentis wevrTa arCevis vadebi da pirobebi regulirdeba warmomadgenelTa palatis umravlesobis mier miRebuli kanoniT (konstitucia, muxli 62.5). aRniSnuli kanonis Tanaxmad, politikur partiebs ufleba aqvT, Tanabar pirobebSi gamoiyenon da gaavrcelon politikuri kampaniisaTvis saWiro masalebi da saSualebebi, Sesabamisad, gavlena iqonion arCevnebSi eleqtoratis gadawyvetilebaze. kanonis 53-e muxlis Tanaxmad, Sekrebis organizatori valdebue lia, daicvas wesrigi winasaarCevno periodSi. yovelive zemoaRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom winasaarCevno periodSi gamarTul Sekrebebsa da Cveulebriv saprotesto Sekrebebze erTnairi wesebi ver imoqmedebs. saarCevno Sekrebis mizania programisa da politikuri partiis kandidatis wardgena, Sesabamisad, eleqtoratze gavlenis moxdena ama Tu im kan-

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didatis sasargeblod. Tumca, konstituciis 21-e muxli Tavisi e bunebiT imperatiulia, Seexeba saprotesto mSvidobian Sexvedrebs da ar vrceldeba saarCevno Sekrebebze. bevri partia damoukideblad monawileobs saarCevno kampaniaSi. xalxi, romelic damokidebulia am partiaze, sxvadasxva formiT monawileobs SexvedrebSi da mxars uWers ama Tu im kandidats an programas. arsebobs iseTi SemTxvevebic, rodesac ramdenime politikuri partiis saarCevno programisa da kandidatis warsadgenad organizebuli Sexvedrebi erTdroulad, erTsa da imave adgilas imarTeba. organizatoris valdebuleba _ winaswar Seatyobinos kompetentur saministros (Sinagan saqmeTa saministro) aseTi Sekrebis Sesaxeb, mimarTulia moqalaqeTa uflebebis dasacavad da Sekrebis mSvidobianad Casatareblad. ufro metic, aseTi winaswari Setyobinebis mizania sazogadoebrivi simSvidis da wesrigis dacva, aseve, im moqalaqeebis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa, romlebic ar monawileoben aseT SexvedrebSi. Tu organizatori sul cota 48 saaTiT adre ar Seatyobinebs Sekrebis Sesaxeb kompetentur organos, maSin politikur partias daekisreba sajarimo gadasaxadi. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom ganxiluli debulebebi ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciiT dadgenil politikuri pluralizmis princips da ar arRvevs adamianis uflebebsa da Tavisuflebas.

yofili iugoslaviis respublika - makedonia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 06-10-1999 ucxo qveynis moqalaqeebi sargebloben konstituciiT, kanoniTa da saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebiT maTTvis miniWebuli uflebebiTa da TavisuflebebiT. ucxo qveynis moqalaqeebs ufleba aqvT, Caataron sazogadoebrivi Sekrebebi Sinagan saqmeTa saministros winaswari gafrTxilebis da maTgan Sesabamisi nebarTvis miRebis Semdgom. ucxo qveynis moqalaqeebma sasamarTlos mimarTes SuamdgomlobiT, raTa gaerkvia, miniWebuli aqvT Tu ara maT konstituciiT aseTi ufleba. konstituciis 29.1 muxlis Tanaxmad, ucxo qveynis moqalaqeebi sargebloben konstituciiT garantirebuli im uflebebiT, romlebic kanoniTa da saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebiT miecaT. konstituciaSi ar aris mocemuli ucxoelebisaTvis miniWebuli uflebebisa da SezRudvebis es CamonaTvali. konstitucia miuTiTebs mxolod im kanonebsa da saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebze, romlebic gansazRvraven maTTvis miniWebul uflebebs. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom aRniSnuli debuleba ucxo qveynis moqalaqeebs uflebas aZlevs,

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

Caataron sazogadoebrivi Sekrebebi, Tumca, iqve ganmarta, rom aseTi Sekrebebis pirobebi gansazRvruli unda iyos kanoniT da saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebiT. kanonis me-8 muxli iZleva im pirobebis CamonaTvals, romelTa dacviTac ucxo qveynis moqalaqeebs SeuZliaT Caataron sazogadoebrivi Sekrebebi: saWiroa mxolod Sinagan saqmeTa saministros drouli gafrTxileba da saministrodan Sesabamisi nebarTvis miReba. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanonis me-8 muxli ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias.

ukraina sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 19-04-2001 konstituciis 39.1 muxlis Tanaxmad, Sekrebebis, manifestaciebis, msvlelobebis an demonstraciebis organizatorebi valdebulni arian, winaswar gaafrTxilon aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis an adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi aseTi RonisZiebebis Catarebis Sesaxeb (kanoniT dadgenili droiT adre Seatyobinos droisa da TariRis Sesaxeb). Tumca, aRniSnuli moTxovniT, ar unda SeizRudos moqalaqisaTvis konstituciis 39-e muxliT miniWebuli es e ufleba. drouli Setyobinebis safuZvelze, Sesabamisi uwyebebi uzrunvelyofen Sekrebis, manifestaciis, msvlelobis an demonstraciis monawileebis Seuferxebel gadaadgilebas, daicaven sazogadoebriv wesrigs da adamianebis uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs. Sekrebis Sesaxeb Setyobinebis gagzavnis dro, Sekrebis, manifestaciis, msvlelobis an demonstraciis moculoba, dro da adgili regulirdeba kanoniT. moqalaqeTa ufleba _ Sekrebis, manifestaciis, msvlelobis an demonstraciis gamarTvis Sesaxeb _ warmoadgens ukrainis ZiriTadi kanonis, moqalaqis konstituciis 39-e muxliT e garantirebul xelSeuxebel uflebas. am konstituciuri uflebiT yvela adamians aqvs sityvis, azris, sindisis, aRmsareblobisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba, aseve, ufleba, Tavisuflad miiRos da gaavrcelos informacia, gamoTqvas da gaavrcelos Tavisi azri zepirad, werilobiT an sxvagvari saSualebiT. am uflebebis gamoyenebisas dauSvebelia sxvaTa Rirsebis Selaxva. konstituciis 68-e muxlis Tanaxmad, ukrainis e yvela moqalaqe valdebulia, daicvas ukrainis konstitucia da kanonebi. ukrainis yvela moqalaqes ufleba aqvs, moawyos Sekrebebi, manifestaciebi, msvlelobebi an demonstraciebi aRmasrulebeli da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis winaswari gafrTxilebis safuZvelze.

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gaerTianebis Tavisufleba

vada, romelic dadgenilia winaswari SetyobinebisaTvis, ar unda zRudavdes moqalaqeebis uflebas, Caataron Sekrebebi, manifestaciebi, msvlelobebi an demonstraciebi. winaswari gafrTxilebisaTvis dadgenili dro warmoadgens moqalaqeebis am uflebebis dacvis garantias. dro, winaswari gafrTxilebidan Sekrebis Catarebamde, kompetenturma organoebma unda gamoiyenon mosamzadebeli samuSaoebisaTvis, raTa Seqmnan pirobebi am Sekrebebis, manifestaciebis, msvlelobebis an demonstraciebis SeuzRudavi CatarebisaTvis, sazogadoebrivi wesrigis da sxva adamianebis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dasacavad. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, aRmasrulebeli da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi aRniSnuli Sekrebebis organizatorebTan erTad gansazRvraven Tavyrilobebis TariRs, dros, marSruts, pirobebsa da xangrZlivobas. winaswari gafrTxilebisaTvis dadgenili dro (vada) sakmarisi unda iyos imisaTvis, rom aRmasrulebeli da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebma, kanonis yvela pirobis dacviT, xeli Seuwyon aRniSnuli RonisZiebebis Catarebas. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, am sakiTxTan dakavSirebuli davebi ganixileba sasamarTloSi.

gaerTianebis Tavisufleba

(profesiuli gaerTianebis ufleba)

xorvatia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 17-01-2001 konstituciis 43-e muxli, romelic iTvaliswinebs gaerTianebis Tavisuflebas, ar irRveva xorvatiis moxele specialistTa (albaT saubaria individualur mewarmeebze) palatis arsebobiT. palata warmoadgens sajaro samarTlis organizacias, romlis wevroba, moxele specialistTa Sesaxeb kanonis Tanaxmad, savaldebuloa am sferos specialistebisTvis. (Narodne novine, 77/93, 90/96). amasTanave, organizaciis wevrebs ufleba aqvT, Seqmnan sxva profesiuli gaerTianebebi sakuTari interesebis dacvis mizniT. samarTlebrivi ganmartebiT, moxele specialisti niSnavs pirs, romelic damoukideblad da permanentulad eweva ekonomikur saqmianobas, vaWrobasa da momsaxurebas TviTdasaqmebulis an sxvaTa

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

damqiraveblis formiT. kanonis sadavo debulebebi gansazRvravs, rom msgavsi sferos yvela specialistma unda Seqmnas gaerTianeba. aRniSnuli profesiuli gaerTianebebi jgufdebian adgilobrivi xelisuflebis erTi an meti teritoriuli olqis mixedviT. xolo isini ayalibeben regionalur teritoriul gaerTianebebs, romlebic sabolood Tavs iyrian xorvatiis moxele specialistTa palataSi, romelic warmoadgens moxele specialistTa gaerTianebas saxelmwifo doneze. regionaluri gaerTianebebis yvela wevri amave dros aris xorvatiis moxele specialistTa palatis wevric. isini ixdian sawevro gadasaxads, maTze vrceldeba palatis wesdeba da palatis tribunalis/sasamarTlos iurisdiqcia. palatis Seqmnis maregulirebeli kanonis debulebebi gasaCivrda konstituciis 43-e muxlis darRvevis motiviT. sasamarTlom imsjela imis Taobaze, dairRveoda Tu ara konstituciuri debuleba, romelic iTvaliswinebs rogorc gaerTianebis, ise argaerTianebis Tavisuflebas, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu kanoni savaldebulos gaxdida profesiul gaerTianebaTa palatebis wevrobas. sasamarTlom gamoyo ori tipis organizacia. pirveli, im moqalaqeebis mier Seqmnili organizaciebi, romlebic axorcieleben TavianT konstituciur uflebas gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb. es Tavisufleba gamoixateba profkavSirebis da sxva gaerTianebebis (romlebsac xSirad uwodeben arasamTavrobo organizaciebs) SeqmnaSi, romelTa wevrebs Tavisuflad SeuZliaT maTSi gaerTianeba an wevrobaze uaris Tqma. am jgufebis arseboba damokidebulia moqalaqeTa nebaze da aravis, maT Soris arc kanonmdebels, ar SeuZlia moqalaqeTa uflebebis SezRudva aseTi gaerTianebebis SeqmnasTan dakavSirebiT, garda im SemTxvevisa, Tu maTi mizani safrTxes uqmnis xorvatiis respublikis demokratiul konstituciur wesrigs da damoukideblobas, erTianobasa da teritoriul mTlianobas. meore tipis organizaciebi warmoadgenen sajaro samarTlis dawesebulebebs, romelTa wevrebi arian ara "moqalaqeebi" rogorc aseTi, aramed TavianTi profesiiT momuSave ekonomikuri subieqtebi. aseTi organizaciebi iqmneba kanonis safuZvelze da saxelmwifo uflebamosilebebsac asruleben kanonis safuZvelze. xorvatiis moxele specialistTa palata, romelic arsebobs 1852 wlidan, miekuTvneba meore tipis organizaciebs. igi, kanonis Tanaxmad, gansazRvrulia, rogorc sajaro samarTlis iuridiuli piri, moxele specialistTa damoukidebeli profesiuli organizacia, romelic maT warmoadgens saxelmwifosa da sxva organoebis winaSe rogorc qveynis SigniT, ise mis gareT; palatis mier gacemuli dokumentebi (atestatebi, sertifikatebi) saxelmwifo dokumentebia.

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gaerTianebis Tavisufleba

palatis wevroba ar krZalavs sxva profesiul gaerTianebebSi Sesvlas an moqalaqeTa mier aseTi gaerTianebebis Seqmnis Tavisuflebas maTi profesiuli interesebis dacvis mizniT. amrigad, dadginda, rom sadavo debulebebi konstituciuria.

xorvatia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 03-02-2000 is faqti, rom kanoni gaerTianebebis Sesaxeb aregulirebs mxolod iuridiuli piris statusis mqone gaerTianebebs, ar unda niSnavdes imas, rom amgvari statusis armqone gaerTianebebs ekrZalebaT arseboba, funqcionireba da ar SeuZliaT mimarTon sasamarTlos. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo uflebamosilia imsjelos ara imis Sesaxeb, aqvs Tu ara gardaqmnis konkretul modelebs mizani da safuZveli, aramed arRvevs Tu ara konstitucias gardaqmnis Sesaxeb samarTlebrivi debulebebi. gaerTianebebis Sesaxeb kanonis konstituciurobis ganxilvasTan dakavSirebiT gamoTqmul winadadebebSi aRiniSna, rom kanoni zRudavs gaerTianebis Tavisuflebas, vinaidan igi ar iTvaliswinebs iuridiuli statusis armqone dajgufebebs. es mosazreba sasamarTlom ar miiRo da daadgina, rom samarTlebrivi sistema ar krZalavs aseT gaerTianebebs. xorvatiis samarTlebrivi sistema moicavs gaerTianebis safuZvelze Seqmnil pirebs, romlebsac ara aqvT iuridiuli piris statusi, magram monawileoben samarTlebriv garigebebSi, aqvT garkveuli uflebebi da movaleobebi da SeuZliaT mimarTon sasamarTlos (rogoricaa, magaliTad, erTi da igive dasaxlebis mosaxleoba, eleqtrofikaciis an gazsadenis mizniT Seqmnili sabWoebi, organizaciis profkavSirebi an gamomcemlobaTa saredaqcio sabWoebi). iuridiuli piris statusis armqone gaerTianebis formebi ar wesrigdeba kanoniT da, Sesabamisad, maTi Seqmna, struqtura da daxurva damokidebulia maTi wevrebis Tavisufal nebaze. amave dasabuTebiT sasamarTlom gaauqma kanonis is debulebebi, romelTa mixedviT gaerTianebebi ver daiwyeben funqcionirebas, sanam ar gaivlian registracias. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gaerTianebas SeuZlia Seudges funqcionirebas registraciamde da registraciis gareSe, magram mxolod rogorc gaerTianebis da ara iuridiuli piris formiT. amasTanave, sasamarTlom gaauqma rogorc is debulebebi, romelTa mixedviT "kavSirs an gaerTianebaTa kavSirs" aqvs iuridiuli piris statusi, aseve debulebebi, romliTac

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

gaerTianeba jarimdeba, Tu is dadgenil vadebSi ar waradgens angariSs masSi Semavali organoebis dafuZnebisa da saqmianobebis Sesaxeb. gauqmda is debulebebic, romelTa mixedviT ucxoeli, romelmac miiRo mudmivi macxovreblis ufleba, samuSao viza an xangrZlivi vadiT cxovrebis ufleba, SeiZleba iyos xorvatiaSi gaerTianebis damfuZnebeli ukuqceviTobis principis safuZvelze. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom ukuqceviTobis principze dafuZnebuli SezRudvebi ar iyo gamarTlebuli mocemul SemTxvevaSi, vinaidan ar arsebobda ucxoelTa da ucxoel iuridiul pirTa gaerTianebis Tavisuflebisa da maTi sakuTari saxelmwifos qmedebis erTmaneTTan dakavSirebis kanonieri safuZveli. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gaerTianebis ZiriTadi samarTlebrivi aqtis Sinaarsis maregulirebeli debuleba zRudavs gaerTianebis Tavisuflebas, romelic gulisxmobs struqturis Tavisuflebas. aqedan gamomdinare, gauqmda debuleba gaerTianebis organoebis sawevro gadasaxadebTan, disciplinarul pasuxismgeblobas, Semadgenlobas, gadawyvetilebis miRebis uflebamosilebasa da formasTan dakavSirebiT. amasTanave sasamarTlom daadgina, rom prezumfcia imis Taobaze, rom gaerTianeba iTvleba registrirebulad, Tu kompetenturi administraciuli organo dadgenil vadaSi ar gamoitans registraciis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebas, ar aris antikonstituciuri da, faqtobrivad, gaerTianebis sasargeblod iTvleba. aRniSnuli warmoadgens gamonakliss zogad administraciuli saproceso wesidan uaryofiT prezumfciasTan dakavSirebiT, e.i. imis prezumfcia, rom mxaris moTxovna daukmayofileblad iTvleba, Tu kanoniT dadgenil vadebSi ar iqneba miRebuli gadawyvetileba. sasamarTlom CaTvala, rom yofili "sazogadoebrivi organizaciebis" gaerTianebebad transformaciis Sesaxeb kanonis debulebebi, principSi, politikuri xasiaTisaa da rom kanonmdebels ufleba hqonda, daedgina aRniSnuli gardaqmnis procedura da Seeqmna pasuxismgebeli organoebi.

dania uzenaesi sasamarTlo 06-05-1999 kompanias ufleba ara aqvs, daqiravebuli piri samsaxuridan daiTxovos im mizeziT, rom igi ar aris profkavSirebis wevri, Tu daxuruli koleqtiuri SeTanxmeba (SeTanxmeba, romliTac kompanias

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gaerTianebis Tavisufleba

samsaxurSi mxolod profkavSiris wevrebi ahyavs) daido daqiravebulis samsaxurSi ayvanis Semdeg da Tu igi ar aris mocemuli profkavSiris wevri SeTanxmebis dadebis momentSi. 1989 wlis seqtemberSi mosarCele daiqirava kompaniam, romelmac 1990 wlis agvistoSi dado daxuruli koleqtiuri SeTanxmeba daniis profkavSirTan. mosarCele gawevrianda profkavSirSi 1990 wlis oqtomberSi, magram gairicxa 1996 wlis ianvarSi. Sedegad, mosarCele gaTavisuflebul iqna samsaxuridan. gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb kanonze da adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-11 muxlis ganmartebasTan dakavSirebiT, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos praqtikaze dayrdnobiT, mosarCelem gaasaCivra samuSaodan ukanono daTxovna. uzenaesma sasamarTlom pirvel rigSi zogadad ganixila daxuruli koleqtiuri SeTanxmebis adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-11 muxlTan Sesabamisobis sakiTxi. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom adamianis uflebaTa evropul sasamarTlos ar daufiqsirebia Tavisi pozicia daxurul koleqtiur SeTanxmebebTan dakavSirebiT arc Tavis gadawyvetilebebSi saqmeebze iangi, jeimsi da uebsteri gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg [ECH1981-S-002] da ziguduri a. zigurionsoni islandiis winaaRmdeg [ECH1993-S-005] (ix. qv.) da arc Sesabamis precedentul samarTalSi. amis Semdeg uzenaesma sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb kanoni amoqmedda 1982 wels im mizniT, rom aRniSnuli Tavisufleba daecvaT garkveuli gaerTianebebis iZulebiTi wevrobisagan, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos mier me-11 muxlis ganmartebasTan dakavSirebiT saqmeze iangi, jeimsi da uebsteri gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg [ECH1981-S-002] gakeTebuli ganmartebis Semdeg. kanonis 2.1 muxlis Tanaxmad, daqiravebuli ar SeiZleba samsaxuridan gaTavisufldes im mizeziT, rom ar aris konkretuli an profkavSiris wevri da arc imitom, rom ar aris arc erTi profkavSiris wevri. Tumca, kanoni iTvaliswinebs am wesidan Semdeg gamonaklisebsac: Tu daqiravebulma daniSvnis momentSi icoda, rom konkretuli an romelime profkavSiris wevroba warmoadgens daqiravebis winapirobas (muxli 2.2); an Tu profkavSiris wevr daqiravebuls daniSvnis Semdeg ecnoba, rom wevroba warmoadgens misi uvado daqiravebis winapirobas (muxli 2.3). debulebis Sinaarsobrivi ganmartebis Semdeg uzenaesi sasamarTlos mosamarTleTa umravlesobam (5 mosamarTle) daadgina, rom gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb kanonis 2.3 muxliT dauSvebelia daqiravebulis samsaxuridan daTxovna konkretul profkavSirSi gauwevrianeblobis gamo, Tu daxuruli koleqtiuri SeTanxmeba dadebulia daqiravebulis daniSvnis Semdeg da Tu daqi-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

ravebuli ar aris am profkavSiris wevri SeTanxmebis dadebis momentSi. aqedan gamomdinare, sasamarTlom gaauqma sasamarTlos winaSe orive mxaris mier gasaCivrebuli ormxrivi proceduruli gancxadeba debulebis araswori ganmartebis Taobaze. mosamarTleTa umravlesobam aseve aRniSna, rom maTi mosazreba kanonis 2.3 muxlTan dakavSirebiT, ZiriTadad Seesabameboda gadawyvetilebas iangi, jeimsi da uebsteri gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg [ECH-1981-S-002]. amrigad, mosarCelis samsaxuridan gaTavisufleba ewinaaRmdegeboda gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb kanonis 2.1 muxls. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kompaniam mosarCeles unda aunazRauros zarali. gansxvavebul mosazrebaSi uzenaesi sasamarTlos umciresobam (4 mosamarTle) aRniSna, rom ormxrivi proceduruli gancxadebis Sedegad mxareebs aRar dauyenebiaT 2.3 muxlis ganmartebis sakiTxi sasamarTlos winaSe. maTve aRniSnes, rom umravlesobis mier 2.3 muxlTan dakavSirebiT micemuli ganmarteba ar Seesabameboda debulebis teqsts da travaux preparatoires-s (mosamzadebel samuSaoebs). mosamarTleTa umciresi nawilis azriT, ar arsebobda gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb kanonis 2.3 muxlTan samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebis Seusabamobis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis sakmarisi safuZveli. ase rom, umciresobam mxari dauWira maRali sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas sarCelis daukmayofileblobis Taobaze.

estoneTi uzenaesi sasamarTlo 10-05-1996 konstituciiT dadgenilia saerTaSoriso samarTliT gaTvaliswinebuli gaerTianebis Tavisufleba. konstituciis 48.1 muxli ase ikiTxeba: "yvelas aqvs aramomgebiani sawarmoebis da gaerTianebebis Seqmnis ufleba. politikur partiaSi SeiZleba Sevidnen mxolod estoneTis moqalaqeebi". konstituciis miznebisTvis, "yvela" niSnavs nebismier fizikur pirs, romelic eqceva sakanonmdeblo aqtis moqmedebis sferoSi. konstituciis 9.2 muxlis Tanaxmad, konstituciiT gansazRvruli uflebebi, Tavisuflebebi da valdebulebebi vrceldeba iuridiul pirebze. konstituciiT, aramomgebiani gaerTianebebis Seqmnis ufleba dakavSirebulia fizikuri piris SesaZleblobasTan samoqalaqo samarTlis mixedviT. amasTan, konstituciis mixedviT, gaerTianebis Tavisufleba unda hqondeT umciresobebsac. 1996 wlis 21 Tebervals estoneTis parlamentma (Riigikogu) miiRo kanoni aramomgebiani gaerTianebebis Sesaxeb. respublikis

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prezidentma ar gamoaqveyna igi da daabruna parlamentSi gadasinjvisa da xelaxali miRebisaTvis. parlamentma xelaxla miiRo igi Sesworebebis gareSe da, Sesabamisad, prezidentma uzenaes sasamarTlos mimarTa sarCeliT aramomgebiani gaerTianebebis Sesaxeb kanonis arakonstituciurad gamocxadebis Taobaze. sarCelSi prezidenti acxadebda, rom kanonis zogierTi debuleba bundovani iyo da qmnida aramomgebiani gaerTianebebis, maT Soris, religiuri sazogadoebebis, wevrTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis araswori ganmartebis safrTxes. prezidenti aseve aRniSnavda, rom kanoni ewinaaRmdegeboda bavSvis uflebebis Sesaxeb gaeros konvencias. uzenaesi sasamarTlos sakonstitucio sakiTxTa palatam daadgina, rom konstituciis Tanaxmad, aramomgebiani gaerTianebebi da maTi kavSirebi warmoadgens gaerTianebis uflebis ganxorcielebis erT formas. aramomgebiani gaerTianebebis Sesaxeb kanonis 2.1 muxli aRiarebs aramomgebian gaerTianebebs, romlebsac aqvT kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piris statusi, xolo imave kanonis me-5 muxli ki ambobs, rom aseTi gaerTianebebis damfuZneblebi SeiZleba iyvnen qmedunariani fizikuri an iuridiuli pirebi. maSasadame, kanoni zRudavs gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis im formas, rogorsac iTvaliswinebs konstitucia da saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi. aramomgebiani gaerTianebebis Sesaxeb kanoniT, 18 wlamde asakis pirebs ekrZalebaT aramomgebiani gaerTianebebis Seqmna da, Sesabamisad, ar SeuZliaT maTi konstituciiT ganmtkicebuli gaerTianebis uflebis ganxorcieleba. srulwlovan pirebs, romlebsac ar surT gaerTiandnen kerZo samarTlis iuridiuli piris statusiT an, romlebsac, religiuri rwmenis gamo, ar SeuZliaT gaerTiandnen kerZo samarTlis iuridiul pirebad, aseve, erTmevaT gaerTianebis konstituciiT ganmtkicebuli uflebis srulad realizebis SesaZlebloba. kanoni konstituciurad ar icavs zemoxsenebuli pirebis uflebas gaerTianebis Taobaze. kanonis 16.2 muxli gansazRvravs: "aramomgebiani gaerTianebis wevri SeiZleba gairicxos gaerTianebidan imis miuxedavad, Tu ra weria gaerTianebis wesdebaSi, Tu is ver Seasrulebs wesdebiT gaTvaliswinebul debulebebs, generaluri asambleis an gaerTianebis sabWos an sxva organos gadawyvetilebebs, mniSvnelovan zians miayenebs gaerTianebas; an sxva safuZvliani mizezebiT". es debuleba ar Seesabameba konstituciis me-14 muxls, romelic adgens, rom uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis garantireba warmoadgens kanonmdeblis movaleobas, vinaidan kanoniT dadgenili norma alogikuri da gaurkvevelia. debulebiT daSvebulia gaerTianebidan wevrebis garicxva iseTi procedurebis safuZvelze, romlebsac ar iTvaliswinebs kanoni an wesdeba.

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sakonstitucio sakiTxTa palatam aseve daadgina, rom kanoni ewinaaRmdegeba bavSvis uflebebis Sesaxeb gaeros konvencias. estoneTis respublika miuerTda gaeros konvencias bavSvis uflebebis Sesaxeb 1991 wlis 26 seqtembers (Riigi Teataja 1991, 35, 428). estoneTisTvis es konvencia ZalaSi Sevida 1991 wlis 20 noembers. konvenciis 15.1 muxli adens, rom konvenciis monawile saxelmwifoebi aRiareben bavSvis uflebas gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis Taobaze, romelic moicavs gaerTianebebis Seqmnis da mSvidobiani Sekrebis Tavisuflebebs. konvenciis 1-li muxliT, bavSvi niSnavs 18 wlamde asakis nebismier fizikur pirs. konvenciis me-3 muxlis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlos, administraciuli organosa Tu sakanonmdeblo organoebis mier bavSvebTan mimarTebiT gatarebul yovel moqmedebaSi upirvelesi yuradReba eTmoba bavSvis interesebis dacvas. konvenciaze mierTebiT estoneTma aRiara bavSvis ufleba gaerTianebis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebiT da saxelmwifo xelisuflebis mier mis dasacavad Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi meqanizmis Seqmnis valdebuleba. aqedan gamomdinare, aramomgebiani gaerTianebebis Sesaxeb kanonis me-5 muxli CaiTvala konstituciis 15.1 muxlTan Seusabamod. sakonstitucio sakiTxTa palatam daakmayofila prezidentis sarCeli da aramomgebiani gaerTianebebis Sesaxeb kanoni gamoacxada arakonstituciurad.

safrangeTi sakonstitucio sabWo 06-11-1996 1946 wlis 27 oqtombris konstituciis preambulis me-6 paragrafis Tanaxmad, "yvelas aqvs ufleba, Tavisi uflebebi da interesebi daicvas profkavSiruli organizaciis meSveobiT...", xolo imave preambulis me-8 paragrafis mixedviT, "yvela mSromeli, maTi warmomadgenlebis meSveobiT, monawileobas iRebs Sromis pirobebis koleqtiur gadawyvetaSi da kompaniis marTvaSi". miuxedavad imisa, rom es debulebebi aRiareben profkavSirebis bunebriv rols mSromelTa uflebebisa da interesebis dacvaSi, kerZod, koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis saSualebiT, isini mainc ar aniWeben profkavSirebs monopolias koleqtiur SeTanxmebaSi daqiravebulis saxeliT warmomadgenlobaze. daqiravebulebs, romlebsac ukaviaT iseTi Tanamdeboba, romliTac isini warmomadgenlobiT uflebamosilebas iZenen, SeuZliaT aseve monawileoba miiRon samuSao pirobebis koleqtiur

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gadawyvetaSi, ramdenadac maTi qmedebebis arc mizani da arc Sedegi ar isaxavs warmomadgeneli profkavSiris qmedebebisTvis safrTxis Seqmnas. iseTi wesebis gansazRvra, romliTac koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis dadebaze uflebamosil organoebs SeuZliaT ganaxorcielon TavianTi movaleobebi sruliad damoukideblad, gansakuTrebiT damqiravebelTan dakavSirebiT, eqceva im principis gamoyenebis uzrunvelmyofi garantiebis moqmedebis sferoSi, romlis Tanaxmadac, yvela mSromeli unda monawileobdes samuSao pirobebis koleqtiur gadawyvetaSi. rodesac parlamentma warmomadgeneli profkavSirisagan uflebamosili daqiravebulebis dacvis Taobaze specialuri SeTanxmebis miRwevaze pasuxismgebeli damqiraveblisa da daqiravebulis warmomadgenlebi dauqvemdebara Sromis kodeqsiT (muxli L. 412-18) gansazRvrul proceduras, misi mizani iyo, rom aseT dacvas uzrunveleyo iseTive garantiebi, romlebic kanoniT ukve iyo regulirebuli. sakonstitucio sabWoSi gasaCivrebuli kanonis zogierT muxlSi gaerTianebis direqtiva gadmotanili iyo erovnul kanonad (sabWos 1994 wlis 22 seqtembris #94/45/EC direqtiva daqiravebulTa informirebisa da konsultaciis mizniT evropuli Sromis sabWos an gaerTianebis donis kompaniebSi procedurisa da gaerTianebis donis kompaniaTa jgufebis Seqmnis Taobaze), Tumca, kanonis am muxlebis arakonstituciurobis sakiTxi ar iyo dayenebuli. piriqiT, sabWos eTxova, emsjela me-6 muxlis Taobaze. igi exeboda eqsperimentul debulebebs, romlebic iTvaliswinebdnen koleqtiuri SromiTi SeTanxmebebis dadebis axal saSualebebs im kompaniebSi, sadac ar iyvnen profkavSirebis warmomadgenlebi. sabWom daadgina, rom 1946 wlis 27 oqtombris konstituciis preambulis me-6 da me-8 abzacebi aRiarebda profkavSirebis bunebriv rols mSromelTa uflebebisa da interesebis dacvaSi, Tumca, konstituciuri kanonis rangis es debulebebi ar aZlevda profkavSirebs monopolias koleqtiur SeTanxmebebSi daqiravebulis warmomadgenlobaze. da mainc, sabWom aRniSna, rom molaparakebis Tavisufleba im daqiravebulebTan, romlebic airCies an daniSnes Sesabamis Tanamdebobaze, arc unda isaxavdes miznad da arc iwvevdes warmomadgeneli profkavSirebis qmedebebis xelis SeSlas. rac Seexeba kanonis eqsperimentul debulebebs, sabWom moiwona Tavisi adrindeli praqtika (93-322 DC of 28 July 1993, CODICES: [FRA-93-X003]), rodesac man daadgina, rom parlaments ufleba aqvs, mimarTos eqsperimentul zomebs im pirobiT, Tu gansazRvrulia aseTi zomebis xasiaTi, maTi moqmedebis sfero, aseve, SemTxvevebi, romlebSic SesaZlebelia maTi miReba da maTi SefasebisTvis saWiro pirobebi da procedurebi.

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germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 27-04-1999 samarTlebrivi debulebebi, romelTa mixedviT, samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis subsidiebis sakiTxi garkveuli vadiT eqvemdebareba saSualoze dabali xelfasebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebas, laxavs profkavSiris avtonomias xelfasebis Taobaze molaparakebebTan mimarTebiT, magram SeiZleba gamarTlebuli iyos maRali donis umuSevrobis dros damatebiTi samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis mizniT. III socialuri dacvis samarTlis kodeqsis 275.2 muxli 265.1.1. muxlTan erTad da, aseve, mis win arsebuli normebi SesabamisobaSia ZiriTadi kanonis 9.3 muxlTan. germaniis federaluri respublikis socialuri dacvis samarTlis kodeqsis mixedviT, federaluri dasaqmebis samsaxuri subsidirebas uwevs saqvelmoqmedo saqmianobas didi xnis umuSevrebis dasaqmebis xelSesawyobad. es saqmianoba moicavs iseTi zomebis gatarebas, romelTa mizania garemos dacva, gaumjobeseba da sazogadoebrivi da axalgazrdobis keTildReobis dawesebulebebis momsaxurebis gaumjobeseba. daxmarebis odenoba damokidebulia umuSevrobis daxmarebebisTvis gaweul saSualo Tviur danaxarjze. mTliani odenoba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi gadaixdeba, Tu SeTanxmebuli gadasaxadi ar aRemateba Sromis Tavisufal bazarze msgavsi saqmianobebisTvis dadgenili standartuli xelfasebis 80%-s. metalurgTa profkavSirma Seitana konstituciuri sarCeli am debulebebis winaaRmdeg da amtkicebda gaerTianebis Tavisuflebaze Tavisi uflebis darRvevas. profkavSiris argumentiT, aRniSnuli debuleba asustebda/aviwroebda xelfasebis fiqsirebaze mis kompetencias, vinaidan samuSao adgilebis SeqmnasTan dakavSirebuli RonisZiebebis gamo SeuZlebeli gaxdeboda xelfasebze Tavisuflad molaparakeba. amitom profkavSirebi iZulebuli gaxdebodnen, SeemcirebinaT koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis done samuSaoze dawinaurebuli pirebisTvis Cveulebriv (regionalur an erovnul) koleqtiur SeTanxmebebTan SedarebiT. pirvelma senatma ar daakmayofila konstituciuri sarCeli: pirvelma senatma aRiara, rom gasaCivrebuli debulebebiT, ra Tqma unda, izRudeba mosarCelis gaerTianebis Tavisufleba, magram es gamarTlebulia maRali donis umuSevrobis dros damatebiTi samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis mizniT. ZiriTadi kanonis 9.3 muxli daqiravebulebsa da damqiraveblebs uzrunvelyofs gaerTianebebis Seqmnis uflebiT samuSao da ekonomikuri pirobebis dacvisa da gaumjobesebis mizniT. es ufleba

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moicavs aseve koleqtiur SeTanxmebebze molaparakebas, rac, faqtobrivad, warmoadgens gaerTianebis ZiriTad mizans. sadavo debulebebi laxavs aseTi dacvis moqmedebis sferos. isini asusteben mosarCelis pozicias struqturuli gardaqmnis RonisZiebebis farglebSi dasaqmebuli pirebis anazRaurebis Taobaze gamarTul koleqtiur molaparakebebSi. am sferoSi mosarCeles cota Sansi aqvs, miaRwios msgavsi samuSaosTvis normaluri standartuli xelfasis 80%-ze mets. ramdenadac dasaqmebis federaluri samsaxuris daxmareba dadis iseT doneze, rasac aRemateba kanonieri maqsimaluri xelfasi, TiToeuli gadameteba niSnavs damqiraveblis ormag tvirTs. damqiraveblebi Znelad Tu daTanxmdebian amas SromiT molaparakebebSi. sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis upiratesobis gamo aseTi Careva gamarTlebulia _ daadgina pirvelma senatma: sadavo debulebebis ZaliT, saxelmwifo asrulebs dacvis valdebulebas socialuri saxelmwifos principis safuZvelze (ZiriTadi kanonis 20.1 muxli). saxelmwifo, amasTanave, exmareba calkeul umuSevar pirs misi pirovnulobis, saerTo pativiscemisa da TviTpativiscemis grZnobis ganviTarebaSi samuSaos meSveobiT. am donemde saxelmwifos ganzraxva aseve SesabamisobaSia ZiriTadi kanonis 1.1 da 2.2 muxlebTan. debulebebis mizania, uzrunvelyos arsebuli SezRuduli biujetebis daxarjva maqsimalurad bevri umuSevari piris dasasaqmeblad. am gziT debulebebi aseve emsaxureba saerTo ekonomikuri balansis uzrunvelyofis konstituciur mizans (ZiriTadi kanonis 20.1 muxli). garda amisa, debulebebi adekvaturi da, aseve, aucilebelia kanonmdeblobis miznis misaRwevad. igive exeba sakiTxs imis Taobaze, realurad mosalodnelia Tu ara mosarCelesTvis misaRebi iyos SromiTi molaparakebebis avtonomiaze momxdari zemoqmedebebi. sasamarTlos ganmartebiT, molaparakebebi struqturuli gardaqmnis RonisZiebebSi monawile daqiravebulebis standartul xelfasebze gansxvavdeba Cveulebrivi SromiTi molaparakebebisagan. samuSaos anazRaureba struqturuli gardaqmnis RonisZiebebSi upirvelesad ar aris ganzraxuli imisaTvis, rom daqiravebulebma wili miiRon maTi samuSao mogebebidan. vinaidan es RonisZiebebi Semoifargleba mxolod aramomgebiani saqmianobiT, Cveulebriv, damqiravebeli interesdeba mxolod federaluri dasaqmebis samsaxuris daxmarebiT. mxedvelobaSi isic unda iqnes miRebuli, rom am sferoSi daqiravebulTa gaerTianeba ver mimarTavs imaze met zomas, vidre iyenebs Cveulebriv SromiT molaparakebebSi. damqiraveblebs ki SeuZliaT Tavidan aicilon gaficva arsebiTi danakargis gariskvis gareSe, Tu Tavs Seikaveben an gadadeben samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis RonisZiebas, romliTac ar arian sakmarisad dainteresebuli.

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damqiraveblis gadawyvetilebis Sedegebi, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, exeba umuSevars da, amdenad, isev daqiravebulis sazianoa. erTi mxriv, daaxloebiT 4 milioni umuSevris arseboba da, meore mxriv, samuSao adgilebis Seqmna warmoadgens pirvelad socialur problemas. umuSevroba xSirad iwvevs xalxis egzistencialur stress. Tu adamians cxovrebisTvis saWiro ekonomikuri safuZveli gamoecleba, aman SeiZleba gamoiwvios sakuTari Tavis pativiscemisa da piradi Rirsebis dakargva. iseT sazogadoebaSi, sadac adamiani umetesad fasobs misi profesiuli saqmianobidan gamomdinare, gamocdilebis gamousadegrobam SeiZleba migviyvanos mZime fizikur stresamde. es exeba gansakuTrebiT xangrZlivad umuSevrad myof pirebs, romelTa samuSaos miRebis Sansi Zalian dabalia. dabolos, aseve mniSvnelovania, rom sadavo debulebebis moqmedebis vada mTavrdeba 2002 wels. es SezRudva kanonmdebels afrTxilebs, droulad gadaamowmos, kvlavac arsebobs Tu ara debulebebis gamomwvevi realuri winapirobebi da Sesrulda Tu ara debulebebiT dasaxuli miznebi.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 27-04-1999 dadginda, rom universitetebsa da kvleviT institutebSi samecniero sferoebSi momuSave pirebTan dadebuli vadiani SromiTi xelSekrulebebis Sesaxeb kanoni SesabamisobaSi iyo ZiriTadi kanonis 9.3 muxlTan, romelic icavda SromiTi xelSekrulebis dadebis Tavisuflebas. ZiriTadi kanonis 9.3 muxli erTsa da imave doneze ar icavs profkavSirebis da maTTan xelSekrulebis mqone partniorebis yvela saqmianobas. koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis maregulirebeli debulebebi ufro maRal donezea daculi, vidre partniorebis saxelSekrulebo Tavisufleba im sferoSi, romelic ar aris regulirebuli SeTanxmebis monawile partniorebis mier. 1985 wels kanonmdebelma miiRo kanoni, romliTac universitetebsa da kvleviT institutebSi samecniero sferoebSi momuSave pirebTan SromiTi xelSekrulebebi SeiZleba SeizRudos vadebSi. orma profkavSirma Semoitana konstituciuri sarCeli federalur sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi, romelSic amtkicebdnen, rom aseTi kanoni arRvevda ZiriTadi kanonis 9.3 muxliT maTTvis ganmtkicebul koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis dadebis Tavisuflebas. federalurma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila sarCeli da daadgina, rom kanonis debulebam daarRvia konstituciiT daculi gaerTianebis Tavisufleba, romelic moicavs koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis dadebis Tavisuflebasac, magram es

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darRveva gamarTlebulad CaTvala. federalurma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom gaerTianebis Tavisufleba daculia upirobod; Tumca, amiT eWvis qveS ar dgeba kanonmdeblis uflebamosileba iseTi sakiTxebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebaze, romelic SeiZleba iyos koleqtiuri SeTanxmebis sagani. kanonis debulebis miReba SeiZleba mesame pirTa ZiriTad uflebebsa an sxva konstituciur uflebebTan dakavSirebul yvela SemTxvevaSi. sakanonmdeblo aqti unda iyos proporciuli, anu mxedvelobaSi iqnas miRebuli gaerTianebis Tavisufleba. ZiriTadi kanonis 9.3 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli konstituciuri dacva saxelmwifo qmedebebisagan ufro Zlieria iseT SemTxvevebSi, rodesac koleqtiuri SeTanxmebis mxareebs ukeTesad SeuZliaT konkretuli sakiTxis mogvareba. xelfasebisa da samuSaos sxva materialuri pirobebis mowesrigeba, rogorc wesi, Sedis maT kompetenciaSi. vadiani SromiTi xelSekrulebebis dadebis SesaZleblobis daSveba ar ganekuTvneba koleqtiuri SeTanxmebis monawile mxareebis kompetenciaSi Semaval mTavar sakiTxebs. sakanonmdeblo debulebis miRebiT, kanonmdeblis mizani iyo kvlevis Tavisuflebis dacva, romelic ganmtkicebulia ZiriTadi kanonis 5.3 muxliT. samecniero sferoSi momuSave pirebis SromiTi xelSekrulebis SezRudvis gziT, axali ideebis mqone axal pirebs - mudmivad cvalebad garemoSi ­ gza gaexsnebaT samecniero institutebsa da universitetebSi. vinaidan profkavSirebs arasdros surdaT am sakiTxis mowesrigeba, kanonmdebeli ar iyo valdebuli, daecada saxelSekrulebo SeTanxmebisaTvis. federalurma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi miiRo evropuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, romliTac am ukanasknelma ganacxada, rom kanoni arRvevda evropuli gaerTianebebis kanons imdenad, ramdenadac igi iTvaliswinebda SezRudvebs ucxo enebis maswavleblebisaTvis, romlebic arian evropuli gaerTianebebis moqalaqeebi. man uaryo evropuli sasamarTlos argumentebi, rom marTebuli iyo drodadro Secvliliyvnen ucxo enebis maswavleblebi, raTa ar daekargaT axlo kontaqti TavianT sakuTar enasTan. Tumca, man ganacxada, rom kanoni ar gavrceldeba im maswavleblebze, romlebic arian evrogaerTianebebis wevri saxelmwifoebidan.

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 07-10-2002 damnaSaveTa dasjis Taobaze saxelmwifos valdebulebasa da gaerTianebis Tavisuflebas Soris Sedarebis Sedegad sasamarTlom

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

ganacxada, rom konstituciis Tanaxmad, dakavebul pirebs SeuZliaT gamoiyenon gaerTianebis ufleba, Tu es ar arRvevs an pirdapir safrTxes ar uqmnis sasjelis aRsrulebis mizans. am gadawyvetilebis miRebisas kanonmdebels unda gaeTvaliswinebina dasjis mizani da is, Tu ra farglebSi unda aRsruldes msjavrdebulis sasjeli, aseve safrTxes uqmnis Tu ara msjavrdebulis mier gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis uflebis ganxorcieleba wesrigs sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebaSi. kanonmdebels ar gamouricxavs zogadad gaerTianebebis Seqmnis SesaZlebloba (Tundac sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebaSi) da amis Sedegad aucilebeli da adekvaturia Tu ara gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis SezRudva nebismier konkretul SemTxvevaSi, SeiZleba gadawydes yvelanairi garemoebis codnis safuZvelze. sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi Setanil sarCelSi mosarCele amtkicebda sasjelis aRsrulebis Sesaxeb sakanonmdeblo aqtis (sakanonmdeblo aqti) 36.5.v muxlis antikonstituciurobas im motiviT, rom es debuleba, romelic ikiTxeba am aqtis 36.6.b muxlTan erTad, SeuZlebels xdis nebismieri sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebaSi myofi dakavebuli piris mier konstituciis 63-e muxliT misTvis miniWebuli gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis uflebis ganxorcielebas. aseve, organizaciebis (profkavSirebis) Seqmnis an gawevrianebis uflebis ganxorcielebas konstituciis 70.g muxliT ganmtkicebuli maTi ekonomikuri an socialuri interesebis dacvis mizniT. sakanonmdeblo aqtis 36.5.v muxlis Tanaxmad, msjavrdebul moqalaqeTa (patimarTa) uflebebi Semdegnairad Seicvala: maTi gaerTianebis Tavisufleba, ganaTlebis ufleba da erovnuli Tavdacvis valdebuleba izRudeba dakavebis Sedegad. sakanonmdeblo aqtis 36.6.b muxlis mixedviT, dakavebis periodSi patimari droebiT kargavs uflebas Sekrebis Tavisuflebaze. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gaerTianebis Tavisufleba moaqcia gamoxatvis uflebebs Soris. gaerTianebis Tavisufleba niSnavs, rom yvelas aqvs ufleba, Seqmnas gaerTianeba kulturuli, korporaciis Seqmnis, politikuri an sxva miznebisTvis an miiRos monawileoba aseTi jgufebis saqmianobaSi. msgavsi Tavisufleba aseve moicavs gaerTianebebis Seqmnis uflebas, maTSi gawevrianebis an argawevrianebis uflebas. gaerTianebis Tavisufleba ZiriTadi uflebaa, romelic yvela sxva ZiriTadi uflebis msgavsad, ar aris SeuzRudavi. sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebaSi dakavebuli pirebi imyofebian gansakuTrebul situaciaSi. maTac aqvT ZiriTadi uflebebi. Tumca, dakavebisa da misi kanonieri miznis gamo, samarTlebrivi debulebebi zRudavs msjavrdebulis uflebas, ganaxorcielos Tavisi ZiriTadi uflebebi. #13/2001 [HUN-2001-2-005] gadawyvetilebaSi sakonstitu-

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gaerTianebis Tavisufleba

cio sasamarTlom ganixila sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebaSi dakavebis Sedegad zogierTi ZiriTadi uflebis ganxorcielebaze SezRudvis sakiTxi. am gadawyvetilebis Tanaxmad, zogierT ZiriTad konstituciur uflebaze ar moqmedebs msjavrdebulTa dakaveba, rogoricaa, magaliTad, sicocxlisa da adamianuri Rirsebis ufleba. dakavebis xasiaTidan gamomdinare, gamoricxulia piradi Tavisuflebis, Tavisufali gadaadgilebisa da sacxovrebeli adgilis Tavisufali arCevis uflebis sruli ganxorcieleba. azris gamoTqmis Tavisufleba Sedis im ZiriTad uflebebSi, romlebic dakavebis drosac arsebobs, magram misi ganxorcieleba da gamoxatva ganisazRvreba sasjelis aRsrulebis faqtiT da misi garemoebebiT. ZiriTadi uflebebis ganxorcielebis SezRudvis konstituciurobaze sakonstitucio sasamarTlom imsjela e.w. saWiroebis dadgenis testis safuZvelze. warmodgenil saqmeSi sakonstitucio sasamarTlos erTmaneTisTvis unda Seedarebina danaSaulebrivi saqmianobebis warmatebiT mogvarebis saxelmwifos uflebamosileba da patimarTa gaerTianebis Tavisufleba. rac Seexeba patimarTa ZiriTad uflebebs, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina: mniSvnelovania, rom dakaveba warmoadgendes safuZvels mxolod TviTon sasjelis aRsrulebasTan mWidrod dakavSirebuli interesis mqone ZiriTadi uflebebis ganxorcielebis SezRudvis gasamarTleblad. msjavrdebulTa konstituciur uflebebTan dakavSirebuli samarTlebrivi debuleba, romelic xels uSlis msjavrdebulis mier Tavisi ZiriTadi uflebis ganxorcielebas dakavebis Sedegad, mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba CaiTvalos konstituciurad, Tu igi emsaxureba sasjelis kanonieri aRsrulebis mizans. mocemul saqmeSi sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom saxelmwifos sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis efeqturi aRsrulebisa da sasjelis aRsrulebisas wesrigis damyarebis mizniT gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis uflebis ganxorcielebis SezRudva SeiZleba aucilebeli iyos zogierT SemTxvevaSi. saxelmwifos konstituciuri valdebulebaa, pasuxi agebinos damnaSaveebs. es valdebuleba moicavs sasjelis aRsrulebas, rodesac pirebs sasamarTlos mier misjili aqvT dakaveba. sasjelis aRsrulebisas saxelmwifos SeuZlia SezRudos gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis ganxorcieleba mxolod im sazRvrebSi, rac aucilebelia sasjelis kanonieri miznis misaRwevad. dakavebis mizania, samarTlebrivi sanqciis aRsrulebis gziT xeli Seuwyos msjavrdebulis resocializacias da daexmaros msjavrdebuls momavalSi sxva danaSaulis Cadenisagan Tavis aridebaSi. gaerTianebis wevrobam SesaZlebelia mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSos msjavrdebulebis gare

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

samyarosTan kavSiris SenarCunebaSi; daexmaros maT cixidan gamosvlis Semdeg sazogadoebaSi reintegraciaSi. mcire zomis gaerTianebis wevrobamac SeiZleba Seuwyos xeli pirovnulobisa da TviTpativiscemis SenarCunebas. sakanonmdeblo aqtis 36.5.v. muxlis Tanaxmad, gaerTianebis Tavisufleba izRudeba. es samarTlebrivi norma iTvaliswinebs, rom samarTlebrivi SezRudvis proporciuloba ar warmoadgens ganxilvis sagans, vinaidan sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, proporciulia Tu ara msjavrdebulis gaerTianebis Tavisufleba konkretul SemTxvevaSi dasaxul mizanTan, ganisazRvreba samarTlebrivi praqtikiT. sakanonmdeblo aqti ar gansazRvravs, Tu ra doniT izRudeba msjavrdebulis gaerTianebis Tavisufleba, ra tipis gaerTianebebis Seqmnaa SesaZlebeli da romel gaerTianebebSi SeiZleba gawevriandnen patimrebi. zogadad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom gaerTianebis uflebis SezRudva ar aris adekvaturi, rodesac msjavrdebulebs ekrZalebaT iseTi gaerTianebebis Seqmna, romlebic SesabamisobaSia sasjelis mizanTan da ar uqmnian safrTxes wesrigsa da usafrTxoebas. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, rodesac msjavrdebulebs surT iuridiuli piris statusis mqone gaerTianebis Seqmna sakanonmdeblo aqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli maTi interesebis dasacavad. msjavrdebulebis mier gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis ganxorcieleba, ra Tqma unda, SezRudulia im mxriv, rom maT ar SeuZliaT monawileoba miiRon gaerTianebebis yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebis gareT. es SezRudva gamomdinareobs im faqtidan, rom dakavebis periodSi msjavrdebulis Tavisufali gadaadgilebis ufleba da sacxovrebeli adgilis Tavisuflad arCevis ufleba droebiT SeCerebulia. sasjelis aRsrulebiT dasaxuli miznis gamo dakavebuli piri nebismier dros ver datovebs sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebas. Tumca, es SezRudva ar niSnavs, rom msjavrdebulebi ver iqnebian gaerTianebis wevrebi sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebis gareT an saerTod ver miiReben monawileobas gaerTianebis saqmianobaSi. msjavrdebulebs SeuZliaT kvlavac darCnen gaerTianebis wevrebad an gaxdnen axali gaerTianebis wevrebi, Tu es sasjelis aRsrulebasTan SesabamisobaSia. msjavrdebulis mier sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebis gareT gaerTianebis wevroba izRudeba mxolod imdenad, rom maT ar SeuZliaT piradad miiRon monawileoba gaerTianebis saqmianobaSi an SeuZliaT amis gakeTeba, rodesac sasjelis aRsrulebis maregulirebeli zogadi wesebis Sesabamisad gadian sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebidan. sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebidan gasvlisas msjavrdebulebs SeuZliaT gaerTianebis Seqmnac, rogorc am SemTxvevaSi, rodesac maT monawileobas gaerTianebis damfuZnebel krebaze ar gamouwvevia

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gaerTianebis Tavisufleba

raime sirTule. gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis ganxorcieleba SesaZlebelia ara mxolod sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebis gareT gaerTianebebis SemTxvevaSi, aramed sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebis SigniTac, rodesac msjavrdebulebs survili aqvT, Seqmnan gaerTianebebi, magaliTad, iuridiuli piris statusis mqone gaerTianebebi. konstituciis 70/g.1 muxli iTvaliswinebs gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis gansakuTrebul saxes, rogoricaa gaerTianeba socialuri da ekonomikuri interesebis dasacavad da maTi Seqmnisa da maTSi gawevrianebis ufleba. vinaidan konstituciis 70/g.1 muxliT daculi ZiriTadi ufleba warmoadgens gaerTianebis zogadi Tavisuflebis gamoxatvas interesebis dacvis mizniT Seqmnil gaerTianebebTan (profkavSirebi) mimarTebiT, aRniSnuli konstituciuri debulebis ganmartebaSi gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis arsTan dakavSirebuli gancxadebebi normatiulia: iuridiuli piris statusis mqone gaerTianebebis Seqmnis ufleba, anu am uflebis ­ gaerTianebis TavisuflebasTan erTad ­ ganxorcieleba izRudeba im faqtiT, rom msjavrdebuli dakavebulia. am muxlTan dakavSirebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom msjavrdebulis mier gaerTianebis Seqmnis uflebis ganxorcieleba izRudeba mxolod imdenad, ramdenadac gamarTlebulia sasjelis aRsrulebis mizniT da rom es ufleba SeiZleba SeizRudos mxolod im farglebSi, rac aucilebelia sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebaSi wesrigis dasacavad.

litva sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 14-01-1999 Sromis uflebebis dacvis ZiriTadi principebi daculia konstituciiT. profkavSirebi iqmneba mSromelTa profesiuli, ekonomikuri da socialuri uflebebisa da interesebis dacvis mizniT. isini icaven TavianT wevrebs da konkretuli sawarmos yvela daqiravebuls. profkavSirebi icaven pirvel rigSi TavianTi wevrebis uflebebs. Tumca, nebismier mSromels SeuZlia daicvas Tavisi uflebebi da interesebi uSualod sasamarTloSi. es xazgasmiTaa aRniSnuli konstituciis 30.1 muxlSi. mosarCelem gaasaCivra profkavSirebis Sesaxeb kanonis preambulis me-2 nawilisa da amave kanonis 10.4, 17, 18.1, 21 da 23.2 muxlebis Sesabamisoba konstituciasTan. mosarCelis azriT, profkavSirebis Sesaxeb kanonis normebi, romelTa Tanaxmad, profkavSirebs evalebaT mxolod maTi wevrebis dacva, ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciis 50-e muxls, romelSic naTqvamia, rom profkavSirebi iqmneba Tavisuflad da funq-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

cionireben damoukideblad da icaven mSromelTa profesiul, ekonomikur da socialur uflebebsa da interesebs. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom profkavSiri mSromelTa nebayoflobiTi da damoukidebeli organizaciaa. mSromelebi Sedian profkavSirebSi maTi uflebebis ukeTesad, e.i. organizebuli formiT dacvis mizniT. piri, romelic sakuTari nebiT Sedis profkavSirSi, am organizacias irCevs, rogorc Tavisi SromiTi uflebebisa da interesebis dacvis erT-erT saSualebas. amasTan, profkavSirebis wevrTa uflebebis dacva, profkavSirebis Sesaxeb kanonis normebis Tanaxmad, SesabamisobaSia am organizaciaTa mTavar mizanTan. profkavSirebis saqmianobis es aspeqti gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani xdeba individualuri SromiTi davebis mogvarebisas, rodesac profkavSirebi TavianT wevrebs icaven damqiraveblebis mier miRebuli ukanono gadawyvetilebisagan da, Tu saWiroa, am wevrebs sasamarTloSi warmoadgenen profkavSirebis organizaciebi. meore mxriv, unda aRiniSnos, rom istoriulad profkavSirebi iqmneboda yvela mSromelis dasacavad. mravali qveynis, maT Soris, litvis respublikis konstitucia gansazRvravs, rom profkavSirebma unda daicvan mSromelTa profesiuli, ekonomikuri da socialuri uflebebi da interesebi. maT unda gadaWran ara mxolod maTi wevrebis socialur-ekonomikuri problemebi, aramed sxva mSromelebisac _ mTavrobisa da damqiraveblebis warmomadgenlebTan ormxrivi da sammxrivi molaparakebebis meSveobiT. sawarmos profkavSiri SeiZleba moqmedebdes yvela mSromelis interesebis dasacavad da ecados, magaliTad, samarTliani xelfasebis dawesebas an Sromis usafrTxo pirobebis uzrunvelyofas. rogorc wesi, yvela mSromelis interesebi warmodgenilia damqiraveblebTan koleqtiuri an sxva saxis SeTanxmebebis dadebiT. koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebis Sesaxeb kanonis me-16 muxlis Tanaxmad, koleqtiuri SeTanxmebis monawile mxareebis warmomadgenlebma unda moamzadon koleqtiuri SeTanxmebis proeqti da mxedvelobaSi miiRon daqiravebulTa winadadebebi da molaparakebebis dros miRweuli SeTanxmebebi. SeTanxmebis proeqti unda ganixilon daqiravebulebma da Semdgomi ganxilvisaTvis waredginos mSromelTa koleqtivis krebas. krebaze koleqtiuri SeTanxmebis proeqtis damtkicebisas mxareTa warmomadgenlebma SeTanxmebas xeli unda moaweron sam dReSi. es niSnavs, rom kanoni profkavSirebs avaldebulebs, iyos sawarmoebsa an sxva organizaciebSi momuSave yvela piri warmomadgeneli maTi ekonomikuri da socialuri problemebis erToblivi mogvarebis procesSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom xazgasmiT aRniSna, rom konstituci-

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is 50.1 muxlis debuleba, romliTac profkavSirebi icaven mSromelTa profesiul, ekonomikur da socialur uflebebs, gamoxatavs profkavSirebis ormag mizansa da funqcias: pirveli, warmoadginos profkavSiris wevrebi da daicvas pirvel rigSi isini; meore, daicvas konkretuli sawarmos, dawesebulebisa an organizaciis yvela TanamSromeli kanoniT dadgenil SemTxvevebSi da formiT. damqiravebelma unda Seasrulos daqiravebulebis Sromis, ekonomikur da socialur pirobebTan dakavSirebuli kanonis moTxovnebi. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu damqiravebeli iRebs iseT gadawyvetilebebs, romelic raime formiT arRvevs profkavSiris wevrTa SromiT, ekonomikur da socialur uflebebs, profkavSirs ufleba aqvs, moaxdinos reagireba da moiTxovos aseTi gadawyvetilebis gauqmeba. Tu damqiravebeli droulad ar ganixilavs profkavSirebis moTxovnas aseTi gadawyvetilebis gauqmebis Sesaxeb an uars ambobs mis ganxilvaze, profkavSirs ufleba aqvs, mimarTos sasamarTlos. udavoa, rom damqiraveblis gadawyvetilebebma SeiZleba daarRvios ara mxolod profkavSirebis wevrTa uflebebi, aramed im mSromelebisac, romlebic ar ekuTvnian am organizacias. konstituciis 30-e muxli iTvaliswinebs piris mier sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis uflebas. is mSromelebic, romlebic ar arian profkavSiris wevrebi, icaven TavianT uflebebs uSualod sasamarTloSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom profkavSirebis Sesaxeb kanonis preambulis me-2 nawili da imave kanonis 10.4, 17, 18.1, 21 da 23.2 muxlebi SesabamisobaSia konstituciasTan.

litva sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 21-12-2000 sazogadoebebis, politikuri partiebisa da gaerTianebebis Tavisuflad Seqmnis konstituciuri ufleba mravalmxrivia. mis SinaarsSi moiazreba sazogadoebebis, politikuri partiebisa da gaerTianebebis Tavisuflad Seqmnis, maTSi gawevrianebisa da maT saqmianobebSi monawileobis miRebis uflebebi, aseve, ufleba, ar gawevriande arc erT sazogadoebaSi, politikur partiasa da gaerTianebaSi; an aseTi gaerTianebebidan gamosvlis ufleba. amrigad, konstitucia uzrunvelyofs piris uflebas, sakuTari nebiT miiRos garkveul sazogadoebaSi, politikur partiasa an gaerTianebaSi gawevrianebis Tu argawevrianebis gadawyvetileba. sazogadoebebis, politikuri partiebisa da gaerTianebebis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

Tavisuflad Seqmnis ufleba, romelic ganmtkicebulia konstituciaSi, niSnavs, rom piri an axorcielebs an ar axorcielebs mas sakuTari nebiT. konstituciis 35.2 muxlSi sityva-sityviT naTqvamia, rom dauSvebelia piris iZulebiTi gawevrianeba romelime sazogadoebis, politikuri partiis an gaerTianebis wevrad. es aris konstituciuri garantia, romelic icavs pirebs romelime gaerTianebaSi Sesvlisagan sakuTari nebis sawinaaRmdegod. adamianis Tavisufali neba aris sxvadasxva sazogadoebaSi, politikur partiebsa da gaerTianebebSi misi wevrobis fundamenturi principi. es konstituciuri principi unda daicvan nebismieri tipis gaerTianebis Seqmnisas da maTi saqmianobisa da wevrobis maregulirebeli wesebis dadgenisas, miuxedavad im kanonieri miznebisa, romelTa miRwevasac cdiloben es gaerTianebebi. mosarCele ­vilniusis pirveli olqis saqalaqo sasamarTlo ­ daobda binebis mflobelTa gaerTianebebis Sesaxeb kanonis da binebis mflobelTa gaerTianebebis standartuli normebis (standartuli normebi) Sesabamisobaze konstituciasTan. standartuli normebi damtkicda mTavrobis 1995 wlis 15 ivnisis #852 dadgenilebiT binebis mflobelTa gaerTianebebis Sesaxeb kanonis aRsrulebis wesis Sesaxeb. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom xazgasmiT aRniSna, rom saerTo qonebis flobisa da gamoyenebis mizniT sazogadoebis Seqmnisas, mravalbinian saxlSi sacxovrebeli da arasacxovrebeli qonebis mflobelebi iyeneben gaerTianebis konstituciur uflebas, romelic SeiZleba ganxorcieldes mxolod adamianis Tavisufali nebis safuZvelze. amasTan, binebis mflobelTa sazogadoebis wevroba unda efuZnebodes nebayoflobiTobis princips. rodesac Seqmnis, saqmianobisa da gawevrianebis wesebs aregulirebs kanoni, iseve rogorc sxva gaerTianebebis SemTxvevaSi, unda davicvaT konstituciis 35.2 muxlis moTxovna, rom dauSvebelia piris, fizikuri pirebis da fizikur pirTa dajgufebebis iZulebiTi gawevrianeba romelime sazogadoebaSi, politikur partiasa an gaerTianebaSi. aqedan gamomdinare, rodesac mravalbinian saxlSi mdebare qonebis zogierTi mepatrone gadawyvets gaerTianebis Seqmnas, sxva mepatroneebi ar SeiZleba CaiTvalon am gaerTianebis wevrebad mxolod aseTi gadawyvetilebis faqtis gamo. aseTi iZulebiTi gawevrianeba dauSvebelia. gaerTianebis wevrobis nebayoflobiTobis principi niSnavs, rom mepatrones ufleba aqvs, ar gawevriandes gaerTianebaSi, Tumca, mocemul SemTxvevaSi mravalbinian saxlSi mdebare sacxovrebeli da arasacxovrebeli qonebis mepatrone rCeba saerTo qonebaze uflebebis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebuli sxva samarTlebrivi urTierTobebis monawile. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanonisa da stan-

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gaerTianebis Tavisufleba

dartuli normebis zogierTi debuleba ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis 35.1 da 35.2 muxlebs, ramdenadac binebis mflobelTa gaerTianebis wevrobis faqti ar ukavSirdeba mflobelis Tavisufal nebas da/an ramdenadac kanoni da normebi ar aRiareben mflobelis uflebas, Tavisi nebiT gamovides binebis mflobelTa gaerTianebidan. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, sxva sadavo debulebebi SesabamisobaSi iyo konstituciasTan.

portugalia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 18-10-2000 profkavSirebSi gawevrianebis ufleba moicavs or _ dadebiT da uaryofiT aspeqts. dadebiTi aspeqti aRiarebs mSromelTa uflebas, Seqmnan da gawevriandnen profkavSirSi, romelic SeiZleba iyos maTi warmomadgeneli da savaldebulos ar xdis profkavSirSi Sesvlaze profkavSiris diskreciuli gadawyvetilebis miRebas. uflebis negatiuri mxare uzrunvelyofs profkavSirebSi gauwevrianeblobis uflebas da profkavSiridan nebismier dros gasvlis uflebas. gulisxmobs ra diskriminaciisagan mniSvnelovan dacvas, profkavSirebSi gauwevrianeblobis ufleba moicavs arapirdapir SezRudvebs da unda ganimartos imdenad farTod, rom moicvas kavSiris wevrobis rogorc pirdapiri, ise arapirdapiri valdebulebebi. aseve namdvili valdebulebebi da zewolis gamoyenebisTvis gadadgmuli nebismieri nabiji, romelic SeiZleba Tavisuflebis ganxorcielebis sawinaaRmdego iyos. ombudsmenma sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mimarTa sakanonmdeblo aqtis debulebis arakonstituciurad cnobis moTxovniT. aRniSnuli aqti damtkicda amJamad moqmedi konstituciis miRebamde da masSi naTqvamia, rom mSromels ufleba aqvs, nebismier dros datovos profkavSiri xelmZRvanelobisTvis werilobiTi mimarTvis safuZvelze. profkavSirs SeuZlia moiTxovos werilobiTi mimarTvidan sami Tvis sawevros gadaxda. ombudsmenis azriT, es moTxovna zRudavda mSromelTa uflebas profkavSirSi gauwevrianeblobaze, xolo im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini iyvnen profkavSiris wevrebi, profkavSiris datovebis uflebas. misive TqmiT, igi ar iyo aucilebeli profkavSirebis konstituciuri dacvisaTvis da ewinaaRmdegeboda proporciulobis princips sam aspeqtSi: adekvaturoba, aucilebloba da samarTlianoba. konstituciis 55-e muxli iTvaliswinebs profkavSirebis Seqmnis Tavisuflebas, rac mSromelTaTvis sxva TavisuflebebTan erTad uzrunvelyofs gaw-

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evrianebis Tavisuflebasac; arc erTi mSromeli ar SeiZleba iyos valdebuli sawevros gadaxdaze im profkavSirisaTvis, romlis wevric is ar aris. sasamarTlom daadgina sadavo wesis arakonstituciuroba im motiviT, rom profkavSirebis dafinansebis aucilebloba da, Sesabamisad, profkavSiris saqmianobis konsolidacia warmoadgens erTaderT SesaZlo safuZvels sadavo wesiT gaTvaliswinebuli SemTxvevisTvis maSin, rodesac profkavSirebis Tavisufleba, yvela aspeqtSi amarTlebs profkavSiris saqmianobis dacvas. amasTan, gaumarTlebelia zedmeti sawevro gadasaxadis gadaxdis moTxovna.

portugalia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 03-04-2003 marTalia, politikurma partiebma unda daicvan maTi wevrebis uflebebi, magram politikur partiebSi monawileoba, ZiriTadad, moiTxovs partiis wesdebis miRebasa da Sesrulebas. am valdebulebis konteqstSi partiis wevri mTlianad eTanxmeba, rom misi uflebebis ganxorcieleba SeizRudeba wesdebiT gaTvaliswinebuli wesebis debulebebiT (ivaraudeba ra, rom es wesebi uzrunvelyofs demokratias partiis Sida administrirebasa da funqcionirebaSi). sakonstitucio sasamarTlos msjelobis sagania partiis organoTa is aqtebi, romlebic albaT wesdebis Sesabamisad iyenebs disciplinarul zomebs da romlebic laxaven aqtivistTa konstituciurad dacul uflebebs. SezRudvis kanonierebis dadgenis Semdeg igi aRar unda iyos araadekvaturi, araproporciuli an gadaWarbebuli. miTumetes, rom wesdebiT gaTvaliswinebul sanqciebTan dakavSirebuli wesebi gamoxatulia zogadi saxiT, romelTa integrireba saWiroebs politikur Sefasebas da ar unda iyos (an ar SeiZleba iyos) sasamarTlos gansaxilveli, garda moqalaqeTa ZiriTadi uflebebis darRvevasa da SezRudvasTan dakavSirebuli SemTxvevebisa. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos iurisdiqciaSi Sedis ara politikuri partiebis mier partiis wesdebis zogadi debulebebis konteqstSi gamoyenebuli sanqciebis arsis, aramed am sanqciebis marTlzomierebisa da proporciulobis sakiTxis ganxilva. portugaliis komunisturi partiis samma aqtivistma, romlebsac Seufardes partiis saqmianobidan droebiTi CamoSorebis da garicxvis sanqciebi, winamdebare sarCeli waradgina sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb kanonis 103-d muxlis safuZvelze, romelic Setanil iqna 1997 wels konstituciuri gadasinjvis Semdeg. aRniSnuli muxlis safuZvelze konstituciis 51-e muxlis moqmedebis

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sferoSi moeqca politikuri partiebis organizebisa da funqcionirebis "principebis" ganmsazRvreli wesebi (konstituciis 51.5 muxli) da ganisazRvra, rom kanoniT unda dadgindes dafinansebis, kerZod saxelmwifo dafinansebis pirobebisa da farglebis Sesaxeb wesebi, da am partiaTa aqtivebisa da angariSebis rekvizitebis gansajaroebis moTxovnebi (konstituciis 51.6 muxli). aRniSnuli konstituciuri gadasinjvis konteqstSi miRebuli wesiT sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetencias daemata "arCevnebisa da politikur partiaTa organoebis gadawyvetilebebis winaaRmdeg Setanili sarCelebis ganxilva, romlebic, kanonis Tanaxmad, SeiZleba gasaCivrdes." sakonstitucio sasamarTlos Sesaxeb kanonis 103-d muxli aseve awesrigebda politikuri partiebis organoebis gadawyvetilebebis gasaCivrebas aqtivistebis mier qvemoT mocemul SemTxvevebSi: disciplinur saqmiswarmoebaSi partiis organoebis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi aqtivistebisTvis sanqciebis Sefardebis Sesaxeb da im organoTa gadawyvetilebebi, romlebic pirdapir axdenen gavlenas aqtivistis uflebaze partiis saqmianobaSi monawileobis Sesaxeb; partiis organoTa gadawyvetilebebi partiis kompetenciasa an demokratiul funqcionirebasTan dakavSirebuli ZiriTadi wesebis seriozuli darRvevis safuZvelze. es is wesebia, romlebic awesrigebs sarCelis mizansa da safuZvels da, amave dros, mis kanonierebas. rac Seexeba kanonierebas, pirvel SemTxvevaSi sarCelis Setana SeuZlia mxolod im aqtivists, romelsac Seefarda sanqcia an romlis uflebebi partiis saqmianobaSi monawileobis Taobaze pirdapir iqna darRveuli. xolo meore SemTxvevaSi kanoniereba vrceldeba yvela aqtivistze. garda amisa, Tu pirvel SemTxvevaSi sarCelis Setana SeiZleba "wesdebiT dadgenili wesis ukanonobis an darRvevis safuZvelze", meore SemTxvevaSi igi SesaZlebelia "partiis kompetenciisa an demokratiuli funqcionirebisTvis mniSvnelovani wesebis seriozuli darRvevis safuZvelze." demokratiuli principis politikuri partiis struqturaze gavrcelebam garduvalad gamoiwvia konfliqti erTis mxriv, politikuri partiebis gamWvirvalobis, demokratiuli organizebisa da administrirebis, aseve yvela wevris monawileobis konstituciur principebsa da meore mxriv, individualur uflebebs, gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis uflebebsa da garantiebs, Sekrebis, demonstraciis uflebebsa da politikuri partiebis saSualebiT politikaSi moqalaqeTa monawileobis uflebas Soris. marTalia, "oligarqiis rkinis kanoni" (robert miCelsi) aRar moqmedebs Tanamedrove

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demokratebis politikur partiebSi, magram isic simarTlea, rom Tanamedrove masobrivi partiebis funqcionirebisaTvis kvlavac saWiroa mkacri Sida disciplina. aqedan gamomdinare, konfliqti SeiZleba warmoiSvas wevrebis individualur da koleqtiuri organizaciis interesebs Soris, vinaidan es ukanaskneli yovelTvis daicavs Tavis erTianobas Zalis efeqturi mopovebis interesiT. amasTanave aucilebelia dadgindes, Tu ramdenad kanonieria am uflebebze dawesebuli SezRudvebi wesdebiT dadgenil farglebSi mainc. kanonmdeblebi ar arian erTsulovnebi Sida pirobebis gansazRvrisas, romlebic aucilebelia konkretuli partiis SigniT demokratiis dasacavad. miuxedavad imisa, rom kanonmdeblebi Tanxmdebian minimalur pirobebze (romelic moicavs partiis SigniT mosazrebebis Tavisuflad gamoTqmis SesaZleblobis garantias), partiis gareT kritikuli mosazrebebis gamoTqmis ufleba ar iTvleba aucilebel pirobad, miTumetes, rom politikuri partiis erTianoba (Tumca efuZneba partiis SigniT azrTa sxvadasxvaobasa da gacvlagamocvlas) warmoadgens partiis efeqturobis erT-erT pirvel pirobas, partiis xelmZRvanelobis misamarTiT kritikuli mosazrebebis partiis gareT sajarod gamoxatva (gansakuTrebiT mediiT) aucileblad gamoiwvevs am erTianobis sakiTxis dayenebas. am konkretul SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlom daadgina, rom komunisturi partiis mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba aqtivistTa "animus"-Tan (ganzraxva) dakavSirebiT ar iyo SemTxveviTi, vinaidan aqtivistebi cdilobdnen, gaeZlierebinaT maT mier wamowyebuli moZraoba da partiis organoebis xelmZRvaneli Tanamdebobis gamoyenebiT reklamas uwevdnen partiis Sida struqturis farglebze komunisturi partiis wesdebasa da funqcionirebaSi cvlilebebis Setanas. miRebul iqna is argumentic, rom aqtivistTa qmedeba zians ayenebda partiis imijs, mis funqcionirebas, mis xelmZRvanel organoebsa da politikur kurss. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom maTi qcevis seriozulobisa da mosalodneli saziano Sedegebis (politikuri partiisTvis) gaTvaliswinebiT, zemoxsenebul aqtivistebze dawesebuli realuri sanqciebi ar aWarbebda racionalurobisa da proporciulobis zRvars.

rumineTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 28-10-1999 is faqti, rom #387/1977 dadgenilebiT mtkicdeba wesdeba moijareTa asociaciebis organizaciisa da funqcionirebis Sesaxeb sazogadoebriv interesebSi Semavali miznis misaRwevad, am

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SemTxvevaSi mravalbiniani saxlebis saTanado marTvis uzrunvelsayofad, aRniSnul organoebs ar ganixilavs adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-11 muxlis mniSvnelobiT da ar arRvevs konstituciis 37-e muxls, romelic gaerTianebis Tavisuflebas icavs ZiriTad socialur da politikur uflebad. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos eTxova, daedgina #387/1977 dadgenilebis 3.1 muxlis pirveli winadadebis, 3.2.g muxlisa da 23-e muxlis konstituciuroba, romelic amtkicebs moijareTa asociaciebis organizaciisa da funqcionirebis Sesaxeb wesdebas samoqalaqo saqmeSi, romelic exeboda moijareTa asociaciebis mier dadgenili garkveuli Tanxis gadaxdis valdebulebas moijareTa mier. sarCelis motivs warmoadgenda qvemoT mocemuli debulebebis mier gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb konstituciis 37-e muxlis darRveva: 3.1 muxlis 1-li winadadeba, romelic gansazRvravda, rom saijaro xelSekrulebebis mxareebi avtomaturad xdebodnen moijareTa Sesabamisi asociaciis wevrebi, xolo 23-e muxlis mixedviT ki, TavianTi movaleobebis Sesrulebisas moijareTa asociaciebs rekomendacias, mxardaWerasa da monitorings uwevdnen adgilobriv sabWoebTan arsebuli komitetebi da aRmasrulebeli samsaxurebi. mosarCeleebi aseve amtkicebdnen, rom sasamarTlosTvis mimarTvis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb konstituciis 21-e muxls arRvevda dadgenilebis 3.2.g muxli, romlis Tanaxmad, moijareTa asociaciebis wevrebs ufleba aqvT, miiRon axsna-ganmarteba xarjebis ganawilebis Taobaze maT valdebulebebTan dakavSirebiT, gadawyvetileba, romelic ar eqvemdebareba gasaCivrebas da rom sarCelis ganxilvaze uaris TqmasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxi gaitanon moijareTa asociaciis generalur asambleaze. konstituciis 37-e muxlis mixedviT, politikur partiebsa da formirebebSi, profkavSirebsa da sxva saxis organizaciebSi moqalaqeTa gaerTianebis Tavisufleba, romlis meSveobiT maT SeeZloT monawileobis miReba sxvadasxva saxis politikur, socialur da kulturul saqmianobebSi, warmoadgens ZiriTad socialur da politikur uflebas. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom konstituciis 20.1 muxliT, moqalaqeTa uflebebsa da TavisuflebebTan dakavSirebuli debulebebi unda ganimartos da aRsruldes adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis da im sxva konvenciebisa da xelSekrulebebis, maT Soris adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacvis konvenciis Sesabamisad, romelsac miuerTda rumineTi. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-11 muxlis Tanaxmad, yvelas aqvs ufleba mSvidobian Sekrebasa da sxvebTan gaerTianebis Tavisuflebaze da dauSvebelia raime SezRudvis daweseba am uflebaTa ganxorcielebaze, kanoniT gaTvaliswinebulis garda.

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adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-11 muxliT regulirebul SemTxvevebTan dakavSirebiT 1981 wlis gadawyvetilebaSi saqmeze le kompti, van liuveni da de maieri belgiis winaaRmdeg (Le Compte, Van Leuven and De Meyer v. Belgium) (Special Bulletin ECHR [ECH1981-S-001], adamianis uflebaTa evropulma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanonis Sesabamisad Seqmnili belgiis samedicino organizacia ar warmoadgenda asociacias adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-11 muxlis mniSvnelobiT, vinaidan organizacia atarebda sajaro samarTlis xasiaTs da misi samarTlebrivi statusi da konkretuli valdebulebebi gulisxmobda saqmianobis ganxorcielebas saxelmwifo interesebis dasacavad. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom garkveul SemTxvevebSi parlaments SeuZlia gansazRvros gaerTianebis specialuri forma, romlis mizania saerTo interesebis dacva, rac ar eqceva gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis im farglebSi, romlebic dadgenilia adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-11 muxliTa da konstituciis 37-e muxliT. Mutatis mutandis, #387/1977 dadgenilebaSi aRniSnuli moijareTa asociacia Seiqmna kanonierad, saerTo interesebisaTvis, rogoricaa mravalbiniani saxlis saTanado marTva. aseTi asociaciebis ararsebobisas aRniSnuli saxlebis mobinadreTa kanonier uflebebsa da interesebs SesaZlebelia ziani miadges gaugebrobisa an davebis Sedegad. rac Seexeba 3.2.g muxls, sasamarTlom ar aRiara sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis Tavisuflebis Taobaze konstituciis 21-e muxlis darRveva, vinaidan #387/1977 dadgenilebis me-7 muxliT mxareebs SeuZliaT sasamarTlos mimarTon xarjebis moijareTa generaluri asambleis mier ganawilebis valdebulebebTan dakavSirebiT miRebuli nebismieri gadawyvetilebis kanonierebis ganxilvis moTxovniT. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom #387/1977 dadgenilebis 23-e muxls aranairi Sexeba ar hqonda mocemul saqmesTan, vinaidan ar ukavSirdeboda konstituciis 37-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebul gaerTianebis uflebas. nebismier SemTxvevaSi es debulebebi aRar iyo mniSvnelovani adgilobrivi sazogadoebrivi samsaxurebis Sesaxeb kanoniT (#69/1991) dadgenili adgilobrivi organoebisaTvis miniWebuli valdebulebebis TvalsazrisiT.

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 05-05-2000 nebismieri firma, romelic erTpirovnulad axdens Tavisi daqiravebulebis xelfasebis cvlilebas, laxavs profkavSirebis

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Tavisuflad Seqmnisa da maTSi gawevrianebis uflebas (konstituciis 28.1 muxli) koleqtiuri SeTanxmebis uflebidan gamomdinare, Tu firmis gadawyvetileba miiReba araswori koleqtiuri SeTanxmebis Sedegad. SromiTi urTierTobisTvis aucilebeli ar aris Tanabari mopyrobis daweseba (konstituciis me-14 muxli) mkacri gagebiT, vinaidan isini uSveben garkveul Tavisuflebas xelSekrulebis dadebis uflebis ganxorcielebisTvis. amasTanave, xelfasis gazrda SesabamisobaSia obieqtur kriteriumebTan, xolo xelfasis gazrda am konkretul SemTxvevaSi ar ukavSirdeboda mocemuli pirebis pozicias profkavSirSi. mopasuxe firmam, profkavSirebis uflebamosil warmomadgenelTan ramodenimejer Sexvedris Semdeg, romelic TanamSromlebs warmoadgenda koleqtiur SeTanxmebaze molaparakebis miznebisTvis, gadawyvita, erTpirovnulad Seecvala mTeli misi personalis 1993 wlis xelfasebi. obieqturi samuSaos Sefasebis kriteriumebis gamoyenebis gziT, man xelfasebi gauzarda 416 TanamSromels (3-6%-iT) da igive datova danarCeni 63 TanamSromlisTvis. profkavSirma SromiTi davebis sasamarTloSi Seitana sarCeli firmis winaaRmdeg, romelSic igi amtkicebda, rom molaparakebebi parodia iyo da meti araferi. sasamarTlom sarCeli ar daakmayofila im motiviT, rom mxareebi ar SeTanxmebulan koleqtiuri SeTanxmebis ganaxlebaze, rac amarTlebda firmis gadawyvetilebas. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ki, piriqiT, aRniSna, rom amis gakeTebiT firmam Selaxa profkavSiris Tavisuflad Seqmnisa da gawevrianebis ufleba (konstituciis 28.1 muxli). demokratiul saxelmwifoSi mSromelTa kavSirebi asruleben mniSvnelovan funqcias iseTi ZiriTadi saSualebebiT, rogoricaa koleqtiuri molaparakebebi samuSao pirobebis dasadgenad (konstituciis me-7 da 37.1 muxli). firmas ar SeuZlia arc erT SemTxvevaSi, arc daqiravebulebTan individualuri SeTanxmebebis sababiT, aicdinos an xeli SeuSalos koleqtiur SeTanxmebebze molaparakebebSi monawile profkavSirebis uflebamosili warmomadgenlis monawileobas. firmis qmedeba unda Sefasdes mocemuli samuSaos pirobebisa da xelfasebis Secvlamde gamarTuli molaparakebebis garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. xelmZRvanelebsa da kavSiris wevrebs Soris gamarTuli Sexvedrebis raundi dasrulda firmis mier "saboloo da Seuqcevadi" xelfasis SeTavazebiT. amasTanave, davis dasrulebis mizniT ar iqna gamoyenebuli morigebis procedura. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom moCvenebiTi molaparakeba ar iyo sakmarisi daqiravebulTa interesebis dacvasTan dakavSirebiT profkavSiris uflebis dasacavad. meore mxriv, es gadawyvetileba ar aRiarebs, rom daqiravebulTa xelfase-

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bis gazrdis sxvadasxvaobam Selaxa Tanabari mopyrobis ufleba (konstituciis me-14 muxli). SromiT sakiTxebSi xelSekrulebis dadebis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva kerZo piris Tavisuflebis principi gamoricxavs absoluturad Tanabar mopyrobaze SeTanxmebas. garda amisa, xelfasebis sxvadasxvaoba efuZneboda samuSaos Sesrulebis obieqtur kriteriumebs da ar damtkicebula, rom maT kavSiri hqondaT mosazrebasTan daqiravebulebis profkavSirebis wevrobis Taobaze.

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 12-06-1996 konstitucia calsaxad aRiarebs e.w. korporatiuli administrirebis legitimurobas, kerZod, rogoricaa arateritoriuli korporaciebi, seqtoruli korporaciebi an sajaro seqtoris gaerTianebebi, anu rac zogadad cnobilia rogorc kanonis Sesabamisad Seqmnili sxvadasxva saxis sajaro dajgufebebi sxvadasxva sazogadoebrivi interesebisaTvis, ZiriTadad, samuSaosTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis mosagvareblad, romlebsac xSirad sajaro samarTlis statusi aqvT da romelSi gawevrianebac, umravles SemTxvevaSi, savaldebuloa. am dajgufebebis mizani ganisazRvreba maT mier dasacavi saxelmwifo interesebidan gamomdinare, romelsac adgenen saxelmwifo organoebi. Sesabamisad, marTalia isini Seicaven garkveul asociaciur elements an safuZvels, magram sityva asociacia SesaZlebelia vixmaroT mxolod farTo gagebiT. gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis pozitiuri mxaris gamarTleba SeuZlebelia aseTi korporaciuli tipis dajgufebebTan dakavSirebiT, miTumetes, am uflebis negatiuri aspeqtebis Semcirebis seriozuli aucileblobis gamo. organo, romelmac saqme aRZra sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi, daobda savaWro, samrewvelo da gadazidvaTa oficialuri palatebis Sesaxeb 22 martis #3/1993 kanonis konkretuli muxlebis konstituciurobaze. mosarCelis azriT, aseT palatebSi gawevrianebis savaldebulo xasiaTi laxavda gaerTianebis uflebas (espaneTis konstituciis 22-e muxli), ufro konkretulad ki am uflebis meore mxares, argawevrianebis uflebas. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom sadavo debulebebi namdvilad adgenda aRniSnul palatebSi savaldebulo gawevrianebas, manve daasaxela is sami minimaluri da ZiriTadi kriteriumi, romelTa gamoyeneba aucilebelia kanonierad Seqmnili sajaro xasiaTis gaerTianebaSi gawevrianebis savaldebuloebis kontituciurobis dasadgenad. es kriteriumebia:

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gaerTianebis Tavisufleba

korporatiul organoSi savaldebulo gawevrianeba aranairi TvalsazrisiT ar unda ukavSirdebodes Tavisufali gaerTianebis akrZalvas; aseTi tipis administraciul qmedebaze miTiTeba, romelic warmoadgenda ex lege Seqmnili sazogadoebrivi dajgufebis formas, ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos iseT wesad, romelic safrTxes ar uqmnis kanonis uzenaesobaze da Tavisuflebis umniSvnelovanes Rirebulebaze dafuZnebuli socialuri da demokratiuli saxelmwifos cnebas; aRniSnul sajaro korporaciebSi savaldebulo gawevrianeba, rogorc Tavisuflebis principidan gamonaklisi, gamarTlebuli iqneba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu konstituciur debulebebze an saxelmwifo interesebze dayrdnobiT damtkicdeba, rom rTuli iqneba, am miznebis miRweva gawevrianebis savaldebuloebis dadgenis gareSe; rac Seexeba mesame da saboloo pirobas, romlis safuZvelzec aRiZra es saqme, konstituciurobis dadgenis meTodis simkacre unda Sefasdes ori SemTxvevis erTmaneTisagan mkveTri diferencirebis gziT. pirveli, rodesac aSkaraa, rom sasurveli Sedegebis miReba SesaZlebelia gawevrianebis savaldebuloebis dadgenis gareSe da meore, rodesac maTi miRweva Zneldeba gawevrianebis savaldebuloebis gareSe. pirvelTan dakavSirebiT sakonstitucio sasamarTlos sruli ufleba hqonda, Seecvala kanonis konstituciurobis prezumfcia maSin, rodesac meore SemTxvevaSi arc erTi TvalsazrisiT ar SeeZlo yofiliyo am "sirTulis" yovlisSemZle msajuli, radgan misi Sefaseba parlamentis kompetenciaSi Sedioda, rac saWiroebda manevrirebis farTo SesaZleblobebs. moqmedi kanonmdeblobiT, savaWro, samrewvelo da gadazidvaTa oficialuri palatebi Seiqmna sakonsultacio organoebis formiT saxelmwifo organoebTan TanamSromlobisa da vaWrobis, mrewvelobisa da gadazidvebis sferoebSi saerTo interesebis warmodgenis, propagandisa da dacvis mizniT. garda im uflebamosilebebis ganxorcielebisa, romlebic SeiZleba davalebodaT an miniWebodaT saxelmwifo organoebis mxridan, kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, isini asrulebdnen Zalze mniSvnelovan saxelmwifo da administraciul funqciebsac da muSaobdnen saWiro da savaldebulo wesiT. kerZod, savaldebulo funqciebs akontrolebda saxelmwifo sazedamxedvelo samsaxuri da eqvemdebareboda mkacr administraciul regulirebas. kanoniT maTTvis dadgenili uflebamosilebebis, maTi konkretuli da savaldebulo xasiaTis, maTi sajaro samarTlis garantiebiTa da konstituciuri mniSvnelobiT sakonstitucio sasamarTlom es funqciebi CaTvala gawevrianebis savaldebuloebis dadgenis sakmaris safuZvlad.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

ukraina sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 13-12-2001 sakanonmdeblo debuleba axalgazrdobisa da bavSvTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis umravlesobis gaerTianebis Taobaze ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciiT ganmtkicebul gaerTianebis Tavisuflebas. aseTi organizaciebis umravlesobis gaerTianebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miReba SesaZlebelia mxolod TviT am arasamTavrobo organizaciebis wevrTa mier gamoTqmuli ganzraxvis Tavisufali deklaraciis safuZvelze. axalgazrdobisa da bavSvTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis saqmianobis finansuri daxmarebis saxelmwifo biujetidan miRebis uflebis aRiareba mxolod im "gaerTianebebTan mimarTebiT, romelTa wevrebi warmoadgenen sruliad ukrainis registrirebuli axalgazrdobisa da bavSvTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis umravlesobas" (kanonis 10.1 da 10.2 muxlebi), arRvevs konstituciiT gaTvaliswinebul adamianis uflebas gaerTianebis Tavisuflebaze. gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis ufleba warmoadgens moqalaqeTa ZiriTad politikur uflebas. sazogadoebis mravalferovnebis principi uzrunvelyofs konstituciuri uflebebis ganxorcielebisa da samoqalaqo institutebis Seqmnis safuZvels. konstituciis 1-li muxlis Tanaxmad, ukraina aris demokratiuli, socialuri da kanonis uzenaesobis principze agebuli saxelmwifo. socialuri saxelmwifo niSnavs sazogadoebisa da sazogadoebrivi institutebis ganviTarebisa da mxardaWeris uzrunvelyofas "sazogadoebrivi saWiroebisaTvis" gamoyofili xarjebis miznobrivi xarjvis gziT (konstituciis 95.2 muxli). konstituciuri saxelmwifos valdebulebaa piris gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis uflebaSi da aseTi gaerTianebebis saqmianobaSi Caurevloba. mosarCele daobda, rom kanonis 24.1 muxlis debulebebi axalgazrdobisa da bavSvTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis umravlesobis specialuri gaerTianebis Taobaze arRvevda sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis mravalferovnebis konstituciur principebs, vinaidan eqskluziuri monopoliis statuss aniWebda mxolod erT-erT Sesabamis samoqalaqo gaerTianebas. kanonis 6.2 muxlis Tanaxmad, ukrainaSi axalgazrdul moZraobas koordinacias uwevs ukrainis axalgazrdobis organizaciaTa erovnuli komiteti, romlis statusia sruliad ukrainis axalgazrdobisa da bavSvTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis kavSiri. saxelmwifom am komitets daavala ukrainaSi axalgazrduli moZraobis koordinireba da kanoniT daadgina maTi samoqalaqo gaerTianebebis miznebi. saxelmwifos mxridan aseTi qmedeba

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gaerTianebis Tavisufleba

ewinaaRmdegeba sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis mravalferovnebis princips da arRvevs gaerTianebis Tavisuflebis uflebas, kerZod, TviTon samoqalaqo gaerTianebebis monawileebis mier sxvadasxva organizaciebisa da saqmianobis miznebis Taobaze gadawyvetilebis Tavisuflad miRebis SesaZleblobas konstituciis 36.1 muxlis Tanaxmad. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom axalgazrdobisa da bavSvTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis Sesaxeb kanonis 2.4, 6.2, 10.1 da 10.2 muxlebi ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias da parlaments (radas) daavala kanonis winamdebare gadawyvetilebasTan SesabamisobaSi moyvana.

ukraina sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 29-10-1998 yvelas aqvs muSaobis ufleba, romlis ganxorcieleba SesaZlebelia individualurad an sazogadoebrivi organizaciis, maT Soris profkavSiris, meSveobiT (konstituciis 36-e muxli). mSromelTa uflebebi, valdebulebebi da garantiebi gansazRvrulia ukrainis Sromis kodeqsiT, romelic iTvaliswinebs daqiravebaze TviTneburi uaris Tqmisa da usamarTlo daTxovnisagan samarTlebriv dacvas. kanoni awesebs SezRudvebs damqiraveblebisa an maT warmomadgenlobaze uflebamosili organoebis mier SromiTi xelSekrulebis Sewyvetaze, rac warmoadgens usamarTlo daTxovnisagan samarTlebriv garantias. sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa an organizaciaSi moqmedi profkavSiri aris nebismieri profkavSiri (an kavSiris filiali), romelic konstituciis da kanonis Sesabamisad aris Seqmnili im sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa an organizaciaSi misi wevrebis Tavisufali arCevanis safuZvelze, Sromis, socialuri da ekonomikuri uflebebis da aseve mSromelTa interesebis dasacavad, miuxedavad imisa, aris Tu ara is koleqtiuri xelSekrulebis an SeTanxmebis monawile. imave sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa Tu organizaciaSi moqmed yvela profkavSirs aqvs kanoniT dadgenili erTi da igive uflebebi. swored sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa Tu organizaciaSi moqmedi profkavSiri eTanxmeba mis wevrebTan SromiTi xelSekrulebis Sewyvetas kanoniT gansazRvrul SemTxvevebSi da wesiT. Tu sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa Tu organizaciaSi ramdenime profkavSiria, unda Seiqmnas erToblivi warmomadgenlobiTi organo, romelic awarmoebs koleqtiur SeTanxmebebze molaparakebas da maT dadebas. sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa Tu organizaciaSi moqmed yvela

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

profkavSirs SeuZlia monawileoba miiRos molaparakebebSi da dados koleqtiuri SeTanxmebebi. Tumca, koleqtiuri xelSekrulebebi da SeTanxmebebi kanonieria daidos sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa Tu organizaciaSi moqmed ramdenime profkavSirTanac. TanamSromlebis mier aseTi uflebiT aRWurvil sxva organoebsac SeuZliaT aseTi SeTanxmebebis dadeba. amgvarad, is faqti, rom profkavSiri aris SromiTi xelSekrulebis an SromiTi SeTanxmebis mxare, ar axdens gavlenas misi uflebamosilebebis ganxorcielebaze da ar adgens, funqcionirebs Tu ara is konkretul sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa Tu organizaciaSi. sawarmoebSi, dawesebulebebsa Tu organizaciebSi TavianTi wesebis Sesabamisad Seqmnil da moqmed yvela profkavSirs konstituciiT miniWebuli aqvs Tanabari ufleba, daicvas mSromelTa uflebebi da maTi wevrebis socialuri da ekonomikuri uflebebi da interesebi. ukrainis Sromis kodeqsis Sesabamisad, masSi Sedis wevrebis SromiTi xelSekrulebebis Sewyvetaze Tanxmoba.

gaficvis ufleba

belorusia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 8-11-1995 moqmedi kanonmdebloba ar krZalavs profkavSirebis gaficvebSi monawileobas. kanonmdebloba ukanono gaficvebisaTvis mxolod konvenciiT nakisr pasuxismgeblobas iTvaliswinebs. Tu respublikuri profkavSirebisa da maTi asociaciebis saqmianoba ewinaaRmdegeba belorusiis respublikis konstituciasa da kanonmdeblobas, isini SeiZleba Sewydes generaluri prokuroris mimarTvis Sedegad uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT. rac Seexeba adgilobriv profesiul kavSirebs, maTi saqmianoba SeiZleba SeCerdes adgilobrivi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT adgilobrivi prokuroris mimarTvis safuZvelze. sasamarTloSi saqme umaRlesi sabWos Tavmjdomaris sakonstitucio sarCelis gamo Sevida. sarCeli eWvis qveS ayenebda 1995 wlis 21 agvistos prezidentis #336 brZanebis konstituciasTan Sesabamisobis sakiTxs, rac belorusiis respublikaSi stabilurobisa da wesrigis uzrunvelsayofad garkveul RonisZiebebs Seexeboda. brZaneba iTvaliswinebs belorusiaSi moqmedi Tavisufali profkavSirebisa da minskSi arsebuli ZiriTadi profkavSiris saqmi-

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gaficvis ufleba

anobis Sewyvetas, romelic kanonSi "profkavSirebis Sesaxeb" Sesabamisi cvlilebebisa da damatebebis SemoRebamde aralegalurad moRvaweobda. sasamarTlom yuradReba gaamaxvila, rom kanonmdebloba, romelic profesiuli kavSirebis saqmianobas aregulirebs, ar moicavs cnebas "saqmianobis Sewyveta", romelic, rogorc wesi, iwvevda maTi saqmianobis gauqmebas. politikuri partiebis, asociaciebisa da profesiuli kavSirebis saqmianobis SeCerebis safuZvlebi da procedurebi kanoniT aris gaTvaliswinebuli. "profkavSirebis Sesaxeb" kanonis Tanaxmad, maTi saqmianobis SeCereba dasaSvebia wevrebis gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom prezidentis brZanebis garkveuli punqtebi ewinaaRmdegeboda rogorc belorusiis kanonmdeblobasa da konstitucias, aseve, belorusis mier ratificirebul saerTaSoriso samarTlebriv aqtebs.

belgia saarbitraJo sasamarTlo 06-04-2000 winaswari konsultaciebis gareSe policiis oficrebis mier gaficvis uflebiT sargebloba pirobiTia da xelisuflebis garkveul organoebi uflebamosilni arian, policiis oficrebs, romlebic sargebloben gaficvis uflebiT, ubrZanon, garkveuli droiT gaagrZelon maTi ZiriTadi movaleobebis Sesruleba. es kanoni ar ewinaaRmdegeba Tanasworobisa da diskriminaciis dauSveblobis konstituciiT aRiarebul principebs (konstituciis me-10 da me-11 muxlebi), iqneba is ganxiluli calke, Tu evropis socialuri qartiis me-5, me-6, me-4, 31-e da 32-e (gaficvis ufleba) da adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-11 muxlebTan (Sekrebis Tavisufleba) mimarTebiT. 1998 wlis 7 dekembris aqtis 126-e paragrafis Tanaxmad, policiis Zalebma SeiZleba isargeblon gaficvis uflebiT, Tu uflebamosilma profkavSirma gaficvis Sesaxeb winaswar gamoacxada da Sesabamis xelmZRvanelobasTan SeaTanxma. ufro metic, xelisuflebis zogma organom (Sinagan saqmeTa saministrom iusticiis saministrosTan konsultaciis Semdeg, roca federalur an adgilobriv policias exeba da mersa da policiis ufrosTan konsultaciis Semdeg, roca adgilobriv policias exeba) SeiZleba aiZulos policiis oficrebi, rom gaagrZelon muSaoba. inter-okupaciuri profkavSirebis liderma da municipaluri policiis oficerma, romelic profkavSirebis delegati iyo, sasamarTlos mosTxova 1998 wlis 7

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

dekembris aqtis gauqmeba. Tumca, radganac maT mier gamoTqmuli ukmayofileba aqtis mxolod 126-e nawils ukavSirdeboda, maTi sarCeli mxolod am nawilTan mimarTebiT iqna dasaSvebad miCneuli. sasamarTlom aRiara, rom mosarCeleebs ufleba hqondaT, gaesaCivrebinaT is debuleba, romlis Tanaxmad, adgilobriv policiis oficrebs gaficvisa da profesiuli gaerTianebis uflebebi ezRudebodaT. yvela argumenti, maT Soris, evropis socialuri qartiisa da adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-11 muxlze dafuZnebuli, uaryofili iqna. magram sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom es debuleba xelisuflebis Sesabamis organoebs ar aniWebda uflebamosilebas, policiis oficrebisaTvis mTlianad SeezRudaT gaficvis ufleba. dadginda, rom ar iyo aucilebeli imis garkveva, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-11 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli mSvidobiani Sekrebisa da gaerTianebis, aseve, sakuTari interesebis dasacavad profesiuli kavSirebis Seqmnisa da masSi gaerTianebis ufleba warmoadgenda Tu ara gaficvis uflebis garantias. bolos aRiniSna, rom am muxlis meore paragrafis, evropis socialuri qartiis 31-e muxlis meore paragrafisa da ekonomikur, socialur da kulturul uflebaTa saerTaSoriso paqtis 8.2 muxlis Tanaxmad, zogadad Sekrebis Tavisuflebisa da, kerZod, gaficvis uflebis SezRudva, calkeul SemTxvevebSi da calkeuli pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, dasaSvebi iyo. am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, saxeze iyo policiis oficrebis mxridan valdebulebis Sesrulebis gansakuTrebuli saWiroeba, radganac gaficvis uflebis sadavo SezRudva demokratiul sazogadoebaSi sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebisa Tu kanonmdeblobisa da wesrigis dasacavad iyo saWiro.

xorvatia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 15-07-1998 konstituciis Tanaxmad, gaficvis Tavisufleba SeiZleba SeizRudos SeiaraRebul ZalebSi, policiaSi, samTavrobo administraciasa da saxelmwifo moxeleebTan mimarTebiT kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevaSi (konstituciis me-60 muxli), sadac kanoni konstituciuri uflebis SezRudvis saSualebas warmoadgens. amrigad, kanonis (da ara ministris brZanebis) safuZvelze unda gadawydes, ra warmoadgens saxelmwifosa da am teritoriaze myofi iuridiuli pirebisa da moqalaqeebis umTavres interess. kanonma agreTve unda daadginos, ministris garda vin unda miiRos gadawyvetileba gaficvasTan

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gaficvis ufleba

dakavSirebiT da ra samarTlebrivi dacvis meqanizmi arsebobs am gadawyvetilebis winaaRmdeg. kanoniT dawesebulma SezRudvebma ar unda gamoiwvios gaficvis uflebis akrZalva. saxelmwifosa da am teritoriaze myof iuridiul pirTa da moqalaqeTa interesebis dasacavad, sadavo debulebiT transportis ministrs uflebamosileba eniWeboda, ganesazRvra, gaficvis dros romeli matarebeli imoZravebda, liandagebis romeli nawili imuSavebda da romeli muSa gaagrZelebda saqmianobas. daumorCileblobas Sedegad samuSao kontraqtebis SeCereba mohyveboda. debuleba xorvatiis rkinigzis kanonis Sesaxeb gauqmda. miTiTeba: igive mizeziT gauqmda xorvatiis fostisa da telekomunikaciebis Sesaxeb kanonis debuleba (gadawyvetileba #U-I-262/1998 da #U-I332/1998). gadawyvetileba, agreTve, miRebul iqna 1998 wlis 15 ivliss da gamoqveynda Nadorne novine-Si, 98/1998,2434-2437.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 4-07-1995 Sromis kanonmdebloba ar arRvevs gaficvis uflebas, Tu is gamoricxavs umuSevrobis SeRavaTebze moTxovnebs im piris mxridan, vinc im sawarmoo davis gamo darCa umuSevari, romelSic mas ar miuRia monawileoba. aseve, Tu is daqiravebuli iyo im sawarmos mier, romelic ganlagebulia sawarmoo konfliqtiT dazaralebul teritoriaze da romlis TanamSromlebic am konfliqtisgan sargebels miiReben an romelic mdebareobs sxva teritoriaze, Tumca muSebi igive pretenziebs ayeneben. kanonmdebels didi Tavisufleba eZleva sawarmoo davebTan dakavSirebuli pirobebis gadasawyvetad. 1986 wels kanonmdebelma miiRo kanoni, romelic gamoricxavs umuSevrobis SeRavaTebis moTxovnas im muSebis mxridan, vinc sawarmoo davis dros darCnen dausaqmebelni da miekuTvnebian im sawarmos, romelic ar aris konfliqtSi CarTuli, magram mdebareobs sawarmoo konfliqtiT dazaralebul teritoriaze da romlis TanamSromlebic am konfliqtisgan sargebels miiReben; an, romelic mdebareobs sxva teritoriaze, Tumca, muSebi igive pretenziebs ayeneben. kanoni saxelmwifo neitralitetis principiT aris gamarTlebuli. muSebs, romelTa keTildReobisTvisac ganxorcielda sawarmoo dava, saxelmwifom fuladi daxmareba ar unda aRmouCinos. sakanonmdeblo RonisZieba SemoRebul iqna profkavSirebis mier Catarebuli gaficvebis pasuxad. es aqti gavle-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

nas axdens mxolod calkeul "mTavar mewarmeebze", is Sesaferisi iqneboda am seqtorSi mewarmeobis mTeli industriis SesaCereblad. Sedegad ki sxva sawarmoTa muSebi rCebodnen umuSevrebi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sawarmoo davebTan dakavSirebiT samarTlebrivi pirobebis CamoyalibebisaTvis kanonmdebels Sefasebis farTo SesaZlebloba gaaCnda. konstituciis 9.3 muxli, romelic sawarmoo davebs Seexeba, kanonmdebels zRudavs ise, rom SeuZlebeli ar gaxados nebismieri mxaris monawileoba sawarmoo davebSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanonmdebels SeeZlo zemoxsenebuli debulebebis miReba, raTa Tavidan aecilebina sawarmoo davebSi saxelmwifos Careva, rac gamoixateboda gaficviT dazaralebuli xalxisTvis umuSevrobis SeRavaTebis gadaxdiT.

saberZneTi saxelmwifo sabWo 20-10-1996 sakuTari wevrebis profesiuli interesebis dacvis mizniT, advokaturebs ufleba aqvT, mouwodon maT, Tavi Seikavon dakisrebuli valdebulebebis Sesrulebisagan. rogorc wesi, aseTi qmedeba ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciasa da sxva kanonebs. Tumca, konstituciis me-20 muxli, romelic samarTlebrivi dacvis uflebas Seexeba, samarTliani sasamarTlos Sesaxeb adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-6 da profesiul Tavisuflebisa da pirovnebis SeuzRudavi ganviTarebis uflebis Sesaxeb konstituciis me-5 muxlebi zRudaven advokaturebis uflebas gaficvebis xangrZlivobasa da gamocemuli gadawyvetilebis xasiaTTan dakavSirebiT. advokatebis mxridan sakuTari movaleobebis Sesrulebaze uaris gacxadeba, Tavisi WeSmariti arsiT, ar niSnavs gaficvas da, Sesabamisad, ar SeiZleba moeqces konstituciur normebSi, romelic muSaTa gaficvis uflebas icavs. 1993 wels advokatebma sagadasaxado RonisZiebebis winaaRmdeg xangrZlivi gaficvebi moawyves, ramac sasamarTloebis paralizeba gamoiwvia. aTenis advokatTa kolegiis gadawyvetilebis winaaRmdeg mimarTul saapelacio sarCelTan dakavSirebiT, saxelmwifo sabWom imsjela, iyo Tu ara gadawyvetilebebi konstituciis Sesabamisi. upirveles yovlisa, sasamarTlom umravlesobiT daadgina, rom advokatTa kolegiis gadawyvetileba, romelic wevrebs sasamarTloSi gamosvlas ukrZalavda, aucilebeli iyo. wevrebi an unda damorCilebodnen am wess, an disciplinuri sasjeli elodaT. gansxvavebuli azris mixedviT, aseTi gadawyvetileba SeiZleba mxolod moqmedebis Tavisuflebis zogadi principis TvalsazrisiT

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gaficvis ufleba

ganvixiloT da dauSvebelia, mas savaldebulo xasiaTi mieces (gamomdinare iqidan, rom advokatTa kolegiis gadawyvetileba ar warmoadgenda iZulebiT gamosayenebel RonisZiebasac, romelic uaryofiT Sedegs gamoiRebda, sarCelis Setana Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyenebis Sesaxeb yovlad dauSvebeli iyo). sasamarTlom gaaanaliza advokatTa eTikis kodeqsis gansakuTrebuli maxasiaTeblebi da gamoTqmuli protestis xasiaTi, raTa darwmunebuliyo, Seesabameboda Tu ara es qmedeba Tavisi SinaarsiT konstituciis 23-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebul gaficvas. pasuxi uaryofiTi iyo. umravlesobis azriT, advokatTa kolegias sakuTari wevrebis profesiuli interesebis dacvis mizniT, SeeZlo, ebrZanebina maTTvis, Tavi SeekavebinaT valdebulebebis Sesrulebisagan. Tumca, es ufleba upirobo ar iyo. advokatTa kolegiis gadawyvetilebis Tanaxmad, es protesti SezRuduli xangrZlivobis unda yofiliyo da samarTlebrivad ganxiluliyo, hqonda Tu ara adgili advokaturis uflebis gadametebas. daumorCilebloba ar isjeboda disciplinuri RonisZiebiT. radganac protestis xangrZlivoba miTiTebuli ar iyo, gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba gauqmda. garda amisa, sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, protestis xangrZlivoba misaReb zRvars scildeboda da sagrZnoblad zRudavda advokatTa uflebebs.

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 17-05-1995 gaficvis ufleba, rogorc koleqtiuri SromiTi davebis gadawyvetis saSualeba, sazogadoebis umniSvnelovanesi interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT SeiZleba kanoniT SeizRudos. amave dros, momuSaveTa garkveul kategoriebze dawesebuli gaficvis Tavisuflebis SezRudva ar SeiZleba nebismier seqtorSi yvela kategoriis momsaxuresa da kompaniaze vrceldebodes. samoqalaqo aviaciis zogierT kompaniaSi aviaciis TanamSromelTa gaficva, saerTo sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebiT, arakanonierad iqna miCneuli, radgan "koleqtiuri SromiTi davebis gadawyvetis proceduris Sesaxeb" kanons ewinaaRmdegeboda. ruseTis federaciis aviaciis TanamSromelTa profkavSirebma, samoqalaqo aviaciis kompaniebis gaficvebze, rogorc koleqtiuri SromiTi davebis mogvarebaze, SezRudvebis daweseba arakonstituciurad miiCnies da am sakanonmdeblo aqtis konstituciurobasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxi gaasaCivres. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

konstituciiT aRiarebuli iyo gaficvis ufleba, rogorc koleqtiuri SromiTi davebis mogvarebis saSualeba. am pirobebis Camoyalibebisas, romelTa Soris gaficvis uflebis SemzRudavi pirobebicaa, mTeli yuradReba unda daeTmos sazogadoebrivi interesebis dacvas, romelic SeiZleba gaficvis Sedegad Seilaxos. daTqmebi SesaZlo sakanonmdeblo SezRudvebze konstituciiT iyo gaTvaliswinebuli. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom agreTve daadgina, rom sadavo norma ise iyo formulirebuli, rom samoqalaqo aviaciis kompaniebis nebismieri kategoriis muSaxelis mxridan aRmofxvriliyo gaficvis SesaZlebloba. anu mniSvneloba ar hqonda, samoqalaqo aviaciis romeli kategoriis muSaxelTan gvqonda saqme, ra xasiaTs atarebda da ramdenad sazogadoebrivi mniSvnelobis iyo maT mier Sesrulebuli saqmianoba. Sedegad, muSaTa did wres SeezRuda gaficvis ufleba da imaze metadac, vidre es konstituciis miznebis gansaxorcieleblad iyo saWiro. yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRiara, rom sadavo kanonis mier samoqalaqo aviaciis kompaniebSi gaficvebis akrZalva Seesabameboda konstitucias imdenad, ramdenadac is Seesabameboda sxva debulebebs. aseT kompaniebSiGkonstitucias ar Seesabameboda gaficvebis akrZalvasTan dakavSirebuli mxolod erTi aspeqti, kerZod is, rom monawile pirebi specifikur seqtors miekuTvnebodnen. adamianis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebma Sidasaxelmwifoebriv kanonmdeblobaSi Semoitanes gaficvis uflebis regulirebis sakiTxi, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ruseTis federaciis federalur asambleas urCia, mieRo kanoni aRniSnul sakiTxze. federaluriKkanonis miRebamde, mocemuli sakanonmdeblo norma unda gamoiyenebodes momrigeblobiTi da sasamarTlo procedurebis dros, rodesac wydeba konstituciis debulebebTan dakavSirebuli gaficvis sakiTxebi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom moskovis saqalaqo sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba Tavidan unda iqnes ganxiluli imis gaTvaliswinebiT, miRebul iyo Tu ara igi im normebis safuZvelze, romlebic axlandeli gadawyvetilebiT, arakonstituciurad iqna miCneuli.

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 17-02-1998 konstituciis 28.2 muxliT aRiarebuli gaficvis ufleba gaficvis Sesaxeb informaciis gavrcelebasac moicavs. is agreTve

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iTvaliswinebs uflebas, acnobos sazogadoebas gaficvis Sesaxeb. yovelive es mSvidobianad, Zaldatanebis, muqarisa da Zaladobis faqtebis gamoyenebis gareSe unda ganxorcieldes. arCevanisamebr muSas SeuZlia, isargeblos gaficvis uflebiT. nebismieri qmedeba, romelic ZiriTad uflebas zRudavs, unda Sefasdes proporciulobis kuTxiT. amisaTvis saWiroa, ganisazRvros, miRweul iqneba Tu ara gamoyenebuli RonisZiebiT sasurveli Sedegi (Sefasdes misaReboba). meore, unda dadgindes, ramdenad aucilebelia es qmedeba (Sefasdes aucilebloba) da mesame, unda ganisazRvros, dabalansebulia Tu ara es RonisZieba, anu ramdenad sasargebloa sazogadoebrivi interesebisaTvis im dros, roca sxva interesebsa da Rirebulebebs vnebs (proporciulobis Sefaseba). gadawyvetileba ukavSirdeboda profkavSirebis sakonstitucio sarCels profkavSirebis Tavisuflebis uflebisa (konstituciis 28.1 muxli) da gaficvis uflebis (konstituciis 28.2 muxli) darRvevasTan mimarTebiT, rac gamowveuli iyo avtonomiuri dasaxlebis policiis mier piketSi CareviT. am dros moxda piketis foto da video kameraze dafiqsireba. rac Seexeba faqtebs, romlebic winaswari sasamarTlo gamoZiebisas sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT utyuar mtkicebulebebad iqna gamocxadebuli, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom aRniSnuli piketi savsebiT normalurad, sazogadoebrivi wesrigis yovelgvari darRvevis gareSe mimdinareobda da adgili ar hqonia raime braleul qmedebas. ufro metic, damtkicda, rom miuxedavad piketis ramdenime monawilis Txovnisa, avtonomiuri dasaxlebis policiam ar Sewyvita video da foto gadaReba da uari ganacxada gaficulTa piradi vinaobis dadgenaze. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom gaficvis ufleba mesame pirebisagan solidarobisken mowodebasac moicavda. rac Seexeba piketis xazis gadaRebas, sasamarTlom msjelobisas sam ZiriTad faqtorze SeaCera yuradReba: 1. zRudavda Tu ara es qmedeba, zedapirulad mainc, gaficvis uflebas; 2. arsebobda Tu ara am qmedebis gamamarTlebeli raime konstituciurad mniSvnelovani ufleba an samarTlebrivi interesi; 3. iyo Tu ara konkretul SemTxvevaSi SezRudva gamarTlebuli da proporciuli. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba gamaxvilda imaze, arsebobda Tu ara msgavsi alternatiuli efeqturi zomebi da ramdenad proporciuli iyo sayovelTao uflebis daTmoba. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom piketis xazis gadaRebiT policia cdilobda, xeli SeeSala gaficvis uflebis Tavisufali ganxorcielebisaTvis. amrigad, SeiZleba gvemsjela im sakiTxze, rom policiam sagrZnoblad

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Seasusta am uflebis efeqturoba. aSkara iyo gadarwmunebis efeqti, romelic am qmedebam piketis mSvidobian monawileebze moaxdina, maT yovelgvari axsna-ganmartebis gareSe kameraze afiqsirebdnen ise, rom ar hqondaT informacia, raSi gamoiyenebdnen mas. ucnobi iyo Sedegebic, rac aseTma qmedebam SeiZleba iqonios im xalxze, visTvisac gankuTvnili iyo piketze gavrcelebuli informacia. Tumca, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ar gamoricxa, rom am gancxadebaSi gasaCivrebuli monitoringis RonisZiebebi SesaZloa gamoyenebuliyo uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa SeuzRudavi sargeblobis dasacavad da sazogadoebrivi wesrigis darRvevis Tavidan acilebis mizniT. am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, saqmis masalebis gaTvaliswinebiT, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom miuxedavad konstituciurad kanonieri interesis SesaZlo arsebobisa, rac moqalaqeTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis da sazogadoebrivi wesrigis dacvaSi gamoixateboda da monitoringis SemzRudavi RonisZiebis gamamarTleblad SeiZleba ganxiluliyo, policiis mier ganxorcielebuli qmedeba araproporciuli iyo. amasTan dakavSirebiT sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom informaciis gavrceleba da gaficvis propaganda kanonis dacviT xorcieldeboda da braleul qmedebebs adgili ar hqonda. miuxedavad konkretuli moTxovnisa, policiis oficrebma gaficulebs ar auxsnes aseTi qmedebis mizezi. garda amisa, policia ar daTanxmda, SesaZlo alternatiuli RonisZiebis saxiT piradad moexdinaT gaficulTa vinaobis dadgena. bolos, isic unda aRiniSnos, rom kanonmdeblobaSi arsebobda xarvezi aseT gadaRebebTan, am garemoebebSi monacemebis SegrovebasTan, maTi sasamarTlos mier SemowmebasTan, xelmisawvdomobis uflebasa da ganadgurebasTan dakavSirebiT.

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 21-07-1997 konstituciis 28.2 muxlis Tanaxmad, gaficvis ufleba moicavs uflebas _ kanonis farglebSi mouwodos sxvebs, SeuerTdes am moZraobas. Tumca, gaficvis ufleba araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar moicavs mesame pirebis misamarTiT daSinebis an zewolis gamoyenebas, radgan aseTi qmedeba arRvevs konstituciiT garantirebul sxva principebsa da uflebebs, rogoricaa muSaobis Tavisufleba an pirovnebis Rirseba da sulieri xelSeuxeblobis ufleba. saapelacio sarCeli Setanil iqna ramdenime sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis winaaRmdeg, ris safuZvelzec

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moxda mosarCelisaTvis bralis wayeneba. mas adanaSaulebdnen piketirebisas Zaladobis aqtis ganxorcielebaSi, rodesac is sawarmoos sabWos wevri iyo. am qmedebis Sedegad avtomanqanebs xeli eSlebodaT samuSao adgilamde misvlasa da iqidan gamosvlaSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom Tavis gadawyvetilebaSi aRniSna, rom gaficvis ufleba moicavda piketirebis uflebasa da informaciis gavrcelebas, propagandas, sxva muSebisaTvis mowodebas, SemoerTebodnen moZraobas, aseve, im muSebis gadmobirebas, vinc muSaobas agrZelebda. Tumca, es ufleba araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar uSvebda mesame mxarisaken mimarTul Zaladobriv praqtikas. sasamarTlom aRiara, rom davebis dros, rasac Sedegad gaficvebi mosdevs, Znelia muSebs zrdilobiani qcevis normebis dacva mosTxovo, rodesac saqme exeba informirebis, darwmunebisa da zewolis ganxorcielebis samarTlebrivi uflebiT sargeblobas. amis miuxedavad, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom mosarCelis da piketis monawile sxva muSebis qceva informirebis, darwmunebisa da zewolis Tavisuflad ganxorcielebis ZiriTadi uflebis konstituciiT gaTvaliswinebul zRvars gadacilebuli iyo. gaficvis monawileni avtomanqanebis moZraobas aferxebdnen, pirovnebebs ki daSinebis gziT aiZulebdnen, TavianTi nebis winaaRmdeg emoqmedaT.

ganaTlebis ufleba

avstria sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 26-06-1997 sazRvargareT miRebuli skolis damTavrebis damadasturebeli atestati (bakalavris xarisxi), romelic moiTxoveba kanoniT, anu imis mtkicebuleba, rom mocemuli piri akmayofilebs universitetSi saswavleblad miRebis Taobaze sxva saxelmwifos mier dadgenil pirobebs, konstituciiT garantirebuli Tanabari mopyrobis principidan gamomdinare, vrceldeba avstriel moqalaqeebzec. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo ver xedavs imis mizezs an safuZvels, rom es saqme evrogaerTianebebis sasamarTlos gadasces, Tu sadavo muxlis konkretuli debuleba mTlianad an nawilobriv ewinaaRmdegeba evrogaerTianebebis damfuZnebeli xelSekrulebis 6.1 muxliT gansazRvrul diskriminaciis akrZalvis wess. saqmis warmoeba exeba avstrieli moqalaqis saswavleblad miRebas avstriis universitetSi, romelsac skolis damTavrebis atestati miRebuli aqvs sazRvargareT. mosarCelem ­ avstrielma moqalaqem ­ Seitana gancxadeba venis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

veterinaruli medicinis daswrebuli swavlebis fakultetze Caricxvis Taobaze, romelzec eTqva uari. mosarCelem waradgina mxolod skolis damTavrebis damadasturebeli atestati, magram ar hqonda germaniaSi veterinaruli medicinis fakultetze Caricxvis cnoba. sauniversiteto ganaTlebis maregulirebeli zogadi kanoni adgens, rom im pirebisTvis, romlebsac skolis damTavrebis atestati miRebuli aqvT sazRvargareT, avstriaSi moqmedebs saswavleblad miRebis is moTxovnebi, rac moqmedebs skolis damTavrebis damadasturebeli atestatis gamcem saxelmwifoSi. es wesi avstriel moqalaqeebsa da ucxoelebze erTnairad vrceldeba. mosarCele Cioda, rom sadavo kanonis debuleba ewinaaRmdegeba kanoniT dadgenili Tanabari mopyrobis princips da usafuZvloa avstrieli moqalaqis daqvemdebareba kvotebis sistemis Sesaxeb ucxouri wesisadmi. rogorc sarCelSi iyo naTqvami, mas moeqcnen avstrielebisagan gansxvavebulad, romlebsac unda waredginaT mxolod avstriaSi miRebuli skolis damTavrebis damadasturebeli atestati. es wesi moicavs evrogaerTianebis moqalaqeTa diskriminaciis farul formas. vinaidan gaerTianebis kanons upiratesi Zala aqvs, im organoebs, romelTa winaaRmdeg iqna sarCeli Setanili, es wesi ar unda gamoeyenebinaT. am organoebis gadawyvetilebas ar gaaCnda samarTlebrivi dasabuTeba da Selaxa konstituciiT garantirebuli ufleba profesiuli swavlebisa da ganaTlebis Tavisuflebis Taobaze. nebismieri tipis universitetSi miRebis sakiTxis garkvevis mizniT, universitetis kolegiam sakonstitucio sasamarTlos warudgina am sferoSi kompetenturi da zedamxedvelobaze uflebamosili federaluri saministros mier gacemuli dasabuTebuli mosazreba. am mosazrebaSi naTqvami iyo, rom kanonis debuleba SesabamisobaSi iyo evrogaerTianebis kanonTan da germaniasTan dakavSirebuli problema axsnili iyo Semdegnairad: es aris mezobeli saxelmwifo, romelTa macxovreblebi laparakoben imave enaze. Tu avstriaSi moixsneboda saswavleblad miRebaze dawesebuli SezRudvebi, yvela fakultetis pirvelkurselebis mTliani raodenoba gaizrdeboda daaxloebiT 50%iT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom sarCeli ar daakmayofila. sakonstitucio sasamarTlo uflebamosilia, imsjelos mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mosarCeles Seelaxa konstituciurad garantirebuli uflebebi an Tu mosarCeles ziani miadga ukanono kanonmdeblobis gamoyenebiT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mier gansaxilveli sakiTxebi moicavs mxolod misi iurisdiqciis maregulirebeli debulebebiT gansazRvrul kompetenciebs da, maSasadame, sadavo fundamenturi uflebebis Sinaarss. obieqturad gamarTlebulia kanonmdeblis mier pirvelkurselTa zedmeti nakadis Semosvlis Tavidan acilebis mcdeloba, romlebic SedarebiT naklebad arian kvalificirebulni arCeul

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saganSi. amisaTvis kanonieria gamovideT im saxelmwifos moTxovnebidan, sadac gacemulia skolis damTavrebis damadasturebeli atestati. erovneba ar aris erTaderTi gadamwyveti faqtori am konteqstSi da samarTlebrivi norma ar aris konstituciurad sadavo. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos praqtikis Tanaxmad, uflebamosili organo moqmedebs samarTlebrivi safuZvlis gareSe, Tu is mxolod sityviT aRiarebs kanonis debulebas, ar mtkicdeba faqtebiT. da igi verc erT SemTxvevaSi ver iqneba gamoyenebuli. mxolod aseTi seriozuli administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis sakiTxis ganxilva eqceva sakonstitucio sasamarTlos iurisdiqciaSi. Tu samarTlebrivi debulebis ufro detalurad ganxilvisas damtkicdeba, rom debuleba gamouyenebelia, maSin unda dadgindes, ramdenad kanonierad gamoiyena uflebamosilma organom Cveulebrivi kanoni. am sakiTxis mogvarebaze pasuxismgebelia administraciuli sasamarTlo. aseT SemTxvevebSi gadawyvetilebis miReba kanonis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb ar eqceva sakonstitucio sasamarTlos kompetenciaSi. mosarCele acxadebda, rom es wesi ar aris gamoyenebadi. konkretuli samarTlebrivi debulebis gaerTianebis kanonTan Sesabamisobis Taobaze gadawyvetilebis miRebis valdebuleba eqceva saxelmwifo (erovnuli) organos iurisdiqciaSi mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sakiTxi imdenad aSkaraa, rom safuZvliani eWvis saSualebas aRar iZleva. sxva SemTxvevaSi, evrogaerTianebebis damfuZnebeli xelSekrulebis 177-e muxlis mixedviT, es sakiTxi gansaxilvelad unda gadaeces evrogaerTianebebis sasamarTlos. sakonstitucio sasamarTloc iqneboda amaze pasuxismgebeli, Tu misi dasadgeni iqneboda uflebamosili organos gadawyvetilebis kanoniereba. mocemul SemTxvevaSi, savaraudo winaaRmdegoba gaerTianebis kanonTan ver dadgindeba, Tu ar iqneba gaTvaliswinebuli, iwvevs Tu ara kanoniT gansazRvruli norma avstrieli moqalaqeebis diskriminacias. amasTan, aSkaraa, rom swavlebisa (saxelmwifos ZiriTadi kanonis me-18 muxli) da ganaTlebis (adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis 1-li oqmis me-2 muxli) Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb fundamenturi uflebebis darRvevis braldeba ar aris gamarTlebuli, vinaidan maSin uflebamosil organoebs unda emoqmedaT kanonis sruli darRveviT.

belgia saarbitraJo sasamarTlo 08-01-2003 Tu ganaTlebis Tavisuflebis principi (konstituciis 24.1 muxli) unda gatardes praqtikaSi, saganmanaTleblo organoebs, romlebic

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uSualod ar ageben pasuxs gaerTianebis winaSe (ganaTlebis saqmeebze pasuxismgebeli federaluri organo) ufleba unda hqondeT, garkveul pirobebSi mimarTon gaerTianebas subsidiebisTvis. subsidiis ufleba izRudeba Semdegi mizezebis gamo: 1) gaerTianebam subsidiebi SeiZleba dauqvemdebaros sajaro interesebis moTxovnebs, rogoricaa ufro maRali standartis ganaTlebis aucilebloba da moswavleTa raodenobis maregulirebeli wesebis dacva; 2) arsebuli finansuri resursebi Tanabrad unda ganawildes gaerTianebis sxvadasxva mimarTulebis mixedviT. ganaTlebis Tavisuflebas aqvs Tavisi farglebi da brZanebebis gacemaze pasuxismgebel organos SeuZlia, daawesos dafinansebisa da subsidiebis pirobebi, rac zRudavs am Tavisuflebas. aseTi zomebi TavisTavad ver CaiTvleba ganaTlebis Tavisuflebis principis darRvevad. es is SemTxvevaa, rodesac ganaTlebis Tavisuflebaze dawesebuli konkretuli SezRudvebi dasaxul miznebTan Seusabamo da araadekvaturia. amis sapirispirod ar ilaxeba skolebis ufleba ganaTlebis gavrcelebis Taobaze, Tu arsebuli zomebiT aseT dawesebulebebs eniWebaT gaerTianebis Sesabamisi organos mier dadgenili wesebis gamoyenebis mniSvnelovani Tavisufleba. maswavlebelTa staJirebis ramdenime kolejma da kaTolikuri ganaTlebis generalurma samdivnom frangul da germanulenovan sazogadoebebSi mimarTes saarbitraJo sasamarTlos frangulenovani sazogadoebisaTvis savaldebulo gankargulebis gauqmebis moTxovniT, romelic dawyebiTi da arasruli saSualo skolis maswavlebelTa pirvelad staJirebas awesebs. isini frangulenovan sazogadoebas brals sdebdnen konstituciis 24-e muxlis ramdenime debulebis darRvevaSi, romlebic gansazRvraven saganmanaTleblo sakiTxebis maregulirebel wesebs, kerZod, ganaTlebis Tavisuflebas, moswavleebs an studentebs, mSoblebs, maswavleblebsa da saswavlo dawesebulebebs Soris Tanasworobas. sasamarTlom gansaxilvel saqmesTan dakavSirebiT aRniSna, rom sakanonmdeblo organos surda, erTmaneTisTvis Seefardebina saswavlo saqmianobebi da saWiro unarebi, uzrunveleyo maswavlebelTa staJirebis erTgvarovneba da logikuri ganviTareba da mis mimarT profesiuli midgoma, aseve, xazi gaesva gunduri muSaobis mniSvnelobisTvis. misi mcdeloba iyo, aseve uzrunveleyo staJiori maswavleblebis mier praqtikuli gamocdilebis SeZena maqsimalurad umokles droSi da sxva staJirebis dawesebulebebTan kavSirebis damyareba. sasamarTlom aRiara, rom es gegmebi Sedioda sajaro interesebSi, vinaidan isini miznad isaxavda dawyebiTi da arasruli saSualo skolis maswavlebelTa staJirebis xarisxisa da erTgvarovnebis uzrunvelyofas. zomebi ganxorcielda am miznebis Sesabamisad da ar ewinaaRmdegeboda proporciulobis wess, radgan isini kompetenturi

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organos mier dadgenili wesebis gamoyenebaSi mniSvnelovani Tavisuflebis saSualebas iZleodnen. arc gankarguleba ewinaaRmdegeboda ganaTlebasTan mimarTebiT Tanasworobisa da aradiskriminaciulobis konstituciur wesebs (konstituciis 24.4 muxli), vinaidan obieqturi gansxvavebebi iyo, erTi mxriv, dawyebiTi da arasruli saSualo da, meore mxriv, sruli saSualo skolebis maswavlebelTa staJirebaze pasuxismgebel dawesebulebebs Soris. erT-erTi gansxvaveba is iyo, rom meore saxis staJireba gansazRvruli iyo universitetdamTavrebuli an ekvivalenturi kvalifikaciis mqone kandidatebisaTvis. meore gansxvaveba ki mdgomareobda moswavleTa tipebSi, romelTa swavlebisTvisac es maswavleblebi kvalificirebulni unda yofiliyvnen. rogorc wesi, dawyebiTi da arasruli saSualo skolebis maswavleblebi aswavlidnen eqvsi wlidan TxuTmet wlamde asakis bavSvebs (dawyebiTi ganaTleba da arasruli saSualo ganaTleba), xolo sruli saSualo skolebis maswavleblebi _ TxuTmetidan Tvramet wlamde asakis mozardebs (sruli saSualo ganaTleba). am ori jgufis staJior maswavleblebsa da staJirebis ganmaxorcielebel dawesebulebebs Soris arsebuli obieqturi gansxvavebebis gamo kompetentur organos ar unda daewesebina erTi da igive samarTlebrivi wesebi maTi staJirebisaTvis. dabolos, sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila sarCeli sakanonmdeblo organosa da mTavrobas Soris uflebamosilebaTa samarTliani gamijvnis principis (konstituciis 24.5 muxli) darRvevis nawilSi. konstitucia kompetentur organos akisrebda ganaTlebis organizebis, aRiarebisa da subsidirebis fundamentur aspeqtebze gadawyvetilebis miRebis pasuxismgeblobas, magram ar iTvaliswinebda imas, rom sxva organoebs ver eqnebaT garkveul pirobebSi ganaTlebis organizebis ufleba. aseTi ufleba SeiZleba exebodes mxolod TviT sakanonmdeblo organos mier miRebuli principebis gamoyenebas. aseTi uflebamosilebis miniWebiT mTavroba ver gaamarTlebs gaurkveveli principebis arsebobas an arasakmarisad detaluri wesebis SemuSavebas. mocemul SemTxvevaSi, uflebamosilebis nebismieri saxiT gadacema rCeboda im farglebSi, romelic SesabamisobaSi iyo konstituciis debulebebTan.

CexeTis respublika sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 13-06-1995 Tavisufali ganaTlebis ufleba studentebs da maT mSoblebs an sxva pirebs ar aTavisuflebs damxmare saswavlo saSualebebis yidvis

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valdebulebisagan. Tavisufali ganaTlebis ufleba niSnavs, rom saxelmwifom unda ikisros skolebisa da saskolo dawesebulebebis gaxsnisa da maTi eqspluataciis xarjebi. pirvel rigSi, es niSnavs, rom ar unda dawesdes swavlebis gadasaxadebi, anu dawyebiTi da saSualo ganaTleba unda iyos ufaso. amasTan, Tavisufali ganaTlebis ufleba ar gulisxmobs ganaTlebis uflebis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebiT wamoWrili yvelanairi xarjis saxelmwifosTvis dakisrebas. Tu ra raodenobiT gascems mTavroba saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebsa da aucilebel masalebs ufasod, ar ganisazRvreba Tavisufali ganaTlebis cnebiT. CexeTis respublikis parlamentarTa jgufma Seitana sarCeli mTavrobis #15/1994 gankargulebis gauqmebis moTxovniT. gankarguleba gansazRvravs saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebisa da aucilebeli masalebis raodenobas, romlebic ufasod miecemaT dawyebiTi da saSualo skolebis moswavleebs. sarCelis motivi iyo is, rom es samarTlebrivi norma winaaRmdegobaSia ZiriTadi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis qartiis 33.2 muxlTan (moqalaqeebs aqvT dawyebiTi da saSualo ganaTlebis ufasod miRebis ufleba) da, aseve, adamianis uflebebTan dakavSirebul saerTaSoriso konvenciebTan, vinaidan saxelmwifom studentebi unda uzrunvelyos ufaso saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebiT da masalebiT. plenarulma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom ufaso ganaTlebis miRebis ufleba ar aTavisuflebs saxelmZRvaneloebisa da masalebis yidvis valdebulebisagan da rom mTavrobas ufleba aqvs daadginos, Tu ra raodenobiT gascems saxelmwifo aseT masalebs ufasod. plenarulma sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom aRniSnuli wesi ar ewinaaRmdegeba arc konstitucias da arc saerTaSoriso konvenciebs da, Sesabamisad, ar daakmayofila misi gauqmebis moTxovna.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 17-12-1975 nordhaim-vesTfalenis miwis konstituciis me-12 muxlis Tanaxmad, Sereuli tipis religiuri skolebi, rogorc skolis tipi, SesabamisobaSia ZiriTad kanonTan. maT mSoblebsa da bavSvebs ar surT viwro religiuri ganaTlebis miReba im dros, rodesac konstitucia iTvaliswinebs sarwmunoebisa da sindisis Tavisuflebas (gadawyvetileba BVerfGE 41, 29, [GER-1975-R-001]). arsebul religiur skolebTan erTad an maT nacvlad aseTi Sereuli tipis religiuri skolebis gaxsnis prioritetuloba SesabamisobaSia ZiriTadi kanonis 6.2 da 4.1

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muxlebTan (mSobelTa ufleba da sindisis, Sesabamisad, religiis Tavisufleba). ar SeiZleba sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi konstituciuri sarCelis Setana da ZiriTadi kanonis 2.1 muxlis darRvevis mtkiceba im motiviT, rom miwis kanoni ewinaaRmdegeba miwis konstitucias da, maSasadame, ar warmoadgens sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis nawils ZiriTadi kanonis 2.1 muxlis mniSvnelobiT.

saberZneTi saxelmwifo sabWo 24-05-1996 saberZneTis konstituciiT gaTvaliswinebuli Tanasworobis principis Tanaxmad, kanonmdebloba maqsimalurad Tanabar mdgomareobaSi unda ayenebdes saberZneTis yvela moqalaqes. igi ar unda iwvevdes uTanasworobas, kerZod, privilegiebis daSvebas an usafuZvlo diskriminacias, romlis gamarTlebac SeuZlebelia samarTlianobis sayovelTaod aRiarebuli principebiT. umaRles saswavlebelSi misaRebad SerCevis arsebuli sistemis Tanaxmad, kandidatebs ufleba aqvT, misaReb gamocdebze erT an met saganSi miRebuli niSnebi ZalaSi datovon. maTi surviliT, SerCevis procedura gagrZeldeba sami akademiuri wlis ganmavlobaSi, ris Sedegadac kandidatebis kvalifikacia Sefasdeba am samwliani periodis Semdeg. vinaidan yvela kandidats SeuZlia isargeblos niSnebis ZalaSi datovebis wesiT, yvela maTgans saSualeba aqvs, gamoiyenos Tanabari SesaZleblobebi. kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili sistemis mixedviT, romelic, zogadad, gamoyenebadi da obieqturia, ar ewinaaRmdegeba Tanasworobis princips. kandidatebis SerCeva, romlebic abareben misaReb gamocdas im umaRles saswavlebelSi, sadac SezRuduli raodenobis adgilebia, mowesrigebulia kanoniT dadgenili sistemis Sesabamisad. aRniSnul sistemas xSirad akritikebdnen. kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebulia procedura, romelic ramdenime akademiuri weli grZeldeba. kandidats Tavisi surviliT SeuZlia yovel wels Caabaros gamocda garkveuli raodenobis saganSi da igive niSnebi ZalaSi datovos momaval welsac. garda amisa, kandidatebs, romlebic gamocdebs erTbaSad abareben da ver agroveben minimalur qulas, ufleba aqvT, ZalaSi datovon zogierT saganSi miRebuli niSani, romelTa gadabarebisagan gaTavisuflebulni arian momdevno akademiur wels. saxelmwifo sabWos mier ganxilul saqmeSi mosarCelem, romelsac surda umaRles saswavlebelSi Caricxva, pirvelad 1992 wels Caabara gamocda. vinaidan man ver daagrova saWiro raodenobis qula, gamocda 1993 da 1994 wlebSi gadaabara. 1994 wels, rogorc saswavlebelSi

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miRebis proceduris nawili, man inglisurSi Caabara gamocda. 1995 wels gamocdaze meoTxed gasvlisas mosarCelem gadaabara gamocdebi zogad sagnebSi, magram ara inglisurSi. igi fiqrobda, rom am saganSi ZalaSi datovebda 1994 wels miRebul niSans. rodesac Sedegebi gamoqveynda, 1994 wels inglisurSi miRebuli niSani ar iyo dajamebuli 1995 wels zogad sagnebSi miRebul niSnebTan erTad. mosarCelem ver daagrova sakmarisi qula saswavlebelSi misaRebad. amitom saqme aRZra sasamarTloSi uflebamosilebis gadaWarbebis motiviT da gaasaCivra niSnebis dajamebis meTodis ukanonoba. am sarCelis ganxilvaze kompetentur sasamarTlos qvedanayofis umravlesobam daadgina, rom wina wlis niSnebis ZalaSi datovebis wesi antikonstituciuri iyo. sadavo gadawyvetilebis araswori mizezebis gamosworebis gziT qvedanayofma daadgina, rom mosarCelis Cauricxveloba kanonieri iyo, Tumca saqmis aqtualurobis gamo saqme gansaxilvelad saxelmwifos sabWos generalur asambleas gadasca. generalur asambleaSi mosamarTleTa umravlesobam CaTvala, rom wesebi SesabamisobaSi iyo konstituciasTan, kerZod ki, Tanasworobis principTan, radgan yvela kandidats hqonda niSnebis ZalaSi datovebis privilegiiT sargeblobis SesaZlebloba. saqmeSi arsebobda gansxvavebuli mosazrebac, romlis Tanaxmad, gameorebuli iyo generaluri asambleisaTvis saqmis gansaxilvelad gadacemis Sesaxeb ganaCenis mizezebi da argumentebi: umaRles saswavlo dawesebulebebSi misaReb studentTa adgilebis SezRuduli raodenobis gamo saWiro gaxda yvelaze kvalificirebuli kandidatebis SerCeva misaRebi gamocdebis gziT. Tanasworobis principis Tanaxmad, misaRebi gamocdis Cambarebeli yvela kandidati unda gamoicados Tanabar pirobebSi mosamzadebeli sagnebis raodenobisa da sagamocdo sakiTxebis TvalsazrisiT. kanoniT dadgenili sistema, romlis mixedviTac, kandidatebs ufleba hqondaT, ZalaSi daetovebinaT erT an met saganSi miRebuli niSani da amiT esargeblaT seriozuli SeRavaTiT momavali wlis gamocdebis Cabarebisas, gaumarTlebel privilegias aniWebda im kandidatebs, romlebmac gadaabares gamocda, xolo usamarTlo iyo maT mimarT, vinc pirvelad abarebda gamocdas.

ungreTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 25-04-1997 konstitucia moiTxovs, rom savaldebulo sabiujeto dafinansebis garda, saxelmwifom an adgilobrivma xelisuflebam eklesiebis kuTvnili skolebi uzrunvelyos damatebiTi finansuri daxmarebiT,

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radgan aRniSnul skolebs akisriaT valdebulebebi, romlebsac sxva SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo an adgilobrivi saxelisuflebo organo Seasrulebda. mosarCelem moiTxova saxelmwifo ganaTlebis Sesaxeb kanonis (SemdgomSi ,,kanoni") debulebis ex post facto gadasinjva. saxelmwifosa da adgilobrivi saxelisuflebo organoebis mier finansuri daxmarebis gaweva im skolebisTvis, romlebic ar ekuTvnis saxelmwifosa da adgilobriv xelisuflebas, damokidebulia aseTi skolebis mier valdebulebebis Sesrulebaze, romlebic sxva SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifos an adgilobrivi xelisuflebis mier Sesruldeboda. am debulebebis mixedviT, saxelmwifos SeuZlia, aRniSnul skolebs gauwios savaldebulo sabiujeto dafinansebis garda damatebiTi daxmarebac. kanoniT gansazRvruli savaldebulo sabiujeto dafinanseba iTvaliswinebs aRniSnuli skolebis mimdinare xarjebis mxolod 63-64 procents, am xarjebis danarCeni nawili unda dafaros TviTon eklesiam. skolebs, romlebic ar ekuTvnis saxelmwifos an adgilobriv saxelisuflebo organoebs, SeuZliaT mTavrobasTan dadon saxelmwifo ganaTlebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba, ris Sedegadac ganaTleba iqneba ufaso. aseTi SeTanxmebis mTavrobasTan dadeba SesaZlebelia, Tu eklesiis kuTvnili skola ikisrebs im valdebulebebis Sesrulebas, romlebsac sxva SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo an adgilobrivi saxelisuflebo organoebi Seasrulebdnen. am skolebisTvis damatebiTi finansuri daxmarebis gawevis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebaze kompetenturia adgilobrivi saxelisuflebo organo an kulturisa da ganaTlebis ministri. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanonis es debuleba SeiZleba ganimartos arakonstituciurad am SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifosTvis miniWebuli farTo uflebamosilebis gamo. amasTan, misi gamoyeneba SeiZleba mxolod sasamarTlos mier winamdebare gadawyvetilebaSi dadgenili konstituciuri moTxovnis Sesabamisad.

italia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 27-11-1998 ori fundamenturi principi, romelic awesrigebs skolebis organizebis, maTi xelmisawvdomobis da, aseve, maT mier gaweuli momsaxurebis sakiTxebs, unda ganimartos erToblivad, vinaidan ar SeiZleba arsebobdes arc erTi organizebis forma, romelic ar iTvaliswinebs uflebebis dacvas da ar arsebobs momsaxurebaze xelmisawvdomobis iseTi ufleba, romelic ar axdens gavlenas organizebaze. saxelmwifo ganaTleba regulirdeba erTiani sistemis safuZ-

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velze, magram sauniversiteto sistemaSi, sadac "avtonomiuri normebi" moqmedebs, erTianobas "saxelmwifos kanonebiT dadgenili farglebi" uzrunvelyofs. universitetebi ganxilul unda iqne ara mxolod Sida organizebis, aramed maTi gare funqciebis WrilSic, rac gulisxmobs uflebebs da am uflebebis asaxvas. saxelmwifoSi kanonmdebeli adgens universitetebis avtonomiis farglebs rogorc organizaciuli, aseve, maTSi swavlis xelmisawvdomobis uflebasTan mimarTebiT. es mosazreba gamomdinareobs demokratiuli sistemis principebidan, romlis mixedviT, moqalaqeTa uflebebi SeiZleba SeizRudos mxolod im organos TanxmobiT, romelic uSualod maT emsaxureba da adgens zogad saxelmwifo politikis _ Tundac parlamentis TanxmobiT. amrigad, universitetebze xelmisawvdomobis kvotebis SesaZlo miRebasac ki unda hqondes sakanonmdeblo safuZveli. saerTod, sakanonmdeblo organos monopolias uzrunvelyofs "saparlamento sakanonmdeblo sferoebis" dadgena. aseTi monopolia xorcieldeba konstituciuri normebiT dadgenili sferoebidan ZiriTadi sferoebis arCevis meSveobiT, anu, imisaTvis rom Sesruldes masze dakisrebuli funqcia, unda aikrZalos "meoradi" norma, anda moTxovnil iqnes "pirveladi" norma. vinaidan es Rirebuleba saerToa nebismieri "saparlamento sakanonmdeblo sferosTvis", TiToeuli konstituciuri norma gansazRvravs, misaRebia Tu ara Sesabamisi sferosTvis is faqti, rom kanoni meorad saSualebebs/wyaroebs aZlevs Sefasebis uflebas am sferoebis da maT mier gakeTebuli arCevanis mixedviT. kanonmdeblobiT gansasazRvr sferoebSi, konstituciuri debulebebis Tanaxmad, daSvebulia, rom kanonis debulebam aRmasrulebels mianiWos normaSemoqmedebiTi uflebamosileba im pirobiT, Tu am uflebamosilebebis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebiT, kanonmdebloba daadgens farglebs, romlebic SesaZloa, gamomdinareobs mTlianad sakanonmdeblo sistemidan. am konteqstSi, analogiuri funqcia, romelic miznad isaxavs aRmasrulebeli organoebis normaSemoqmedebiTi uflebamosilebis farTo kompetenciaze SezRudvebis dawesebas, aRiarebul unda iqnes gaerTianebis normebSi, romlis Tanaxmad, wamoiWreba saxelmwifo valdebulebebi universitetis organizebasTan dakavSirebuli sirTuleebiT. konstituciis Tanaxmad, universitetSi swavlis xelmisawvdomobasTan dakavSirebuli "saparlamento sakanonmdeblo sfero" ar gulisxmobs, rom am sferos yvela norma mocemulia sakanonmdeblo aqtebSi. pirvel rigSi aucilebelia, mxedvelobaSi iqnes miRebuli kanonsa da universitetebis avtonomias Soris arsebuli konstituciiT dadgenili urTierToba, romlis safuZvelzec

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sakanonmdeblo debulebebs mxolod "SezRudvebis" dawesebis roli aqvs. aseve, gasaTvaliswinebelia urTierToba sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebasa da mTavrobis normaSemoqmedebiT uflebamosilebas Soris, vinaidan meoradi debuleba SeiZleba moiTxovos igive kanonma ZiriTadi sakiTxebis gaTvaliswinebisa da ganxorcielebisaTvis, rodesac, rogorc mocemul SemTxvevaSi, moiTxoveba unitaruli normebi. meore mxriv, aRniSnuli normebi unda Seiqmnas specialurad mravalferovani da cvalebadi garemoebebisaTvis da maTi regulireba ar aris fiqsirebuli sakanonmdeblo debulebebiT. saparlamento sakanonmdeblo sfero unda uzrunvelyofdes rogorc universitetebis avtonomiis SeuzRudvelobis aucileblobas, romlis drosac saqme am avtonomiasTan dakavSirebuli debulebis aspeqtebs exeba, aseve, aRmasruleblis normaSemoqmedebiTi uflebamosilebis ganmsazRvreli kanonis arsebobas, raTa zustad moawesrigos sakanonmdeblo debulebebi. maTi ganxorcieleba, romelsac esaWiroeba saerTo Sefaseba, ver aixsneba universitetis avtonomiuri qmedebiT maSinac ki, Tu is aRiarebuli iyo. gaerTianebis direqtivebi, evrokavSiris damfuZnebeli xelSekrulebis Tanaxmad, savaldebuloa yvela wevri saxelmwifosTvis. rodesac saqme erovnuli organoebis mier formisa da saSualebebis Taobaze gadawyvetilebis miRebas exeba, gaerTianebuli direqtivebi unda ganxorcieldes sakanonmdeblo organosa da uflebamosili organoebis mier im konstituciuri normebis dacviT, romlebic adgenen sakanonmdeblo organosa da uflebamosili organoebis uflebamosilebebs da awesrigebs maT Soris urTierTobebs. konstituciiT gansazRvrul saparlamento sakanonmdeblo sferoebSi normaSemoqmedebiTi monawileoba SeuZlia miiRos uflebamosilma organom. gaerTianebis TviTaRsrulebadi direqtivebis arseboba niSnavs sakiTxis uSualod mowesrigebis valdebulebis dasustebas aRmasruleblis farTo kompetenciaSi Semaval sferoSi, TviT direqtivis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom axsna-ganmartebiT gadawyvetilebaSi sarCeli ar daakmayofila da garkveviT miuTiTa mizezebze. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom usafuZvlo iyo sxvadasxva regionaluri administraciuli sasamarTloebis mier wamoWrili konstituciurobis sakiTxi (konstituciis 3, 33, 34 da 97 muxlebi) kanonis 9.4 muxlTan dakavSirebiT, romelSic Sesworeba Sevida #127/97 kanonis 17.116 muxliT. sadavo norma (arsebuli versiiT) gansazRvravs, rom "universitetebisa da samecniero da teqnologiuri kvlevebis sakiTxTa ministrma, erovnuli sauniversiteto sabWos TanxmobiT, unda daawesos ara marto specializirebul saswavlo kolejebsa da universitetSi swavlis xelmisawvdomobis maregulirebeli zogadi kriteriumebi, aramed im saswavlo dawesebulebebSic, romlebSic

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misaReb studentTa ricxvi SezRudulia ministris mier gamocemuli aqtiT." administraciulma sasamarTloebma gaasaCivres ministrisaTvis kanonmdeblobiT miniWebuli uflebamosilebebis kanoniereba im kolejsa da universitetSi swavlis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, romlebSi Caricxvac xdeba kvotebis safuZvelze, konstituciis 33-e da 34-e muxlebze dayrdnobiT da, kerZod, Sesabamisi saparlamento sakanonmdeblo sferos TvalsazrisiT. garda amisa, zogierTi sasamarTlo amtkicebda konstituciis me-3 da 97-e muxlebis darRvevas. 33-e muxlSi inter alia naTqvamia, rom "saxelmwifo adgens ganaTlebis zogad wesebs da qmnis yvela tipisa da safexuris saxelmwifo skolebs". igi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevs umaRles saswavleblebs, maT Soris, universitetebs, romlebsac "ufleba aqvT, TviTon SeimuSaon sakuTari debulebebi saxelmwifos kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil farglebSi". 34-e muxlis Tanaxmad, "yvelas unda SeeZlos ganaTlebis miReba". Rirseul da unarian studentebs ki, romlebsac ar aqvT finansuri saSualeba, ufleba aqvT, "gadavidnen swavlebis maRal safexurebze". sasamarTlom daadgina, rom zogierTi is normac unda iqnes moSveliebuli, romelic ar iyo dasaxelebuli: sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom universitetebis organizebis sakiTxi moicavs adamianis konstituciur uflebebs, rogoricaa ganaTlebisa (ix. konstituciis me-2 muxli) da profesiis arCevanis uflebebi (ix. konstituciis me-4 muxli). sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mosamarTleebma daadgines, rom sadavo norma ise unda ganimartos, rom ministrisTvis miniWebuli uflebebi mxolod im SemTxvevaSi da im doneze ganxorcieldes, rogorc es sxva sakanonmdeblo debulebebidan gamomdinareobs. normebis Secvlis kriteriumebis dadgena gamarTlebulia aseve im kolejebisa da universitetebisTvis, romelTa raodenobisa da misaReb studentTa ricxvis SezRudva SesaZlebelia ministris sadavo normis amoqmedebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze. imisaTvis, rom sadavo norma konstituciurad CaiTvalos, saparlamento kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, mis mier saxelisuflebo organoebs ar unda mieces misgan miniWebuli uflebebis gamoyenebis sruli Tavisufleba. swored am mizniT unda gaerTiandes sadavo norma aseTi uflebebis ganmsazRvrel sxva debulebebTan. aseTi debulebebi SeiZleba Segvxvdes gaerTianebis msgavsi mniSvnelobis mqone sxvadasxva direqtivebSi, romlebic wevr-saxelmwifoebSi universitetis diplomebis urTierTaRiarebasa da momsaxurebis gawevis Tavisuflebas exeba. aRniSnuli direqtivebi exeba eqimTa, veterinar qirurgTa, kbilis qirurgTa da arqiteqtorTa diplomebs da gansazRvravs minimaluri codnis standartebs.

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diplomi adasturebs, rom pirs namdvilad aqvs miRebuli is codna, romelic am sferoebSi muSaobisTvisaa saWiro. am direqtivebiT regulirebul yvela sferoSi, Teoriuli codnis gasamyareblad, saWiro praqtikuli gamocdilebac moiTxoveba. es, saswavlo RonisZiebebTan mimarTebiT, arsebul struqturebsa da studentTa raodenobas Soris saTanadod dabalansebas gulisxmobs. aRniSnuli direqtivebi ganxorcielda sakanonmdeblo aqtebis meSveobiT, romlebSic mocemulia zemoxsenebuli sferoebis analitikuri prognozi. direqtivebis mier dasaxuli miznebis ganxorcieleba (romlebic, evrokavSiris damfuZnebeli xelSekrulebis 189-e muxlis Tanaxmad, savaldebuloa wevri saxelmwifoebisaTvis) uflebamosil organoebs ekisrebaT. es niSnavs, rom direqtivebiT regulirebul sferoze uflebamosili organoebisaTvis miniWebuli uflebebi gaerTianebis normebiT gansazRvruli valdebulebebis Sesabamisad unda ganxorcieldes. amasTan dakavSirebiT, mniSvneloba ara aqvs es uflebebi direqtivebis ganxorcielebisas ganisazRvreba Tu mocemuli SemTxvevis msgavsad, kanonmdeblis mier sxvagvarad uzrunvelyofisas. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom konstituciis me-3 da 97-e muxlebTan Sesabamisobis Taobaze aRZruli dava usafuZvloa, vinaidan isinic eyrdnobian im araswor mosazrebas, romlis Tanaxmad, ministris sadavo uflebebi SeiZleba ganxorcieldes mTlianad misi Sexedulebisamebr. gadawyvetilebis daskvnaSi sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom universitetSi swavlis potenciuri kandidatebisTvis gaurkvevlobisa da sxva saziano davebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT, dRemde ararsebuli detaluri sakanonmdeblo cvlileba unda gatardes.

niderlandebi uzenaesi sasamarTlo 19-11-1996 savaldebulo swavla ar ewinaaRmdegeba sindisis Tavisuflebas. savaldebulo swavlis Sesaxeb 1969 wlis kanonis me-2 muxlis Tanaxmad, nebismieri piri, romelic sargeblobs bavSvis mSoblis uflebiT an pasuxismgebelia mis movlaze, valdebulia, aRniSnuli kanonis debulebebis Tanaxmad, uzrunvelyos bavSvis Caricxva, Semdeg ki misi skolaSi regularuli daswreba. aRiZra sakasacio saqmiswarmoeba im moTxovniT, rom es valdebuleba arRvevs adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-9 muxliT dacul mSoblis uflebas religiis an rwmenis gamoxatvis Taobaze. uzenaesma sasamarTlom wardgineba ar miiRo. sasamarTlom CaTvala, rom mSoblebs ufleba aqvs, Svilebi TavianTi surviliT arCeul

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skolaSi Seiyvanon, an im skolaSi, romelic TviTon gaxsnes da sadac swavleba maT principebs Seesabameba. 1969 wlis savaldebulo swavlis kanoni aseve uSvebs gamonaklisebs. magaliTad, mSoblebi SeiZleba gaTavisufldnen am valdebulebisagan, Tu maT gaaCniaT safuZvliani argumenti yvela im skolis rwmenis miuReblobis Taobaze, romlebic mdebareobs maT saxlebTan axlos (ix. muxli 5b). aqedan gamomdinare, savaldebulo swavlis Sesaxeb 1969 wlis kanonis me-2 muxli ar arRvevs adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis 1-li oqmis me-2 muxls.

poloneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 08-11-2000 debulebebi umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb ganmartebulia rogorc zogierTi saxis swavlebaze gadasaxadebis SemoRebis nebarTva. igi Seesabameba konstituciiT garantirebul ganaTlebis uflebas, romlis mixedviTac, saxelmwifo skolebSi ganaTlebis miReba ufasoa. sasamarTlom ganixila saqme sarCelis safuZvelze. mosarCele daobda, rom umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb kanonis debulebebi adgenda gadasaxadebs dRis swavlebis garda yvela sxva swavlebaze da amiT zRudavda umaRles ganaTlebaze xelmisawvdomobis uflebas. saxelmwifo umaRles skolebSi ufaso ganaTlebis garantia ar aris absoluturi da SeuzRudavi. umaRles skolebSi ufaso swavlebis xelmisawvdomoba unda SeizRudos da mxedvelobaSi miRebul iqnes saxelmwifo finansebis SesaZlebloba. sasamarTlos azriT, kanoni ar krZalavs sxva raime formiT (mag. saswavlo kursebze swavla) swavlis SesaZleblobas. kanonis sadavo debulebebiT, gadasaxadebi universitetis dafinansebis erT-erT wyaros warmoadgenda, Tumca igi gamoricxavda saxelmwifo universitetebSi dRis daswrebul swavlebaze gadasaxadebis SemoRebas. es niSnavda, rom saxelmwifo umaRlesi skolebi uflebamosilia SemoiRos gadasaxadebi saswavlo kursebze da saRamos daswrebulisa da universitetis dauswrebeli swavlebis sistemisTvis. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom aRniSnuli debulebebi ar unda iqnes ganxiluli ise, TiTqos igi saxelmwifo skolebs aniWebs swavlaze gadasaxadebis SemoRebis Tavisuflebas im doniT, ramdenis saSualebasac iZleva skolis gankargulebaSi arsebuli saxelmwifo Tanxebi. sasamarTlos azriT, swavlaze gadasaxadebis daweseba vrceldeba skolis saqmianobis mxolod im formebze, romlebic scdeba umaRlesi skolis saqmianobis ZiriTad sferos. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom saxelmwifo umaRles skolebSi ufaso ganaTlebis garantia unda Sefasdes sxva konstituciuri Rirebulebebis paralelurad, rogoricaa ganaTlebis ufleba an ganaTlebis sistemebze

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sayovelTao xelmisawvdomoba. am uflebis ganxorcielebam SesaZlebelia miiRos ramdenime forma, maT Soris, fasiani saganmanaTleblo momsaxurebis formac.

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 21-10-1999 moqalaqeebi, romlebic swavloben daswrebuli swavlebis fakultetebze kerZo umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi, romlebsac saxelmwifosagan ar miuRiaT licenzia, ara aqvT maTi swavlis periodSi samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevis gadadebis ufleba. es debuleba konstituciuria. q. omskis raionulma sasamarTlom moismina samarTlisa da ekonomikis institutis (kerZo umaRlesi saswavlebeli, romelic licenzirebuli ar aris saxelmwifos mier) ramdenime studentis mier Setanili sarCelis safuZvelze aRZruli saqme. studentebi asaCivrebdnen komisiis uars swavlis periodSi samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevis gadadebaze. uari eyrdnoboda federaluri kanonis debulebas samxedro samsaxurisa da valdebulebis Sesaxeb. am debulebis mixedviT, moqalaqeebs, romlebic swavloben profesiuli codnis miRebis mizniT saxelmwifo an municipalur an saxelmwifos mier licenzirebul saswavlo dawesebulebebSi daswrebuli swavlebis fakultetebze, aqvT samxedro samsaxuris gadadebis ufleba. raionulma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom aRniSnuli norma ewinaaRmdegeboda ramdenime konstituciur debulebas, amitom sakonstitucio sasamarTlos sTxova misi konstituciasTan Sesabamisobis dadgena. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom konstituciis 59-e muxlis Tanaxmad, samSoblos dacva aris moqalaqis movaleoba da valdebuleba. samxedro samsaxuris gavla gawvevis gziT iTvleba am konstituciuri valdebulebis Sesrulebis ZiriTad saSualebad. sadavo kanonis 24-e muxli gansazRvravs iseTi pirebis kategoriebs, romlebsac aqvT samxedro samsaxuris gadadebis ufleba: 18-dan 27wlamde asakis farglebSi gawvevis TariRi SeiZleba droebiT gadaidos. moqalaqeebi, romlebic ulicenzio umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi daswrebuli swavlebis fakultetebze swavloben, aseve isini, romlebsac ar aqvT samxedro samsaxuris gadadebis ufleba, aRniSnul konstituciur valdebulebas ixdian swavlebis damTavrebamde. xolo moqalaqeebi, romlebic swavloben daswrebuli swavlebis fakultetebze saxelmwifos mier licenzirebul umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi, samxedro samsaxurSi msaxuroben swavlis damTavrebis Semdeg.

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konstitucia aRiarebs TiToeuli moqalaqis ganaTlebis uflebas da adgens, rom yvelas aqvs ufleba, ufasod da konkursis safuZvelze miiRos umaRlesi ganaTleba saxelmwifo an municipalur saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebaSi. agreTve, moqalaqeebs SeuZliaT umaRlesi profesiuli swavleba gaiaron kerZo umaRles saswavleblebSi, sadac, Cveulebriv, swavla fasiania. kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, moqalaqeebs aqvT damoukideblobis da arCevanis Tavisufleba umaRlesi ganaTlebis miRebis arCeul meTodTan, arCeul saswavlo dawesebulebasa da swavlebis kursTan dakavSirebiT. konstituciuri debulebebis gamoyenebisas saxelmwifo ganaTlebis sferoSi federalur standartebs adgens. saxelmwifo licenzia gaicema kerZo umaRles saswavleblebze da pirobiTia Sefasebis Sedegebis mixedviT. igi adasturebs, rom swavlebis Sinaarsi, done da xarisxi zemoxsenebul standartebs akmayofilebs. saxelmwifo licenziis flobas ramdenime samarTlebrivi Sedegi aqvs: inter alia, kerZo umaRles saswavlebels ufleba aqvs, gasces saxelmwifo diplomi. xolo pirs, romelic am saswavlebelSi swavlobs daswrebuli swavlebis fakultetebze, SeuZlia, gadados samxedro samsaxurSi gawveva. parlaments ufleba aqvs, daadginos samxedro samsaxuris gavlis gansxvavebuli procedurebi im moqalaqeebisaTvis, romlebic swavloben umaRles saswavleblebSi. amave dros, ulicenzio umaRlesi saswavleblebis studentebs SeuZliaT gaagrZelon swavla samxedro samsaxuris gavlis Semdegac. am gziT TiToeuli moqalaqis konstituciiT garantirebuli ganaTlebis ufleba Serwymulia samxedro samsaxuris gavlis Sesaxeb konstituciur valdebulebasTan, magram kanoniT dadgenili gansxvavebuli procedurebis gavliT. amrigad, Tanasworobis, moqalaqeTa Tanabari uflebebisa da Tavisuflebis konstituciuri principebi ar aris darRveuli. sadavo debuleba savaldebuloa yvela im moqalaqisaTvis, romlebzec igi vrceldeba, da Sesabamisad, igi ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias. igi gulisxmobs Tanabar SesaZleblobas, maT Soris, umaRlesi saswavleblis arCevis dros. aseTi saxis Tavisufali arCevanidan gamomdinare, sxvadasxva samarTlebrivi Sedegebi ver CaiTvleba konstituciuri garantiebis darRvevad. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gansaxilveli debuleba konstituciuria.

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 23-12-1994 konstituciiT gaTvaliswinebuli kastiliuri enis codna (konstituciis me-3 muxli) ganaTlebis mxolod kastiliur enaze miRebis

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uflebis moTxovnis safuZveli ver iqneba. gasaCivrebas ar eqvemdebareba konstituciuri moTxovna, romelic adgens, rom swavlebis saSualebad gamoyenebul iqnas im avtonomiuri regionis ena, romelic kastiliurTan erTad mis teritoriaze oficialur enad aris aRiarebuli. ganaTlebis ufleba (konstituciis 27.2 muxli) ar aZlevs SesaZleblobas mSoblebs an bavSvebs, ganaTlebis misaRebad avtonomiuri regionis ori oficialuri enidan airCion mxolod erTerTi. konstitucia adgens Tanabrad oficialuri enebis sistemas kastiliursa (qveynis saxelmwifo ena) da sxva espanur enebs Soris, romlebic ZiriTad enebad iTvleba sxvadasxva avtonomiur regionebSi. es wesi orenovanebis, ori oficialuri enis "Tanaarsebobis" sistemas qmnis, romelic ukve arsebobs sakuTari enis mqone regionebSi. sistemis Tanaxmad, yvela saxelmwifo organo valdebulia, xeli Seuwyos da uzrunvelyos avtonomiuri regionis teritoriaze moqmedi ori oficialuri enis swavleba. man unda dacvas TiToeuli moqalaqe, raTa ar iyos diskriminirebuli avtonomiur regionSi erT-erTi oficialuri enis gamoyenebis Sedegad. avtonomiur regionebs, sadac or Tanaoficialur enaze laparakoben, ufleba aqvT, ganaxorcielon nebismieri politikuri zoma an administraciuli qmedeba Tanaoficialur enebTan dakavSirebiT moqalaqeTa uflebebis efeqturad ganxorcielebis uzrunvelsayofad. kerZod, SeuZliaT, miiRon debulebebi, romlebic TavianT teritoriebze adgenen lingvistur standartebs sakuTari enis gamoyenebisTvis da istoriulad kastiliur enasTan uTanasworobis situaciis gamosasworeblad. ufro konkretulad, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom CaTvala, rom enobrivi Tanaarsebobis modeli, romliTac aqcenti avtonomiuri regionis enazea gakeTebulia, ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias, vinaidan igi uzrunvelyofs kastiliuris codnasa da gamoyenebas avtonomiuri regionis teritoriaze da ar gamoricxavs mas, rogorc swavlebis enas. kastiliuri enis codnis valdebuleba garantirebuli iqneba, Tu moswavleebs moeTxovebaT orive Tanaoficialuri enis adekvaturad codna da maTi sworad gamoyeneba dawyebiTi ganaTlebis miRebis Semdeg. avtonomiuri regionis enis swavlebis enad gamoyenebis dawesebisas, avtonomiuri regionis xelisuflebam unda uzrunvelyos pedagogTa daxmarebis saTanado zomebis ganxorcieleba. isini ganaTlebis sistemasTan adaptaciisa da masSi integrirebis mizniT, moswavleebs unda daexmaron kastiliuris garda, avtonomiuri regionis Tanaoficialuri enis sakmarisi codnis SeZenaSi. garda amisa, saxelmwifo organoebma unda miiRon zomebi imis uzrunvelsayofad, rom kanoniT dadgenili saganmanaTleblo sistema Seesabamebodes im moswavleTa individualur moTxovnebs, romleb-

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mac swavla daiwyes avtonomiur regionSi, sadac kastiliuri aris erTaderTi savaldebulo ena, Semdeg ki swavla Tanaoficialuri enebis sistemis mqone avtonomiur regionSi gaagrZeles. kastiliuri da avtonomiuri regionis enebis Tanaoficialuri enis mqone statusad aRiarebis gamo saxelmwifosa da avtonomiuri regionis saxelmwifo organoebma orive oficialuri enis gamoyenebis ufleba unda uzrunvelyon saswavlo programaSi am enebis savaldebulo sagnebad Setanis gziT. am valdebulebis meSveobiT, ar SeiZleba ugulebelyofil iqnes avtonomiuri regionis enis "sakmarisi codnis" moTxovna dawyebiTi ganaTlebis zogadi sertifikatis miniWebisa an miRebisaTvis.

Sveicaria federaluri sasamarTlo 07-11-2002 federaluri konstituciis me-19 (dawyebiTi ganaTlebis ufleba), 36-e (fundamenturi uflebebis SezRudvebi) da 62-e (ganaTleba) muxlebi, bernis kantonis konstituciis 29.2 muxli, fundamenturi socialuri uflebebi, skolidan disciplinuri garicxva da federaluri konstituciis me-19 muxli gansazRvraven ufaso dawyebiTi ganaTlebis miRebis uflebas bavSvebis individualuri personaluri SesaZleblobebisa da saxelmwifo skolebSi maTi pirovnebebis ganviTarebis Sesabamisad minimum 9 wliT savaldebulo swavlisTvis (punqti 4). bernis kantonis konstituciis 29.1 muxli ara marto avrcelebs am uflebas yvela skolaze savaldebulo swavlis ganmavlobaSi, aramed, aseve, iTvaliswinebs bavSvis ufro farTo uflebas dacvis, daxmarebisa da mxardaWeris Taobaze (punqti 5). Tu SezRudvebi dawesebulia fundamentur socialur uflebebze, federaluri konstituciis 36e muxli analogiurad gamoiyeneba imis dasadgenad, sruldeba Tu ara prioritetuli saxelmwifo an kerZo interesis da proporciulobis samarTlebrivad dasabuTebis pirobebi (punqtebi 6-9). adgilobrivma xelisuflebam unda miiRos saTanado zomebi imisaTvis, rom garicxul moswavleebs aswavlidnen kvalificirebuli pirebi an saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi, savaldebulo swavlis bolomde mainc (punqti 9.5). savaldebulo swavlis Sesaxeb bernis kantonis kanonis 28-e muxliT gansazRvruli zomebis farglebi, romelic adgens umaRles sanqcias (ultima ratio) _ erT saswavlo welSi maqsimum ori kviriT skolidan droebiT (nawilobrivi an mTliani) garicxvas, SeiZleba ganimartos konstituciis Sesabamisad (punqti 10). savaldebulo swavlis Sesaxeb kanonSi, kerZod, disciplinisa da

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disciplinuri qmedebis Sesaxeb 28-e punqtSi bernis kantonis didma sabWom cvlileba Seitana. maswavleblebs ufleba aqvT, urCi moswavleebis winaaRmdeg gaataron disciplinuri zomebi skolis jerovani funqcionirebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT. aseve, saskolo sabWos SeuZlia, gasces brZaneba uRirsi moswavlis maqsimum ori kviriT an mTlian garicxvaze. mSobelTa garkveulma nawilma federalur sasamarTlos kantonis bavSvebis skolidan garicxvis Sesaxeb debulebis gauqmeba mosTxova. isini amtkicebdnen, rom dairRva federaluri konstituciis me-19 muxli, romelic ufaso da adekvaturi zogadi ganaTlebis uflebas iTvaliswinebda. maT miuTiTes bernis kantonis konstituciis 29.2 muxlze, romelic gansazRvravs bavSvis uflebaTa dacvas, daxmarebasa da zedamxedvelobas, aseve, ufaso ganaTlebis uflebas bavSvis individualuri SesaZleblobebis Sesabamisad. federalurma sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila konstituciuri sarCeli da ganacxada, rom sadavo debulebis gamoyeneba SeiZleba konstituciis Sesabamisad. federaluri konstituciis me-19 muxli adgens fundamentur socialur uflebebs. igi saxelmwifos mier gaweul momsaxurebaze uflebas gansazRvravs. zogadi ganaTlebis mizani aris bavSvis pirovnuli ganviTarebis da Tanabari SesaZleblobebis ganxorcielebisa da xelSewyobis uzrunvelyofa. kantonelebs miniWebuli aqvT farTo kompetencia ganaTlebis sferoSi, magram maT moeTxovebaT, uzrunvelyon TiToeuli piris saTanadod ganaTleba. kantonis konstituciis debuleba scdeba federalur konstituciur kanons, romelic icavs bavSvis uflebas dacvaze, daxmarebasa da zedamxedvelobaze. socialuri uflebis sfero ganisazRvreba misi realuri Sinaarsis gaTvaliswinebiT. federaluri konstituciis 36e muxliT dadgenili pirobebi fundamenturi uflebebis SezRudvis Taobaze ar vrceldeba socialur uflebebze. Tumca, sasamarTlos moeTxoveba, socialur uflebebTan dakavSirebul saqmeSi mxedvelobaSi miiRos rogorc saxelmwifo, ise kerZo interesebi da proporciulobis principi. skolidan ganusazRvreli vadiT disciplinuri garicxva adekvaturi zogadi ganaTlebis konstituciur uflebasTan Seusabamo iqneboda. gansazRvruli vadiT skolidan disciplinuri garicxva Semdegis safuZvelze unda Sefasdes: saxelmwifos interesSi Sedis skolebis mier swavlis daubrkoleblad ganxorcielebisa da moswavleTa ganviTarebisaTvis Sesabamisi garemos Seqmnis uzrunvelyofa. amgvari saxelmwifo interesi ufro maRla dgas, vidre zogierTi moswavlis individualuri interesebi da amarTlebs zogierT disciplinur SezRudvas. moswavleTa individualuri interesebi aseve izRudeba adekvaturi zogadi ganaTlebis miRebis uflebis mqone sxva moswavleebis interesebiT. ar SeiZleba imis

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damtkiceba, rom urCi moswavlis garicxva ar aris sasurveli miznis miRwevis saSualeba, rac skolaSi sasiamovno garemos Seqmnis winapirobaa. Tumca, saWiroa, jer naklebad seriozuli disciplinuri zomebi iqnes miRebuli, garicxva ki ukidures zomas warmoadgendes. kantonis konstituciis debuleba aseve saskolo asakis bavSvisTvis daxmarebisa da zedamxedvelobis uflebas iTvaliswinebs. sadavo kanonmdebloba sxvadasxva simkacris disciplinur zomas gansazRvravs. maswavleblebi iReben skolis Seuferxeblad funqcionirebisTvis aucilebel zomebs. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, skolas SeuZlia, saskolo sabWos acnobos da moiTxovos specialistis rCeva imisaTvis, rom, Tu aucilebelia, miRebul iqnes iseTi zoma, rogoricaa bavSvis erTi klasidan meoreSi an sxva skolaSi an sxva regionSi gadayvana. disciplinis mniSvnelovani an sistematuri darRvevebis SemTxvevaSi, moswavle SeniSvnas an garicxvis muqaras miiRebs. amasTan, disciplinuri sistema iTvaliswinebs moswavlis garicxvas, rogorc ukidures zomas. garicxvis vada yovel TiToeul SemTxvevaSi cal-calke dgindeba. Tormetkviriani ardaSveba SeiZleba dawesdes mxolod ukidures SemTxvevaSi. garicxvis SemTxvevaSi mSoblebma bavSvis saTanadod dasaqmeba unda uzrunvelyon, Tu aucilebelia, SeuZliaT gamoiyenon specialistis da saganmanaTleblo organos daxmarebac. xolo skola winaswar unda moemzados moswavlis aRsadgenad. es valdebulebebi samoqalaqo kodeqsis mniSvnelobiT mSoblebis movaleobebs Seesabameba da iTvaliswinebs bavSvis uflebas saxelmwifosagan daxmarebisa da zedamxedvelobis Taobaze. garicxvis dros moswavleebze yuradRebis miqceva mxolod mSoblebis pasuxismgebloba ar unda iyos. savaldebulo swavlis Sesaxeb kanonis axali debuleba ar ewinaaRmdegeba adekvaturi zogadi ganaTlebis uflebas da SeiZleba aRsruldes konkretul SemTxvevebSi konstituciuri moTxovnebis Sesabamisad.

TurqeTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 16-09-1998 saxelmwifo kontrolisa da zedamxedvelobis qveS 8 wlis ganmavlobaSi savaldebulo da uwyveti ganaTlebis sakiTxi Seesabameba konstitucias. saxelmwifos ufleba aqvs, swavla savaldebulo gaxados 8 an meti wlis uwyveti vadiT. konstitucias aseve Seesabameboda gadasaxadebis dadgena aseTi saxis ganaTlebisaTvis saWiro xarjebis dasafarad. 1997 wlis 16 agvistos #4306 kanoniT dawyebiTi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb kanonis zogierT

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muxlSi Sesworeba Sevida, romelmac gansazRvra debulebebi am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli gadasaxadebis Sesaxeb. wamyvanma opoziciurma partiam sasamarTloSi Seitana sarCeli kanonis gauqmebis moTxovniT. ZiriTadi moTxovna iyo is, rom aseTi kanonis Semdeg SeuZlebeli iqneboda moswavleebisaTvis ganaTlebis miReba umaRles samlocvelo skolebSi (Ymam Hatip Liseleri). #4306 kanonis 1-li da me-5 muxlebis Tanaxmad, dawyebiT skolebSi swavlis xangrZlivoba 8 weli unda iyos. aseT skolebSi swavla uwyvetad unda mimdinareobdes da moswavleebs dawyebiTi ganaTlebis diplomi mieceT. konstituciis 42-e muxlis Tanaxmad, swavla savaldebuloa. igi unda mimdinareobdes saxelmwifo kontrolisa da zedamxedvelobis qveS aTaTurqis principebisa da reformebis suliskveTebiT. kanonmdebelma unda daadginos, iqneba Tu ara swavleba uwyveti. umaRlesi ganaTlebis misaRebad, saxelmwifo valdebulia, Semosavlebis Sesabamisad miiRos aucilebeli zomebi. amasTan dakavSirebiT, kanonmdebelma SeiZleba daawesos 8 an meti weli uwyveti swavlisTvis. amrigad, sadavo debulebebi ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciis 42-e muxls. konstituciis 24-e muxli awesrigebs religiisa da sindisis Tavisuflebas. sarCelSi naTqvami iyo, rom sadavo kanoni moqalaqeebs arTmevda religiisa da sindisis Tavisuflebis uflebas, radgan dawyebiT skolebSi 5 wlis swavlis Semdeg samlocvelo skolebSi swavla SeuZlebeli gaxdeboda. samlocvelo skolebi ki rvawliani savaldebulo uwyveti dawyebiTi ganaTlebis Semdeg SeZleben moswavleebis miRebas imamebisa da sxva maRali rangis religiuri pirebis ganaTlebisTvis. religiuri ganaTleba, romelic mocemuli pirebis an bavSvebis mSoblebis asarCevia, safrTxes ver Seqmnida. sadavo debuleba ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciis 24-e muxls. konstituciis 166-e muxlis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo valdebulia, dagegmos qveynis resursebi. ar arsebobs winaaRmdegoba sadavo kanonsa da am muxlis Sesabamisad SemuSavebul gegmas Soris. gegma ar iTvaliswinebs uwyvet an wyvetil ganaTlebas. ar arsebobs aseve winaaRmdegoba konstituciis 166-e muxlTan. sasamarTlom imsjela sadavo debulebebis konstituciurobis sakiTxze konstituciis me-5, me-10 da me-17 muxlebTan mimarTebiT. aseve, ganixila saxelmwifos ZiriTadi miznebi da valdebulebebi, kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba, piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxebloba, piris materialuri da sulieri cxovreba. Sesabamisad, kanonis dasabuTebaSi naTqvami iyo, rom igi miznad isaxavda moswavleebis mier TavianTi profesiebis zemoqmedebis gareSe, cnobierad arCevas. es mizani ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciis me-5, me-10 da me-17 muxlebs. konstituciis me-12 muxli adgens, rom yvelas aqvs xelSeuxebeli fundamenturi uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi. vinaidan dawyebiT saswavlo dawesebulebebSi vlinde-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

ba bavSvis unari da xdeba misi gonebrivi ganviTareba, rac profesiuli da religiuri ganaTlebis Zlier saZirkvels warmoadgens. amitom, sadavo kanoni ar ewinaaRmdegeba mSoblebis uflebas maTi Svilebis ganaTlebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebaze. sarCeli aseve exeboda konstituciis preambulasa da me-2 muxls ­ adamianis uflebebis dacvasa da kanonis uzenaesobas. sadavo debuleba gansazRvravs, rom moqalaqeebi miiReben ganaTlebas ufro xangrZlivi droiT. es debuleba Seesabameba ganviTarebis arsebul dones. adamianis uflebebis dacvis TvalsazrisiT, aucilebelia, gaumjobesdes da gaizardos swavlis xangrZlivoba. igi ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstituciis preambulasa da me-2 muxls. rac Seexeba konstituciis 65-e muxls (socialuri da ekonomikuri uflebebi), sadavo debulebebi ar aris antikonstituciuri. xangrZlivi swavla dadebiT gavlenas iqoniebs moqalaqeze da sazogadoebaze. sadavo kanonis me-3 muxli iTvaliswinebda, rom moqalaqeebma ganaTleba unda miiRon maTi SesaZleblobebisa da unaris Sesabamisad garkveuli tipis skolebSi da programebiT. muxli ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias imave mizeziT, riTic dadginda 1-li da me-5 muxlebis Sesabamisoba. sadavo kanonis me-2, me-4, me-6, me-7, me-8 da me-9 muxlebi (romlebic moicaven detalur debulebebs rvawliani dawyebiTi ganaTlebis sistemis savaldebulo da uwyveti xasiaTis Sesaxeb) ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias imave mizeziT, riTic dadginda 1-li da me-5 muxlebis Sesabamisoba. sarCelis meore nawili exeboda gadasaxadebs rvawliani savaldebulo da uwyveti dawyebiTi ganaTlebisaTvis saWiro xarjebis dasafarad. umravlesobis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebiT igi ar iqna dakmayofilebuli. mosamarTleebma, batonebma kiliCma, adalim, hiunerma, dinserma, buminma da aCargunma gamoTqves gansxvavebuli mosazrebebi gadasaxadebTan dakavSirebuli debulebebis zogierT nawilTan dakavSirebiT.

arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba

somxeTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 29-06-2002 Tu saarCevno siebi ar iqneba Sedgenili kanoniT dadgenili wesis mixedviT, arCevnebis CatarebisTvis aucilebeli winapirobebi kon-

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arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba

stituciis me-3 muxlis moTxovnebis (romelic awesrigebs saarCevno uflebebs da arCevnebis/referendumebis Catarebis princips) Sesabamisad ar dakmayofildeba. Tu moqalaqes ar Sefardebia Tavisuflebis aRkveTa da ar ixdis sasjels sasjelaRsrulebiT dawesebulebaSi ZalaSi Sesuli ganaCenis safuZvelze, ar SeiZleba mas CamoerTvas arCevis ufleba da ufleba, iyos arCeuli. kandidatma, romelic kenWs iyrida 2002 wlis 19 maisis erovnuli krebis damatebiT arCevnebSi #67 saarCevno olqidan, sarCeliT mimarTa sakonstitucio sasamarTlos, am ubanze arCevnebis gauqmebulad cnobis moTxovniT. kandidatis mtkicebiT, arCevnebis organizebisa da mimdinareobisas adgili hqonda saarCevno kodeqsis iseT darRvevebs, romlebmac gavlena iqonies arCevnebis Sedegebze. kerZod, mosarCele daobda, rom adgili hqonda winasaarCevno kampaniis maregulirebeli wesebisa da kenWisyris procedurebis darRvevebs, da rom saarCevno siebi arCevnebis dRes ar Seesabameboda realobas. erT-erT saarCevno ubanSi saarCevno siebi ar iyo Sedgenili kanoniT dadgenili wesis Tanaxmad, da xmis mimcemTa daaxloebiT 15%-s CamoerTva arCevis ufleba saarCevno siebis uzustobis gamo. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom Tavis 1999 wlis 21 ivnisis gadawyvetilebaSi daadgina, inter alia, rom imave #67 olqSi saarCevno siebis Sedgenisas daSvebuli iyo seriozuli Secdomebi. Tumca naklovanebebisa da Secdomebis gamosworebis nacvlad maTi ricxvi kidev ufro gaizarda. aRniSnul saqmeze gadawyvetilebis gamotanamde sasamarTlom ixelmZRvanela konstituciis 27-e muxliT (arCevisa da arCeviTobis ufleba) da saarCevno kodeqsis Sesabamisi debulebebiT. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom arCevnebis organizebisas da mimdinareobisas saarCevno kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebuli moTxovnebis masiurma darRvevebma, romelmac gavlena iqonia arCevnebis Sedegebze, gviCvena, rom saarCevno komisiebma ugulebelyves wina arCevnebis SedegebTan dakavSirebiT gamoTqmuli SeniSvnebi da miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi (maT Soris sasamarTlos mier gamotanili gadawyvetilebebi). mocemul olqSi damatebiTi arCevnebis organizebisas da mimdinareobisas saarCevno kodeqsis 9.4 muxlis (saarCevno siebis Sedgena da gamoyeneba), 11.3 muxlis (saarCevno siebTan dakavSirebuli moTxovnebi), 13.2 muxlis (saarCevno siebis miwodeba ubnis saarCevno komisiebisTvis), 42.11 muxlis (olqis saarCevno komisiis uflebebi) da 50.2 muxlis (kenWisyrisTvis mzadeba) moTxovnebi da arCevnebis Casatareblad aucilebeli sxva winapirobebi ar dakmayofilebula, konstituciis me-3 muxlis moTxovnebis (romelic awesrigebs saarCevno uflebebs da arCevnebis/referendumebis Catarebis princips) Sesabamisad.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

mosarCele mxare aseve daobda, rom mocemul ubanSi gamarTul damatebiT arCevnebSi monawile erT-erT kandidats ar hqonda arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba, konstituciis 27-e muxlis Tanaxmad, vinaidan mas pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos mier Sefardebuli hqonda gamosasworebeli zoma da sasjels ixdida Tavis samuSao adgilze. am argumentTan dakavSirebiT, sasamarTlom Seafasa kanonTa aRsrulebis praqtika, Seiswavla sxva qveynebis konstituciuri praqtika da ixelmZRvanela konstituciis 27-e muxliT, romlis Tanaxmad Tu moqalaqes Sefardebuli aqvs Tavisuflebis aRkveTa da sasjels ixdis sasjelaRsrulebiT dawesebulebaSi ZalaSi Sesuli ganaCenis safuZvelze, mas ara aqvs arCevnebSi arCevis ufleba da ufleba, iyos arCeuli. sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom Tu moqalaqes ar Sefardebia Tavisuflebis aRkveTa da ar ixdis sasjels sasjelaRsrulebiT dawesebulebaSi ZalaSi Sesuli ganaCenis safuZvelze, mas ar SeiZleba CamoerTvas arCevis ufleba da ufleba iyos arCeuli. sasamarTlom zemoxsenebul olqSi Catarebuli damatebiTi arCevnebi gauqmebulad gamoacxada da saqmis Seswavlis dros gamovlenili darRvevebis Sesaxeb masalebi gadasca generalur prokuraturas saTanadod Sesaswavlad.

somxeTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 16-10-1999 somxeTis respublikaSi mudmivad mcxovreb devnilebs ar SeiZleba CamoerTvaT adgilobrivi mmarTvelobiTi organoebis arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba. mosarCelis azriT, saarCevno kodeqsis, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisa da devnilTa Sesaxeb kanonebis zogierTi debuleba devnilebs arTmevda adgilobrivi mmarTvelobiTi organoebis arCevnebSi monawileobis uflebas. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis Sesaxeb kanonis sadavo muxlis mixedviT, "adgilobriv TviTmmarTvelobiT organoebs irCevs raionis mosaxleoba. raionis mosaxleoba niSnavs respublikis moqalaqes, romelic mudmivad cxovrobs am raionSi an Tu bolo sami wlis ganmavlobaSi Setanilia gadasaxadebis gadamxdelTa siaSi". saarCevno kodeqsis me-2 muxlis sadavo debulebiT dadgenilia, rom "somxeTis respublikis moqalaqeebs, romlebsac SeusruldaT 18 weli, aqvT arCevis ufleba", xolo 122.1 muxlis mixedviT ki, "somxeTis respublikis yvela moqalaqes, romelsac Seusrulda 25 weli, minimum bolo erTi welia cxovrobs mocemul raionSi da aqvs

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arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba

arCevis ufleba, ufleba aqvs arCeul iqnas raionis xelmZRvanelad". devnilTa Sesaxeb kanonis me-18 muxli adgens, rom "somxeTis respublikaSi, devnilebs ara aqvT arCevisa da politikur partiaSi gawevrianebis uflebebi da maT ar SeuZliaT, daniSnul iqnan somxeTis respublikis kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil Tanamdebobebze". sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sadavo debulebebi, romelic devnilebs arTmevs adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis arCevnebSi monawileobis uflebas, ewinaaRmdegeboda konstitucias. konstitucia mkacrad gamijnavs erTmaneTisagan "adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis" da "saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis" cnebebs. konstituciis 105-e muxliT, "raionebs marTaven adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi", xolo 107-e muxlis mixedviT ki, "olqebs marTaven saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organoebi". garda amisa, konstituciis me-2 muxlSi naTqvamia, rom "xalxi Tavis Zalauflebas axorcielebs Tavisufali arCevnebisa da referendumebis meSveobiT". aseTi formulireba mkacrad gamijnavs Zalauflebis ganxorcielebis sxvadasxva funqcionalur da institucionalur sistemebs. es midgoma Setanil iqna axal samoqalaqo kodeqsSi. samoqalaqo kodeqsis Tanaxmad, somxeTis respublika da raioni warmoadgens rogorc samoqalaqo samarTlis, aseve, sakuTrebis uflebebis individualur da damoukidebel subieqtebs. konstituciis 105-e muxli gansazRvravs, rom raionis qonebis marTvisa da adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis saqmeebis mowesrigebis mizniT, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobiTi organoebi airCevian sami wlis vadiT". garda amisa cneba, "adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveloba" somxeTis kanonmdeblobaSi mocemuli gansazRvrebis Tanaxmad, gulisxmobs, rom adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveloba raionis qonebis marTvis da adgilobrivi mniSvnelobis saqmeebis mowesrigebis uflebasa da SesaZleblobas moicavs. maSasadame, Tu devnilebi, romlebic aTi welia somxeTSi cxovroben da Seadgenen 71 raionSi amomrCevelTa naxevarze mets, ar monawileoben adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobiTi organoebis arCevaSi demokratiuli principebis safuZvelze, es niSnavs, rom maT CamorTmeuli aqvT qonebis gankargvis, gamoyenebisa da marTvis ufleba, aseve kanoniT garantirebuli ufleba raionis qonebis momavlis gansazRvraze. saarCevno uflebebTan dakavSirebuli debulebebi mocemulia konstituciis me-2, me-3, 27-e, 44-e, 50-e, 51-e, 52-e, 53-e, 64-e da 110-e muxlebSi. konstituciis zogadi midgoma am sakiTxTan aseTia: me-2 muxli iTvaliswinebs xalxis uflebas Zalauflebis ganxorcielebaze, maT Soris, adgilobrivi mmarTvelobiTi organoebis arCevnebis meSveobiT. konstitucia, romelic erTmaneTisagan gamijnavs cnebebs "adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveloba" da "saxelmwifo mmarTveloba" cnebebs (105-e, 107-e muxlebi). igi somxeTis respublikis moqalaqeebs,

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

romlebsac SeusruldaT 18 weli, aniWebs saxelmwifos mmarTvelobaSi monawileobis uflebas. konstitucia ar zRudavs mocemuli raionis moqalaqeobis armqone mudmivi macxovreblebis uflebas, monawileoba miiRon adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobiTi organoebis SeqmnaSi da adgilobrivi mmarTvelobiTi funqciis implementaciaSi. es muxli ar gamoricxavs somxeTSi kanonierad mudmivad mcxovreb gansakuTrebuli statusis mqone pirebisaTvis saarCevno uflebis miniWebas adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis doneze. xolo konstituciis 110-e muxli adgens, rom "adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobiTi organoebis arCevnebis procedura da maTi uflebamosileba unda dadgindes konstituciiTa da kanonebiT". kanonmdeblisaTvis saarCevno proceduris dadgenis kompetenciis miniWebiTa da konstituciis zogadi moTxovnis mixedviT, aseTi kompetencia unda ganxorcieldes konstituciuri wyobis da saerTaSoriso samarTlis principebisa da normebis Sesabamisad. saerTaSoriso praqtika gviCvenebs, rom bevr qveyanaSi moqalaqeobis armqone pirebs aqvT arCevis ufleba da ufleba, iyvnen arCeulni adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis doneze. aseT midgomas iTvaliswinebs evrokavSiris damfuZnebeli xelSekruleba da evrosabWos 1992 wlis 5 Tebervlis konvencia adgilobriv doneze sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi ucxoelTa monawileobis Sesaxeb (ETS #144).

latvia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 30-08-2000 ufleba iyo arCeuli SeiZleba SeizRudos im pirebisaTvis, romlebic aqtiurad monawileobdnen iseT organizaciebSi, romlebic cdilobdnen axali demokratiuli saxelmwifos dangrevas da cnobili iyvnen antikonstituciurad. aseTi SezRudvebi kanonieria, Tu maTi mizania demokratiuli saxelmwifo sistemis, erovnuli usafrTxoebisa da saxelmwifos teritoriuli mTlianobis dacva. Tumca, kanonmdeblis saqmea SezRudvis vadebis dadgena. aseTi SezRudvebi SesaZlebelia gagrZeldes mxolod gansazRvruli vadiT. saqme aRiZra parlamentis 23 wevris mier, romlebic amtkicebdnen rom parlamentis arCevnebis Sesaxeb kanonis da qalaqis domis, regionis domis da soflis sakrebulos arCevnebis Sesaxeb kanonis debulebebi, romlebic adgenen sxvadasxva saxis SezRudvebs uflebaze iyo arCeuli, ewinaaRmdegeboda konstituciis 89-e da 101-e muxlebs, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-14, da am konvenciis 1li oqmis me-3 muxlebs da samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis 25-e muxls. kanonebi iTvaliswinebda

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arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba

SezRudvebs qvemoT CamoTvlil pirTa uflebebze, arCeul iyvnen parlamentis da municipalitetebis deputatebad. eseni arian: pirebi, romlebic 1991 wlis 13 ianvris Semdeg aqtiurad moRvaweobdnen sabWoTa kavSiris komunistur partiaSi, latviis ssr mSromel xalxTa saerTaSoriso frontSi, SromiTi koleqtivebis gaerTianebul sabWoSi, omisa da Sromis veteranTa organizaciaSi, sruliad latviis xsnis komitetSi an mis regionalur komitetebSi; pirebi, romlebic arian an iyvnen ssrk-s, latviis ssr-s an ucxouri saxelmwifos uSiSroebis, dazvervisa an kontrdazvervis samsaxurebis Statiani TanamSromlebi. konstituciis 101-e muxli gansazRvravs latviis yvela moqalaqis uflebas, romelic gamtkicebulia kanoniT, monawileoba miiRos saxelmwifo da adgilobrivi mmarTvelobiTi organoebis saqmianobaSi. es ufleba uzrunvelyofs demokratias da saxelmwifos demokratiuli sistemis legitimurobas. Tumca, es ufleba ar aris upirobo. 101-e muxli iTvaliswinebs pirobas "kanoniT gansazRvruli wesis Sesabamisad", konstitucia ki kanonmdebels utovebs SezRudvis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebis uflebas. "kanoniT gansazRvruli wesis Sesabamisad," kanonmdebelma daadgina, rom nebismier SemTxvevaSi fraza "latviis yvela moqalaqe" ise unda iqnas ganmartebuli, rom igi kanoniT dadgenil SezRudvebs moicavdes. konstituciis 101-e muxli wakiTxul unda iqnes konstituciis me-9 muxlTan erTad: "latviis yvela sruluflebian moqalaqes, romelsac arCevnebis pirveli dRisTvis Seusrulda 21 weli, ufleba aqvs arCeul iyos parlamentSi". konstituciis me-9 muxli parlaments uflebas aZlevs, daazustos cnebis "latviis sruluflebiani moqalaqe" Sinaarsi. amas ki asrulebs kanoni seimis (parlamentis) arCevnebis Sesaxeb. am uflebis SezRudvebi dasaSvebia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu SezRudva ar ewinaaRmdegeba demokratiis cnebas konstituciis 1-li muxlis mniSvnelobiT, samarTliani arCevnebis zogad da sxva principebs. amrigad, kanonmdebelma, rodesac iRebda sadavo normebs, imisaTvis, rom ganxorcielebul arCevis uflebis samarTlebrivi norma, Seasrula konstituciis 101-e muxliT miniWebuli funqcia. daSvebulia jerovani SezRudvebi arCevis uflebaze da uflebaze iyo arCeuli namdvil periodul arCevnebSi, romelic dadgenilia samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis 25-e muxliT. yvela saxis gansxvavebuli mopyroba ar warmoadgens akrZalul diskriminacias. jerovani da obieqturi akrZalvebi paqtis mier legitimurad cnobili miznebisTvis, ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos diskriminaciulad. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis 1-li oqmis me-3 muxliT gaTvaliswinebul saarCevno uflebebze SezRudvebi unda dawesdes universaluri proceduris Sesabamisad. miuxedavad imisa, saxelmwifoebs aqvT Tu ara "am sferoSi moqmede-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

bis Tavisuflebis farTo farglebi", nebismieri zoma unda isaxavdes kanonier mizans da unda arsebobdes proporciulobis jerovani kavSiri gamoyenebul saSualebebsa da dasaxul mizans Soris. uflebebi SeiZleba SeizRudos mxolod ise, rom ar moakldes Tavisi arsi da ar Sesustdes misi efeqtianoba. aucilebelia Tanabari mopyrobis principis dacva, xolo usafuZvlo SezRudvebi ar unda iqnas dawesebuli. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-14 muxli ar iTvaliswinebs konvenciiT daculi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis realizaciasTan mimarTebiT yvela saxis gansxvavebuli mopyrobis akrZalvas. Tanabari mopyrobis principi darRveulad iTvleba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu gansxvavebul mopyrobas ara aqvs jerovani da obieqturi gamarTleba. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom mosarCeleebis gancxadeba imis Taobaze, rom sadavo normebi diskriminacias uwevda moqalaqeebs mxolod maTi politikuri wevrobis gamo, usafuZvlo iyo. sadavo normebi ar iTvaliswinebs gansxvavebul mopyrobas mxolod piris politikuri mrwamsis gamo, aramed isini aweseben SezRudvas ganaxlebuli demokratiuli sistemis winaaRmdeg mimarTul saqmianobebze. sadavo normebSi gamoyenebuli fraza "aqtiurad" niSnavs mudmivad raRacis keTebas, aqtiur monawileobas, qmedebas. ase rom, kanonmdebelma SezRudvebi daukavSira TiToeuli piris individualuri pasuxismgeblobis dones sadavo normebSi naxsenebi organizaciebis miznebisa da programebis realizaciaSi. nebismieri zemoT aRniSnuli organizaciis formaluri wevroba ver iqneba piris kandidatTa siaSi arSeyvanisa da misi arCevis akrZalvis erTaderTi mizezi. ase rom, sadavo normebi mimarTulia mxolod im pirebis winaaRmdeg, romlebic 1991 wlis 13 ianvris Semdeg Tavisi saqmianobiTa da saokupacio armiaSi yofniT cdilobdnen yofili reJimis aRdgenas, magram ara mxolod gansxvavebuli politikuri mrwamsis mqone pirebze. konstituciaSi Setanili adamianis uflebaTa maregulirebeli normebi unda ganimartos adamianis uflebaTa Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso normebis gamoyenebis praqtikis Sesabamisad. imisaTvis, rom dadasturdes Seesabameba Tu ara sadavo SezRudvebi konstituciis 89-e da 101-e muxlebs, unda Sefasdes, gansazRvravs kanoni Tu ara sadavo normebSi mocemul SezRudvebs miRebulia Tu ara saTanado proceduris dacviT; gamarTlebulia Tu ara kanonieri mizniT da aucilebelia Tu ara iyo demokratiul sazogadoebaSi. vinaidan es saqme ar exeba davas imis Taobaze, SezRudvebi gansazRvrulia kanoniT Tu miRebulia saTanado proceduris dacviT, Sefasebas saWiroebs bolo ori sakiTxi. miuxedavad imisa, rom 1990 wels aRdgenil iqna pirvelad 1922 wels formirebuli demokratiuli saxelmwifo, latviis komunisturi partia ar apirebda, uari eTqva "mmarTvel da wamyvan Zalauflebaze". man daiwyo antisaxelmwifoebrivi saqmianobebi.

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arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba

latviis komunisturi partiisa da misi damxmare organizaciebis mcdelobebis wyalobiT Seiqmna sruliad latviis xsnis komiteti. aRniSnuli organizaciebis saqmianobebis miznebi arsebuli saxelmwifo xelisuflebis dangreva ukavSirdeboda da Sesabamisad iyo antikonstituciuri. 1991 wlis agvistoSi kanonmdeblobam akrZala aseTi organizaciebi, daadgina ra maTi antikonstituciuroba. maSasadame, saarCevno uflebebis SezRudvebis mizania latviis demokratiuli saxelmwifo sistemis, erovnuli uSiSroebis da teritoriuli mTlianobis dacva. sadao normebi mimarTulia ara latviaSi pluralizmisa an piris politikuri mrwamsis winaaRmdeg, aramed im pirebis winaaRmdeg, romlebic TavianTi saqmianobiT cdilobdnen demokratiuli saxelmwifo wyobis dangrevas. adamianis uflebebiT sargebloba ar unda iqnas gamoyenebuli demokratiis, rogorc aseTis, winaaRmdeg. uflebebis arsi da efeqturoba zneobriobaSic devs. politikuri warmomadgenlebis mxridan demokratiisadmi erTgulebis moTxovna Sedis demokratiuli sazogadoebis kanonier interesebSi. demokratiuli saxelmwifo sistema daculi unda iqnas imisagan, rom zneobrivad aramdgradi pirebi ar gaxdnen politikur an administraciul doneze demokratiuli saxelmwifos warmomadgenlebi. saxelmwifo daculi unda iyos im pirebisagan, romlebic muSaobdnen yofil okupaciur da represiul aparatSi an damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg cdilobdnen antidemokratiuli totalitaruli reJimis aRdgenas da winaaRmdegobas uwevdnen legitimur saxelmwifo Zalauflebas. saarCevno uflebis SezRudvebi mimarTulia xsenebuli organizaciis ara yvela, aramed mxolod im wevrebisadmi, romlebic 1991 wlis 13 ianvris Semdeg aqtiurad moRvaweobdnen am organizaciebSi. am mizeziT, kandidatTa siidan piris amoReba ar warmoadgens administraciul TviTnebobas. amis safuZvelia konkretuli sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba. ase rom, principi, romelic yvela moqalaqisadmi Tanabar mopyrobas moiTxovs, ar darRveula, sasamarTlos mier dacva garantirebulia da SezRudvebi ar aris usafuZvlo. aqedan gamomdinare, SezRudvebis mizani kanonieria. imisaTvis, rom dadgenili iyos saarCevno uflebis SezRudvis proporciuloba latviis demokratiuli saxelmwifo sistemis, erovnuli uSiSroebisa da teritoriuli mTlianobis dacvis miznebTan, kanonmdebelma arCevnebis win saarCevno kanonis miRebamde an Sesworebamde. kidev erTxel Seafasa ra demokratiis ganviTarebis politikuri da istoriuli pirobebi saarCevno uflebis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom amJamad gamoyenebuli SezRudvebis proporciulobis dadgena ar iyo aucilebeli. Tumca, kanonmdebelma, saxelmwifoSi politikuri situaciis da

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

SezRudvebis aucileblobis periodulad Sefasebis dros, unda gansazRvros am SezRudvebis moqmedebis vada. saarCevno uflebebis amgvari SezRudvebi SeiZleba moqmedebdes mxolod gansazRvruli vadiT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba miRebul iqna umravlesobiT, oTxi xmiT samis winaaRmdeg. gansxvavebuli azris mosamarTleebi ar daeTanxmnen umravlesobas ramdenime mizezis gamo. maTi azriT, adamianis uflebebis SezRudva demokratiul sazogadoebaSi aucilebeli iyo ara marto maSin, Tu isini isaxavdnen kanonier mizans, aramed maSinac, Tu arsebobda SezRudvebis dasaweseblad gadaudebeli sazogadoebrivi aucilebloba da SezRudvebi ki adekvaturi iyo. dRes, damoukideblobis aRdgenidan 10 wlis Semdeg, sadao normebSi naxsenebi pirebis arCevnebi veRar Seuqmnis safrTxes demokratias latviaSi. Sesabamisad, aRar arsebobs SezRudvebis dawesebis gadaudebeli sazogadoebrivi aucilebloba. adamianis uflebebis SezRudva adekvaturia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ar arsebobs sxva aranairi saSualeba, romelic iseTive efeqturi, magram naklebad SemzRudveli iqneba. saarCevno uflebebi izRudeba im donemde, rom adamianebi, faqtobrivad, saerTod ver sargebloben uflebiT; kanonmdebels SesaZlebloba aqvs, gamoiyenos sxva "ufro rbili" formebi, magram zoma mainc ar iyos adekvaturi.

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 25-12-2001 moqalaqeTa saarCevno uflebebis darRvevis Taobaze gadawyvetilebaTa dauyovnebliv ZalaSi Sesvla zRudavs sasamarTlo dacvis konstituciur uflebas. radgan SeuZlebeli xdeba maTi gasaCivreba da, kerZod, marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis dros daSvebuli Secdomis gamosworeba, saqme aRiZra ramdenime moqalaqis mier Semotanili sarCelis safuZvelze, romelic samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis debulebebiT maTi konstituciuri uflebebis darRvevas, am debulebaTa mixedviT, moqalaqeTa saarCevno uflebebis darRvevis Taobaze gadawyvetilebebi ZalaSi Sedis maTi miRebisTanave (garda gadawyvetilebebisa im saqmeebze, romlebSic gasaCivrebulia arCevnebisa da referendumebis Sedegebi). mosarCeleebis gancxadebiT, am debulebis wyalobiT maT aRar SeuZliaT gaasaCivron samarTlebriv sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mocemuli gadawyvetilebebi, da erRvevaT konstituciiT garantirebuli ufleba, romelnic sasamarTloSi iyvnen daculni. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gadawyvetileba ver

312

arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba

CaiTvleba samarTlianad, Tu SeuZlebelia marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis dros daSvebuli Secdomis gamosworeba. gadawyvetilebis gadasinjvis ufleba vrceldeba ara mxolod sisxlis samarTlis, aramed samoqalaqo da administraciul saqmeebzec. garda amisa, sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom regularuli arCevnebi, romlebic tardeba mkacrad gansazRvrul vadebSi da eqvemdebareba sasamarTlo kontrols, mniSvnelovania saxelmwifo da adgilobrivi mmarTvelobiTi organoebis demokratiisa da kanonierebisaTvis. am sferoSi arsebuli gadawyvetilebebisa da moqmedebebis gasaCivrebisTvis arsebobs specialuri procedura, romlis mizania moqalaqeTa uflebebis dacva sxvadasxva saxis darRvevebisagan, romlebmac, SesaZlebelia, garkveul garemoebebSi, safrTxe Seuqmnas arCevnebSi xalxis nebis Tavisufali gamovlinebis princips, eWvis qveS daayenos maTi konstituciuri Rirebuleba da Seqmnas maTi gauqmebis safuZveli. kerZod, saarCevno uflebebis garantiebis maregulirebeli kanonmdebloba SedarebiT mokle vadas iTvaliswinebs sasamarTloebis mier im sarCelebis gansaxilvelad, romlebic exeba moqalaqeTa saarCevno uflebebis darRvevas, raTa uzrunvelyos saarCevno kampaniis dros samarTlebrivi davebis operatiulad mogvareba. samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsis sadavo debuleba gulisxmobs, rom sasamarTlos aseTi gadawyvetilebebi unda aRsruldes dauyovnebliv da upirobod. debuleba vrceldeba rogorc kenWisyramde, aseve mis Semdeg miRebul is gadawyvetilebebze da gamoricxavs samarTlebriv sakiTxTan dakavSirebul sarCelebs. gamonaklisia kenWisyramde cota xniT adre an arCevnebis dRes miRebuli is gadawyvetilebebi, romlebic moqalaqeTa saarCevno uflebebis arss ar exeba, arCevnebSi xalxis nebis Tavisufal gamovlinebas ar krZalavs da Sedegad arCevnebis Sedegebze ar axdens gavlenas, warmoadgens gamonakliss. Tu maTze gamoviyenebT im gadawyvetilebaTa ZalaSi Sesvlis maregulirebel zogad wesebs, romlebic samarTlebriv sakiTxTan dakavSirebuli apelaciisTvis dadgenili vadis amowurvas umaRlesi sasamarTlos mier saqmis ganxilvis Semdeg exeba es saarCevno process da SeuZlebels gaxdis saarCevno procesis Semdgomi etapebis kanoniT dadgenili vadebis dacvas. saarCevno procesis stabilurobis, xalxis nebis Tavisufali gamovlinebisa da moqalaqeTa saarCevno uflebebis efeqturi sasamarTlo dacvis uzrunvelyofis mizniT, kanonSi SeiZleba ganisazRvros specialuri vadebi Sesabamisi saqmeebis SeswavlisTvis, am saqmeebze gadawyvetilebaTa apelaciisTvis da maTi ganxilvisTvis. sadavo debuleba Cadebul iqna samoqalaqo saproceso kodeqsSi imisaTvis, rom xeli Sewyoboda saarCevno kam-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

paniebis mkacrad gansazRvrul vadebSi Catarebas, Tu uzrunvelyofil iqneboda sasamarTloebis mier saqmeebis mosmena da gamotanili gadawyvetilebebis dauyovnebliv aRsruleba. samarTlebriv sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebis akrZalviT debuleba arRvevs balanss dacul konstituciur Rirebulebebs Soris, vinaidan garantirebuli ar aris moqalaqeTa saarCevno uflebebis sruli, efeqturi sasamarTlo dacva, maSinac ki, rodesac isini arsebiTad irRveva. sadavo debuleba aseve arTulebs marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis procesSi daSvebuli Secdomebis identificirebasa da aRmofxvras. Sesabamisad, Znelia darRveuli saarCevno uflebebis aRdgenas, vinaidan samoqalaqo saqmeze ZalaSi Sesuli gadawyvetilebiT dadgenili faqtebi ar gadaisinjeba sxva samoqalaqo saqmeebSi, romlebSic igive xalxi monawileobs. garda amisa, rodesac gadawyvetileba ZalaSi Sedis, mxareebs ar SeuZliaT analogiuri sarCeliT mimarTon sasamarTlos da gaasaCivron mis mier axal saqmeSi dadgenili faqtebi da samarTlebrivi daskvnebi. sadavo debulebiT gamowveuli normaTa naklovanebebi ver aRmoifxvreba gadasinjvis sistemiT saqmis Seswavlis dros, vinaidan am etapze Sesabamisi proceduris amoqmedebis dadgena damokidebulia ara uflebadarRveuli moqalaqis survilze, aramed kompetenturi Tanamdebobis pirebis mier miRebul gadawyvetilebaze. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sadavo debuleba ar Seesabameboda konstitucias.

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 17-11-1998 konstitucia pirdapir ar aregulirebs saxelmwifo dumaSi deputatTa arCevnebis sistemas. konstitucia gansazRvravs, rom federaluri kreba, rogorc warmomadgenlobiTi da sakanonmdeblo organo, unda Sedgebodes ori palatisagan, saxelmwifo duma _ 450 deputatisagan, romlebic unda airCnen 4 wlis vadiT deputatTa arCevis procedura unda ganisazRvros federaluri kanoniT. aRniSnulma federalurma kanonma gansazRvra saxelmwifo dumis arCevnebis Sereuli sistema (maJoritaruli da proporciuli warmomadgenloba). Sereuli saarCevno sistemebi arsebobs mraval demokratiul qveyanaSi da ZiriTadad Seesabameba saarCevno kanonmdeblobis principebsa da wesebs, romlebic aRiarebulia saerTaSoriso doneze da daculia adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa konvenciiT da samoqalaqo da politikuri

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arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba

uflebebis 1966 wlis saerTaSoriso paqtiT. aseTi sistema miznad isaxavs arCevnebSi xalxis Zalauflebis pirdapir gamovlenas. misi saSualebiT SesaZlebelia moqalaqeTa mosazrebebi Tavisufal arCevnebSi sayovelTao da Tanabari saarCevno uflebis safuZvelze aisaxos Ria da saidumlo kenWisyriT da maTi nebis saTanadod gamoxatva parlamentis, rogorc saxelmwifos warmomadgenlobiTi organos, SeqmnasTan dakavSirebiT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom moismina "ruseTis federaciis federaluri krebis saxelmwifo dumis deputatTa arCevnebis saqme, romelic Sesaxeb" 1995 wlis 21 ivnisis federaluri kanonis debulebebis konstituciurobas exeboda. saqme aRiZra saratovis regionaluri dumis mier Setanili sarCelis safuZvelze. zemoxsenebuli federaluri kanonis me-5 muxlis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo dumis 225 deputati airCeva erTmandatiani saarCevno olqebidan (erTi deputati TiToeul olqze), 225 ki kandidatTa federaluri siidan, romelic federalur saarCevno olqSi politikuri jgufebisa da kavSirebis mier xmaTa raodenobiTaa Sedgenili (punqti 3). mosarCele daobda, rom es debuleba arRvevda saarCevno uflebebis Tanasworobis princips da Sesabamisad, laxavda ruseTis federaciis konstituciis me-3, me-19 da 32-e muxlebs. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sadavo federaluri kanonis qvemoT CamoTvlili debulebebi Seesabameba konstitucias: me-5 muxlis debuleba saxelmwifo dumis arCevnebis sistemis Sesaxeb, romlis mixedviT, deputatebis nawili airCeva erTmandatiani saarCevno olqebidan (erTi deputati TiToeul olqze), nawili ki _ federalur saarCevno olqSi politikuri dajgufebisa da kavSirebis xmaTa raodenobis proporciulad mier Sedgenili kandidatTa federaluri siidan; 5.2 da 11.2 muxlebis debulebebi ruseTis federaciis [Semadgeneli nawilis] subieqtis teritoriaze iseTi saarCevno olqis Seqmnis Taobaze, sadac amomrCevelTa raodenoba standartuli olqis zomaze naklebia; 36.3 muxlis debuleba politikuri dajgufebebis da kavSirebis uflebaze, saxelmwifo dumis deputatobis kandidatebad daasaxelon iseTi pirebi, romlebic ar arian am dajgufebebisa da kavSirebis sazogadoebis wevrebi; 37.5 muxlis debuleba, romlis Tanaxmad, federalur siaSi SeiZleba Seyvanil iyvnen saxelmwifo dumis deputatobis kandidatebi, romlebic erTmandatian saarCevno olqSi kenWs iyrian igive politikuri dajgufebidan an kavSiridan; 39.2 muxlis debuleba, romlis Tanaxmad, politikurma dajgufebam an kavSirma, romelic waradgens kandidatTa federalur sias, unda

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

Seagrovos minimum 200,000 amomrCevlis xelmowera am siis mxardasaWerad, maTgan ara umetes 7%-sa ruseTis federaciis TiToeuli subieqtis farglebSi; 67-e muxlis debuleba, romlis mixedviT, vakanturi adgili SeiZleba daikavos federaluri siidan arCeulma deputatma. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom 19.1, 19.2 da 32.2 muxlebi irRveva federaluri kanonis 39.3 muxlis debulebiT, romlis Tanaxmad, im kandidatis mxardasaWerad Segrovebuli xelmowerebi, romelic kenWs iyris erTmandatian saarCevno olqSi politikuri dajgufebidan an kavSiridan da registrirebulia olqis saarCevno komitetSi, Setanilia centraluri saarCevno komisiis mier im xelmoweraTa mTlian raodenobaSi, romlebic Segrovebulia am dajgufebisa an kavSiris kandidatTa federaluri siis mxardasaWerad. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom federaluri kanonis 62.2 muxlis debuleba, romlis mixedviT, mxolod im politikur dajgufebebs an kavSirebs SeuZliaT gainawilon adgilebi federalur saarCevno olqSi, romlebmac moipoves micemuli xmebis minimum 5%, konstituciuria im pirobiT, Tu 5%-iani barieris gamoyeneba SesaZlebels xdis adgilebi gadanawildes minimum or politikur dajgufebas Soris, romlebic erTad warmoadgenen mTliani saarCevno siis 50%-ze mets. sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, rodesac dadginda federalur saarCevno olqSi arCevnebis Sedegebi. federalur krebas konstituciis safuZvelze damatebebi unda Seetana federalur kanonSi, raTa saTanadod ganxorcielebuliyo proporciulobis principi, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aseve daadgina, rom 5%-iani barieri ar unda iqnas gamoyenebuli proporciuli arCevnebis miznis sawinaaRmdegod. federaluri kreba unda ecados, maqsimalurad ganxorcieldes. rom kvotebis gamoyenebisas proporciuli warmomadgenlobis principi amasTanave, mxedvelobaSi unda miiRos, rom konstituciis 1-li da me-13 muxlebis mixedviT, politikuri pluralizmisa da mravalpartiuli sistemis safuZvelze agebuli demokratia damokidebulia opoziciis arsebobaze da ver dauSvebs Zalauflebis monopolias. Sesabamisad, Tu mxolod erTi politikuri dajgufeba an kavSiri gadalaxavs 5%_ian bariers, mas federalur olqSi yvela adgilze, ver eqneba pretenzia maSinac ki, Tu man moipova micemul xmaTa umravlesoba, vinaidan es daarRvevs demokratiuli saarCevno proporciulobis princips, rac gaauqmebs 5%-iani barieris gamoyenebas. kanonis gadasinjvisas, federalurma krebam kanonis doneze unda gansazRvros maregulirebeli meqanizmi, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnas demokratiulad Seqmnili konstituciuri sistemis moTxovnebis

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arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba

Sesruleba. krebas unda SeemuSavebina aseTi meqanizmis praqtikuli debulebebi (mag. "cvalebadi" barieris an iseTi wesebis SemoReba, romelTa mixedviT, dajgufebebma winaswar unda acnobon kavSiris Seqmnis Sesaxeb).

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 24-11-1995 moqalaqeTa mier maTi sacxovrebeli adgilis droebiTi datoveba ar niSnavs, rom isini amoRebul unda iyvnen mudmivi an ZiriTadi sacxovrebeli adgilis reestridan. amitom, saarCevno siebis Sedgenis dros moqalaqeTa adgilze ar yofna ar SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas Sesabamisi saarCevno olqis siaSi Setanaze uaris Tqmis motivad. kanoni "CrdiloeT oseTis respublikis - alaniis parlamentis arCevnebis" Sesaxeb iTvaliswinebs saarCevno siebSi im pirebis Setanas, romlebsac aqvT arCevis ufleba da mudmivad cxovroben Sesabamisi saarCevno olqis teritoriaze. aRniSnuli kanonis safuZvelze, CrdiloeT oseTis alaniis respublikis parlamentis deputatTa arCevnebisTvis Seqmnilma centralurma saarCevno komisiam gadawyvita, ar Seetana saarCevno siaSi is moqalaqeebi, romlebic ar cxovrobdnen respublikis teritoriaze da imyofebodnen mis sazRvrebs gareT, maTi aryofnis mizezebis miuxedavad. inguSeTis respublikis mTavrobam mimarTa sakonstitucio sasamarTlos zemoxsenebuli kanonis konstituciurobis gadasinjvis moTxovniT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom moqalaqis saarCevno siaSi Seyvanis uflebis aRiareba, mniSvnelovani iyo misi konstituciurobis TvalsazrisiT, radgan igi pirdapir ukavSirdeba moqalaqeTa Tavisufal arCevnebSi monawileobis uflebas, rogoricaa xalxis Zalauflebis uzenaesi gamovlineba. "ruseTis federaciis moqalaqeTa saarCevno uflebebis ZiriTadi garantiebis Sesaxeb federaluri kanonis" Tanaxmad, saarCevno olqis saarCevno siaSi moqalaqeTa Seyvanis kriteriums warmoadgenda am olqis teritoriaze maTi cxovrebis faqti, romelic gansazRvrulia "federaluri kanoniT ruseTis federaciis farglebSi moqalaqeTa Tavisufali gadaadgilebis da adgilsamyofelisa da sacxovrebeli adgilis arCevis Sesaxeb ruseTis federaciis moqalaqeTa uflebebis Taobaze" da aseve "ZiriTadi sacxovrebeli adgili". rac Seexeba iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirebs, maTi adgilsamyofeli, "iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa Sesaxeb ruseTis federaciis kanonis" Tanaxmad, klasificirebulia rogorc

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

droebiTi sacxovrebeli da, maSasadame, rogorc mxolod adgilsamyofeli da ara sacxovrebeli adgili. moqalaqeTa mier maTi sacxovrebeli adgilis droebiTi datoveba ar iwvevs maT amoRebas mudmivi an ZiriTadi sacxovrebeli adgilis reestridan. amitom, saarCevno siebis Sedgenis dros moqalaqeTa adgilze ar yofna ar SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas Sesabamisi saarCevno olqis saarCevno siaSi Setanaze uaris Tqmis motivad. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanoni "CrdiloeT oseTis respublikis - alaniis parlamentis arCevnebis" Sesaxeb Seesabameboda konstitucias im nawilSi, romliTac iTvaliswinebda saarCevno siebSi Seyvanas im pirebis, romlebsac arCevis ufleba aqvT da mudmivad cxovroben Sesabamisi saarCevno olqis teritoriaze. ar ikrZaleboda aseve krZalavda maT saarCevno siaSi Seyvana maT mier CrdiloeT oseTis respublikis teritoriis droebiTi datovebis SemTxvevaSic, amave dros, sakonstitucio sasamarTlom kanoni antikonstituciurad cno, vinaidan igi ar iTvaliswinebda saarCevno siebSi im moqalaqeTa Seyvana, romlebsac aqvT arCevis ufleba, magram Sesabamisi olqis teritoriaze mdebareobs maTi ZiriTadi sacxovrebeli. saWiro iyo, rom kanoni "CrdiloeT oseTis respublikis - alaniis parlamentis arCevnebis" Sesaxeb SesabamisobaSi konstituciasa da "ruseTis federaciis moqalaqeTa saarCevno uflebebis ZiriTadi garantiebis" Sesaxeb federalur kanonTan. gadasinjvas saWiroebda aseve mocemuli saarCevno komisiebis gadawyvetilebebi CrdiloeT oseTis respublikis alaniis ­ parlamentis im deputatTa uflebamosilebebis aRiarebis Sesaxeb, romelTa arCeva-ararCevaze SesaZloa saarCevno organos araswor interpretacias emoqmeda.

slovenia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 09-03-2000 konstituciis 43-e muxliT gansazRvruli arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis principi moiTxovs, rom TiToeul amomrCevels hqondes TiTo xmis ufleba. arCevnebis Sedegebis dadgenis dros yoveli xma Tavidanve erTnairi SesaZleblobiT unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli (anu adgilebis ganawilebisas). Tumca ar aris aucilebeli mopovebul xmaTa raodenobasa da ganawilebul adgilebs Soris sruli proporciulobis uzrunvelsayofad yvela xmas erTnairi gavlena hqondes arCevnebis Sedegebsa an saarCevno sistemaze. garda amisa, arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis principi ar moiTxovs, rom yvela politikurma partiam erTi adgilis

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arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba

mosapoveblad moipovos xmaTa erTnairi raodenoba. sakmarisia, rom politikur partiebs (ufro zustad, kandidatebs an kandidatTa siebs) winaswar aqvT garantirebuli adgilis an adgilebis mopovebis Tanabari SesaZleblobebi. saarCevno sistemis Sesabamisoba arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis principTan ganxilul unda iqnas amomrCevelTa Tanasworobis TvalsazrisiT xmis micemis momentSi da ara adgilebis ganawilebis dros. sadavo debulebebi aregulirebs adgilebis ganawilebis wess da ar axdens gavlenas xmaTa Tanabar Rirebulebaze. mopovebul xmaTa da ganawilebul adgilebs Soris mkacri proporciulobis darRveva ar niSnavs, rom amomrCevlebi araTanabar mdgomareobaSi imyofebian xmis micemis dros, vinaidan adgilebis ganawilebisas erTnairad SesaZlebelia, rom TiToeul xmas hqondes ufro meti an ufro naklebi wona. yvela saarCevno olqSi erTi da igive siebisTvis micemuli darCenili xmebis saerTo raodenobis safuZvelze zogierTi adgilis ganawilebiT gamowveuli zusti proporciulobis darRveva da is faqti, rom xmis saboloo Sedegi damokidebulia partiaze, romelsac xma misca amomrCevelma, ar arRvevs arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis princips. konstituciis 43.1 muxliT arCevis ufleba sayovelTao da Tanasworia. sasamarTlos 1996 wlis 13 ivnisis #U-I-44/96 gadawyvetilebaSi (oficialuri Jurnali RS, #36/96 da DecCC V, 98) arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis principi niSnavs, rom TiToeul amomrCevels TiTo xmis ufleba aqvs da TiToeuli maTgani erTnairad Rirebulia. saxelmwifos evaleba proporciulma saarCevno sistemam, romliTac adgilebi nawildeba kandidatTa TiToeuli siisaTvis micemul xmaTa raodenobis proporciulad, uzrunvelyos, rom yovel xmas hqondes Tanabari wona. aseve unda gaiTvaliswinos, rom saarCevno sistemaSi proporciulobis principis nebismierma darRvevam SeiZleba arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis darRveva gamoiwvios. #U-I-44/96 gadawyvetilebaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebis ganuxrelad gaTvaliswineba niSnavda, rom mxolod is saarCevno sistema iqneboda arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis principTan Sesabamisi, romelic proporciulobas (ramdenadac es maTematikurad SesaZlebelia) mopovebul xmebsa da ganawilebul adgilebs Soris srul proporciulobas uzrunvelyofs. amasTanave, gamonaklisebis daSveba SeiZleboda mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini icavdnen sxva romelime konstituciur Rirebulebas, aucilebeli iyo mis misaRwevad da proporciuli dasaxuli miznisa (mag. saarCevno barieri). mopovebul xmebsa da ganawilebul adgilebs Soris sruli proporciulobis sxva nebismieri darRveva antikonstituciuri iqneboda. ase rom, am mosazrebis Tanaxmad, arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis principTan

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SesabamisobaSi myofi saarCevno sistemis SerCevisas kanonmdeblis kompetencia Semoifargleba proporciuli sistemiT, romelic uzrunvelyofs maqsimalur proporciulobas mopovebul xmebsa da ganawilebul adgilebs Soris. arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis konstituciuri principis amgvari interpretacia SezRudulia. konstitucia am mimarTebiT ar aviwroebs kanonmdeblis politikur gadawyvetilebas. konstituciis 43-e muxliT gansazRvruli arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis principi moiTxovs, rom TiToeul amomrCevels hqondes TiTo xmis ufleba da rom arCevnebis Sedegebis dadgenisa da adgilebis ganawilebis. yvela xma daeqvemdebaros erTsa da imave wess. amasTan, aucilebeli ar aris, rom yvela amomrCevlis arCevanma erTnairi gavlena iqonios arCevnebis Sedegebsa Tu saarCevno sistemaze, romlis mixedviT, mopovebul xmaTa raodenobasa da ganawilebul adgilebs Soris sruli proporciuloba. uzrunvelsayofad. amasTanave, arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis principiT ar moiTxoveba, rom yvela politikurma partiam moipovos xmaTa erTnairi raodenoba erTi adgilis mosapoveblad. sakmarisia, rom politikur partiebs (an kandidatebs an kandidatTa siebs) winaswar aqvT garantirebuli adgilis an adgilebis mopovebis Tanabari SesaZlebloba. maSasadame, arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis principi moiTxovs, rom TiToeulma amomrCevelma kenWisyrisas gamoiyenos da Rirebulebis erTi da imave raodenobis xma, miuxedavad imisa, rom zogierTma xmam SesaZlebelia, arCevnebis Sedegebze iqonios gavlena. mcire Tu yvela amomrCevels eqneba erTi da igive odenobis xma da Tu maT xmebs eqneba arCevnebis Sedegebze (da adgilebis ganawilebaze) zemoqmedebis winaswar gansazRvruli Tanabari SesaZlebloba, kenWisyris dros kanoniT isini Tanasworad iTvleba; Tumca, erTnairad SesaZlebelia, rom nebismieri amomrCevlis xmas hqondes ufro meti an ufro naklebi wona adgilebis ganawilebisTvis. adgilebis ganawilebis maregulirebeli wesebi Tanabrad vrceldeba yvela amomrCevelze da diskriminacias ar uwevs arc erT maTgans. amasTan, arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis principis darRvevas adgili eqneba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu saarCevno olqebSi arCevis uflebis mqone pirTa ricxvTan dakavSirebiT arsebuli mniSvnelovani Seusabamobebis gamo kenWisyramde an kenWisyrisas gamoaSkaravda, rom erTi saarCevno olqis wevris xmas ufro naklebi Rirebuleba hqonda, vidre sxva saarCevno olqis wevris xmas. aqedan gamomdinare, saarCevno sistemis Sesabamisoba arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis konstituciur principTan ganxilul unda iqnas amomrCevelTa Tanasworobis TvalsazrisiT xmis micemis momentSi da ara adgilebis ganawilebis dros. sadavo debulebebi

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aregulirebs adgilebis ganawilebis wess da ar axdens gavlenas xmaTa Tanasworobaze kenWisyris dros. marTalia, rom garkveul doneze isini proporciulobis principidan gadaxvevas axdenen. Tumca, es ar niSnavs imas, rom amomrCevlebi xmis micemis dros, araTanabar mdgomareobaSi imyofebian, vinaidan erTnairad SesaZlebelia, rom TiToeul xmas hqondes ufro meti an ufro naklebi wona adgilebis ganawilebisas. yvela saarCevno olqSi erTi da igive siebisTvis micemuli darCenili xmebis raodenobis safuZvelze zogierTi adgilebis ganawilebiT gamowveuli zusti proporciulobis darRveva da is faqti, rom xmis saboloo Sedegi damokidebulia amomrCevlis mier arCeul siaze, ar gulisxmobs arCevis uflebis Tanasworobis principis darRvevas. #U-I-44/96 gadawyvetilebaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebidan amgvari gadaxveva ar niSnavs, rom araswori iyo sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba mocemul saqmeze. marTalia, misi argumentacia gansxvavebulia, magram sxva saqmesTan dakavSirebiT sasamarTlos daskvna konstituciasTan Sesabamisobis Taobaze igive iqneboda, Tuki sasamarTlo daeyrdnoboda am saqmeSi moyvanil argumentacias.

espaneTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 22-07-1999 kandidatis warmomadgenlobiT politikur Tanamdebobaze kenWisyris akrZalva diskvalifikaciis samarTlebrivi wesiT gamocxadebis Semdeg (arCevnebis maregulirebeli zogadi wesebis Sesaxeb organuli kanonis 2.2,3 da 6.1 muxlebi) pirdapir axdens gavlenas amomrCevlis uflebaze monawileoba miiRos, maT mier arCeuli warmomadgenlebis meSveobiT, sazogadoebrivi saqmianobis ganxorcielebaSi (konstituciis 23.1 muxli), imdenad ramdenadac es ufleba xorcieldeba saarCevno kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad da krZalavs im pirTa arCevas, romlebsac ara aqvT ufleba iyvnen arCeuli. im piris arCeva, romelsac ara aqvs ufleba, iyos arCeuli, ewinaaRmdegeba saarCevno kanons, Seuracxyofs eleqtorats da xels uSlis demokratiis funqcionirebas. piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis uflebis (konstituciis 18.1 muxli) mixedviT, yvelas unda SeeZlos, mesame mxares aukrZalos Tavis pirad da ojaxur cxovrebaSi Careva da isargeblos am sferoSi yvelanairi informaciis gasxvisebis uflebiT, raTa daicvas igi arasasurveli sajaroobisagan an mesame mxaris cnobismoyvareobisagan. piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobas, pirvel rigSi, unda hqondes kanoniT

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dadgenili farglebi da meore, saxelmwifo organoebi mas unda icavdes SesaZlo darRvevebisagan, rodesac kanonmdebloba gansazRvravs, rom calkeuli piradi informacia imave saxelmwifo organoebSi arsebul failebsa da reestrebSi unda inaxebodes. piris nasamarTlobis Sesaxeb informacia warmoadgens pirad informacias da aqedan gamomdinare, misi damuSaveba da xelmisawvdomoba unda regulirdebodes samarTlebrivi debulebebiT nasamarTlobasTan dakavSirebuli informaciis Taobaze. aseTi saxis informaciaze xelmisawvdomoba piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis uflebis (konstituciis 18.1 muxli) darRvevas warmoadgens. sisxlis samarTlis sakiTxTa sasamarTlom mosarCeles CamoarTva arCevis ufleba im dros, rodesac unda Catarebuliyo adgilobrivi da avtonomiuri regionis saparlamento arCevnebi, romelSic mosarCele kenWs iyrida, rogorc kandidati. sasamarTlom gadawyvita, pirdapir ar ecnobebina kandidatis droebiTi diskvalifikaciis Sesaxeb (arCevnebis maregulirebeli zogadi wesebis Sesaxeb organuli kanonis me-2, me-3 da 6.1 muxlebis Sesabamisad) saarCevno komisiebisTvis, romlebic, espaneTis saarCevno kanoniT, pasuxs ageben saarCevno procesis uproblemod Catarebaze da imis Semowmebaze, ekuTvnis Tu ara pirs arCevis ufleba da ufleba iyos arCeuli. sabolood, komisiebma Seityves faqtebis Sesaxeb, CamoarTves ufleba, mosarCele arCevnebSi kenWisyrisaTvis Seufereblad gamoacxades da gadawyvetilebis aRsasruleblad Sesabamisi zomebi miiRes. es yvelaferi swored arCevnebis dRes da administraciuli saqmis warmoebis Semdeg moxda, romelsac SeiZleba ewodos mxolod "movlenebiT mdidari". sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom saarCevno komisiis gadawyvetilebebi ar ewinaaRmdegeboda konstitucias. arCevnebis dRes mosarCeles CamoerTva arCevis ufleba da ufleba, yofiliyo arCeuli, miuxedavad misi kandidaturis sajarod gamocxadebisa. diskvalifikaciam misi kandidatura mTlianad gaabaTila. garda amisa, gadawyvetileba warmoadgenda amomrCevelTa uflebebisa da politikuri warmomadgenlebis arCevnebis demokratiulobis dacvis erTaderT saSualebas. es movlena sakonstitucio sasamarTlom "movlenebiT mdidar" administraciul saqmiswarmoebaSi ukanonod da gadamwyvetad miiCnia. erT-erTi saarCevno komisiis Tavmjdomarem (saapelacio sasamarTlos mosamarTle akvirdeboda saarCevno proceduris sworad Catarebas) telefoniT gamoiTxova informacia mosarCelis nasamarTlobis Sesaxeb, misi msjavrdebulobis gasagebad. mosarCelis arCevis ufleba droebiT iqna CamorTmeuli. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos azriT, arc nasamarTlobis Sesaxeb informaciis maregulirebeli kanonmdebloba da arc specialuri

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kanonmdebloba saarCevno komisiebis Sesaxeb ar uSvebda nebismier pirTan dakavSirebiT nasamarTlobis Sesaxeb informaciaze xelmisawvdomobas, Tundac imis dasamtkiceblad, hqondaT Tu ara maT ufleba yofiliyvnen arCeulni. maSasadame, mosarCelis nasamarTlobis Sesaxeb informaciaze xelmisawvdomobis ukanonoba, warmoadgenda misi piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis darRvevas.

Sveicaria federaluri sasamarTlo 28-04-1999 marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb federaluri kanonis 85.a muxli (politikuri uflebebis darRvevis gasaCivreba), samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis saerTaSoriso paqtis 25.t muxli. didi sabWos (kantonis parlamenti) wevrebi, romlebic aseve kantonis sajaro moxeleebad iTvlebian, kantonis sajaro samsaxuris Sesaxeb zogierT debulebaze kenWisyraSi monawileobas ar miiReben. wesi, romliTac kantonis parlamentis wevrebs, romlebic aseve kantonis sajaro moxeleebi arian, zogadad CamoerTmevaT samuSao pirobebTan dakavSirebuli zogierTi wesis Sesaxeb kenWisyraSi monawileobis ufleba, SeusabamobaSia (yovel SemTxvevaSi aq mocemuli formiT) arCevis uflebis principebTan. arCevis uflebis principebis darRvevas warmoadgens, rom wesi, romelic aregulirebs im proceduraSi savaldebulo wesiT armonawileobas, radgan igi ufro mkacrad ganimarteba kantonis parlamentis wevrisaTvis (romelic imavdroulad kantonis sajaro moxelecaa) vidre parlamentis sxva wevrebisaTvis. bazellendis kantonis parlamentis organizebisa da proceduris maregulirebeli kanoni Sesworda da damtkicda referendumis meSveobiT. igi detalurad gansazRvravs im wesebs, romlis mixedviT, parlamentis wevrebma ar unda miiRon monawileoba proceduraSi, rodesac parlamenti ganixilavs uSualod maTTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs, gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevaSi, Tu maT SeiZleba sargebeli miiRon an piradad dazaraldnen. parlamentis wevrebma, romelTa xelfasebi finansdeba kantonis biujetidan, ar unda miiRon monawileoba im proceduraSi, romelic exeba sajaro moxeleTa samuSao pirobebs, rogoricaa xelfasebi, pensiebi, samuSao dro da Svebuleba (xsenebuli kanonis 7.2.g muxli). federalur sasamarTloSi sajaro samarTlis saqmeze aRZrul sarCelSi q-ni ester buher helfenSteini da sxvebi daobdnen aRniSnuli sakanonmdeblo Sesworebis Taobaze. isini asaCivrebdnen, kantonis parlamentis wevrebi ar monawileobdnen savaldebulo wesiT sajaro

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moxeleTa samuSao pirobebis ganxilvis proceduraSi. isini amtkicebdnen maTi politikuri uflebebis darRvevas da moiTxovdnen kanonis 7.2.g muxlis gauqmebas. federalurma sasamarTlom sarCeli miiRo da sadavo debuleba gaauqma. bazellendis kantonis konstituciiT xelisuflebis da sasamarTlos zogierT wevrsa da maRalCinosan sajaro moxeleebs ufleba ara aqvT, arCeul iqnen parlamentis wevrebad. yvela sxva moqalaqes aqvs amis ufleba. am gziT konstituciam miiRo demokratiuli saarCevno sistema, romelic maqsimalurad srulyofilia. amiT gadaiWra demokratiisa da uflebamosilebaTa gamijvnis principebs Soris arsebuli faruli kolizia imdenad, ramdenadac sajaro moxeleebs, maRalCinosani sajaro moxeleebis garda, ufleba hqondaT, arCeuliyvnen parlamentSi. es gadawyvetileba badebda princips, romlis dacva parlaments moeTxoveboda proceduraSi savaldebulo wesiT armonawileobis Taobaze normebis miRebisas. mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis ganxilvaSi ar monawileobis valdebuleba asustebs im parlamentis wevrebis pozicias, romelTa xelfasebi finansdeba kantonis biujetidan. amomrCevlebi, romlebmac xma misces aseT wevrebs, wagebul mdgomareobaSi arian im amomrCevlebTan SedarebiT, romlebmac xma misces im wevrebs, romlebzec ar vrceldeba SezRudvebi da Sesabamisad, SeuZliaT, srulad ganaxorcielon TavianTi saparlamento funqcia. aqedan gamomdinare, adgili aqvs sayovelTao arCevnebis fundamenturi principis darRvevas, romliTac yvela xmas aqvs erTnairi wona, da ar arsebobs aseTi gamonaklisis daSvebis uzenaesi mizezi. piriqiT, demokratiuli principebi moiTxovs, rom parlamentSi warmodgenili iyos sxvadasxva politikuri mrwamsi da maT SeeZloT, gamoxaton TavianTi mosazrebebi. parlamentSi proceduraSi armonawileobis maregulirebeli moTxovnebi ar Seesabameba sasamarTloSi imave tipis procedurebis maregulirebel moTxovnebs. dabolos, sadavo kanoni ver akmayofilebs Tanabari mopyrobis princips. im dros, rodesac deputatebs, romelTa xelfasebs afinansebs kantoni, ekrZalebaT monawileobis miReba sajaro samsaxurTan dakavSirebuli mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis ganxilvaSi sxva seqtorebis, warmomadgenlebze, rogoricaa soflis meurneoba, ar vrceldeba es SezRudva, rodesac parlamenti ganixilavs maT seqtorTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs.

TurqeTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 16-11-1994 kanoniT dadgenili pirobebis Sesabamisad, moqalaqeebs aqvT arCevis ufleba da ufleba, iyvnen arCeulni. aseve maT SeuZliaT,

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damoukideblad axorcielebdnen politikur saqmianobas, an moRvaweobdnen politikur partiaSi da monawileobas iRebdnen referendumSi. arCevnebi da referendumebi unda Catardes sayovelTao saarCevno uflebis Sesabamisad. konstituciiT daculi sayovelTao saarCevno ufleba ar unda SeizRudos am principis sawinaaRmdegod. Tavisufali da konkurentunariani arCevnebis principisTvis aucilebelia sayovelTao saarCevno ufleba. termini "sayovelTao" niSnavs, rom yvelas, visac aqvs arCevis ufleba, SeuZlia es ufleba gamoiyenos arCevnebSi. arCevis uflebasTan dakavSirebiT konstituciebiTa da kanonebiT gansazRvruli pirobebi ar arRvevs sayovelTao saarCevno uflebis princips, vinaidan es pirobebi dadgenilia sazogadoebrivi interesebis dacviT. saarCevno siebis ganaxlebisas, yvela, visac aqvs arCevis ufleba, unda iyos Seyvanili saarCevno siebSi. saqme aRZra didi erovnuli krebis wevrTa erTma mexuTedma, romelic moiTxovda 1994 wlis 28 seqtembris #4044 kanonis gauqmebas. kanoni iTvaliswinebda axal debulebebs didi erovnuli krebis da adgilobrivi administraciuli organoebis damatebiTi arCevnebis Sesaxeb, romelic unda Catarebuliyo 1994 wlis dekemberSi. #4044 kanonis me-2 muxlis Tanaxmad, saarCevno siebis ganaxlebis mizniT, saarCevno siebSi amomrCevlebis saxiT unda iyvnen Seyvanilni mxolod is ganTavisuflebuli jariskacebi da axali sajaro moxeleebi, romlebic saarCevno olqebSi arian daniSnulni. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom saarCevno siebi unda ganaxldes konstituciis 67-e muxlis Sesabamisad. es imas niSnavs, rom axali kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli SezRudvebi antikonstituciuria, vinaidan igi Seicavs sayovelTao saarCevno uflebis gaumarTlebel SezRudvebs. gadawyvetileba miRebul iqna erTxmad.

xorvatia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 20-05-1998 konstitucia icavs yvela moqalaqis sazogadoebrivi saqmianobebis ganxorcielebaSi Tanabar pirobebSi monawileobis miRebisa da sazogadoebriv samsaxurze uflebamosilebas (konstituciis 44-e muxli). es principi irRveva im kanonebiT, romlebic adgenen gansxvavebul Tanamdebobriv statuss sakanonmdeblo, aRmasrulebel da sasamarTlo xelisuflebis sxvadasxva Stoebis warmomadgenlebisTvis, agreTve adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisa da administraciuli erTeulebis organoebisa da samsaxurebis warmomadgen-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

lebisa da am erTeulis warmomadgenlobiTi organos wevrebisTvis. sasamarTlom ar miiRo winadadeba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisa da administraciuli erTeulebis warmomadgenlobiTi organoebis wevrebis arCevnebis Sesaxeb kanonis konstituciurobis gadasinjvis Taobaze. sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, konstituciiT dadgenili Seusabamobebis garda (respublikis prezidentis, Cveulebrivi mosamarTleebisa da sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mosamarTleebis gansxvavebuli Tanamdebobrivi statusebis SemTxvevebSi) arsebobs iseTi Seusabamobebic, romlebic unda ganisazRvros kanoniT.

CexeTis respublika sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 10-10-2000 Tu kanoni iTvaliswinebs mudmivi sacxovreblis pirobas imisaTvis, rom gqondes municipaluri organos arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba, warmomadgenlebma es piroba unda Seasrulon. SeuZlebelia iyo erTi municipalitetis moqalaqe sajaro samarTlis erT sferoSi da meore municipalitetis moqalaqe sajaro samarTlis meore sferoSi. mosarCeleebi acxadeben, rom 1998 wlis municipalur arCevnebSi Ing. arch. R arCeul iqna qalaqis sabWos moadgiled, xolo 1999 wlis 3 noembers gaxda sabWos wevri. 1999 wlis 14 dekembridan 2000 wlis 3 ianvramde periodSi man Tavisi mudmivi sacxovrebeli adgili daaregistrira municipalitetSi. regionaluri samsaxuris ufrosma qalaqis sabWos Seatyobina am faqtis Sesaxeb. qalaqis sabWom ar ganacxada mandatis Sewyvetis Taobaze. regionaluri samsaxuris ufrosma gamoacxada mandati Sewyvetilad. mosarCeleebi am gadawyvetilebas arasworad da kanonTan Seusabamod miiCneven. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom Tavdapirvelad ganixila sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, warmoadgens Tu ara konstituciuri sarCeli mosarCelis uflebebis dacvis erTaderT saSualebas. sarCelSi daobdnen, rom moqmedi kanoni ar iTvaliswinebs mandatis Sewyvetis sakiTxze sasamarTlo kontrolis maregulirebel specialur proceduras. marTalia, ar arsebobs zustad aseTi specialuri debulebebi, magram sakonstitucio sasamarTlos ar sjera, rom es gamoricxavs regionis samsaxuris ufrosis gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebas zogad-administraciuli sarCelis meSveobiT. es gamomdinareobs administraciuli kanonis "zogadi nawilidan", romlis Tanaxmad, Tu konkretul sakiTxze ar aris akrZaluli sasamarTlo kontrolis ganxorcieleba, maSin SesaZlebelia aseTi kontroli ganxorcieldes. am sakiTxis mniSvneloba da xasiaTi aRemateboda mosarCeleebis interesebs da, amitomac sasamarTlom uari ar Tqva konstituciuri sarCelis

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arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba

miRebaze. igive sarCeli paralelurad Setanil iqna humpolekis qalaqis sabWos mier, romelSic naTqvami iyo, rom regionaluri samsaxuris ufrosis qmedeba adgilobrivi mmarTvelobiTi organoebis saqmianobebSi saxelmwifos mxridan ukanono Carevas warmoadgenda. mudmivi sacxovrebeli SeiZleba CaiTvalos saarCevno uflebebis SeZenisa da ganxorcielebisTvis standartul aucilebel pirobad. ase rom, Tu kanoni gansazRvravs, rom yvela amomrCevels, romlis mudmivi sacxovrebeli municipalitetSia, anu ufleba aqvs, xma misces am municipalitetSi da arCeul iqnas municipalur warmomadgenlobiT organoSi, es piroba ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos arakonstituciurad. uflebis SeZenis amgvarad formulirebuli pirobidan SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom mxolod is pirebi miiReben monawileobas raionis adgilobriv mmarTvelobaSi, romlebic am raions ekuTvnian. ramdenad logikuri da ekonomikuric ar unda iyos mosarCeleebis argumenti rom sakmarisia de faqto mudmivi sacxovrebeli, SeuZlebelia, misi warmatebiT aRsrulebis SemTxvevaSi, winaswar daadgino, swori iyo Tu ara saarCevno uflebis miRebis piroba da mandatis arsebobis sakiTxis Sesabamisi Sefaseba. kanonis uzenaesobis principze agebul saxelmwifoSi yovel konkretul qmedebas unda hqondes prognozirebadi samarTlebrivi Sedegebi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos azriT, saarCevno uflebis dakargva da mandatis Sewyveta gamowveulia mudmivi sacxovreblis Secvlis faqtiT. es samarTlebrivi faqti ver gamoswordeba da verc aRmoifxvreba da, maSasadame, mniSvneloba ara aqvs oficialurad Sewydeba Tu ara faqtis da TviT warmomadgenlobiTi organos an sxva organos gadawyvetilebis gamocxadebamde. nebismieri sxvagvari interpretacia Seqmnida situacias, romelic sakmaod gaugebari, da garkveulwilad alogikuric iqneboda. saarCevno uflebis dakargvis da, Sesabamisad, mandatis Sewyvetis SemTxvevaSi, dabruneba SesaZlebelia mxolod axali arCevnebis gziT. regionaluri samsaxuris ufrosis gadawyvetileba aRniSnavs mxolod imas, rom Seqmnilia mandatis Sewyvetis gamomwvevi garemoeba. Tumca, realurad igi gadawyvetilebis miRebis dRemde ar wydeba. manamde arsebuli kanoni iTvaliswinebda mandatis "gauqmebas" da "Sewyvetas". praqtikaSi es xSirad iwvevda iseT situaciebs, rodesac qalaqis sabWom ar icoda an ar surda, scodnoda mandatis gauqmebis Sesaxeb, warmomadgeneli agrZelebda kenWisyraSi monawileobas da adgilobrivi mmarTvelobiTi organos imdroindeli gadawyvetilebebi SeiZleboda saeWvo gamxdariyo. amitom, axali kanoni aRar iTvaliswinebs mandatis gauqmebis sakiTxis kanoniT mowesrigebas da aregulirebs mxolod Sewyvetas. raionuli arCevnebis Sesaxeb kanonis Sesworebisas sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom aucilebelia saxelmwifo administraciasa

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

da adgilobriv xelisuflebas Soris SesaZlo davebis sasamarTloSi dacvis uzrunvelyofa regionaluri warmomadgenlobiTi organoebis arCevnebis Sesaxeb kanonis msgavsad, anu regionaluri sasamarTlosadmi mimarTviT, romelmac gadawyvetileba mokle droSi unda miiRos. araefeqturi da uazroa, rom municipalur warmomadgenlobiT organoSi mandatis Sewyvetis gasaCivrebis erTaderTi saSualeba iyos konstituciuri sarCeli.

TavSesafris ufleba

gaerTianebuli samefo lordTa palata 20-03-2003 savaldebulo samxedro samsaxurze uaris TqmisTvis SesaZlo dapatimreba mosarCelisaTvis devnilis statusis misaniWeblad ar warmoadgenda sakmaris safuZvels. mosarCeleebi iyvnen qurTi warmoSobis TurqeTis moqalaqeebi, romlebic gaerTianebul samefoSi TavSesafars moiTxovdnen im motiviT, rom TurqeTSi dabrunebis SemTxvevaSi maT mouwevdaT savaldebulo samxedro samsaxuris moxda. samxedro samsaxurze uaris Tqmam SesaZlebelia gamoiwvios 6 Tvidan 3 wlamde Tavisuflebis aRkveTa. mosarCeleebi samxedro samsaxurze uars ambobdnen ara religiuri mosazrebiT, aramed isini aprotestebdnen TurqeTis maSindeli mTavrobis politikas qurTi xalxis mimarT. kerZod, mosarCeleebi daobdnen, rom TurqeTis armiaSi msaxurobis dros SesaZlebeli iyo, isini Tanamemamule qurTebis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad gaewviaT. saxelmwifo mdivanma daadgina, rom devnilTa statusis Sesaxeb konvenciis 1.a.2 muxlis da misi oqmis Tanaxmad, mosarCeleebi ar iyvnen devnilebi. es gadawyvetileba ZalaSi datova gaerTianebuli samefos specialurma mosamarTlem, imigraciis sakiTxTa saapelacio tribunalma da lordTa palatam. lordTa palatam daadgina, rom konkretuli faqtebidan gamomdinare, mosarCeleebs ar hqondaT TavSesafris moTxovnis ufleba. saerTaSoriso dokumentebiT, savaldebulo samxedro samsaxuri ganixileboda, rogorc gamonaklisi iZulebiTi Sromis zogadi akrZalvidan. maTma brwyinvalebam lordebma ganacxades, rom es dokumentebi, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis msgavsad, "cocxal dokumentebs" unda niSnavdes. maT daadgines, rom ar arsebobda aSkara saerTaSoriso konsensusi, romelic sindisis Tavisuflebis motiviT, samxedro samsaxurze uaris Tqmis uflebas aRiarebda. lordTa palatis azriT,

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udavoa mosazreba imis Taobaze, rom devnilis statusi unda mieniWos pirs, romelmac samxedro samsaxurze uari Tqva im motiviT, rom samsaxuris dros moeTxoveboda an SeiZleba moeTxovebodes sastiki qcevis Cadena an adamianis uflebebis uxeSi darRveva. devnilis statusi aseve SeiZleba mieniWos im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac pirs mosTxoves saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mier dagmobil konfliqtSi monawileoba an rodesac, samsaxurze uaris Tqmis gamo, maT SeefardaT zedmetad meti an araadekvaturi sasjeli. saqmis faqtebidan Cans, rom mosarCeleebi ar eqcevian arc erT am kategoriaSi. amasTanave, maTma brwyinvaleba lordebma daadgines, rom mosarCeleebis mimarT ar ganxorcielebula devna konvenciis mniSvnelobiT. saqmisTvis mniSvnelovani ar iyo is faqti, rom mosarCeleebs devnidnen qurTuli eTnikurobis gamo. mTavari is iyo, Tu ra mizeziT moqmedebdnen, mosarCeleebis TqmiT, maTi mdevneli pirebi. saqmis konkretul garemoebebSi yvela pirs, romelic uars ambobs samxedro samsaxurze, moepyrobodnen erTnairad, rogoric ar unda yofiliyo uaris Tqmis piradi motivebi.

gaerTianebuli samefo saapelacio sasamarTlo 18-03-2003 finansuri daxmareba SeiZleba SeuwydeT pirebs, romlebmac TavSesafari ar moiTxoves gaerTianebul samefoSi CamosvlisTanave dadgenili wesis Sesabamisad, Tu arsebobda samarTliani procedura aseTi Sefasebis gakeTebisTvis da Tu amiT mosarCele ar darCa usaxsrod. erovnuli imigraciisa da TavSesafris Sesaxeb kanonis 55-e muxlSi naTqvamia, rom Tu TavSesafris maZiebeli piris monacemebi ar akmayofilebs saxelmwifo mdivans, romelsac, dadgenili wesis Sesabamisad, mimarTes TavSesafris moTxovniT gaerTianebul samefoSi CamosvlisTanave, maSin saxelmwifo mdivanma ar unda miiRos zomebi an ar misces daxmareba pirs, romelmac mogvianebiT moiTxova TavSesafari. 55.5 muxlis mixedviT ki, daxmarebaze uaris Tqma aseT garemoebebSi saxelmwifo mdivans ar aTavisuflebs adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciiT misTvis dadgenili valdebulebebis Sesrulebisagan. mosarCeleebi gaerTianebul samefoSi Camovidnen da mogvianebiT moiTxoves TavSesafari. mosarCeleebma ver daumtkices saxelmwifo mdivans, rom TavSesafari CamosvlisTanave moiTxoves, amitom maT ar miecaT finansuri daxmareba minimaluri sacxovrebeli saWiroebebisTvis da dasabinaveblad. aqedan gamomdinare, dadga sakiTxi, niSnavs Tu ara saxelmwifo mdivnis mier umweo adamianisTvis

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

daxmarebaze uaris Tqma am ukanasknelis mimarT araadamianur da damamcirebel mopyrobas, romelic adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 [ENG-ECH-0-3] da me-8 [ENG-ECH-0-8] muxlebis (piradi da ojaxuri cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis ufleba) darRvevas warmoadgens. saapelacio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom im SemTxvevaSi, Tu TavSesafris maZiebelma TavSesafari CamosvlisTanave moiTxova, im pirobiT unda dadgindes, Tu gaerTianebul samefoSi Camosvlis mizani TavSesafris moTxovna iqneba, rogorc TavSesafris maZieblis moTxovnis praqtikuli SesaZleblobis, ise piradi garemoebis mxedvelobaSi miRebiT. saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, saxelmwifo mdivnis qmedeba unda yofiliyo samarTliani, rodesac dgindeboda, CamosvlisTanave moiTxova Tu ara mosarCelem TavSesafari. saqmis garemoebebidan gamomdinare ki, aseTi gadawyvetilebis miRebis sistema usamarTlo iyo. amis mizezi ki, sxva mizezebTan erTad, iyo Semdegi: 1. TavSesafris moTxovnis Sesaxeb ganacxadis Setanisas saxelmwifo mdivnis mier TavSesafris maZiebelTan Catarebuli gasaubrebis mizani ar iyo axsnili da ganmartebuli; 2. mxedvelobaSi ar iqna miRebuli mosarCelis sulieri mdgomareoba qveyanaSi Casvlisas; 3. samarTlianobisaTvis saWiro iyo, saxelmwifo mdivans daesaxelebina zusti mizezebi imisa, Tu ratom ar iqna TavSesafari moTxovnili CamosvlisTanave; standartuli kiTxvaris blanki ar iyo sakmarisi; 4. mosarCeles ar mieca SesaZlebloba misi sandoobis mimarT gamoTqmuli eWvebis gasaqarwyleblad. amasTanave, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom daxmarebaze uaris Tqma im pirebisTvis, romlebmac TavSesafari ar moiTxoves CamosvlisTanave, SeiZleba dakvalificirdes, rogorc araadamianuri da damamcirebeli mopyroba adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlis Sesabamisad. TavSesafris maZieblebisTvis samuSaos Sovnis SezRuduli SesaZlebloba da daxmarebasa da SeRavaTebze uaris Tqma, romelic 2002 wlis kanonSi dadginda, warmoadgenda mopyrobis dadebiT gamovlinebas. Tu saxelmwifo mdivani ar darwmundeboda, rom mosarCele TavSesafars eZebda CamosvlisTanave, mosarCeles eZleoda daxmarebis moTxovnis SesaZlebloba im motiviT, rom igi aucilebeli iyo adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 da me8 muxlebiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebis darRvevis Tavidan acilebis mizniT. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom saxelmwifo mdivnis mxridan daxmarebis gawevaze uaris Tqma ar iyo ukanono, sanam ar damtkicdeboda, rom saqvelmoqmedo daxmareba ar gacemula da pirs ar SeeZlo Tavis dacva. saxelmwifo mdivans gadawyvetileba ar gausaCivrebia.

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TavSesafris ufleba

avstria sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 24-06-1998 kanonis uzenaesobis principis moTxovnebs ar akmayofilebs kanoni. devnilebis mier TavSesafris moTxovnis Taobaze gancxadebebi ar dakmayofilda, radgan isini qveyanaSi usafrTxo mesame qveynidan Semovidnen. maT apelaciisTvis mxolod ori dRe aqvT. devnilTa avtonomiurma federalurma samsaxurma (Unabhengiger Bundesasylsenat) ramdenjerme Seitana sarCeli TavSesafris Sesaxeb 1997 wlis kanonis 32.1 muxlis konkretuli nawilis gauqmebis moTxovniT, romelic konstituciasTan Seusabamobas amtkicebda ori mizeziT: 1. zogadi administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis ( Allgemeines Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz 1991) 63.5 muxlis Tanaxmad, mosarCeles gasaCivrebisTvis aqvs ori kvira. federalur kanonmdebels, konstituciis 11.2 muxliT, SeuZlia, Secvalos administraciuli saproceso kodeqsis zogadi wesebi, Tu amas kodeqsiT mowesrigebuli sakiTxi moiTxovs. igi (kanonmdebeli) ar moqmedebda am uflebamosilebis Sesabamisad, rodesac TavSesafris uflebis Sesaxeb 1997 wlis kanonSi gasaCivrebis vada Seamcira; 2. TavSesafris moTxovnis kompleqsur sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, apelaciis Setanis vadis or dRemde Semcireba ewinaaRmdegeba kanonis uzenaesobis princips. sasamarTlos kanonis uzenaesobis principTan dakavSirebuli precedentuli samarTliT, samarTlebrivi dacvis nebismieri saSualeba efeqturi unda iyos mosarCeleebisaTvis. sadavo kanonma es garantia daarRvia. sarCelebis arsebiTi ganxilvis Semdeg sasamarTlom gaauqma sadavo kanonis Sesabamisi nawilebi. garda amisa, sasamarTlom daakonkreta, rom apelaciis vada SeiZleba Semcirdes (federaluri) kanonmdeblis mier ise, rom mosarCeles sakmarisi dro hqondes profesional konsultantebTan dasakavSireblad, raTa kargad gaecnos uaryofiTi gadawyvetilebis materialur da procedurul mxares da SeeZlos sakmarisad dasabuTebuli apelaciis Setana. sasamarTlom damatebiT aRniSna, rom apelaciisTvis erTi kviris vada daakmayofilebda kanonis uzenaesobis princips, romliTac devnilebi minimalur de faqto efeqturobas SeiZendnen.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 07-05-1998 TavSesafris moTxovnasTan dakavSirebuli saqmiswarmoebis gasaCivrebaze uflebis miRebis winapirobebis ganxilvis Taobaze

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

konstituciuri moTxovnebi Seesabameba ZiriTadi kanonis 19.4 muxls. mosarCelem, TurqeTis samxreT-aRmosavleTiT mcxovrebma qurTuli warmoSobis pirma, politikuri TavSesafari moiTxova germaniaSi 1995 wlis martSi Camosvlisas. TavSesafris moTxovnasTan dakavSirebul Sesabamis saqmiswarmoebaSi igi inter alia amtkicebda, rom 1994 wlis martSi daapatimres da scemes TurqeTis uSiSroebis samsaxurebma PKK-s mxardaWeris gamo. igi gaaTavisufles mxolod sami dRis Semdeg. misi sarCeli, romelSic ucxoeTidan devnilTa aRiarebis federaluri samsaxuris uars asaCivrebda, ar dakmayofilda. 1996 wlis TebervalSi administraciuli sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT, mosarCelem ver warmoadgina saTanado argumentebi, rom igi politikuri devnis qveS imyofeboda. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom mas usafrTxod SeeZlo egrZno Tavi, vinaidan ar gamocxadebula qveynis masStabiT misi Zebna. amitom, sasamarTlos azriT, ar arsebobda misi deportaciis xelisSemSleli garemoebebi. ar dakmayofilda arc mosarCelis mier maRal administraciul sasamarTloSi Setanili sarCeli aRniSnuli gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebaze uflebis misaRebad. gadawyvetilebis motivebis ganmartebisas, maRalma administraciulma sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom man ukve upasuxa mTavar kiTxvas: unda eSinodes Tu ara qurTs TurqeTis teritoriaze politikuri devnis, romelic PKK-s mxardaWeraSi erTxel ukve eWvmitanilia TurqeTis, anu misi samSoblos, adgilobrivi uSiSroebis samsaxurebis mier. aRniSnuli sakiTxi gadawyda sasamarTlos mier 1996 wlis seqtembris dadgenilebaSi. Sesabamisad, arc samxreT-aRmosavleT TurqeTSi mcxovrebi pirebi, romlebic adgilobrivi uSiSroebis samsaxurebis mier arian eWvmitanilni radikaluri qurTuli organizaciis mxardaWeraSi, ar arian sakmarisad daculni dasavleT TurqeTSi politikuri devnisagan. amis Semdeg mosarCelem federalur sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi gaasaCivra maRali administraciuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, kerZod, sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis garantirebuli uflebis (ZiriTadi kanonis 19.4 muxli) darRveva. mosarCelem ganacxada, rom, rodesac man moiTxova gasaCivrebis nebarTva, maRali administraciuli sasamarTlos 1996 wlis seqtembris gadawyvetileba jer ar iyo miRebuli. maSasadame, pirveli sarCeli, romelic samarTlebrivi sakiTxis arsebiT mniSvnelobas efuZneboda, maRal administraciul sasamarTlos xelaxla unda ganemarta, rogorc pirveli da meore instanciebis sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa gansxvavebaze dafuZnebuli sarCeli. mas usafuZvlod CamoarTves TavSesafris ufleba mxolod imitom, rom maRalma administraciulma sasamarTlom amoirCia Tanabari arsebiTi mniSvnelobis mqone sxva saqme. meore senatis pirvelma palatam konstituciuri sarCeli aSkarad usafuZvlod CaTvala. rac Seexeba motivebs, meore senatma ganmarta,

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TavSesafris ufleba

rom ZiriTadi kanonis 19.4 muxlis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlos ufleba ara aqvs, arasakmarisad Seamciros materialuri kanonis samarTlebrivi aRsrulebis ufleba proceduruli wesebis zedmetad zusti ganxorcielebiT. es exeba saapelacio sasamarTloebsac, romlebsac aseve ara aqvT ufleba, samarTlebrivi sistemiT gansazRvruli sasamarTlo dacvis saSualebebi araefeqturad ganaxorcielon da "aamoqmedos" isini marTlmsajulebis maZiebeli pirisaTvis. meore senatis dadgenilebiT, aRniSnul moTxovnebs ar akmayofilebs maRali administraciuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba. sasamarTlos xelaxla unda ganemarta sarCeli samarTlebrivi sakiTxis arsebiTi mniSvnelobis safuZvelze, iseve, rogorc igi pirveli da meore instanciebis sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebaTa sxvadasxvaobas efuZneboda. gadawyvetilebis miRebis dros, administraciul sasamarTlos sxva saqmiswarmoebisas ukve miRebuli hqonda gadawyvetileba, romlis mixedviT, devnisagan dacva Zaladakargulad unda CaiTvalos ara mxolod maSin, rodesac gamocxadebulia qveynis masStabiT Zebna, aramed maSinac, rodesac adgilobrivi uSiSroebis samsaxurebi eWvs Seitanen piris mier radikaluri qurTuli organizaciis mxardaWeraSi. es Seesabameba mosarCelis samarTlebriv daskvnas, magram administraciuli sasamarTlos mosazrebas ewinaaRmdegeba. amitomac iyo gansxvaveba pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos 1996 wlis Tebervlis gadawyvetilebasa da maRali administraciuli sasamarTlos ganCinebas Soris. maSasadame, mosarCelis gancxadeba gasaCivrebis uflebis miRebaze, romelic samarTlebrivi sakiTxis arsebiT mniSvnelobas efuZneboda, xelaxla unda ganmartebuliyo. federalurma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom saqme gadaugzavna maRal administraciul sasamarTlos xelaxla gansaxilvelad. sarCelis miRebisTanave maRal administraciul sasamarTlos SesaZlebloba mieca, ufro Rrmad ganexila administraciuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba da, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, Seecvala igi TavSesafris maregulirebeli samarTlebrivi debulebebis WrilSi faqtebis gansxvavebulad Sefasebis safuZvelze.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 05-08-1998 saqme exeba konstituciur moTxovnebs, romlebic sasamarTloebma devnis RonisZiebebis politikurobis dadgenisas unda daicvan, TavSesafris sakiTxis maregulirebeli kanonis Sesabamisad. federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos iurisdiqciiT, devna poli-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

tikuria, Tu TavSesafris misaRebad dadgenili kriteriumebis mixedviT, igi pirs ayenebs ganzrax zians da amiT urRvevs simSvides. simSvide ki saxelmwifoSi samarTlebrivi wesrigis damyarebis saSualebaa. aris Tu ara devnis miznebi gansakuTrebuli am mniSvnelobiT da aqvs Tu ara adgili devnas Sesabamisi kriteriumis "gamo", unda gadawydes misi xasiaTis, Sinaarsis da TviTon RonisZiebis aSkara ganzraxvis safuZvelze. mniSvneloba ara aqvs subieqtur mizezebsa Tu motivebs, romliTac xelmZRvaneloben mdevnelebi. saxelmwifos Tavdacvis RonisZiebebic SeiZleba TavSesafris uflebis miniWebis mizezi iyos. vinaidan TavSesafris ZiriTadi uflebis dacviTi speqtri aqtiur politikur rwmenas moicavs, saxelmwifos mier im aqciebis devna, romliTac politikuri rwmena xorcieldeba, SeiZleba iyos politikuri. specialur sasamarTloebs miniWebuli aqvT Sefasebis garkveuli farglebi aRniSnuli kriteriumebis Sesamowmeblad. Sefaseba arakonstituciuria, Tu sasamarTlos mier moxmobili safuZvlebi SeuZlebels xdis Sefasebis gakeTebas. mosarCele, libanis moqalaqe, germaniis federalur respublikaSi Camovida 1992 wlis oqtomberSi da moiTxova, eRiarebinaT TavSesafris maZieblad. sarCelSi amtkicebda, rom igi daapatimres, rodesac arCevnebisaTvis bukletebs arigebda boikotis mowodebiT. dapatimrebis Semdeg, rogorc igi ambobda, sastikad awames general aounis jgufis wevrobis gamo. igi gaaTavisufles mxolod TavdebiT. sisxlis samarTlis saqmis warmoebis molodinSi, romelic savaraudod samidan xuT wlamde Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT dasruldeboda, germaniaSi wasvla gadawyvita. 1994 wels ucxoeli devnilebis aRiarebis federalurma samsaxurma misi ganacxadi ar daakmayofila. amitomac, aRniSnuli samsaxuris azriT, ucxoelTa Sesaxeb kanonis Tanaxmad, aRar arsebobda misi deportaciis xelis SemSleli garemoebebi. amave dros mosarCelem Seityo misi libanSi deportaciis Sesaxeb. samsaxuris gadawyvetilebiT, mosarCelis gancxadeba ar iyo damajerebeli. samsaxuris azriT, mocemuli saqme ara politikuri devnis, aramed sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis SemTxvevas warmoadgens. usafuZvloa varaudi sasjelis politikuri miznis Taobaze. mosarCelem aRniSnuli gadawyvetileba gaasaCivra administraciul sasamarTloSi. sasamarTlo sxdomaze mosarCelem detalurad aRwera misi dapatimrebis garemoebebi da bukletebis darigebis mizezebi. amis safuZvelze sasamarTlom gaauqma deportaciis Sesaxeb gafrTxileba da federalur samsaxurs mosTxova, eRiarebina, rom ucxoelTa Sesaxeb kanonis 53.4 muxlis Tanaxmad, arsebobda deportaciis damabrkolebeli garemoeba. gadawyvetilebis samotivacio nawilSi sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom piris sandooba saeWvo ar aris. Tumca, sasamarTlos TqmiT, mis mimarT libanSi ar xorcieldeboda politikuri devna, radgan nakleb

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savaraudoa, rom uflebamosil organoebs surdaT misi dasja politikuri mrwamsis gamoc. saxeze ar aris politikuri devnis Taobaze varaudis winapiroba. sasamarTlo darwmunda, rom libanis xelisuflebisTvis mniSvnelovani iyo ara piris politikuri mrwamsisTvis dasja da Seviwroeba, aramed samarTlisa da wesrigis damyareba da arCevnebis usafrTxoeba. arc wamebaa politikuri devnis maniSnebeli, vinaidan libanSi braldebulTa uflebebis amgvari darRvevebi miRebuli praqtikaa, rogorc "politikuri", ise "Cveulebrivi" damnaSaveebis mimarT. es ki SeiZleba CaiTvalos, rogorc mxolod deportaciis damabrkolebeli garemoeba ucxoelTa Sesaxeb kanonis 53.4 muxlis Tanaxmad. mosarCelem gaasaCivra es gadawyvetileba konstituciuri sarCelis meSveobiT, romelSic amtkicebda politikuri TavSesafris ZiriTadi uflebis darRvevas. kerZod: meore kolegiis pirvelma palatam nawilobriv gaauqma administraciuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba "TavSesafris ZiriTadi uflebis" Sesaxeb ZiriTadi kanonis 16.a.1 muxlis darRvevis gamo da aRniSnul sasamarTlos saqme gadaugzavna xelaxla gansaxilvelad. SesavalSi CamoTvlil principebTan Sesabamisobis dadgenis safuZvelze, administraciuli sasamarTlos argumenti devnis politikurobasTan dakavSirebiT, uZluria konstituciuri kontrolis winaSe. administraciuli sasamarTlos mosazrebisagan gansxvavebiT, mniSvnelovani ar aris, "politikurad motivirebuli" iyo Tu ara bukletebis darigebis sawinaaRmdego zoma, Tu igi mxolod arCevnebis daubrkoleblad Catarebas uzrunvelyofda. gadamwyvetia, Tu rogor ganixileba mosarCelis mimarT gatarebuli zomebi maTi aSkara ganzraxvis TvalsazrisiT. administraciuli sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebidan naTlad ar Cans, rom zomebs SesaZloa hqonoda sxva mizani, vidre mosarCelesaTvis Tavisi politikuri mrwamsis (arCevnebis boikoti) ganxorcielebaSi xelis SeSla. arc sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis samotivacio nawili iZleva informacias imis Taobaze, Tu ra saxis danaSaulebrivi elementi SeiZleba axldes bukletebis darigebis kampanias, garda mosarCelis politikuri mrwamsis stimulirebisa. magaliTad, samarTlebrivi dacvis obieqtebisTvis safrTxis Seqmna. libanSi mosarCelis mimarT araswori mopyrobis safrTxis Sefasebisas, sasamarTlom TviTon aRiara, rom pasuxebis gacemisas libanis prokuraturis organoebi cnobili arian "gansakuTrebuli uxeSobiT", rodesac saqme saxelmwifo uSiSroebis normebs exeba. amitom sasamarTlom daadgina "politikuri malus". am faqtebis gaTvaliswinebiT, gaugebaria, Tu ratom gamoavlina sasamarTlom mxolod deportaciis damabrkolebeli garemoeba da uaryo politikuri devnis safrTxe. saxelmwifo uSiSroebis normebis

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darRvevisas araswori mopyrobis didi albaToba, sasamarTlos varaudiT, gulisxmobs devnis politikurobas.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 14-05-1996 ZiriTadi kanonis 16a.3 muxliT, TavSesafris moTxovnis Sesaxeb ganacxadi SeiZleba ar dakmayofildes, Tu ganmcxadebeli piris warmoSobis qveyana usafrTxo saxelmwifoa. es kanoni ar zRudavs TavSesafris uflebis privilegiebs, romliTac sargebloben es pirebi, vinaidan ZiriTadi kanonis 16a.4 muxliT, am pirebs SeuZliaT daamtkicon, rom saxelmwifo, romelic usafrTxod iTvleba, devnis maT. imisaTvis, rom qveyanas mieces usafrTxo saxelmwifos kvalifikacia, saWiroa am qveynis nebismier nawilSi da pirTa yvelanairi wreebisTvis arsebobdes politikuri devnisagan saTanado dacvis meqanizmi. araadamianuri da damamcirebeli sasjelisa an mopyrobisagan dacvis garantia, rogorc es ZiriTadi kanonis 16a.3 muxlSia gansazRvruli, miuTiTebs ra amave dros adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-3 muxlze, uzrunvelyofs, rom saxelmwifos aseT kanonebi gamoiyeneba piris politikuri devnis faqtis gadamowmebisas. imisaTvis, rom qveyana dakvalificirdes, rogorc warmoSobis usafrTxo saxelmwifo, kanonmdebelma Tavisi gadawyvetileba unda miiRos politikur devnasTan dakavSirebuli garemoebebis da samarTlebrivi situaciis, kanonis gamoyenebis da, zogadad, politikuri situaciis safuZvelze. kanoni, romliTac qveyana kvalificirdeba warmoSobis usafrTxo saxelmwifod, efuZneba konstitucias. faqtebis mopovebisa da Sefasebisas kanonmdebels miniWebuli aqvs moqmedebis Tavisufleba. sakanonmdeblo dadgenilebis ganxilva damokidebulia mxolod imaze, sakmarisad safuZvliania Tu ara kanonmdeblis gadawyvetileba. ZiriTadi kanonis 16a.3 muxli ar uSvebs imis prezumfcias, rom ucxoels ar emuqreba araadamianuri da damamcirebeli mopyroba. warmoSobis saxelmwifos usafrTxoebis prezumfcia SeiZleba gabaTildes mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu damtkicdeba, rom politikuri devnis SiSi devnis riskis calkeul SemTxvevebs efuZneba. 1993 wels ZiriTadi kanonis 16a.3 muxlSi Sesworda TavSesafris konstituciurad ganmtkicebuli ufleba, ris Semdegac kanonmdebels kanonis safuZvelze SeeZlo, ganesazRvra, usafrTxoa Tu ara calkeuli warmoSobis saxelmwifo. amasTanave, unda aRiniSnos, rom pirs, romelic amt-

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kicebs, rom idevneba politikurad, SeuZlia warmoadginos faqtebi. e.w. usafrTxo mesame qveynis orma moqalaqem, orive ganadan, moiTxova TavSesafari germaniis federalur respublikaSi. maTi ganacxadebi ar dakmayofilda da TavSesafris maZieblebma calcalke Seitanes konstituciuri sarCelebi federalur sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi. sasamarTlom sarCelebi ar miiRo. sarCelebSi naTqvami iyo, rom ZiriTadi kanonis 16a.3 muxli, ZiriTadi kanonis 16a.2 muxlisagan gansxvavebiT, ar zRudavs im pirebis TavSesafris uflebas, romelTa warmoSobis qveyana usafrTxo saxelmwifoa. ubralod, igi cvlis proceduras. kanonmdebels SeuZlia daadginos, Tu romeli qveyana unda CaiTvalos usafrTxo qveynad. sasamarTloebma ki unda Seiswavlon TavSesafris maZieblis mier warmodgenili yvela faqti, romliTac SeiZleba damtkicdes, rom aRniSnuli saxelmwifo pirs politikurad devnis. saerTo sasamarTloebma unda daadginon, irRveva Tu ara ZiriTadi kanoni, rodesac calkeuli qveyana kanoniT kvalificirdeba usafrTxo saxelmwifod. aseT SemTxvevaSi, maT sakiTxi unda daayenon federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos winaSe. qveynis kvalificireba warmoSobis usafrTxo saxelmwifod gulisxmobs, rom adgili ara aqvs devnas am saxelmwifos teritoriis arc erT nawilSi da arc erTi jgufis mimarT da araadamianur da damamcirebel mopyrobas. is, rom qveyanaSi moqmedebs sikvdiliT dasja, ar gamoricxavs am saxelmwifos aRiarebas usafrTxod. Tu usafrTxo saxelmwifos moqalaqes, TavSesafris maZiebels, emuqreba sikvdiliT dasja, mas ufleba aqvs, darCes germaniaSi. imisaTvis, rom qveyana dakvalificirdes rogorc warmoSobis usafrTxo saxelmwifo, gaTvaliswinebul unda iqnes samarTlebrivi praqtika da zogadi politikuri situacia. kanonmdebeli sargeblobs moqmedebis TavisuflebiT, rodesac adgens, usafrTxoa Tu ara calkeuli saxelmwifo. maSin, rodesac federalur sakonstitucio sasamarTlos SeuZlia ganixilos, sworia Tu ara kanonmdeblis mier qveynis kvalificireba usafrTxo saxelmwifod, warmoSobis saxelmwifos usafrTxoebis prezumfcia gulisxmobs ara mxolod am saxelmwifoSi politikuri devnis ararsebobas, aramed imasac, rom am saxelmwifoSi deportaciisTvis sxva dabrkoleba ar arsebobs. Tumca, es ar vrceldeba araadamianuri da damamcirebeli mopyrobis ararsebobaze. warmoSobis saxelmwifos usafrTxoebis prezumfcia SeiZleba gaabaTilos konkretulma faqtebma, romlis safuZvelzec SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom TavSesafris maZieblis mimarT ganxorcieldeba devna im saxelmwifoSi, romelic usafrTxod iTvleboda.

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niderlandebi uzenaesi sasamarTlo 28-05-1993 TavSesafris maZieblis moTxovna, romelic cdilobda cxovrebis nebarTvis miRebas, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-8 muxls efuZneboda, vinaidan nebarTvis molodinSi igi Tavis dasTan da disSvilebTan erTad cxovrobda. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-8 muxlis mniSvnelobiT ojaxuri cxovrebis prezumfcia ar SeiZleba mxolod biZasa da mis disSvilebs Soris sisxliT naTesaobis safuZvelze. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-8 muxli ar Seicavs iseT elements, romliTac SesaZlebelia piris ojaxuri cxovrebis uflebis dacva aseTi donis sisxliT naTesaobis SemTxvevaSi. amrigad, samarTlianad eTqva uari sacxovreblis nebarTvis miRebaze.

portugalia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 22-06-1995 konstitucia icavs TavSesafris uflebas ucxoelebisa da moqalaqeobis armqone pirebisTvis, romlebsac devnian an emuqrebaT devna demokratiis, socialuri an erovnuli Tavisuflebis, xalxTa Soris mSvidobis da adamianis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebis mxardamWeri saqmianobebis gamo. kanoni gansazRvravs politikuri devnilis statuss. TavSesafris ufleba sami aspeqtisagan Sedgeba: 1. saerTaSoriso, mesame saxelmwifos valdebuleba; 2. subieqturi devnili pirisaTvis; 3. o bieqturi, r ogorc k onstituciuri R irebulebebis dacvis s aSualeba. ucxoelisaTvis iuridiul daxmarebaze uaris Tqma, romelsac surda, gaesaCivrebina ministris gadawyvetileba ucxoelis mier TavSesafris moTxovnis daukmayofileblobis Taobaze, uSualod exeba gasaCivrebis ZiriTad uflebas, romelic warmoadgens administraciuli sasamarTloebis mier saqmis mosmenis saSualebas da amiT diskriminacias uwevs im pirebs, romlebsac esaWiroebaT finansuri daxmareba. sasamarTlos mier saqmis mosmenaze ufleba Cadebulia Tanasworobis principSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos eTxova sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis gadasinjva, romelic iuridiuli daxmarebis Sesaxeb kanonis debulebebisa konstituciasTan Seusabamobas adgenda. es debuleba krZalavda advokatis safasuris gadaxdas, anu iuridiuli daxmarebis gawevas im ucxoelisaTvis, romelsac, poli-

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tikuri TavSesafris moTxovnis Semdeg surda, gaesaCivrebina administraciuli gadawyvetileba devnilis statusis miniWebaze uaris Tqmis Taobaze. ekonomiurad an socialurad gaWirvebul TavSesafris maZiebels ufleba ara aqvs, gaasaCivros misTvis uaryofiTi administraciuli gadawyvetileba, vinaidan administraciuli saqmis warmoebaSi savaldebuloa advokatis yola. ufro metic, apelaciis ufleba xSirad mosarCelis bolo Sansia politikuri devnilis statusis mosapoveblad. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sadavo debuleba ar Seesabameba konstitucias, vinaidan igi arRvevs, rogorc Tanasworobis, aseve portugaliaSi myof an mcxovreb ucxoelebze uflebebis ­ miTumetes ZiriTadi uflebebis ­ gavrcelebis principebs. agreTve, laxavs piris uflebas sasamarTlos mier saqmis mosmenaze.

gaerTianebuli samefo saapelacio sasamarTlo 19-12-2001 devnilTa statusis Sesaxeb Jenevis 1951 wlis konvenciiT, TavSesafris maZiebels ufleba hqonda, mieRo pasuxi misi devnilobis Taobaze im qveynis Sesabamisi samsaxurisgan, sadac man moiTxova TavSesafari miuxedavad imisa, dgas Tu ara igi am qveynidan gaZevebis uSualo safrTxis winaSe. mosarCeleebi TavSesafars moiTxovdnen gaerTianebul samefoSi. Sinagan saqmeTa saxelmwifo mdivanma (Sinagan saqmeTa ministri) daadgina, rom isini ar akmayofilebdnen devnilis gansazRvrebas. mosarCeleebma es gadawyvetileba gaasaCivres imigraciis sakiTxTa saapelacio sasamarTloSi. amasobaSi maT miiRes gaerTianebul samefoSi droebiTi yofnis nebarTva, magram mainc surdaT apelaciis procesis dasruleba. imisaTvis, rom dadgeniliyo maTi devnilobis namdviloba, Tavdapirvelad saqmeTa warmoebisas detalurad iqna ganxiluli devnilis statusis momTxovn pirTa uflebebi statusis miRebis Taobaze, romelic miniWebuli aqvT devnilTa statusis Sesaxeb Jenevis 1951 wlis konvenciiT. imigraciis sakiTxTa saapelacio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom, vinaidan ar arsebobda gaZevebis safrTxe, igi TavSesafris momTxovnis gancxadebis ganxilvaze ar iyo kompetenturi. es dadgenileba gabaTilda saapelacio sasamarTlos mier, romelmac daadgina: konvenciis Tanaxmad, TavSesafris maZiebels ufleba aqvs, miiRos pasuxi misi devnilobis Taobaze im qveynis Sesabamisi samsaxurisgan, sadac man moiTxova TavSesafari. es asea maSinac, Tu ar arsebobs gaZevebis uSualo safrTxe. konvencia devnilebs aniWebs sxvadasxva

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uflebebs, maT Soris, uflebas _ ar iyvnen gaZevebulni, xolo oficialurad aRiareba am uflebebis ganxorcielebis praqtikul winapirobas warmoadgens. konvencia TavSesafris maZiebels ar aniWebs mis statusTan dakavSirebuli uaryofiTi gadawyvetilebis gasaCivrebis uflebas. Tumca, 1993 wlis TavSesafrisa da imigraciasTan dakavSirebuli apelaciebis Sesaxeb kanonis sworad interpretaciis SemTxvevaSi, aseTi ufleba mas zogadad miniWebuli hqonda aRniSnuli kanoniT. saimigracio sakiTxTa saapelacio sasamarTlo efuZneboda mis mierve miRebul gadawyvetilebas, magram igi gaTvaliswinebuli iyo Zalze viwro gamoyenebisTvis.

gaerTianebuli samefo lordTa palata 19-12-2000 imisaTvis, rom dadgindes, emuqreba Tu ara pirs devna devnilTa statusis Sesaxeb Jenevis konvenciis miznebisTvis, mTavrobis pasuxismgebelma ministrma unda ganmartos konvencia misi erTaderTi WeSmariti saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobiT. gaerTianebuli samefos mTavrobam da sasamarTloebma daadgines, rom WeSmariti mniSvneloba gulisxmobda devnas arasaxelmwifo samsaxurebis mier. amrigad, rodesac ganixileba TavSesafris maZieblis mesame qveyanaSi dabrunebis sakiTxi, Tu am mesame qveyanaSi am cnebis interpretacia sxvagvaria da devnas axorcielebs mxolod saxelmwifo samsaxurebi, ministrma ar unda dauSvas TavSesafris maZieblis am saxelmwifoSi dabruneba. ministrs ufleba ar hqonda eTqva, rom misi qmedeba kanonieri iyo, maSin, rodesac mesame qveyana konvencias gansxvavebulad, magram sworad ganmartavda. erTi somaleli da meore alJireli TavSesafris maZiebeli gaerTianebul samefoSi Camovidnen "mesame qveynebidan". somaleli Semovida germaniidan da amtkicebda, rom iyo klanuri umciresobis wevri, romelsac klanuri umravlesoba devnida. alJireli ki Camovida safrangeTidan da amtkicebda, rom mas alJirSi politikuri dajgufeba emuqreboda, alJiris xelisuflebas ki ar SeeZlo misi dacva. TavSesafrisa da imigraciis Sesaxeb 1996 wlis kanonis 2.2.g.1 muxliT, saxelmwifo mdivans ufleba aqvs, TavSesafris maZiebeli daabrunos mesame qveyanaSi im SemTxvevaSi, Tu is daadasturebs, rom am qveynis mTavroba mas gaagzavnis sxva qveyanaSi devnilTa statusis Sesaxeb Jenevis konvenciis Sesabamisad. konvencia xelSemkvrel saxelmwifoebs ukrZalavs devnilis dabrunebas iseT qveyanaSi, sadac mis sicocxles an Tavisuflebas

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safrTxe daemuqreba misi rasis, religiis, erovnebis, konkretuli sazogadoebrivi gaerTianebis wevrobis an politikuri mrwamsis gamo. konvenciis 1.a.2.b muxli devnils ganmartavs rogorc pirs, romelic zemoT aRniSnuli niSnebiT devnis safuZvliani SiSis qonis gamo, imyofeboda misi warmoSobis qveynis gareT da ar SeeZlo an am SiSis gamo ar surda, esargebla am qveynis dacviT. gaerTianebuli samefos mTavrobam aRiara, rom konvenciis 1.a.2 muxli iTvaliswinebs devnas arasaxelmwifo organoebis mier, magram germaniisa da safrangeTis mTavrobaTa interpretaciiT, konvencia vrceldeba mxolod saxelmwifos mier devnaze. saxelmwifo mdivanma aRiara, rom Tu somaleli TavSesafris maZiebeli dabrundeboda germaniaSi, xelisufleba mas somaliSi daabrunebda, vinaidan am qveynis mTavroba daiSala, Sesabamisad, aRar arsebobda saxelmwifo da mis mimarT veRar ganaxorcielebda devnas. saxelmwifo mdivanma isic aRniSna, rom albaT, safrangeTis mTavroba alJireli TavSesafris maZiebels daabrunebda alJirSi im motiviT, rom alJiris saxelmwifo arc nebas rTavda da arc xels uwyobda misTvis saSiS devnas. mdivanma mainc gasca kanoniT dadgenili cnobebi TavSesafris maZiebelTa germaniasa da safrangeTSi dabrunebis Taobaze. maT cnobebi gaasaCivres sasamarTloSi. somalelis sarCeli ar iqna miRebuli, alJirelis ki, piriqiT. saapelacio sasamarTloSi Setanil sarCelTan dakavSirebiT, saxelmwifo mdivani amtkicebda, rom igi moqmedebda kanonis Sesabamisad, Tu CaTvlida, rom mesame qveynis midgoma konvenciis interpretacia iyo, romlis uflebac am qveyanas hqonda. saapelacio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom saxelmwifo mdivani unda darwmunebuliyo, rom mesame qveynis praqtika Seesabameboda konvenciis erTaderT WeSmarit da saerTaSoriso interpretacias, kerZod, rom konvencia vrceldeba im pirebze, romlebsac arasaxelmwifo organoebis mxridan devnis eSinodaT. man miiRo somalelis sarCeli da ar daakmayofila saxelmwifo mdivnis sarCeli sxva saqmeSi. saxelmwifo mdivanma sarCeliT mimarTa lordTa palatas, romelSic daobda, rom kanoni ise unda ganmartebuliyo, TiTqos igi miuTiTebs konvenciaze, "romelic kanonierad ganmartebulia mocemuli mesame qveynis mier". igi asaCivrebda saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas imis Taobaze, rom konvencias mxolod erTaderTi WeSmariti mniSvneloba aqvs. lordTa palatam daadgina, rom kanonis 2.2.g muxli konvenciis mniSvnelobas axsenebs, rogorc sworad ganmartebuls da ara "mocemuli qveynis mier kanonierad ganmartebuls". sawinaaRmdego mosazreba gulisxmobda kanonSi sityvaTa interpolacias da ara interpretacias da ar iyo garantia, rom swored am frazas igulisxmebdnen. aRniSnulis Tanaxmad, gamokvleul unda iqnes TviTon konvenciis mniSvneloba, romelsac unda mivudgeT, rogorc

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

xelSekrulebis damdebi saxelmwifoebis SeTanxmebiT miRebul saerTaSoriso dokuments da ara rogorc erovnuli uwyebebis mier Seqmnil maregulirebel sistemebs. amitomac aucilebeli iyo 1.a.2 muxlis erTaderTi WeSmariti avtonomiuri da saerTaSoriso ganmarteba. am mniSvnelobiT konvenciis dacva vrceldeba im pirebze, romlebsac devnidnen saxelmwifos SigniT arsebuli dajgufebebi im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mocemul saxelmwifos ar SeeZlo maTi dacva aseTi dajgufebebisagan. aqedan gamomdinare, aranairi materialuri gansxvaveba ar aris im or qveyanas Soris, sadac, erTi mxriv, ar arsebobs mTavroba, meore mxriv ki, mTavrobas ar SeuZlia moqalaqeTa saWiroebisamebr dacva. iseve, rogorc sasamarTloebi unda ecadon, rom evrogaerTianebebis damfuZnebeli xelSekrulebis sityvebs (mag., "mSromeli") miscen "gaerTianebaSi" miRebuli mniSvneloba, aseve saxelmwifo mdivani da sasamarTloebi (im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ar arsebobs saerTaSoriso sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba an sayovelTao saxelmwifo praqtika) ganmartebisas unda iTvaliswinebdnen Jenevis konvencias, romelic mTlianad unda ikiTxebodes saerTaSoriso samarTlis, maT Soris, saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebis maregulirebeli samarTlis Sesaxeb venis konvenciis Sesabamisi wesebis WrilSi. fraza "ara sxvagvarad, aramed konvenciis Sesabamisad" ar niSnavs "ara sxvagvarad, aramed Sesabamisi saxelmwifos savaraudod marTebuli, dasaSvebi an kanonieri mosazrebis Sesabamisad, imis Taobaze Tu ra aris konvenciis mniSvneloba". saxelmwifo mdivani arasworad msjelobda or erTnair sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, rom arsebobda konvenciis debulebebis dasaSvebi ganmartebebis jaWvi da rom germaniasa da safrangeTSi gavrcelebuli praqtika eqceoda mis mier aRniSnul dasaSveb farglebSi. misi sarCelebi ar dakmayofilda.

belgia saarbitraJo sasamarTlo 22-04-1998 belgiis teritoriaze ucxoelebisTvis Sesvlasa an cxovrebaze uaris Tqma SeiZleba gaxdes oridan maqsimum rva Tvemde vadiT dapatimrebis sagani im SemTxvevaSi, Tu maTi deportaciisTvis aucilebeli nabijebi gadadgmulia. aRniSnuli zoma ar aris diskriminaciuli patimrobaSi myofi pirebis situaciasTan SedarebiT, vinaidan am ukanasknelebs danaSaulis CadenaSi edebaT brali. amasTan, ramdenadac kanoni, droebiTi saSualebis saxiT, ucxoelebze dapatimrebis RonisZiebebis SeuzRudav gavrcelebas iTvaliswinebs, amdenad es pirad TavisuflebaSi araadekvatur Carevas niSnavs. kanonmdeblobiT

342

TavSesafris ufleba

SeiZleba dadgindes, rom ucxoelebi, romlebmac miiRes konkretul vadaSi qveynis datovebis brZaneba, aRar miiReben socialur daxmarebas, garda gadaudebeli samedicino daxmarebisa imisaTvis, rom mocemulma pirma SeZlos brZanebis Sesruleba. da mainc, es zoma diskriminaciulia im pirebTan mimarTebiT, romlebsac aqvT socialuri daxmarebis miRebis ufleba da aseve sasamarTlo dacvis saSualebis miRebis uflebis efeqturi ganxorcielebis ufleba. ucxoelebs aRar miecemaT daxmareba miuxedavad imisa, rom umaRles administraciul sasamarTloSi maT mier Setanili saapelacio sarCeli TavSesafris miRebis Sesaxeb ganacxadis daukmayofileblobis winaaRmdeg jer ar ganxilula. adamianis uflebaTa damcvelma orma organizaciam Seitana sarCeli ucxoelebis Taobaze belgiis axali kanonis gauqmebis moTxovniT. erT-erT sadavo sakiTxs warmoadgenda is faqti, rom ucxoelebi SeiZleba dapatimrebul iyvnen maqsimum rva TviT deportaciis mizniT. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis 5.4 muxlis TvalsazrisiT da im mkacri pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlebSic SeiZleba aRsruldes es zoma, sasamarTlos zedamxedvelobis qveS ori Tvis vadiT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa administraciuli wesiT iTvleboda aradiskriminaciulad. Tumca, vinaidan maqsimum 8 TviT SezRudva ZalaSi Sevida mxolod 1998 wlis 1 ianvridan, rac niSnavda, rom gardamaval fazaSi mosalodneli iyo Tavisuflebis aRkveTa SeuzRudavi vadebiTac, sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom adgili hqonda araadekvatur Carevas pirad TavisuflebaSi. meore sadavo sakiTxi exeboda im faqts, rom ucxoelebi, romlebsac uari uTxres TavSesafarze da romlebmac miiRes qveynis datovebis brZaneba, aRar miiReben socialur daxmarebas. wina gadawyvetilebaSi (#51/94 29 ivnisi 1994 w.) sasamarTlom ukve daadgina, rom aseTi zoma ar aris arakonstituciuri. axla ki daadgina, rom adgili hqonda araadekvatur Carevas ZiriTad uflebebSi, vinaidan igi aseve gamoiwvevda daxmarebis Sewyvetas im ucxoelebisaTvis, romelTa saqmeebi jer kidev ganixileboda saxelmwifo sabWoSi.

belgia saarbitraJo sasamarTlo 14-07-1994 konstituciis me-12 muxli iTvaliswinebs adamianis Tavisuflebis dacvas. im ucxoelebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic moiTxoven devnilis statusis miRebas, es Tavisufleba ganmtkicebulia 1951 wlis 28 ivlisis Jenevis konvenciis 31-e muxliT. adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis 5.1 muxliT, yvelas aqvs Tavisuflebis ufleba.

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

Tumca, kanonma SeiZleba gadauxvios am princips winamdebare muxliT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi. kanoniT dadgenili zoma, romelic iTvaliswinebs Tavisuflebis aRkveTas maqsimum ori TviT, miznad isaxavs im pirTa damalvis Tavidan acilebas, romelTa ganacxadi devnilis statusis miRebis Taobaze ar dakmayofilda aSkara usafuZvlobis gamo. sadavo debuleba warmoadgens erT-erT im zomaTagan, romelTa mizania ganacxadebis raodenobis gazrdasTan dakavSirebuli problemis mogvareba, romlebic Tavidanve absoluturad usafuZvloa. ucxoels, romelsac Seefarda patimroba, SeuZlia moiTxovos sasamarTlo dacvis saSualeba. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom mocemul pirebs ar SelaxviaT maTi piradi Tavisufleba (b.7).

belgia saarbitraJo sasamarTlo 14-07-1994 devnilTa statusis Sesaxeb 1951 wlis 28 ivlisis Jenevis konvenciis 31-e muxls, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-4 oqmis me-2 muxlsa da samoqalaqo da politikur uflebebze saerTaSoriso paqtis me-12 muxlebs aerTianebT is faqti, rom am dokumentebiT gansazRvruli SezRudvebidan gamomdinare, isini icaven am dokumentebiT daculi pirebis gadaadgilebis Tavisuflebas da, aseve, bolo ori debulebis SemTxvevaSi, sacxovrebeli adgilis arCevis Tavisuflebas. aRniSnuli debulebebi SezRudvebs maT mier dadgenil farglebSi uSveben. sadavo kanoni, romelic moiTxovs registracias konkretuli raionis administraciul reestrSi devnilis statusis moTxovnis ganacxadTan dakavSirebuli saqmis ganxilvis dros, im ucxoelebTan mimarTebiT, romlebsac belgiaSi cxovrebis nebarTva SeuZliaT miiRon mxolod aseTi ganacxadis safuZvelze, SesabamisobaSia aucileblobis moTxovnasTan, romelsac iTvaliswineben saerTaSoriso samarTlis zemoxsenebuli debulebebi (b.4.3 ­ b.4.8).

safrangeTi sakonstitucio sabWo 22-04-1997 Sinagan saqmeTa saministros da Jandarmeriis oficrebis uflebamosileba devnilis statusis maZiebeli pirebis TiTis anabeWdebis kompiuterul failebze Seadgens TavSesafris uflebis darRvevas,

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vinaidan safrangeTis devnilTa da moqalaqeobis armqone pirTa dacvis samsaxurSi (OFPRA) Senaxuli informacia warmoadgens samarTlebriv garantiebs, romelic TavSesafris uflebis Semadgeneli nawilia. ucxoelebs, romelTa sacxovrebeli safrangeTSi stabiluri da kanonieria, ufleba aqvT, moqalaqeebis msgavsad, icxovron normaluri cxovrebiT. ucxoelTa da moqalaqeTa piradi cxovrebis erTnairad dacvis uflebis seriozulma darRvevam SesaZlebelia ziani miayenos maT pirad Tavisuflebas. cxovrebis nebarTvis gagrZelebis moTxovniT ganacxadis Setanisas, romelic gaicema aTi wlis vadiT, ucxoelma SeiZleba warmoadginos safrangeTis teritoriaze minimum aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi kanonierad yofnis faqti. qveyanaSi stabilurad cxovrebis Semdeg savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom ucxoelsa da maspinZel qveyanas Soris damyardes garkveuli kavSiri. arakonstituciuria debuleba, romelic krZalavs cxovrebis nebarTvis avtomatur gagrZelebas, Tu "ucxoelis yofna safrTxes uqmnis sazogadoebriv wesrigs", vinaidan moqmed kanonmdeblobaSi arsad ar aris naTqvami, rom cxovrebis nebarTvis mqone pirebic SeiZleba gaZevebul iqnen nebismier dros sazogadoebrivi wesrigisaTvis seriozuli safrTxis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi. #93-325 DC 1993 wlis 13 agvistos gadawyvetilebis [FRA-1993-2-007] safuZvelze, romelic aseve exeboda saimigracio kontrolisa da ucxoelebis Semosvlisa da cxovrebis pirobebis Sesaxeb kanons, parlamentma kenWi uyara konstituciis gadasinjvis sakiTxs. qvemoT ganxilulma kanonma, romelic ganamtkicebda 1993 wlis agvistos kanons, gamoiwvia mravalmxrivi winaswari debatebi da diskusiebi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom gaakeTa mxolod ori SeniSvna, magram SezRuda kanonis interpretacia misi erT-erTi regularuli meTodis meSveobiT, rogoricaa Semamsubuqebeli interpretacia, romlis sailustraciod gamodgeba ori sadavo saqme. gansaxilveli kanoniT, policias da Jandarmerias ufleba aqvT, qveyanaSi ukanonod myof ucxoels CamoarTvan pasporti. sakonstitucio sabWos TqmiT, aseTi CamorTmevis erTaderTi mizania dokumentis efeqturad flobis uzrunvelyofa, riTac ucxoeli SeZlebs safrangeTis teritoriis datovebas. man aseve xazgasmiT aRniSna, rom pasportis sanacvlod ucxoels unda mieces ZiriTadi uflebebiT da TavisuflebebiT sargeblobis damadasturebeli cnoba, miuxedavad imisa, legalurad cxovrobs Tu ara igi am qveyanaSi. manve ganacxada, rom CamorTmevis zoma, sasamarTlo zedamxedvelobis qveS, gamoiyeneba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu es mkacrad aucilebelia da, aseve imisaTvis, rom ucxoels SeeZlos pasportis dabruneba safrangeTis teritoriidan gasvlisTanave. meore debulebis Tanaxmad, prefeqts ufleba aqvs, aranakleb erTi kviris intervalis Semdeg, administraciuli patimroba Seufardos

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ucxoels, romelmac ar Seasrula teritoriis datovebis brZaneba wina patimrobis vadis moxdis Semdeg. es debuleba CaiTvala konstituciiT dasaSvebad mxolod imitom, rom igi gagebul unda iqnes, rogorc patimrobis xelaxali Sefardebis nebarTva da mxolod brZanebis Sesrulebaze ucxoelis TviTneburi uaris SemTxvevaSi.

Sromis Tavisufleba

belgia saarbitraJo sasamarTlo 29-03-2001 federalur parlaments, romelsac evaleboda belgiaSi ucxoelTa dasaqmebis maregulirebeli moTxovnebis daweseba, ar daurRvevia Tanasworobisa da aradiskriminaciulobis principi (konstituciis me-10 da me-11 muxlebi), rodesac Sromis bazarze daSveba pirobiTi gaxada. man daawesa, rom pirvelad saWiroa, damqiravebelma miiRos dasaqmebis nebarTva, xolo daqiravebulma Sromis nebarTva, im pirobiT, Tu monarqi dauSvebda gamonakliss ucxoelebze, kerZod ki, evrokavSiris wevri saxelmwifoebis moqalaqeebsa da belgiaSi oficialurad miRebul devnilebze, romlebsac, maTi erovnebisa da statusis gamo, ar SeiZleba moeTxovebodeT belgiaSi muSaobis nebarTvis miReba. 1999 wlis 30 aprilis kanoni ucxoeli muSaxelis dasaqmebis Sesaxeb gansazRvravs ucxoeli muSaxelis dasaqmebis maregulirebel axal samarTlebriv sistemas. parlamentma SeimuSava midgoma CarCo kanonis gamoyenebis Taobaze imisaTvis, rom aRmasrulebelma swrafad moaxdinos Sesabamis debulebebTan adaptireba moulodneli situaciebisa da Sromis bazris tendenciebis kvaldakval. aramomgebianma organizaciam "moZraoba rasizmis, antisemitizmisa da qsenofobiis winaaRmdeg" (Mouvement contre le racisme, l'antisémitisme et la xénophobie) sasamarTlos mimarTa 1999 wlis 30 aprilis kanonis gauqmebis moTxovniT im motiviT, rom parlamenti Caeria regionebis kompetenciis sferoebSi da ugulebelyo Tanasworobisa da aradiskriminaciulobis konstituciuri normebi (konstituciis me-10 da me-11 muxlebi). sasamarTlom pirvel rigSi daadgina, rom federaluri sakanonmdeblo organo uflebamosili iyo ucxoeli muSaxelis daqiravebis Sesaxeb debulebebis dawesebaze. kerZod, mis kompetenciaSi Sedioda belgiaSi ucxoeli moqalaqeebis dasaqmebis maregulirebeli moTxovnebis dadgena,

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romelic SeiZleba belgiaSi ucxoelebis SeSvebis maregulirebel moTxovnebs moicavdes. aseve, isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom, Tu ucxoeli qveyanaSi Cadis muSaobis mizniT, damqiravebeli unda flobdes daqiravebis nebarTvas. regionebis kompetenciebi ucxoelTa dasaqmebis maregulirebel debulebebTan mimarTebiT, exeboda mxolod kanonmdeblobis moqmedebas. Tanasworobisa da aradiskriminaciulobis normebis dacvis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom kanoni ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebiT gansxvavebuli statusis mqone ucxoel muSaxels Tanabar mdgomareobaSi ayenebda. evrokavSiris wevri saxelmwifoebis moqalaqeebi da belgiaSi oficialurad miRebuli devnilebi warmoadgendnen or gansaxilvel saqmes. aRniSnul or kategoriasTan mimarTebiT, kanonis debulebebi TiTqos ugulebelyofda belgiis saerTaSoriso valdebulebebs, romlebic belgiis Sromis bazarze maT daSvebaze uaris Tqmas krZalavda. meore magaliTs warmoadgens is ucxoeli moqalaqeebi, romelTa muSaobis ufleba, maTive statusis gamo, ver gaxdeba pirobiTi nebarTvis miRebasTan dakavSirebiT (rogorc es naTqvamia gadawyvetilebis reziumeSi). sasamarTlom droebiT ar miiRo es kanoni, Tumca, bolomde ar gaauqma da monarqis ufleba _ zogierTi kategoriis muSa-xelisaTvis maTi erovnebis an statusis gamo gamonaklisebis daSvebis Sesaxeb _ ganmarta, rogorc valdebuleba. man aRniSna, rom travaux préparatoires (mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi) iZleoda aseTi ganmartebis safuZvels. sasamarTlom diskriminaciulad ar miiCnia mosarCelis mier wamoWrili gansxvavebuli mopyrobis sxva SemTxvevebi. misi azriT, gamarTlebuli iyo sakanonmdeblo zomebi, romlebic muSaobis mizniT qveyanaSi Camosul ucxoelebs exeboda da romlebic miznad isaxavda im ucxoeli muSaxelis SemosvlisTvis xelis SeSlas, romelTa momaval damqiravebels jer ar hqonda moTxovnili an miRebuli maTi daqiravebis nebarTva. aRniSnuli mizani Seesabameboda mTlianad kanons, romlis mixedviT, axali muSaxeli daiSveboda mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu belgiis Sromis bazars SeeZlo maTi dakmayofileba. aseve, parlamentma gaafarTova belgiaSi mxolod legalurad mcxovrebi ucxoeli muSaxelis mimarT muSaobis nebarTvaze uaris Tqmis an CamorTmevis gasaCivrebis SesaZleblobebi. sasamarTlos azriT, mizanSewonili iyo im ucxoeli muSaxelis gamoricxva, romlebic aralegalurad cxovrobdnen belgiaSi. belgiaSi ucxoelebis daSvebis da ucxoelTa cxovrebis Sesaxeb politikas ziani miadgeba, Tuki damkvidrdeba iseTi tendencia, romliTac belgiaSi aralegalurad mcxovreb ucxoel muSaxelze gavrceldeba igive moTxovnebi, rac legalurad mcxovreblebze. sazRvargareT legalurad mcxovrebi da belgiaSi samuSaos maZiebeli ucxoeli

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muSaxelisaTvis gasaCivrebis uflebis akrZalva kanonieri iyo igive motiviT. amas garda, sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom "kompetenturi organos" mier ucxoelTa dasaqmebis Sesaxeb 1999 wlis 30 aprilis kanonis miznebisaTvis miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi SeiZleba gasaCivrdes saxelmwifo sabWos administraciul qvedanayofSi misi gauqmebis an misi moqmedebis SeCerebis moTxovniT, Tumca, mxedvelobaSi ar miiRo, vrceldeboda Tu ara adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-6 muxli am saqmeze. dazaralebul ucxoels an damqiravebels nebismier SemTxvevaSi SeuZlia, damoukidebel sasamarTloSi gaasaCivros muSaobis an daqiravebis nebarTvaze uaris Tqma an misi CamorTmeva. damatebiTi informacia: principSi, federalur belgiaSi ar arsebobs uflebamosilebaTa "horizontaluri" gamijvna, romlis mixedviT, erTi mxare pasuxismgebelia kanonmdeblobaze, xolo meore - mis ganxorcielebaze. uflebamosilebaTa gamijvna, ucxoelTa dasaqmebasTan dakavSirebiT, warmoadgens gamonakliss.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 07-08-2000 debuleba, romelic zRudavs profesiuli saqmianobis ganxorcielebis Tavisuflebas, arRvevs ZiriTadi kanonis 12.1 muxls, Tu es debuleba gamarTlebuli ar aris saxelmwifo interesebis dacvis aucileblobiT. mosarCele eweva optikasTan dakavSirebul bizness, sadac igi, sxvebTan erTad, sTavazobs ukontaqto Sida Tvalis wnevis gazomvas (tonometria) da mxedvelobis Semowmebas kompiuteruli sazomi aparatiT (perimetria). arasamarTlian konkurenciasTan mebrZoli centraluri institutis mier Setanil sarCelTan dakavSirebiT, federalurma sasamarTlom saqmis saboloo gasaCivrebisas mosarCeles ubrZana, momavalSi aseTi momsaxurebis gawevisa da reklamirebisagan Tavi Seekavebina. federaluri sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba efuZneba praqtikosi eqimebis Sesaxeb kanonis 1-l punqts, romlis Tanaxmad, nebismiers pirs, romelic eweva daavadebebis diagnostikasTan dakavSirebul saqmianobas da ar aris registrirebuli, rogorc praqtikosi eqimi, moeTxoveba nebarTva aseTi saqmianobis ganxorcielebisaTvis, vinaidan diagnostikaSi Sedis iseTi saqmianobebic, romlebic saWiroebs specializirebul samedicino codnas. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, SesaZlebelia ziani miadges adamianis janmrTelobas. federaluri sasamarTlos azriT, praqtikosi eqimebis Sesaxeb kanonis moTxovnis

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Sromis Tavisufleba

Tanaxmad, mosarCelis mier ganxorcielebuli diagnostikuri saqmianoba ukanono iyo. federalurma sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom am konteqstSi sakmarisia arsebobdes janmrTelobisaTvis arapirdapiri riski, rac SeiZleba gamoixatebodes mZime mdgomareobis diagnostikis dagvianebaSi. aseTi riski, federaluri sasamarTlos azriT, savsebiT SesaZlebelia dadges tonometriisa da avtomaturi perimetriis SemTxvevaSi. moTxovnam imis Sesaxeb, rom okulistebi TavianT pacientebs acnobeben imis Taobaze, rom mxolod ofTalmologis mier Catarebul gamokvlevas SeuZlia daavadebis sarwmuno dadgena, ver daarwmuna federaluri sasamarTlo miuxedavad imisa, rom es moTxovna sxva sasamarTloebis mier janmrTelobis riskisagan dacvis sakmaris safuZvlad iTvleboda. federaluri sasamarTlos mosazreba eyrdnoboda im varauds, rom bevri adamianis diagnostika rTulia. isini aseT mdgomareobaSi myofi okulistebis mier Catarebuli tonometriisa da avtomaturi perimetriis procedurebis imediT SeiZenen daculobis cru grZnobas, TiTqos ar iyvnen daavadebulni. okulistis mier Catarebuli tonometriisa da avtomaturi perimetriis Sedegad dgeba riski, rom Tvalis mZime daavadebebi ganviTarebis adreul etapze, romlisTvisac SeiZleba saWiro gaxdes mkurnaloba, darCeba diagnozis gareSe. mosarCelem Seitana konstituciuri sarCeli federaluri sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis winaaRmdeg, romelic eyrdnoboda sakonkurencio kanons da gaasaCivra gadawyvetileba ZiriTadi kanonis 12.1 muxlis darRvevis motiviT. federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos pirveli kolegiis meore palatam gaauqma federaluri sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba da ukan daabruna xelaxali ganxilvisTvis. gadawyvetilebis safuZvels warmoadgenda Semdegi: gasaCivrebulma gadawyvetilebam Selaxa mosarCelis saqmianobis an profesiis ganxorcielebis Tavisufleba. rogorc federalurma sakonstitucio sasamarTlom ukve daadgina, saqmianobis an profesiis ganxorcielebis Tavisuflebis Selaxva Seesabameba ZiriTadi kanonis 12.1 muxls mxolod im SemTxvevaSi: 1. Tu igi gamarTlebulia saxelmwifo interesebis dacvis aucileblobiT; 2. Tu arCeuli saSualebebi saTanadoa da aucilebelia dasaxuli miznis misaRwevad; da 3. Tu mTlianobaSi Selaxvis seriozuloba proporciulia Selaxvis gamamarTlebeli mizezebisa. 4. Tu saqmianobisa da profesiis ganxorcielebis Tavisuflebis Selaxva, romelic gamoixateba ganxorcielebis akrZalvaSi, gamarTlebulia mxolod sazogadoebis janmrTelobisaTvis arapir-

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

dapiri riskis gaCeniT, akrZalva da daculi sikeTe imdenad daSorebulia erTmaneTs, rom interesebis dasabalanseblad aucilebelia gansakuTrebuli sifrTxile. riski unda iyos realurad navaraudevi da arCeuli saSualebebi unda asaxavdes warmatebis aSkara perspeqtivas. gasaCivrebuli gadawyvetileba ar akmayofilebs aRniSnul moTxovnebs. federalur sasamarTlos unda ganexila Semdegi sakiTxi: am SemTxvevaSi ramdenad ukeTesad da meti pasuxismgeblobiT atareben wminda teqnikuri xasiaTis gazomvis procedurebs specializirebuli samedicino damxmare profesiis ganmaxorcielebel okulistebTan SedarebiT is eqimebi, romelTac aqvT eqimis saqmianobis ganxorcielebis ufleba? aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mowveuli eqspertis mosazrebebis Tanaxmad, msgavsi varaudis safuZveli ar arsebobs. garda amisa, mxolod is, rom ofTalmologTan aucilebeli konsultacia ver Sedgeba, ver iqneba safuZveli janmrTelobisaTvis arapirdapiri riskisa, romelic amarTlebs Carevas. aseTi riski yovelTvis arsebobs, Tu pacienti ar ganicdis daavadebis araviTar simptoms. okulistis mier Catarebuli tonometriis an perimetriis proceduris Sedegad aRmoCenili mosalodneli Tvalis daavadebebi an maTi arsebobis albaToba ufro meti unda iyos, vidre imis riski, rom okulistis mier Catarebuli gamokvlevis negatiuri Sedegebis Semdeg daavadebuli pacienti veRar gaivlis konsultacias ofTalmologTan, rasac igi Tavidan apirebda. mowveuli eqspertis mosazrebiT, naklebad SesaZlebelia, rom okulistisaTvis mocemuli procedurebis Catarebis akrZalva warmoadgendes janmrTelobis gaumjobesebis xelSewyobas. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, arc okulistebis mier Catarebuli aRniSnuli gazomvebis zogadi akrZalva da arc am konteqstSi reklamirebis akrZalva ar moiTxoveba mosaxleobis janmrTelobis dasacavad. pacientis janmrTelobis dacvis uzrunvelyofa SesaZlebelia bevrad ufro ukeTesi gziT, rogoricaa, magaliTad, gamokvleva, manamde ki damatebiTi samedicino informaciis miwodeba, romelsac moiTxoven sxva organoebi. mosaxleoba ar flobs informacias am problemis Sesaxeb, rasac ofTalmologTa profesiuli kavSiric usvams xazs, sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis gaumjobesebas ar unda velodoT im procedurebis akrZalvidan, romelic eqvemdebareba damatebiTi samedicino informaciis uzrunvelyofas. imis safrTxe, rom Tvalis seriozuli daavadebebi, romlisTvisac mkurnaloba saWiroa adreul etapze, gamouvleneli darCeba, ufro seriozulia okulistebis mier Catarebuli gamokvlevebis gareSe, romlebic, sabolood mainc sworad avlenen zogierT maTgans.

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italia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 13-03-2003 saxelmwifo samsaxurebTan SromiTi urTierTobebi arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar unda ganixilebodes kerZo seqtorSi arsebuli SromiTi urTierTobebis analogiurad. sajaro samsaxurSi daSvebis maregulirebel mTavar princips warmoadgens konkursis principi da igi ar vrceldeba kerZo seqtorSi arsebul SromiT urTierTobebze (konstituciis 97-e muxli). aseTi principis arseboba, romlis mizania saxelmwifo samsaxurebis swori funqcionirebisa da miukerZoeblobis uzrunvelyofa, mTlianad amarTlebs parlamentis mier iseTi kanonis miRebas, romelic krZalavs vadiani SromiTi xelSekrulebis transformacias uvado SromiT xelSekrulebad. ase rom, Tu saxelmwifo samsaxurma daarRvia muSaxelis mudmivi vadiT/uvado xelSekrulebiT daqiravebis an dasaqmebis maregulirebeli savaldebulo debulebebi, mxolod Sedegebma unda miiRos kompensaciis forma. pizis sasamarTlom saxelmwifo samsaxurebTan SromiTi urTierTobebis maregulirebeli kanonis debulebebis konstituciurobis sakiTxi gadasca sakonstitucio sasamarTlos im motiviT, rom igi ar iTvaliswinebda iseT SemTxvevebs, rodesac saxelmwifo samsaxurebma SeiZleba daarRvion vadiani xelSekrulebiT muSaxelis dasaqmebis an daqiravebis maregulirebeli savaldebulo normebi, rac niSnavs mocemul muSaxelTan uvado SromiTi xelSekrulebebis avtomatur gaformebas. saqmis gadamcemi sasamarTlos azriT, mocemuli debuleba ewinaaRmdegeboda Tanasworobis princips im motiviT, rom marTalia, saxelmwifo samsaxurebTan SromiTi urTierTobebi ganviTarda da ufro kerZo xasiaTi SeiZina, magram kanoni ar iTvaliswinebda kerZo seqtorSi muSaxelis dasaqmebisa da daqiravebis maregulirebeli savaldebulo normebis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi vadiani SromiTi xelSekrulebis uvado SromiT xelSekrulebad transformacias. saqmis gadamcemma sasamarTlom aseve gaakritika mocemuli debulebis Seusabamoba konstituciis 97-e muxlTan, vinaidan is faqti, rom igi ukrZalavda vadiani SromiTi xelSekrulebiT daqiravebuli kerZo seqtoris muSaxels, esargebla stabiluri SromiTi xelSekrulebiT SromiTi xelSekrulebebis maregulirebeli normebis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi, savaraudod, zians miayenebda maT Sesrulebas. amasTan, igi daarRvevda saxelmwifo samsaxurebis swori funqcionirebis princips, romelic gaTvaliswinebulia aRniSnul muxlSi. sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila saCivari Semdegi motiviT: miuxedavad imisa, rom kerZo seqtorSi dasaqmebis 1993

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wels ganxorcielebulma reformam daamkvidra saxelmwifo samsaxurebTan SromiTi urTierTobebis privatizebis tendencia, aseTi urTierTobebi mainc gansxvavdeboda kerZo damqiravebelTan arsebuli urTierTobebisagan, vinaidan sajaro samsaxurSi daSvebis maregulirebeli fundamenturi principi, anu konstituciis 97.3-e muxliT gansazRvruli konkursis principi gulisxmobda, rom SeuZlebeli iyo am konkretul SemTxvevaSi dabali instanciis sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebuli SemTxvevebis Sedareba.

litva sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 04-03-1999 Sromis uflebebis dacvis safuZveli Cadebulia konstituciaSi. konstituciis 33.1 muxli adgens, rom `yvela moqalaqes (...) aqvs Tanabari ufleba, imuSaos litvis respublikis saxelmwifo samsaxurSi". Tumca, es debuleba ar aris calsaxa. saxelmwifos ar SeuZlia, Tavis Tavze aiRos yvela piris saxelmwifo samsaxurSi daSvebis valdebuleba. saxelmwifo samsaxuris specifikidan gamomdinare, imisaTvis, rom uzrunvelyofil iqnes saxelisuflo da sxva organoebis efeqturi da ukeTesi funqcionireba, dadgenilia moTxovnebi saxelmwifo moxeleebisa da Tanamdebobis pirebisaTvis. aRniSnuli debuleba ar zRudavs aseTi Tanamdebobebis dakavebis akrZalvis dawesebas. msgavsi akrZalvebi ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos sisxlissamarTlebriv dasjad, vinaidan isini zogadi xasiaTisaa da yoveli sisxlissamarTlebrivi sanqcia individualurad gamoiyeneba. nebismier pirs, romlis konstituciuri uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi irRveva, ufleba aqvs Tavisi uflebebisa da interesebis dasacavad mimarTos uSualod sasamarTlos (konstituciis 30e muxli 1-li nawili). 1998 wlis 16 ivliss parlamentma (Seimas) miiRo kanoni `sabWoTa kavSiris saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis (NKVD, NKGB, MGB, KGB) da am organizaciis mudmivi TanamSromlebis mimdinare saqmianobebis Sefasebis Sesaxeb. kanoni gansazRvravs SezRudvebs saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis TanamSromelTa mimdinare saqmianobebze. aseve, kanoni iTvaliswinebs iseT SemTxvevebs, rodesac SezRudvebi ar vrceldeba saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis yofil TanamSromlebze. kanonis debulebaTa amoqmedebis procedura gansazRvrulia imave dRes miRebuli kanoniT `sabWoTa kavSiris saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis (NKVD, NKGB, MGB, KGB) da am organizaciis mudmivi TanamSromlebis mimdinare saqmianobebis Sefasebis Sesaxeb kanonis amoqmedebiT.

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1990 wlis Semdeg centralur da aRmosavleT evropis qveynebSi daiwyo sasamarTlos gziT imis garkveva, Tu ra kavSiri hqondaT ekonomikisa da politikis sferoebSi gavleniani Tanamdebobebis mqone pirebs yofili komunisturi reJimis saidumlo samsaxurebTan. miRebul iqna zomebi imis gasarkvevadac, Tu ramdenad loialurebi iyvnen uSiSroebis samsaxurebis (maT Soris, saidumlo samsaxurebis) mudmivi TanamSromlebi saxelmwifosadmi da TiToeuli saxelmwifos usafrTxoebis mizniT, hqondaT Tu ara maT mniSvnelovani da sapasuxismgeblo Tanamdebobebis dakavebis unari. mas Semdeg, rac dadginda arsebuli da momavali saxelmwifo moxeleebis da Tanamdebobis pirebis kolaboracionizmi xsenebul samsaxurebTan, samuSaos Tavisuflad arCevis ufleba, rogorc wesi, saxelmwifo samsaxurebSi, garkveuli droiT SeizRuda an saerTod CamorTmeul iqna. sakmaod xSirad es procesi ganixileba, rogorc lustracia (laT. lustracio ­ ganwmenda, ramis Sewirva garkveuli sazRauris sanacvlod), misi maregulirebeli kanonebi ki _ rogorc lustraciis kanonebi. kanonis 1-li muxli adgens: sabWoTa kavSiris saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komiteti (NKVD, NKGB, MGB, KGB) warmoadgenda danaSaulebriv organizacias, romelsac Cadenili aqvs sxvadasxva danaSauli omis dros: genocidi, represia, terori da sabWoTa kavSiris mier politikuri devna okupirebul litvis respublikaSi. mosarCelem aRniSna, rom kanonis 1-li muxlis Tanaxmad, parlamenti (seimas), aRiarebs ra saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitets danaSaulebriv organizaciad, adgens, rom am komitetSi momuSave pirebi arian damnaSaveni da dasjas imsaxureben. amgvarad, aRniSnuli kanonis meSveobiT, parlamenti axorcielebs marTlmsajulebas, romlis ufleba konstitucias ar miuniWebia. amasTanave, mosarCelem wamoWra sakiTxi, ramdenad Seesabameba konstitucias kanonis me-2 muxlis debuleba, romelic saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis yofil mudmiv TanamSromlebs 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi ukrZalavs saxelmwifo samsaxurebSi, mTavrobaSi, sasamarTloebsa da sxva sferoebSi moxeleebad an Tanamdebobis pirebad muSaobas, ayenebs am pirTa pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxs da awesebs maTTvis sisxlissamarTlebriv sanqcias. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom xazgasmiT aRniSna, rom kanoni axdens istoriuli faqtis konstatacias, magram ar asaxelebs saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis yvela TanamSromlis sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobisTvis kanonmdeblis mier formulirebul safuZvlebs. kanonis 1-li muxli ar iTvaliswinebs saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis mier Cadenili danaSaulebisTvis koleqtiur pasuxismgeblobas. Sesabamisad, igi ar aris dakavSirebuli arc sisxlis samarTlis an sisxlis saproceso samarTlis sakiTxebTan. imave kanonis me-2 muxliT dadgenili

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SezRudvebi ar iTvaliswinebs sisxlissamarTlebriv sanqciebs. aRniSnuli SezRudvebi ar gulisxmobs pasuxismgeblobas (e.i. arc sisxlissamarTlebriv, arc samoqalaqo da arc sxva formis pasuxismgeblobas, xolo pirebi, romlebzec vrceldeba es SezRudvebi, ar ageben pasuxs). isini zRudaven samuSaos Tavisuflad arCevis uflebas, romelic ganisazRvreba samuSaos sferos, xasiaTis an specifikurobis mixedviT. mosarCelem daayena sakiTxi, ewinaaRmdegeba Tu ara konstituciis 33.1 muxli (romlis Tanaxmad, `yvela moqalaqes (...) aqvs Tanabari ufleba, imuSaos litvis respublikis saxelmwifo samsaxurSi") aRniSnuli kanonis me-2 da kanonis amoqmedebis Sesaxeb 1.2 muxlebs, romelTa mixedviT, yofil mudmiv TanamSromlebs ar aqvT ufleba, imuSaon saxelmwifo samsaxurSi moxeleebad an Tanamdebobis pirebad. amasTanave, mosarCelem gaasaCivra kanonis me-2 muxliT dadgenili debuleba, rom saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis yofil mudmiv TanamSromlebs ekrZalebaT muSaoba ara mxolod saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi, aramed iseT kerZo sawarmoebSic, rogoricaa bankebi, sakredito kavSirebi, dacvis samsaxurebi, komunikaciebi da sxva, aseve, kerZo iuristad an notariusad an sxva kerZo saqmianobis ganxorcieleba, romelic CamoTvlilia kanonis me-2 muxlSi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom konstituciis 33.1 muxli, romelic gansazRvravs, rom yvela moqalaqes unda hqondes litvis respublikis saxelmwifo samsaxurSi muSaobis Tanabari ufleba, ar aris calsaxa. okupirebuli litvis respublikaSi sabWoTa kavSiris saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis daniSnulebidan da saqmianobidan gamomdinare, aucilebelia iseTi moTxovnebis dadgena, romlebic gansazRvraven komitetis im yofili mudmivi TanamSromlebis loialobasa da sandoobas, romlebic muSaoben an surT imuSaon saxelmwifo samsaxurSi. aseTi pirebi Segnebulad, nebiT wavidnen samuSaod komitetis mudmiv TanamSromlebad. isini axorcielebdnen an xels uwyobdnen im pirebisa da organizaciebis politikur devnas, romlebic propagandas uwevdnen litvis damoukideblobis ideas da suliskveTebas. litvis respublikas sakmarisi safuZveli aqvs, eWvi Seitanos saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis yofil mudmiv TanamSromlebSi da darwmundes maT loialobasa da sandoobaSi. amasTan, saxelmwifos mcdeloba, SeezRuda komitetis yofili mudmivi TanamSromlebis saxelmwifo samsaxurSi muSaobis SesaZleblobebi, gasagebi da safuZvliania. kanonis me-2 muxliT dadgenili SezRudvebi ar uaryofs konstituciis 48.1 muxliT garantirebul uflebas samuSaos Tavisuflad arCevis Sesaxeb. kanoni asaxelebs mxolod zogierT Tanamdebobas an sawarmos, dawesebulebas, organizacias da saqmianobis konkretul sferos, romelic, kanonmdeblis azriT, mniSvnelovania sazogadoebis, saxelmwifosa da maTi usafrTxoebisaTvis, xolo iq momuSave xalxis sandooba da loialoba ar unda iyos saeWvo.

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mosarCelem moiTxova konstituciasTan kanonis 3.2 muxlis debulebis Sesabamisobis dadgena, romliTac saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis yofil mudmiv TanamSromlebze saqmianobis SezRudvis gauvrceleblobis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebas iRebs prezidentis mier Seqmnili samkaciani komisia, romlis wesdebasac aseve prezidenti amtkicebs. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom konstituciiT, respublikis prezidents ufleba ara aqvs, miiRos gadawyvetileba adamianis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis SezRudvis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. aqedan gamomdinare, ar arsebobs iseTi kanonis konstituciuri winapiroba, romelic respublikis prezidents uflebas aZlevs, Seqmnas komisia msgavsi xasiaTis sakiTxebis gadasawyvetad. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom aRniSna: miuxedavad imisa, rom kanonis me-2 muxliT dadgenili SezRudvebi ar warmoadgens raime saxis sanqcias, isini mainc zRudaven adamianis zogierT uflebasa da Tavisuflebas, rac SesaZlebelia mxolod kanoniT da mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu garantirebulia sasamarTlosadmi mimarTvis SesaZlebloba darRveuli uflebebis dacvis motiviT. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanonis normebi, romlebic adgenen akrZalvebs da/an SezRudvebs, Seesabameba konstitucias. konstitucias ewinaaRmdegeboda kanonis 3.2 muxlis debulebebi, romliTac saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis yofil mudmiv TanamSromlebze saqmianobis SezRudvis gauvrceleblobis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebs iRebs prezidentis mier Seqmnili samkaciani komisia. mis wesdebas amtkicebs prezidenti (rac realurad ar uzrunvelyofs pirs masTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebebis sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebis SesaZleblobiT) da miiReba litvis eris genocidisa da winaaRmdegobis kvleviTi centris, saxelmwifo uSiSroebis departamentis da, aseve, respublikis prezidentis mier Seqmnili komisiis mier.

niderlandebi uzenaesi sasamarTlo 13-01-1995 65 wlis muSakis gaTavisufleba sagamocdo vadis ganmavlobaSi ar Seadgens asakobrivi da sqesobrivi niSniT diskriminacias. daqiravebulma SromiTi xelSekruleba dado ganusazRvreli vadiT. xelSekrulebaSi pirveli ori Tve sagamocdo vadad ganisazRvra. saTao ofisSi Seityves, rom daqiravebuli 65 wlis iyo, amitom dauyovnebliv iqna gaTavisuflebuli, vinaidan kompania krZalavda 65 wlis an ufrosi asakis mqone pirTa dasaqmebas.

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uzenaesi sasamarTlos azriT, mosaxleobis didi nawili samarTlianad miiCnevs wess, rom SromiTi urTierToba wydeba mas Semdeg, rac daqiravebuli gaxdeba 65 wlis. amas garda, gaTavisuflebis konkretuli SemTxvevis obieqtur da marTlzomier safuZvlad gamodgeba gavrcelebuli argumentebi, romlebic gamoiyeneba 65 wlis asakSi samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebis gasamarTleblad. gaTavisuflebis es konkretuli SemTxveva ar ewinaaRmdegeboda kanons asakobrivi niSniT uTanasworobis Sesaxeb. daqiravebulis argumenti, rom kompaniis damokidebuleba warmoadgenda diskriminacias sqesobrivi niSniT, aseve uaryofil iqna, vinaidan naklebad savaraudoa, rom 65 wlis asakSi samsaxuridan aTavisufleben proporciulad ufro met qals, vidre mamakacs.

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 16-04-1993 ruseTis federaciis saxalxo sasamarTloebma gansaxilvelad ar miiRes sasarCelo gancxadebebi prokuraturis yofili TanamSromlebis Tanamdebobebze aRdgenis moTxovniT, romelic eyrdnoboda ruseTis federaciis prokuraturis departamentTan dakavSirebuli moqmedi kanonmdeblobis da Sromis samarTlis zogierT wess, romelTa mixedviT, garkveuli kategoriis muSakTa monawileobiT SromiT davebs sasamarTloebi ver ganixilaven. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, prokurorebisa da gamomZieblebisaTvis gansazRvruli normebi aSkarad gansxvavdeboda SromiTi davebis maregulirebeli Cveulebrivi kanonisagan. sakonstitucio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom aseTi zomebi antikonstituciuri iyo, laxavda moqalaqeTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis samarTlebrivi dacvis konstituciur uflebas, arRvevda Tanasworobas Sromis uflebasTan dakavSirebiT da ugulebelyofda saerTaSorisod aRiarebul normebsa da standartebs.

ruseTi sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 04-01-1992 sakonstitucio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, antikonstituciurad CaiTvala sapensio asakis miRwevisTanave im muSakTa samsaxuridan gaTavisufleba, romlebsac pensiis miRebis ufleba hqondaT, sxva garemoebebis mxedvelobaSi miuReblad. aseTi praqtika

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eyrdnoboda Sromis kodeqsis debulebebs, romliTac kompaniis (dawesebuleba an organizacia) xelmZRvanelobas hqonda daqiravebulTa samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebis ufleba. sasamarTlom aRniSnuli debulebebi konstituciasTan da 1991 wlis fizikuri pirisa da moqalaqis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis deklaraciasTan Seusabamod miiCnia. aRniSnuli debulebebi aseve ewinaaRmdegeba adamianis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso teqstebs, vinaidan iwvevs diskriminacias Sromisa da adamianur saqmianobaTa sferoSi da safrTxes uqmnis arCevanisa da dawinaurebis Tanabar SesaZleblobebs.

slovenia sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 01-06-1995 konstituciiT garantirebuli muSaobis da profesiis Tavisuflad arCevis uflebebi SeiZleba SeizRudos, Tu sanotaro saqmianobisTvis dawesdeba specialuri pirobebi, vinaidan sxva pirebs ufleba aqvT, iyvnen samarTlebrivad daculni kanonier saqmianobaSi, romelsac notariusi Tavisi codniT, gamocdilebiTa da pirovnuli TvisebebiT uzrunvelyofs. konstituciuria, Tu aseTi SezRudvebi moiTxovs, rom sanotaro saqmianobis Sesrulebis unaris garda, notariusi sargeblobdes sazogadoebis ndobiT. Tu kanonmdebeli uaryofs sazogadoebrivi ndobis faqts mxolod sisxlissamarTlebrivi saqmis warmoebis arsebobis safuZvelze, maSin es winaaRmdegobaSi iqneba udanaSaulobis prezumfciasTan da konstituciuri uflebebis dauSvebeli SezRudvis akrZalvasTan, vinaidan amiT is krZalavs profesiis SeZenas an sisxlissamarTlebrivi danaSauliT gamowveul saziano Sedegebs kanoniT savaldebulo gadawyvetilebis gareSe. samarTlebrivi Sedegebi SesaZlebelia mohyves sisxlissamarTlebriv danaSaulze miRebul iseT sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebas, romliTac notariusis Tanamdebobis kandidatma SeiZleba ar daimsaxuros sazogadoebis ndoba. magram arc es da arc moTxovna imis Sesaxeb, rom Seswavlil iqnes kandidatis biografia da yofaqceva imis gasarkvevad, Seasrulebs Tu ara igi Tavis samsaxurebriv movaleobebs patiosnad da saimedod, niSnavs rom kanoni ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias. sanotaro kantora ekuTvnis sajaro samsaxurs da misi daniSnulebaa kanonieri saqmianobis usafrTxoeba/dacva. igi aris mniSvnelovani koleqtiuri sikeTe, romlis wyalobiT, Se-

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darebiTobis principis Tanaxmad, dasaSvebia, SeizRudos konstituciiT garantirebuli muSaobis ufleba, am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, samuSaos an profesiis Tavisuflad ganxorcielebis ufleba (muxli 49.1). konstituciis 15.3 muxlSi gansazRvrulia, rom adamianis uflebebi da ZiriTadi Tavisuflebebi SeiZleba SeizRudos mxolod sxvaTa uflebebiT da konstituciiT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi. notariusis profesiiT Tavisuflad muSaobis ufleba izRudeba sxvaTa uflebebiT, raTa isini samarTlebrivad daculi iyvnen kanonier saqmianobaSi. amas ki notariusi uzrunvelyofs Tavisi codniT, gamocdilebiT da pirovnuli TvisebebiT. profesiis Tavisuflad arCeva vrceldeba notariuszec miuxedavad imisa, rom es Tavisufleba izRudeba uflebiT, rom yvelas aqvs sajaro samsaxurSi muSaobis Tanabari ufleba (samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis 25.g muxli; sloveniis socialisturi respublikis oficialuri Jurnali, #7-35/71). kanonmdebeli samarTlianad awesebs obieqturi (mag. kompaniis teritoria) an subieqturi xasiaTis SemzRudvel pirobebs sajaro samsaxurisTvis gankuTvnili profesiebisTvis. subieqturi xasiaTis SemzRudvel pirobebs Soris aris pirovnuli xasiaTis da pirovnuli Sesaferisobis moTxovnebi, romelic uzrunvelyofs konkretul garantias, rom sajaro samsaxuri Sesruldeba patiosnad da erTgulad da ar moxdeba misi borotad sargebloba klientebis sasargeblod. aseTi SezRudvebi ganisazRvreba calkeuli profesiebisTvis, ase rom, igi ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias, Tu calkeuli SezRudvebi da pirobebi ganisazRvreba ise, rogorc es daSvebulia sasamarTlo kontroliT. amgvarad, notariusis samuSaos SesrulebisTvis sazogadoebrivi ndobis pirobebis dadgena TavisTavad ar ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias imdenad, ramdenadac maTi gansazRvra xdeba zemoxsenebuli saxelmZRvanelo wesebis Sesabamisad da ar warmoadgens zneobriv-politikuri Sesaferisobis kriteriumebs. aRniSnuli ganisazRvra yofili sistemiT, romelic uSvebda privilegiisa da diskriminaciis SesaZleblobas ideologiur an politikur rwmenasa da saqmianobasTan dakavSirebiT. socialur-politikuri Sesabamisobis instituti warmoadgenda represiis mTavar da gardauval instruments politikuri partiis avtoritetis SesanarCuneblad, romelsac ekuTvnoda monopolia yofil totalitarul reJimSi. procedurebi, romelTa Sesabamisad miiReboda gadawyvetilebebi samuSao adgilebze da sajaro Tanamdebobebze daSvebis Sesaxeb, aseve moiTxovda, rom kandidatebs daekmayofilebinaT "socialur-politikuri kriteriumebi". sloveniis socialistur respublikaSi sakadro politikis ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb koleqtiuri SeTanxmeba (sloveniis

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socialisturi respublikis oficialuri Jurnali #20(79) socialur-politikur organizaciebsa da gaerTianebebSi, gansazogadoebuli Sromis mTavar organizaciebSi, TviTmarTvad dainteresebul jgufebSi, adgilobriv sazogadoebebSi, socialur organizaciebsa da sxvadasxva gaerTianebaSi yvelaze sapasuxismgeblo postebze kadrebis daniSvnis principi da standarti gaxda. mocemuli muxlidan naTeli xdeba, rom es SeTanxmeba moicavs sazogadoebaSi saqmianobis praqtikulad yvela formas. kadrebis SerCevisas gansakuTrebiT gasaTvaliswinebelia, kandidatebma TavianT samuSaoSi gamoavlinon ideologiuri damokidebuleba socializmisadmi, socialistur demokratiuli sistemis istoriuli interesebis realizaciisa da pozitiuri damokidebuleba socialisturi revoluciisadmi, socialuri Tavdacvis koncefciis realizaciisa da socialisturi TviTmarTvadi sistemis mSeneblobis SemoqmedebiT valdebuleba (muxli 24). calkeuli problemebi da winadadebebi konkretuli kadrebis sakiTxis gadaWrisa da ufro farTo socialisturi interesis gansasazRvrad ganxilul da gadawyvetil iqna sakadro sakiTxTa sakoordinacio komitetis mier sloveniis mSromelTa socialisturi ligis konferenciebze (muxli 28). aRniSnuli socialisturi xelSekruleba ganisazRvra socialur-politikuri Sesaferisobis cnebis Sinaarsis msgavsad, romelic Sinaarsobrivad ganimarta gadawyvetilebaSi zogierTi im moqalaqis iniciativis Sesaxeb, romlebic daobdnen lublianas municipalitetis teritoriaze mTavar sakadro politikur kursebze socialuri SeTanxmebis konstituciurobaze (sloveniis socialisturi respublikis oficialuri Jurnali #11(76). aseve, sloveniis socialisturi respublikis sakonstitucio sasamarTlos 1981 wlis 2 aprilis #u-i-110/77-18 rezoluciis axsna-ganmartebiT nawilSi, romelSic naTqvami iyo, rom iniciativa ar iqna miRebuli. rezoluciis axsna-ganmartebiT nawilSi aRniSnulia, rom socialuri standartebi sakadro politikis erT-erT orientirs warmoadgens. agreTve, naxsenebia kandidatis damokidebuleba socialisturi revoluciisadmi, iugoslavieli erebisa da erovnebebis Zmobisa da erTianobisadmi da TviTmarTvadi urTierTobebis ganviTarebisa da Sromis ganawilebisadmi. sasamarTlos azriT, aRniSnuli standartebi efuZneboda ZiriTad konstituciur principebs, maSindeli konstituciis ZiriTadi principebis pirvel da meore punqtebs. sloveniis socialisturi respublikis konstituciis (sloveniis socialisturi respublikis oficialuri Jurnali #6(74) 285.2 muxlis mixedviT, mosamarTleTa daniSvnis procedura unda

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iTvaliswinebdes maT mier mosamarTlis funqciis SesrulebisaTvis zneobriv-politikuri Sesaferisobis Sefasebas. saerTo sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb kanonma (sloveniis socialisturi respublikis oficialuri Jurnali #10/77, 4/82/37/82, 7/86, 41/87 da 24/88) konstituciuri principi ise ganixila, rom socialurpolitikuri Sesaferisoba mosamarTled daniSvnis savaldebulo pirobas warmoadgenda (muxli 65). mosamarTle SeiZleba gaeTavisuflebinaT Tanamdebobidan misi vadis dasrulebamde, Tu dadgindeboda rom igi ar iyo socialur-politikurad Sesaferisi (muxli 75). zneobriv-politikuri kriteriumebis Sesaferisoba aseve savaldebulo piroba iyo msajulTa daniSvnisaTvis (muxli 83). isini SeiZleba gaeTavisuflebinaT samsaxuridan, Tu zneobrivpolitikuri niSniT Seufereblebi iyvnen (muxli 85). absoluturad identuri pirobebi iqna dadgenili gansazogadoebuli Sromis sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb kanoniT (oficialuri Jurnali, #38/74, 7/86 da 41/87) am sasamarTloebSi mosamarTleebis daniSvnis (muxli 31) da maTi vadamde gaTavisuflebis Taobaze (muxli 41), kanoniT prokuraturis Sesaxeb (oficialuri Jurnali, #10/77, 7/86 da 41/87) prokurorebis (muxli 31) da maTi vadamde gaTavisuflebis (muxli 33) Taobaze, saxalxo damcvelis Sesaxeb kanoniT (oficialuri Jurnali, #10/77, 7/86 da 41/87) saxalxo damcvelis daniSvnis (muxli 12) da misi vadamde gaTavisuflebis Taobaze (muxli 17), mxolod yvelaze mniSvnelovani saxelmwifo samarTlebrivi funqciebis TvalsazrisiT. yvelasaTvis cnobili normatiuli zoma, romlis Tanaxmad, "zneobrioba gadaiqca politikis instrumentad" da "idealizmi davida dakanonebuli farisevlobis doneze" (Sead. zbigniu brJeJinski, izven nadzora, lubliana, 1995, 56), adamianis uflebebisaTvis niSnavda mudmivi safrTxis rogorc pirdapir, ise farul formas. arc erTi TvalsazrisiT ar aris SesaZlebeli misi gaTanabreba Cveulebriv demokratiul qveynebSi moqmed kriteriumebTan, romlebsac saxelmwifo moxeleebi xalxis ndobis mopovebis mizniT unda akmayofilebdnen. aris Tu ara notariusebis samarTlianoba da patiosneba moTxovna. es moTxovna gamoxatulia zogadi debulebis saxiT, vinaidan warmoadgens sayovelTaod miRebul Rirebulebas, romelic dakristaldeba calkeul SemTxvevaSi. igi aris ara RirebulebaTa daxuruli katalogi, aramed mis Sinaarss avsebs praqtika. samarTlebriv urTierTobebSi es niSnavs realizebas, sakanonmdeblo da zneobrivad misaRebi iuridiuli saqmianobis dawyebas, iuridiul saqmianobaSi monawileebisaTvis zianis da uflebebis borotad gamoyenebis Tavidan acilebas, xelSekrulebis mxareTa interesebs Soris dabalansebas. notariusi aris ara rome-

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lime partiis warmomadgeneli, aramed piri, romelsac SeiZleba endos xelSekrulebis orive mxare (anu "sazogadoebrivi" ndobis moTxovna). zemoxsenebulidan gamomdinare, aseve unda ganisazRvros calkeuli elementebi, romlebic kompetentur organos avalebs, notariusisTvis pirobebis dawesebisas Seafasos, ramdenad Sesrulebadia es piroba. samarTlianobisa da patiosnebis kriteriumebi, udavod, exeba rogorc notariusis, iseve sxva profesiis adamianTa muSaobas, romlebisTvisac SesaZlebelia aseTi pirobebis daweseba saerTo keTildReobis da mesame pirTa farTo wris dacvis TvalsazrisiT. unari da ndoba, samarTlianoba da patiosneba is kriteriumebia, romlebic sxva qveynebSic savaldebuloa iseTi profesiebisTvis, rogoricaa notariusi, advokati, sagadasaxado inspeqtori, auditi da sxv. evrokavSiris kanonis Tanaxmad, axali gadawyvetilebebis miRebis nacvlad, qveynebi aRniSnul kriteriumebTan dakavSirebiT saxelmwifo organoTa dadgenilebebiT xelmZRvaneloben. es ar aris zneobriv-politikur SesaferisobasTan gaigivebuli kriteriumi. konstituciis 157.2 muxlis mixedviT, administraciul davasa da konstituciur sarCelSi garantirebuli samarTlebrivi sarwmunooba aris imis garantia, rom samarTlianobisa da patiosnebis kriteriumebi adamianis uflebaTa sazianod ar iqneba gamoyenebuli.

ukraina sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 29-10-1998 yvela adamians aqvs Sromis ufleba da misi gamoyeneba SeuZlia individualurad an sazogadoebrivi organizaciis, maT Soris, profkavSiris meSveobiT (konstituciis 36-e muxli). mSromelTa uflebebi, movaleobebi da garantiebi mowesrigebulia ukrainis Sromis kodeqsiT, romelic samuSaod ayvanaze dausabuTeblad uaris Tqmisa da samsaxuridan usamarTlod gaTavisuflebisaTvis samarTlebriv dacvas iTvaliswinebs. kanonma damqiravebelTa da maT warmomadgenlobaze uflebamosili organoebis mier SromiTi xelSekrulebis gauqmebaze daawesa SezRudvebi, rac samsaxuridan usamarTlod daTxovnis samarTlebrivi dacvis garantias warmoadgens. sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa an organizaciaSi moqmedi profkavSiri aris nebismieri profkavSiri (an kavSiris filiali), romelic konstituciisa da kanonis Sesabamisad aris Seqmnili organizaciaSi misi wevrebis

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Tavisufali arCevanis safuZvelze, Sromis, socialuri da ekonomikuri uflebebis, aseve, mSromelTa interesebis dasacavad, miuxedavad imisa, aris Tu ara is koleqtiuri xelSekrulebis an SeTanxmebis monawile. imave sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa Tu organizaciaSi moqmed yvela profkavSirs aqvs kanoniT dadgenili erTi da igive uflebebi. swored sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa Tu organizaciaSi moqmedi profkavSiri eTanxmeba mis wevrebTan SromiTi xelSekrulebis Sewyvetas kanoniT gansazRvrul SemTxvevebSi da wesiT. Tu sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa Tu organizaciaSi ramdenime profkavSiria, unda Seiqmnas erToblivi warmomadgenlobiTi organo, romelic koleqtiur SeTanxmebebze molaparakebas awarmoebs. aRniSnul organizaciebSi moqmed yvela profkavSirs SeuZlia monawileoba miiRos molaparakebebSi da koleqtiur SeTanxmebebs miaRwios. Tumca, koleqtiuri xelSekrulebebisa da SeTanxmebebis dadeba kanonieria sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa Tu organizaciaSi moqmed ara mxolod yvela, aramed ramdenime profkavSirTanac. TanamSromlebis mier amgvari uflebiT aRWurvil sxva organoebsac SeuZliaT aseTi SeTanxmebebis dadeba. profkavSiri aris SromiTi xelSekrulebis an SromiTi SeTanxmebis mxare, magram igi ar axdens gavlenas misi uflebamosilebebis ganxorcielebaze da ar adgens, funqcionirebs Tu ara is konkretul sawarmoSi, dawesebulebasa Tu organizaciaSi. aq TavianTi wesebis Sesabamisad Seqmnil da moqmed yvela profkavSirs konstituciiT miniWebuli aqvs Tanabari ufleba, daicvas mSromelebisa da maTi wevrebis socialuri da ekonomikuri uflebebi da interesebi. ukrainis Sromis kodeqsis Sesabamisad, masSi Sedis wevrebis SromiTi xelSekrulebebis Sewyvetaze Tanxmoba.

germania federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlo 01-07-1998 ZiriTadi kanonis Tanaxmad, kanonmdebels moeTxoveba resocializaciis efeqtiani koncefciis SemuSaveba, rogorc aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis praqtikis safuZveli. am dros kanonmdebels miniWebuli aqvs farTo kompetencia. patimrobis dros iZulebiTi Sroma aris resocializaciis efeqturi saSualeba, Tu Sesrulebuli samuSao saTanadod dafasebulia, rac materialuri uzrunvelyofiT an sxva formiT gamoixateboda. amasTan, mizanSewonilia, patimrebma materialuri privilegiis formiT Seityon, Tu ra mniSvneloba aqvs momavali damoukidebeli cxovrebisTvis cixis gareT regularulad

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muSaobas. finansuri saxiT anazRaurebuli iZulebiTi muSaobis gziT resocializaciis samarTlebrivma cnebam SesaZlebelia xeli Seuwyos konstituciiT moTxovnil resocializacias mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu patimari, misTvis dawesebuli anazRaurebiT minimalur doneze iqneba informirebuli im faqtis Taobaze, rom momgebiani samuSao adamianis arsebobis wyaroa. ZiriTadi kanonis 12.3 muxli krZalavs daSvebul iZulebiT samuSaos im dawesebulebebSi, sadac aRmasrulebeli organoebi saxelmwifos winaSe pasuxs ageben maTi zedamxedvelobis qveS myof patimrebze. I. sasjelis aRsrulebis maregulirebeli kanonis (Strafvollzugsgesetz StVollzg) 41-e muxlis Tanaxmad, patimrebi, romlebic sasjels ixdian germaniaSi, valdebulni arian, imuSaon TavianTi fizikuri SesaZleblobebis Sesabamisad. 1976 wels ganxorcielebuli saaRsrulebo procedurebis reformirebiT, kanonmdebelma gansazRvra patimrebis mier Sesrulebuli samuSaos pirobebis axali sqema da gadaafasa maTi samuSao. cixeSi muSaoba ZiriTadad patimarTa "mkurnalobas" isaxavda miznad da, erTi mxriv, maTi profesiuli integraciisTvis xelSewyobas, meore mxriv, samomavlo ekonomikuri safuZvlis Seqmnas uzrunvelyofda. principSi, cixeSi Sesrulebuli samuSao unda Sefasdes cixis gareT miRebuli anazRaurebis proporciulad. patimrebi srulad unda iyvnen CarTulni socuzrunvelyofis sadazRvevo sqemaSi. aT welze meti dro gavida reformirebuli saaRsrulebo normebis amoqmedebidan da patimrebi Sesrulebuli samuSaosaTvis kvlavac iReben xelfasebs, romelTa odenoba rogorc adre, mcire "anazRaurebas" Seadgens. StVollzg-is 200.2 muxlSi gansazRvruli anazRaurebis odenoba ar gazrdila, arc muSa-patimrebis integracia momxdara janmrTelobis dazRvevis da socuzrunvelyofis sadazRvevo sqemebSi (StVollzg-is 198.3 muxli). piriqiT, patimrebs uwevT maTTvis davalebuli samuSaos Sesruleba, romelSic uxdian "ZiriTad xelfass" anu socuzrunvelyofis sadazRvevo samsaxurSi mTlianad registrirebulis saSualo sazRauris 5%-s (StVollzg-is 200.1 muxlis meore winadadeba). amgvar calkeul SemTxvevebSi, samuSaos tipidan da Sesrulebidan gamomdinare, ZiriTadi xelfasis diferencireba xdeba patimrebis saxelfaso sqemis mixedviT (Strafvollzugsverguetungsordnung). realurad yovelTviuri xelfasi Seadgens daaxloebiT 200 germanul markas. momuSave patimrebi dazRveulni arian ubeduri SemTxvevisa da umuSevrobisgan, magram ara janmrTelobis da socuzrunvelyofis pensiiT (ix. 190-e muxlis 1-10, 13-18 StVollzg-is 198.3 muxlTan erTad). gansxvavebuli situaciaa im mcirericxovan patimrebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebsac, StVollzg-is 39.11 muxliT dadgenili winapirobebis Tanaxmad,

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Tavisufali dasaqmebis ufleba aqvT (gare sawarmosTan Cveulebrivi Sromis xelSekrulebis safuZvelze). maT xelfasi eZlevaT srulad saarsebo minimumisTvis yovelTviurad (minus 400-600 markis odenobis Senatani) da dazRveulni arian socuzrunvelyofis sapensio dazRvevis sqemiT. 1976 wlis Semdeg ramdenjerme iyo sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebis Setanis mcdeloba. marTalia, federaluri mTavroba dadebiTad Sexvda 1988 wels bundesratis mier SeTavazebul bolo kanonproeqts, magram me-11 sakanonmdeblo sesiis dros misi saboloo ganxilva ar Catarebula da arc misi wardgena aRar momxdara. patimrebis Sromis maregulirebeli saaRsrulebo normebis gadasinjvis Taobaze oTxi sakonstitucio sarCelis da sasamarTlo procesis farglebSi federalur sakonstitucio sasamarTlos unda Seeswavla, Seesabameboda Tu ara ZiriTad kanons xelfasis odenoba da momuSave patimrebis araintegrireba socuzrunvelyofis sapensio dazRvevis sqemaSi. amave dros, sasamarTlos unda gadaewyvita mTavari sakiTxi - StVollzg-is mixedviT patimrobis periodSi muSaobis movaleobis Sesabamisoba iZulebiTi Sromis akrZalvasTan. I I. 1) federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos meore kolegiam daadgina, rom saaRsrulebo xelisuflebis praqtikis warmarTva patimarTa resocializaciis kursiT warmoadgenda konstituciur moTxovnas. TiToeul patimars ufleba aqvs moiTxovos, rom es mizani dakmayofildes masze dawesebuli nebismieri zomis miuxedavad. resocializacia niSnavs ara mxolod imas, rom patimars gauCndes pasuxismgeblobis grZnobiT cxovrebis SesaZlebloba da survili. misi mizania, aseve, mTlianad sazogadoebis dacva, vinaidan am ukanasknelis uSualo interesSi Sedis, Tavidan iqnes acilebuli patimris mier ganmeorebiT danaSaulis Cadena da TanamoqalaqeebisaTvis da sazogadoebisaTvis zianis miyeneba. aRniSnuli miznebis Sesabamisad, kanonmdebeli valdebulia, SeimuSaos resocializaciis efeqturi koncefcia, rogorc saaRsrulebo xelisuflebis praqtikis safuZveli. resocializaciis moTxovnis ganxorcielebisas kanonmdebels miniWebuli aqvs farTo kompetencia. arsebuli codnis gamoyenebiT kanonmdebelma SeiZleba miiRos debuleba, romelic harmoniaSia sxva saxelmwifo movaleobebis donesa da aucileblobasTan, Tundac saWiro xarjebis saTanadod gaTvaliswinebiT. iZulebiTi Sroma patimrobis dros aris resocializaciis efeqturi saSualeba, Tu Sesrulebuli samuSao saTanadod dafasebulia. amasTan, mizanSewonilia, patimrebma materialuri privilegiis formiT Seityon, Tu ra mniSvneloba aqvs regularulad muSaobas momavali damoukidebeli cxovrebisTvis cixis gareT. adekvaturi

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dafaseba SeiZleba iyos finansuri an sxva saxis. fuladi kompensaciis garda an mis nacvlad, patimrebma SeiZleba SeiZinon ufleba momaval pensiaze an daxmareba valebis gastumrebaze. mxolod an ZiriTadad finansuri saxiT anazRaurebuli iZulebiTi muSaobis gziT resocializaciis samarTlebrivma cnebam SesaZlebelia xeli Seuwyos konstituciiT moTxovnil resocializacias im SemTxvevaSi, Tu patimari, misTvis dawesebuli anazRaurebiT minimalur doneze mainc iqneba informirebuli im faqtis Taobaze, rom momgebiani samuSao adamianis arsebobis wyaroa. Tumca, kanonmdebels SeuZlia mxedvelobaSi miiRos cixeSi cxovrebis tipiuri pirobebi, kerZod ki, distancia bazrebTan. Tavis rols iTamaSebs aseve patimris muSaobis Rirebuleba mewarmisTvis da sxva konkurenti mwarmoeblebisTvis. kanonmdebeli am sferoSi sargeblobs farTo kompetenciiT. kanonmdebelma iZulebiTi Sroma SeiZleba imiTac daafasos, Tu patimrebs Seiyvans socuzrunvelyofis sistemebSi. ZiriTadi kanoni ar moiTxovs, rom socuzrunvelyofis sistemebiT dacva cixeSi iZulebiT Sromazec gavrceldes. iZulebiTi Sromis dawesebisas kanonmdebelma unda daicvas ZiriTadi kanonis 12.3 muxli ("iZulebiTi Sroma SeiZleba dauwesdeT mxolod sasamarTlo ganaCeniT TavisuflebaaRkveTil pirebs"). iZulebiTi Sromis akrZalvis wesidan es gamonaklisi regulirdeba im principiT, rom cixeSi muSaoba unda xorcieldebodes aRmasrulebeli organoebis pasuxismgeblobis da sazogadoebrivi zedamxedvelobis qveS. patimarTa mimagreba anu zedamxedvelobis gareSe maTze mesame pirTa pasuxismgeblobis daweseba samuSaos Sesrulebaze ar Seesabameba iZulebiTi Sromis tradiciul suraTs. I I I . 1) aRniSnuli kriteriumebis mixedviT, StVollzg-iT SemuSavebuli resocializaciis koncefcia, ramdenadac igi ZalaSia da iTvaliswinebs iZulebiT Sromas da mis anazRaurebas, principSi, akmayofilebs konstituciur moTxovnebs. Tuki StVollzg-iT SemuSavebuli resocializaciis koncefcia srulad amoqmeddeboda, anu xelfasi gaizrdeboda da patimrebi srulad CaerTvebodnen socuzrunvelyofis sadazRvevo sistemebSi, kanonmdebeli daakmayofilebda resocializaciis moTxovnas ara marto moTxovnil minimalur donemde, aramed sakmarisze metadac. StVollzg-is arsebuli versia resocializaciis koncefcias, rogorc torss, ise axorcielebs. patimrebi dazRveulni arian ubeduri SemTxvevisa da umuSevrobisagan, magram ara janmrTelobisa da socuzrunvelyofis sapensio dazRveviT. xelfasis gamoTvlis safuZveli kvlavac kanoniT dadgenili sawyisi odenobis 5%-ia. es ar niSnavs, rom

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

muSaobis valdebulebam dakarga resocializaciasTan Tavisi funqciuri kavSiri. iZulebiTi Sroma axla rogorc adre, ukavSirdeba anazRaurebis uflebas. 2) StVollzg-is 41-e muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli muSaobis valdebuleba Seesabameba ZiriTadi kanonis 12.3 muxlsac, vinaidan es valdebuleba arsebobs mxolod imdenad, ramdenadac samuSao sruldeba aRmasrulebel organoebze dakisrebuli sajaro pasuxismgeblobis qveS. mTeli pasuxismgeblobis ase farTod gadacema, kerZod ki, patimrebis mimagreba kerZo piris eqskluziuri kontrolis qveS, kanoniT dauSvebelia. aRniSnuli moTxovnebi SeiZleba dakmayofildes cixis teritoriis gareT zedamxedvelobis gareSe patimrebis dasaqmebiTac (iZulebiTi Sroma gare sawarmoebTan). Tumca, zogierTi miwis saaRsrulebo praqtika Tavisufal muSaobasTan (StVollzg-is 39.1 da 39.11 muxlebi - cixis teritoriis gareT zedamxedvelobis gareSe patimrebis muSaoba) da, gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi, aseTi muSaobis daSvebasTan dakavSirebiT, ewinaaRmdegeba resocializaciis moTxovnas. Tu patimars, romelic akmayofilebs cixis teritoriis gareT zedamxedvelobis gareSe dasaqmebis pirobebs, sasjelaRsrulebiTi dawesebulebis mcdelobis miuxedavad ver uzrunvelyofen gare samuSaoTi ­ magram SesaZlebelia, patimari Tavisi TanxmobiT gaigzavnos gare kerZo sawarmoSi garkveuli samuSaos Sesasruleblad _ am SemTxvevaSi aucilebelia uzrunvelyofil iqnes patimrisaTvis sasjelaRsrulebiTi dawesebulebis minimaluri organizebuli sajaro pasuxismgebloba. praqtika, romelic mxolod gamonaklis SemTxvevaSi ewinaaRmdegeba cixis teritoriis gareT zedamxedvelobis gareSe patimrebis dasaqmebis SesaZleblobas, unda Sewydes ara ugvianes 1998 wlis 31 dekembrisa. am dRemde, senatis rCeviT, aRmasrulebel organoebs dro miecaT kerZo kompaniebisagan ufro meti mxardaWeris misaRebad im patimarTa dasaqmebis saqmeSi, romlebic akmayofileben pirobiT vadamde gaTavisuflebis moTxovnebs. 3) StVollzg-is 43-e muxli, romelic iZulebiTi Sromis qveS momuSave patimrebs aniWebs anazRaurebis moTxovnis uflebas, konstituciuria. "ZiriTadi xelfasis" dadgeniT, kanonmdebels Tanasworobis principis daurRvevlad SeuZlia miaRwios im mizans, romelic patimarTa Semosavlebs Soris zedmetad didi gansxvavebebis Tavidan acilebasa da cixis cxovrebaSi am gansxvavebebiT gamowveuli negatiuri Sedegebis Tavidan acilebas isaxavs. ramdenadac StVollzg-is 43-e muxlis me-2 punqti iTvaliswinebs anazRaurebis gradacias, kanonic uSvebs calkeuli garemoebebis mxedvelobaSi miRebas da anazRaurebis adekvatur diferencirebas.

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Sromis Tavisufleba

4) garda amisa, konstitucias ar ewinaaRmdegeba is faqti, rom patimarTa CarTva kanoniT dadgenil socuzrunvelyofis sadazRvevo sqemaSi eqvemdebareba specialuri federaluri kanoniT mowesrigebas, romelic jer ar aris miRebuli. ganzraxuli debuleba, romelic jer ar aris ZalaSi, iTvaliswinebs patimarTa integrirebas socuzrunvelyofis sistemebSi kanoniT dadgenili sawyisi odenobis 90%-is safuZvelze. aseTi farTo regulireba ar moiTxoveba arc resocializaciis konstituciuri pirobiT da arc Tanasworobis principiT (ZiriTadi kanonis 3.1 muxli). piriqiT, socuzrunvelyofis sadazRvevo sistemaSi patimarTa integrirebis Sesaxeb samarTlebrivi debuleba unda daecvaT Tanasworobis principis motiviT gamoTqmuli sawinaaRmdego azrisagan. 5) StVollzg-is 200.1 muxliT mowesrigebuli anazRaurebis sakiTxi ewinaaRmdegeba resocializaciis konstituciur moTxovnas. anazRaurebis arsebuli done patimris resocializacias ver Seuwyobs xels, vinaidan Tanxas, romelsac patimari realurad iRebs, cotaTic ki ar arwmunebs mas momgebiani samuSaos da sacxovreblad saWiro finansuri safuZvlis Seqmnis mniSvnelobaSi. 1997 wlis mdgomareobiT, anazRaureba kanoniT dadgenili sawyisi odenobis safuZvelze Seadgens 1.70 germanul markas saaTSi. patimrisaTvis es niSnavs saSualod TveSi 200 germanul markaze odnav mets. es rom resocializaciisTvis moTxovnil minimumze naklebia, eqspertebic eTanxmebian anazRaurebis donesTan dakavSirebiT gamoTqmul komentarebSi. garda anazRaurebisa, patimars Tavisi SromisaTvis ar mieniWeba sxva araviTari mniSvnelovani privilegia. aRniSnuli aseve exeba dasasvenebeli da gasarTobi adgilebis da RonisZiebebis arsebobas sasjelaRsrulebiT dawesebulebaSi. igi iTvleba ara patimris mier Sesrulebuli samuSaos dafasebad, aramed fizikur da socialur dacvad, romelic SeiZleba dadebiTad Sefasdes resocializaciis konstituciuri moTxovnis TvalsazrisiT da romelic ama Tu im formiT xelmisawvdomia nebismieri patimrisaTvis. aRniSnuli SexedulebebiT iyo nakarnaxevi kolegiis gadawyvetileba StVollzg-is 200.1 muxlis resocializaciis konstituciur moTxovnasTan Seusabamobis Taobaze. SesaZloa, konstituciurad gamarTlebuli yofiliyo is, rom kanonmdebelma ufleba misca patimrebs StVollzg-is SemoRebis (1976) Semdeg wlebSi anazRaureba mieRoT kanoniT dadgenili sawyisi odenobis 5%-is safuZvelze. magram amasobaSi gavida kanonmdeblisaTvis dadgenili gardamavali periodi. axali debulebis molodinSi aucilebelia arsebobdes samarTlebrivi safuZveli. kolegiam daadgina, rom am etapze, ara ugvianes 2000 wlis 31 dekembrisa, ZalaSi rCeba StVollzg-is 200.1 muxli. miuxedavad imisa, rom kanonmdebels ekisreba zomebis dauyovnebliv

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evropis qveynebis sakonstitucio sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebi...

miRebis valdebuleba, sasamarTlom es TariRi samarTlebrivi principebis gadasinjvisaTvis daawesa. I V. federaluri sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mosamarTlem, momxsenebelma kruizma, xma misca gadawyvetilebis winaaRmdeg. igi daeTanxma sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas iZulebiTi Sromis nawilSi, magram misi mosazrebiT adamianuri Rirsebis dacvis TvalsazrisiT adekvaturi anazRaurebis sakiTxi (ZiriTadi kanonis 1.1. muxli) resocializaciis konstituciuri moTxovnisa da Sromis meSveobiT resocializaciis miznisagan calke dgas.

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