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March 13, 2009 Dear Hagley Library Users and Friends, Spring is just around the corner, and everything is coming up green at the Library. Researchers, collection development, and our digitization efforts made for a busy few months. As you will see when you read the articles below, Hagley has once again received some fascinating new collections. We hope that you will visit us and enjoy these new acquisitions.

A springtime view of the Hagley Library.

Collections Storage ­ Hall of Records

The Hagley Museum and Library remains committed to its responsibility of stewardship of our nationally significant artifacts and library research collections. Our treasures are a legacy worthy of proper care for the benefit of future generations. One of the institution's most pressing needs has been to build an environmentally controlled space in the Hall of Records for the museum collections and our business and technological history library. The Hall of Records, a massive 32,000 square foot structure, which originally served as DuPont's records center, required considerable updating for specialized collections storage. The necessary work was extensive and included environmental systems and controls, interior modifications, a new roof, enhanced security, and museum storage equipment. After first inspecting the Hall of Records, Michael Henry, of Watson & Henry Associates, Hagley's consulting architect and engineer, termed it one of the best buildings he had ever evaluated for conversion to museum and library collections storage. Watson & Henry Associates are regarded as the leading firm for this preservation work, with clients all over the world. Our construction management firm, EDiS Company, is working

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with us to ensure that the design and construction specifications of Watson & Henry are met, while simultaneously keeping the project on schedule and on budget. After more than two years of planning, analysis, and work, we believe we have developed a project that meets national preservation standards. Construction began in October of 2007, and renovations are substantially completed, with only a few modest punch-list items remaining. We are grateful to the National Endowment for the Humanities for $450,000 in support of an overall project budgeted at $4.6 million. We also received extraordinary support from many individual donors to our recently concluded capital campaign. This storage project represented a significant goal of the campaign, and we extend our gratitude to each and every contributor. The improved and reorganized space guarantees that our collections will be preserved for generations to come and ensures many decades of storage room for future growth.


Communication Arts

In December of 2008, Robert Cipriani donated Communication Arts to the Library Imprints Department. Since 1959, the periodical has been well known for publishing the best in visual communications from around the world and for sponsoring creative competitions recognizing the finest talent in the industry. Communication Arts showcases advertising design, illustrations, photography, and interactive designs. Contact the Imprints Department for more information.

Door knob signs for the Art with Heart program for hospitalized children. "Illustration Annual," Communication Arts 44, no. 3 (2002).

Eastman Kodak Stores Inc., Historical Data Scrapbook

Hagley's Pictorial Collections Department recently purchased a scrapbook kept by employees of the Eastman Kodak Company's Boston branch store. The scrapbook documents over a century of history for the photographic supply firm, from 1845 to 1963. It is composed of photographs, news clippings, and ephemera, accompanied by brief journal entries describing employee news, thefts, and accidents. Of company-wide interest, the journal mentions releases of new Kodak products and details

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Top left: After developing film dropped off by amateur photographers, branch stores of the Eastman Kodak Company returned photographic prints to customers in decorative envelopes like this one from 1918. Top right: Employees of Robey-French Company pose during the annual Christmas party. Many of the young women seen here continued to work at the store for decades and were later honored by the Eastman Kodak Company for their lifetime of service. Bottom right: Interior of Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. During World War II, one of the counters was moved from its foundation as customers clamored to purchase rationed Kodak film.

other important company events, such as the effect of the Great Depression on sales in 1933 and the rationing of Kodak film during World War II. The author writes:

In June (1943) as during all the war years, film was rationed. When a supply was put on the shelves there was, of course, almost a `stampede' for the public to purchase but one roll per customer. (Note: One of our counters was moved from its foundation from the force of the public endeavoring to obtain the film!!)

In 1902, the Eastman Kodak Company purchased the Boston firm of Horgan, Robey & Co., retailers of photographic goods and supplies. The new company was incorporated under the name Robey-French Company. Robey-French continued to sell both professional and amateur photographic supplies, in addition to operating developing and photo-printing services. In 1927, the business's name changed to Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc.; in that same year, the store opened a second branch in Boston's Hotel Stadler Building. As Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc., grew in success,

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the firm moved into a number of increasingly larger locations around the city, with such amenities as a projection studio for showing Cine-Kodak motion picture film. In 1961, the business constructed a brand new facility on Needham Street to cater solely to professional photographers.

Ernest Dichter and the Birth of an American Icon: Mattel's Barbie Doll

Ernest Dichter (1907-1991) was a Vienna-trained psychologist who came to New York in 1938 to escape the Nazis. In this country, he became a pioneer in the development of the marketing tool known as motivational research, which used psychological techniques, including the "depth interview," similar to an analyst's session, to probe the consumer's innermost desires and expectations surrounding a given product or service. In Dichter's "Living Laboratory" in his hilltop mansion overlooking the Hudson River, test groups and families watched commercials and interacted with actual products in a facsimile of a typical middle-class family room. Dr. Dichter was at the height of his fame and influence in 19581959 when he received a commission from Mattel, Inc., of Los Angeles to evaluate both parents' and children's reactions to some of their products. Much of the work involved toy guns for boys, but for girls, Dichter was to gauge responses to the new Barbie doll, part of a trend toward older dolls for older girls who used them to anticipate adolescent and adult behavior. As one of Dichter's subjects remarked, "Mine is a business woman. See the navy suit and the flower hat. She is going out to dinner and maybe dancing afterwards. Doesn't she look smooth?" From his sample of girls, Dichter found a few complaints. The original doll had too much eye makeup, which was corrected, and the neck was too long, which was not. All girls liked the realistic accessories. Those under ten preferred the more spectacular costumes, while those over ten imagined themselves in Barbie's place: "... look at the spike heels! I like these clothes...They are the most! I would like clothes like that myself." Not surprisingly, the gold brocade ball gown was the most popular outfit; the cook-out set was the least popular and eventually dropped. Barbie would not spend much time working in front of a hot stove. Most parents thought that Barbie's sexiness made her an objectionable playmate for girls under ten: "... they could be a cute

Ernest Dichter

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decoration for a man's bar." However, all mothers were impressed with the quality of Barbie's wardrobe: "... the fine seams are better than some of the clothes I buy for the children." Dichter concluded, "The doll should be promoted as a toy which helps develop desirable traits and habits in the children. If this is done, the parents' own attraction to the doll will become a motivating force in favor rather than against the purchase." He also noted the importance of peer pressure in boosting sales and suggested ways to get parents to start with a few basic outfits that could be expanded by repeat purchases. And so they did. The Mattel report is but one of almost two thousand that Dr. Dichter prepared between 1938 and 1988, which survive among his papers at Hagley. All contain equally candid and frank assessments by potential consumers in the U.S., Canada, Western Europe and Mexico, providing a unique window into popular attitudes and reactions to goods and services, especially in the boom years of the 1950s and 1960s. All of Dr. Dichter's reports and proposals are now open to researchers. Other sections of the archive will follow during the year.


The Library has recently put four collections of newly digitized collection material into the Hagley Digital Archives (http://digital.

Image of a 1937 bomber from the Lammot du Pont Aeronautical Collection.

Lammot du Pont Aeronautical Collection

Lammot du Pont, Jr., assembled a large collection of materials related to aeronautics and the history of flight from the first balloon flights in 1783 through the 1940s. The collection was donated to the Hagley Library in 1965. Approximately 400 images from the collection have been digitized so far, and more will be added in the future. The collection includes images of balloon races, the roundthe-world flight of the Graf Zeppelin, bombers and fighter planes, and more than forty images of Charles Lindbergh.

P. S. du Pont/Longwood Collection

This collection, partially digitized with a generous grant from the Longwood Foundation, includes approximately 3,500 images collected by Pierre S. du Pont during his lifetime. More than 1,000

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images from the collection show the development of Longwood Gardens. Also included are photographs of the du Pont family, travel images, and a variety of other photos documenting the interests and activities of P. S. du Pont.

Hagley Research Reports on the History of the Brandywine Valley

This is a selection of forty-six research reports produced by Hagley staff and scholars beginning in 1953 for the purpose of developing the museum's exhibits and interpretations program. The digitized reports cover the industrial development of the Brandywine River Valley and surrounding area, with a particular focus on the early history of the DuPont Company. All of the reports were produced using manuscript and secondary sources from the Hagley Library.

Lukens Steel Company Collection

This digital collection contains almost nine hundred images selected from the Lukens Steel Company photograph collection. It includes images from woodcuts showing the early history of the mill, interior and exterior views of factory buildings, various depictions of machinery, employees both at work and leisure, and twentieth-century aerial views of the Lukens physical plant. Other items vary, from philanthropic activities supported by Charles L. Huston, photographs of the Lukens and Huston families, and the elaborate celebrations associated with Lukens Steel anniversaries.

Miss America Programs

This collection comprises thirty-two Miss America Pageant programs, from 1945 to 1967, taken from the Joseph Bancroft and Sons collection. Joseph Bancroft and Sons served as the primary corporate sponsor of the pageant from 1945 to 1967. The programs include information about the pageant and contestants, as well as advertising from businesses in Atlantic City and the surrounding area. To access these digital collections, visit

Cover from the 1946 Miss America Pageant yearbook.

New Online Exhibit: "Building the Lydonia II"

The Hagley Library is pleased to announce the launch of "Building the Lydonia II," an online exhibit of nineteen images from the

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Completed Lydonia II docked at the Pusey and Jones Company in Wilmington, March 1, 1912.

Pusey and Jones Company that traces the construction of the steam yacht Lydonia II from the laying of its keel to its first sea trial. The Pusey and Jones Company of Wilmington, Delaware, maintained a photographic record for many of its shipbuilding and machine contracts from 1870 to 1955. This collection of photographs was acquired by the Hagley Library in 1970. While the content varies, the shipbuilding images typically document important points in the construction process, that is, laying of the keel, on the shipway, christening, launching, fitting out, and the sea trial. The Lydonia II series is the only set scanned in its entirety, but it is representative of other sequences in the Pusey and Jones Photograph Collection. Visit this exhibit and other online exhibits at Approximately 800 of more than 6,700 images in the Pusey and Jones collection are available online in the Hagley Digital Archives (

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Who Uses the Resources of the Hagley Library?

As an internationally regarded research facility dedicated to the history of business and technology, the Library's top priority remains scholars. It was a busy year for the Library, with more than 21,794 different reference transactions (letters and e-mails, researcher visits, photo orders, and circulated items) conducted by Library staff in the Imprints Department and the Pictorial Collections Department. The Digital Archives is also exponentially expanding access of the collections to users. From the middle of May through December of 2008, 33,669 unique visitors consulted 355,775 library informational pages or collection items in the digital archives. The collections used in the Library during the past year ranged from the nineteenth-century merchant and manufacturing records to twentieth-century industrial design collections. More frequently consulted collections used this year include the DuPont Company and the du Pont family, National Association of Manufacturers, Pennsylvania Railroad Records, J. Howard Pew papers, and this year, the Ernest Dichter research reports. At the same time, the range of topics researched remained vast and impressive. Scholars who need access to large amounts of our materials are able to apply for a grant to come for a period of time to do their research here. If you live in the Wilmington area, it is easy to visit the Hagley Library in person to read our books in the beautiful setting of our reading rooms. But we serve a public far beyond the scope of those who venture to our site; this is done through our active participation in the Interlibrary Loan program. In 2008, Hagley received more than seven hundred loan requests from other libraries. Our library is a special collection and many items are rare. We loan our imprints material to academic and special libraries in this country if proper handling is ensured. If an item cannot be loaned, we will attempt to make photocopies, provided the item will not be harmed in the process. We carefully balance the opportunity to share our holdings with as many people as possible with the need to protect the materials themselves. For example, we had to decline a request this month for the loan of a book published in Italy in 1597, but we were able

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to fill a request for a photocopy of a rare pamphlet published in Philadelphia in 1825. We also get direct requests from people from all over the world. While we never loan print materials to individuals, we are able to make photocopies of many rare pamphlets and trade catalogs. Recently Linda Gross, reference librarian, was able to provide copies of an Illustrated Price List of Microscopes, Microscopic Apparatus, and Optical Instruments, published in 1876, and a catalog of Adjustable Holders for Incandescent Lamps, published in 1894. We encourage everyone with an interest in our collections to search our online catalog at If you find something that you would like to see, but you are unable to come to our library in person, contact your university interlibrary loan librarian about borrowing it, or contact Hagley's interlibrary loan librarian, Linda Gross ([email protected]), about obtaining a copy.

The Model Builders

The layout for this model is based on the industrial landscape of the Great Lakes region in the 1940s and 1950s. This HO scale model was built by Mike Rabbitt from scratch and shows a typical steel plant complete with all steelmaking facilities and working commercial and industrial railroads.

Much effort and attention is spent in research libraries to work with students of history who seek to understand the past intellectually. However, a portion of our library patrons here at Hagley fall under the category of model builders, or people who seek to understand a subject by literally reconstructing the past. Unfairly, model builders can be dismissed as hobbyists rather than historians. The product of their research may not be written in books, but working models have a marvelous ability to capture people's imaginations and teach them about their world. A natural evolution in methodology tends to play out among modelers. Many novices start out looking solely for props and scenery to augment a model railroad set. To an exacting mind, however, the process cannot stop there. To build an accurate model of a particular railroad, factory, place, or even a moment in time, modelers will often visit the scene they wish to recreate. Even then, the built environment can offer only so many clues, as buildings and technologies are replaced over time. The quest for source information gradually leads serious modelers to research libraries and historical societies, where they can examine written records and photographic evidence to refine their models. In some cases, the historical research process itself can ultimately become more consuming than the model building.

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Lehigh Avenue and Broad Street Stadiums (Dallin Photo ID 70.200.05174). The 1929 photo from the Dallin Aerial Survey shows the area around the Reading Railroad's North Broad Street Station in Philadelphia. A detailed examination of this and other street-level photos by Ron Hoess allowed him to create model row houses to reflect the neighborhood housing for his railroad model.

The industrial landscape lends itself to such modeling efforts, and the extent of Hagley's research collections in the realms of industry and technology is unparalleled. Hagley's holdings include the archives of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Pennsylvania Railroad Company, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Sun Oil Company, and the Westmoreland Coal Company, to name just a few. We also hold the Dallin Aerial Survey, which contains 15,000 aerial views of the Delaware Valley and adjacent areas, taken between 1925 and 1940. Detailed descriptions of these and other archival collections can be found in our online catalog via the library home page at Our digital archive of photographs and full-text documents can be accessed from the library home page as well. And, of course, we welcome any questions at (302) 658-2400, ext. 227.

Thanks to Mike Rabbitt and Ron Hoess, two of our regular library patrons, volunteers, and model builders, for consulting on this article.

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Lecture Series

The 2008 lecture series brought four excellent speakers to Hagley. On October 1, 2008, Dr. Kevin Borg, an associate professor in the Department of History at James Madison University and former Hagley Fellow, gave a lecture on his book titled Auto Mechanics-- Technology and Expertise in Twentieth-Century America. Dr. Borg grew up in a "car household," as his family owned an auto repair business; he augmented his personal interest with many years of research. Following his lecture, Dr. Borg signed copies of his book and entertained questions from the audience; twenty-nine people attended the program.

Nicholas Lowry, lecturing at Hagley. The lecture complemented the poster exhibit.

On October 15, Nicholas Lowry, director of the Poster Division of the Swann Auction Galleries in New York City, presented an entertaining lecture, "Posters as an Art Form." This lecture complemented the "Give It Your Best: Workplace Posters in the United States" exhibition in the Visitors' Center. Lowry drew from his extensive experience with Swann, as well as his experiences as a guest appraiser on PBS's "Antiques Roadshow." Dr. David Kirsch, an associate professor at the Robert H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland, talked about his book, The Electric Vehicle and the Burden of History, on November 19. Given the economy and the current status of the car industry, Kirsch's lecture proved both timely and informative. After the lecture, audience members, totaling seventy-seven, viewed several electric vehicles brought by the University of Delaware and other audience members. The final lecture, on December 10, by Dr. W. Barksdale Maynard, featured his newly published book, Buildings of Delaware. The audience, our largest at 189, responded with great enthusiasm to a topic of local interest which highlighted the beautiful architecture that is part of the history of Delaware.

Dr. Eugene McGowan Film

Eighty-four people attended the February 8 premiere of the Hagley Museum and Library film on Dr. McGowan, Delaware's first black psychologist in the public school system. A Conversation with Dr. Eugene McGowan: African American School

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Psychologist and Community Activist covered his involvement in the National Health Association, Delaware Committee for Fair Practices, Delaware Leadership Council and the Wilmington and Delaware State chapters of the NAACP. Jeanne Nutter was the film's executive producer, and it was funded by the Delaware Humanities Forum, Delaware Heritage Commission, Bloomfield College, and the Longwood Foundation. The premiere took place at the Delaware Center for Contemporary Art on Wilmington's waterfront. The film is based on an interview with Dr. McGowan conducted ten years ago for the film A Separate Place: The Schools P. S. du Pont Built, which presented the influence du Pont had on African American education in Delaware. Hagley has fortyfive hours of oral interviews with African Americans who taught or attended schools built by P. S. du Pont in the 1920s and has produced two other films drawn from these interviews: Conversation with Jane Mitchell: African American Nurse and Rev. Maurice J. Moyer: Civil Rights Activist. A short version of A Separate Place is available with a curriculum guide composed of materials from our collections and suitable for classroom use; it may be accessed on Hagley's web page at http://www.hagley. org/teacher-resources.html. To obtain copies of any of these films ($10 each), please contact Roger Horowitz at extension 244 or e-mail [email protected]

In the audience at the film premiere: Dr. McGowan, front row. Seated in the row behind him, from left to right, are Dr. Patricia Turner Debnam and Littleton Mitchell.Edward Loper. is seated directly behind Dr. McGowan.


April 4 ­ Saturday - 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. Hagley Fellows Conference: "Unintended Consequences" Seemingly rational actors make decisions, create institutions, shape environments, or develop technologies expecting certain outcomes, but things do not always go as planned. "Unintended Consequences" seeks to explore the enormous influence of these inevitable yet unexpected occurrences. Registration required. Contact Carol Lockman at [email protected] April 16 ­ Thursday ­ 6 p.m. Research Seminar Ross Thompson, University of Vermont, presents his paper, "The Continuity of Wartime Innovation: The Civil War Experience," in the Copeland Room of Hagley Library. Based on broad research on American manufacturing, Thompson explains how the

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production needs stimulated by the Civil War had a dramatic impact on the productivity of American industries. The lecture is free. Participants are asked to read the paper in advance; obtain a copy by contacting Carol Lockman at [email protected]


Can't get enough news from the Hagley Library? Good news! We are now blogging. Check out the new Hagley Library and Archive blog at If you have questions about the collections highlighted here or about using our collections, please contact one of our reference librarians/archivists at (302) 658-2400. Marge McNinch, Manuscripts and Archives Ext. 330, [email protected] Judy Stevenson, Pictorial Collections Ext. 277, [email protected] Linda Gross, Imprints Ext. 227, [email protected], If you have questions about Center programs, please contact Carol Lockman at ext. 243 or [email protected] Please direct general questions to Terry Snyder at ext. 344 or [email protected] Thank you for taking the time to read about our new collections, researchers, activities, and upcoming events. We hope that one or more of these inspire you to come to Hagley and experience all that we have to offer. I look forward to seeing you here, and in the meantime, please accept our best wishes, Sincerely,

Terry Snyder Deputy Director, Library Administration


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