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Revision Guide

Revision Guide for GCSE English 2007

This booklet contains a sequence of activities, and guidance on how to complete these activities, which will build on the learning of the last two years and help you to achieve success in your examinations. There are a range of twentyminute activities and you should aim to complete a minimum of four every week between now and your exam dates. To improve your grades: 1. Plan your revision, and stick to the plan. 2. Revise for twenty minutes at a time, somewhere quiet, where you won't be disturbed or distracted. 3. Revising doesn't just mean reading; it means actively engage with, make notes on, produce evidence to show that you have completed a process. 4. Revise with a pen and notepaper and store and save your revision in the same place so that you can look back at it and have a sense of achievement. 5. Start revising now - don't leave it until the last week.


¨ What you are expected to do in the examination ¨ Exam dates 2006 ¨ Revision timetable ¨ Suggested revision tasks ¨ Resources for revision tasks ¨ Summary question, Paper 1, Question 1. ¨ Paper 1, Question 2. ¨ Paper 2, Opening Worlds. ¨ Writing to Argue and Persuade ¨ Writing to Instruct

Eight out of ten students, on getting their exam results, wished they'd revised more.

What are you expected to do in the English Language examination?

Paper 1 Section A: Section B: Paper 2 Section A: Section B: 1hour 45 minutes 2 Reading tasks­ Media / Non-fiction Writing task­ Inform, Explain, Describe 1 hour 45 minutes Reading task - Opening Worlds Short Stories 2 Writing tasks ­ To analyse, review, comment To argue, persuade, advise

For English Paper 2 you will be provided with a new and clean copy of the Anthology, Opening Worlds


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Revision Timetable

Remember to select at least two tasks each week, taken from the list of suggested English tasks. Write the number of the task you choose into the table so that you can check that you are not constantly repeating the same activities. Write the total number of tasks done each week in the last column and feel a real sense of achievement!

Week Commencing 19/03/2007


Total number of tasks this week

1.............................................. 2..............................................


1.............................................. 2..............................................


1.............................................. 2..............................................


1.............................................. 2..............................................


1.............................................. 2..............................................


1.............................................. 2..............................................


1.............................................. 2..............................................


1.............................................. 2..............................................


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14/05/2007 1.............................................. 2.............................................. 1.............................................. 21/05/2007 2.............................................. 1.............................................. 28/05/2007 2..............................................

English: Suggested tasks

1. Study an advertisement in a magazine or newspaper or on the internet. Decide who the audience is, and how you know, what is the advert trying to say and how it says it. Think carefully about the words and images that have been used. Think about the size of the picture and the words ­ what effect is the advert trying to have on you? Jot down some words to describe the effect you think the advertiser is trying to create and then use a thesaurus and develop and extend your vocabulary. Read a newspaper report from The Guardian, The Times, The Independent or The Telegraph. Use Appendix 1 as a guide and complete an analysis of the report. Using Appendix 2 create a poster to go up in your bedroom of the features you might expect to find in a persuasive text. Go on to the BBC Bitesize web site, English section and complete the Reading Non-Fiction Texts section: Getting started, genre, audience, purpose, language, information, style, tone. Use Appendix 1 and compare two texts; one must be an information leaflet and the other a newspaper report from a tabloid web site or newspaper (e.g. The Sun, News of the World, Daily Mail, Mirror). Go onto the BBC Bitesize Web site, Reading Non-Fiction Texts section and complete the comparative exercise and the comparative exam question. Here is the opening to an essay: `Write a persuasive article for a teenage fashion magazine about whether following fashion is important'. Whether or not you choose to follow fashion depends very much on you. Some people like to wear whatever is cheapest. Others want things that are warm or practical and others want to look like they've just stepped off the catwalk or out of a high street shop. Some people just HAVE to be seen in the latest gear ­ whatever the cost. Using your poster from task 3, rewrite this so it is really punchy and persuasive ­ remember who your audience is and what your purpose is. Read an information or a persuasive leaflet and complete Appendix 1, identifying the audience, purpose, use of fact and opinion, the language and the layout. What do you think is the writer's intention? Plan a response to this question: Write an article for a newsletter in which you aim to persuade your readers that animals should be released from any form of captivity. This question could account for up to 15% of your final GCSE English grade. Have a look at Appendix 4; identify where you are and what you need to do to go up a grade.


3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

10. Write a persuasive essay from one of your plans. Allow yourself twenty-five minutes to write it, then using Appendix 2 and then 3, check it. 11. Choose two stories from `Opening Worlds' and convert them into pictures. Each picture must express the five significant ideas or themes that the story explores. Remember ­ it's easy to get carried away, but choose only FIVE images, and then think about why you've chosen them. 12. Choose three stories this time, and repeat the exercise above. Document1 Page 3 of 21

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13. Take an advert from a magazine and make notes about how it communicates; focus especially on the picture or pictures. Think about the graphology ­ remember someone has been paid a lot of money to communicate to their audience and persuade them to buy the product ­ why have they made the advert look like this? 14. Look outside your bedroom window. List four things you can see. For each thing, describe how it looks, sounds, tastes and smells. Write four sentences, each one beginning with either an adverb, or an adjective, or an exciting and dramatic finite verb (e.g. Whirling across the road, the leaves brushed the tarmac, bruising the cold concrete with the fresh, acrid smell of decomposing life.)

15. Compile a list of five simple verbs: e.g. walk, sit, eat, drink, laugh. Then imagine four different types of people: a soldier dying on the battlefield in World War 1, a chav, a ten year old landmine victim from Afghanistan and a middle aged career woman with four children. The rest of this activity will take about half an hour, so don't rush it. Using as many words as you can, focusing on the verbs, describe how each of those people would perform each of those verbs. When your list is complete, share it with someone else, and see if you can add more. The skill in writing descriptively, which accounts for 15% of your English Language GCSE, is being able to visualize and empathise with what you are trying to write about. Thought track each of those characters. How does a ten year old landmine victim feel when they try to walk or sit or eat or drink and do they laugh? Perhaps you have now come up with more vocabulary and ideas ­ add them to your list. 16. Plan this essay in 15 minutes: Journeys can be exciting, boring, or a mixture of both. Describe a journey you have made, so that the reader can imagine it clearly. Focus on vocabulary choices, using a thesaurus, and building up detail and description through the choice of subordinate clauses. Remember to make it interesting: it's good to have a hook at the beginning e.g. It was a matter of life and death; arriving on time was essential. 17. Read a Sunday paper. Choose a substantial article and using Appendix 1, analyse the effectiveness of the article. Allow yourself twenty five minutes and write an essay which explains how the writer communicates with the reader. 18. Timed practice: Allow 45 minutes for planning and writing this essay: Write to the Examination Board and persuade them to award GCSEs on coursework grades alone, and to stop all examinations. Write four paragraphs and then check your work against the Appendices. What do you need to do to improve your work? Get on and do it. Share the best parts of your essay with someone else in the house ­ they'll probably enjoy it: I'll bet you're lovely to live with right now. 19. Get some colouring pens. Write four significant phrases from each of your stories in bright colours; put them all around the house, explaining to your family why they are important and what the writer is trying to say. 20. Allow 45 minutes to plan and answer this question: Choose two stories and write about the different people featured in them. Where are they from and how do they feel about things? What do you need to do to improve? 21. Allow 45 minutes to plan and answer this question: Describe your ideal holiday location. 22. Use Appendix 4 to see what sort of grade you got for task 21. What do you need to do to improve?


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Revision Guide Resources for the tasks.....

Appendix 1: analysis of a media text

WHAT TO LOOK FOR AUDIENCE Who is the piece aimed at and how do you know? PURPOSE What is the writer trying to achieve? Is he/she persuading, informing, entertaining, arguing, explaining? OPINION/FACT How much of this article can be proved, and how much is it just the writer's opinion? What effect does that have on you? What do you think he is trying to achieve? LANGUAGE Is the language emotive? Is it factual? Does it use quotations from people, statistics, expert opinions, poetic devices, exaggerations? LAYOUT How has it been laid out on the page? Is there a headline? What about sub headings? Pictures, comments, diagrams, charts? What is happening in the pictures that have been used? Why do you think they have been chosen? OWN OPINION- CONCLUSION What do you think of it? EVIDENCE

Appendix 2:

The Features of a Persuasive Text

BOLD opening Language that really plays on the emotions: e.g. instead of child, `tiny tot'; or instead of sad, `miserable' Expert opinions and facts and statistics to support your position (you can make these up, but don't go overboard!) Exaggeration Rule of three Repetition of words or ideas Use personal anecdotes after the facts and evidence


Rhetorical questions to engage audience Write in the second person - address your audience directly You might refer to a different opinion, but then criticise it or prove that it is wrong, and that your position is the right one. Sentence variety; complex sentences with lots of subordinate clauses adding detail and really simple, even one word sentences, can be an extremely effective combination Sound as though you really believe in what you are saying ­ is it a matter of life or death? Finish with an instruction: TELL 'EM

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Appendix 3: EDITING TIPS

THESE ARE THINGS TO CHECK FOR IN YOUR WRITING TO GET MAXIMUM MARKS Examiners are impressed by students who correct their work, so don't be afraid to cross things out and make changes: it shows you are a thoughtful writer. Make sure you keep changes as neat as possible and that your corrections are clear. Does it make sense? Have I included full stops, semi-colons and commas? Also check for speech marks, colons, question marks and apostrophes. Don't use exclamation marks unless it is an emergency. Could I vary the sort of sentences I've used? Maybe I could start with subordinate clauses and make the sentences more descriptive and detailed. Do any of the words I've written look as though they're not quite right? If so, try writing them again on a piece of rough paper, spelling them differently; keep trying until it looks right and then correct it in your essay. Have I divided my work up into paragraphs? If not, read it carefully and decide where you think the breaks ought to go. After the last word of the sentence that you want to end your paragraph, mark // and then NP which will tell the examiner that you want to begin a new paragraph. Have I included all that I wanted to say? If not, mark the spot where you want to add something with a * and then make the same mark at the end of your essay, where you have some space, and write the extra points and ideas you wish to make by this second mark.


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Appendix 4: How to improve your grade for writing in your English Language Exam

Current grade bracket

G/F You use straightforward vocabulary and usually write in basic sentences. You don't always punctuate accurately.

What you need to do to improve

Spend time learning basic spellings. Vary your writing and aim to use a range of sentences ­ short and long. Always allow time before the end of the exam to check your work; aim to make at least three corrections per answer. Develop a bigger range of sentence structures; try beginning with subordinate clauses of time or place, perhaps with an adverb or adjective instead, or, if you are writing descriptively or persuasively, a non finite verb is a lively and exciting start. Try to connect your ideas and use discourse markers to signal to the reader that you are making a new point. Try to use more exciting words; planning and building up a range of words before you start your writing is a good idea. Organise your ideas into paragraphs that are introduced with a topic sentence. Remember to start a new paragraph every time you have a new idea. Use a varied style making sure that you are clear about your audience and purpose. Try to entertain and surprise the reader with well chosen words ­ take a few risks with vocabulary, e.g. Jordan has a big chest = Jordan is voluptuous, curvaceous, siren-like, scantily clad and sexy, pneumatic. OR Brad Pitt is cute = Brad is an admired sex symbol, handsome, a bankable box office attraction, anodyne and talentless. Use plenty of sentence variety, begin your complex sentences with subordinate clauses and don't be scared to break up long sentences with simple ones. Use semi colons in your extended sentences, allowing you to build up ideas and remain clear, and use colons for dramatic effect in writing to entertain, or before a list or quotation in other writing. Be experimental. Choose words that help the reader visualise your ideas, extend and develop them fully, adopting different perspectives. Use a range of punctuation and sentence variety, located in writing that is structured and linked within paragraphs.

E/D Your spelling is generally accurate and you plan your writing. You can use some interesting vocabulary and you use different types of sentences sometimes.

C/B Your writing is well controlled and you have a good grasp of paragraphing.

A/A* You can write in a range of styles, very accurately, using a variety of impressive vocabulary.


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Nonfiction and Media Paper 1 Summary

· Section 1 consists of 2 or 3 short answer questions worth 5 marks in total. The question worth 15 is the summary question. · Read the summary question carefully. What information are you being asked to pick out of the article? · Read and text mark the article, either highlighting or numbering any relevant points..approximately 15 points in total. · Draw quick table and insert relevant points from extract in your own words. Eg. If question asked you to summarise a)effects of sunbathing and b)the reasons people continue to do it your table might look like this. Effects Skin ageing Skin cancer blistering Change in skin colour Reasons To look healthy To look attractive To look fit To appear wealthy

· Use table to write up your summary. · To start you off use words of the original questioneg. there are many reasons people continue to use sunbeds despite the long term damaging effects on your health. · Make sure you include all points from your table. · Don't repeat pointsstick to the word count you are given. · You will get marks taken off if you repeat points or if you just copy sections from the extracttry and use your own words. · Rememberyou are not being marked for spelling and punctuation, just the content of your answer.


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Revision Guide Paper One: Question One. Summarising Skills

What the exam board are looking for / award marks for: · using your OWN words as far as possible (no quotations!) · · retrieval of appropriate information (taking out only the bits you are asked for) evidence of understanding / insight / inference at the highest levels (you understand the article and can "read between the lines" and make "deductions" by picking out the clues)

Those getting a "C" will be able to deduce and read "between the lines". EXAMPLE: The article says: "The company was also praised for its Public Relations, even though on the same day came the news that a planeload accidentally given the wrong information that they were about to crash had been recompensed...with a box of chocolates each. Airlines, it seems, can get away with anything." The summary should read: "Airlines care little for customers and don't bother to compensate them properly for giving out false or misleading information. Such misleading information can cause stress and worry for passengers and the compensation can be considered insulting in some cases." TASK: Summarise this extract in your own words and make deductions about how airlines treat their passengers: "There has been some publicity recently about the design of tailfins on British aircraft...Passengers rarely glimpse the outside of their own plane. You get on via a sealed airbridge. If you see another plane in midair it is probably too close, so you may have more matters to contemplate than the tailfin."

Summary Skills

Try to put these sections from a past paper into your own words. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Many people would rather save their money and take their chances with thrombosis. There is a slow trend towards a middle class in which ­ for a reasonable premium ­ travellers get business style space but with economy ­ style service. There is growing evidence that these conditions are starting to cause some people serious medical problems through thrombosis and blood clots. As everyone above 4ft 3 inches tall will have noticed, airlines have spent years maximising profits by squeezing in people as tightly as they dare. The trend to improved entertainment has become very sluggish indeed and the only other boon to the ordinary passengers I can recall over the past decade is Virgin's introduction of the midAtlantic choc ice.


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English Language GCSE Paper 1: Question 2

This question will ask you to write about the way a non fiction text has been written, NOT put it in your own words. You will need to think about language and style. The exam board are looking to see that you can: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. When thinking about layout and style, look at these things: Layout: (a) headings / headlines ­ bold / block capitals / size and position / content (b) sub headings ­ size / position / content (c) photographs / pictures / illustrations ­ choice of subject , connotations, expressions on faces etc. Style: What is the writer trying to do? It could be to entertain, amuse, alarm, persuade, argue, inform, challenge etc. How is the writer trying to do this? Look out for these techniques: · · · · jokes / puns (play on words) emotive words (make reader feel certain emotions) questions (rhetorical ­ answer built into them) repetition (repeating ideas or words) · · · · informal language / slang / colloquial words (chatty style) fact and opinions exaggeration for effect varying length of sentences or paragraphs for effect Read with insight understanding the way it has been written Have a well organised response following the question and not waffling Make appropriate references to the text ­ use quotations Identify and evaluate uses of language / style / presentation as appropriate, spotting techniques and their effects, PQC.


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MORE ADVICE FOR ANSWERING SECTION A In the exam you will be asked to read a text and write about the layout, presentation and the language used ­ you will do well if you pick out the effects ­ you will do even better if you comment on the effect on the reader ­ how is the text working?

Section 1A will ask you to look at facts and opinions.


Facts can be proven = they must be true. Facts are both powerful and strong ­ these can be used to inform, convince or persuade people of a certain situation. Opinion = is someone's personal belief ­ they think or feel it. Watch out for opinions that seem like facts ­ i.e. "It is a fact that..." ­ this is a way of tricking you the reader into believing an opinion. Opinions can be convincing ­ they might be used in text to persuade you of a point of view.

¶ ¶

Section 1B will focus on presentational devices.

On the paper, at the top of the page you should write the letters: PALL ­ PURPOSE AUDIENCE LANGUAGE LAYOUT These are the headings that can help you make notes on your text.


Purpose: · · · · · · To inform To entertain To explain To persuade To convince To instruct

Ask yourself: what is the text trying to do? Think how is it doing this?


Audience ­ this is who the text is aimed at: · · · · · Young Old Mixed audience Adults Children/ teens?

Think about the layout and the language, this will help you to work out the intended audience in the text.


Language ­ the words and sentences and style that has been chosen: · Formal

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· · · · Informal Chatty Complex/ serious Alliterative/ descriptive

ALWAYS comment on the language that has been used ­ this is the hardest part but will get you higher grades because it is a challenge. Read the text thinking about the choice of words ­ look out for: similes/ metaphors/ alliteration/ catchphrases/ Think about the tone of the words chosen are they ­ positive or negative? Look for adjectives ­ descriptive words ­ are they over the top? Are they vivid ­ do they make things come to life? Or is the language mostly factual and informative?

A I M to pick out language details when you are reading through the text ­

highlight words and phrases that stand out.


Layout ­ this is the presentation ­ there is so much to comment ­ but remember always explain the effect on a reader.

¶ ¶ ¶ ¶

Alliteration ­ makes the text catchy ­ quick to read ­ grabs attention Bullet points ­ good way to organise a text Captions can help readers understand a picture Colour ­ there are lots of connections and links ­ colours reinforce messages ­ blue= crisp/cold/clean. Red= passionate/dangerous/sex/roses Columns ­ a way of organising text ­ and helping the text to be clear to the reader. Fonts ­ classic/ formal/ oldfashioned/ modern etc ­ Fonts are chosen to impact on different audiences and to grab attention. Graphs/ diagrams ­ help make difficult info easy to grasp Headings ­ important as a way to organise the text Images Similes ­ like/as or metaphors ­ direct comparisons ­ these work to create images in words ­ so you can see the thing being described Italics ­ emphasises information Logos ­ symbol of a company ­ represents things Maps ­ helpful in giving people info ­ finding or showing a place Paragraphs ­ organising text ­ comment if they are small ­ short/ easier to read or longer and more detailed this makes a difference to a text and to the reader ­ connects with AUDIENCE Pictures/ images bring the text to life and grab attention ­ they can also break up the text, which is useful. Underlining emphasises points made. Always comment on the first impression the text has ­ what do you notice when you look at the text on the page?

¶ ¶

¶ ¶ ¶

¶ ¶ ¶ ¶

¶ ¶


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· ·


The following stories are to be studied for the English exam. It is important to make links between them as you go along. These links will help you to plan answers for exam questions which will ask you to compare two stories.

Don't worry if you would like more revision material for `Opening Worlds'. Your English teacher can lend you a revision text book if you ask. `The Winter Oak' by Yuri Nagibin Themes and issues:

· · · Education Pupil/teacher relationships New experiences and change

1. What impression is created of a Russian school in the first part of the story? Consider: · The school environment · The contrast between Anna and the geography mistress · The atmosphere during the lesson 2. How does the character of Anna Vasilevna change during the story? Create and complete a chart like the one below (yours will need to be much bigger than this!)

Changes in Anna

Her attitude to language. Her feelings about herself as a teacher. Her attitude towards, Savushkin. Her response to nature.

At the beginning of the story

By the end of the story

3. Reread from line 134 to the end of the story. The writer describes how on entering the forest 'they were immediately transported into ... an enchanted world.' How does the language help to show this?


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Find a quotation to support each of the following. Comment on the language that is used. An example has been done for you: a. The forest is beautiful: 'Now and again the trees would part and reveal sunny, joyful glades, crisscrossed with hare tracks that looked like watch chains.' The writer shows the beauty of the forest through his use of the adjectives 'sunny' and 'joyful' and the simile to describe the animal tracks. These details help us to visualise the scene. b. The stream is full of contrasts c. Anna is fascinated by her surroundings d. The oak dominates the forest e. The oak is welcoming f. The oak protects the animals in the forest 4. What does Anna learn from her visit to the forest with Savushkin? How have her feelings changed by the end of the story? 5. Empathy writing task: Imagine that you are Anna, write a letter to a teaching colleague explaining what happened to you on the day that you went to the forest with Savushkin. LINKS WITH OTHER STORIES · · Education in 'The Pieces of Silver' Changes in Cathy's character in 'The Young Couple.'

`The Pieces of Silver' by Karl Sealy

Themes/ issues: · Education · Pupil/teacher relationships · Effects of poverty 1. Read up to line 41. How is school life presented in this description of the daily routine? Comment on: · The behaviour of the pupils · The behaviour of the teachers · The behaviour of the acting Headmaster 2. Read from line 42 to 107. · How is the Headteacher's treatment of the boys described? · How does the writer use language to create sympathy for Clement and the other boys who have not brought any money? 3. Clement's family life is described from line 108. Comment on the way that the writer has used language to describe it in the following quotations:


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'In the midst of this drab poverty the free, soaring seagulls, and the once gay pictures of the magazines were an unkind comment.' 'Dave Dovecot, a grizzled gangling labourer, held his plate in his left hand, while with his right he plied his mouth from a peeling metal spoon.' 'Mrs Dovecot, a long thread of a woman whose bones want had picked like an eagle ... scraped and pecked and foraged her food like a scratching hen.'

4. What impression of Clement's parents is created by the use of dialogue on page 55? 5. How is the relationship between Clement and his sister Evelina described on pages 56 and 57? 6. What sort of victory does Clement have at the end of the story? 7. Why do you think the story ends as it does? What sort of message is the writer trying to convey about poverty and the treatment that the boys receive at the hands of the Headmaster?

`Games at Twilight' by Anita Desai

Themes and issues: · · Childhood experience The effects of environment

1. How does the writer show that the atmosphere at the beginning of the story is oppressive? (See Lines 1 38) Consider: · · · The language used to suggest confinement The language used to describe release The way that the heat is described

2. What are your impressions of the following children from the first section of the story? (Lines 1 80) · Mira · Manu · Raghu

3. The rest of the story focuses on Ravi, the main character. Annotate each section of the story in detail and answer the following questions: Lines 83 125 · · · RAVI FINDS A HIDING PLACE IN THE SHED

What are Ravi's feelings at the beginning? How is the shed described? Why are these details important to understanding Ravi's feelings? How does Ravi feel about managing to escape from Raghu at this point in the story? RAVI SPENDS TIME IN THE SHED

Lines 126 187 · ·

How does Ravi feel as he looks around his new environment? What are his feelings about the people and the environment outside the shed?

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· Explain his thoughts of 'victory' as he waits in the shed. RAVI LEAVES THE SHED AS EVENING APPROACHES Lines 188 255 · · · ·

How does Ravi feel as twilight approaches? Explain his feelings of 'misery' as he finally runs out of the shed. How do the others react towards him when he reappears? What sort of game are they playing and how does this affect Ravi? RAVI FEELS A SENSE OF DESPAIR

Lines 256 265 · ·

Explain the 'terrible sense of his insignificance' which Ravi feels at the end of the story. What lesson has he learned about life? How does the ending of the story represent a complete reversal for Ravi and his hopes?

4. There are many references to death through the imagery used in the story. Comment on the imagery used in each of the following examples: · · · · · · 'No life stirred at this time of day the birds still drooped, like dead fruit, in the paper tents of the trees.' 'The outdoor dog lay stretched as if dead on the veranda mat, his paws and ears and tail all reaching out like dying travellers in search of water.' '... a dark and depressing mortuary of defunct household goods seething with such unspeakable and alarming animal life.' 'It was dark, spooky in the shed. It had a muffled smell, as of graves.' 'Their faces were pale and triangular in the dusk. The trees and bushes around them stood inky and sepulchral, spilling long shadows across them.' 'He had wanted victory and triumph not a funeral.'

LINKS WITH OTHER STORIES: · The presentation of childhood in 'Leela's Friend.' · The presentation of childhood games and the boy's feelings in 'The Red Ball.'

`Leela's Friend' by R.K. Narayan

Themes and issues: · Childhood experience · Injustice · Relationships between parents and children · Class divisions 1. Read the first part of the story up to line 57. What are your first impressions of Sidda from:

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a) his conversation with Mr Sivasanker? b) his conversation with Leela? 2. How do Mr and Mrs Sivasanker react to Leela's missing chain? What does this suggest about them? 3. Look at what happens to Sidda after it is discovered that the chain is missing. Complete this list: · Sidda runs away 4. What is your assessment of Leela's character? Is she `such an innocent child' as the police inspector says on line 151? Consider: · Her treatment of Sidda · Her attitude towards her parents · Her behaviour over the `stolen' chain 5. What does the story show about Indian society and its class structure? 6. What moral or message do you think Narayan is trying to convey through the story? 7. What is your view of Mr and Mrs Sivasanker as parents and employers? 8. What message is conveyed by Mr Sivasanker's final words in the story, `in any case, we couldn't have kept a criminal like him in the house''? LINKS WITH OTHER STORIES:. · Childhood experience in `Games at Twilight'.


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Revision Guide Writing to Argue and Persuade

Five quick steps to exam success!

1. PAF 2. Five points 3. Order 4. A FOREST 5. Proofread

PAF = Purpose...audience...form Underline or highlight these. How will they affect what you write? ­ contents, layout, language, sentences, vocabulary, tone?

Find five points for your argument or persuasion As messy as you like: noone's going to see them!

List or spider ­ it's up to you. Be quick ­ it's only a list: you can expand on them a bit later. Order? Find the best order for these points. Remember ­ you want a Big Opening to catch attention and an Ending Impact! ANECDOTES

A personal experience & story as proof. Know any? Borrow from Section A? Invent! Strong words "It is outrageous..." Express powerfully ­ not too many ­ remember the question mark. Give examples as support. Invent an expert and quote eg Professor Jane Morris of Oxford University says, "It.. Invent! Eg "In a recent survey conducted by York University, 73%..." Lists of three ­maybe with alliteration? Eg "It is cruel, callous and criminal to..."





Proofread Check spelling, full stops, other punctuation, paragraphs, vocabulary and anything else before it costs you marks.


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Writing to Instruct Here's How!

A set of instructions can be as simple as a list of bullet points, but if you want to achieve a good grade, you will need to develop the instructions. Here's how to go about writing a successful set of instructions:

Who? What?

Planning matters! Use a

1) Firstly, you need to identify the audience and purpose of the instructions. Who are you writing for? What are you instructing about? 2) Secondly, it is essential that you plan your instructions. Without planning, your instructions could all end up in the wrong order and your reader will be more confused than when they started! 3) Once you have planned, you are ready to start writing. The first thing your writing needs to make it eyecatching and to ensure the topic is clear is a big, bold heading, like the one at the top of this page. Don't spend ages drawing letters, just use big, bold letters. A subheading may be useful too. Your titles will be even better if you can include a touch of alliteration or a pun. 4) The instructions should start with an introductory paragraph, in which you refer to the question and say what your instructions are going to be about. 5) Then you should write your instructions in a clear sequence of logical steps. You should use one paragraph for each step and number your paragraphs, just like I've done here. 6) You should address the audience directly, using a fairly personal, friendly tone. You should also write using commands (directives), for example, `You should...', `Fill...', `Place...' `Make sure...'. In addition, you should try to use argument markers to make your instructions clear and logical. For example: Firstly, Secondly, etc... Next, Finally, In addition,


and sub headings

introductory paragraph

sequenced, numbered instructions

talk to your audience

argument markers

Following this... The next stage... Once you have done this... Additionally, In particular, Above all,

On the other hand,

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7) Have you thought about how useful and effective rhetorical questions could be? With a question, you are really involving your reader and making them think about the topics, so definitely use a couple of rhetorical questions in your instructions.

rhetorical questions


Finally .. Write a conclusion

8) When you feel you have written all stages of the instructions, don't stop! Write one more paragraph which acts as a conclusion. Okay, so you've finished giving your actual instructions, but your reader will want to have things rounded up and finished off. 9) In conclusion, draw a Dos and Don'ts box at the bottom and summarise your main points in it. This will gain you marks for layout and clarity.


ü ü ü ü Plan first. Write a big heading. Write an introductory paragraph. Put your instructions in a clear and logical sequence, using commands. ü Write in paragraphs, but number them. ü Use bullet points within paragraphs if you wish. ü Write with a friendly, personal tone, addressing the reader directly. ü Use argument markers and rhetorical questions. ü Finish off with a concluding paragraph where you sum up and wish the reader well. ü Draw a Dos and Don'ts box to summarise your main points clearly.


û Start before you've planned you'll run out of things to say, and are very likely to put things in the wrong order. û Start without using a big, bold heading to make it very clear what your instructions will be about. û Simply list points, like I'm doing here, except in your Dos and Don'ts box. You must develop your ideas into paragraphs. û Write your instructions as one, big, confusing paragraph number your paragraphs. û Stop after you've finished giving the instructions without writing a concluding paragraph and drawing a Dos and Don'ts box. û Run out of time keep an eye on the clock throughout the exam.

And that's it! If you follow this set of instructions carefully, you should be extremely successful at writing a set of instructions! Good luck!


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Revision Guide

Basic Punctuation.

' : , ( ) . ! ?

apostrop something he

Used to indicate possession of Used to mark an omission of one or more letters Used to introduce an example or a list Used to separate items in a list or clauses in a sentence (extra information)

the boys book Nicholas coat hes well Please send the following items: a passport, two photographs and the correct fee. The British flag is red, white and blue. Zinedin Zidane , the best footballer in the world, was bought recently for 55 million pounds! My son--he was here a moment ago--would like to meet you. Buffy the Vampire Slayer (scary stuff!) was on TV last light.



Used to interrupt a sentence with a phrase that doesn't fit grammatically

dash or brackets

full stop

Used at the end of all sentences that are not exclamations or questions They can also be used for abbreviations

I went to the local shop to buy some milk. Jan. (January) a.m. p.m. etc. H. G. Wells Get lost!

Exclamat Used when a word or sentence has ion mark been shouted out or said suddenly question Used after every question mark semi colon

Why is he here? Who invited him? Homer Simpson is stupid he thinks milk comes from trees.

Used to separate parts of a sentence which require a more distinct break than a comma but are too closely connected to be broken by a full stop


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21 pages

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