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Biology 10 Lab Manual Instructor and Lab Technician Notes

Lab 1: Using the Scientific Method to Investigate Gum This lab was written to be an introduction to the scientific method. The lab instructor should introduce the concept of the scientific method prior to allowing students to begin the lab. Potential hazards: Students should be cautioned to use razor blades with care. Materials needed for this lab: · 8 packs Bubble Gum (sugar and sugarless) · 8 packs Chewing Gum (sugar and sugarless) · 4 Hot plates · Assortment of beakers? · 8 Thermometers · 2 Digital Scales · Salt, sugar, artificial sweetener? · 8 Meter sticks · Metric weights · Milk, bread · 4 Razor blades · Ice · Graph Paper

Lab 2: Metric System and Measurement This lab was written to be an introduction to the metric system. The lab instructor should introduce the metric system and spend some time explaining how to do metric conversions using the Metric Staircase shown in Figure 3.3. Potential hazards: Students should be told to use caution when placing rocks into beakers to avoid breaking the beakers. Materials needed for this lab: Common use: · 2 Digital scales · Weigh boats · 1 liter of water in a soda bottle · 1 ml plastic cube · 1 Bottle filled with over a liter of water · 1 Graduated cylinder large enough to measure water in above bottle · Water in full cup and corresponding graduated cylinder · Water in glass vial/small beaker and corresponding graduated cylinder · Dropper and flask with 20 ml of water · 10 ml graduated cylinder · Medium rocks (g) (labeled with letters) & beaker large enough to hold one · Large rocks (kg) (labeled with letters) & beaker large enough to hold one · Box of metric weights (1 g, 200 g, 500 g, etc) · 4 beakers of water (labeled A-D) at different temperatures (00C, RT, 370C, 500C?) · Water baths/Ice baths as needed for beakers of water · 4 thermometers in each of the beakers above Each group need: · Meter stick · 10 ml graduated cylinder Group x 8: · 8 Meter sticks · 8 droppers and flask with water · 8 10 ml graduated cylinders

Lab 3: Microscopy In this lab students learn how to use the dissecting microscope and the compound microscope. In addition to the lab, the students also have a Microscope Quick Guide they can use as a reference for how to use the microscopes correctly. The lab instructor should make sure to go over the correct use of both microscopes in detail with the class. Students should also be instructed on how to clean microscope slides and cover slips for future use. An overview of microscope basics such as magnification, depth of field and field of view would also be helpful to the students prior to starting this lab. Materials needed for this lab: · Dissecting microscope · Compound microscope · Microscope slides · Cover slips · Water bottle/dropper · Dissecting needle · Newspaper · Graph paper · Triangle with measurement (mm) markings along one side · Glass dish or petri dish · Prepared slides of crossed thread · Elodea

Lab 4: Cells This lab covers cell structure and function in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Students will also learn/practice making wet mounts and make epidermal peels. Instructors should demonstrate how to make a proper epidermal peel and slices of the samples. Special emphasis should be given on how to make thin, wedge-shaped slices, reminding students that very little sample is needed for viewing under the microscope (2 mm wide is sufficient). Part C of this lab also introduces osmosis. If this topic has not yet been covered in lecture, some extra time at the beginning of lab should be used to introduce osmosis and the difference between hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions. Students may refer to chapter 5 in the Living World textbook if they need help labeling the diagrams in Figure 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3. Potential hazards: Remind students about proper microscope usage and to refer them to the Microscope Quick Guide included in their lab manual. Students should be told to use care with razor blades and scalpels. And instructed on how to clean microscope slides and cover slips for future use. Materials needed for this lab: Common supplies: · Kimwipes · Razor blades and/or scalpels · Cutting board · Prepared animal and plant slides · Banana, parsnip, potato, ginger, spinach, red sweet pepper, red cabbage and onion · Microscope slides · Cover slips · Couple of biology textbooks for reference if needed Per group: · Dropper bottle of lugol's iodine solution · Dropper bottle of distilled water · Dropper bottle of 10% NaCl Group x 8: · 8 Dropper bottles of lugol's iodine solution · 8 Dropper bottles of distilled water · 8 Dropper bottles of 10% NaCl

Lab 5: Cell Environment ­ Osmosis and Diffusion This lab uses the scientific method to investigate osmosis and diffusion. The lab instructor should introduce the concepts of osmosis and diffusion in their introduction to the lab. Specific attention should be given to defining terms like concentration gradient, dynamic equilibrium, kinetic energy and the difference between a solvent and a solute. Some instruction on how to properly use dialysis tubing will be needed before students begin the lab. Remind students to dry off dialysis tubing before weighing. Potential hazards: Students should be warned about the use of sucrose in the lab. All glassware and spills should be cleaned immediately. Sucrose filled sacs should be placed directly in the trash when the activity is completed. Materials needed for this lab: Common supplies: · 10 ml pipettes & bulbs · 40% sucrose solution (1 L) · Red, green and blue food coloring · Dental floss to tie off dialysis tubing · 2 digital scales and weigh boats or paper · Cold, room temperature and warm water baths · Elodea · Forceps · Microscope slides · Cover slips Per group: 6 pieces of 10 cm dialysis tubing presoaked in water 3 1000 ml beakers 1 dropper bottle with 5% NaCl Group x 8: 48 pieces of 10 cm dialysis tubing presoaked in water, plus a couple extras 8 dropper bottles with 5% NaCl 24 1000 ml beakers

Lab 6: Carbohydrates This lab was designed to correspond to the discussion of macromolecules in Bio 10 lecture. It specifically focuses on carbohydrates. The lab instructor should review the structure of carbohydrates (mono-, di- and polysaccharides). An overview of the iodine test for starch and Benedict's test for simple sugars would also be helpful. Potential hazards: Students will use their own saliva for portions of this experiment. Since this is a potential biohazard, the saliva volunteer must handle any tubes that contain their saliva for the remainder of the lab. Materials needed for this lab: Common supplies: · Deionized water · Flask of water with dropper · Sugar solution · Starch solution · Lemon · Cooked egg white · Slice of bread · Potato · Onion · Benedict's solution waste container Per group: Hot plate 600 ml beaker 14 test tubes in test tube rack 1 wax pencil Paper cup 6 disposable pipettes Mortar and pestle Dropper bottle of iodine solution Group x 8: 8 hot plates 8 600 ml beakers 8 test tube racks with 14 test tubes in each 8 wax pencils 8 paper cups 18 disposable pipettes 8 mortars and pestles 8 dropper bottles of iodine solution

Lab 7: Enzymes This lab studies enzymes with a specific focus on digestive enzymes. The lab instructor should review what enzymes are and how they work (see review questions on page 7-2 of the lab, these questions should be discussed in the introduction to the lab). Special emphasis should be put on the fact that enzymes are proteins and what that means in terms of enzymatic function (affect of pH and temperature on an enzyme's activity). Review the experimental procedures (Figure 8.3, 8.4 and 8.5) with the students before beginning the lab. Students start Part B while waiting for Part A to incubate. Potential hazards: · Students will use their own saliva for portions of this experiment. Since this is a potential biohazard, the saliva volunteer must handle any tubes that contain their saliva for the remainder of the lab. · Razor blades should be used with extreme care. · HCl is a strong acid and should be handled with extreme caution. Materials needed for this lab: Common supplies: · Pipettes & bulbs if needed · Hot plates with beaker of water and test tube clamps · Beakers · Water bath ­ 370C · Razor blade or scalpel · Cooked egg white · Cutting board · Ice bath · Cooked starch solution (50-100 ml) · Pepsin solution (50-100 ml) · Whole milk (100 ml) · Bile salts · Pancreatin solution (100 ml) · pH indicator paper · Waste container for Benedict's reagent Per group: · Dropper bottle of Benedict's reagent · Dropper bottle of Lugol's reagent · Dropper bottle of conc. HCl · 11 test tubes in rack · Wax pencil · 10 ml graduated cylinder · Spot plate · 3 glass stir rods Group x 8: · 8 Dropper bottles of Benedict's reagent · 8 Dropper bottles of Lugol's reagent · 8 racks with 11 test tubes in each · 8 wax pencils · 8 10 ml graduated cylinders · 8 dropper bottles of conc HCl · 8 spot plates · 24 glass stir rods

Lab 8: Plants In this lab, students will use paper chromatography to separate plant pigments and examine leaf structures. In addition, they will hypothesize about the affect of gravitropism on plants. An introduction to this lab should include an overview of photosynthesis and the role of plant pigments in photosynthesis. Student will also need to understand how paper chromatography works and how to calculate Rf values. A demonstration by the instructor on how to setup the chromatography experiment is recommended. For the Gravitropism experiment, if possible, have a before and after setup for display. At the beginning of the lab, instruct the students to view the "before" setup and write their hypothesis in Part C. Towards the end of the lab, bring out the "after" setup and have students analyze the results and accept or reject the hypothesis they wrote down at the beginning of the lab. Potential hazards: Warn students not to touch the chromatography paper with their bare hands or write on it with ink (use pencil instead). Chromatography solvent should not be inhaled. Vials should not be open unless students are inserting or removing the paper. And this should be done in the fume hood. Materials needed for this lab: Common supplies: · Spinach leaves · Microscope slides · Cover slips · Elodea · Mother of Thousands plant · 4-8 Tomato plants · Gravitropism setup Per group: · 1 Vial with cork stoppers and chromatography solvent · Forceps and/or gloves · Pre-cut chromatography paper · Metric ruler · Pencil · Dropper bottles of water Group x 8: · 8 Vials with cork stoppers and chromatography solvent · 8 forceps and/or box of gloves · 8 Pre-cut chromatography papers + a few extras · 8 metric rulers · 8 pencils · 8 dropper bottles of water

Lab 9: Yeast Fermentation This lab provides another opportunity for students to use the scientific method, this time to study yeast fermentation. The lab instructor should give an overview of yeast fermentation. Before allowing students to begin the lab, spend some time reviewing the experimental procedures with the class. Potential hazards: Students will use very warm water in Part A. They should handle the beaker of warm water with care. Materials needed for this lab: Common supplies: · Yeast (500 g) · Sugar (50 g) · Beaker of water in 550C water bath · 2 large water baths - 550C · Digital scales · Weigh boats or paper Per group: · 5 whirlpac bags and ties · 4 1000 ml beakers · 1 10 ml graduated cylinder · 1 500 ml graduated cylinder · 1 Wax pencil · 1 thermometer · 1 Ottodunker (mesh thing that hold the bag down) · 10 ml each of soda, diet soda, fruit juice and water · Large tray Group x 8: · 40 whirlpac bags and ties + a couple extras · 32 1000ml beakers · 8 10 ml graduated cylinders · 8 500 ml graduated cylinder · 8 Wax pencils · 8 thermometers · 8 Autodunkers (mesh thing that hold the bag down) · 100 ml of each total - Regular soda, Diet soda, Fruit juice, Bottled water · 8 large trays

Lab 10: Cell Division In this lab students will review mitosis and meiosis. They will view mitosis in both animal and plant cells as well as model mitosis and meiosis. The lab instructor should review the cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis at the beginning of lab. Materials needed for this lab: Common supplies: · Prepared slides of onion root tip · Prepared slides of whitefish blastula Per group: · 1 set of pop-it beads · 2 lengths of yarn · 4 beads (centrioles) Group x 8: · 8 sets of pop-it beads · 16 lengths of yarn · 32 beads (centrioles)

Lab 11: DNA Biology This lab was written to review the structures DNA and RNA and the processes of DNA replication, transcription and translation. The lab instructor should discuss the structure of DNA & RNA and review DNA replication, transcription and translation prior to starting the lab. Answer Key for Transcription/Translation Activity: DNA Template # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Protein # 8 3 1 7 10 2 4 6 5 9

Materials needed for this lab: Common supplies: · DNA template cards (#1-10) · Protein cards (#1-10) · 4 bags with different types of candy ­ reward for getting correct protein sequence Per group: · DNA Simulation Beads Set (Item# 171034, Carolina) Group x 8: · 8 DNA Simulation Beads

Recommend printing DNA template and protein cards on cardstock that can be reused and making the DNA template cards a different color than the protein cards. Make multiple copies of each of the DNA template cards (each student will need 4 different template sequences).

Protein # 1 Amino Acid Sequence

Met Phe Leu Thr Ile Stop

Protein # 2 Amino Acid Sequence

Met Arg Ala Val Lys Stop

Protein # 3 Amino Acid Sequence

Met Pro Ser Phe Glu Stop

Protein # 4 Amino Acid Sequence

Met Gln Glu His Ile Stop

Protein # 5 Amino Acid Sequence

Met Asn Phe Ser His Stop

Protein # 6 Amino Acid Sequence

Met Arg Asp Met Val Stop

Protein # 7 Amino Acid Sequence

Met Gly Ala Arg Met Stop

Protein # 8 Amino Acid Sequence

Met Leu Asp His Trp Stop

Protein # 9 Amino Acid Sequence

Met Lys Thr Lys Arg Stop

Protein # 10 Amino Acid Sequence

Met Pro Leu Tyr Ala Stop

Template # 1 DNA Template

TACGAAC TAGTGACC AC T

Template # 2 DNA Template

TACG G ATC A A AG C T TAT T

Template # 3 DNA Template

TAC A A AG AC TG T TA A ATC

Template # 4 DNA Template

TA CCC TCG CG C ATA C AT T

Template # 5 DNA Template

TA CG G TA A C ATA CG TA C T

Template # 6 DNA Template

TA C T C T C G C C A C T T TAT T

Template # 7 DNA Template

TA C G T C C T T G TATA G AT T

Template # 8 DNA Template

TA C T C C C TATA C C ATAT C

Template # 9 DNA Template

TA C T TA A A G TCG G TG A C T

Template # 10 DNA Template

TA C T TC TG G T T T T C C A C T

Lab 12: Genetics The instructor may want to prepare a table that compiles the outcomes of the coin tosses for the entire class, which should provide a close approximation to the predicted percents (which is not always observed in the 16 coin tosses made by each pair of students). For the genetics of sex determination part of this activity, the instructor should post a chart on the board with columns for number of males and total number of children, so students can enter the data for their family or group in order to compile the data needed to answer questions. Teaching Points: · The behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization provides the basis for understanding the inheritance of genes. · Meaning of terms, including allele, heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, genotype, phenotype · How to use Punnett squares to make predictions about genotypes and phenotypes · In large samples of offspring, observed frequencies of genotypes and phenotypes will usually be close to predictions based on Punnett squares, but for small samples there may be substantial deviations from predicted due to chance variation. · Independence of successive fertilization events · Genetics of sex determination · How to carry out basic pedigree analysis and interpret pedigrees · Adaptive advantage for sickle-cell heterozygous individuals where malaria is prevalent Background Biology: As shown in the first pedigree, the allele for albinism is recessive, since two unaffected parents have an affected offspring. (This pedigree also indicates that the allele for albinism is autosomal recessive and not X-linked recessive, since the affected daughter, E, presumably inherited one allele for albinism from her unaffected father, B.) The allele for albinism is recessive because it codes for a defective enzyme for producing melanin, while the normal allele codes for the functioning enzyme; even when there is only one copy of the normal allele there is enough of this functioning enzyme to produce enough melanin to prevent albinism. Recessive alleles often code for a non-functional protein, while dominant alleles often code for a functional protein. (Further information about the various forms of albinism, as well as additional information concerning many of the conditions discussed below and a great deal of information on other aspects of human genetics, is available from OMIM, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, which is easily found by entering OMIM in a Google search.) Sickle cell hemoglobin is less soluble in the watery cytosol of the red blood cells than normal hemoglobin, particularly when oxygen concentrations are low. Thus, sickle cell hemoglobin tends to form long stacks or rods of hemoglobin molecules, and this results in the sickled shape of red blood cells. The sickled red blood cells tend to clog the capillaries, blocking the circulation in different parts of the body. Also, the sickled red blood cells do not survive as long as normal red blood cells, contributing to a tendency to anemia. Resulting symptoms include pain, physical weakness, impaired mental functioning, and damage to organs such as the heart and kidneys.

For the challenge question, when two affected parents have a normal child, this indicates that the allele for this particular condition is dominant. (This allele must be autosomal dominant and not X-linked dominant, since an affected father (A) has an unaffected daughter.) The allele for achondroplasia is considered dominant because an individual who is heterozygous for this allele and the normal allele has the dwarf phenotype. However, it is of interest that, while heterozygous individuals have an increased risk of infant death (estimated at about 7%), the homozygous condition is lethal (due to difficulty breathing as a result of a small rib cage and brain problems resulting from abnormalities of the skull). The specific mutation responsible for achondroplasia results in a protein that is overactive in inhibiting bone growth. Achondroplasia provides the opportunity to discuss two additional interesting points. Achondroplasia is an example of a condition caused by an allele which is dominant, but rare in the population; 99.99% of the population is homozygous for the normal recessive allele for this gene. Also, achondroplasia is a good example of a condition which is genetic, but generally not hereditary; in more than 80% of cases neither parent has the allele for achondroplasia and the child has achondroplasia due to a new mutation which occurred during production of the sperm. Materials needed for this lab: · Coins · PTC paper & control paper · Optional: mirror

Lab 13: Biotechnology This lab covers restriction enzymes and DNA fingerprinting. Most modern DNA fingerprinting is done by analyzing Short Tandom Repeats (STRs) of DNA, but in this lab we describe the RFLP method of DNA fingerprinting as it lends itself for a good example of how restriction enzymes work in addition to learning about gel electrophoresis. Students will need to use micropipetters for this lab and proper use of these instruments as well as the gel boxes is of key concern. A micropipetter tutorial is included in the lab manual. This tutorial can be completed the day of the lab, the week before or assigned as homework the week before the biotechnology lab. The lab instructor will need to give an overview of how restriction enzymes work as well as an overview of gel electrophoresis. A demonstration of how to properly use the micropipetters is also important. This lab will require a lot of supervision on the part of the lab instructor. I recommend the instructor directly supervise each group as they load their gel, calling each group up one at a time to load their gel. If this process is started early in the lab, there should be plenty of time for everyone to get their gel loaded and ran. While they are waiting their turn, the students can be working on the rest of the lab. The gels need to run 20-30 minutes at 100 volts. The results are: Mother- heterozygous Child- heterozygous (maternal allele contribution is faster migrating) Alleged Father 1- heterozygous, no matches, not the father. Alleged Father 2- homozygous, not the father. Alleged Father 3- homozygous, a match. This male shares the "obligate allele." For the simulated gel electrophoresis in Figure 14.5, Suspect 2 (Blue) is the match. If you have time, while the gels are running you can get your students all hyped up by playing one, two, or more youtube.com paternity test videos. Below are links to a couple examples: Paternity Test Shocker 1 of 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J8taRuI1-5c&feature=related and Paternity Test Shocker 2 of 2 (which has the results) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bdou4nv37B8&feature=related

Materials needed for this lab: Common supplies: · Tape · Buffer · Dyes to simulate DNA in labeled tubes: Mother- Cresol Red and Orange G Child- Orange G and Fast Green AF1- Phyloxine B and Buffalo Black AF2- Bromophenol Blue AF3- Fast Green · Power supplies and gel boxes · Light box · Plastic wrap Per group: · 1 of each of the Cell DNA handouts copied on the correct color paper as indicated (pink, blue, white) · Scissors · 2 highlighters, different colors · p-20 micropipetter · box of pipette tips · waste container for used tips · small agar plate with holes for practice pipetting · 1.5 ml eppendorf tubes (or similar) with diluted food coloring · 1.5% agarose gel Group x 8: · 8 copies of each of the Cell DNA handouts copied on the correct color paper as indicated (pink, blue, white) · 8 pairs of scissors · 8 highlighters of 1 color · 8 highlighters of different color · 8 p-20 micropipetters · 8 boxes of pipette tips · 8 waste containers for used tips · 8 small agar plate with holes for practice pipetting · 8 1.5 ml eppendorf tube (or similar) with diluted food coloring · 8 1.5% agarose gels

CELL DNA - TYPE 1 - WHITE

STRIP 1

CUT Tape Strip 1 Here Tape Strip 2 Here Tape Strip 3 Here Tape Strip 4 Here

STRIP 2

STRIP 3

STRIP 4

STRIP 5

T=A G=C G=C G=C C=G C=G T=A T=A A=T A=T G=C A=T C=G A=T G=C G=C C=G T=A T=A

CUT Tape to Top of Strip 2

A=T A=T G=C T=A T=A C=G T=A T=A A=T A=T G=C T=A C=G A=T A=T G=C C=G C=G C=G

Tape to Top of Strip 3

C=G T=A T=A C=G G=C A=T A=T G=C G=C T=A A=T C=G A=T T=A G=C C=G C=G T=A A=T

Tape to Top of Strip 4

G=C G=C T=A A=T C=G A=T T=A G=C C=G C=G T=A A=T A=T T=A G=C C=G C=G T=A A=T

Tape to Top of Strip 5

C=G C=G T=A T=A A=T A=T G=C T=A C=G A=T C=G T=A T=A C=G G=C A=T A=T G=C A=T

CELL DNA - TYPE 3 - PINK

STRIP 1

CUT Tape Strip 1 Here Tape Strip 2 Here Tape Strip 3 Here Tape Strip 4 Here

STRIP 2

STRIP 3

STRIP 4

STRIP 5

T=A G=C G=C G=C C=G C=G T=A T=A A=T A=T G=C A=T C=G A=T G=C G=C G=C C=G G=C

CUT Tape to Top of Strip 2

A=T G=C A=T T=A T=A C=G T=A A=T G=C G=C C=G T=A C=G A=T A=T G=C C=G C=G C=G

Tape to Top of Strip 3

C=G T=A T=A C=G G=C A=T A=T G=C G=C T=A A=T C=G A=T T=A G=C C=G C=G T=A A=T

Tape to Top of Strip 4

G=C G=C T=A A=T C=G A=T T=A G=C C=G C=G T=A A=T A=T T=A G=C C=G C=G T=A A=T

Tape to Top of Strip 5

C=G C=G T=A T=A A=T A=T G=C T=A C=G A=T C=G T=A T=A C=G G=C A=T A=T G=C A=T

CELL DNA - TYPE 2 - BLUE

STRIP 1

CUT Tape Strip 1 Here Tape Strip 2 Here Tape Strip 3 Here Tape Strip 4 Here

STRIP 2

STRIP 3

STRIP 4

STRIP 5

T=A G=C G=C G=C C=G C=G T=A A=T G=C G=C C=G A=T C=G A=T G=C G=C G=C C=G G=C

CUT Tape to Top of Strip 2

A=T G=C A=T T=A T=A C=G T=A T=A A=T A=T G=C T=A C=G A=T A=T G=C C=G C=G C=G

Tape to Top of Strip 3

C=G T=A T=A C=G G=C A=T A=T G=C G=C T=A A=T C=G A=T T=A G=C C=G C=G T=A A=T

Tape to Top of Strip 4

G=C G=C T=A A=T C=G A=T T=A G=C C=G C=G T=A A=T A=T T=A G=C C=G C=G T=A A=T

Tape to Top of Strip 5

C=G C=G T=A T=A A=T A=T G=C T=A C=G A=T C=G T=A T=A C=G G=C A=T A=T G=C A=T

Lab 14: Natural Selection In this lab, two types of evolutionary change ­ natural selection and genetic drift ­ will be investigated with simulations of a population of prey. In this first simulation, predators simulate natural selection as they visually "hunt" for prey in the "habitat". In the second simulation, the falling trees simulate genetic drift in a random manner by which they "kill" the organisms in the habitat. Instructor may wish to start the lab with a brief overview of natural selection. The instructor can engage students by asking them to pretend that they are an animal (like a mouse) living in field. Have them list some ways they might be killed. Discuss the responses. The lab instructor may also link in a discussion of ecology concepts like density dependent and density independent population limiting factors. Before beginning the lab it would be beneficial to model the procedure to the students in order for this activity to be successfully completed. Materials needed for this lab: Per group: · A container with 40 mixed beads ­ 10 beads in each of 4 colors · A piece of multicolored fabric with a complex pattern, about 50 cm x 30 cm · 4 small containers, each with beads of one of the four colors (about 40 beads in each container) · Optional: colored markers for making graphs (same colors as beads) · 2 labeled petri dishes: survivor dish and graveyard dish · 3 pencils with masking tape wrapped around them, sticky side out Group x 8: · 400 beads of each of the 4 colors · 8 containers of 40 mixed beads (10 of each color) · 8 containers of 40 beads of each color · 8 colored markers in each color · 8 pieces of fabric · 8 "graveyard" petri dishes · 8 "survivor" petri dishes · 24 masking tape wrapped pencils Set up notes: · Have containers of beads ready to use. For best results, beads should be approximately 3-4 mm in diameter. For the natural selection aspect of the simulation to work best, one bead color should blend in well when set against the fabric background chosen. · Falling trees: 3 pencils covered in masking tape with the sticky side out. One way to make them is to roughly measure out two pieces of tape as long as the pencil. Then tape the two pieces together, side by side. Finally, wrap this one piece around the pencil with the sticky side out. A fresh taped pencil is needed for each round, because the tape loses its stickiness and becomes less effective at picking up beads

Lab 15: Classification and Evolution Every group of 2-4 students needs a sheet of paper for constructing the phylogenetic tree. Cut the paper into rectangles about 3 feet long. A good way to do this is to mount the roll on a broom handle so the paper can be pulled out and cut with a razor or scissors. Alternatively, have the students cut off sheets as needed. With a three hour lab there should be time to complete the three exercises but you also have the option of having the students do the first and second exercise on their own before they come to class (see below). You could then go over the results at the beginning of the lab in some detail. Alternatively, you can run through the first two exercises with the class as a whole, using an overhead projector and transparent cutouts of the living Caminalcules. You can ask the students questions and guide their responses. This not only speeds up the lab, it also minimizes confusion because you can insure that the students are starting the lab on the right foot. After completing Exercise 2 it students should better understand that, a. the taxonomic classification reflects evolutionary history, b. species within a taxonomic group (e.g. within a genus) share a common ancestor not shared by other species, and c. species should be grouped together on the basis of more than one shared characteristic. With respect to this last point, many students conclude that, because they both have claws, species 3 and 12 must be more closely related to each other than to any other species. You may have to draw their attention to other characteristics (body shape, elbows, hind feet, etc.) A copy of the "correct" phylogenetic tree, as devised by Camin is available but should not be shown to the students until after they have done there own. It is unlikely that many students will come up with exactly the same tree. The important thing is that their tree is internally consistent and that they understand the evolutionary concepts involved in the exercise. Example Lab Assignment: The lab next week on the classification and evolution of organisms involves three exercises. You will do exercise 1and 2 before coming to lab. Make two copies of your work and turn in one copy at the beginning of the lab. You will keep the second copy to use during the lab as you do the third exercise. Materials needed for this lab: Caminalcules 1 set per group meter sticks 1 per group of 2-4 students scissors 1 per student white glue 1-2 per table Paper 1 large sheet (approximately 2.25' x 3') per group. These sheets can be cut from newspaper "end rolls" available from the local newspaper.

LIVING CAMINALCULES

FOSSIL CAMINALCULES (numbers in parentheses indicate age in millions of years)

FOSSILS (continued)

Lab 16: Bacteria In this lab students will study bacteria and perform a handwashing experiment. This lab will take 2 lab periods to complete. I recommend analyzing the results of the bacteria handwashing experiment at the beginning of the next lab period. It would be helpful to go over the handwashing experiment before beginning the lab. Review the experimental setup and demonstrate how to correctly handle and label agar plates. Potential hazards: Caution students about handling bacteria plates: Once agar plates have been incubated, they should not be opened. Very important to wash hands and bench after handling agar plates with bacteria. Materials needed for this lab: Common supplies: · Several agar plates inoculated with bacteria and incubated ahead of time · Prepared slides of bacteria ­ representatives of all three different shapes of bacteria · Regular hand soap · Antibacterial hand soap · Alcohol foam wash or alcohol prep pads · Tape Per group: · 1 vial of distilled water · 2 cotton swabs · 4 agar plates · 1 sharpie pen Group x 8: · 8 vials of distilled water · 16 cotton swabs · 32 agar plates · 8 sharpie pens

Lab 17: Senses & Perception The purpose of this lab is to study the nervous system and major sense organs in more detail. The lab instructor should give an overview of the nervous system and major sense organs before beginning the lab. Important terms to go over for this lab include: central and peripheral nervous system, sensory neurons, motor neurons and interneurons. Potential hazards: Remind students to be kind to their lab partners during this lab. Gentle pricks (no stabbing) are all that is required to obtain a sensory response. Materials needed for this lab: Common use: · Rubber grid stamp & ink pad · Heat probes in hot water bath · Cold probes in cold water bath · 3 water baths: cold, warm, room temperature ­ large enough to put submerse entire hand · Model of human ear · Model of human eye · Eye chart (including astigmatism chart), with tape line marked on the floor 20 ft away · Color cards*: red, blue, yellow, white Per group: · 1 paint brush · 1 dissecting needle · 1 set of dividers with two points or forceps · 16 cotton swabs · 1 set of flavors: 5% sucrose, 5% acetic acid, 0.1% quinine sulfate, 10% NaCl · 1 tuning fork · Optional: 4 cotton balls · 1 optic disc card · 1 paper tube Group x 8: · 8 paint brushes · 8 dissecting needles · 8 sets of dividers with two points or forceps · 128 cotton swabs · 8 sets of flavors: 5% sucrose, 5% acetic acid, 0.1% quinine sulfate, 10% NaCl · 8 tuning forks · Optional: 32 cotton balls · 8 optic disc cards · 8 paper tubes

*Color Cards: Small color square (red, blue or yellow) placed/glued to a black piece of paper. Also need a white sheet of paper.

Lab 18: Ecology In this lab students will dissect barn owl pellets and construct a food web from the data they collect. Lab instructors should review food chain/food web concept in their introduction to the lab and also explain how to use a dichotomous key. Potential hazards: Caution students to use care when handling beakers of diluted bleach. Materials needed for this lab: Common supplies: · Digital scales Per group: · 1 barn owl pellet · 1 Metric ruler · Several sheets of paper to spread out bones · 1 dissecting needle · 1 Beaker of diluted bleach · 1 Piece of cardboard for mounting bones · Glue Group x 8: · 8 barn owl pellets · 8 metric rulers · Stack of paper · 8 dissecting needles · 8 beakers of diluted bleach · 8 bottles of glue · 8 pieces of cardboard

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