Read Phonological and Phonemic Awareness text version

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Word Learning

Word learning consists of: ·phonological and phonemic awareness, ·phonics, ·structural analysis, and ·high-frequency sight words.

1

Decoding Unknown Words

Using your knowledge about phonemic awareness and phonics and how they relate to decoding, complete the equation (Handout 1). Phonemic Awareness Definition: __________ Examples: Decoding + ___________+ ___________= Unknown Words Definition: Definition:

Strategies used to decode unknown words

Definition: ____________

Examples:

·Consonants

Examples:

·Using Analogy

2

____________ ·Short Vowels

Components of Language

FORM MEANING USE

Phonology

Semantics

(vocabulary)

Pragmatics

Morphology Categories of Use

Syntax (grammar)

Social

Thinking

Literacy

The modes for using these language components are speech, listening, reading, writing, and sign language, which are inclusive of both expressive and receptive language.

Adapted from Owens (2005); Evans (1996).

3

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Phonological Awareness

Four levels of "Awareness": ·Word, ·Syllable, ·Onset/Rime, and ·Sound/phoneme or phonemic awareness

4

Video

Phonological-Awareness Overview

5

Levels of Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Levels of Phonological Awareness

General awareness of sound

Word Level

1. Concept of Word 2. Rhyme (Identification and Production)

Syllable Level

Word (cow/boy) Syllable (ta/ble)

Onset- and Rime-Level

Onset and Rime /m/ /ice/

Phoneme (Sound) Level

Simple* 1. Phoneme Counting 2. Phoneme Isolation 3. Phoneme Segmentation 4. Phoneme Blending Phonemic Awareness Compound* 1. Phoneme Deletion 2. Phoneme Substitution 6 * terms used by Yopp (1988)

More sophisticated awareness of sound

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Phonological Awareness

(an overall awareness of the sounds in spoken language)

Word Level

Concept of word

Description

Segmenting sentences into spoken words

Example

The dog ran away. 1 2 3 4

7

Phonological Awareness

(an overall awareness of the sounds in spoken language)

Word Level

Rhyme ·Identification ·Production

Description

Matching the ending sounds of words

Example

Identification: "Do these words rhyme?" cat ­ bat teen ­ bean dog ­ rat Production: "Give me a word that rhymes with . . . bat __________ bean __________ dog __________

8

Types of PhonologicalAwareness Tasks

Syllable, Onset-Rime, and Phoneme (Sound) Levels

· Segmentation ­ breaking spoken words into parts · Blending ­ putting sounds together into a whole unit · Manipulation ­ adding, deleting, and/or substituting sound units

9

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Phonological Awareness

(an overall awareness of the sounds in spoken language)

Syllable Level

Syllable

Description

Segmenting spoken words into syllables

Example

"What are the parts of `cowboy'?" /cow/ /boy/ "What are the parts of `table'?" /ta/ /ble/

Blending syllables to identify a word

"/cow/ /boy/" = cowboy "/mag/ /net/" = magnet "/pa/ /per/" = paper

Manipulating (adding, deleting, and substituting) spoken words into syllables

"What would `table' be if we added `top' to the end?" /tabletop/ "What would `tabletop' be without the `table'?" /top/ "What word would you have if you took the word `tabletop' and changed the `top' to `bottom'?" /tablebottom/ 10

Onset and Rime

Onset: Initial consonant or consonant cluster of the word. Rime: Vowel and consonants that follow the onset. /m/ /ice/ onset rime

11

Phonological Awareness

(an overall awareness of the sounds in spoken language)

Onset- and Rime-Level Onset and Rime

Description

Segmenting the initial consonant or consonant cluster (onset) and the vowel and consonant sound(s) that follow Blending the initial consonant or (onset) and the vowel and consonant sound (s) that follow Manipulating (adding, deleting, and substituting sounds) the initial consonant or consonant cluster (onset) and the vowel and consonant sound(s) that follow

Example

"How would we break the word mice into two sounds?" /m/ /ice/ "If I say /m/ /ice/, what word is that?" /mice/ "What would mice be without the /m/?" /ice/ "What word would you have if you replaced the /m/ in /mice/ with /n/?" /nice/

12

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Phonological Awareness

Phonemic Awareness

13

Phonemes

Phonemic awareness specifically focuses on individual sounds (known as phonemes) in words. Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in spoken words. /m/

1st phoneme

/a/

2nd phoneme

/t/

3rd phoneme

14

Phonemic Awareness

(an awareness of the individual sounds in spoken language)

Sound Level

Phonemic Awareness ·Simple**

Description

Counting phonemes in a word

Examples

"How many phonemes do you hear in cat?" 3 - /k/ /a/ /t/ "Give me the sounds that are in the word /man/." /m/ /a/ /n/ "If I say /m/ /a/ /n/, what word is that?" /man/

Segmenting a word into phonemes

**Students make the most gains when they are involved in activities that involve both segmenting and blending tasks.

Blending phonemes in a word

15

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Phoneme Isolation

16

Phonemic Awareness

(an awareness of the individual sounds in spoken language)

Sound Level

Phonemic Awareness ·Simple

Description

Isolation: Matching initial, final, and medial sounds

Examples

Lay out three picture cards (dog, duck, frog). "Which of the picture names begin with the same sound?" /dog/, /duck/ "Which of the animal names end with the same sound?" /dog/, /frog/ "Which of the animal names have the same sound in the middle?" /dog/, /frog/ 17

Phonemic Awareness

(an awareness of the individual sounds in spoken language)

Sound Level

Phonemic Awareness ·Compound

Description

Manipulating (deleting and substituting sounds) phonemes in a word

Examples

"What would the word /cat/ be without the /c/?" /at/ "Take the /k/ off of the word /cat/ and put on an /s/. What would the word be?" /sat/

18

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Video

Four Levels of Phonological Awareness

19

Phonological-Awareness Instructional Activity Samples Types of Phonological Awareness Concept of word Rhyming Syllable Onset and rime Phonemic (simple) Phonemic (compound) Examples of Instructional Activities One at a Time Catch a Rhyme What's in a Name? Sound Blocks Round and Round We Go Sound by Sound Change That Tune

20

Equation for Decoding Unknown Words

Phonemic Awareness + Definition: __________+ Definition: Decoding __________= Unknown Words Definition:

Strategies used to decode unknown words

Definition:

Knowledge that words are composed of individual sounds Examples: (phonemes) ·Consonants ·isolating ·Short Vowels ·segmenting ·blending ·manipulating

Examples:

·using analogy

21

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

National Reading Panel Findings

1,962 Studies found/78 met criteria/52 analyzed

· Teaching phonological awareness clearly affects students' achievement in phonemic awareness, reading, and spelling. · Extending "pure" phonological-awareness instruction (oral-only activities) to include manipulation of phonemes with letters yields greater effects than teaching students without letters. · Effects are greater when teachers make their strategy instruction explicit to students.

22

National Reading Panel Findings

1,962 Studies found/78 met criteria/52 analyzed

· More is not better. The most effective programs consisted of 20 hours or less of instruction during the school year, or 15-20 minutes daily. Effect sizes were almost twice as large for shorter programs than for longer programs. · The teacher should tailor training time to student learning by assessing who has and who has not acquired particular phonological-awareness skills. Students who have acquired the skills need to move on to other aspects of reading and writing.

23

National Reading Panel Findings

1,962 Studies found/78 met criteria/52 analyzed

· Children who receive instruction that focuses on orally segmenting and blending phonemes make greater gains in reading and spelling than do children who are taught three or more types of manipulation at the same time (e.g., also deletion and substitution). · Phonological awareness is one small part of a comprehensive, effective reading program.

24

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Kansas State Standards

Kindergarten and First Grade

Standard 1 - Reading: The student reads and comprehends text across the curriculum. Benchmark 1: The student uses skills in alphabetics to construct meaning from text.

The student... 1. demonstrates phonemic awareness skills by hearing and orally manipulating sounds (e.g., phoneme isolation, identification, categorization, blending, segmentation, deletion, addition, substitution) (Phonemic Awareness). 2. identifies and makes oral rhymes and begins to hear onsets and rimes (e.g., alliteration, intonation) (Phonological Awareness). 3. demonstrates an understanding of graphemes and phonemes (i.e., soundsymbol relationships) in written and spoken language (Phonics).

25

Say It and Move It

26

Elkonin Boxes

· Elkonin boxes and chips are used to teach phonemic segmentation and blending. · Boxes and chips are used when a child has not developed phonemic awareness and/or the ability to segment and blend sounds. · Words with regular sound/symbol associations should be used with Elkonin boxes. Elkonin (1973)

27

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Teaching Phonological Awareness with Picture Books

When teaching phonological awareness explicitly, teachers provide activities for children to practice at varying levels using words and word parts in stories and books that are read aloud.

28

Planning a Lesson to Teach Phonological Awareness

1. Choose a children's book. 2. Use your book to develop a phonologicalawareness activity for your assigned part. 3. Write the title of your book and your activity on an index card. 4. Post your activity on the wall.

29

Phonological-Awareness Assessment

· · · · Verify Identify Specify Recognize

Results of individually administered phonologicalawareness inventories can help teachers make informed instructional decisions.

30

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Phonological Awareness Skills Test - P.A.S.T.

(Zgonc, 2000)

· · · · · · ·

Concept of spoken word Rhyme recognition Rhyme production Syllable blending Syllable segmentation Syllable deletion Phoneme isolation of initial sounds

· Phoneme isolation of final sounds · Phoneme blending · Phoneme segmentation · Phoneme deletion of initial sounds · Phoneme deletion of first sounds in consonant blends · Phoneme substitution

31

Yopp Test of Phonemic Awareness (Yopp, 1995)

Phonemic Segmentation The Yopp test assesses the important phonemicawareness skill of segmentation. For this assessment, the teacher gives the child a word and then asks him/her to give each sound in the word in order. Example: dog /d/ /o/ /g/

32

DIBELS

(Good & Kaminski, 2002)

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Two subtests of the DIBELS that focus on phonemic awareness: · Initial-Sounds Fluency · Phoneme-Segmentation Fluency

33

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Core Materials Review

Does the instruction provided in the teaching material that teachers use in your school match the research that has been presented on phonological awareness?

34

Remember . . .

Phonological awareness, especially phonemic awareness, "provides children with essential foundational knowledge in the alphabetic system. It is one necessary instructional component within a complete and integrated reading program." (National Reading Panel, 2000, p. 8)

35

Reflection

36

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 1 (1 of 1)

Equation for Decoding Unknown Words Decoding Phonemic Awareness+ _______________+ _______________= Unknown Words Definition: __________________ __________________ Examples: · _____________ · _____________ · _____________ · _____________ Definition: Definition: ______________ Strategies used to decode unknown ______________ words Examples: Examples: · Consonants · ____________ · Short vowels · ____________ · ____________ · Using analogy · ____________ · ____________ · ____________ · ____________

Created by: Diane Nielsen and Laurie Winter.

Definition: _____________ _____________

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

1

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 2 (1 of 2) Levels of Phonological Awareness and Phonemic Awareness

Word Level 1. Concept of Word 2. Rhyme (Identification and Production) Syllable Level Word (cow/boy) Syllable (ta/ble) Onset- and Rime-Level Onset and Rime /m/ /ice/ Phoneme (Sound)Level Phonemic Awareness Simple* 1. Phoneme Counting 2. Phoneme Isolation 3. Phoneme Segmentation 4. Phoneme Blending

Compound* 1. Phoneme Deletion 2. Phoneme Substitution *terms used by Yopp (1988)

Children's phonological and phonemic awareness includes four levels of skills that develop over time. These include word, syllable, onset/rime, and phoneme or sound level. Word Level: The first level of phonological awareness is the word level. This level includes both concept of word and rhyming (identification and production). Syllable Level: The second level of phonological awareness is the syllable level. Obviously, it is easier for students to identify syllables in compound words like "cowboy" than it is to break words into syllables, like "ta-ble." Onset and Rime Level: The third level of phonological awareness is onset and rime, commonly known as word families. In the word "mice," for example, the /m/ is the onset and the /ice/ is the rime (r-i-m-e). Phoneme (Sound) Level: The fourth level of phonological awareness is the sound level. Phonemes are the individual sounds that make up a word. Yopp, in a 1988 article from Reading Research Quarterly, identified two categories at the phoneme level ­ simple and compound. These categories were developed based on the cognitive requirements of the tasks used to operationalize the concept.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy 2

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 2 (2 of 2)

Simple phonemic awareness facilitates beginning word recognition. Actually, simple phonemic awareness is a prerequisite to taking off when learning how to decode or figure out unknown words. It is described as tasks where students complete one operation at a time. Simple tasks include phoneme counting, isolation, blending, and segmentation. An example of this type of task is segmenting the word dog into its three phonemes: /d/ /o/ /g/. The child is required to complete one task ­ to segment.

The compound form of phonemic awareness requires the child to handle two tasks when working with phonemes. Compound phonemic awareness includes phoneme manipulation (e.g., addition, deletion, and substitution). For example, taking the word dog and asking children to delete the /d/ and substitute a /f/ to make the new word fog. See how the child must be able to use his/her working memory to delete the /d/ sound, hold on to the /og/, and then add a new sound /f/ to create the word fog? This is a difficult task. As a child learns to read words, the ability to complete compound phonemic-awareness tasks improves.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

3

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 3 (1 of 3) Phonological- and Phonemic-Awareness Instructional Activity Samples

Levels of Phonological Awareness Examples of Instructional Activities

Word Level · Concept of Word · Rhyming (Identification and Production)

Syllable Level

Onset and Rime

Levels of Phonemic-Awareness Activities

Examples of Instructional Activities

Sound Level Simple Level of Phonemic Awareness · Phoneme counting · Phoneme isolation · Phoneme segmentation · Phoneme blending

Sound Level Compound Level of Phonemic Awareness · Phoneme manipulation (addition, substitution, and/or deletion)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

4

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 3 (2 of 3)

Catch a Rhyme

The teacher throws a ball of yarn or a beach ball to a child and says: "Tell me a word that rhymes with lawn." The child says a rhyming word and throws the ball back to the teacher. Variation: "Tell me a word that rhymes with lawn. I'll give you a hint: When I'm tired, I sometimes [acts out a long yawn]."

Change That Tune

The teacher leads children in a familiar song but substitutes different sounds in the lyrics. Example: Apples and Bananas is sung substituting the long a sound in each phrase: "I like to ate, ate, ate, ayples and baynaynays."

Describe It!

Children add words to describe the names of different foods. These phrases contain words that all begin with the same sound: jolly juice round rolls big bean burrito

One at a Time

The teacher slowly says a sentence: "We are on our way to lunch." Children take one step, hop, or skip for each word in a sentence. Variation: Children step on one tile square for each word.

Round and Round We Go

The teacher passes around familiar objects and says, "Whoever has an object that starts with the /b/ sound, please stand up." The teacher asks the child with the object (basket) to say the name of the object. The teacher continues around the room until all the objects have been named.

Sound by Sound

The teacher says a three- or four-phoneme word, such as cat or lamp. Children play a clapping game with the teacher or another child. They clap or touch hands as they say the individual sounds in the word: /k/ /a/ /t/ or /l/ /a/ /m/ /p/

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

5

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 3 (3 of 3)

Sound Blocks

The teacher gives children two blocks that do not have any numbers or letters written on them. Blocks are placed in a row. The teacher says: "When I want to say tap in two parts, I touch the blocks like this." [Touch the first block and say "/t/"; touch the second block and say "-ap."] The teacher says other words that end in "-ap." The children touch the blocks as they say the words in two parts.

What's in a Name?

The teacher says an animal name. One child is asked to clap, snap, or tap the syllables as the teacher slowly repeats the name syllable-by-syllable. Other children count the syllables that they hear. The teacher asks: "How many syllables did you hear in . . . ?" Note: Some children can segment the word into syllables on their own.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy eading

6

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 4 (1 of 1)

Explicit Instruction

Strategy or Skill Instruction Phonological/Phonemic Awareness

Declarative: The teacher tells the students what strategy or concept they will learn. (What) Procedural: The teacher tells/explains and models/demonstrates/ the strategy or concept for the students. (How)

"Today I'm going to teach you how to segment words into their individual sounds and then blend those sounds together again." "When you say a word, you can break that word into its individual sounds. I'll show you how to do it. When I say the word /dog/, I segment it into its individual sounds. I can use my hands to help me. So, I put my fists together and start the word /dog/. Each time I say a sound in /dog/, I move my fists apart. Watch me. /d//o/-/g/. (Demonstrate) Then when I blend the sounds back together to make the word, I bring my fists together and say the whole word I just segmented, /dog/. I call this strategy "stretching it out and putting it back together again or segmenting and blending." Repeat with additional words. "If you know how to use this strategy, it makes it easier to write words that you want to write. Later it will help you learn to read."

Conditional: The teacher explains how this strategy or concept will be useful and when the students will use it. (Why)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

7

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 5 (1 of 2) "Say It and Move It" Activity

1. Give children a "Say It and Move It" card (page 2 of 2) and several counters. 2. Have children place the counters above the solid line. 3. Say a word with two or three phonemes, such as the word sip. 4. Have the children segment the word into phonemes by saying the word slowly and moving the counters. They move the counters up to the arrow as a guide for placement. /s/ Children move a counter up to the dot on the arrow. /i/ Children move a second counter up to the right of the first counter on the arrow. /p/ Children move a third counter up to the right of the second counter on the arrow. 5. After they have moved all three counters to the arrow, have the children blend the sounds together as they repeat the word and slide their fingers below the counters in a left-to-right sequence. (Variation: Children repeat the word while sliding all of the counters in one continuous motion across the arrow in a left-to-right sequence.) 6. Continue with this procedure using other words (e.g., mat, let). 7. This activity can be used for practice with: · · · words with silent e (e.g., make, mine); words with consonant combinations (e.g., ship, that); and letter tiles for blending letter-sound correspondences to read words.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

8

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 5 (2 of 2) Say It and Move It Card

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

9

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 6 (1 of 1) D.B. Elkonin

D.B. Elkonin was a professor in the U.S.S.R. who developed a technique for teaching early readers the sound structure of words. His work was reported in Educational Psychology in the U.S.S.R. (1963) and later translated by R. Raider and John Downing in the book, Comparative Reading (1973). In these two writings, Elkonin reported the following sequence of teaching students the sound structure of words: 1. A child is shown a picture of an object (cup) and a number of boxes below the picture that represent the number of sounds in that word, in this case three. 2. The child says the word aloud: "cup." 3. The child is given the same number of chips as boxes. The child pushes the first chip into the corresponding box while saying the sound. The child continues to push each chip into a box while saying the sound until he/she has said each sound. 4. Later Elkonin added the concept of writing graphemes (letters) in the boxes to represent the sound. Marie Clay and others have built upon Elkonin's work and his concept of assisting early readers in developing the sound structure of words. In the following handout, the Academy provides participants with two variations of how to use boxes.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

10

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 7 (1 of 2) Hearing and Recording Sounds in Words Marie Clay

Hearing the sounds: Make a few picture cards for simple words, such as cat, bus, boy, ship, and house to use to introduce the task. Prepare some cards on which you draw a square for each sound segment in words of two, three and four sounds, for example: m-e, b-oy

c-a-t, b-oa-t, sh-i-p, h-ou-se

j-u-m-p, t-r-ai-n

Have a selection of counters ready. Step 1: Slow articulation and hearing sounds Introduce the child to the task of slowly articulating words. Use a picture card and: slowly and deliberately articulate the word for the child. ask the child to articulate the word aloud. Ask him to "Say it slowly."

Step 2: Using boxes for hearing sounds in the words to be written. Choose a card that has the appropriate number of boxes to represent sounds in a word (e.g., cat has three sounds, so the teacher would select three boxes). Model the task for the child by pushing up the chips into a box as the sound is articulated. Ask the child to push the chips and give the sounds. The teacher may step in and scaffold the child.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy 11

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 7 (2 of 2)

This activity may be expanded and used to link phonemic awareness to phonics. We will highlight how to add this component to Hearing and Recording Sounds by Marie Clay in the Word Learning ­ Phonics section of the Academy. (Clay, 1993)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

12

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 8 (1 of 2) Segmenting and Blending Using Elkonin Boxes KALL (Kansas Accelerated Literacy Learning) Program

Elkonin Boxes: Chip-Pushing Strategies Why: Elkonin boxes and chips are used to teach phonemic segmentation and blending, as well as sound/symbol correspondence. Boxes and chips are used when a child has not developed phonemic awareness and/or the ability to segment and blend sounds. When using boxes, teachers are doing what Marie Clay refers to as "item" teaching. Only words that have regular sound/symbol association should be chosen to put into boxes. In most cases, it is advisable to use only one-syllable words. Select words that will be most beneficial to the child. For example, in early stages, it would be best to choose a short vowel (CVC) word, and as the child progresses, it may be better to choose a word with a long vowel sound (CVCe, CVVC). Select words that have three or four sounds (e.g., pot, that, stop). Avoid high-frequency sight words with irregular spellings, such as said or the. Keep the words out of the student's sight at this time. Hearing the Sounds 1. Place a number of chips on the table (e.g., six). Have the child listen to you and watch your lips as you segment the chosen word. Ask the child how many sounds s/he heard. Put down a chip for each sound (phoneme) heard, not each letter in the word. If the child is unable to answer, tell him/her the number of sounds. Note: Blends are made of two (br) or three (spl) phonemes, but digraphs (sh, ch, th, wh) are made of one sound (phoneme), therefore one box is used per digraph. 2. Demonstrate the role of the chips by again segmenting each sound, and this time push up one chip as you make each sound. 3. Have the child push up one chip as you say each segmented sound. Get the child to join you verbally, too. 4. Demonstrate, then have the child run his/her finger under the chips as s/he blends the sounds together.

When:

Which Words:

How:

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

13

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 8 (2 of 2) Segmenting and Blending Using Elkonin Boxes (cont.)

5. Provide drawings of boxes (one box for each sound segment, not letter, in the selected word) or have the students draw the designated number of boxes on paper (this could be two, three, or four boxes). Example:

6.

Slowly articulate each sound (not letter) with the students as they push a chip into each box. Allow students to repeat this process two to three times. The teacher diminishes his/her role with each succeeding child attempt. Have the students push one chip from left to right as they blend the sounds together. Repeat steps 6 and 7 multiple times until the child is fluent in segmenting and blending the word.

7. 8.

Sources: Elkonin, 1973; Boxes video; Frye, Homan, & Short, 1991 handout; Pinellas County, Florida, teachers. Revised 2/04 - D. Nielsen/L. Winter

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

14

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 9 (1 of 3) Phonological-Awareness Activity Examples 1. Word Level A. Concept of Word

"I'm going to say a sentence: John gave me the book." [Children echo the sentence pointing to or moving a manipulative as they say each word: John . . . gave . . . me . . . the . . . book.] "How many words are in the sentence?" [Children count the manipulatives and say: There are five words in the sentence.] "I'm going to say a sentence." [Say a sentence.] "Now you say part of the sentence." [Children say part of the sentence.] "Good. Now say part of that." [Continue until the children are down to one word.] "I'm going to say a sentence: He had to move away. Say part of the sentence." (He had to move) "Good. Now say part of that." (He had to) "Good. Now say part of that." [Continue until only one word in the sentence is left.] "I'm going to say a sentence." [Say a sentence.] "Now say it again with me and move one counter as you say each word." [Repeat the sentence slowly with children.]

B. Rhyme

Rhyme Identification: "I'll say two words. You tell me if they rhyme: fight--might (yes) punch--badge (no) way-- rug (no) one--done (yes)" "Tell me which one of the words I say does not rhyme with the other three: play, wave, away, stay. Which word doesn't rhyme?" (wave) "Now I'm going to tell you several words, and you'll have to tell me which words match my special word. Which word rhymes with fun: any, bet, sun, was?" (sun) "Listen to the two words I say, and tell me if they rhyme." Rhyme Production: "Now it's your turn to think of rhyming words. Tell me some words that rhyme with frog." "We're going to think of rhyming words. Tell me a word that rhymes with . . . "

2. Syllable Level

Segment: "When I give you the word baseball, can you break it down into its parts? /base/ /ball/ How about penny?" /pen/ /ny/ "We're going to count syllables in words. How many syllables do you hear in ...?" Blend: "We're going to make a word by putting two parts of a word together." Tad--poles. "What's the word?" (tadpoles) Gar--den. "What's the word?" (garden) "Listen to the parts of the words that I say, and tell me the word. / / / / What's the word?" Manipulation (Deletion): "We're going to leave out syllables, or parts of words. Say someone without some." (one) "Say lonely without lone." (ly)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

15

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 9 (2 of 3) Phonological-Awareness Activity Examples 3. Onset-and-Rime Level

"Listen to the two parts in cat: /k/ --at. Put these sounds together to make a word: /k/ --at. What's the word?" (cat) "Good." "Pull these words apart. Say the first sound you hear and then the rest of the word. If I say bat, you say /b/ --at." [Repeat with the word: pit (/p/ --it).] "Listen to the sounds I say, and tell me the word. / / / / What's the word?"

4. Sound (Phoneme) Level A. Sound (Phoneme) Level - Simple

Phoneme Counting: "Let's count the sounds that we hear in words. How many sounds do you hear in the following words: at (2), hot (3), tree (3), slip (4)." "Let's stretch out the word / /. How many sounds do we hear in / /?" "I'm going to say a word, and I want you to count each sound you hear. How many sounds do you hear in . . . ?" Beginning Sound Identification: "I'll say three words. Tell me which words begin with the same sound: garden, girl, share" (garden, girl); "rush, caught, call" (caught, call). Phonemic Isolation Beginning/Initial: "Listen to the sound I say. Which word begins with the /s/ sound: letter, friend, send, away?" (send) "Listen to the sound at the beginning of the word. What sound does the word lion start with?" (/l/) "Listen to the word I say, and tell me the first sound you hear in the word. What's the first sound in . . . ?" Phonemic Isolation Ending/Final: "Let's think about the sounds at the end of words. What sound does the word go end with?" (/o/) "What sound does fun end with?" (/n/) "Listen to the word I say, and tell me the final or last sound you hear in the word. What's the last sound in . . . ?" Phonemic Isolation Middle/Medial: "Listen to the word I say, and tell me the middle sound in the word. What's the middle sound in the word did?" (/i/) "Listen to the word I say, and tell me the middle sound you hear in the word. What's the middle sound in . . . ?" Phonemic Segmentation: "Tell me the sounds you hear in the word cat." (/k/ /a/ /t/) "What's the first sound in cat?" /k/ "What's the next sound?" /a/ "What's the last sound?" /t/ "Let's stretch out the word / /. Tell me the sounds in the word / / What is the first sound? What is the next sound? What is the last sound?" Phonemic Blending: "Tell me what word you hear when I say /d/ /o/ /g/." (dog) "Listen to the sounds I say, and tell me the word. / / / / / / What's the word?" When I say / / / /, can you blend it together, and tell me what word I am saying?

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

16

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 9 (3 of 3) B. Sound (Phoneme) Level - Compound

Phoneme Addition: "What word do you have if you add the /s/ sound to the beginning of the word pin?" (spin) Phoneme Substitution: "We're going to change sounds in words. Say pet." (pet) "Instead of /p/ say /m/. What's your new word?" (met) "What word do you have if you change the /i/ sound in lip to the /a/ sound?" (lap) Phoneme Deletion & Isolation: "I want you to listen to two words I say, and then tell me what sound is missing." "What sound do you hear in seat that is missing in eat?" (/s/) "What sound do you hear in tall that is missing in all?" (/t/) Phoneme Deletion: "We're going to leave out sounds in words. Say the word lived without the /d/." (live) "Live is a real word. Sometimes the word we have left may not be a real word." "Say the word mean without the /n/." (me) "Say the word much without the /m/. What's the word?" (uch). "Uch, that's a silly word!" "What word do you have when you take away the /s/ sound at the beginning of spy?" (pie) "We're going to leave out the first sound in a word. Say ___ without the ___."

Adapted from Neuhaus Education Center (1992).

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

17

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 10 (1 of 3) Elements of Effective Phonological-Awareness Instruction

You can plan phonological-awareness instruction to target the needs and abilities of each student. Grouping for Instruction · Teach phonological awareness, especially phonemic awareness, in small groups. · Research indicates that small-group instruction is more effective than one-on-one and whole group in helping children acquire phonemic awareness and in learning to read. · Small-group instruction may be more effective, because children benefit from listening to their peers and having more opportunities to participate. Explicit (declarative, procedural, and conditional) and Systematic Instruction The teacher should: · focus instruction on the levels of phonological awareness most closely associated with beginning reading and spelling achievement by linking phonemes to print. · Target only one level of phonological awareness, such as blending phonemes or segmenting words into phonemes. Begin with easier activities and progress to more difficult ones.

· Model each activity when it's first introduced. · Use words children know and that are easy to manipulate during phonemic-awareness activities.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

18

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 10 (2 of 3)

Examples of easier beginning consonants: f, ch, m, s, h, kn, l, ph, n, sh, th, v, wh Examples of more difficult beginning consonants: b, c, g, l, p, t Ongoing Practice The teacher should: · provide opportunities to practice with teacher support and guidance. · provide some activities (e.g., songs, games, and stories) that are simply oral. Other activities should include concrete objects and manipulatives, such as fingers, blocks, counters, puppets, and pictures. · link sounds to letters. When children practice sounds along with the letters of the alphabet, they learn to blend sounds to read words and to segment sounds to spell words. · integrate practice throughout the curriculum and the school day. · encourage children to play with language. · provide opportunities for children to practice when they are having a snack, lining up for lunch, recess, or the bus, or moving from one activity to another. · focus on what is spoken and heard rather than on what can be seen. Progress Monitoring The teacher should: · regularly monitor each child's phonological-awareness progress. · verify that children are reaching specific phonological-awareness objectives; identify children in need of additional instruction or practice; specify concepts or skills that need more attention; and recognize when children have or have not acquired phonologicalawareness knowledge and skills. · make informed instructional decisions using the results of individually administered phonological-awareness inventories.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

19

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 10 (3 of 3)

English Language Learners English language learners may have phonological awareness in their native languages, but less proficiency may be observed when phonological awareness is assessed in English. Often the sounds that we have in our English language are difficult for students whose first language was not English. The difference in how sounds are produced in the mouth and the degree of distinctness varies from language to language. For example, Spanish children have difficulty hearing and pronouncing the final sounds in some words. They also confuse the following sounds: /s/ for /th/: /ch/ for /j/: /s/ for /z/: /b/ for /v/: /t/ for /d/: /d/ for /th/: /s/ for /sh/: /j/ for /y/: /n/ for /m/: /sin/ for thin /chudge/ for judge /sinc/ for zinc /bote/ for vote /ten/ for den /dis/ for this /soe/ for shoe /jellow/ for yellow /dine/ for dime

Other problems include hearing blends at the beginning of words such as, sc, sl, sm, sn, sp, squ, st, sw, and the final blends, nt, nk, mp, lt, lk, sk, and ld. The r-controlled vowels are also hard to distinguish and pronounce. English language learners should achieve some proficiency in English before they are held accountable for phonological awareness in English.

Note: Difficulty with the development of phonological awareness is identified as one of the characteristics associated with reading difficulties.

Adapted from the KTRA Phonological Awareness presenter notes that are based on: Adams (1990, 2001); Adams, Treiman, et al. (1998); Allor et al. (2001); Ball & Blachman (1991); Blachman (2000); Goswami (2001); Lennon & Slesinski (1999); NIFL (2001); NRP (2000); O'Connor (1999, 2000); Smith et al. (2001); Smith et al. (1998a); Snow et al. (1998); Torgesen (1999); Torgesen et al. (1999); Uhry & Ehri (1999); Yopp & Yopp (2000). (Complete citations are included in the Phonological Awareness reference pages.)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

20

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 11 (1 of 6)

Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

21

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 11 (2 of 6)

Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

22

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 11 (3 of 6)

Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

23

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 11 (4 of 6)

Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

24

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 11 (5 of 6)

Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

25

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 11 (6 of 6)

Student #____

Strengths:

Needs:

Instructional Focus:

Activities:

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

26

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 12 (1 of 3) Phonological-Awareness Sample Lessons Lesson One

Objective: Children blend syllables, onset-rimes, and phonemes Materials: Puppet, picture cards Setting: Small groups 1. Introduce a puppet. 2. Explain that the puppet likes to play a game with children, but it has a strange way of talking. It says words very slowly. It likes to give children picture cards, but there is a catch. It wants them to figure out what is on the card before it gives the card to them. 3. Give an example: "Instead of saying baseball, the puppet says base . . . . . . . . . ball. You have to figure out what it is saying and say the word fast, putting the parts together. What's the word? Baseball." Then show a picture of a baseball. 4. Have the puppet say a word slowly to each child. When the child says the word, the puppet gives the card to the child. Begin with words that have more than one syllable: bi--cy--cle, pep--per--mint, wa--ter--mel--on, fin--ger--paints, com-- put--er. 5. Then have the puppet say one-syllable words, breaking them into their onset and rime: /s/--oap, /b/--ook, /d/--esk, /d/--og, /p/--an. 6. Finally, have the puppet say words separating each phoneme: /m/ /a/ /t/ = mat, /ch/ /e/ /k/ = check, /p/ /e/ /n/ = pen.

Adapted from Adams, M. J., Foorman, B. R., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). ©2006 Kansas Reading Academy 27

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 12 (2 of 3) Phonological-Awareness Sample Lessons Lesson Two

Objective: Children blend and segment phonemes. Materials: Two different-colored blocks or plain counters for you and each child; one set of pictures that represent two-phoneme words Setting: Small groups · Use words whose meanings and usage are familiar to children. · Begin with blending activities and then combine with segmenting activities. Blending 1. Child chooses a card and names what is pictured. 2. Repeat the word slowly with a short pause between phonemes. 3. All the children in the group repeat the word slowly in the same manner. 4. Place two different-colored blocks or blank counters underneath the picture and say the sound of each phoneme. 5. Children repeat the word, sound by sound, using their blocks to represent the two distinct sounds. 6. Model how to continue saying the word, pausing less each time between phonemes: /t/ . . . . . . /o/ . . . . . . toe; /t/ . . . /o/ . . . toe; /t/./o/. toe. 7. Have children repeat the sounds several times and point to the respective blocks.

Segmenting 1. Place the picture cards face down. Choose one and place it so the children cannot see the picture. Name the picture phoneme by phoneme (e.g., /t/ /i/ for tie) while placing the two blocks under the picture. 2. Have children point to their blocks and repeat the phonemes over and over and faster and faster. Follow the same procedure as described in the blending activity until children know the word. 3. When they know the identity of the picture, turn the picture card over for all to see.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

28

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 12 (3 of 3)

4. When children become more proficient, they can choose a picture and say the phonemes for the others in the group to identify. Follow the same procedure and have the whole group respond by voicing the separate phonemes as they point to their corresponding blocks. 5. Variations: Say words without picture cards. Use the words in sentences for clarification: "tie--The man's tie is black and white." Have children use words in sentences.

Adapted from Adams, M. J., Foorman, B. R., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998).

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

29

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 13 (1 of 1) Children's Books to Support Phonological Awareness

The following is a sampling of titles organized by category. Look in your own literature collection. What books do you have that might support instruction in phonological awareness? How? Books with Rhyme: Books for exposure to rhyme, development of the concept of "rhyme," and sources for activities focusing on identification, matching, and production of rhyming words Poetry collections Delicious Hullaboo (Pat Mora) Mother Goose collections Hand Rhymes (Marc Brown) Stories and single poems published in the picture-book format Better Not Get Wet, Jessie Bear (Nancy Carlstrom) Each Peach Pear Plum (Janet and Allan Ahlberg) Is Your Mama A Llama? (Deborah Guarino) Sheep in a Jeep (and others by Nancy Shaw) Seven Spunky Monkeys (J. F. Koller) Books with Alliteration A, My Name is Alice (Jane Bayer) Aster Aardvark's Alphabet Adventures (Steven Kellogg) Faint Frogs Feeling Feverish (Lilian Obligado) Four Famished Foxes and Fosdyke (Pamela Duncan Edwards) Doing the Animal Bop (Ormerod & Gardiner) Books with repetitive phases ­ great for word, syllable, and phoneme-level activities A House is a House for Me (Maryann Hoberman) Clack, Clack, Moo: Cows That Type (Doreen Corwin) Miss Bindergarten Has a Wild Day in Kindergarten (J. Slate) Sakes Alive! A Cattle Drive (K. Wilson) Songs and folk rhymes - great for many uses, but particularly for deletion and substitution All God's Critters Got a Place in the Choir (Bill Staines) Eency Weency Spider I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly Mary Wore Her Red Dress Old MacDonald (Amy Schwartz) Raffi songs in book form and on tape (e.g., Down by the Bay and the collection Raffi's Top Ten Songs to Read) Wheels on the Bus (Harriet Ziefert) Note: See booklists in books by Fitzpatrick (1997) and Opitz (2000), as well as the article by Hallie Yopp on incorporating songs in phonological-awareness instruction (Yopp, 1992). See articles by Opitz in IRA (2002) book for additional booklists.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy 30

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Handout 14 (1 of 1) Reflection about Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

What components or practices are already in my classroom? What resources, activities, and materials do I plan to add?

How will I integrate these new components or practices into my existing classroom?

What information or support (i.e., more print resources, help with implementation, coaching, etc.) do I need to effectively implement these components into my existing program?

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

31

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

References

Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Adams, M. J. (2001). Alphabetic anxiety and explicit, systematic phonics instruction: A cognitive science perspective. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 66­80). New York: Guilford Press. Adams, M. J., Foorman, B. R., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic awareness in young children: A classroom curriculum. Baltimore: Brookes. Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In I. E. Sigel & K. A. Renninger (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Child psychology into practice (5th ed., pp. 275­355). New York: Wiley. Allor, J. H., Fuchs, D., & Mathes, P. G. (2001). Do students with and without lexical retrieval weaknesses respond differently to instruction? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(3), 264­275. Ball, E. W., & Blachman, B. A. (1991). Does phoneme awareness training in kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26(1), 49­66. Blachman, B. A. (2000). Phonological awareness. In M.L. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Vol.3 (pp. 483-502). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Clay, M.M. (1993). Reading Recovery: A guidebook for teachers in training. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

32

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Elkonin, D.B. (1963). The psychology of mastering the elements of reading. In B. Simon & J. Simon (Eds.), Educational Psychology in the U.S.S.R. (pp. 165-179). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Elkonin, D.B. (1973). U.S.S.R. in J. Downing (Ed.), Comparative reading (pp. 551-579). New York: Macmillan. Evans, J. (1996). Oral Language: A developmental continuum. Boston, MA: STEPS Professional Development. Fitzpatrick, J. (1997). Phonemic awareness: Playing with sounds to strengthen reading skills. Cypress, CA: Creative Teaching Press. Good, R. H., & Kaminski, R. A. (Eds.). (2002). Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills (6th ed.). Eugene, OR: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement. Goswami, U. (2001). Early phonological development and the acquisition of literacy. In S. B. Neuman & D. K. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp. 111­ 125). New York: Guilford Press. Kansas State Department of Education (2003). Kansas Reading and Writing Standards. Topeka, KS: Author. Lennon, J. E., & Slesinski, C. (1999). Early intervention in reading: Results of a screening and intervention program for kindergarten students. School Psychology Review, 28(3), 353­364. National Institute for Literacy. (2001). Put reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read. Jessup, MD: Author.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

33

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Neuhaus Education Center. (1992). Reading readiness. Bellaire, TX: Author. Nielsen, D.C. (1994, 2004). Segmenting and blending using Elkonin boxes. Lawrence, KS. Nielsen, D.C., & Winter, L.L. (2005). Equation for decoding unknown words. Lawrence, KS. O'Connor, R. E. (1999). Teachers learning Ladders to Literacy. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 14(4), 203­214. O'Connor, R. E. (2000). Increasing the intensity of intervention in kindergarten and first grade. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15(1), 43­54. Optiz, M.F. (2000). Rhymes & reasons: Literature and language play for phonological awareness. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Optiz, M.F. (2002). Reaching readers: Flexible and innovative strategies for guided reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Owens Jr., R. (1996). The Territory. In Language Development: An Introduction (4th Ed), (pp. 2-27). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Smith, S. B., Simmons, D. C., Gleason, M. M., Kame'enui, E. J., Baker, S. K., Sprick, M., et al. (2001). An analysis of phonological awareness instruction in four kindergarten basal reading programs. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 17, 25­51.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

34

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Smith, S. B., Simmons, D. C., & Kame'enui, E. J. (1998a). Phonological awareness: Instructional and curricular basics and implications. In D. C. Simmons & E. J. Kame'enui (Eds.), What reading research tells us about children with diverse learning needs: Bases and basics (pp. 129­140). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Torgesen, J. K. (1999). Assessment and instruction for phonemic awareness and word recognition skills. In H. W. Catts & A. G. Kamhi (Eds.), Language and reading disabilities (pp. 128­153). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Rose, E., Lindamood, P., Conway, T., et al. (1999). Preventing reading failure in young children with phonological processing disabilities: Group and individual responses to instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(4), 579­593. Uhry, J. K., & Ehri, L. C. (1999). Ease of segmenting two- and three-phoneme words in kindergarten: Rime cohesion or vowel salience? Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(4), 594­603. Wood, A. (1982). Quick as a cricket. Swindon, U.K.: Child's Play Ltd. Yopp, H. K. (1988). The vailidity and reliability of phonemic awareness. Reading Research Quarterly, 23(2), 159-177. Yopp, H. K. (1992). Developing phonemic awareness in young children. The Reading Teacher, 45(9), 696-703. Yopp, H. K. (1995). A test for assessing phonemic awareness in young children. The Reading Teacher, 49(1), 22.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

35

K/1 KRA: Word Learning Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Yopp, H. K., & Yopp, R. H. (2000). Supporting phonemic awareness development in the classroom. The Reading Teacher, 54(2), 130­143. Zgonc, Y. (2000). Sounds in action: Phonological awareness activities and assessments. Peterborough, NH: Crystal Springs Books.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

36

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 1 (1 of 3)

Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity #1

Activity: Equation for Decoding Unknown Words Time Estimate: 2 minutes preparation time, 5 minutes activity time Rationale: The ability to decode is comprised of several topics. The intent of this activity is to access teachers' prior knowledge about the components of decoding. Throughout this module, the Academy will build a common body of information about decoding unknown words. Goal: Teachers will think about what they know about the topics and content involved with decoding and complete an equation for decoding unknown words. Materials: · Handout 1: Equation for Decoding Unknown Words Directions: 1. Refer participants to Handout 1 (1 of 1): Equation for Decoding Unknown Words when the virtual tour guide suggests. 2. Allow participants five minutes to complete this activity. 3. Ask participants to share their answers with someone else at their table. 4. Explain that some of the answers to the equation will be distributed later in the module and that the complete equation will be revealed during Module 9, Word Learning: Phonics.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 1 (2 of 3)

Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity #1 Equation for Decoding Unknown Words

Note to facilitators: This page is a duplicate of Handout 1 (1 of 1) from the Word Learning module. If you have already copied the PowerPoint slides and Handouts, you do not need to copy this page.

Phonemic Awareness + Definition: __________________ __________________ Examples: · _____________ · _____________ · _____________ · _____________

+ ______________ Definition: ______________ ______________ Examples: · Consonants · Short vowels · ____________ · ____________ · ____________ · ____________

= _______________

Decoding Unknown Words

Definition: Strategies Definition: used to decode unknown _____________ words _____________ Examples: · ____________ · ____________ · Using analogy · ____________

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 1 (3 of 3)

Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity #1 Equation for Decoding Unknown Words - Answers

Handout 1 (2 of 2)

Note to facilitators: This page contains the answers for Handout 1. Please do not distribute this page until Slide 17 of the PowerPoint presentation (mid-way through Section 3) of the Word Learning: Phonics module.

Phonemic Awareness +

Phonic Knowledge +

Decoding Strategies =

Decoding Unknown Words

Definition: Knowledge that words are composed of individual sounds (phonemes).

Definition: Knowledge about sound/letter relationships: · consonants · short vowels · blends · digraphs · long vowels · vowel combinations

Definition: Strategies used to decode unknown words: · segmenting and blending · simple structural analysis (-s, -es) · using analogy · more advanced structural analysis

Definition: The use of phonemic awareness, phonic knowledge, and decoding strategies to determine unknown words.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 2 (1 of 3)

Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity #2

Activity: Phonological-Awareness Match Ups Time Estimate: 10 minutes preparation time, 10 minutes activity time Rationale: There are four levels of phonological and phonemic awareness: word, syllable, onset/rime and phoneme or sound level. It is important that teachers know about these four levels in order to match instructional activities to student needs. Goal: Teachers will match specific phonological-awareness activities to the different levels of phonological awareness. Materials: · Phonological awareness cards (p. 2-3) · Ziploc bags · Sticky notes Directions: 1. Copy and cut out the phonological-awareness cards so that each small group of participants has one set. 2. Place each card on the table and read the activity. 3. Determine which level of phonological awareness is presented on the activity card. 4. Write the phonological-awareness level on a sticky note and attach it to the card. 5. Allow 10 minutes for this activity. 6. Instruct participants to keep their activity cards at their table. The cards will be used for further examination of the levels of phonological awareness throughout the next section of this module.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 2 (2 of 3)

Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity #2 Phonological Awareness Cards

Directions: 1. Copy and cut apart the phonological awareness cards. 2. Place one set of cards into a Ziploc bag. 3. Small groups of participants can share one set.

What's in a Name? The teacher says an animal name. One child is asked to clap, snap, or tap the syllables as the teacher slowly repeats the name syllable by syllable. Other children count the syllables that they hear.

Catch a Rhyme The teacher throws a ball of yarn or a beach ball to a child and says: "Tell me a word that rhymes with lawn." The child says a rhyming word and throws the ball back to the teacher.

Variation: The teacher asks: `How many syllables did you "Tell me a word that rhymes with lawn. I'll hear in...?" give you a hint: When I'm tired, I sometimes [acts out a long yawn]." Note: Some children can segment the word into syllables on their own.

One at a Time The teacher slowly says a sentence: "We are on our way to lunch." Children take one step, hop, or skip for each word in the sentence. Variation: Children step on one tile square for each word.

Sound Blocks The teacher gives children two blocks that do not have any numbers or letters written on them. Blocks are placed in a row. The teacher says: "When I want to say tap in two parts, I touch the blocks like this." [Touch the first block and say "/t/; touch the second block and say "-ap."] The teacher says other words that end in "-ap." The children touch the blocks as they say the words in two parts.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 2 (3 of 3)

Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity #2 Phonological Awareness Cards (con't)

Sound by Sound The teacher says a three- or four-phoneme word, such as cat or lamp. Children play a clapping game with the teacher or another child. They clap or touch hands as they say the individual sounds in the word: /k/ /a/ /t/ or /l/ /a/ /m/ /p/ Change That Tune The teacher leads children in a familiar sound, but substitutes different sounds in the lyrics. Example: Apples and Bananas is sung substituting the long "a" sound in each phrase: "I like to ate, ate, ate ayples and baynaynays."

Round and Round We Go The teacher passes around familiar objects and says, "Whoever has an object that starts with the /b/ sound, please stand up." The teacher asks the child with the object (basket) to say the name of the object. The teacher continues around the room until all the objects have been named.

Describe It! Children add words to describe the names of different foods. The phrases contain words that all begin with the same sound: jolly juice round rolls big bean burrito

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 4 (1 of 11)

Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity #4

Activity: Elkonin Boxes Time Estimate: 5 minutes preparation time, 10 minutes activity time Rationale: One of the key predictors to reading success is understanding the sound structure of words. Elkonin boxes is an activity that helps students build an association between a spoken word and the number of phonemes (sounds) within that word. Goal: Teachers will learn and practice the steps of Elkonin boxes. Materials: · Handout 7: Hearing and Recording Sounds in Words (p. 2-3) · Handout 8: Segmenting and Blending Using Elkonin Boxes (p. 4-5) · Pre-made Elkonin Boxes (p. 6-11) · Counters, coins, or other small, round manipulatives Directions: 1. Group participants into pairs. 2. Ask each pair to select one of the Elkonin Boxes procedures (either Handout 7 or Handout 8). 3. Distribute one set of Elkonin Boxes to each pair. 4. Allow 10 minutes for each pair to practice the Elkonin procedure and discuss how this strategy might be utilized with their students.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 4 (2 of 11)

Note to facilitators: The following four pages are duplicates of Handout 7 and Handout 8 from the Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic module. If you have already copied the PowerPoint slides and Handouts, you do not need to copy these pages. Handout 7 (1 of 2)

Hearing and Recording Sounds in Words Marie Clay

Hearing the sounds: Make a few picture cards for simple words, such as cat, bus, boy, ship, and house to use to introduce the task. Prepare some cards on which you draw a square for each sound segment in words of two, three and four sounds, for example: m-e, b-oy

c-a-t, b-oa-t, sh-i-p, h-ou-se

j-u-m-p, t-r-ai-n

Have a selection of counters ready. Step 1: Slow articulation and hearing sounds Introduce the child to the task of slowly articulating words. Use a picture card and: slowly and deliberately articulate the word for the child. ask the child to articulate the word aloud. Ask him to "Say it slowly."

Step 2: Using boxes for hearing sounds in the words to be written. Choose a card that has the appropriate number of boxes to represent sounds in a word (e.g., cat has three sounds, so the teacher would select three boxes).

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 4 (3 of 11)

Handout 7 (2 of 2)

Model the task for the child by pushing up the chips into a box as the sound is articulated. Ask the child to push the chips and give the sounds. The teacher may step in and scaffold the child.

This activity may be expanded and used to link phonemic awareness to phonics. We will highlight how to add this component to Hearing and Recording Sounds by Marie Clay in the Word Learning ­ Phonics section of the Academy. (Clay, 1993)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 4 (4 of 11)

Handout 8 (1 of 2) Segmenting and Blending Using Elkonin Boxes KALL (Kansas Accelerated Literacy Learning) Program

Elkonin Boxes: Chip-Pushing Strategies Why: Elkonin boxes and chips are used to teach phonemic segmentation and blending, as well as sound/symbol correspondence. Boxes and chips are used when a child has not developed phonemic awareness and/or the ability to segment and blend sounds. When using boxes, teachers are doing what Marie Clay refers to as "item" teaching. Only words that have regular sound/symbol association should be chosen to put into boxes. In most cases, it is advisable to use only one-syllable words. Select words that will be most beneficial to the child. For example, in early stages, it would be best to choose a short vowel (CVC) word, and as the child progresses, it may be better to choose a word with a long vowel sound (CVCe, CVVC). Select words that have three or four sounds (e.g., pot, that, stop). Avoid high-frequency sight words with irregular spellings, such as said or the. Keep the words out of the student's sight at this time. Hearing the Sounds 1. Place a number of chips on the table (e.g., six). Have the child listen to you and watch your lips as you segment the chosen word. Ask the child how many sounds s/he heard. Put down a chip for each sound (phoneme) heard, not each letter in the word. If the child is unable to answer, tell him/her the number of sounds. Note: Blends are made of two (br) or three (spl) phonemes, but digraphs (sh, ch, th, wh) are made of one sound (phoneme), therefore one box is used per digraph. 2. Demonstrate the role of the chips by again segmenting each sound, and this time push up one chip as you make each sound. 3. Have the child push up one chip as you say each segmented sound. Get the child to join you verbally, too. 4. Demonstrate, then have the child run his/her finger under the chips as s/he blends the sounds together.

When:

Which Words:

How:

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 4 (5 of 11)

Handout 8 (2 of 2) Segmenting and Blending Using Elkonin Boxes (cont.)

5. Provide drawings of boxes (one box for each sound segment, not letter, in the selected word) or have the students draw the designated number of boxes on paper (this could be two, three, or four boxes). Example:

6.

Slowly articulate each sound (not letter) with the students as they push a chip into each box. Allow students to repeat this process two to three times. The teacher diminishes his/her role with each succeeding child attempt. Have the students push one chip from left to right as they blend the sounds together. Repeat steps 6 and 7 multiple times until the child is fluent in segmenting and blending the word.

7. 8.

Sources: Elkonin, 1973; Boxes video; Frye, Homan, & Short, 1991 handout; Pinellas County, Florida, teachers. Revised 2/04 - D. Nielsen/L. Winter

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 4 (6 of 11)

Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity #4 Elkonin Boxes

Directions: 1. Copy the Elkonin Boxes cards. (optional: laminate fur durability) 2. Place one set of cards into a folder. 3. Each pair of participants can share one set.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 4 (7 of 11)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 4 (8 of 11)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 4 (9 of 11)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 4 (10 of 11)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 4 (11 of 11)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 5 (1 of 5)

Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity #5

Activity: Planning a Lesson to Teach Phonological Awareness Time Estimate: 5 minutes preparation time, 10 minutes activity time Rationale: According to the National Reading Panel report (2000), teaching phonological awareness clearly affects students' achievement in phonemic awareness, reading, and spelling. These effects are greater when teachers make their strategy instruction explicit to students. Goal: Teachers will develop a phonological-awareness activity for a specific level of phonological awareness (word, syllable, onset-rime, or sound) using a children's book. Materials: · Children's books (use whatever is available at your building) · Handout 9: General Phonological-Awareness Activities (p. 3-5) · Chart paper and markers Directions: 1. Arrange participants into groups of three to six. 2. Assign each group one of the four levels of phonological awareness (word, syllable, onset-rime or sound). If you have more than four groups, then some groups will have the same level. 3. Ask groups to select a children's book and write a sample lesson that includes an activity for their assigned level of phonological awareness. Participants may refer to Handout 9: General Phonological-Awareness Activities for activity ideas. 4. Ask each group to write the lesson on chart paper and place it on the wall. 5. Allow 10 minutes for this activity. 6. Begin the next section of this module.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 5 (2 of 5)

Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity #5

Note to facilitators: The following pages are duplicates of Handout 9 (1, 2 and 3 of 3) from the Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic awareness module. If you have already copied the PowerPoint slides and Handouts, you do not need to copy these pages.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 5 (3 of 5)

Handout 9 (1 of 3) Phonological-Awareness Activity Examples 1. Word Level A. Concept of Word

"I'm going to say a sentence: John gave me the book." [Children echo the sentence pointing to or moving a manipulative as they say each word: John . . . gave . . . me . . . the . . . book.] "How many words are in the sentence?" [Children count the manipulatives and say: There are five words in the sentence.] "I'm going to say a sentence." [Say a sentence.] "Now you say part of the sentence." [Children say part of the sentence.] "Good. Now say part of that." [Continue until the children are down to one word.] "I'm going to say a sentence: He had to move away. Say part of the sentence." (He had to move) "Good. Now say part of that." (He had to) "Good. Now say part of that." [Continue until only one word in the sentence is left.] "I'm going to say a sentence." [Say a sentence.] "Now say it again with me and move one counter as you say each word." [Repeat the sentence slowly with children.]

B. Rhyme

Rhyme Identification: "I'll say two words. You tell me if they rhyme: fight--might (yes) punch--badge (no) way--rug (no) one--done (yes)" "Tell me which one of the words I say does not rhyme with the other three: play, wave, away, stay. Which word doesn't rhyme?" (wave) "Now I'm going to tell you several words, and you'll have to tell me which words match my special word. Which word rhymes with fun: any, bet, sun, was?" (sun) "Listen to the two words I say, and tell me if they rhyme." Rhyme Production: "Now it's your turn to think of rhyming words. Tell me some words that rhyme with frog." "We're going to think of rhyming words. Tell me a word that rhymes with . . . "

2. Syllable Level

Segment: "When I give you the word baseball, can you break it down into its parts? /base/ /ball/ How about penny?" /pen/ /ny/ "We're going to count syllables in words. How many syllables do you hear in ...?" Blend: "We're going to make a word by putting two parts of a word together." Tad--poles. "What's the word?" (tadpoles) Gar--den. "What's the word?" (garden) "Listen to the parts of the words that I say, and tell me the word. / / / / What's the word?" Manipulation (Deletion): "We're going to leave out syllables or parts of words. Say someone without some." (one) "Say lonely without lone." (ly)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 5 (4 of 5)

Handout 9 (2 of 3) Phonological-Awareness Activity Examples 3. Onset-and-Rime Level

"Listen to the two parts in cat: /k/ --at. Put these sounds together to make a word: /k/ --at. What's the word?" (cat) "Good." "Pull these words apart. Say the first sound you hear and then the rest of the word. If I say bat, you say /b/ --at." [Repeat with the word: pit (/p/ --it).] "Listen to the sounds I say, and tell me the word. / / / / What's the word?"

4. Sound (Phoneme) Level A. Sound (Phoneme) Level - Simple

Phoneme Counting: "Let's count the sounds that we hear in words. How many sounds do you hear in the following words: at (2), hot (3), tree (3), slip (4)." "Let's stretch out the word / /. How many sounds do we hear in / /?" "I'm going to say a word, and I want you to count each sound you hear. How many sounds do you hear in . . . ?" Beginning Sound Identification: "I'll say three words. Tell me which words begin with the same sound: garden, girl, share" (garden, girl); "rush, caught, call" (caught, call). Phonemic Isolation Beginning/Initial: "Listen to the sound I say. Which word begins with the /s/ sound: letter, friend, send, away?" (send) "Listen to the sound at the beginning of the word. What sound does the word lion start with?" (/l/) "Listen to the word I say, and tell me the first sound you hear in the word. What's the first sound in . . . ?" Phonemic Isolation Ending/Final: "Let's think about the sounds at the end of words. What sound does the word go end with?" (/o/) "What sound does fun end with?" (/n/) "Listen to the word I say, and tell me the final or last sound you hear in the word. What's the last sound in . . . ?" Phonemic Isolation Middle/Medial: "Listen to the word I say, and tell me the middle sound in the word. What's the middle sound in the word did?" (/i/) "Listen to the word I say, and tell me the middle sound you hear in the word. What's the middle sound in . . . ?" Phonemic Segmentation: "Tell me the sounds you hear in the word cat." (/k/ /a/ /t/) "What's the first sound in cat?" /k/ "What's the next sound?" /a/ "What's the last sound?" /t/ "Let's stretch out the word / /. Tell me the sounds in the word / / What is the first sound? What is the next sound? What is the last sound?" Phonemic Blending: "Tell me what word you hear when I say /d/ /o/ /g/." (dog) "Listen to the sounds I say, and tell me the word. / / / / / / What's the word?" When I say / / / /, can you blend it together, and tell me what word I am saying?

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 5 (5 of 5)

Handout 9 (3 of 3) B. Sound (Phoneme) Level - Compound

Phoneme Addition: "What word do you have if you add the /s/ sound to the beginning of the word pin?" (spin) Phoneme Substitution: "We're going to change sounds in words. Say pet." (pet) "Instead of /p/ say /m/. What's your new word?" (met) "What word do you have if you change the /i/ sound in lip to the /a/ sound?" (lap) Phoneme Deletion & Isolation: "I want you to listen to two words I say, and then tell me what sound is missing." "What sound do you hear in seat that is missing in eat?" (/s/) "What sound do you hear in tall that is missing in all?" (/t/) Phoneme Deletion: "We're going to leave out sounds in words. Say the word lived without the /d/." (live) "Live is a real word. Sometimes the word we have left may not be a real word." "Say the word mean without the /n/." (me) "Say the word much without the /m/. What's the word?" (uch). "Uch, that's a silly word!" "What word do you have when you take away the /s/ sound at the beginning of spy?" (pie) "We're going to leave out the first sound in a word. Say ___ without the ___."

Adapted from Neuhaus Education Center (1992).

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 6 (1 of 8)

Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity #6

Activity: Phonological- and Phonemic-Awareness Assessment Analysis Time Estimate: 10 minutes preparation time, 5 minutes activity time, 10 minutes discussion time Rationale: Assessment information provides teachers the necessary guidance to determine what specific phonological and phonemic-awareness instruction that each and every child will need. Research affirms that small-group instruction is more effective than whole group in this area. Goal: Teachers will identify the instructional needs of a student by looking at the P.A.S.T. assessment. Materials: · Handout 11 (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of 6): Sample P.A.S.T. Assessments (p. 2-6) · Handout 11 (6 of 6): P.A.S.T. Analysis Form (p. 7) · (optional and not needed for activity) Sounds in Action by Yvette Zgonc. Crystal Spring Books. ISBN: 1-884548-32-6 Directions: 1. Divide participants into groups of three to six. 2. Assign each group one of the five P.A.S.T. student samples from Handout 11. 3. Ask each group to look through their example, identify the instructional needs for that student, and record their answers on Handout 11 (6 of 6). 4. Allow five minutes for this activity. 5. Ask each group to share out the needs they identified for their assigned student. 6. Refer participants to Handout 12: Sample lesson of Phonological and Phonemic Awareness if they'd like to see what an actual lesson would look like once the instructional needs have been identified. 7. Begin the next section of this module.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 6 (2 of 8)

Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity #6

Note to facilitators: The following pages are duplicates of Handout 11 (1-6 of 6) from the Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness module. If you have already copied the PowerPoint slides and Handouts, you do not need to copy these pages.

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 6 (3 of 8)

Handout 11 (1 of 6)

Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 6 (4 of 8)

Handout 11 (2 of 6)

Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 6 (5 of 8)

Handout 11 (3 of 6)

Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 6 (6 of 8)

Handout 11 (4 of 6)

Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 6 (7 of 8)

Handout 11 (5 of 6)

Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST)

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

K/1 KRA: Word Learning: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Activity 6 (8 of 8)

Handout 11 (6 of 6)

Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST)

Student #____

Strengths:

Needs:

Instructional Focus:

Activities:

©2006 Kansas Reading Academy

Information

Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

78 pages

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

22056


You might also be interested in

BETA
Layout 1
Phonological and Phonemic Awareness
Vocabulary lesson plan
Microsoft Word - Document1