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SPEECH AND LANGUAGE EVALUATION SCALE (SLES)

Diane R. Fressola, M.A., CCC-SLP Sandra Cipponeri Hoerchler, M.S.

Copyright © 1989

TheSpeech and Language Evaluation Scale(SLES)wasdevelopedtoaidinscreening,identification,andprogramplanning

forchildrenandadolescentswithspeechand/orlanguageproblemsinschool.TheSLESisbasedonthefederaldefinitionof speechimpaired(PL94-142)andthespeechandlanguagedisordersdefinitionrecognizedbytheAmericanSpeech-LanguageHearingAssociation.Eachsubscaleisassociatedwithoneofthemostcommonlyrecognizedcharacteristicsofspeechand languagedisorders. TheSLESSpeechsubscalesare Articulation, Voice,and Fluency. TheSLESLanguagesubscalesare Form, Content,and Pragmatics.

Duringinitialdevelopment,theSLESwassubjectedtorigorousfieldtestingbycliniciansandteachersfromallgradelevels (K-12)whichresultedinthe68itemsincludedinthefinalversionofthescale.TheSLESwasstandardizedon4,501students4.5 through18+yearsofagedistributedevenlyacrossallgradelevels.Separatenormsareprovidedformalesandfemales.Demographiccharacteristicsofthestandardizationsamplecloselyrepresentnationalpercentagesforgender,race,residence,geographic area,andoccupationofparents. InternalconsistencyoftheSLESwas.96forthetotalscale.Test-retestreliabilityyieldedcorrelationcoefficientswhich exceeded.86foreachofthesixsubscales.Thetotalscaleinter-raterreliabilitycorrelationcoefficientof.64indicatesap<.01degreeofreliability.Contentvaliditywasestablishedthroughtheinitialdevelopmentprocess.Diagnosticvaliditywasestablished bycomparingthemeansubscalestandardscoresandmeantotalquotientsofidentifiedspeechand/orlanguageimpairedstudents withunimpairedstudents.Thespeechand/orlanguageimpairedstudentsreceivedscoreswhichwerestatisticallysignificant (p<.001)formostsubscales.Itemperformancecorrelatedpositivelywithtotalscaleperformanceandfurthersubstantiatedthe internalcohesivenessofthescaleasameasureofspeechandlanguageproblems. EachitemontheSLESisratedonathree-pointscaleof(0)ALWAYS,(1)OCCASIONALLY,or(2)NEVER.Followingadministration,fourtypesofscoresmaybeobtained:frequencyratingforeachitem(reflectingthedegreeofsuccessdemonstrated foracommunicationskill),subscalerawscore(thesumofthefrequencyratingsforeachsubscale),subscalestandardscore(a consistentbasisforcomparingstudents),andapercentile(aglobalindexofallskillsmeasuredwithinthetotalscale).Usingthe subscalestandardscores,aprofileofthestudent'slevelofspeechandlanguagefunctioningacrossthesixsubscalesmaybeconstructed. TheSLESmaybecompletedinapproximately20minutesbyanyonefamiliarwiththestudent:classroomteacher,clinicalpersonnel,orotherschoolpersonnel.TheSLEScompletekitconsistsofthePre-Referral Speech and Language Checklists, Pre-Referral Intervention Strategies Documentation Forms,Speech and Language Evaluation Scale rating forms,Speech and Language Evaluation Scale Technical Manual,andtheSpeech and Language Classroom Intervention Manual(252pages).The SLES Quick ScoreisaWindows®-compatibleprogramwhichconvertsrawscorestostandardandpercentilescores. TheSpeech and Language Classroom Intervention Manual(SLCIM)includesgoals,objectives,andinterventionstrategies fortheregulareducationclassroomteachertouseinsupportingtheclinician'sinterventionprogram.TheSLCIMisparticularly usefulforpre-referralinterventionactivities. TheSLESisavaluabletooldesignedtoassistspeechandlanguagecliniciansinscreening,assessment,diagnostic,and programmingdecisionsforspeechand/orlanguageimpairedchildrenandadolescents.TheSLESwillsignificantlyimprovethe screeningandreferralprocessofstudentsinneedofspeechand/orlanguageservices,providingclinicianswithadditionaltimeto balancethedemandsofassessmentandtherapy.

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Phone: (800) 542-1673

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FAX: (800) 442-9509

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PRE-REFERRAL SPEECH AND LANGUAGE CHECKLIST

Diane R. Fressola and Sandra C. Hoerchler Date:

Name of student: School: City: Observer's position: Length of time each day with student:

(hours) (minutes)

Birthdate:

Age:

Gender: Grade:

State:

Observed by: Student know to observer:

(from) (to)

Special education services the student has received: Grade(s) repeated: Reason (if known):

How well the student is known by the observer (indicate type of interactions):

TO OBSERVER: Check each behavior you have observed the student demonstrate during the past month.

Lan and le h eec amp l Sp ist S ARTICULATION a errsound ckl 7. Demonstrates difficulty sequencing 1. Substitutes one sound foref speech sounds in multisyllabic words (e.g., "The ball is wed." for "The ball is red.") R anotherChe (e.g., student says "ephelant" instead of reP a word (e.g., "Pay the "elephant") 2. Omits a sound in

piano." for "Play the piano.") 3. Inserts an extra sound in a word (e.g., "Stit down." for "Sit down.") 4. Distorts or mispronounces words or sounds when speaking (not attributed to dialect or accent) 5. Demonstrates difficulty imitating speech sounds 6. Shows signs of frustration when he/she is frequently misunderstood 8. Articulation interferes with daily communication 9. Speech causes unfavorable listener reaction (i.e., substitutions, omissions, insertions, mispronunciations, etc., make it unpleasant to listen to the student) 10. Rate of speech is too fast or too slow

age gu

VOICE

11. Voice quality sounds harsh, breathy, and/or hoarse

Copyright © 1989 2/10 Hawthorne Educational Services, Inc.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

It is your responsibility as a professional or parent to immediately inform the publisher if you are asked to complete any reproduction of this form. The original form is beige with brown print. If you have this form in any other color, it was illegally reproduced. You are not permitted to complete or use any reproduced form. Hawthorne Educational Services, Inc., will pay a reward of $100 for actionable evidence of illegal copying or faxing. (800) 542-1673

SPEECH AND LANGUAGE EVALUATION SCALE

Diane R. Fressola, M.A., CCC-S and Sandra Cippponeri Hoerchler, M.S. Editing by Jacquelyn S. Hagan, M.A., CCC-S and Steven B. McDannold, M.A., CCC-S

STUDENT RATING FORM

NameofStudent: School:

Thomas

(last)

Sam

(first)

(middle)

A.

Age:

(years)

10

(months)

7

Sex:

M

Benton 4

City:

Wheeler

(month)

State:

Colorado

(year)

GradeLevel:

Date(s)ofRating:

10

(day)

19

89

HasStudentEverReceivedSpecialEducationServices: GradeRepeated: Ratedby: StudentKnowntoRater:

yes - speech/language reading difficulties

Position:

1st Dee Jones 8/89

(from)

Reason(ifknow):

Classroom teacher

(hours)

present

(to)

LengthofTimeEachDayWithStudent:

4

(minutes)

20

HowWelltheStudentisKnownbytheRater(indicatetypeofinteractions):

SLES Profile

SPEECH

Standard Scores Articulation Voice

SUBSCALE

Fluency Form

LANGUAGE

Content Pragmatics Standard Score Percentiles Percentile Rank

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · X · · · · · ·

· · · · · · · · · · X · · · · · · · · · ·

· · · · · · · · · · X · · · · · · · · · ·

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · X · · ·

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · X ·

· · · · · · · · · · · · X · · · · · · · ·

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

99 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 1

Copyright©1989 HawthorneEducationalServicesInc.

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · X ·

Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical, includingphotocopyrecording,oranyinformationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfrom thepublisher.

Itisyourresponsibilityasaprofessionalorparenttoimmediatelyinformthepublisherifyouareaskedtocomplete anyreproductionofthisform.Theoriginalformisbeigewithblueprint.Ifyouhavethisforminanyother color,itwasillegallyreproduced.Youarenotpermittedtocompleteoruseanyreproducedform. Toll-Freenumber:1-800-542-1673

TO RATER:Rateeachstudentusingthequantifiers(0-2)provided. Everyitemmustberated.Do not leave any items blank.

ALWAYS

0

OCCASIONALLY

1

NEVER

2

2 1 2 0 1 2 1

1. Substitutesonesoundforanothersound(e.g.,"The balliswed."for"Theballisred.") 2. Asoundisomittedinaword(e.g.,"Paythe piano."for"Playthepiano.") 3. Anextrasoundisinsertedinaword(e.g.,"Stit down."for"Sitdown.") 4. Distortsormispronounceswordsorsoundswhen speaking(notattributedtodialectoraccent) 5. Hasdifficultyimitatingspeechsounds 6. Showssignsoffrustrationwhenhe/sheisfrequentlymisunderstood

1 14. Volumeistooloudortoosoftforthesituation 2 15. Pitchistoohighortoolowforageandsex 2 16. Voicequalityinterfereswithdailycommunication

(i.e.,thestudentisdifficulttounderstandbecause ofvoicequality)

2 17. Voicequalitycausesunfavorablelistenerreaction

(i.e.,voiceissoharsh,breathy,and/orhoarseasto makeitunpleasanttolistentothestudent) (e.g.,becomesanxious,upset,angry,etc.)

2 18. Showssignsoffrustrationbecauseofvocalquality 15 ______Raw Score

2 1

10 ES rm Standard Score ______Subscale 7. HasdifficultysequencingspeechsoundsinmulSL Fo tisyllabicwords(e.g.,studentsays"ephelant" FLUENCY ng insteadof"elephant") ati 2 19. Flowofspeechisinterruptedduringconversation R by"partwordrepetition"(e.g.,studentsays,"I 8. Articulationinterfereswithdailycommunication

wantsomewa-wa-water.") 9. Speechcausesunfavorablelistenerreaction(i.e., substitutions,omissions,insertions,mispronunciations,etc.,makeitunpleasanttolistentothe student)

2 20. Flowofspeechisinterruptedduringconversation

by"wholewordrepetition"(e.g.,studentsays,"I want-want-somewater.") by"prolongations"(e.g.,studentsays,"Iwant ssssssomewater.")

1 10. Rateofspeechistoofastortooslow 13 ______Raw Score 6 ______Subscale Standard Score

VOICE

2 21. Flowofspeechisinterruptedduringconversation

1 22. Flowofspeechisinterruptedduringconversation

by"interjections"(e.g.,studentsays,"Iwantuhuh-uh-somewater.")

2 11. Voicequalitysoundsharsh,breathy,and/orhoarse 2 12. Voicequalitysoundshypernasal(e.g.,soundslike

thestudentistalkingthroughhis/hernose)orhyponasal(e.g.,soundslikethestudenthasacold)

2 23. Secondarycharacteristicsarepresentwhilespeak-

ing(e.g.,eyeblinking,jawjerking,liprounding, flaringofnostrils,slappingbodyortablewithhand and/orotherjerkybodymovements,andlimitedor nonexistenteyecontact) (e.g.,dysfluenciesmakeitdifficultforthestudent tobeunderstood)

2 13. Voiceisintermittentlyorcompletelylost

2 24. Dysfluencyinterfereswithdailycommunication

ALWAYS

0

OCCASIONALLY

1

NEVER

2

2 10. Dysfluentspeechcausesunfavorablelistenerreac-

tion(e.g.,dysfluenciesmakeitunpleasanttolisten tothestudent) speech(e.g.,becomesanxious,upset,angry,etc.)

1 23. Omitsfunctionwordswhenspeaking(e.g.,"He

sitsonbox."insteadof"Hesitsonthebox."or "Henothere."insteadof"Heisnothere.")

2 11. Showssignsoffrustrationbecauseofdysfluent 15 ______Raw Score 10 ______Subscale Standard Score

1 24. Usespluralityincorrectlyinnounandverbforms

(e.g.,mans/men,gooses/geese,"Theboysisclimbingthetree.",etc.) tributedtodialect)

1 25. Usesincorrectgrammarwhenspeaking(notat0 26. Canonlywritesimple,short,noncomplexsen-

FORM 1 12. Usesinappropriatesubject-verbagreementwhen speaking(e.g.,says,"Itdon'tmattertome."insteadof"Itdoesn'tmattertome.")

tences(Ifthestudentisnotyetwriting,ratethis item0.)

1 13. Usessentenceswhicharegrammaticallyincom-

12 ______Raw Score 2 ______Subscale Standard Score

CONTENT

pletewhenspeaking(e.g.,"Ballunderthetable." insteadof"Theballisunderthetable.") speaking(e.g.,"Billynotheretoday?")

2 14. Doesnotformquestionsappropriatelywhen 1

1

S space,quantity,quality,anddirectionality(e.g.,bem LE orfore/after,above/below,most/least,smooth/rough, 15. Usesincorrectwordorderwhenspeaking(e.g.,S andleft/right) "Gotmemymomanewbike."insteadof"My gF momgotmeanewbike.") atin 1 28. Hasdifficultyunderstandingdirectionsand/orcarR ryingoutinstructionsandoftenrequiresrepetition 16. Usespronounsincorrectly(e.g.,"Mewillgohome

1 27. Hasdifficultygraspingconceptsinvolvingtime,

now."insteadof"Iwillgohomenow.") (e.g.,past,present,future) orrephrasing

1 17. Usesinappropriateverbtenseswhenspeaking 1 18. Omitspresentprogressivewhenspeaking(e.g.,

0 29. Hasdifficultycomprehendingpictureand/orverbal

absurdities(e.g.,cannotexplainwhatiswrong whengivenapictureoraverbalstatementsuchas "Theminiaturedogisasbigasahorse.") vocabulary

"Bobbywalktoschooltoday."insteadof"Bobby iswalkingtoschooltoday.") lackcomplexity

0 30. Hasalimitedexpressiveand/orreceptive 0 31. Demonstratesinappropriate(orinaccurate)se-

0 19. Canonlyspeakinshort,simplesentenceswhich 0 20. Usesincorrectgrammarwhenwritingnotdueto

dialect(Ifthestudentisnotyetwriting,ratethis item0.)

quencingskillswhenspeaking(e.g.,doesnot relateinformationinthecorrectorder,including eventsinadayand/orrotetypeactivitiessuchas counting) (e.g.,speaksinincompletesentences,failstothink ofcorrectwordstoexpressideas,etc.) thoughhis/hercomputationskillsareadequate(If thestudentisnotyetperformingmathwordproblems,ratethisitem0.)

0 21. Composesincompletesentencesorexpresses

0 32. Expressesincompletethoughtswhenspeaking

incompletethoughtswhenwriting(Ifthestudentis notyetwriting,ratethisitem0.) "Henocometomyhouse.")

1 22. Usesnegationinappropriatelywhenspeaking(e.g.,

0 33. Hasdifficultysolvingmathwordproblemseven

ALWAYS

0

OCCASIONALLY

1

NEVER

2

0 10. Hasdifficultyunderstandingwhathe/shereads

eventhoughhe/shehasadequatewordattackskills (Ifthestudentisnotyetreading,ratethisitem0.) antonyms,andhomonyms(e.g.,pretty/beautiful, up/down,andsea/see) tocoldasupistodown.)

1 20. Lacksspontaneity,originality,and/orvarietyin

verbalinteractions

0 11. Hasdifficultyunderstandingandusingsynonyms,

1 21. Isslowtorespondand/orfailstomakerelevantresponses(e.g.,Whenasked"Whatisyourname?", thestudentmayrespond"I'mfine.")

0 12. Hasdifficultyunderstandinganalogies(e.g.,Hotis 0 13. Hasdifficultyrecognizingandusingmultiple-

1 22. Usesinappropriateverbaland/ornonverballan-

guageinsocialsituationsorinteractionswithpeers and/oradults reasonableresponsestoquestions(e.g.,problem solving,makingdecisions,makinginferences) emotions

meaningwords(e.g.,"Theflyisonthewall."and "Iwillflyhome.") ofwordsindicatingaquestion(e.g.,who,what, when,why,andhow)

1 23. Demonstratesdifficultyexpressinglogicaland

1 14. Demonstratesdifficultyunderstandingthemeaning

1 24. Hasdifficultyexpressingopinions,feelings,and/or

0 15. Hasdifficultydescribingobjectsoreventsacross

1

1 S 25. Hasdifficultyaskingforassistanceorclarification, whennecessary,afterreceivingdirectionsand/or E rm severaldimensionsincludingcategory,function, L S Fo attemptingworkindependently composition,similarities/differences,andother attributes ting 2 26. Hasdifficultyusingritualisticgreetings/closings whenappropriate(e.g.,"Hello,""Good-bye") Ra 16. Hasdifficultycomprehendingpassivesentence

form(e.g.,"Theboywasbeingfollowedbyhis sister.Wasthesisterinfront?") speechsuchasidioms,proverbs,similes,metaphors,jokes,puns,andriddles

1 27. Hasdifficultyunderstandingcause-and-effectre-

0 17. Hasdifficultyunderstandingnonliteralformsof

lationships(e.g.,Ifyouoversleep,youwillbelate forschool.) maintenance,and/orclosureincludingirrelevant, tangential,orassociativeresponses;and/ortends tocircumlocute-talking"around"insteadof"on" thetopic obtaindesiredresults

1 28. Demonstratesdifficultywithtopicinitiation,

4 ______Raw Score 0 ______Subscale Standard Score

PRAGMATICS 2 18. Hasdifficultygeneralizinginformationfrom onesituationtoanother(e.g.,identifiestheword "house"onaflashcard,butisunabletoidentifyit inasentence;cancountbyfives,butcannotcount nickels;knowsthat6×8=48,butcannotunderstand that48÷6=8;etc.)

1 29. Exhibitsdifficultyusingorallanguageasatoolto

15 ______Raw Score 7 ______Subscale Standard Score 35 ______Sum of Subscale Standard Score 6 ______Percentile Score

2 19. Hasdifficultypretending,role-playing,and

imagining

GUIDELINES FOR RATING THE STUDENT

Thestudentshouldberatedbyeducatorswithprimaryobservationalopportunities.Thesepersonswouldusuallybe teachersorparaprofessionalswhoworkdirectlywiththestudent. Anynumberofeducatorsmayratethestudent.Eachpersonratingthestudentshoulduseaseparateratingform. Shouldaneducatorratingastudenthavenoknowledgeofthestudent'sabilitytoperformaparticularitemonthescale, itisrecommendedthatanothereducatorbeconsultedtoprovideinformationforthatitem.Donotleaveanyitems blank. Important:Sincemanyitemsonthescalearedevelopmentalinnature,insomecasesstudentswillnotyethavedevelopedaparticularskill.Theratingforthoseitemsshouldindicatethatthestudentdoesnotyethavetheabilityto performthoseitems(i.e.,(0)ALWAYS).Studentsareonlycomparedtoothersoftheirownagegroupwhowouldalso notyethavethesameskillsorabilities. Whenratingastudent,theratershouldfirstreadthequanitifiersandthentheiteminconsideringwhichquantifierbest describesthestudent'sability.Itemnumberfivecanserveasanexample.Theratershouldconsider:doesthestudent (0)ALWAYShavedifficultyimitatingspeechsounds,(1)OCCASIONALLYhavedifficultyimitatingspeechsounds, or(2)NEVERhavedifficultyimitatingspeechsounds. Whilenoestablishedlengthoftimeisnecessarytoobserveastudent,ratingsshouldbeconductedbyeducatorsfamiliarwiththestudent'sabilities.Insomeinstances,itmaybepossibletobecomefamiliarwiththestudent'sabilitiesin asshortatimeastwoweeks.Thiswouldmorelikelybetrueattheelementarylevel,whileatthesecondarylevelit maytakelongertobecomeawareofthestudent'sabilities.

ES rm SL Fo TheSLESmaybeusedtorateastudentatintervalsthroughouttheschoolyear.Thescaleisparticularlyhelpfulin ting identifyingabilitiesatthetimeofentryintoaprogramandprogressmadeovertime.Forthispurpose,itisrecomRa mendedthatastudentberatedeachquarter,ormorefrequently,asappropriate.

Itisnotnecessarytocompletetheratingofastudentinonesitting.Severaldaysmayelapsebeforetheobserverisable tocompletethescale. TheSLESisnotatestwhichrequiresaperformancedemonstrationforeachitemonthescale.Theobservershould relyonobservationsofthestudent'sabilitytoperformtheitemsonthescaleasthosebehaviorsoccurnaturallyinthe educationalenvironment.

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IV. Goals, Objectives, and Interventions 1 Substitutes one sound for another sound

Goals: 1. Thestudentwillimprovehis/herarticulationskills. 2. Thestudentwillimprovehis/herdiscriminationofspeechsounds. 3. Thestudentwillimprovehis/herproductionofspeechsoundsinisolation. 4. Thestudentwillimprovehis/herproductionofspeechsoundsinsyllables. 5. Thestudentwillimprovehis/herproductionofspeechsoundsinwords. 6. Thestudentwillimprovehis/herproductionofspeechsoundsinsentences. 7. Thestudentwillimprovehis/herproductionofspeechsoundsinspontaneousspeech. Objectives: 1. Thestudentwilldiscriminatebetweencorrectandincorrectproductionofthetargetsoundin outoftrials. 2. Thestudentwillimitatecorrectproductionofthetargetsoundinisolationinoutof trials. 3. Thestudentwillimitatecorrectproductionofthetargetsoundinwordsinoutof trials. 4. Thestudentwillspontaneouslyproducethetargetsoundinwordsinoutoftrials. 5. Thestudentwillspontaneouslyproducethetargetsoundinsentencesinoutoftrials. 6. Thestudentwillspontaneouslyproducethetargetsoundinconversationalspeechinout oftrials.

oom r ass Cl l age nua ngu Ma La ion Interventions: and vent 1. Havethestudent'shearingcheckedifit 5. Besurethatthestudentcanhearthedifech nter e I ferencebetweenthesoundasitshouldbemade hasnotbeenrecentlychecked. Sp (targetsound)andthewayhe/sheisproducingit

2. Evaluatetheappropriatenessofrequiring thestudenttoaccuratelyproducecertainsounds (e.g.,developmentally,certainsoundsmaynot beproducedaccuratelyuntiltheageof8or9). 3. Speaktothestudenttoexplainwhat he/sheneedstododifferently(e.g.,usethe/r/ soundinsteadofthe/w/sound).Theteacher shouldbecarefultousethesoundthatisbeing targetedandnotthelettername(e.g.,/r/not/ ar/). 4. Reinforcethestudentforcorrectproductionsofthetargetsound:(a)givethestudenta tangiblereward(e.g.,classroomprivileges,line leading,passingoutmaterials,fiveminutesfree time,etc.)or(b)givethestudentanintangible reward(e.g.,praise,handshake,smile,etc.). Initially,eachcorrectproductionmayneed reinforcement.Asthestudentprogresses,more randomreinforcementmaybeadequate.

incorrectly(errorsound).

6. Havethestudentraiseahandorclap handswhenhe/shehearsthetargetsoundproducedduringaseriesofisolatedsoundproductions(e.g.,/s/,/sh/,/r/,/m/,/r/,/t/,/k/,/r/,/z/, /w/,/n/,/r/,etc.). 7. Useapuppettoproducethetargetand errorsounds.Thestudentearnsastickerforcorrectlydistinguishingasetnumberofcorrect/ incorrectproductionsthepuppetmakes. 8. Havethestudentstandupeachtimehe/ shehearsthetargetsoundproducedaccurately incontrasttotheerrorsound(e.g.,/w/,/r/,/r/, /w/,/w/,/w/,/r/,/r/,etc.).

Havethestudentshow"thumbsup''each timethetargetsoundisproducedaccurately whenapictureislabeledand"thumbsdown''if thetargetsoundisproducedinaccurately.

9.

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