Read TWTNov2007 text version

The Independent Masonic Magazine Bringing the best information to Mason's worldwide.

Issue 23, November 2007

William Schaw

And The Schaw Statutes

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Contents

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Masons in the News - Pg 8 "Masonic Feasts"­ Pg.21

Claudy - "Advertising" ­ Pg.19

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The Earliest use of the word "Freemason"­ Pg.24

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Bro. James Green- "Masonic Status"- Pg.27 STB­ "The Rite of Destitution"- Pg.39

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Cover Story "William Schaw & The Schaw Statutes" ­ Pg.28

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Bro. Wyndell Ferguson- "Food and Fellowship"­ Pg.42

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Random Thoughts with Bro. Lance Ten Eyck­ Pg.43

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Out of Ritual -- Pg.45

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York Rite of Freemasonry w/ Bro. Bill Price­ Pg.47 You Just Can't Make This Stuff Up- "The Great Masonic Fairy Tale"- Pg.49

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Editor & Publisher­ Cory Sigler

The Working Tools is published monthly by Corsig Publishing & Cory Sigler, It is not affiliated with any Grand Lodge. Letters or inquiries should be directed to Cory Sigler, Editor, at E-mail: [email protected] All letters become the property of the Working Tools. Photographs and articles should be sent to the attention of the Editor. Every effort will be made to return photographs but this cannot be guaranteed. Please include a self-addressed stamped envelope. The Editor reserves the right to edit all materials received. The deadline for the next issue is November 27, 2007.

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Letter From the Editor

Over 33,000 downloads Worldwide

Hello Brothers

This month's cover story is on William Schaw. I have heard his name before but after reading "Cracking The Freemason Code" by Robert Cooper I have a whole new appreciation in him . I do not think that we as a collective group give this man enough credit for what he did for us and how much we rely on his work. His work is the staple of all of our rituals and traditions we use today. I am hoping that you too will appreciate his work after reading about him in this months issue. Have a great month and a wonderful Thanksgiving with your family. See ya soon. Your Brother­ Cory

Cory Sigler [email protected]

Late Breaking News

Hell Froze Over!

My wife came to me saying she saw a Masonic story on the internet and was actually interested in talking to me about it­ LOL

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http://www.cafepress.com/masons.158224126

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TWO NEW FEATURE'S FOR TWT READER'S The Guest Map

The Lodge Finder Database

With over 2,700 lodges listed

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Letter's From The Readers

Brother Sigler. I just wanted to let you know I found out about the Working Tools from a fellow lodge brother of mine. I was recently raised to a Master Mason and have a thirst for knowledge in learning all I can in Masonry, knowing this he said I might like reading your newsletter and so far I have found it to be the most enjoyable ezine out there. Thank you for all your hard work I'm sure this must be a tough undertaking each month. I wish I found out about it sooner, now I had to go back and download all the past issues. Your Truly, Bro. Richard D California Bro. Richard, It's my pleasure to do this for you and all the readers who enjoy it. Yes it is a difficult task and sometime it just outright sucks all my time away but I feel I learn something new as well each month so it is fun to do. (now if only I could somehow make this my full time job LOL)

Brother Cory. I was a little startled to see the Anti Masonic "Halloween" article you had in the October issue of The Working Tools. To be honest I found it also to be Anti-Christian from your point of view. Why was it necessary to include this in your newsletter? Name requested to be withheld. My Brother, you were not the only one who wrote to me about this article but as I have pointed out it was title "You can't make this stuff up!". I was merely pointing out the craziness of the original author who went on to accuse the Masons of many things such as luring young men into the craft to take part of satanic ritual. What is important in my opinion is what the Halloween article was about and that they lied about our organization to further their own agenda not that I pointed out that they were Christian (however, I find it very un-Christian to lie which they did) Why is it OK for them to say stuff about Masonry but when I point out that it's a outright over zealous propaganda piece I get slammed? I found yet another example of anti Masonic nonsense for this months issue and I will not apologize for adding it into the mix of articles I present for you to read.

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This Month in History

November

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In the News

Vatican paper set to clear Knights Templar

By Malcolm Moore in Rome

The mysteries of the Order of the Knights Templar could soon be laid bare after the Vatican announced the release of a crucial document which has not been seen for almost 700 years. A new book, Processus contra Templarios, will be published by the Vatican's Secret Archive on Oct 25, and promises to restore the reputation of the Templars, whose leaders were burned as heretics when the order was dissolved in 1314. The Knights Templar were a powerful and secretive group of warrior monks during the Middle Ages. Their secrecy has given birth to endless legends, including one that they guard the Holy Grail. Recently, they have been featured in films including The Da Vinci Code and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. The Order was founded by Hugues de Payns, a French knight, after the First Crusade of 1099 to protect pilgrims on the road to Jerusalem. Its headquarters was the captured AlAqsa mosque on the Temple Mount, which lent the Templars their name. But when Jerusalem fell to Muslim rule in 1244, rumours surfaced that the knights were heretics who worshipped idols in a secret initiation ceremony. advertisement

Knights Templar are rumoured to guard the Holy Grail

In 1307, King Philip IV "the Fair" of France, in desperate need of funds, ordered the arrest and torture of all Templars. After confessing various sins their leader, Jacques de Molay, was burnt at the stake. Pope Clement V then dissolved the order and issued arrest warrants for all remaining members. Ever since, the Templars have been thought of as heretics. The new book is based on a scrap of parchment discovered in the Vatican's secret archives in 2001 by Professor Barbara Frale. The long-lost document is a record of the trial of the Templars before Pope Clement, and ends with a papal absolution from all heresies. Prof Frale said: "I could not believe it when I found it. The paper was put in the wrong archive in the 17th century." The document, known as the Chinon parchment, reveals that the Templars had an initiation ceremony which involved "spitting on the cross", "denying Jesus" and kissing the lower back, navel and mouth of the man proposing them. The Templars explained to Pope Clement that the initiation mimicked the

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humiliation that knights could suffer if they fell into the hands of the Saracens, while the kissing ceremony was a sign of their total obedience. The Pope concluded that the entrance ritual was not truly blasphemous, as alleged by King Philip when he had the knights arrested. However, he was forced to dissolve the Order to keep peace with France and prevent a schism in the church. "This is proof that the Templars were not heretics," said Prof Frale. "The Pope was obliged to ask pardon from the knights. "For 700 years we have believed that the Templars died as cursed men, and this absolves them." How can you help TWT Send me a page or two about your lodge and why you think it's special. Describe what you are doing to make a difference , if there is any special history or brothers associated to it. Include some pictures and show the whole world why you are proud of your lodge · Have you recently gone through a degree and want to share your experience? · See an interesting news story regarding the craft­ send it over. · Read a new book­ send over a review. · Write an original article about anything you think the readers of TWT would enjoy

Knights Templar: Guardians of the Grail

The full name of the Order is Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici). The Templars were rumoured to have found either the Holy Grail or the Ark of the Covenant at their home in Jerusalem. They were also documented as having a piece of the True Cross, which was captured by Saladin. The Shroud of Turin was first publicly displayed by the grandson of Geoffrey de Charney, who was burned at the stake with Jacques de Molay, the last head of the order. The shroud is old enough to have been owned by the Templars. The Templars' initiation ritual has been widely copied, most notably by the Freemasons, who have a title called "Order of the Knights Templar". Some of the Templars' lands in London were later rented to lawyers, which led to the names of Temple Bar gate and Temple Tube station.

Vatican to publish Templar trial papers

By ARIEL DAVID, Associated Press Writer

The Vatican has published secret documents about the trial of the Knights Templar, including a parchment -- long ignored because of a vague catalog entry in 1628 -- showing that Pope Clement V initially absolved the medieval order of heresy. The 300-page volume recently came out in a limited edition -- 799 copies -- each priced at $8,377, said Scrinium publishing house, which prints documents from the Vatican's secret archives.

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The order of knights, which ultimately disappeared because of the heresy scandal, recently captivated the imagination of readers of the best-seller "The Da Vinci Code," which linked the Templars to the story of the Holy Grail. The Vatican work reproduces the entire documentation of the papal hearings convened after King Philip IV of France arrested and tortured Templar leaders in 1307 on charges of heresy and immorality. The military order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon was founded in 1118 in Jerusalem to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land after the First Crusade. As their military might increased, the Templars also grew in wealth, acquiring property throughout Europe and running a primitive banking system. After they left the Middle East with the collapse of the Crusader kingdoms, their power and secretive ways aroused the fear of European rulers and sparked accusations of corruption and blasphemy. Historians believe Philip owed debts to the Templars and used the accusations to arrest their leaders and extract, under torture, confessions of heresy as a way to seize the order's riches. The publishing house said the new book includes the "Parchment of Chinon," a 1308 decision by Clement to save the Templars and their order. The Vatican archives researcher who found the parchment said Friday that it probably had been ignored because the 1628 catalog entry on the 40-inch-wide parchment was "too Spartan, too vague." "Unfortunately, there was an archiving error, an error in how the document was described," the researcher, Barbara Frale, said in a telephone interview from her home in Viterbo, north of Italy. "More than an error, it was a little sketchy," she said. The parchment, in remarkably good condition considering its 700 years, apparently had last been consulted at the start of the 20th century, Frale said, surmising that its significance must have not have been realized then. Frale said she was intrigued by the 1628 entry because, while it apparently referred to some minor matter, it noted that three top cardinals, including the right-hand man of Clement, Berenger Fredol, had made a long journey to interrogate someone. "Going on with my research, it turned out that in reality it was an inquest of very great importance" on behalf of the pope, Frale said. Fredol "had gone to question the Great Master and other heads of the Templars who had been segregated, practically kidnapped, by the king of France and shut up in secret in his castle in Chinon on the Loire." According to the Vatican archives Web site, the parchment shows that Clement initially absolved the Templar leaders of heresy, though he did find them guilty of immorality, and that he planned to reform the order. However, pressured by Philip, Clement later reversed his decision and suppressed the order in 1312. Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of the Templars, was burned at the stake in 1314 along with his aides. Surviving monks fled. Some were absorbed by other orders; over the centuries, various groups have claimed to have descended from the Templars. On the Net: Vatican secret archive: http://asv.vatican.va

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Publishing house: http://www.scrinium.org

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Court Says Freemasons Fall Under Religious Protection Law

Heather Donckels

(RNS) Freemasonry may rank with Christianity, Judaism and Islam as an official form of "religious exercise," a California court of appeals suggested in a ruling on Oct. 3. As such, Masons would fall under the protections of the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000 (RLUIPA), the landmark law that says government may not infringe on religious buildings without a compelling interest. "We see no principled way to distinguish the earnest pursuit of these (Masonic) principles ... from more widely acknowledged modes of religious exercise," the statement said. The case involves the Los Angeles Scottish Rite Cathedral (LASRC) and the Scottish Rite Cathedral Association of Los Angeles (SRCALA). The court concluded that "chief" Masonic principles include "the reverence of a Supreme Being and the embrace of other forms of religious worship." The court said it could find "no decisions analyzing whether Masonic practices are sufficiently religious in nature to qualify under RLUIPA," which says the government cannot "impose or implement a land use regulation in a manner that imposes a substantial burden on the religious exercise of a person." The court's statement countered a lower court's opinion that "the `Freemason' organization is (not) a religion." While the Masons may have received a victory as a religious group, the court ultimately ruled that the RLUIPA law did not apply in the specific case at hand. In 2002, LASRC began leasing the Scottish Rite Cathedral, a Masonic temple on Wilshire Boulevard, from the association. Despite city codes that restrict the use of the cathedral to Masonic-related activities, the group rented out the building for non-Masonic events, including concerts and dance performances. As a result, the Los Angeles city council withdrew the Cathedral's certificate of occupancy in 2005. In response, the two Masonic associations went to court, claiming that their rights under RLUIPA were being harmed. The lower court initially rejected the case, but the appeals court ruled that since the cathedral was used for "a melange of cultural and commercial events with a declining nexus to Masonic principles or other religious exercise," the Scottish Rite organizations could not claim protection under RLUIPA's "religious exercise" clause.

Copyright © 2002-2007 EthicsDaily.com

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Society's leaders discuss future of fraternal order in post-communist era

By Lisa Nuch Venbrux The Prague Post

From beneath the sloping roof of an ornate building in Old Town, a single eye watches Karmelitská street. Framed by a triangle on the building's facade, the carving's stony gaze reveals no secrets. Yet its very presence speaks to a past forgotten by many. This symbol of an eye in a triangle adorns a building used as an 18th-century meeting place for freemasons. Woven into the fabric of this ancient city is a Masonic history that's still being made. Freemasonry is defined by the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE), the world administrative center of regular Freemasonry, as a "society of men concerned with moral and spiritual values," one of the oldest fraternal orders taught precepts through "ritual dramas."Recently, Masonic leaders from across Europe gathered in Prague to discuss the future of Freemasonry in Central and Eastern Europe. "It was a very important event for Prague," says the country's new grand master, Hynek Beran, who was initiated into the elected post the same April weekend. Indeed, to a layperson, the European Masonic Forum's attendance of leaders from 24 masonic "obediences," including 14 grand masters across Europe, seems momentous. In fact, European Masonic leaders have been meeting annually since the late 1990s, John Hamill, director of communications for the UGLE, told The Prague Post. The meetings began in 1999, when the grand masters of Germany and Austria met in Romania to discuss the new lodges of Eastern Europe, according to Hamill. Grand masters, elected annually by ballot, head Grand Lodges, of which there is usually one in a given country. Meeting in a different place every year since, Hamill says the gatherings have "greatly helped" the Grand Lodges of Eastern Europe. "Many of the East European and Balkan Grand Lodges are small and have little money, and one of the topics discussed is how they can adapt themselves to present circumstances." With an unbroken tradition dating back to 1923, Czech Freemasonry is among the most well-developed in postcommunist Europe. Still, with 10 lodges nationwide, "regular" freemasons number just 360, compared to several thousand in neighboring Austria, Beran says. ("Irregular" Masonic bodies, which operate outside the "regular" tradition originating in the British Isles, claim fewer than 200 adherents here.) Now, as the organization quietly gains members and momentum, its members are seeking ways to help Freemasonry grow, and show nonmembers that world domination and eating children are not part of its repertoire. Opening doors Grand Master Beran, a lively 45-year-old energy consultant from Prague, makes no attempts to shield his voice from other diners in a busy New Town café. He speaks enthusiastically about his hopes for Czech Freemasonry, revived in 1990 after more than 40 years of dormancy under communist rule. "We do not want to be secret," Beran says plainly. "We have a philosophy that should be offered to normal people." Though Beran, who was one of the first initiates into the newly reconstituted Czech lodges, would like to see Freemasonry develop here, this does not necessarily mean rapid growth in membership. Rather, he seeks to "build a positive image," and to attract those interested in "real Freemasonry."

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This involves following three great principles -- brotherly love, relief (or charity) and truth -- articulated by the Grand Lodge of England after its founding nearly 290 years ago, June 24, 1717. (The origins of Freemasonry, though not specifically known, may date to the Knights Templar centuries before.) Tolerance and equality are also part of the Freemason creed, according to Armand Muno, treasurer of the Czech Grand Lodge and recently installed worshipful master (or director) of the English-speaking Hiram Lodge in Prague. "We're not looking for the elites," nor for anyone of a particular religion or ethnicity, says Muno, 47. Regular Freemasonry requires a belief in a supreme being, but not necessarily one from the Christian tradition, as well as a commitment to keep religion and politics out of the lodges. Consequently, Czech membership lists include people from several continents as well as from minority groups in the Czech Republic. They also span the spectrum of religious belief, given some qualifications. "There are Buddhists, Hindus ... scientists who don't believe in any god but nature," Beran says. According to Muno, religion disqualifies a candidate only when beliefs clash with the principles of masonry, as is the case with Muslims who follow Sharia law. "Muslims who do not abide by Sharia are welcome." Closed history Friendly professionals in pressed slacks contradict popular images of Masons as cannibalistic conspirators. Negative associations and suspicion, however, constitute a natural reaction to something little understood, says widely published Masonic scholar Robert Gilbert. "People are afraid of something they don't understand," he says. Still, Freemasonry "has to retain some mystique, or it has no appeal for people." This mystique is nowhere stronger than in places where totalitarian regimes have squashed organizations such as the Freemasons. Though Czech Freemasonry swung in and out of royal favor after its birth in Bohemia in the late 1730s, 20th-century regimes dealt dire blows to the order. "Because Freemasonry embraces such principles as equality, fraternity and freedom of thought, it is not liked by dictators, of the right or left," the UGLE's Hamill explains. During World War II, Freemasons were rounded up through membership lists and sent to concentration camps. Incriminating records from that time, Beran says, were burned by Masons themselves. Some Czechoslovak Freemasons managed to escape to France and finally England, where they set up an independent lodge in exile. "Comenius in exile is the only occasion in which England has recognized a Grand Lodge or lodge in exile," Hamill says. The communists adopted a different control strategy. Cestmír Bárta became a Mason in December 1949, not long after the communist takeover of Czechoslovakia. His father, who was a Freemason, had been sent to Auschwitz. When the communist regime instituted a policy requiring government agents to attend lodge meetings, the Grand Lodge chose to go into dormancy rather than submit."It was obvious that there was no way of preventing infiltration, wiretapping and abuse of the information obtained by these means," Bárta says. "Not even initiations were taking place during that period." Bárta was one of 28 Czech Freemasons who, through clandestine informal meetings, maintained contact with each other to eventually re-establish Freemasonry after the fall of the Iron Curtain. He later served seven years as grand master of the Czech Grand Lodge. "Civil society had to ... re-create itself again," he says, noting the sense of importance surrounding the re-establishment of the order. "Czech Freemasons knew that creation of a normal democratic society was a question of at least one generation, and that the attitudes of Freemasons had great potential to support the process of humanization of the newly germinating civil society." Such lofty aims may be gaining appeal in lands now embracing democratic ideals, but Bárta admits there may be a long way to go. "People now usually don't know what this is about, and they are not interested in it." Beran, meanwhile, takes a more optimistic view toward finding those drawn to this philosophy amid the chaos of modern life. In Globalization, everybody is looking for his history."

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Masons try to be esoteric, relevant

Monday, October 22, 2007

By JIM BECKERMAN STAFF WRITER The Masons are a secret society -- and they're totally open about it. Any visitor can go to, say, the Alpine Tilden Tenakill Lodge No. 77 in Tenafly and see the two Greek columns -- one on either side of the meeting room door -- overlaid with Egyptian and Roman motifs, and topped by globes depicting the Earth and the cosmos.

My Hometown Newspaper

But what the columns are called, what they mean and what part they play in Masonic ritual -- shhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh. "Everything has a name, but I can't say what it is," says Clive Pearce of Haworth, past master of the lodge. In 1985, Pearce passed between these columns for a ritual in front of an audience of 50 "brothers," and set to the strains of music written specially for the occasion 200 years ago by brother Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Ninety minutes later, he walked out an apprentice Mason ­ the first of three "degrees" of Masonry. "It's like a play acted out with symbolism," says Pearce, 55. "It's very interesting and meaningful." But no one, other than a Mason, knows the precise meaning. That hasn't prevented lots of people from guessing. Thanks to movies like "National Treasure" (2004) and "The Da Vinci Code" (2006) and various conspiracy Web sites, everybody now thinks he knows what a Mason is. Masons, you will learn from these sources, are (a) an international conspiracy, linked to the Knights Templar, that guards the true identity of Mary Magdalene; (b) a secret society bent on world domination; (c) a group that protects a vast treasure horde buried by the Founding Fathers in 1776; and (d) Satanists. None of these notions has the least truth to it, says Frederick J. Eilert, past master and current secretary of Eclipse Lodge No. 259 in Rutherford. "If I knew where there was money at the bottom of a church, I'd be down there with suitcases," says Eilert, 65. But he does credit such fantasies with sparking revived interest in the group. Pamphlets, bumper stickers ("to be one, ask one") and license plates are part of a drive, now four or five years old, to capitalize on new interest in the old organization. One thing that's not secret about the Masons is that the membership, like that of most service organizations, is getting a little long in the tooth. Between 1959 and 2007, U.S. membership in the Masons has dwindled from 4.1 million to 1.5 million (and U.S. members account for roughly half of the world's Masons). Today, the best that can be said is that the decline has begun to level off. "We're not seeing positive numbers, but we're seeing slower negative numbers," says national Masons spokesman Dick Fletcher. Amid a forest of Elks, Moose, Lions and other service organizations, the Masons occupy a unique place. The group has a fabled past, one that is said to stretch back to at least the 14th century and has included some of the greatest artists, statesmen and thinkers in human history. Mozart, Beethoven, George Washington and Benjamin Franklin were all Masons. So were Duke Ellington, Voltaire, Rudyard Kipling and both President Roosevelts.

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Worldwide fraternity Today's Masonic lodges, descendents of the original Masonic Grand Lodge founded in England in 1717, resemble the Rotary Club or Knights of Columbus more than the exalted Temple of Light ­ the thinly disguised Masonic temple that figures in the climax of Mozart's opera "The Magic Flute." Masons do charitable work, raise scholarship money, run learning centers for dyslexic children, and offer boys-night-outs to what is still, in 2007, an all-male membership. Yet the group has a mystique. "You go on a cruise boat or something like that, and all of a sudden, you're meeting guys from Turkey or India or Africa or England, and you have this thing in common," Pearce says. Yarns of Masonic blood being thicker than water are part of the lore of the group. There are stories of Union Masons who sought -- and received -- burial in Confederate Masonic cemeteries, and of Jews, Muslims and Christians in the Middle East finding common ground in Masonic lodges. The universal connection between men, regardless of race or culture, is one of the keystones of Masonic philosophy. Or as Masons put it: "The brotherhood of man under the fatherhood of God." But what really provokes people about the Masons is not what they profess, but what they don't profess. The mysterious handshakes, passwords and grips; the secret voting on members using white or black balls (hence the term "blackballed"), and the rituals that surround the three "degrees" of the "craft" -- apprentice, fellow and master mason -- have led to endless and sometimes sinister speculation. Extreme conspiracy theorists talk of phalanxes of Masonic black helicopters that can be brought forth, from hidden bunkers under St. Louis' Union Station, to subdue America at a moment's notice. "There are two basic groups of people who oppose [Masonry]," says Fletcher, the national spokesman. "One is conspiracy theorists. The other is religious extremists. They claim you can't be a Christian and a [Mason]. And they quote from the Bible." Once in a while, an incident will occur that calls the group into question. In August 2004, a Long Island inductee was fatally shot in the face -- apparently by mistake -- during one of the ceremonies. No Masonic ritual, to his knowledge, involves a gun, Pearce says. But it's also true that rituals vary, to some extent, from place to place. "Since there's so much stuff that's not written down, the ritual changes," he says. Secret handshakes Only a secret cadre of 5-percenters within the Masons, according to fundamentalist Christian Web sites run by Ed Decker and David Bay, are privy to the real ­ Satanic ­ truth of the order. But even Christians who don't go that far are sometimes wary of the group. "Their secret oaths and rigmarole and programs are not exactly what Christians should be doing in general," says the Rev. Noah Hutchings, president of the Southwest Radio Church Ministry in Oklahoma City. Far from being anti-religious, Masons require a belief in a supreme being as a key condition of membership. And, of course, many Masons are Christian. "We're not a cult, we're not even a religion, we're a fraternity," Eilert says.

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But it is also true that the Masons, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries, did much to spread Enlightenment ideas worldwide -- one of the reasons that intellectuals and artists were drawn to them. Paradoxically, the Masons -- otherwise known as Freemasons, or Free and Accepted Masons -- began as a workingman's group. Passwords, handshakes, grips and signs are likely holdovers from the medieval masons' guilds from which the group sprang, Fletcher says. "If you were a guild member, and there was a job available and you had the skills, you were entitled to it," Fletcher says. "But how do you prove you're a guild member? You're on a job site, miles away from home. There are no faxes, no phones. But if you've been taught a grip, or a word was whispered in your ear, you can identify yourself." By the 18th century, the trappings of Masonry took on a largely symbolic meaning. The carpenter's square and compass, the universal symbol for the Masons, came to signify ethical squareness and a moral compass. Such everyday phrases as "I'm being square with you" and "I'm on the level" originated with the Masons. Women's branch Over the centuries, a wide range of people have been accepted into the Masonic fraternity ­ including, from an early period, Jews and black members (though tensions within the group caused African-American members to split off into their own "Prince Hall" lodge in 1813; the schism only ended seven years ago). The one group that continues to be excluded is women. While a splinter group -- the Eastern Star -- admits women, the main organization remains male-only. "We are a fraternity," Fletcher says. "Just as women belong to sororities, men belong to fraternities."

Some open secrets Top Mason symbol: The compass and square, with the initial "G" at the center to signify God. Top Mason garment: The apron (worn during ceremonies). Top Mason movie: "National Treasure" (2004). Top Mason story: "The Man Who Would Be King" (1888), by Rudyard Kipling. Top Mason opera: "The Magic Flute" (1791), by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Top Mason rumor: That the pyramid and eye, the U.S. Great Seal featured on the back of the $1 bill, is a Masonic symbol. Probably not -- despite the fact that several Founding Fathers were Masons. It seems likely the designers of the Great Seal and the Masons took their symbols from parallel sources, says a 1976 State Department publication.

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Now Available

"Cracking The Freemason Code"

By (My friend) Brother Robert L.D. Cooper

Amazon http://www.amazon.com/Cracking-Freemasons-Code-SolomonsBrotherhood/dp/1416546820/ref=sr_1_1/105-03623364676401?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1190313847&sr=8-1 Barnes and Nobel http://search.barnesandnoble.com/booksearch/isbnInquiry.asp?z=y&EAN=9781416546825&it m=1

Author of "The Rossyln Hoax" and numerous other titles

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Monthly Poll

Last month I asked "Is your lodge: Growing, Decreasing, or Stagnant?"

Here's what some of the TWT readers had to say on the topic.

Hi Cory, interesting poll question this time. Actually our lodge is growing, albeit slowly. We do degree work if not once a month then every other month. And after Grand Lodge this year our lodge (Casper #15) won lodge of the year and Master Builder's award. In Wyoming, in order to win the Master Builder's award you must qualify in 13 different areas (13 criteria if you will) under last year's master we met 20. Heck of a year! Fraternally Yours- Rod Kennedy

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Brother Cory, This is hard to answer because as we are adding new members we are losing older through death and demits. So I answered "Growing" because in essence we are obtaining new men into the lodge but the membership numbers are somewhat staying the same. In time I would say if we keep up the pace we will be seeing a positive addition as we unfortunately replace the others. Thank you TY , Alabama

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· I answered stagnant because my lodge is not doing anything to drive in new members.

POLL QUESTION FOR November:

Should we move away from having to memorize the ritual to prove proficiency between the degrees?

Let me know what you think­ Why you think it's happening and where are you located.

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Carl H. Claudy­ "Old Tyler Talks"

ADVERTISING

The New Brother leaned against the wall near the Old Tiler and lighted a cigar. "We would do more good in the world if we advertised ourselves more," he said. "Why?" asked the Old Tiler. "So that those not members of the fraternity would know more about our work." ''Why should they?" "The more people know about us, the more regard they have for us, the more men would want to be Masons, the larger we would grow, and so the more powerful we would be!" answered the New Brother. "You would advertise us until all men became Masons?" "Well ­ er ­ I don't know about all men; but certainly until most men applied." "If all men were Masons at heart there would be no need for Masonry,'' answered the Old Tiler. " But not all who call themselves Master Masons are real Masons. What we need to do is advertise ourselves to our brethren." "But we know all about Masonry," protested the New Brother; "the world at large does not." "Oh, no, we don't know all about Masonry!" cried the Old Tiler. "Even the best-informed don't know all about Masonry. The best-informed electricians do not know all about electricity; the best-informed astronomers do not know all about astronomy; the best-informed geologists do not know all about geology. We all have much to learn. " "But electricity and astronomy and geology arc sciences. Masonry is ­ is ­ well, Masonry was made by men, and so some men must know all about it." "Can a man make something greater than himself?" countered the Old Tiler. ''Our ears hear sounds-translate vibrations of air or other material to our brains-as noise or music. But the ear is limited; we do not hear all the sounds in nature; some animals and insects hear noises we cannot hear. We have eyes, yet these imperfect instruments turn into color and light but a tiny proportion of light waves. Scientific instruments recognize vibrations which physical senses take no account of-radio and X-ray for instance. Yet our whole conception of the universe is founded on what we see and hear. Very likely the universe is entirely different from what we think. The ant's tiny world is a hill; he has no knowledge of the size of the county in which is his home, let alone the size or shape of the world. A dog's world is the city where he lives; not for him is the ocean or the continent or

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the world. The stars and the moon and the Sun are to him but shining points. Our world is bigger; we see a universe through a telescope, but we can but speculate as to its extent or what is beyond the narrow confines of our instruments. "Masonry is like that. Our hearts understand a certain kind of love. Prate as we will about brotherhood of man and Fatherhood of God, we yet compare the one to the love of two blood-brothers and the second to our feeling for our children. We measure both by the measuring rods we have. "Real brotherhood and real Fatherhood of God may be grander, broader, deeper, wider than we know. Masonry contains the thought; Our brains have a limited comprehension of it. If this be so then we know little about Masonry, and what even the most learned of us think is probably far short of reality." "All that may be so," answered the New Brother, "and it is a most interesting idea; but what has it to do with advertising to the profane?" ''Does a scientist make any progress by advertising his science?" countered the Old Tiler. "Will a geometrician discover a new principle by advertising for more students? Will the astronomer discover a new sun by running placards in the newspapers? Will a geologist discover the mystery of the earth's interior by admitting more members to the geological Society? "Masonry needs no advertising to the profane, but advertising to its own members. I use the word in your sense, but I do not mean publicity. Masons need to be taught to extend Masonry's influence over men's hearts and minds. We do not need more material to work with, but better work on the half-worked material we already have. ''Masonry is humble and secret; not for her the blare of trumpets and the scare head of publicity. To make it other than what it is would rob it of its character. To study, reflect, and labor in it is to be a scientist in Masonry, discovering constantly something new and better that it be more effective oil those who embrace its gentle teachings and its mysterious power." "Oh, all right!" smiled the New Brother. "I won't put it in the paper tomorrow. Old Tiler, where did you learn so much?" "I didn't," smiled the Old Tiler. "I know very little. But that little I learned by keeping an open mind and heart ­ which was taught me by-" ''By your teachers in school?" "No, my son," answered the Old Tiler, gravely, "by Masonry. "

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Happy Thanksgiving

JUST IN TIME FOR THANKSGIVING COMES THIS ARTICLE ABOUT A MASON'S FAVORITE ACTIVITY....

MASONIC FEASTS

From The Grand Lodge Of Texas

We are all very familiar with today's Masonic banquet, which is quite common. Generally speaking, these affairs are geared toward having a nice social gathering, enjoying Masonic fellowship, lots of introductions, and hearing a Masonic speaker. For the most part, we invite our friends and families to these activities to promote our fraternity. On a lesser scale, we often have meals and/or refreshments preceding or following our stated meetings. While these meetings are usually limited to our lodge members, the purpose is no more than feeding our bodies and enjoying the Masonic fellowship. Masonic Feasts were very different from the current Masonic banquet where Masons gathered to enjoy the fraternal spirit of Freemasonry and indulge in feasting on food and wine. The feast has a long history in society from family feasts to religious feasts. These fellowship gatherings were special occasions centered on special days or events and were elaborate compared to our present-day family gatherings. These feasts were more than an opportunity to eat, drink, and be merry. They were an opportunity to solidify spiritual or family ties. Instead of spending a couple of hours together for New Years, Thanksgiving, or Christmas dinner or an afternoon of outdoor activities on Memorial Day, Independence Day or Labor Day, the old family gatherings might last several days. The religious feasts would also generally last several days, much different from today's potluck dinner or church social. Freemasons of the 18th century practiced the general custom of convivial society at dinners and banquets of toasting or drinking to the health of various people, things, or ideals. This practice among Masons developed beyond a custom and became almost a ritual to be regularly observed with scheduled toasts. The Table Lodge developed out of this custom where eating and drinking went on somewhat concurrently with the degree work with the toasts presented in a particular order with the consent of the Master. These Table Lodges were often tiled lodge meetings in which the brethren enjoyed the fellowship of the meal and toasts while participating in a Masonic educational experience with appropriate degree work. The early Masonic Feast was also an elaborate event. Masonic Feasts have much in common with the Table Lodge except there was no concurrent tiled meeting. The Feast was so important to the early lodge that many activities revolved around these special gatherings. One must remember the early Masonic lodges, prior to the creation the Grand Lodge of England in 1717, were very small with only 8 to 25 members. This small number allowed the brethren to develop close Masonic ties and, as a result, these brethren loved their lodges. The Masonic Feast provided an opportunity for Masonic fellowship, which allowed friendship and affection to grow and flourish into brotherly love. Out of this festive spirit, the Mason developed a strong tie to his lodge. The lodge was a home: warm, comfortable, luxurious, and full of memories. No lodge member had to be coaxed to attend his lodge; he didn't go to lodge grudgingly or out of a sense of duty. He went because he was drawn like a magnet. He looked forward to gathering with his fellow brethren to enjoy that special Masonic fellowship. Just imagine, a lodge of ten members who are whole-heartedly committed to their lodge, who love their lodge. Masonically, this lodge is larger and more powerful than the lodge of 100 men who are nothing more than members who occasionally attend meetings. The lodges that founded the Mother Grand Lodge of England in 1717 outlined only two purposes in their

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constitution. One was to establish a center of union and harmony. The second was to revive the Quarterly Feasts. This indicates the importance placed on the Feast in the early lodge. These Feasts were distinctively different from the modern Masonic banquet. Only Masons could attend these special feasts, and oftentimes, they were held as tiled meetings, thus the Table Lodge. No profane could attend these special Feasts no matter how high or noble his position was in society. In fact, in some of the older documents, even the idea of a lodge hosting a banquet with lodge funds for non-Masons was prohibited. The Masonic Feast was purely a Masonic gathering for fellowship and education. The early Mason was accustomed to elaborate and extensive Feasts that might encompass several days. To give you an idea of the magnitude of a Feast, a partial bill of fare for a banquet (50 people) in 1506 included the following: 36 chickens, 1 swan, 4 geese, 9 rabbits, 2 rumps of beef tails, 6 quails, 50 eggs, 4 breasts of veal. The meal would be enjoyed in a formal gathering where the master would preside over the ceremonies attending the meal and direct a series of toasts. The Feast revival envisioned by the English brethren creating the Grand Lodge of England was evidently successful, as by 1722 Freemasonry was a significant enough movement in London that it became the brunt of various parodies. These parodies were based upon the drinking and toasting habits of the lodge members. And since they were parodies, perhaps they were exaggerated. An example is an anonymous poem entitled "The Free Masons" which explains the Masons' toast. They drink, carouse, like any Bacchus And swallow strongest Wines that rack us; And then it is they lay Foundation Of Masonry, to build a nation. They various Healths strait put around, To ev'ry airy Female Sound; But Sally Dear's the Fav'rite Toast, Whose Health it is they drink the most... This poem refers to Sally Salisbury, a woman of the evening, whose name was well recognized in London. Many ribald and mildly salacious songs and poems were written about Masons and served as amusement for the non-Masonic population. In addition, Masons conjured up their own rather risqué songs which became part of their gatherings, all in the name of enjoyment. As Masonry came to the United States, these parodies followed to our country, which caused Masons to stand out in the Puritan atmosphere. It also created an image of drunken revelry to the public. Indeed, Masonic singing and toasting led to some of the earliest condemnations of our Fraternity. However, not all Masonic toasts and poems expressed risqué sentiments. The following "Toasts and Sentiments" from Vinton's Masonick Minstrel demonstrate the true Masonic spirit. · May ev'ry Mason RISE in the EAST, find refreshment in the SOUTH, and be so dismissed in the WEST, as to find admission into the middle chamber to receive the reward of a GOOD MAN. · Love to ONE, friendship to a FEW, and good will to ALL. · The Brother who stands plumb to his principles, yet is level to his brethren.

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· To HIM, who all things understood, To HIM, who furnished the stone and wood, To HIM, who nobly spilt his blood - in doing of his duty; We hail the day! We hail the morn! On which those three great men were born! Who did the TEMPLE thus adorn With WISDOM, STRENGTH and BEAUTY. However, the critics of Masonic Feasts, which may have gotten a little out of bounds at times, led most US grand lodges to eliminate the excesses of unbridled exuberance to prevent offending society and counter many charges against the Fraternity. As a result the true Masonic Feast purely for Masonic fellowship, slipped into oblivion. Masonic meetings today are much more somber (and certainly more sober) than those of our ancient brethren and our Masonic Feasts have all but disappeared from the Masonic landscape. Masonic meetings today can be cold, boring, and lacking enthusiasm, if they are devoted to lodge business and degree work without opportunities for Masonic fraternalism and fellowship. Even the strongest mystic tie will break under the strain of monotony, dullness, cheerlessness, and repetition. A lodge needs a fire to be lit in it, and the only way to have that warmth is to restore the Masonic Feast. When it is restored, good fellowship and brotherly love will follow. And where good fellowship is, members will fill up an empty lodge room not only with themselves but also with their gifts, not out of a sense of obligation, but because they have a love and commitment for their lodge like our ancient brethren. The Masonic Feast may have been tamed over the years but enthusiasm for Freemasonry burns brightly in many lodges. Consider instituting the Masonic Feast in your lodge where one can enjoy Masonic fellowship and engage in a Masonic educational experience. A Masonic Feast provides us with an all too rare privilege of participating in the ancient custom of Masonic toasting where we can continue a tradition of good cheer and fun from Masonry's earliest days. Article Credit­ The Masonic Trowel http://themasonictrowel.com/

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Research paper

THE EARLIEST USE OF THE WORD 'FREEMASON

By Bro Dr. Andrew Prescott First published in the Yearbook of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, 2004.

It has hitherto been thought that the earliest appearance of the English word `freemason' was in 1376. At the symposium organised by Lodge Hope of Kurrachee No. 337 at Kirkcaldy in May 2003, Professor Andrew Prescott, Director of the Centre for Research into Freemasonry, University of Sheffield, drew attention to some earlier records of the word. This is the relevant section of his address at Kirkcaldy. It is commonly assumed that the stonemasons of the middle ages are obscure, anonymous people who have escaped the historical record, but medieval administrative records, such as building accounts, contain an enormous amount of information about stonemasons and their craft. For example, the journal of the clerk of the works at Eton for 1444-5 records the name of every stonemason, carpenter, dauber, smith and labourer employed on the works, and gives details of the hours worked by each man. These records are usually in Latin or French. The general Latin terms used for stonemasons were cementarius or lathomus. The French word masoun, usually spelt mazon, first appears in the twelfth century. There were many different grades and specialisms among the stonemasons, and these were described either by qualifying the general word for stonemason, so that the Eton records refer to lathomos vocati hardehewers (the stonemasons known as hardhewers), or by the use of specialist words, such as the Latin cubitores for cutters or imaginatores for image makers. The freemasons were such a specialist grade of stonemason, who specialised in the carving of freestone, which was, in the words of Douglas Knoop and Gwilym Jones, `the name given to any fine-grained sandstone or limestone that can be freely worked in any direction and sawn with a toothed saw'. Freestone was used for the decoration of capitals and cornices, the cutting of tracery, and the carving of images and gargoyles. The London Assize of Wages of 1212 refers in Latin to sculptores lapidum liberorum (sculptors of freestone). The Statute of Labourers of 1351, which attempted to regulate wages and contracts in the wake of the labour shortage caused by the Black Death, uses an equivalent French term: mestre meson de franche peer (master mason of freestone). Freemasons as a distinct grade of stonemasons can thus be traced back to the early thirteenth century, but for today's Free and Accepted Masons, there is naturally a particular interest in trying to locate the first appearance of the word `freemason' in English. In 1376, John of Northampton was elected Mayor of London. Northampton was determined to break the hold of the existing merchant oligarchy on London's government and to give less wealthy citizens a greater voice in the city's affairs. One means by which he sought to do this was by changing the method of electing the city's common council. It was ordained the councillors should henceforth be nominated by particular trades in the city rather than by wards. The nominations made by the various crafts to the common council in 1376 are recorded in two of the city's official records, the Plea and Memoranda Rolls and the London Letter Books (the relevant volume is the one designated by the letter `H'). Four representatives of the stonemasons were nominated to the common council: Thomas Wrek, John Lesnes, John Artelburgh and Robert Henwick. In the Plea and Memoranda Roll, they are described as `masons'. In the Letter Book they were at first described as `freemasons', but this word has been struck through by the scribe and replaced with the word `masons'. This has hitherto been the earliest identified appearance of the word in English. Probably the alteration was the result of scribal error, but in the politically charged atmosphere of Northampton's mayoralty the change may have been more significant, perhaps suggesting that the representatives were originally been drawn from a par24 ON THE WEB AT WWW.TWTMAG.COM 24

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ticular group of stonemasons. However, the word `freemason' also appears in the records of the Corporation of London much earlier in the fourteenth century. The coroners' rolls of the city contain an account of an escape from Newgate prison in 1325. This is summarised in the Calendar of the Coroners' Rolls of the City of London, 1300-1378, edited by Reginald Sharpe and published in 1913 (pp. 130-1). The coroner and sheriffs of the city held an inquiry into the gaol break. Jurors from the wards of Farringdon, Castle Baynard, Bread Street and Aldgate, stated that on 8 September 1325, at about midnight, Adam Nouneman of Hockcliffe in Bedfordshire, John Gommere, Robert de Molseleye, John de Elme, Alan Mariot and John de Parys, Stephen de Keleseye, William le Soutere, Walter, son of Beatrice Gomme, and John Bedewynde escaped through a hole in the western wall of Newgate prison. Some of the prisoners were recaptured, but others sought sanctuary in the churches of St Sepulchre's church near Newgate and St Bride's in Fleet Street. The jurors also declared that the escaped prisoners were assisted by various men, presumably also at that prisoners in Newgate. Those who abetted the escape were said to have included one Nicholas le Freemason. Convicted criminals were at that time allowed to escape punishment provided they agreed to leave the kingdom and live abroad. Four of those involved in this prison escape duly left the country from Dover and Southampton, but there is no record of what happened to Nicholas le Freemason. We cannot by any means be sure that this is the earliest appearance of the English word `freemason'. The word almost certainly appears somewhere else, hidden away in the great mass of unpublished medieval administrative records which remain largely unexplored by masonic scholars. Moreover, Nicholas's name may represent a French form of the word `freemason', and this illustrates the difficulty in firmly identifying the earliest English use of the word. We are on slightly firmer ground with literary texts, and at least one medieval English poem dating from before 1376 contains the word `freemason'. The romance Floris and Blancheflour is in Middle English, but was probably adapted from a French original sometime between 1250 and 1300. It is a good example of the kind of literary entertainment which was extremely popular among well-off people in medieval England. A Christian lady was captured by the Saracens in Spain who made her a lady-in-waiting to their queen. The Queen and the lady-in-waiting both have babies on the same day. The Saracen queen has a boy named Floris (flower) and the Christian lady a girl named Blancheflour (white flower). The children were brought up together, but the King, disturbed by their love for one another, decided that they should be separated. Blancheflour was sold as a slave, and was bought by an emir in Babylon who intended to marry her. Floris travels to Babylon to seek his love. Arriving at Babylon, Floris is told by Daris, the keeper of the bridge into the city, that Blauncheflour is kept in a high tower in the city, and that the emir would soon claim her as a wife. Daris describes the tower as follows (the following modern version of the text is by Professor Peter Baker of the University of Virginia): It is a hundred fathoms high; whoever beholds it from far or near can see that it is a hundred fathoms altogether. Without an equal, it is made of limestone and marble; there's not another such place in all the world. The mortar is made so well that neither iron nor steel can break it. The finial placed above is made with such pride that one has no need to burn a torch or lantern in the tower: the finial that was set there shines at night like the sun. Now there are forty two noble bowers in that tower; the man who could dwell in one of them would be happy, for he would never need to long for greater bliss. Floris is perplexed and distressed, and begs Daris for advice as to how he can reach Blauncheflour in the impentrable tower. Daris is ready with a plan:

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Dear son, you have done well to place your trust in me. The best advice I know ­ and I know no other advice ­ is to go to the tower tomorrow as if you were a good craftsman. Take the square and measure in your hand as if you were a freemason (`Take on þy honde squyer and scantlon, As þow were a free mason'). Look up and down the tower. The porter is cruel and villainous; he'll come to you immediately and ask what kind of man you are and accuse you of some crime, claiming you to be a spy. And you will answer sweetly and mildly and say to him that you are a craftsman come to look at the beautiful tower, meaning to make one like it in your land. The scheme works, and Floris and Blauncheflour are reunited. After many further trials and tribulations, in which the couple are threatened with beheading and death by fire, there is the inevitable happy ending, with the couple marrying and Blauncheflour becoming Floris's queen after the death of his father. Thus Floris and Blancheflour contains an English reference to a freemason which apparently dates from the late thirteenth century. Inevitably, however, the textual situation is more complicated than it appears at first sight, and the word freemason may perhaps have been added to the poem sometime during the fourteenth century. One of the earliest surviving copies of this poem is in the Auchinleck manuscript, one of the great treasures of the National Library of Scotland (a digital facsimile and edition of which is now available on the National Library's website). The Auchinleck manuscript dates from the 1330s. In this copy of Floris and Blancheflour, the word mason is used rather than freemason: And nim in þin hond squir and scantiloun Als þai þou were a masoun; The most complete copy of the poem is in British Library, Egerton MS. 2862, a manuscript which previously belonged to George Granville Leveson Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland and dates from the late fourteenth century. Here the word `free mason' is used, rather than mason. This suggests that the term freemason did not appear in the thirteenth century text of Floris and Blauncheflour, but was only inserted in the poem sometime after 1330. In order to establish the exact circumstances of the appearance of the word `freemason' in Floris and Blauncheflour, further investigation of the textual and manuscript traditions of this poem is necessary.

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Masonic Status w/ Bro. James Green

TEN YEARS WITH NO FURTHER LIGHT

Some of us were talking and the question came up "What is the Shrine going to be like in ten years without their members getting more education about Masonry". With so many going through the Lodge into the Shrine without the requirement of being a member of either the Scottish or York Rite Masons, what will be the condition of the Shrine? This is something that is going to be a problem that Shrine will have to deal with. In that time frame it is possible that the Imperial Council will be run by Shriners who never joined either the Scottish or York Rite. It is believed by many that this will be the down fall of the Shrine. It is believed that the change in the required pre-request to join the Shrine will come back to haunt them. One of the Brothers stated that he was shocked at going to a Shrine Club meeting and hearing the language being used by the members, even when they had their Ladies present. It was stated that a number of the members have quit the Club and the Shrine because of the language and attitude of the members. There is no Brotherly friendship or trust. Unless this trend is stopped and the Shrine goes back to the requirement that their members must not only be a Mason, but also belong to either the Scottish or York Rite. And those in the Shrine must back up and join one of them to continue their membership. James C. Green

Readers I ask you what is your opinion on this matter? Should it be required that a Master Mason be a member of either the York Rite or Scottish Rite before being allowed to join the Shrine. Does the non requirement water down the Shrine or strengthen it up by getting newer men to join.

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Cover Story

William Schaw and the Schaw Statutes

William Schaw was an extraordinary man. The insight he demonstrated when James the VI gave him the role of "Master of Works" to create a written document for Masons to work and live by can never be underestimated for their importance. First issued in Scotland in the year 1598 these rules helped create a uniform method of operating a successful lodge in manners of ritual and responsibilities. The first statute was drafted for the lodge in Edinburgh the second ,several years later, for the lodge in Kiliwinning. We see that a major emphasis was placed on learning the ritual by memory and the brothers would be fined a certain amount for not performing it with a certain degree of excellence. Imagine if we did that these days! What is so fascinating to me is that Schaw wrote down these rules when almost all others passed it along by word of mouth. Secrecy being so important to the craft this is one of the oldest written documents known to Masonry especially in how we are to function as brothers. Beginning with an into to the history of the work followed by the original wordings and a interpretation to help you read them better. "On 28 December 1598 Schaw, in his capacity of Master of Works and General Warden of the master ma-

sons, issued "The Statutis and ordinananceis to be obseruit by all the maister maoissounis within this realme". The preamble states that the statutes were issued with the consent of a craft convention, simply specified as all the master masons gathered that day. Schaw's first statutes root themselves in the Old Charges, with additional material to describe a hierarchy of wardens, deacons and masters. This structure would ensure that masons did not take on work which they were not competent to complete, and ensured a lodge warden would be elected by the master masons, through whom the general warden could keep in touch with each particular lodge. Master masons were only permitted to take on three apprentices during their lifetime (without special dispensation), and they would be bound to their masters for seven years. A further seven years would have to elapse before they could be taken into the craft, and

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a book-keeping arrangement was set up to keep track of this. Six master masons and two entered apprentices had to be present for a master or fellow of the craft to be admitted. Various other rules were laid out for the running of the lodge, supervision of work, and fines for non-attendance at lodge meetings. The statutes were agreed by all the master masons present, and arrangements were made to send a copy to every lodge in Scotland. These statutes indicate a significant advance in the organisation of the craft, with shires constituting an intermediate level of organisation. These "territorial" lodges ran parallel to another set of civic organisations, incorporations, often linking masons with other workers in the building trades, such as wrights. While in some places (Stirling and Dundee), the lodges and incorporations became indistinguishable, in other places the incorporation linked the trade to the burgh, and became a mechanism whereby the merchants exercised some control over the wages of the building trades. In places like Edinburgh, where the proliferation of wooden buildings meant a predominace of wrights, the territorial lodge offered a form of craft self-governance distinct from the incorporation. Also, the masons and wrights used differing ceremonial motifs, at the respective events. The role of deacon provided a link between these incorporations and the lodges. Copies of these statutes were written into the minutes of Aitchison's Haven (Newbattle) and Edinburgh Lodges. The Second Schaw Statutes were signed on 28 December at Holyroodhouse and consisted of fourteen separate stautes. Some of these were addressed specifically to Lodge Mother Kilwinning, others to the lodges of Scotland in general. Kilwinning Lodge was given regional authority for west Scotland, its previous practices were confirmed, various administrative functions were specified and the officials of the lodge were enjoined to ensure that all craft fellows and apprentices "tah tryall of the art of memorie". More generally, rules were laid down for proper record keeping of the lodges, with specific fees being laid down. The statutes state that Kilwinning was the head and second lodge in Scotland. This seems to relate to the fact that Kilwinning claimed predence as the first lodge in Scotland, but that in Schaw's scheme of things, the Edinburgh Lodge would be most important followed by Kilwinning and then Stirling. David Stevenson argues that the Second Schaw statutes dealt with the response from within the craft to his first statutes, whereby various traditions were mobilised against his innovations, particularly from Kilwinning. The reference to the art of memory may be taken as a direct reference to renaissance esotericism. William Fowler, who had been a colleague of Schaw both in his trip to Denmark and at Dunfermline, had instructed Queen Anne of Denmark in the technique. Indeed he had met Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno at the house of Michel de Castelnau in London in the 1580's. The art of memory constituted an important element of Bruno's magical system. " (Wikipedia)

THE FIRST SCHAW STATUTE OF 1598

At Edinburgh the XXVIII day of December, The zeir of God I' V' four scoir awchtene zeiris.

Edinburgh, the 28th day of December AD1598.

The statutis ordinance is to be obseruit be all the maister maissounis within this realme, Sett doun be Williame Schaw, Maister of Wark, to his maiestie And generall Wardene of the said

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craft, with the consent of the maisteris efter specifeit.

The Statutes and Ordinances to be observed by all the Master Masons within this realm. Set down by William Schaw, Master of Work to His Majesty and Warden General of the said Craft, with consent of the Masters specified hereafter.

Item, first that they obserue and keip all the gude ordinanceis sett doun ofbefoir concemyng the priviligeis of thair Craft be thair predicesso' of gude memorie, And specialie That thay be trew ane to ane vther and leve cheritablie togidder as becumis sworne brether and companzeounis of craft.

(1) First, they shall observe and keep all the good ordinances established before, concerning the privileges of their craft, by their predecessors of good memory; and especially. They shall be true to one another and live charitably together as becometh sworn brethren and companions of the Craft.

Item, that thay be obedient to thair wardenis, dekynis, andmaisteris in alithingis concernyng thair craft.

(2) They shall be obedient to their wardens, deacons, and masters in all things concerning their craft.

Item, that thay be honest, faithfull, and diligent in thair calling, and deill uprichtlie w'the maisteris or awnaris of the warkis that they sall tak vpoun hand, be it in task, meit, & fie, or owlkiie wage.

(3) They shall be honest, faithful, and diligent in their calling, and deal uprightly with their masters, or the employers, on the work which they shall take in hand, whether it be piece-work with meals and pay [task, melt, & fie], or for wages by the week.

Item, that name tak vpoun hand ony wark gritt or small quhilk he is no'abill to performe qualifeitlie vnder the pane of fourtie pundis money or ellis the fourt pairt of the worth and valo'of the said wark, and that by and atto' ane condigne amendis and satisfactioun to be maid to the awnaris of the wark at the sycht and discretioun of the generall Wardene, or in his absence at the sycht of the wardeneis, dekynis, and maisteris of the shrefdome quhair the said wark is interprisit and wrocht.

(4) None shall undertake any work great or small, which he is not capable to perform adequately, under penalty of forty pounds lawful money or else the fourth part of the worth and value of the work, besides making satisfactory amends to the employers, according as the Warden General may direct or, in the absence of the latter, as may be ordered by the wardens, deacons, and masters of the sheriffdom in which the work is undertaken and carried on.

Item, that na maister sali tak anevther maisteris wark over his heid, efter that the first maister hes aggreit w'the awnar of the wark ather be contract, arlis, or verball conditioun, vnder the paine of fourtie punds.

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(5) No master shall take away another master's work after the latter has entered into an agreement with the employer by contract or otherwise, under penalty of forty pounds.

Item, that na maister sall tak the wirking of ony wark that vther maisteris hes wrocht at of befoir, vnto the tyme that the first wirkaris be satisfeit for the wark quhilk thay haif wrocht, vnder the pane foirsaid.

(6) No master shall take over any work at which other masters have been engaged previously, until the latter shall have been paid in full for the work they did, under penalty of forty pounds.

Item, that thair be ane wardene chosin and electit Ilk zeir to haif the charge over everie ludge, as thay are devidit particularlie, and that be the voitis of the maisteris of the saids ludgeis, and consent of thair Wardene generall gif he happynis to be pn', And vtherwyis that he be aduerteist that sic ane wardene is chosin for sic ane zeir, to the effect that the Wardene generall may send sic directionis to that wardene electit, as effeiris.

(7) A warden shall be elected annually to have charge of every lodge in the district for which he is chosen by the votes of the masters of the lodges of such district and the consent of the Warden General if he happens to be present; otherwise the Warden General shall be notified of the election that he may send to the wardenelect necessary directions.

Item, that na maister sall tak ony ma prenteissis nor thre during his lyfetyme w'out ane speciall consent of the haill wardeneis, dekynis, and maisteris of the schirefdome quhair the said prenteiss that is to be ressauit dwellis and remanis.

(8) No master shall take more than three 'prentices in his lifetime, without the special consent of all the wardens, deacons, and masters of the sheriffdom in which the to-be-received 'prentice resides.

Item, that na maister ressaue ony prenteiss bund for fewar zeiris nor sevin at the leist, and siclyke it sall no'be lesum to mak the said prenteiss brother and fallow in craft vnto the tyme thathe haif seruit the space of vther sevin zeiris efter the ische of his said prenteischip w'out ane speciall licenc granttit be the wardeneis, dekynis, and maisteris assemblit for the caus, and that sufficient tryall be tane of thair worthynes, qualificatioun, and skill of the persone that desyirs to be maid fallow in craft, and that vnder the pane of fourtie punds to be upliftit as ane pecuniall penaltie fra the persone that is maid fallow in craft aganis this ord', besyde the penalteis to be set doun aganis his persone, accordyng to the ord'of the ludge quhair he remanis.

(9) No master shall take on any 'prentice except by binding him to serve him as such for at least seven years, and it shall not be lawful to make such 'prentice a brother or fellow of the craft until he shall have served other seven years after the completion of his 'prenticeship, without a special license granted by the wardens, deacons, and masters, assembled for that purpose, after sufficient trial shall have been made by them of the worthiness, qualifications and skill of the person desiring to be made a fellowcraft. A fine of forty pounds shall be collected as a pecuniary penalty from the person who is made a fellow of the craft in violation of this order, besides the penalties to be levied against his person by order of the lodge of the place where he resides.

Item, it sall no' be lesum to na maister to sell his prenteiss to ony vther maister nor zit to dis(Continued on page 32)

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pens w'the zeiris of his prenteischip be selling y'of to the prenteisses self, vnder the pane of fourtie punds.

(10) It shall not be lawful for any master to sell his 'prentice to another master, nor to curtail the years of his 'prenticeship by selling these off to the 'prentice himself, under the penalty of forty pounds.

Item, that na maister ressaue ony prenteiss w'out he signifie the samyn to the wardene of the ludge quhair he dwellis, to the effect that the said prenteissis name and the day of his ressauyng may be ord'lie buikit.

(11) No master shall take on a 'Prentice without notice to the warden of the lodge where he resides, so that the 'Prentice and the day of his reception may be duly booked.

Item, that na prenteiss be enterit bot be the samyn ord', that the day of thair enteres may be buikit.

(12) No 'Prentice shall be entered except according to the aforesaid regulations in order that the day of entry may be duly booked.

Item, that na maister or fallow of craft be ressauit nor admittit w'out the numer of sex maisteris and twa enterit prenteissis, the wardene of that ludge being ane of the said sex, and that the day of the ressauyng of the said fallow of craft or maister be ord'lie buikit and his name and mark insert in the said buik w' the names of his sex admitteris and enterit prenteissis, and the names of the intendaris that salbe chosin to everie persone to be alsua insert in thair buik. Providing alwayis that na man be admittit w'out ane assay and sufficient tryall of his skill and worthynes in his vocatioun and craft.

(13) No master or fellow of craft shall be received or admitted without there being present six masters and two entered 'prentices, the warden of the lodge being one of the six, when the day of receiving the new fellow of craft or master shall be duly booked and his mark inserted in the same book, with the names of the six admitters and entered 'prentices, as also the names of the intenders [intendaris-instructors] which shall be chosen for every person so entered in the book of the lodge. Providing always that no man be admitted without an essay and sufficient trial of his skill and worthiness in his vocation and craft.

Item, that na maister wirk ony maissoun wark vnder charge or command of ony vther craftisman that takis vpoun hand or vpoun him the wirking of ony maissoun wark.

(14) No master shall engage in any mason work under the charge or command of any other craftsman who has undertaken the doing of any mason work.

Item, that na maister or farow of craft ressaue ony cowanis to wirk in his societie or cumpanye, nor send nane of his servands to wirk w'cowanis, under the pane of twentie punds sa oft as ony persone offendis heirintill.

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(15) No master or fellow of craft shall accept any cowan to work in his society or company, nor send any of his servants to work with cowans, under the penalty of twenty pounds as often as any person offends in this matter.

Item, it sall no'be lesum to na enterit prenteiss to tak ony gritter task or wark vpon hand fra a awnar nor will extend to the soume of ten punds vnder the pane foirsaid, to wit xx libs, and that task being done they sall Interpryiss na mair w'out licence of the maisteris or warden q'thay dwell.

(16) It shall not be lawful for any entered 'Prentice to undertake any greater task or work for an employer, which amounts to as much as ten pounds, under the penalty just mentioned, to wit twenty pounds, and that task being done he shall not undertake any other work without license of the masters or warden where he dwells.

Item, gif ony questioun, stryfe, or varianc sall fall out amang ony of the maisteris, servands, or entert prenteissis, that the parteis that fallis in questioun or debait, sall signifie the causis of thair querrell to he perticular wardeneis or dekynis of thair ludge w'in the space of xxiiij ho" vnder the pane of ten pnds, to the effect that thay may be reconcilit and aggreit and their variance removit be thair said wardeneis, dekynis, and maisteris; and gif ony of the saids parteis salhappin to remane wilfull or obstinat that they salbe deprivit of the privilege of thair ludge and no'permittit to wirk y'at vnto the tyme that thay submit thame selffis to ressoun at the sycht ofthair wardenis, dekynis, and maisteris, as said is.

(17) If any question, strife, or variance shall arise among any of the masters, servants, or entered 'prentices, the parties involved in such questions or debate shall make known the causes of their quarrel to the particular warden and deacon of their lodge, within the space of twenty-four hours, under penalty of ten pounds, to the end that they may be reconciled and agreed and their variances removed by their said warden, deacon, and masters; and if any of the said parties shall remain wilful or obstinate, they shall be deprived f the privilege of their lodge and not permitted to work thereat unto the time that they shall submit themselves to reason according to the view of the said wardens, deacons, and masters.

Item, that all maisteris, Inte priseris of warkis, be verray cairfull to sie thair skaffellis and futegangis surelie sett and placeit, to the effect that throw thair negligence and siewth na hurt or skaith cum vnto ony personis that wirkis at the said wark, vnder pain of dischargeing of thaim y efter to wirk as maisteris havand charge of ane wark, bot sall ever be subiect all the rest of thair dayis to wirk vnder or w ane other principall maister havand charge of the wark.

(18) All masters, undertakers of works, shall be very careful to see that the scaffolds and gangways are set and placed securely in order that by reason of their negligence and sloth no injury or damage [hurt or skaith] may come to any persons employed in the said work, under penalty of their being excluded thereafter from working as masters having charge of any work, and shall ever be subject all the rest of their days to work under or with an other principal master in charge of the work.

Item, that na maister ressaue or ressett ane vther maisteris prenteiss or servand that salhappin to ryn away fra his maisteris seruice, nor interteine him in his cumpanye efter that he hes gottin knawledge y'of, vnder the paine of fourtie punds.

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(19) No master shall receive or house [resset] a 'Prentice or servant of any other master, who shall have run away from his master's service, nor entertain him in his company after he has received knowledge thereof, under penalty of forty pounds.

Item, that all personis of the maissoun craft conuene in tyme and place being lawchfullie warnit, vnder the pane of ten punds.

(20) All persons of the mason craft shall convene at the time and place lawfully made known to them [being lawchfullie warnit], under penalty of ten pounds.

Item, that all the maisteris that salhappin to be send for to ony assemblie or meitting sall be sworne be thair grit aith that thay sall hyde nor coneill na fawltis nor wrangis done be ane to ane vther, nor zit the faultis or wrangis that ony man hes done to the awnaris of the warkis that they haif had in hand sa fer as they knaw, and that vnder the pane of ten punds to be takin vp frae the conceillairs of the saidis faultis.

(21) All the masters who shall happen to be sent to any assembly or meeting, shall be sworn by their great oath that they will neither hide nor conceal any faults or wrongs done to the employers on the work they have in hand, so far as they know, and that under penalty of ten pounds to be collected from the concealers of the said faults.

Item, it is ordanit that all thir foirsaids penalteis salbe liftit and tane vp fra the offendaris and brekaris of thir ordinances be the wardeneis, dekynis, and maisteris of the ludgeis quhair the offendaris dwellis, and to be distributit ad pios vsus according to gud conscience be the advyis of the foirsaidis.

(22) It is ordained that all the aforesaid penalties shall be lifted and taken up from the offenders and breakers of their ordinances by the wardens, deacons, and masters of the lodges where the offenders dwell, the moneys to be expended ad pios usus (for charitable purposes) according to good conscience and by the advice of such wardens, deacons, and masters.

And for fulfilling and observing of thir ordinances, sett doun as said is, The haill maisteris conuenit the foirsaid day binds and oblisses thaim heirto faithfullie. And thairfore hes requeistit thair said Wardene generall to subscriue thir presentis wt his awn hand, to the effect that ane autentik copy heirof may be send to euerie particular ludge w'in this realme.

For the fulfilling and observing of these ordinances, as set down above, the master convened on the aforesaid day bind and obligate themselves faithfully. Therefore they have requested their said Warden General to sign these ordinances by his own hand in order that an authentic copy hereof may be sent to every particular lodge within this realm.

WILLIAM SCHAW, Maistir of Wark.

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SECOND SCHAW STATUTE OF 1599

XXVIII Decembris, 1599. First It is ordanit that the warden witin the bounds of Kilwynning and vther placeis subject to thair ludge salbe chosin and electit zeirlie be monyest of the Mrs voitis of the said ludge vpoun the twentie day of December and that wn the kirk of Kilwynning as the heid and secund ludge of Scotland and yrefter that the generall warden be advertysit zeirlie quha is chosin warden of the ludge, immediatlie efter his electioun.

(1) Edinburgh shall be, in the future as in the past, the first and principal lodge in Scotland; Kilwinning, the second "as is established in our ancient writings;" and Stirling shall be the third lodge, "conformably to the old privileges thereof."

Item it is thocht neidfull & expedient be my lord warden generall that everie ludge wtin Scotland sall have in tyme cuming ye awld and antient liberties yrof vse and wont of befoir & in speciall, yt ye ludge ol Kilwynning secund ludge of Scotland sail haif thair warden pnt at the election of ye wardenis wtin ye bounds of ye Nether Waird of Cliddsdail, Glasgow Air & bounds of Carrik; wt powar to ye said wairden & dekyn of Kilwynning to convene ye remanent wardenis and dekynis wtin ye bounds foirsaid quhan thay haif ony neid of importance ado, and yai to bejudgit be ye warden and dekyn of Kilwynning quhen it sall pleis thame to qvene for ye tyme ather in Kilwynning or wtin ony vther pt of the west of Scotland and bounds foirsaid.

(2) The warden within the bounds of Kilwinning and other places subject to their lodge, shall be elected annually by a majority [be monyest] of the masters of the lodge, on the twentieth day of December, in the Kirk of Kilwinning. Immediately after election, the Warden General must be notified who was chosen warden.

Item it is thocht neidfull & expedient be my lord warden generall, that Edr salbe in all tyme cuming as of befoir the first and principall ludge in Scotland, and yt Kilwynning be the secund ludge as of befoir is notourlie manifest in our awld antient writts and that Stirueling salbe the third ludge, conforme to the auld privileges thairof.

(3) Agreeably to "former ancient liberties," the warden of Kilwinning shall be present at the election of wardens within the limits of the lower ward of Cliddisdale, Glasgow, Ayr, and the district of Carrik. Furthermore, the warden and deacon of Kilwinning shall have authority to convene the wardens within the indicated jurisdiction, when anything of importance is to be done, such meetings to be held at Kilwinning or any other place in the western part of Scotland included in the described bounds, as the warden and deacon of Kilwinning may appoint.

Item it is thocht expedient yt ye wardenis of everie ilk ludge salbe answerabel to ye presbyteryes wtin thair schirefdomes for the maissonis subiect to ye ludgeis anent all offensis ony of thame sall committ, and the thrid pt of ye vnlawis salbe employit to ye godlie vsis of ye ludge quhair ony offens salhappin to be committit.

(4) The warden of each and every lodge shall he answerable to the presbyters of the sheriffdom for all offences committed by masons subject to these lodges. One third of all fines imposed for offences shall be applied to chari(Continued on page 36)

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table [godlie] uses.

Item yt yr be tryall takin zeirlie be ye wardenis & maist antient maisteris of everie ludge extending to sex personis quha sall tak tryall of ye offenss, yt punishment may be execut conforme to equitie & iustice & guid conscience & ye antient ordor.

(5) The wardens together with the oldest masters, up to the number of six, of every lodge shall hold an annual investigation of offences committed and try all offenders to the end that proper punishment may be meted out conformably to equity and justice and good conscience, according to traditional procedure.

Item it is ordanit be my lord warden generall that the warden of Kilwynning as secund in Scotland, elect and chuis sex of the maist perfyt and worthiest of memorie within (thair boundis,) to tak tryall of the qualificatioun of the haill masonis within the boundis foirsaid of thair airt, craft, scyance and antient memorie; To the effect the warden deakin may be answerable heiraftir for sic p(er)sonis as Js qmittit to him & wthin his bounds and jurisdictioun.

(6) The warden of Kilwinning shall appoint six worthy and perfect masons, well known to the craft as such, to inquire into the qualifications of all the masons within the district, as regards their skill and knowledge of the trade and their familiarity with the old traditions, to the end that the warden [and] deacon may be answerable thereafter for all such persons within his district and jurisdiction.

Item conunissioun in gewin to ye warden and deakon of Kilwynning as secund luge, to secluid and away put ftirthe of yr societe and cumpanie all psonis disobedient to fulfil & obey ye haill acts and antient statutts sett doun of befoir of guid memorie, and all psonis disobedient eyr to kirk craft counsall and uyris statutts and acts to be mayd heireftir for ane guid ordour.

(7) Authority is given to the warden [and] deacon of Kilwinning to exclude from the lodges of the district all persons who wilfully fail to live up to "all the acts and ancient statutes set down from time immemorial," also all who are ."disobedient to their church, craft, council and other statutes and acts to be promulgated hereafter for good order."

Item it is ordainit be my lord warden generall that the warden and deakyn to be pnt of his quarter maisteris elect cheis and constitut ane famous notar as ordinar clark and scryb, and yat ye said notar to be chosinge sall occupye the office, and that all indentouris discharges and vtheris wrytis quhatsumevir, perteining to ye craft salbe onlie wrytin be ye clark and that na maner of wryt neyther tityll nor other evident to be admit be ye said warden and deakin befoir yame, except it be maid be ye said clark and subscryuit wt his hand.

(8) The warden and deacon, together with the masters of the district [quarter maisteries] shall elect a well known notary [constitut ane famous notar] as clerk and secretary [scryb] who shall make out and sign all indentures, discharges, and other writings whatsoever, pertaining to the craft, and no writ, title or other evidence shall be admitted by the warden and deacon, except it shall have been executed by this clerk and signed by him.

Item It is ordanit be my lord generall that ye hale auld antient actis and statutis maid of befoir be ye predicessrs of ye masonis ofkilwynning be observit faithftillie and kepit be ye craftis in all tymes cuminge, and that na prenteis nor craftis man, in ony tymes heireftir be admittit nor en(Continued on page 37)

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terit Bot onlie wthin the kirk of Kilwynning as his paroche and secund ludge, and that all bankatts for entrie of prenteis or fallow of crafts to be maid wthin ye said lug of Kilwynning.

(9) All the acts and statutes made by the predecessors of the masons of Kilwinning shall be observed faithfully and kept by the craft in all time coming; 'prentices and craftsmen shall be admitted and entered hereafter only in the Kirk of Kilwinning, as their parish and second lodge, and all entry-banquets of 'prentices and fellows of craft shall be held in the lodge of Kilwinning.

Itemltis ordanit that all fallows of craft at his entrie pay to ye commoun bokis of ye luge the soume of ten punds monie, wt x s. worthe of gluiffis or euire he be admitit and that for the bankatt, And that he be not adrrtitit wthout ane sufficient essay and pruife of memorie and art of craft be the warden deacon and quarter mrs of ye lug, conforme to ye foirmer and qrthrow yai may be ye mair answerable to ye generall warden.

(10) Every fellow of craft, at his entry, shall pay to his lodge ten pounds to go for the banquet, and ten shillings for gloves; before admission he shall be examined by the warden [and] deacon and the district masters in the lodge as to his knowledge [memorie] and skill, and he also shall perform an assigned task to demonstrate his mastery of the art.

Item that all prentessis to be admitit be not admittit qll first pay to ye commoun bankat foiresaid the sowme of sex punds monie, utherwyes to pay the bankat for ye haill members of craft wthin the said ludge and prentessis yrof.

(11) Every 'prentice, before he is admitted, shall pay six pounds to be applied to the common banquet.

Item It is ordanit that the warden and deakis of ye secund luge of Scotland pnt of Kilwynning, sall tak the aythe, fidelitie and trewthe of all mrs and fallowis of craft wthin ye haill bounds commitit to yr charge, zeirlie that thai sall not accumpanie wth cowans nor work with diame, nor any ofyr servands or prenteisses wndir ye paine of ye penaltie contenit in ye foirmer actis and peying yrof.

(12) The warden and deacon of the second lodge of Scotland, to wit Kilwinning, shall obligate by oath all masters and fellows of craft within the district not to associate with cowans nor work with them, neither to permit this to be done by their servants or 'prentices.

Item It is ordanit be ye generall warden, That ye warden of ye lug of Kilwynning, being the secund lug in Scotland, tak tryall of ye airt of memorie and science yrof, of everie fellowe of craft and everie prenteiss according to ayr of yr vocations; and in cais yat yai haue lost ony point yrof dvied to thame To pay the penaltie as followis for yr slewthfulness, viz., Ilk fallow of craft, xx s., Ilk prentess, x s., and that to be payit to ye box for ane commoun weill zeirlie & yat conforme to the commoun vs and pratik of the commoun lugs of this realm.

(13) The warden of the lodge of Kilwinning, being the second lodge of Scotland, once in each year, shall examine every fellow craft and 'prentice, according to the vocation of each, as to his skill and knowledge; those who have forgotten any points they have been taught shall pay fines.

And for the fulfilling, observiiige and keping of thir statutis and all oyr actis and statuttis maid

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of befoir and to be maid be ye warden deaconis and quarter mrs of ye lugis foirsads for guid ordor keping confonn to equitie justice & antient ordor to ye makinge and setting doun qrof ye generall warden hes gevin his power and conunissionto the said warden and yrs abouevrtn to sett doun & mak actis conforme as accords to ye office law. And in signe and taking yrof I the generall warden of Scotland hes sett doun and causit pen yir actis & statutis And hes sybscryuit ye smyis wt my hand eftr ye testimoniale on this syd and on the uther syd. Be it Kend to the warden dekyn and to the mrs of the ludge of Kilwynning That Archibald Barklay being directit commissioner fra the said ludge comperit in Edr the twentie sevin & twentie awcht of December Instant quhair the said Archibald in pns of the warden generall & the mrs of the ludge of Edr, producit his commissioun, and behaifit himself verie honestlie and cairfullie for the discharge of sik thingis as was committit into him; bot be ressone of the absence of his Maitie out of the toun and yt thair was na mrs bot the tudge of Edr convenit at this tyme, We culd not get ane satlat order (as the privileges ofthe craft requyris) tane at this tyme, bot heirefter quhan occasioun sal be offerit we sall get his Maities warrand baith for the authorizing of the ludgeis privilegeis, and ane penaltie set down for the dissobedient personis and perturberis of all guid ordor. Thus far I thocht guid to sgnifievn to the haill brether of the ludge, vnto the neist commoditie In witnes heirof, I haif subscriuit this pnt wt my hand at Halyrudhous the twentie awcht day of December The zeir of God ImV' fourscoir nynetene zeirs. WILLIAM SCHAW, Maistir of Wark, Wairden of ye Maisons.

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Short Talk Bulletin THE RITE OF DESTITUTION

SHORT TALK BULLETIN Vol.I November, 1923 No.11

Nothing in Freemasonry is more beautiful in form or more eloquent in meaning than the First Degree. Its simplicity and dignity, its blend of solemnity and surprise, as well as its beauty of moral truth, mark it as a little masterpiece. Nowhere may one hope to find nobler appeal to the native nobilities of as man. What we get out of Freemasonry, as of anything else depends upon our capacity, and our response to its appeal; but it is hard to see how ant man can receive the First Degree and pass out of the lodge room quite the same man as when he entered it. What memories come back to us when we think of the time when we took our first step in Freemasonry. We had been lead, perhaps, by the sly remarks of friends to expect some kind of horseplay, or the riding of a goat; but how different it was in reality. Instead of mere play-acting we discovered, by contrast, a ritual of religious faith and moral law, an allegory of life and a parable of those truths which lie at the foundations of manhood. Surely no man can ever forget that hour when, vaguely or clearly, the profound meaning of Freemasonry began slowly to unfold before his mind. The whole meaning of initiation, of course, is an analogy of the birth, awakening and growth of the soul; its discovery of the purpose of life and the nature of the world in which it is to be lived. The lodge is the world as it was thought to be in the olden times, with its square surface and canopy of sky, its dark North and its radiant East; its center an Altar of obligation and prayer. The initiation, by the same token, is our advent from the darkness of prenatal gloom into the light of moral truth and spiritual faith, out of lonely isolation into a network of fellowships and relationships, out of a merely physical into a human and moral order. The cable tow, by which we may be detained or removed should we be unworthy or unwilling to advance, is like the cord which joins a child to its mother at birth. Nor is it removed until, by the act of assuming the obligations and fellowships of the moral life, a new, unseen tie is spun and woven in the heart, uniting us, henceforth, by an invisible bond, to the service of our race in its moral effort to build a world of fraternal good will. Such is the system of moral philosophy set forth in symbols in which the initiate is introduced, and in this light each emblem, each incident, should be interpreted. Thus Freemasonry gives a man at a time when it is most needed, if he be young, a noble, wise, time-tried principle by which to read the meaning of the world and his duty in it. No man may hope to see it all at once, or once for all, sand it is open to question whether any man lives long enough to think it through - for, like all simple things, it is deep and wonderful. In the actuality of the symbolism a man in the first degree of Freemasonry, as in the last, accepts the human situation, enters a new environment, with a new body of motive and experience. In short, he assumes his real vocation in the world and vows to live by the highest standard of values. Like every other incident of initiation it is in the light of the larger meanings of Freemasonry that we must interpret the Rite of Destitution. At a certain point in his progress every man is asked for a token of a certain kind, to be laid up in the archives of the lodge as a memorial of his initiation. If he is "duly and truly prepared" he finds himself unable to grant the request. Then, in one swift and searching moment, he realizes - perhaps for the first time in his life - what it means for a man to be actually destitute. For one impressive instant, in which many emotions mingle, he is made to feel the bewilderment, if not the humiliation, which besets one who is deprived of the physical necessities of life upon which, far more than we have been wont to admit, both the moral and social order depend. Then, by a surprise as sudden as be(Continued on page 40)

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fore, and in a manner never to be forgotten, the lesson of the Golden Rule is taught - the duty of a man to his fellow in dire need. It is not left to the imagination, since the initiate is actually put into the place of the man who asks his aid, making his duty more real and vivid. At first sight it may seem to some that the lesson is marred by the limitations and qualifications which follow; but that is only seeming. Freemasons are under all the obligations of humanity, the most primary of which is to succor their fellow man in desperate plight. As Mohammed long ago said, the end of the world has come when man will not help man. But we are under special obligations to our brethren of the Craft, as much by the prompting of our hearts as by the vows we have taken. Such a principle, so far from being narrow and selfish, has the endorsement of the Apostle Paul in his exhortations to the earl Christian community. In the Epistle to the Ephesians we read: "As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith." It is only another way of saying that "Charity begins at home," and for Masons the home is the lodge. So, then, the destitute to which this Rite refers, and whose distress the initiate is under vows to relieve, as his ability may permit, are a definite and specific class. They are not to be confused with those who are poverty-stricken by ,D,d, of criminal tendencies or inherent laziness. That is another problem, in the solution of which Masons will have their share and do their part - a very dark problem, too, which asks for both patience and wisdom. No, the needy which this Rite requires that we aid are "All Poor and Distressed, Worthy Masons, their Widows and Orphans;" that is, those who are destitute through no fault of their own, but as the result of untoward circumstances. They are those who, through accident, disease or disaster, have become unable, however willing and eager, to meet their obligations. Such are deserving of charity in its true Masonic sense, not only in the form of financial relief, but also in the form of companionship, sympathy and love. If we are bidden to be on our guard against impostors, who would use Masonry for their own ends, where there is real need , our duty is limited only by our ability to help, without injury to those nearest to us. A church, it be worthy of the name, opens its doors to all kinds and conditions of folks, rich and poor alike, the learned and unlearned. But a lodge of Masons is different, alike in purpose and function. It is made up of picked men, selected from among many, and united for unique ends. No man ought to be allowed to enter the Order unless he is equal to its demands, financially as mentally and morally, able to pay its fees and dues, and to do his part in its work of relief. Yet no set of men, however intelligent and strong, are exempt from the vicissitudes and tragedies of life. Take, for example, Anthony Sayer, the first Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England. Towards the end of his life he met with such reverses that he became tiler of Old Kings Arms Lodge No. 28, and it is recorded that he was assisted "out of the box of this Society." Such a misfortune, or something worse, may overtake any one of us, without warning or resource. Disasters of the most appalling kind befall men every day, leaving them broken and helpless. How often have we seen a noble and able man suddenly smitten down in mid life, stripped not only of his savings but of his power to earn, as the result of some blow no mortal wit could avert. There he lies, shunted out of active life when most needed and most able and willing to serve. Life may any day turn Ruffian and strike one of us such a blow, disaster following fat and following faster, until we are at its mercy. It is to such experiences that the Rite of Destitution has reference, pledging us to aid as individuals and as lodges; and we have a right to be proud that our Craft does not fail in the doing of good. It is rich in benevolence, and it knows how to hide its labors under the cover of secrecy, using its privacy to shield itself and those whom it aids. Yet we are very apt, especially in large lodges, or in the crowded solitude of great cities, to lose the personal touch, and let our charity fall to the level of a cold distant almsgiving. When this is so charity becomes a mere perfunctory obligation, and a lodge has been known to vote ten dollars for its own entertainment! There is a Russian story in which a poor man asked aid of another as poor as himself: "Brother, I have no money to give you, but let me give you my hand," was the reply. "Yes, give me your hand, for that, also, is a gift more needed than all others," said the first; and the two forlorn men clasped hands in a

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common need and pathos. There was more real charity in that scene than in many a munificent donation made from a sense of duty or pride. Indeed, we have so long linked charity with the giving of money that the word has well nigh lost its real meaning. In his sublime hymn in praise of charity, in the thirteenth chapter of First Corinthians, St. Paul does not mention money at all, except to say "and although I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing." Which implies that a man may give all the money he possesses and yet fail of that Divine grace of Charity. Money has its place and value, but it is not everything, much less the sum of our duty, and there are many things it cannot do. A great editor sent the following greeting at the New Year: "Here is hoping that in the New Year there will be nothing the matter with you that money cannot cure. For the rest, the law and the prophets contain no word of better rule for the health of the soul than the adjuration: Hope thou a little, fear not at all, and love as much as you can." Surely it was a good and wise wish, if we think of it, because the things which money cannot cure are the ills of the spirit, the sickness of the heart, and the dreary, dull pain of waiting for those who return no more. There are hungers which gold cannot satisfy, and blinding bereavements from which it offers no shelter. There are times when a hand laid upon the shoulder, "in a friendly sort of way," is worth more than all the money on earth. Many a young man fails, or makes a bad mistake, for lack of a brotherly hand which might have held him up, or guided him into a wiser way. The Rite of Destitution! Yes, indeed; but a man may have all the money he needs, and yet be destitute of faith, of hope, of courage; and it is our duty to share our faith and courage with him. To fulfill the obligations of this Rite we must give not simply our money, but ourselves, as Lowell taught in "The Vision of Sir Launfal," writing in the name of a Great Brother who, though he had neither home not money, did more good to humanity than all of us put together - and who still haunts us like the dream of a Man we want to be. "The Holy Supper is kept indeed, In what so we share with another's need; Not that which we give, but what we share, For the gift without the giver is bare; Who bestows himself with his alms feeds three, Himself, his hungering neighbor, and Me!"

- Source: Short Talk Bulletin - Nov. 1923 Masonic Service Association of North America

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Food and Fellowship

Food and Fellowship

By Bro. Wyndell Ferguson

Recently our lodge meet on a Saturday morning to raise to Brothers to the sublime degree of Master Mason. As is our custom to have a meal before every called and stated meeting we nice meal. This months recipe is an old recipe that my family likes to have for breakfast during the holidays when family is spending the night. Its fast, filling and easy to prepare. I think it would be great for a breakfast before a degree!

Hungry Man's Breakfast Casserole 1 lb. bulk breakfast sausage 3 c. shredded potatoes; drained and pressed 1/4 c. butter; melted 12 ounces mild cheddar cheese; shredded 1/2 c. onion; shredded 1 small can green chili; chopped 1 pound small curd cottage cheese 6 jumbo eggs Salt; to taste black pepper; to taste Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Place sausage in a large, deep skillet. Cook over medium-high heat until evenly brown. Drain, crumble and set aside. Stir together shredded potatoes and butter. Line bottom and sides of a medium glass baking dish with potato mixture. Combine sausage, cheddar cheese, onion, chilis, cottage cheese and eggs; pour mixture into baking dish. Bake for 60 minutes, until a toothpick inserted into center of the casserole comes out clean. Let cool for 5 minutes before serving.

If you have any questions, comments, feedback etc. please contact me either through The Working Tools or at [email protected]

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What Comes To Mind w/ Lansing V. Ten Eyck, III

The Holiday Observance We Share:

Thanksgiving

The First Thanksgiving, reproduction of an oil painting by J.L.G. Ferris, early 20th century. As I sit here in front of the computer in preparation of writing this month's article, I'm brought to thoughts of our upcoming holiday season. The first of the season is Thanksgiving, a very solemn event of our forefathers' emigration to a new world. Full of many unknowns and dangers never thought of before their arrival on these shores. It is also a time I think of what Freemasonry has meant to me since I was accepted into this most noble fraternity. There is one event which is celebrated by our Brothers of Scottish Rite called Tishri. Though, not all jurisdictions of Scottish Rite celebrate this event at the same time because there are different reasons at different times of the year for their thankfulness. Tishri, since I've mentioned it and your interest has been piqued; I shall attempt to explain this holiday with the help of some Brothers who have already written articles about its significance. The Feast of Tishri in Freemasonry is chiefly derived from the Jewish Festival of Sukkoth. Sukkoth is a celebration of the harvest and commemorates the period following the exodus from Egypt during which the Jews wondered in the wilderness. This is akin to Thanksgiving here in America today and to Freemasonry it is mostly observed by Scottish Rite along with other observances they celebrate. Though Freemasonry is an organization with no religious agenda, our Masonic observances are celebrated in a manner that is embraced by men of all faiths. "The evolution of the Jewish feast of Succoth into an American national day, Thanksgiving, could not have occurred except in a climate of freedom and independence. Thus this holiday is uniquely American and Masonic since the same culture that nurtured religious freedom and toleration also nurtured the growth of Freemasonry." "We sometimes are asked why Masons devote so much of their time and energy to the cause of aiding those

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less fortunate. Possibly this little fable from Jewish folklore might explain. A wise and learned Rabbi, noting that his most promising student seemed saddened and preoccupied, asked the young man, "What's troubling you, my son?" The student replied, "Rabbi, as I observe the injustice in the world and man's inhumanity to man everywhere, I have come to the conclusion that when God created the world, He didn't do a very good job." In response, the Rabbi asked, "Do you think you could have done better?" The student quietly answered, "Rabbi, I honestly think I could have." To which the wise man responded, "THEN BEGIN!" In the various Bodies of Masonry, men of all faiths may unite and, each in his own way, begin." I must thank Brother William J. Jason, 33° of Memphis, TN for his article written in the October 1999 issue of The Scottish Rite Journal. In my research for this article, I found another article by George R. Adams, 33°, in the February ­ 2003 issue of The Scottish Rite Journal, entitled "Remembrance and Renewal." "The article format for Journal presentation, is the text of an address by Deputy Adams delivered after a celebration of the Feast of Tishri on March 30, 2002. The Brethren of the Valley of Washington, Orient of the District of Columbia, were among the first to perform the Supreme Council's new "Ceremony of Remembrance and Renewal" which is recommended for use in place of the traditional observance of the Feast of Tishri. The full text of the new ceremony is available as Chapter Eight of Forms and Traditions of the Scottish Rite by Sovereign Grand Commander C. Fred Kleinknecht, 33°. This book supercedes Practice and Procedures of the Scottish Rite and is available (148 pages, hardbound, $16.00) from the Supreme Council at 1733 16th St., NW, Washington, D.C. 20009-3103." I feel that from our Blue Lodge beginnings through our other appending bodies of Brothers and our family organizations join together to for the benefit of others less fortunate than we. To be a part of Freemasonry is an honor for me, in that I've met and enjoy my interaction on many planes, with not only my local Brothers but, also Brothers around the world. In closing, I want to wish you all a most joyous and healthy Thanksgiving of 2007.

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Out of the Ritual OUT OF THE RITUAL

John T Neal Senior Warden- Kingman Lodge #22 F&AM As I ponder life in general and Masonry in particular I'm confronted with many questions. After beginning my Masonic journey some thirteen years ago I only truly began to seek for truths within the teachings of Masonry over the last two years. I now find myself confronted with more questions than ever. However that is not to say that I am not learning. On the contrary, I find that if I sit and concentrate my full attention upon the ritual while trying to learn one of its many sections, my mind begins to slowly perceive certain underlying flows within the writings. Nothing here is really hidden it just takes serious study before it begins to unfold. Here are some thoughts that I offer for your consideration. There is no doubt in my mind that what I am about to discuss is only a small fraction of what can be learned within the confines of the Masonic ritual. After saying that I think that many Brothers my self included often begin this journey in search of purpose, meaning, and values associated with, or flowing out of Masonry. There is perhaps no single definition that is suitable for all men. I therefore encourage you to seek for yourself, study, learn a lecture, but most importantly, while traveling though your Masonic journey remember that there is a distinction between memorization and "LEARNING BY HEART". What I mean by that is that sometimes you cannot fully understand the meaning by memorization alone. It takes time, repetition, and study to put the authors words into context. Without context and background it is only words. In the beginning of my travels the one question that kept occurring to me was why? Regardless of where it came from or when, why did so many men put so much time and effort into the development of our ritual and fraternity? The most obvious answer to my way of thinking is that they had discovered or were privy to certain knowledge and methodologies which helped them to live a more rich and fulfilling life. One would think that this was so fundamentally important to them that they were compelled to develop a means to institutionalize this knowledge for the betterment of all mankind. This leads to my next question. What did they know that inspired them to go to such lengths to pass this knowledge down through time for the benefit of future generations'? Well the answer to that will not be easy. There are most likely many things they wanted us to learn. In this I can only offer to you one small part of a much larger picture. One Brothers humble opinion. However, I believe this to be one of the fundamental teachings of Free Masonry, and perhaps an answer to one of many questions. Let us began by summarizing the three degrees. In the first degree we learn about brotherhood, trust, fidelity, and others but most importantly three very important things occur. First, we are caused to kneel for the benefit of prayer, then we are asked in whom do we put our trust, and lastly when we are brought out of darkness finding the first objects presented to our view are the three great lights of Masonry the first of which is the Holy Bible. What are these three things trying to impress upon us? For now let us move on.

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In the second degree we learn about the importance of expanding our knowledge in the arts and sciences, of conducting our actions by the square. We learn about the letter G and the first science, geometry. More importantly we learn that the initial G has a deeper meaning it being the first letter in the word God. Even though this degree focuses on the arts and sciences we are still reminded of the importance of the Grand Architect of the universe. We teach the candidate to bow with reverence at the mere mention of his name. In the third degree we are taught the history of the building of King Solomon's temple. Through this we learn about commitment, fidelity, and many other good lessons. In a word we learn about integrity. Most importantly we study the actions of one man, the GMHA. We learn that he was the architect of the work, that he was well skilled in the arts and sciences. Think about this. Here was a man who had the knowledge to design and oversee the building of a structure that took more than seven years to build. Seven years with over one hundred and fifty thousand workmen. Can you imagine the complexities of such a project? Yet even with all of his vast knowledge he still found it necessary to go into the temple and pray for the wisdom necessary to enable him to draw designs upon the trestleboard. OK. Let's recap and try to tie this all together. The first degree teaches many lessons in Masonry but most importantly it is made clear that God will be ever present in this journey. Indeed one need not apply if he has no belief in the Supreme Being. To attempt to do so would be an exercise in futility. The second degree stresses the importance of seeking knowledge, of expanding our minds. We learn the importance of applying reason. It speaks to us of the importance of the arts sciences in the development of civilization. But yet again we are reminded to be reverent to God, to recognize that He is the Supreme Architect of the universe. The third degree reiterates many of the lessons of the first two by providing an example. The GMHA. He teaches through example. Isn't that one of the best ways to teach? The GMHA demonstrates to us that it was through prayer that he was enabled to design what he did. Not praying just once in a while or just on Sunday but every day. I am reminded that in my own life the most successful times have been when I was close to that source of power and goodness. When I took time throughout my day to get quiet and allow that guidance to penetrate. So, what were our brothers trying so hard to impress upon us? More than I have discussed here certainly. However, I believe that they were expressing to us how fundamentally important it is to include God. Ever striving for greater knowledge and understanding. Always applying reason in our day to day lives, but never forgetting that the source of all knowledge and goodness flows from divine order. John T. Neal

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The York Rite Of Freemasonry w/ William Price

The York Rite of Freemasonry

MEC William "Bill" W. Price, KYGCH PGHP of California, 1993-1994

Freemasonry - American Style

We begin Part IV with a review the major aspects of previous discussions on York Rite Freemasonry. The primary purpose is to place that era of history in perspective, and then view Masonry after it crossed the seas from the British Isles to America. Masonry is as old as recorded history and has changed many times over the millenniums, except its primary purpose, which is to build. The single common thread of people and nations is the marks they leave upon it with their dwellings, their communal centers, and the small and great edifices. It is seen, even today, in those ruined and ancient structures that once were alive with its long lost folk. Here are words extracted from the Second Degree's Staircase Lecture "A survey of nature, and the observation of her beautiful proportions first determined man to imitate the divine plan, and to study symmetry and order. This gave rise to societies and birth to every useful art. The architect began to design and the plans which he laid down being improved by time and experience, have produced works which are the admiration of every age." It has been widely held that our heritage was evolutionary, beginning at the building of the first architectural arrangement and turning speculative towards the end of the operative stonemasons in medieval Europe: 1 Operative Masonry is a type of Masonry primarily devoted to construction and architecture. It virtually ended in the middle of the 16th Century when Gothic style began to wane. Some Freemasons continued operative practices and regulations up to the formation of the first symbolic Grand Lodge in 1717 and those of Ireland and Scotland 1725 ­ 1730 and 1736, respectfully. Speculative Masonry ­ Speculate means to contemplate, to ponder, to meditate, to theorize, and to conjecture. The word was first used Masonically in the Cooke MS, of the early 15th Century where it was stated "Edwin was of speculative geometry a master." Speculative Freemasonry is also known as symbolic Masonry, since the working tools of operative Masons are used to teach moral and philosophical lesson. The fundamental themes of Masonry are morality and ethics.

2

The operative lodges slowly became extinct and the speculative lodges began to grow, particularly, in Ireland, Scotland and England. As previously discussed, the Lodges evolved into separate entities or rather Grand Lodges. They extended their authority to the new world colonies, including America. The earliest reference to a Lodge meeting in the American Colonies was in Philadelphia, in 1730. This was an unchartered lodge. Under the "Old Charges", Freemasons were permitted to assemble, form a lodge, and conduct business without a warrant or charter. If such a lodge achieved a permanency of operation, it was termed a "time immemorial lodge" and was a regular lodge.

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James Oglethorpe, the founder of the colony of Georgia and its first governor, was a stanch adherent of Freemasonry. Largely because of his interest, "The Lodge of Savannah, Georgia" was organized on February 10, 1733. In 1776, the name of the lodge was changed to Solomon's Lodge and remains active as of this writing. In 1733, Henry Price was commissioned Provincial Grand Master of New England by the Grand Master of England (Moderns). Price opened his Grand Lodge on July 30, 1733, in Boston and constituted what has since been known as "First Lodge." This lodge became St. John's and is still in existence. Massachusetts claims priority for the establishment of "regular Masonry" in the American Colonies. By the middle of the 18th Century, the Modern Grand Lodge of England in all the colonies, except New Jersey and Delaware, had warranted Lodges. By the outbreak of the revolution, the Ancients, either the Ancient Grand Lodge of England or the Grand Lodge of Scotland, had warranted lodges in all the colonies, except Connecticut, New Hampshire and Georgia. It is estimated that in 1776, there were approximately 100 Lodges in the Colonies. An increasing proportion of were of Ancient allegiance. In England, in 1813, there was a union of the two factions into a United Grand Lodge. In America there were various adjustments by several methods, a disappearance of one with the elimination of the other, or the amalgation of the two in various proportions as dictated by each set of local conditions. The aristocratic nature of the Modern Grand Lodge of England carried over into the Colonies. As a result that, during the American Revolution, a great number of their members tended to be Tories (loyalists). During the war years, many of the Tories returned to England causing many of the Modern's lodges to wither and die. There was little or no Masonic precedent for authorizing the Freemasons in each or in all the new States to sever their connections with the Mother Grand Lodges in Britain. This was mainly due to the change in political status, and prominent Freemasons disavowed it at the time. It seemed to be impossible for the brethren, as Freemasons, to be oblivious to their feelings as citizens, of a new nation, and more especially, as citizens of new States, for the feelings of interstate jealousy was high and accounted for the lack of success in any movement toward a national Masonic organization. This supreme effort was to be their greatest challenge. If there was to be a future, then failure was not an option. What now was this fledging society of Masons to do? Was America so divided that it could not support a National Grand Lodge? Could General and Brother George Washington, hero of the Revolutionary War, bring the brotherhood together? We will find answers to those questions in the next edition. May You Always Travel Well. References: Akin's Lodge Manual with the Georgia Masonic Code, by James W. Akin, first published 1895 Coil's Encyclopedia, Copy Right, 1996, Published by Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Co., Inc, Richmond VA The York Rite of Freemasonry by Frederick G. Speidel, Copyright purchase by Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of the United States 1989.

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File under­ "You just can't make this stuff up"

Brother's , I don't make this stuff up I only find it and present it to you for the purpose of knowing what is found for anyone to freely read. What bothers me is that anyone can say whatever they want and nothing will happen or be done to them. (Freedom of speech is a good thing in most cases). For the record I do not put anything in TWT to intentionally upset or to spew anti propaganda of a group or religion however if I see something from said group I feel it is in my right to show you what they are saying. Again the title of this page is "File Under­ You just can't make this stuff up"

The Great Masonic Fairy Tale

The Amazing Fantastic Masonic Leo Taxil Hoax Fraud (Also known as: A Masonic Con Job)

Freemasonry tries to debunk all links between itself and the Luciferian doctrine using the Masonic created Leo Taxil's Hoax. Without question it is a last century Masonic attempt to deal with the embarrassment that Masonry experienced when General Albert Pike's letter giving instructions to the 23 supreme councils of the world fell into public hands. These are the details behind Albert Pike's letter to the hierarchy of world Freemasonry, and the letter itself. Pike took fifty years to develop and gradually introduce his Luciferian Rite to a select few within the 33rd Degree Supreme Council at Charleston. He also converted the Masonic hierarchy in London, Berlin, and Rome. During the latter half of his work, however, French atheists began to attack spiritism and symbolism within French Lodges. By 1877 French Freemasonry overtly declared what it had covertly taught since 1840- that there is no god but humanity. English Freemasonry, which demands a belief in deity, immediately broke fellowship with the French Grand Orient. Pike, as sovereign Pontiff of Universal Freemasonry, wanted to heal the rift by presenting his Luciferian Doctrine at the July 14, 1889, Supreme Council convention in Paris, France. Unable to travel due to poor health, he instead explicated the doctrine in a letter to be read on the convention floor. Afterward the letter was published by A. C. De La Rive in LaFemme et t'Enfant dans la FrancMaconnerie Universelle. The Freemason, a Masonic periodical in England, noted the reading of the letter in its January 19, 1935, issue. Count de Poncins quotes portions of the letter in Freemasonry and the Vatican. The most comprehensive quote, however, comes to us from Edith Miller in Occult Theocrasy. Following is Albert Pike's 1889 concept of how Lucifer should be presented to high degree Masons, while keeping the lower degree initiates and the general public ignorant: That which we must say to the crowd is - We worship a God, but it is the God that one adores without superstition. To you, Sovereign Grand Inspectors General [of the 33rd degree], we say this, that you may repeat it to the Brethren of the 32nd, 31st, and 30th degrees - The Masonic religion should be, by all of us initiates of the high degrees, maintained in the purity of the Luciferian doctrine. If Lucifer were not God, would Adonay, the God

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of the Christians, whose deeds prove his cruelty, perfidy, and hatred of man, barbarism and repulsion for science, would Adonay and his priests, calumniate him? Yes, Lucifer is God, and unfortunately Adonay is also God. For the eternal law is that there is no light without shade, no beauty without ugliness, no white without black, for the absolute can only exist as two Gods: darkness being necessary to light to serve as its foil as the pedestal is necessary to the statue, and the brake to the locomotive. In analogical and universal dynamics one can only lean on that which will resist. Thus the universe is balanced by two forces which maintain its equilibrium, the force of attraction and that of repulsion. These two forces exist in physics, philosophy and religion. And the scientific reality of the divine dualism is demonstrated by the phenomena of polarity and by the universal law of sympathies and antipathies. That is why the intelligent disciples of Zoroaster, as well as, after them, the Gnostics, the Manicheans and the Templars have admitted, as the only logical metaphysical conception, the system of the divine principles fighting eternally, and one cannot believe the one inferior in power to the other. Thus, the doctrine of Satanism is a heresy; and the true and pure philosophic religion is the belief in Lucifer, the equal of Adonay; but Lucifer, God of Light and God of Good, is struggling for humanity against Adonay, the God of Darkness and Evil. Twenty years later A man called Gabriel Jogand-Pagès, better known as Léo Taxil suddenly announced at a public meeting in Paris that he had concocted a huge elaborate joke that had fooled everyone and that now, as a consequence of his confession, the above letter could be disregarded. The record of the confession runs to more than 13,000 words. It is recorded in full conversational style so it is clearly not a press release. For example.. A churchman: "What you are doing right now is abominable, Sir" Another listener: "For your punishment, a priest will never receive your confession. You are an utmost rascal!" (Tumult) Another listener: "All priests in this hall ought to leave at once!" Abbott Garnier: "No! We must listen the scoundrel to the end!" (some people in the audience stand up and leave) M. Léo Taxil "Whether you leave or not doesn't matter. I proceed...." Leo Taxil was a False Flag, bought and paid for by the Freemasons Now today - more than a century later - this would be a serious undertaking for any journalist using the most sophisticated typing equipment. Go back in your mind to the means of writing available in 1897 and then try to imagine these 13,000+ words being recorded in their full moment by moment spontaneity. Just speak the short sample passage above out loud in the hasty angry tones that are implied and ask someone to write (or even type) the conversation. You'll soon see what any court of law would see. That the above is a carefully crafted piece of deception. Even the way it is recorded for public consumption is as an amateur playwright would write. For example: A voice . "That was a successful prank!" Another listener. "These freemasons were your accomplices!" M. Léo Taxil "You bet!... " Only one group of people would benefit from such a carefully crafted deception

Freemasonry

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Despite all its obvious nonsense - such as Albert Pike meeting with the devil at 3pm every Friday at Masonic HQ - it had at the heart of it, the sole purpose, the single minded intent, of debunking Albert Pike's instructions to the 23 supreme councils of the world. If the Pike letter in question was the ONLY reference by Pike or other Masonic leaders to Luciferian doctrine then the ploy may have succeeded. The truth is that the letter authenticates itself when set against Pike's known beliefs and writings and the beliefs and writings of his high ranking colleagues. Thirty-third degree Freemason Albert Pike (1809-1891), the man destined to develop the Luciferian Doctrine for the Masonic hierarchy, could not accept that Lucifer and Satan were the same personality. While teaching his beliefs to a select few in the Supreme Council Pike became the most powerful Mason in the world. Although an obscure general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, he was hardly inconspicuous in Freemasonry. From 1859 until his death in 1891, Pike occupied simultaneously the positions of Grand Master of the Central Directory at Washington, D.C., Grand Commander of the Supreme Council at Charleston, S.C., and Sovereign Pontiff of Universal Freemasonry. He was an honorary member of almost every Supreme Council in the Albert Pike world, personally receiving 130 Masonic degrees. Pike also was one of the most physically and morally repulsive individuals in American history. Weighing well over three hundred pounds, his sexual proclivity was to sit naked astride a phallic throne in the woods, accompanied by a gang of prostitutes. To these orgies he would bring one or more wagonloads of food and liquor, most of which he would consume over a period of two days until he passed into a stupor. In his adopted state of Arkansas, Pike was well known as a practitioner of Satanism. Portraits in his later years show him wearing a symbol of the Baphomet around his neck. Pike, however, did not believe the Baphomet was Satan. In Morals and Dogma he explains that this symbol was misunderstood by those who were not adepts"; that it was "invented ages before, to conceal what it was [too] dangerous to avow." Pike, a gifted polyglot who mastered sixteen ancient languages, discovered that the Baphomet was originally a symbol of Lucifer, the hermaphrodite god of pagans. He found in paganism no adversary known as Satan. Satan was mentioned only in, the Bible, and according to Pike, was a fabrication of Christians. "Thus," writes Pike, "the doctrine of Satanism is a heresy; and the true and pure philos9phic religion is the belief in Lucifer...." In 1843, while Pike was developing his Luciferian doctrine for Freemasonry, two other Masons were attempting to penetrate the inner shrines of the Fraternity with the doctrine of Satanism. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882), the famous American poet, and Moses Holbrook (d. 1844), the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council at Charleston, S.C., had both studied thoroughly the occult sciences. Although they enjoyed discussing with Pike the mysteries of the Cabala, these two Satanists were unable to convert General Pike to the cabalistic view of Satan, which teaches two basic doctrines: (1) the Adversary was once Lucifer; and (2) Satan is a power to be used for either good or evil. Pike describes the cabalistic view of Satan in his book Morals and Dogma, published in 1871 for the Southern Jurisdiction of Scottish Rite Freemasonry: The true name of Satan, the Kabalists say, is that of Yahveh [sic] reversed; for Satan is not a black god, but the negation of God. The Devil is the personification of Atheism or Idolatry. For the Initiates, this is not a Person, but a Force, created for good, but which may serve for evil. It is the instrument of Liberty or Free Will. They represent this Force, which presides over the physical generation, under the mythologic and horned form of the God Pan; thence came the he-goat of the Sabbat, brother of the Ancient Serpent, and the Light-bearer or Phosphor, of which the poets have made the false Lucifer of the Legend. Pike accuses poets of falsifying the nature and role of Lucifer by making him Satan. For example, Long(Continued on page 52)

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fellow believed Satan was the Fallen Angel. In contrast, Pike's writings teach that Lucifer never fell, that he is the light of the world, equal in power to Almighty God, yet less transcendent at the present time. To stress his point, in Morals and Dogma Pike ridicules the book of Revelation for denying Lucifer equality with God: "The Apocalypse is.. .the Apotheosis of that Sublime Faith which aspires to God alone, and despises all the pomps and works of Lucifer.... Pike's scorn is directed toward those who have faith only in the God of the Apocalypse without giving Lucifer due respect. He continues his eulogy to Lucifer in the next sentence: "Strange and mysterious name to give to the spirit of Darkness! Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! Is it he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish souls? Doubt it not! "... Pike believed the pagan doctrine that Lucifer was the beneficent god who taught men science. Warren Weston, in Father of Lies (1930s), confirms that the ancients knew Lucifer as: Prometheus, the friend of men, who gave them fire, taught them all the crafts, showed them the rich ore and precious stones buried in the earth.... It is for these countless benefactions conferred on humanity that the jealous spirits who claim to be true gods have combined against him and wronged him. He is the brightest angel unjustly cast out of heaven, Lucifer, son of the morning. Pike was also sarcastic in his denunciation of the early apostles and church fathers, whom he claimed continued the suppression of science. As you read Pike's denunciation, you will sense that the "science" to which he refers is new age doctrine, or, as illustrated in II Chronicles 33:6 - witchcraft:. The dunces who led primitive Christianity astray, by substituting faith for science, reverie for experience, the fantastic for the reality; and the inquisitors who for so many ages waged against Magism [sic] a war of extermination, have succeeded in shrouding in darkness the ancient discoveries of the human mind; so that we now grope in the dark to find again the key of the phenomena of nature.

Albert Pike wore a large symbol of baphomet around his neck. The is a 33rd degree symbol

This is the 'god' that this symbol represents - Baphomet Pike made the Baphomet symbol 'Lucifer' Lucifer was Pikes god of Freemasonry

33° Satanist/Mason, Aleister Crowley and the Satanic/Masonic/Pike sign of Baphomet

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Submitted by: Bro. Shawn Carrick Montgomery Lodge #258 St. Paul, MN

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ANNOUNCMENTS

Brothers if you have an announcement for a Masonic activity covering a wide geography let me know about it and I'll include in the issue (time & space permitting).

Greetings, For those of your visitors interested, the Midwest conference on Masonic Education will be held in Omaha, Nebraska, USA in April 2008. http://www.midwestmasoniceducation.com/ Fraternally, Mike Webb PM Rob Morris Lodge #46, A.F. & A.M. Kearney, Nebraska, USA

On your free links page, you may list www.fraternalclipart.com as a source for free clip art. The site is updated about once a year and new submissions are always welcome. Sincerely and Fraternally, Mack D. Gooding, 33° Treasurer Jacksonville Scottish Rite Bodies

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The Independent Masonic Magazine ­ Bringing the best information to Mason's worldwide.

Keep on Traveling

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