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Case Map for Yip: Total Global Strategy (Prentice Hall)

This map was prepared by an editor at HBS Publishing, not by a teaching professor. Faculty at Harvard Business School were not involved in analyzing the textbook or selecting the cases and articles. Every case map provides only a partial list of relevant items from HBS Publishing. To explore alternatives, or to get more information on the cases listed below, visit our web site at hbsp.harvard.edu and use the searching functions. Chapter 1: Understanding Global Strategy Ingvar Kamprad and IKEA: Christopher A. Bartlett, Ashish Nanda Product #: 390132 Length: 20p Teaching Note: 395155 Abstract Traces the development of a Swedish furniture retailer under the leadership of an innovative and unconventional entrepreneur whose approaches redefine the nature and structure of the industry. Traces IKEA's growth from a tiny mail order business to the world's largest furniture dealership. Describes the innovative strategic and organizational changes Kamprad made to achieve success. In particular, focuses on his unique vision and values and the way they have become institutionalized as IKEA's binding corporate culture. The trigger issue revolves around whether this vital "corporate glue" can survive massive expansion into the United States and the Eastern Bloc and Kamprad's replacement as CEO by a "professional manager." Subjects Covered: Business growth; Business history; Catalogs; Design; Globalization; Management philosophy; Operations management; Organizational culture; Strategy; Succession planning; Suppliers; Trade associations; Values; Visionary management The main goal of any international strategy should be to manage the large differences that arise at the borders of markets. Yet executives often fail to exploit market and production discrepancies, focusing instead on the tensions between standardization and localization. Learning Objective: To see how to shift among and combine three types of globalization strategies: standardizing operations, customizing offerings to meet local needs, and exploiting cross-regional differences Explores some of the economic and political tradeoffs that need to be negotiated by a firm seeking to influence industry structure. The setting is the nascent personal computer software industry in the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1993. Microsoft has to localize its software products for use in the PRC. This localization can either be done inhouse by Microsoft, or can be contracted to the local software vendors. Explores the costs and benefits of full integration and arm's-length market transaction. Also discusses the "holdup" problem that arises when assets specific to a particular partnership are created. Learning Objective: To acquaint students with the structuring of a newly developing industry and market entry in an emerging economy. To promote understanding of the pros and cons of integrating into a related set of activities.

Managing Differences: The Central Challenge of Global Strategy: Pankaj Ghemawat Product #: R0703C Length: 14p

Microsoft in the People's Republic of China--1993: Tarun Khanna Product #: 795115 Length: 18p Teaching Note: 5796072

Hattori-Seiko and the World Watch Industry in 1980: Michael E. Porter, Edward J. Hoff Product #: 385300 Length: 21p Teaching Note: 390074 Chapter 2: Diagnosing Industry Global Potential Global Wine War 2009: New World versus Old: Christopher A. Bartlett, Product #: 910405 Length: 24p Teaching Note: 303056

Focuses on the industry's development and evolution in three principal watch producing countries: Switzerland, the United States, and Japan. Based in part on two earlier cases by F.T. Knickerbocker and H.E.R. Uyterhoeven. Subjects covered: Industry analysis; Industry structure; International business; Multinational corporations; Technological change Abstract After contrasting development in the tradition-based, regulated, oldworld wine industry with the technology-based, market-oriented, newworld challenges, this case focuses on "The Battle for Britain"--the huge, bellwether export market--as the traditional French wines are challenged for leadership by the Australian newcomers in 2001. Allows analysis of the way in which newcomers can change the rules of competitive engagement in a global industry. Also poses the question of how incumbents can respond, especially when constrained by regulation, tradition, embedded values, and a different set of capabilities than those demanded by the emerging market. Learning Objective: Focuses on global industry analysis and competitive dynamics. Mexico, the United States, and Canada have negotiated a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that would create the largest free trade zone in the world. The union would build on the three-year-old Free Trade Agreement between the United States and Canada. Proponents claim that NAFTA is a "win-win-win" situation, but its detractors argue that it would reduce wages, create unemployment, and generate environmental problems. NAFTA's easy ratification was called into question by the election of President Bill Clinton in the United States and the resignation of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney in Canada. Subjects Covered: Economic development; International trade; Labor unions; Political risk The president of Ford Argentina has to decide on the e-business approach at this subsidiary of Ford Motor Co. The approach must take into consideration the ambitious global e-business transformation proposed by the parent company within the context of a major economic crisis suffered in Argentina. Learning Objective: To understand the challenges of balancing global and local markets' constraints in implementing new technological initiatives.

North American Free Trade Agreement: Free For Whom?: Helen Shapiro, Phyllis Dininio Product #: 792049 Length: 30p Teaching Note: 5792059

Ford Argentina: Transforming a Global Industry in a Local Market: Lynda M. Applegate, Paula Etchard, Laureano Berasategui, Ramiro Montealegre Product #: 803093 Length: 28p

Note on the Global Hotel Industry: Gevork Papiryan Product #: 908M28 Length: 23p Teaching Note: 808M28

The Japanese Facsimile Industry in 1990: Michael J. Enright Product #: 391209 Length: 21p Teaching Note: 794045 = Chapter 3: Building Global Market Participation Jollibee Foods Corp. (A): International Expansion: Christopher A. Bartlett, Jamie O'Connell Product #: 399007 Length: 23p Teaching Note: 399146

The hotel industry has experienced tremendous growth since the 1980s and has emerged as a global industry. During the expansion processess and rise of competition, multinational, multi-brand corporations, such as Hilton Hotels Corporation, were in the process of finding new markets and setting priorities. On the other hand in emerging markets, such as Russia, most of the national hotel industry had been formed under the pressure of foreign hotel chains. In addition to competing with foreign firms in their own markets, local Russian companines were also planning to enter international markets. In this environment where competition was strengthening within the global hotel industry, and new players were emerging, a number of questions and challenges existed: 1) How could firms effectively leverage their competencies and increase their competitiveness? 2) Would the multinational hotel corporations continue to expand their brand portfolios? 3) How could hotel chains maintain their integrity during the expansion on a global scale? 4) What strategies might apply to convince Western hotel companies to compete in emerging markets? 5) Which direction would further develop the hotel industries in emerging economies. Learning Objective: This case is suitable for use in an early section of a strategic management course, which introduces the students to the topic of industry analysis. Porter's Five Forces Model can be applied using the information provided. The industry analysis will enable students to recognize the dynamic and variable forces affecting the industry and evaluate the industry's attractiveness. The central theme of the section is understanding how and why different industry structures offer varying opportunities for firms to achieve competitive advantage. The emerging character of the Russian business environment and the global nature of the industry add a degree of complexity to the case suitable for an international management course. Japanese firms dominate the facsimile machine industry, accounting for more than 90% of worldwide sales. This case explores the reasons for this dominance. Subjects Covered: Competition; Industry analysis; International business

Abstract Noli Tingzon, newly-appointed international division VP at Jollibee, the Philippines-based hamburger chain, is faced with the challenge of expanding fast food operations in Asia in the face of stiff competition. The case describes Jollibee's six-year international expansion history and the lessons the company has learned. Against this background, Noli must decide among expansion opportunities in New Guinea, Hong Kong, and California. Learning Objective: To illustrate the motivations and means of international expansion strategies, particularly highlighting the organizational capabilities required.

Bajaj Auto Ltd.: John A. Quelch, Nathalie Laidler Product #: 593097 Length: 27p Teaching Note: 598140 Lotus Development Corp.: Entering International Markets: David B. Yoffie, John J. Coleman Product #: 387034 Length: 16p Teaching Note: 389039 Chapter 4: Designing Global Products and Services Procter & Gamble: Organization 2005 (A): Mikolaj Jan Piskorski, Alessandro L. Spadini Product #: 707519 Length: 23p Teaching Note: 708450

Bajaj Auto Ltd., the world's second-largest manufacturer of two- and three-wheeler vehicles, is facing increasing competition in its domestic Indian market. The case evaluates appropriate marketing responses both in the Indian market and export markets. Learning Objective: To demonstrate the importance of product development within marketing and to analyze product-market fits. Lotus 1-2-3 exploded on the American market in the spring of 1983. Nine months later Jim Manzi, vice president of marketing, hired Chuck Digate to develop an international strategy for Lotus. Case explores Lotus' rapid rise to the top of the software market in the United States and looks at the considerations surrounding its initial efforts to sell abroad. Can be taught with Note on Comparative Advantage. Subjects Covered: Applications; International business; International trade; Marketing strategy; Strategy formulation Abstract In response to a huge crisis in 2000, the new CEO of Procter & Gamble has to decide whether to continue with an unusual organizational design or to revert to the old matrix organization. Describes all the organizational designs used by Procter & Gamble from the 1920s onward, including geographic, product, and matrix architectures. Market development organizations, global business units, and global business services unit, each of which is heavily interdependent with the others and none of which has a clear decisionmaking advantage, comprise the unusual organizational design. Examination of the different organizational designs, trade-offs associated with each organizational architecture as well as the accompanying implementation problems. Learning Objective: To examine organizational design for global strategies for diversified firms. Focuses on Microsoft's strategy for sustaining competitive advantage in the global software industry. Also, explores Microsoft's history and its current position, as it tries to diversify its product and service revenue streams. Learning Objective: To learn the strategic aspects of technology, bundling, and sustainability. Nissan executives are reviewing their European marketing strategy in light of the 1992 European Community (EC) market integration program and the likely end of bilateral import quotas on Japanese cars by some EC countries. Having recently established a manufacturing plant in the United Kingdom, Nissan has to decide how to allocate marketing and production resources among the different models in its line. Subjects Covered: International marketing; Marketing strategy; Product management

Microsoft in 2005: David B. Yoffie, Dharmesh M. Mehta, Rudina I. Seseri Product #: 705505 Length: 29p Teaching Note: 706467 Nissan Motor Co. Ltd.: Marketing Strategy for the European Market: John A. Quelch, Kyoichi Ikeo Product #: 590018 Length: 23p Teaching Note: 591082

Procter & Gamble Europe: Vizir Launch: Christopher A. Bartlett Product #: 384139 Length: 18p Teaching Note: 388131

Describes P&G's expansion in Europe, including the development of a strong country subsidiary management, responsive to local market differences. The launch of a new product presents strategic and organizational challenges as P&G considers making this their first Eurobrand, and managing it in a coordinated Europewide fashion. Subjects Covered: Business policy; International business; Market entry; Marketing implementation; Marketing strategy; Subsidiaries Abstract Focuses on Inditex, an apparel retailer from Spain, which has set up an extremely quick response system for its ZARA chain. Instead of predicting months before a season starts what women will want to wear, ZARA observes what's selling and what's not and continuously adjusts what it produces and merchandises on that basis. Powered by ZARA's success, Inditex has expanded into 39 countries, making it one of the most global retailers in the world. But in 2002, it faces important questions concerning its future growth. Subjects Covered: Competitive advantage; Globalization; Supply chain management; Target markets; Time based competition; Vertical integration Describes how Siemens, the German electrical engineering giant, has developed and manages global R&D in its large Information and Communications Networks (ICN) division. In 1994, Siemens opened its Bangalore (India) center, which has now grown into one of its largest regional development centers outside Germany. With Bangalore asking for increased resource independence and managerial autonomy, senior management has to decide how the activities in India fit into its global development strategy. This tension is played out in a large software project led by Bangalore developers in which an increase in project autonomy also results in serious technical problems for Siemens in the quality-driven telecommunications equipment industry. Learning Objectives: To explore: 1) the development of R&D strategies, 2) the management of complex development projects with globally dispersed teams, and 3) the organizational and cultural challenges, particularly in conditions of technical uncertainty. Describes the many international sourcing initiatives in a multinational connector manufacturing company. Focuses on the domestic operations, international staff, and their initiatives to create cooperative links among and with independent subsidiaries. Students can explore the many types of international sourcing initiatives and the reasons a company describes the same initiatives from the standpoint of the Japanese subsidiary. Subjects Covered: Centralization; Decentralization; International operations; Manufacturing policy

Chapter 5: Locating Global Activities ZARA: Fast Fashion: Pankaj Ghemawat, Jose Luis Nueno Product #: 703497 Length: 35p Teaching Note: 703496

Siemens AG: Global Development Strategy (A): Stefan Thomke, Ashok Nimgade Product #: 602061 Length: 27p Teaching Note: 603009

International Sourcing at Intercon: Marie-Therese Flaherty, Eric Mankin Product #: 688055 Length: 19p Teaching Note: 697010

Benetton (A): James L. Heskett, Sergio Signorelli Product #: 685014 Length: 23p Teaching Note: 686019

The world's largest manufacturer of woolen outerwear garments seeks to extend its retailing network to the United States from its base in Europe. A number of issues concerning marketing, manufacturing, and logistics strategy are raised by the proposed move along with specific questions about how the move should be managed. The case describes a well-thought-out, functionally integrated strategy for Europe in a way that allows assessment of its applicability for a proposed U.S. effort. Subjects Covered: International marketing; Logistics; Manufacturing; Marketing strategy; Production planning Abstract Heineken managers are evaluating the results of the research projects designed to identify the values of the Heineken brand and to translate these into effective advertising messages. Subjects Covered: Advertising; Brands; Consumer behavior; International marketing; Market segmentation The worldwide sales and marketing manager must determine the degree to which pricing strategy and tactics should be standardized or left to the discretion of the DHL subsidiary in each country Subjects Covered: International marketing; Pricing; Subsidiaries Samsung's global marketing director is assessing how to build the global brand reputation of the company further and upgrade the company's worldwide brand image. To show how to build a global brand. Learning Objective: To show how to build a global brand.

Chapter 6: Creating Global Marketing Heineken N.V.: Global Branding and Advertising: John A. Quelch Product #: 596015 Length: 13p Teaching Note: 598080 DHL Worldwide Express: John A. Quelch, Greg Conley Product #: 593011 Length: 22p Teaching Note: 594094 Samsung Electronics Co.: Global Marketing Operations: John A. Quelch, Anna Harrington Product #: 504051 Length: 32p Teaching Note: 505022 Barco Projection Systems (A): Worldwide Niche Marketing: Rowland T. Moriarty Jr., Krista McQuade Product #: 591133 Length: 19p Teaching Note: 592098

Nestle S.A.: International Marketing (A): John A. Quelch, Edward J. Hoff Product #: 585013 Length: 29p Teaching Note: 587017

Deals with the issue of niche marketing in a worldwide market. Barco Projection Systems makes video, data, and graphics projectors for the industrial market. They have traditionally been the performance leader. In August 1989, Sony Corp. introduced a higher performance graphics projector at a considerably lower price than Barco's existing projector. As a result, Barco is faced with being preempted in their fastest growing segment by a competitor with much larger resources. Deals with how a small niche player deals with considerably larger competitors in a global environment. Subjects Covered: International marketing; Marketing strategy; Product development; Product lines; Target markets A senior manager at Nestle's headquarters is reviewing the role of the central marketing staff with respect to Nestle's operating companies around the world. Two specific examples of the role of the central staff in guiding the advertising and packaging decisions of the operating companies are presented. Subjects Covered: Advertising; Consumer marketing; International marketing; Marketing organization; Operations management; Packaging

Chapter 7: Making Global Competitive Moves Philips versus Matsushita: The Competitive Battle Continues: Christopher A. Bartlett Product #: 910410 Length: 20p Teaching Note: 910411

Abstract Describes the development of the global strategies and organizations of two major competitors in the consumer electronics industry. Over four decades, both companies adapt their strategic intent and organizational capability to match and counter the competitive advantage of the other. The case shows how each is faced to restructure as its competitive advantage erodes. Learning Objective: To illustrate how competitive strategy depends on a company's organizational capability, which is often deeply embedded in a company's administrative heritage. Shows the limits of both the "global" and the "multinational" models Analyzes the strategies pursued by Coke and Pepsi in the emerging Asian soft drink market. Analyzes the tactical battle of the cola giants in China specifically. Subjects Covered: Competition; Corporate strategy; International business

Internationalizing the Cola Wars (A): The Battle for China and Asian Markets: David B. Yoffie, Richard Seet Product #: 795186 Length: 23p Teaching Note: 798105 Zenith and High-Definition Television--1990: David B. Yoffie, Benjamin GomesCasseres, Heather A. Hazard Product #: 391084 Length: 23p Teaching Note: 5794070 Collision Course in Commercial Aircraft: Boeing-AirbusMcDonnell Douglas--1991 (A): David B. Yoffie, Eric J. Vayle Product #: 391106 Length: 20p Teaching Note: 390073

Describes Zenith's strategy in HDTV and high resolution monitors. Includes overview of HDTV industry with profiles of major competitors worldwide and policies of U.S., Japanese, and European governments. Focuses on competition over standards setting, industrial policy, and Zenith's strategy in components production. Subjects Covered: Competition; Government policy; International trade; Strategy formulation Describes the competitive situation that has arisen in the commercial aircraft manufacturing industry since Airbus entered in 1970. Having overtaken McDonnell Douglas for second place, Airbus announces plans to challenge market leader Boeing's last pocket of dominance. Industry and government officials have long complained about assistance that Airbus receives from its governments, and this new challenge threatens to spark a new battle between the governments. Pushes students to examine issues facing industry players--high risk, long-term investments; technological change; intense selling competition--and issues facing their national governments--fair vs. unfair trade; important national industries--in a highly visible time frame for players and governments. Subjects Covered: Business & government relations; EC single market; International business Abstract

Chapter 8: Building the Global Organization

Kentucky Fried Chicken (Japan) Ltd.: Christopher A. Bartlett, U. Srinivasa Rangan Product #: 387043 Length: 19p Teaching Note: 389006

Colgate-Palmolive: Managing International Careers: Philip M. Rosenzweig Product #: 394184 Length: 22p Teaching Note: 394188

Booz.Allen & Hamilton: Vision 2000: Gary Loveman, Jamie O'Connell Product #: 396031 Length: 19p Teaching Note: 396422

Describes the internationalization of the Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) fast food chain, focusing on KFC's entry into Japan. An entrepreneurial country general manager, Lou Weston, battles numerous problems to establish the business and is eventually highly successful. In doing so, Weston ignores or circumvents policies and control from KFC's headquarters and becomes very upset when more sophisticated planning, coordination, and control systems begin to constrain his freedom. The case presents both the headquarters and subsidiary perspectives and allows discussion of the conflicts between strategic planning and control and entrepreneurial independence in a multinational company. Subjects Covered: Business policy; Control systems; Entrepreneurship; International business; Multinational corporations; Strategic planning; Subsidiaries Colgate-Palmolive, the U.S.-based consumer products firm, has long emphasized international experience for its managers and has developed a comprehensive policy to manage expatriate assignments. The rise in dual-career families has made some managers reluctant to accept foreign assignments, causing Colgate-Palmolive to reexamine the way it manages international career development. Learning Objective: To examine the many dimensions of international experience and expatriate assignments in a multinational corporation. In 1993, Booz.Allen & Hamilton forsook its previous, highly local organizational structure. It was motivated by a desire to serve multinational clients more effectively and to provide greater value to clients with more localized business by collecting best practices from around the world. Following a plan entitled Vision 2000, the firm created unified staffing pools based on industry and functional (strategy, operations, or information technology) expertise, within each of the three large regions, Atlantic (containing Europe and N. America), Asia-Pacific-Japan, and Latin America. In staffing each client engagement, partners considered all available staff within their regions attempting to provide the best consultants for the project, regardless of where they were located. The firm also redesigned compensation and evaluation methods, segmentation strategy, and staff development programs to fit its more integrated service delivery system. New systems and programs for sharing intellectual capital between consultants increased the firm's ability to provide value. Subjects Covered: Human resource management; International operations; Organizational change; Organizational structure; Service management Abstract

Chapter 9: Regional Strategy

Citibank: Launching the Credit Card in Asia Pacific (A): V. Kasturi Rangan Product #: 595026 Length: 25p Teaching Note: 595104

Daewoo's Globalization: UzDaewoo Auto Project: John A. Quelch, Chanhi Park Product #: 598065 Length: 35p Teaching Note: 598108 Submarino.com (A): Lynda M. Applegate, Luiz Felipe Monteiro, Meredith Collura Product #: 801350 Length: 37p Teaching Note: 803010

Consumer Bank pondered the possibilities of launching a credit card in the Asia Pacific region. The bank's New York headquarters, and several of its country managers in the region, were not enthusiastic. But others were supportive because of the opportunity to expand the bank's customer base from the limited branch expansion allowed by local law. Students make a decision, and if a "go" decision is made, they work out a comprehensive launch plan. Learning Objective: To expose students to services marketing and, more importantly, the notion of acquisition cost and lifetime value of a customer. Also introduces students to international marketing issues. The top management at Daewoo is reviewing its close relationship with the Uzbekistan government, focusing especially on the performance of Uz-Daewoo Auto, a strategic alliance to manufacture and market passenger cars. Learning Objective: Shows the challenges of organizing strategic alliances in transitional economies. Enables a thorough analysis of Submarino.com, a B2C e-commerce company with a presence in Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Spain, and Portugal. Examines the company's global operations as well as its organizational design and operating and management capabilities. Considers the company's challenge of determining its strategic and financial priorities as it launches a rapid growth plan with limited resources in 2001. Learning Objective: Demonstrates the evolution of e-business models, strategy, and organization capabilities. Explores the challenges of managing a global Internet company.

Chapter 10: Measuring Industry Drivers and Strategy Levers, Organization Factors, and Regional Focus Market Selection and Direction: Role of Product Portfolio Planning: George S. Yip Product #: 581107 Length: 17p Teaching Note: 803010

Abstract Discusses alternative approaches to product portfolio planning, including those of the Boston Consulting Group, General Electric/McKinsey, and the PIMS Program. Examines how portfolio planning can be used in the processes of market selection and setting of business direction within a market. Subjects Covered: Market definition; Market segmentation; Market share; PIMS; Product portfolio management; Target markets Abstract

Chapter 11: Conducting a Global Strategy Analysis N/A

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