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1. Zhao (2000: 5). 2. The typology of nationalist discourse here is adapted from Zhao (2000, 2004, 2006). 3. For example, during the late-Qing and early Republican period, the prominent reformer Liang Qichao initially supported efforts to revise Confucianism to make it more congruent with national modernization, but after much time spent in Japan, came to support greater emphasis on modern nationalism and more complete reform of China's institutions instead of the minimalist adoption of a few foreign "methods." (De Bary and Lufrano 2000: 288). 4. He (2008) argues, "Remembering the past is not a simple act of recording historical events, but a process of constant reconstruction of these events in light of present social and political changes" (65). Similarly Fitzgerald (1995) argues that nationalism is an "essentially contested concept in a political discourse" (77). 5. In brief, evolutionary theory points researchers to focus on two key components of political change: first, it is a theory that explicitly links individual agents to populations. This multilevel framework naturally requires greater attention to complexity in integrating agent variation with structural factors. Secondly, evolutionary theory is an "interactionist paradigm," which means the interaction between individual agents and their broader environment drives gradual change. It is important to point out that modern evolutionary theory does not posit a simple linear progression to history, but in fact assumes that complex interactions can lead to fundamentally new emergent outcomes. Indeed, complex interactions can, and often do, lead to unpredictable and unexpected outcomes. This theoretical perspective illustrates the difficulty of predicting future outcomes, but does provide a more refined articulation of the mechanisms of evolutionary change and the probability of future change. For a detailed discussion of this approach, see Lewis and Steinmo (forthcoming 2010). 6. Ideas are defined here as creative problem solutions to the problem of nationalist development. They support particular tactics and imply a set of policy prescriptions. 7. For a detailed discussion of the logic of two-level games, see Putnam (1988). 8. For example, Unger (1996) highlights that nationalists attacked a number of foreign embassies during the Cultural Revolution, but those events were of "little consequence" to China's foreign policy (xii). 9. Popular nationalism is defined here as the ideas and views that are not agreed upon and presented as official political orthodoxy by the CCP. Many authors point to a tension between state patriotism and popular nationalism (Zheng 1999: 95). For example, Fewsmith (2001) defines populism as a combination of nationalist frames with critical thought often directed against the government (161). 10. The anti-traditionalism of the 1980s was perhaps best exemplified by the series River Elegy (Heshang ) which was deeply critical of traditional culture (Barmé 1995; Fewsmith 2001: 95). 11. Zhao, Z., Bao, P., Chiang, R., MacFarquhar, R. (2009) Prisoner of the State: The Secret Journal of Premier Zhao Ziyang, New York, Simon and Shuster. See also Zheng (1999: 93). 12. He (2007: 56). See also Zhao S. (2008: 50)


13. Gries (2005) details how popular nationalists use online forums and tools to challenge state policy. Zhao (2006) argues that popular liberal nationalism poses the greatest challenge to the regime (136). 14. Interview with former international correspondent for national newspaper, Beijing, June 7, 2007. 15. Interview with editor of national newspaper, Beijing, July 4, 2007. 16. Interview with international relations professor, Beijing, September 3, 2006. In a recent online discussion with web-users, President Hu Jintao acknowledged that he often uses the Internet to see what citizens are discussing. Watts, J. (2008). "Boss Hu Avoids Tricky Questions in Online Chat," The Guardian, June 21. See also Shirk (2007b). 17. Yardley, J. (2008). "Chinese Nationalism Fuels Tibet Crackdown," New York Times, March 31. 18. Such events were the latest manifestation of the broader social organizing use of online communications referred to colloquially as the "human flesh search engine" (renrou sousuo ). See, MacDonald, M. (2008). "Chinese Court Fines Web User in `Cyber Violence' Case," The New York Times, December 19.


Bibliography Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism, London: Verso. Brady, A. (2009). "The Beijing Olympics as a Campaign of Mass Distraction," The China Quarterly. 197: 1-24. Barmé, G.R. (1995). "To Screw Foreigners is Patriotic: China's Avant-Garde Nationalist," The China Journal, 34: 209-234. Barmé, G.R. (2009). "China's Flat Earth: History and 8 August 2008," The China Quarterly, 197: 64-86. Chan, C., & Bridges, B. (2006). "China, Japan and the Clash of Nationalisms," Asian Perspective, 30(1): 127-156. De Bary. W.D., & Lufrano, R., eds. (2000). Sources of Chinese Tradition, Volume Two, New York: Columbia University Press. Gries, P. (2004). China's New Nationalism: Pride, Politics and Diplomacy, Berkley: University of California Press. Gries, P. (2005). "Chinese Nationalism: Challenging the State?" Current History, September. Fewsmith, J. China Since Tiananmen: The Politics of Transition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fitzgerald, J. (1995). "The Nationless State: The Search for a Nation in Modern Chinese Nationalism," The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, 33: 75-104. Fitzgerald, J. (1999). "China and the Quest for Dignity," The National Interest, (Spring). He, Y. (2007a). "History, Chinese Nationalism and the Emerging Sino-Japanese Conflict," Journal of Contemporary China, 16(50): 1-24. He, Y. (2007b). "Remembering and Forgetting the War: Elite Mythmaking, Mass Reaction and Sino-Japanese Relations, 1950-2006," History and Memory 19(2): 43-74. Hughes, C.R. (2006). Chinese Nationalism in the Global Era, New York: Routledge. Johnson, C. (1962). Peasant Nationalism and Communist Power: The Emergence of Revolutionary China, Stanford: Stanford University Press. Lagerkvist, J. (2005). "The Rise of Online Public Opinion in the People's Republic of China," China: An International Journal, 3(1): 119-130. Li, X., Xuan, Q., and Kluver, R. (2003). "Who is Setting the Agenda? The Impact of Online Chatrooms on Party Presses in China," in Ho, K.C., Kluver, R., and Yang , K., eds., Asia Encounters the Internet, London: Routledge. Lewis, O., & Steinmo, S. (forthcoming 2010). "Taking Evolution Seriously in Political Science," Theory in Biosciences, 129(2). Lynch, D.C. (1999). After the Propaganda State: Media, Politics and "Thought Work" in Reformed China, Stanford: Stanford University Press. 3

Oksenberg, M. (1987). "China's Confident Nationalism," Foreign Affairs, 65(3): 501-523. Putnam, R.D. (1988). "Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: the Logic of Two-level Games," International Organization, 42(3): 427-460. Qiang, X. (2003). "Cyber Speech: Catalyzing Free Expression and Civil Society," Harvard International Review, 25. Seckington, I. (2005). "Nationalism, Ideology and China's `Fourth Generation' Leadership," Journal of Contemporary China, 14(42): 23-33. Shirk, S. (2007). "Changing Media, Changing Foreign Policy in China," Japanese Journal of Political Science, 8(1): 43-70. Shirk, S. (2007). China: Fragile Superpower, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Unger, J. (1996). "Introduction," in Unger, J. (ed), Chinese Nationalism, New York: M.E. Sharp. Wang, J. (1994). "Pragmatic Nationalism: China Seeks a New Role in World Affairs," Oxford International Review, 30. Wu, X. (2008). Chinese Cyber Nationalism: Evolution, Characteristics and Implications, Lanham: Lexington. Yang, G. (2009). "Online Activism," Journal of Democracy, 20(3): 33-36. Zhao, S. (2000). "Chinese Nationalism and Its International Origins," Political Science Quarterly, 115(1): 1-33. Zhao, S. (2004). A Nation-state by Construction: Dynamics of Modern Chinese Nationalism, Stanford: Stanford University Press. Zhao, S. (2005). "China's Pragmatic Nationalism: Is it Manageable?" The Washington Quarterly, 29(1): 131-144. Zhao, S. (2008). "The Olympics and Chinese Nationalism," China Security, 4(3): 48-57. Zhao, Y. (2008). Communication in China: Political Economy, Power and Conflict, London: Rowman & Littlefield. Zheng, Y. (1999). Discovering Chinese Nationalism: Modernization Identity and International Relations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.



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