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OUR CAMPUS CULTURE: FINDINGS FROM THE 2002 CSUSB CAMPUS SURVEY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE SOCIAL NORMS

ROBERT G. LACHAUSSE PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SCIENCE AND HUMAN ECOLOGY CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, SAN BERNARDINO

OUR CAMPUS CULTURE:

FINDINGS FROM THE 2002 CSUSB CAMPUS SURVEY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE SOCIAL NORMS

ROBERT G. LACHAUSSE PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SCIENCE AND HUMAN ECOLOGY CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, SAN BERNARDINO

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PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert G. LaChausse RESEARCH METHODS STUDENTS (SPRING 2002): Samuel Afuwape Angie Aguirre Alisa Brechbill Paul Cox Michael Edwards David Gonzales April Holweger Jessica Lexy Christine McClary Eric Nauls Chere O'Grady Kuntal Patel ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: This research was supported by: Cindy Paxton, Chair, Department of Health Science and Human Ecology Robert Carlson, Dean, College of Natural Sciences Ross Moran and Muriel Lopez, CSUSB Office of Institutional Research For questions or comments regarding this report, please email [email protected] Prevention Research and Program Evaluation Lab Department of Health Science and Human Ecology College of Natural Sciences California State University, San Bernardino 2002. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint or disseminate this material for any purpose must be obtained from the author or his designee.

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OUR CAMPUS CULTURE: FINDINGS FROM THE 2002 CSUSB CAMPUS SURVEY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE SOCIAL NORMS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. 5 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 6 METHODS ................................................................................................................................. 9 RESULTS ................................................................................................................................. 10 Perceived and Actual Frequency of Student Alcohol Consumption ................................. 11 Perceived and Actual Quantity of Student Alcohol Consumption .................................... 13 Perceived and Actual Percentage of Students Who Binge Drink...................................... 15 Perceived and Actual Percentage of Students Who Do Not Drink Alcohol...................... 16 Perceived and Actual Quantity of Alcoholic Drinks Consumed by Location................... 17 Perceived and Actual Attitudes Toward Alcohol and Other Drug Use............................. 18 Perception of Campus Policies Regarding Alcohol and Drug Use ................................... 20 Likelihood of Consuming Alcohol by Day and Alcohol- Serving Establishments........... 21 HYPOTHESIS TESTS ................................................................................................................. 22 Alcohol Use and Students Groups..................................................................................... 22 Alcohol Use and Housing Status ....................................................................................... 23 Alcohol Consumption and Social Norms .......................................................................... 23 Binge Drinking and Other Risk Behaviors........................................................................ 23 CONCLUSIONS......................................................................................................................... 24 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................... 28

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Alcohol and drug use during the college years has developed into a kind of culture that include beliefs and customs that are deeply rooted in every level of college life. Past research suggests that these beliefs and the expectations they engender, exert a powerful influence over students' behavior toward alcohol and drug use. This report highlights the findings of the 2002 CSUSB Campus Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use Social Norms. The purpose of the study was to examine social norms surrounding alcohol and drug use among students at California State University, San Bernardino (CSUSB). A total of 217 undergraduates were selected from a random sample of classes at CSUSB in the Spring 2002 and completed the Campus Survey of Alcohol and Other Drug Norms (CORE Institute, 1999). Findings suggest that CSUSB students tend to think that their peers are, on average, more permissive in personal drinking attitudes than is the case, and likewise that peers consume alcohol more frequently and more heavily, than is really the norm. Specifically, this study indicates that: · · · · · · Over 25% of CSUSB students do not drink alcohol at all. The average student at CSUSB drinks about 2 or less drinks when at a bar or party. The average student consumes alcohol at least once per week. While students perceive that almost 50% of students at CSUSB binge drink, only 31% actually binge drink in the last two weeks. CSUSB students tend to think that their peers are more permissive in their personal attitudes toward drinking alcohol. Students who believe that CSUSB students drink excessively are more likely to consume more alcohol. Binge drinking at CSUSB is related to other health risk behaviors.

Past studies have suggested that well planned, implemented, and evaluated interventions can decrease alcohol use among college students. Findings from this study can be used to develop prevention programs at the individual-student level, at the level of the entire student body, and at the community level.

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INTRODUCTION

The U.S. Surgeon General and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services have identified binge drinking among college students as a major public health problem. The consequences of alcohol and drug use are numerous. Students who attended schools with high rates of heavy drinking experience a greater number of secondhand effects including disruption of sleep or studies, property damage, and verbal and physical abuse (Wechsler, Moeykens, Davenport, Castillo, & Hansen, 1995). Alcohol consumption includes the frequency (how often a person drinks) and quantity (how much a person drinks). Frequency of consumption refers to the number of days, or sometimes, occasions that an individual has consumed alcoholic beverages during a specified interval (e.g., week, month, and year). Quantity of consumption refers to the amount of alcohol ingested on a given drinking occasion (NIAAA, 2002). Research suggests that a major factor influencing students' decisions about alcohol consumption is their perceptions of campus drinking norms (Perkins & Wechsler, 1996). These findings are consistent with other areas of research regarding social norms. Social norms theory states that much of people's behavior is influenced by their perception of how other members of their social group behave. According to social norms theory, people tend to misperceive (i.e. exaggerate) the negative health behavior of their peers. If people think harmful behavior is typical, they are more likely to engage in that type of behavior. College students tend to greatly overestimate the number of their peers who engage in high-risk drinking, both nationally and on their own campus (Perkins & Wechsler, 1996; Haines & Spear, 1996; Gomberg, Schneider, & DeJong, 2001). The idea that many other students drink excessively may cause students to feel both justified and pressured to consume more alcohol than they normally would if they believed that their peers drank more moderately (Gomberg et al., 2001). Perceived social norms also affect student's attitudes toward alcohol and drug use. For example, Perkins and Berkowitz (1986) found that more than three-quarters of students believed that one should never drink to intoxication or that intoxication was acceptable only in limited circumstances. However, almost two-thirds of these same students thought their peers felt that frequent intoxication or intoxication that did interfere with academics and other responsibilities was acceptable.

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In research conducted on nationwide data from institutions that have participated in the Core Institute Survey on Alcohol and Drugs, it was found that most students perceived much more frequent use of alcohol among their peers than actually occurred at their school (Perkins, Meilman, Leichliter, Cashin, & Presley, 1999). These inflated perceptions of student drinking behaviors are likely to have substantial consequences on personal use as students wish to, or feel pressured to, conform to erroneously perceived expectations of peers (Perkins, 1997). Additionally, there is some evidence that normative perceptions are an individual risk factor for heavy drinking; that is, that higher perceived norms are associated with higher levels of drinking and problems (Perkins & Wechsler, 1996). Misperceptions about substance use on this campus have not been limited to attitudes toward alcohol use. Perkins (1997) points out that other studies indicate a relationship between misperceptions and other drug use. As problems continue to rise as a result of alcohol and drug use among college students, college and university presidents are under pressure to lower high-risk drinking and drug use among students. One challenge in addressing this problem has been the lack of a basic infrastructure needed to develop, implement, and evaluate alcohol and drug prevention programs. Traditional responses to the problem of high-risk drinking have included student education and counseling. Although educational components are important to some successful interventions, they do not appear to be effective. Despite this evidence, informational/educational strategies are the most commonly utilized techniques for individually focused prevention on college campuses (DeJong & Langford, 2002). Other prevention programs remain relatively ineffective because they do not include a comprehensive approach to prevention at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of campus alcohol prevention (Perkins, 1997). Nonetheless, many successful approaches have used a social norm strategy embedded in a wider alcohol and prevention program that attempts to change individual student behavior. Initial results of program interventions that have adopted an intensive social norms approach are quite promising (Berkowitz, 1997; Haines & Spear 1996). Several institutions (e.g. University of Arizona, Northern Illinois University, Santa Clara University) with programs that have intensively and persistently communicated accurate

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norms about healthy majorities of students have experienced significant reductions in highrisk or heavy episodic drinking rates (Perkins, 2002). As a result, carefully planned, implemented, and evaluated programs based on a social norms approach show promise. Colleges and universities should adapt, with fidelity, existing successful projects based on a social norms approach. A social norms marketing campaign should be one component of a more comprehensive effort to prevent high-risk drinking at CSUSB.

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METHODS

Participants A total of 217 students participated in the study. Participants were selected from a random sample of all undergraduate courses in the Spring of 2002 at CSUSB. The CSUSB Office of Institutional Research provided this list of classes. Instructors were contacted to give consent for data collection in their class and to arrange a time to collect survey data. Four instructors declined to allow their class to participate in the study. Materials and Procedure Undergraduate students enrolled in a research methods course in Spring 2002 collected data during the normal course time. Participants were briefed and debriefed regarding the nature of the survey, confidentiality of their responses, time commitment for participation in the study, and how they could contact the researcher regarding any questions they had about their participation. Consent to participate in the study was gained after the initial briefing and participants were told that they could stop at any time without penalty. Participants completed the Campus Survey of Alcohol and Other Drug Norms (Presley & Meilman, 1989). The survey examines perceptions regarding alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs, binge drinking, and attitudes toward campus policies. It asks students to rate the perceived use and attitudes of their friends and the general student population and to provide their own usage and attitudes regarding the same items. The survey took about 20 minutes to complete. Participants were not offered any incentive to participate in the study and were treated in accordance with the "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct" (American Psychological Association, 1992). This research was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of California State University, San Bernardino.

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RESULTS

Survey Demographics A total of 217 male and female undergraduate students enrolled in classes at CSUSB in the Spring 2002 term participated in the study. Figure 1 shows that approximately 67% of the sample was female and 33% of the sample was male. This is approximate to the demographic distribution of the entire campus population during the same time period (63%- female, 37%- male) (CSUSB, 2002). The average age of the participants was 24.9 years of age. To insure that the sample was representative of the CSUSB student population, a t-test was computed comparing the sample mean age (24.9) and the population mean age (25.0). Results indicate that the mean age of the sample was not significantly different from the mean age of the population (t=0.37, p> .05). Figure 2 shows the ethnic distribution of the sample. Figure 1.: Gender

Male 33%

Female 67%

Figure 2.: Ethnicity

White

7% 30%

2% 43%

Black Hispanic or Latino Asian or PI

18%

American Indian or Alaskan Native

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Perceived and Actual Frequency of Student Alcohol Consumption The frequency of alcohol use among CSUSB students ranges from never to everyday. Twenty- three percent of CSUSB students reported that they drink alcohol at least once per week. Almost 20 percent of CSUSB students report that they do not frequently use alcohol (See Figure 3). Figure 3. Frequency of Student Alcohol Consumption

25

20

19.5 14

19.1 13.5 11.2 7.4 3.3 0.5

Percent

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10

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CSUSB students perceive that 43 percent of their fellow students drink at least once per week and that only 0.5 percent never use alcohol (See figure 4). Figure 4. Perceived Frequency of Student Alcohol Consumption

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

43.9

Percent

24.3

8.4 0.5

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9.8

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12

Perceived and Actual Quantity of Student Alcohol Consumption CSUSB students, in general, drink less than 2.5 drinks at a bar or party (for more information, see Figure 18). A closer look at students groups indicates that, on average, regular students (those that are not athletes, not fraternity/ sorority members) typically consume less than 2 drinks when at a bar or party. CSUSB fraternity and sorority members typically consume an average of 3 drinks when at a bar or party. CSUSB student- athletes typically consume an average of 3.5 drinks when at a bar or party. CSUSB students that are both athletes and fraternity/ sorority members report that they typically consume an average of 6.5 drinks when they are at a bar or party (See Figure 5). Figure 5. Actual Mean Number of Alcoholic Drinks Consumed by Group

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Regular Fraternity/ sorority member Athlete 1.89 2.9 3.24

6.5

Athlete & Fraternity/ sorority member

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CSUSB students reported that they believe that the number of alcoholic drinks consumed by CSUSB students is higher than is actually the case. Students report that they believe that fraternity/ sorority members consume more alcohol than students in other groups (See Figure 6). Interestingly, CSUSB students believe that students who live off campus consume more alcohol, on average, than students who live on campus. Figure 6. Perceived Mean Number of Alcoholic Drinks Consumed by Group

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

4.89

6.6 5.87 4.93 5.1

Regular Fraternity/ Athletes Students Sorority Members

Students Students Who Live Who Live On Off Campus Campus

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Perceived and Actual Percentage of Students Who Binge Drink Heavy drinking is frequently associated with residence hall damage, sexual assault, fighting, drunk & driving, and lower grade point averages. In most of the research literature on alcohol use, binge drinking is operationally defined as the consumption of five or more drinks in one sitting. Overall, 31 percent of the students at CSUSB reported having binged "in the last two weeks" (See Figure 7). Of the 31 percent of students who have binged drink in the last 2 weeks, 5 percent had binge drinking episodes on five or more days. This means a minimum of 25 drinks per two weeks per student solely from bingeing, and in all likelihood there is greater alcohol consumption than that. CSUSB students report that they think at least 48 percent of students have had binged drinking episodes in the last two weeks creating a social norm that portrays that half of CSUSB students binge drink.

Figure 7. Actual and Perceived Percentage of Students Who Binge Drink

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

Perceived Percentage Actual Percentage

48% 31%

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Perceived and Actual Percentage of Students Who Do Not Drink Alcohol Overall, almost 25 percent of CSUSB students reported that they do not drink alcohol (See Figure 8). CSUSB students believe that 27 percent of students in general do not drink alcohol. CSUSB students report that only 1% of fraternity/ sorority members do not drink, 3% of athletes do not drink, and .05% of students who live on campus do not drink. CSUSB students' close friends were believed to be most likely not to drink alcohol (4.5%).

Figure 8. Actual and Perceived Percentage of Students Who Do Not Drink Alcohol

40% 27%

30%

25%

20%

10%

Perceived Percentage

Actual Percentage

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Perceived and Actual Quantity of Alcoholic Drinks Consumed by Location CSUSB students reported that they are most likely to drink at bars and off-campus parties. CSUSB students believe that most students at fraternity or sorority functions and at off- campus bars are likely to consume greater amounts of alcohol than at school functions and athletic events. Figure 9.: On Any Given Occasion, How Many Alcoholic Drinks Are Most Typically Consumed By You and Others in Each of the Following Places?

Not Available Bar Yourself Others Athletic Events Yourself Others Fraternity Social Functions Yourself Others Sorority Social Functions Yourself Others Residence Hall Informal Get Togethers Yourself Others School Dances (or "mixers") Yourself Others Off-Campus Parties Yourself Others 5.0% Never Attend 45.2%

0 7.4% 0.9% 37.7% 8.8% 11.1% 0.9% 9.7% 1.8% 7.4% 0.9% 11.0% 0.9% 12.1% 0.5%

1 to 2 16.6% 2.8% 10.6% 15.2% 6.8% 4.1% 4.6% 2.7% 10.6% 3.7% 5.3% 5.1% 17.5% 3.7%

3 to 4 18.3% 18.4% 4.2% 20.8% 8.6% 5.5% 5.0% 6.4% 3.2% 8.8% 4.7% 7.9% 13.4% 10.2%

5 to 6 4.2% 18.0% 3.6% 6.4% 3.3% 12.4% 0.5% 6.9% 0.5% 6.0% 1.4% 6.4% 13.3% 23.9%

7 to 8 1.9% 9.5% 0.5% 3.7% 2.5% 9.7% 2.8% 4.6% 1.9% 3.7% 1.0% 4.2% 4.6% 15.7%

9 to 10

11+

0.9% 0.5% 2.9% 2.0% 0.5% 0.0% 1.4% 0.0% 1.0% 0.5% 0.5% 2.8% 0.5% 0.5% 0.0% 0.9% 1.0% 0.0% 0.9% 0.0% 0.9% 0.5% 1.9% 0.5% 2.8% 1.5% 5.0% 4.6%

13.8%

29.3%

8.8%

57.4%

5.5%

71.4%

9.1%

66.4%

7.8%

67.7%

5.8%

29.0%

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Perceived and Actual Attitudes Toward Alcohol and Other Drug Use CSUSB students tend to think that their peers are, on average, more permissive in personal drinking attitudes than is the case. While 18.2 percent of CSUSB students feel that drinking alcohol is never a good thing to do, they believe that only 2.8% of students in general feel that drinking is never a good thing to do. At the same time, 3.3% CSUSB students reported that frequently getting drunk is acceptable while they believe that 12% of students in general believe that frequently getting drunk is acceptable (See Figure 10). Figure 10.: Attitudes Toward Alcohol Use

Attitudes Toward Drinking Alcohol Use Own Students in Attitude General 18.2% 2.8% 39.5% 12.1%

Drinking is never a good thing to do Drinking is all right but a person should not get drunk Occasionally getting drunk is okay as long as it doesn't interfere with academics or other responsibilities Occasionally getting drunk is okay even if it does interfere with academics or other responsibilities Frequently getting drunk is okay if that's what the individual wants to do Total

38.1%

65.7%

0.9% 3.3% 100%

7.4% 12.0% 100%

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CSUSB students tend to think that their peers are, on average, more permissive regarding marijuana use. While over 67% percent of CSUSB students feel that smoking marijuana is never a good thing to do, they believe that only 7.9% of students in general feel that smoking marijuana is never a good thing to do (See Figure 11). Most CSUSB students have negative attitudes toward other drug use (88%) while they felt hat students in general believe that occasional drug use is acceptable (50%) (See Figure 12). Figure 11.: Attitudes Toward Marijuana Use

Attitudes Toward Marijuana Use Own Students in Attitude General 67.2% 7.9%

It is never a good thing to do. Trying it out one or two times is okay as long as it doesn't interfere with academics or other responsibilities.

18.7%

33.0%

Occasional use is okay as long as it doesn't interfere with academics or other responsibilities. 8.9% Occasional use is okay even if it does interfere with academics or other responsibilities. 0.5% Frequent use is okay if that's what the individual wants to do. 4.7% Total 100.00%

41.9% 5.6% 11.6% 100.00%

Figure 12.: Attitudes Toward Other Drug Use

Attitudes Toward Other Drug Use Own Students in Attitude General 88.4% 24.0%

It is never a good thing to do. Trying it out one or two times is okay as long as it doesn't interfere with academics or other responsibilities. Occasional use is okay as long as it doesn't interfere with academics or other responsibilities. Occasional use is okay even if it does interfere with academics or other responsibilities. Frequent use is okay if that's what the individual wants to do. Total

8.8%

50.5%

0.3% 2.5% 0.0% 100%

21.3% 1.4% 2.8% 100%

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Perception of Campus Policies Regarding Alcohol and Drug Use Forty- six percent of CSUSB students are aware of campus rules and regulations regarding alcohol and other drug use. Fifty percent of CSUSB students oppose campus rules and regulations regarding alcohol and other drug use. Students living in residence halls were most likely to be aware of campus rules and regulations regarding alcohol and other drug use while fraternity/ sorority members were least likely to be aware of campus rules and regulations regarding alcohol and other drug use. CSUSB students feel that only 24% of CSUSB students in general are aware of campus rules and regulations regarding alcohol and other drug use (See Figure 13). Figure 13.: Perception of Student Regarding School Policies Toward Alcohol & Drug Use

Considering Campus Rules and Regulations Regarding Alcohol and Other Drug Use, What Percent of the Student Body Do You Believe... Percent ... generally knows of and supports these rules and regulations? ... generally knows of and opposes these rules and regulations? ... generally knows of these rules but has no opinion? ... are aware of these rule Total 34% 21% 21% 24% 100%

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Likelihood of Consuming Alcohol by Day and Alcohol- Serving Establishments CSUSB students are most likely to drink on the weekends (See Figure 14). CSUSB students report that there are bars that offer special priced- drink nights (i.e. 2 for 1 drink nights, progressive beers, etc.) (See Figure 15). Figure 14.: Likelihood to Drink Alcohol by Day of the Week

How Likely are You to Drink Alcohol on the Following Days? Not Likely Somewhat Likely Likely Very Likely Mondays Tuesdays Wednesdays Thursdays Fridays Saturdays Sundays 82.5% 82.9% 74.2% 71.9% 35.5% 28.6% 66.4% 10.6% 8.8% 12.0% 14.3% 29.0% 30.0% 18.4% 1.8% 2.8% 5.5% 7.4% 15.7% 18.0% 5.1% 1.4% 1.8% 4.6% 2.8% 16.6% 20.3% 6.0%

Figure 15.: Establishments Identified by Students that Have Special College Drink Nights

Top 10 Establishments Identified by CSUSB Students that Offer Special Priced Drink Nights Fanatics (North San Bernardino) 27.0% Branding Iron (San Bernardino) 25.0% Gotham (Riverside) 10.0% Applebee's (Highland) 2.0% Carlos O'Brien's (Riverside) 8.0% Stampede Stadium (San Bernardino) 8.0% Margaretville (Rancho Cucamonga) 7.0% TGI Fridays (San Bernardino) 6.0% Wooden Nickel (North San Bernardino) 4.0% Celebrities (North San Bernardino) 3.0%

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HYPOTHESIS TESTS

Alcohol Use and Students Groups A one- way ANOVA was calculated comparing the mean alcohol use scores of Fraternity/ sorority members, Athletes, Athletes & Fraternity/ sorority members, and regular students (Non- Athlete/ Non- fraternity/ sorority members). A significant difference was found among the groups (F(3, 212)= 10.43, p < .01). Tukey's HSD was used to determine the nature of the differences between the groups. This analysis revealed that students who were Athletes were more likely to consume alcohol (m= 3.24, sd= 2.86) than regular students (m= 1.89, sd= 2.18). Students who were Fraternity/ sorority members were not more likely to consume alcohol (m= 2.90, sd= 1.72) than regular students (m= 1.89, sd= 2.18). Students who were Fraternity/ sorority members were not more likely to consume alcohol (m= 2.90, sd= 1.72) than athletes (m= 3.24, sd= 2.86). Students who were both Athletes and Fraternity/ sorority members (m= 6.50, sd= 3.20) were more likely to drink than all three of the other groups (See Figure 16). Figure 16.: Mean Alcohol Use Scores by Student Group

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Regular Fraternity/ sorority member Athlete

6.5

2.9 1.89

3.24

Athlete & Fraternity/ sorority member

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Alcohol Use and Housing Status A one- way ANOVA comparing the mean alcohol use scores of students living in residence halls, off-campus house/ apartment, and on- campus apartments. No significant difference was found among the three groups (F(2, 208)= 0.64, p > .05) (See Figure 17) Figure 17.: Mean Alcohol Use Score by Housing Status

6 5 4 3 2 1 0

4.10

3.41

3.65

Residence Halls

On- Campus Off- Campus Apartments Apartment or House

Alcohol Consumption and Social Norms A Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated for the relationship between personal alcohol consumption and their perception of general student alcohol consumption. A positive correlation was found (r(212) = .223, p< .01). Specifically, perceived social norms of friends was most correlated with personal alcohol consumption (r(212) = .563, p< .01). No significant correlations were found between personal alcohol consumption and perceived social norms of Fraternity/ sorority members, athletes, or by gender. Binge Drinking and Other Risk Behaviors A Chi Square Test of Independence was calculated comparing the frequency of binge drinking and condom use. A significant relationship was found (chi square (1) = 32.84, p < .05). Students who were more likely to binge drink were less likely to use a condom the last time they had sex.

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CONCLUSIONS

This report suggests that both the amount and frequency of student's alcohol and drug use is much less than what is perceived. A side- by- side comparison of the average number of drinks consumed by students indicates that students perceive that other students, on average, drink far more drinks than is the actual norm (See Figure 18). Interestingly, CSUSB students believe that almost 25% of all students do not drink alcohol at all while they also believe that some students may not drink infrequently. This discrepancy, coupled with perceived permissiveness of alcohol use, may point out the fact that CSUSB students believe that college students, in general, drink alcohol. This belief may assert that college life may be a place where alcohol use is normal and encouraged. Any abstention from alcohol use may be viewed as periodic rather than a life long choice. Attitudes toward other drug use, specifically marijuana use, are alarming. Considering the well documented shortterm and long-term effects of marijuana use, almost 43% of CSUSB students have supportive attitudes regarding marijuana use. Binge drinking among CSUSB students is high as well as the perceived percentage of students who binge drink. Nonetheless, this report highlights the fact that responding to this data is both timely and worthwhile. To obtain more data on alcohol and drug use social norm trends, this study will be conducted again in Spring 2003. Traditional responses to the problem of high-risk drinking have included student education and counseling. This strategy is based on the assumption that college students excessively use alcohol because they lack knowledge regarding the health risks and that an increase in knowledge would lead to a decrease in use. Although educational components are important to some successful interventions, they do not appear to be effective. While helping to increase individual knowledge and awareness, these approaches have had little apparent effect on students' alcohol consumption (DeHann & Trageton, 2001). In some instances, education awareness campaigns have raised awareness about the danger of alcohol and drug use and at the same time reinforced students' exaggerated perceptions of use and peer acceptance (Perkins, 1997). Given the pervasiveness of exaggerated perceptions of peer drinking norms, it might be better to report data differently, emphasizing

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the "incidence levels" of the majority who do not participate in high risk alcohol and drug use behaviors (Perkins, 1997; NIAAA, 2002). The strategy of communicating actual student norms to dispel myths has been referred to as the "social norms approach" (Perkins, 2002). As students begin to adhere to more accurately perceived norms that are relatively moderate, the actual norms become even more moderate as the process of misperception leading to misuse is reversed (Perkins, 2002). Many interventions have focused on campus- wide media messages using print media, posters, and announcements while other programs have also focused on specific student groups with decreases in alcohol use up to 20% (Perkins, 2002). However, any approach to decreasing alcohol use must be both comprehensive and targeted. For example, the most effective programs are embedded in a coordinated college health program that focuses on changing social norms at the student- wide and student- groups levels while providing primary and secondary prevention activities. This comprehensive approach includes policy change and relies on cognitive- behavioral strategies to teach students how to avoid or manage alcohol and drug use (See Figure 19). Without a strong research base to guide their formulation, program objectives tend to be nonspecific or unrealistic. Colleges and universities tend to rely on the easiest, least costly methods of impacting student alcohol use resulting in poor results. Lack of information also affects a college's capacity to develop a meaningful staffing plan and budget; these deficiencies often limit program success at the outset. Similarly, when vital information is not included in program design, used to guide implementation, and monitored through careful evaluation, results are likely to be disappointing (NIAAA, 2002). As a result, CSUSB should establish a theory driven, comprehensive approach to alcohol and drug use prevention that utilizes an existing social norms approach. These efforts should be evaluated to provide timely information to make mid- course adjustments once the program has started and to determine the project's effectiveness. With careful planning, development, implementation, and evaluation, CSUSB has the potential to shift those social norms that influence student alcohol use and to change our campus culture regarding alcohol and drug use.

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Figure 18.: Comparison of Actual and Perceived Quantity of Student Alcohol Consumption

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Students in Athletes General Fraternity Sorority Members Students Who live OnCampus Students Who Live OffCampus Males Females 2.20 4.89 4.93 3.24 6.60 5.87 5.10 3.68 2.90 2.23 3.17 2.05 6.20 4.45

Actual

Perceived

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Figure 19.: Summary of Various Approaches to Reducing Alcohol Consumption on College Campuses.

3-in-1 Framework for College Alcohol Prevention Programs Level of Operation Strategy 1: Effective Individual General Student Population No Community No

Combining cognitive-behavioral skills with Yes norms clarification & motivational enhancement intervention Offering brief interventions in student health centers and emergency rooms Challenging alcohol expectancies Yes

No

No

Yes No

No Yes

No No

2: Promising Adopting campus-based policies to reduce high-risk use (e.g., establishing alcohol-free activities & dorms) Increasing enforcement at campus-based events that promote excessive drinking Increasing publicity about enforcement of underage drinking laws/eliminating "mixed" messages Consistently enforcing campus disciplinary actions associated with policy violations Conducting marketing campaigns to correct student misperceptions about alcohol use on campus Informing new students and parents about alcohol policies and penalties 3: Ineffective Informational, knowledge-based or values clarification interventions when used alone Guest Speakers

No No No No

Yes Yes Yes Yes

No Yes No No

Yes No No

Yes No

No No

No No Adapted from NIAAA, 2002.

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REFERENCES

American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611. Berkowitz, A.D. (1997). From reactive to proactive prevention: Promoting an ecology of health on campus. In Substance Abuse on Campus: A Handbook for College and University Personnel. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press California State University, San Bernardino (2002, January). CSUSB Statistical Factbook. Retrieved April 4, 2002, from the CSUSB web site: www.ir.csusb.edu DeHann, L. & Trageton, R. (2001). Relationships between substance abuse information and use prevalence and attitudes. Adolescent and Family Health, 2, 55- 62. DeJong, W. & Langford, L. (2002). Typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: Moving toward environmental management strategies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol Supplement 14, 140­147. Gomberg, L., Schneider, S., & DeJong, W. (2001). Evaluation of a social norms marketing campaign to reduce high-risk drinking at the University of Mississippi. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 27, 375- 389. Haynes, M. & Spear, S. (1996). Changing the perception of the norm: a strategy to decrease binge drinking among college students. Journal of American College Health, 35, 134- 140. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (2002). A call to action: changing the culture of drinking at U.S. colleges. NIH Pub. No. 02­5010. Bethesda, MD: NIAAA.

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Perkins, H.W. (2002). Social norms and the prevention of alcohol misuse in collegiate contexts. Journal of Studies in Alcohol, 14, 164- 172. Perkins, H.W. (1997). College student misperceptions of alcohol and other drug norms among peers: exploring causes, consequences, and implication for prevention programs. In Designing Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs in Higher Education, Newton, MA: 177-206. Perkins, H. W. & Berkowitz, A. D. (1986). Perceiving the community norms of alcohol use among students: some research implications for campus alcohol education programming. International Journal of Addictions, 21, 961­976. Perkins, H. W. & Wechsler, H. (1996). Variation in perceived college drinking norms and its impact on alcohol abuse: a nationwide study. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 961­ 974. Perkins, H.W., Meilman, P.W., Leichliter, J.S., Cashin, J.S., & Presley, C.A. (1999). Misperceptions of the norms for the frequency of alcohol and other drug use on college campuses. Journal of American College Health, 47, 253-258. Presley, C.H. & Meilman, P.W. (1989). Campus Survey of Alcohol and Other Drug Norms Carbondale, IL: The CORE Institute, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL. Wechsler, H., Moeykens, B., Davenport, A., Castillo, S., & Hansen, J. (1995) The adverse impact of heavy episodic drinkers on other college students. Journal of Studies in Alcohol, 56, 628­ 634.

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