Read EMS Written Exam Study Guide text version

EMS Written Exam Study Guide

April 2010

Utah Department of Health Division of Family Health and Preparedness Bureau of Emergency Medical Services and Preparedness

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................................. 3 WHY IS THERE A WRITTEN EXAMINATION? .......................................................................................................... 3 WHEN, WHERE, AND HOW TO PREPARE FOR AN EXAMINATION ................................................................... 4 A. B. C. D. LEARNING TIME: WHEN SHOULD I STUDY? ............................................................................................................... 4 WHERE TO STUDY: A PLACE TO REMEMBER ............................................................................................................... 5 LEARNING AND REMEMBERING: A SKILL TO BE MASTERED ...................................................................................... 6 PHYSICAL AND MENTAL PREPARATION ....................................................................................................................... 8

COMPUTER BASED TESTING ........................................................................................................................................ 9 A. ADVANTAGES ................................................................................................................................................................... 9 B. SCHEDULING .................................................................................................................................................................... 9 C. THE USER INTERFACE ................................................................................................................................................... 10 HOW TO ANSWER MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ........................................................................................... 13 WHAT TO STUDY FOR THE WRITTEN EXAMINATIONS..................................................................................... 16 EMT-BASIC .......................................................................................................................................................................... 20 EMT-INTERMEDIATE .......................................................................................................................................................... 21 EMD ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 I FAILED... NOW WHAT? .............................................................................................................................................. 22 USING MY RESULT LETTER ................................................................................................................................................. 22 TESTING AT A LOWER LEVEL .............................................................................................................................................. 24 HOW TO FIND ADDITIONAL STUDY GUIDES AND PRACTICE TESTS ............................................................ 24 REFERENCES.................................................................................................................................................................... 25

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INTRODUCTION

Whether you are just starting or have been in the rewarding and exciting field of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for years, testing can be a stressful task. The purpose of this study guide is to provide EMS students, recertifying personnel, and reciprocity candidates with information in the following areas: · · · · · What to study for the written examinations When to study for an examination Where to study for an examination Why is there a written exam? How to study for an examination

WHY IS THERE A WRITTEN EXAMINATION?

A test or an examination (or "exam") is an assessment, often administered on paper or on the computer, intended to measure the test-takers' knowledge, perception, reasoning, intuition, skills, and aptitudes. Tests are often used in education, professional certification, the military, and many other fields. The Bureau of Emergency Medical Services (BEMS) is directed in law to establish a standard to ensure our EMS providers meet a minimum level of quality. "For professional certification and licensure examinations, the purpose of the test is to protect the general public from incompetent practitioners."[1] Standardized tests such as the state EMS certification exams are ones that assess the performance of every individual subject with a specific standard. This means that every individual that takes the test has an equal opportunity to pass. Tests reveal that some examinees do not know the material. While failing these people may protect the public from incompetent EMS providers, the consequences of repeated failure can be very high for the individual. Sometimes failing people could be a drawback to the public, for example a small community not having enough EMS personnel to run on the ambulance. For these reasons we have created this guide to assist examinees in preparing for the state EMS certification exams. Since a confident attitude and adequate preparation are the hallmarks of a successful testing experience, this study guide is intended to provide techniques to mentally and physically prepare for an examination.

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WHEN, WHERE, AND HOW TO PREPARE FOR AN EXAMINATION

Preparing for a test can sometimes feel like an undue burden. This sometimes leads to procrastination and anxiety which in turn can lead to poor test performance. This section of the study guide will give you strategies to overcome these roadblocks. It will also cover several concepts to help improve the learning process.

A. Learning Time: When should I study? Learning the material for your EMS certification exams should start the first day of your first EMS course. Through hours of course time or continuing medical education you were presented with vital knowledge to help you become a competent EMS provider. Make sure that you identify and understand thoroughly everything that your instructors emphasized in class. This knowledge can be a great starting point to center your preparations for the test. Many students wait until the last minute to study for an exam. This can effect how they will perform on the exam. The State University of New York at Buffalo provides the following insight about procrastination. Procrastination Procrastination is the avoidance of doing a task which needs to be accomplished. This can lead to feelings of guilt, inadequacy, depression and self-doubt among students. Procrastination has a high potential for painful consequences. It interferes with the academic and personal success of students. How to Overcome Procrastination · · · · Recognize self-defeating problems such as; fear and anxiety, difficulty concentrating, poor time management, indecisiveness and perfectionism. Identify your own strengths and weaknesses, values and priorities. Compare your actions with the values you feel you have. Are your values consistent with your actions? Study in small blocks instead of long time periods. For example, you will accomplish more if you study/work in 60 minute blocks and take frequent 10 minute breaks in between, than if you study/work for 2-3 hours straight, with no breaks. Reward yourself after you complete a task.

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· · ·

Motivate yourself to study: Dwell on success, not on failure. Try to study in small groups. Break large assignments into small tasks. Keep a reminder schedule and checklist. Discipline yourself to use time wisely: Set priorities. Set realistic goals. [2]

B. Where to study: A place to remember A good place to study is vital. The best learning is done in a relaxed atmosphere, free of outside distractions. How-To-Study.com recommends the following to improve your learning environment: · Your Study Place does you little good if you cannot use it when you need it. If you are using a Study Place that you must share with others for any reason, work out a schedule so that you know when you can use it. It is important to have uninterrupted study time. You may have to hang a DO NOT DISTURB sign on the door or take the phone off the hook. Research shows that most students study best in a quiet environment. If you find that playing a stereo your mood, keep the volume low. Be sure your Study Place includes reference sources such as your textbook and supplies such as pens, paper, calculator, and whatever else you might need. If you use a computer for your schoolwork, it should be in your Study Place. While working on an assignment or studying for a test, use a desk or table that is large enough to hold everything you need. Allow enough room for writing and try to avoid clutter. You need enough room to store your study materials. Be sure you have enough storage space to allow you to keep your desktop or other work surface clear of unnecessary materials that can get in the way. Take a few minutes to straighten your desk. This can help to reduce daydreaming. A chair that is not comfortable can cause discomfort or pain that will interfere with your studying. A chair that is too comfortable might make you sleepy. Select a chair in which you can sit for long periods while maintaining your attention.

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· ·

The amount of light you need depends on what you are doing. The important thing is that you can clearly see what you need to see without any strain or discomfort. If your Study Place is too warm, you might become sleepy. If it is too cold, your thinking may slow down and become unclear. Select a temperature at which your mind and body function best. [3]

C. Learning and remembering: A skill to be mastered When you begin to study for an examination, try to learn the material as opposed to memorizing. Memorizing information fills your short term memory with temporary knowledge that you will likely forget after short periods of time. As a responsible member of the EMS team, you must have lasting knowledge and understanding of life saving skills. By taking an interest in your functional skills and knowledge, you become motivated to learn material you are most interested in. The University of Wisconsin recommends the follow ideas to help: Studying involves two activities: the learning and remembering of information. Many students view studying as merely rereading their textbook chapters and lecture notes. However, this method is usually ineffective when learning new information. Even after rereading the material several times, students still have difficulty remembering it because it was probably never encoded into their memory system. The learning of new information requires conscious effort. Use the strategies below to help ensure that information is being learned well and stored securely in your memory system. Make the Material Meaningful It's difficult to remember information that is confusing and doesn't make sense, and often the author's explanations of concepts and vocabulary terms are unclear. Instead of trying to remember the author's words, put the information into your own words as your words are likely to be more meaningful than the author's. In addition, try to "personalize" the information by thinking of examples and relating it to other information you've learned and/or your own life experiences. Many students try to memorize information they don't fully understand which is one reason why information doesn't "stick." Try to understand the information before you try to remember it. Study Actively As mentioned previously, studying does not consist of passively rereading your text, lecture notes or study sheet. Instead, actively think about the information by explaining the information out loud to yourself using your own words. In succeeding sessions, try to recite the information a little differently each time by rewording it or thinking of different examples. In addition, you should also think critically about the information you're studying by noting relationships among ideas, asking yourself "how" and "why," comparing and contrasting information, determining the significance of events, etc. Actively thinking about the material numerous times and in several

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different ways helps keep the information "alive" in your short term memory and enhances your comprehension and retention of the material. Rehearse Using Elaboration Rehearsal is the conscious repetition of information. There are two types of rehearsal: rote rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal. Rote rehearsal consists of repeating the same words over and over again with little or no variation. This is not a very effective method for learning and remembering new information because often the full meaning is not grasped. Elaborative rehearsal, on the other hand, involves expanding on the information by analyzing it further and relating it to information already stored in your memory. This type of rehearsal is much more effective for encoding information into your long term memory for retrieval later. Review Often Ideally, you should review after each lecture and after reading each textbook chapter. After each lecture, read through your notes and highlight key points and/or use the left margin of your paper to indicate important information such as major concepts, vocabulary terms, possible test questions, etc. Also check for inaccurate and/or missing information. After reading a textbook chapter, go back and reread the headings and subheadings, portions of the text that you highlighted or marked and, finally, the summary. Since much of what we learn is forgotten quickly, frequent reviewing helps to keep the information fresh in your mind and reduces the amount of time you will need to spend later in the semester when studying for an exam. As you review, identify early on information that is confusing or difficult to understand and seek clarification. Know what you don't know! [4] In Summary when you are learning, make a special effort to: · Remember the information. · Verbally discuss or read aloud the information you want to remember. · Visualize images as you are learning. · Mentally picture yourself performing the skills. · Tie in new information with what you have already learned.

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D. Physical and mental preparation Taking a test is often a stressful and sometimes threatening experience. How-To-Study.com gives the following information about overcoming test anxiety. Too much anxiety about a test is commonly referred to as test anxiety. It is perfectly natural to feel some anxiety when preparing for and taking a test. In fact, a little anxiety can jump start your studying and keep you motivated. However, too much anxiety can interfere with your studying. You may have difficulty learning and remembering what you need to know for the test. Further, too much anxiety may block your performance during the test. You may have difficulty demonstrating what you know during the test. What can I do about test anxiety? Use good study techniques to gain cognitive (perception, reasoning, intuition) mastery of the material that will be covered on the test. This mastery will help you to approach the test with confidence rather than have excessive anxiety. Maintain a positive attitude as you study. Think about doing well, not failing. Think of the test as an opportunity to show how much you have learned. Go into the test well rested and well fed. Get enough sleep the night before the test. Eat a light and nutritious meal before the test. Stay away from junk foods. Stay relaxed during the test. Taking slow, deep breaths can help. Focus on positive selfstatements such as "I can do this." Don't panic even if you find the test difficult. Don't worry about finishing the test quickly. Take the time that you need to do your best. You have to know the material to do well on a test. You have to control test anxiety to show what you know. [5]

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Computer Based Testing

The EMS written exam is conducted on computers. The test is web based making it available through out Utah at secure testing centers. Computer based tests are powerful and accurate evaluation tool and have several advantages over paper based tests. A. Advantages · · · · · · · Immediate test results More options on when to take the exam Accessibility throughout the state Superior exam security More accurate evaluation of a candidate's competency Less chance of accidentally skipping questions Less expensive to conduct

B. Scheduling You can schedule your exam for any of the following locations by calling BEMS at (801)-273-6666 or 1-800284-1131, option 1. Salt Lake City: BEMS office Orem: UVSC Additional fees: $15 Paramedic, $8 EMT-B, EMT-I EMT-IA St. George: Dixie State Additional $12 for all levels Moab: USU Center Logan: Bridgerland ATC Ephraim: Snow College Additional $10 for all levels Price: CEU Roosevelt: USU Center Layton: WSU Davis Campus Additional $20 for all levels American Fork: Mountainland ATC open to MATC students only

Once you have scheduled your exam you will receive an e-mail similar to the one below. You must have this with you when you check in at the test center along with a picture ID.

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C. The user interface The written exam is comprised of multiple choice questions. Once logged into the test you will see a similar screen as the one below.

· · · · ·

The time remaining is displayed in green in the upper right of the screen. You may select the blue Instructions link, located on the upper right, for information specific to this type of test. The number of questions answered and the total number of question are shown in the center just above the questions. Five questions are displayed at a time. You should click the circle next to the appropriate answer. The circle will then appear as filled. It is a good idea to check to make sure that all questions have been answered.

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You can use the bottom navigation (FIRST, PREV, NEXT, LAST, or Jump to Page) to move through the test.

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Upon reaching the end of the test, you should click the Review/Finalize button. The application will indicate if you have successfully finished the test, or if there are unanswered questions.

The number of questions answered versus the available questions is displayed in the center of the screen. If there are unanswered questions, the question number, and a blue link to that question, is displayed. · · To return to the test, click the Continue Test button. To finish and end the test process, click the Complete Test button.

Once you hit YES the results screen will be displayed.

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At the bottom of the results screen there will be a message indicating that the Test Center will automatically reset in two minutes. You may immediately reset the Test Center by clicking the Reset Test Center button. The Test Center is now ready to be unlocked for the next student. Once you finish your exam you will receive an e-mail similar to the one below detailing your test results.

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HOW TO ANSWER MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Answering multiple choice questions can sometimes seem like "luck of the draw". They have even been referred to as multiple guess questions. Always use your own judgment, knowledge, and experience to answer the questions. If you know your material, have confidence in yourself, and use these test taking hints, you will successfully complete your written test without having to guess.

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Carefully analyze each question in the multiple choice test. Understand exactly what the question is asking before considering the answers. Usually, the questions are looking for one specific response. Before looking at the answers, try to think of the correct answer. Do not read extra meaning into the question. To better understand, you may want to rephrase the question in your mind. Notice if the question is asking for the correct or incorrect response. Look for the phrases using, "except", "not", or "not usually".

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Example: All of the following are signs and symptoms of a heart attack except: A. B. C. D. Restlessness and anxiety Nausea and vomiting Severe headache Feeling of impending doom

In this case the question is asking you to identify the incorrect response. The correct answer is C; a headache is not a common symptom of a heart attack.

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You must analyze each answer to discover which one is the correct choice for the specific question asked. Often it will appear that there is more than one correct answer to the question. The first thing to do is to eliminate obviously wrong answers. If you end up with two answers left and you aren't sure which is correct, choosing between those two rather than four or five choices increases your chance of answering the question correctly. Once you choose an answer recheck your choice to make sure it really does answer the question.

Example:

Directions: Use the picture below to answer the question.

1. The best title for this picture would be: A. B. C. D. The Right Artium The Right and Left Ventricle The Human Heart The Tricuspid Valve

Step 1: Read the question carefully. It asks for the best title for this picture. A picture title tells the general topic of the picture, so look closely to find the answer that best describes this picture. Step 2: Try out all the answers. I. The Right Atrium: The map shows the right atrium, but it also shows the left atrium. You can cross out this answer. II. The Right and Left Ventricle: Both the right and left ventricle are on the picture. Keep this answer as a possibility. III. The Human Heart: This picture shows the entire human heart, so this is a better answer than Answer B. Check if the last answer is better. IV. The Tricuspid Valve: There is no tricuspid valve on the picture. Cross out this answer. Step 3: Both Answer B and Answer C are possibilities, but Answer C is better. Choose The Human Heart for the best title.

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Sometimes, there are multiple items in each possible answer to a question. If eliminating incorrect items does not give you an obviously correct answer, go through and note all the items you know are correct, and choose between the few remaining items.

Example: Common signs and symptoms of internal bleeding include: question A. Dark Tarry stool items B. Abdominal rigidity or tenderness C. Hypertension D. Bleeding from the mouth: 1) A, B, D possible answers 2) A, D 3) B, C, D 4) C, D 5) A, B, C, D Step 1: Read the question carefully. In this question it asks what the signs and symptoms of internal bleeding are. Step 2: There are numerous signs and symptoms of internal bleeding. look at all of the items. Several of these items that are signs or symptoms of internal bleeding. Step 3: Next try to eliminate incorrect items. Hypertension is not a common symptom of internal bleeding. Step 4: Knowing that hypertension is not a common sign allows you to eliminate 3, 4, and 5 as possible correct answers. Step 5: This leaves just 1 and 2. Abdominal rigidity is a sign of internal bleeding so choose 1 as the answer.

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Beware of questions or answers that have "always" or "never" in their wording. They are rarely true. However, answers such as, "all of the above" or "none of the above," are likely to be correct. Frequently, the most comprehensive answer is the best choice. For example, if two answers seem logical, and answer "a" is contained in part of answer "b' then "b" is probably the correct choice. Stick with your first hunch. Your first guess at an answer is usually right. If you select answer "a" right off, then decide that "b" is a better guess, you're probably wrong.

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WHAT to study for the written examinations

Often testing candidates express that they are uncertain of what they need to know for the written exam. This can be frustrating and cause undue anxiety, which in turn can affect the performance of a candidate.

Unlike many educational exams high stake exams such as the EMS certification exams cannot give out the test questions. In an educational environment the instructor should give the answers to test questions in an effort to help a student learn.

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During a certification exam it is expected that the educational process has taken place and the student is measured on their level of competence and knowledge. If the test questions were given out to the public it would be impossible to tell if someone had a strong EMS knowledge base or if they simply knew the test. The Department of Transportation, National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, is the federal parent of EMS in the United States. They publish an EMS training standard called the National Standard Curriculum (NSC). Almost every current EMS textbook you'll find in the U.S. is based on the NSC. The NSC is broken down into modules, lessons and objectives. These titles will correspond with titles in your textbook. The modules might be called divisions, and the lessons might be called chapters. Below is a comparison of the EMT-B NSC and an EMT-B textbook.

Example: National Standard Curriculum

Example: EMS textbook

Every state uses the NSC as a basis for some or all of their EMS training. This makes it possible for an EMT-B from California to get reciprocity in Utah. The scope of practice or what an EMS provider level does in Utah is defined in law as the objectives of NSC. As a key component of an EMS team you are required to meet a certain competency and knowledge level. The test assesses an individual on a relatively small sample of what they are actually

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expected to know on the streets, however you could potentially get a question based on any of the objectives. Each question on the test is tied directly to an objective from the NSC. EMS textbooks use these objectives as a foundation for their content. At the beginning or end of each chapter you can find these objectives. You can also find a complete listing of the objectives for all of the certification levels on the BEMS website www.health.utah.gov/ems/training . They will be located under the course materials for your certification level. Notice in the examples below that the objectives in the NSC are identical to the ones in the textbook. Using the objectives as a guide may provide you with a straightforward way to figure out what you know and what you don't know. Example: National Standard Curriculum Objectives Example: EMS Textbook Objectives

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Here is an example of how you can use the objectives to guide your studies.

Example: EMT-Basic: National Standard Curriculum Module 1: Preparatory Lesson 1-1: Introduction to Emergency Medical Care ------------------------------------COGNITIVE OBJECTIVES At the completion of this lesson, the EMT-Basic student will be able to: 1-1.1 Define Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems.(C-1) 1-1.2 Differentiate the roles and responsibilities of the EMT-Basic from other prehospital care providers.(C-3) 1-1.3 Describe the roles and responsibilities related to personal safety.(C-1) 1-1.4 Discuss the roles and responsibilities of the EMT-Basic towards the safety of the crew, the patient and bystanders.(C-1) 1-1.5 Define quality improvement and discuss the EMT-Basic's role in the process.(C-1) 1-1.6 Define medical direction and discuss the EMT-Basic's role in the process.(C-1) 1-1.7 State the specific statutes and regulations in your state regarding the EMS system.(C-1) Step 1: Get a copy of the NSC objectives from the BEMS website. Step 2: Cross out objectives that you already know. Step 3: Highlight objectives you don't know. Step 4: Review the textbook until you feel like you have a solid understanding of those concepts. Once you feel like you understand an objective I cross it out. Step 5: Continue to cross out the highlighted objectives until you are able to cross out all of them. When complete, you should feel confident that you understand everything you need to know for the test and as an EMS provider.

While it is true that as a practicing EMS provider you could be called upon to do everything in the NSC, you are not required to get a 100% on the test. For example the EMT-B test requires the student to know 80% of the answers. In other words you can miss up to 20 questions and still pass. So relax, you aren't expected to have a perfect knowledge and you have some room for error on the EMS certification exams.

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EMT-Basic

The EMT-B test has 100 scored multiple choice questions. Sometimes a student will have more than 100 questions on the test. These additional questions are non scored and are presented for statistical validation in order to use them on future examinations. The test is referenced from the NSC. You are also expected to know the following medications that are required to be carried on EMT-I ambulances in Utah or are patient assisted medication. · · · · · · Aspirin Epinephrine auto-injectors Concentrated oral glucose Activated Charcoal Nitroglycerin Albuterol Sulfate

The test is broken down by approximate percentages into the following seven modules. Included is a brief summary of the lessons and their content. This summary does not include the practical skill lab lessons. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Preparatory 26% Airway 6% Patient Assessment 16% Medical / Behavioral Emergencies and Obstetrics / Gynecology 29% Trauma 14% Infants and Children 3% Operations 6%

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EMT-Intermediate

The EMT-I test has 154 scored multiple choice questions. Sometimes a student will have more than 154 questions on the test. The additional questions are non scored questions and are presented for statistical validation in order to use them on future examinations. The test is referenced from the NSC. Several lessons are not covered in EMT-I courses in Utah. Additionally the EMT-I objectives on our website that are listed in red are not covered in courses or on the test. You are also expected to know the following medications that are required to be carried on EMT-I ambulances in Utah. · · · · · · · · Activated Charcoal Nitroglycerine (tablets and spray) Atropine Sulfate Dextrose 50% Epinephrine 1:1,000 Epinephrine 1:10,000 Lidocaine Morphine Sulfate · · · · · · · · Albuterol Sulfate Naloxone HCL Lidocaine IV Drip Irrigation solution Aspirin Ringers Lactate Normal Saline Glucagon

The test is broken down by approximate percentages into the following six modules. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Preparatory 27% Airway 19% Patient Assessment 21% Trauma 11 % Medical 20% Special Considerations 2%

EMD

The EMD test has 25 scored multiple choice questions. Sometimes a student will have more than 25 questions on the test. These are non scored questions that are presented for statistical validation in order to use them on future examinations. The test is referenced from the NSC. The test is broken down by approximate percentages into the following six modules. Included is a brief summary of the lessons and their content. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. EMD's Roles and Responsibilities 12% Obtaining Information from Caller 16% Resource Allocation 8% Providing Emergency Care Instruction 8% Legal and Liability Issues in Emergency Medical Dispatch 12% Critical Incident Stress Management 8% Basic Emergency Medical Concepts 12% Design and Structure of EMDPRS 8% Chief Complaint Types 16%

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I failed... Now what?

I'm sorry if you are reading this section seeing how it's most likely because you failed the test. Hopefully you have had a day to cool off and to let your mind clear. If not it's probably a good idea to put this study guide down and try not to think about it for day or two. Once your mind is clear here are some things to help you pass on your next attempt.

Using my result letter

When you receive your results letter, analyze it to see how you could have done better. Learn from your mistakes and from what you did well. Apply this knowledge when you take the next test. Remember that the areas listed in the letter correspond with the chapters in your textbook. Below is an example of the result letter you will receive.

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February 15, 2009

JOHN DOE 111 SOUTH 183 WEST SALT LAKE CITY, UT 84103

The following are your recent EMS written test results: TEST: RESULTS: TEST DATE: EMT-BASIC Failed 02/15/2009

If you failed your test, you may schedule a retest by calling 801 273-6666 or 1-800-284-1131, option 1. Retesting must be completed no more than 120 days from the end of the course (for students) or prior to your recertification expiration date (for recertifications). A written retest will cost $20. The Bureau of EMS must receive the retest fee before you may sign up for a retest. All EMS applicants have three attempts to pass the test. If this was your second attempt, it is strongly recommended that you receive remediation from your course coordinator or training officer before your final test. If you have taken this test three times, you must complete a certification course to be eligible for further testing. Following is a list of reference materials that indicate areas you missed on your examination: [INJURIES TO THE HEAD AND SPINE, WELL BEING OF THE EMT-BASIC, BLEEDING AND SHOCK, CARDIOVASCULAR EMERGENCIES, AIRWAY, POISONING/OVERDOSE, BASELINE VITAL SIGNS AND SAMPLE HISTORY, DETAILED PHYSICAL EXAM, INFANTS AND CHILDREN, ALLERGIES] Please review the above references before retesting. THIS LETTER IS NOT PROOF OF CERTIFICATION. If you have met all requirements for certification or recertification, proof of certification will be mailed soon. If you have questions regarding this letter, please contact our office at 801 273-6666, option 1, or 1-800-284-1131. Thank you for your interest in the Utah EMS system.

These titles correspond to the lessons that you missed questions from. Review "What to study for the written exam" starting on page 18 to help guide you in using these references.

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Testing at a lower level

If you just don't feel you will be able to pass one of the higher level certification exams you can always test at a lower level. This is also true if you fail a test three times. For example if you failed the EMT-I test three times you could test as EMT-B. For the EMT-B and EMD courses if you fail the test three times you will have to retake the course.

How to find additional study guides and practice tests

There are a number of excellent review manuals, study guides, and practice test for all levels of EMS training. Many of the practice exam questions are presented in a multiple choice format, which is the same format as the BEMS written examination. Often, the correct answer, with rationale is contained within these manuals. Sometime just getting used to reading test questions can make taking the certification test easier. These guides may also provide you with additional resources to review and enhance your knowledge and skills. The publisher of your textbook will likely have many of these products. Simple internet searches can lead you to countless products for EMS exam preparation. Many public libraries also have these types of books.

For additional questions about the Utah EMS written exams: Travis Scoresby 801-273-6628 [email protected] Dennis Bang 801-273-6630 [email protected]

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References

Print sources [1] Mehrens, W.A. (1995). Legal and Professional Bases for Licensure Testing. In Impara, J.C. (Ed.) Licensure testing: Purposes, procedures, and practices, pp. 33-58. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute Electronic sources [2] Overcoming Procrastination. (14-Aug-2007 14:35:16 EDT) Retrieved February 14, 2008, from State University of New York at Buffalo Web site,, http://ub-counseling.buffalo.edu/stressprocrast.shtml [3] Preparing to Study: A Good Study Place. (n.d.) Retrieved Febuary 13, 2008, from http://www.how-tostudy.com/preparing-to-study.htm [4] Susan Ziegert (n.d.) Studying: Learning and remembering information. Retrieved Febuary 19, 2008, from University of Wisconsin ­ Waukesha Web site, http://www.waukesha.uwc.edu/sc/skills/st_learning.html [5] Test Anxiety. (n.d.) Retrieved February 15, 2008, from http://www.how-to-study.com/testanxiety.htm

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EMS Written Exam Study Guide

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