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Carmen

opéra comique in four acts by Georges Bizet (died 3 June 1875) Libretto by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy after Prosper Mérim ée's novel First perform ed Paris: Opéra-Com ique, 3 March 1875 (48 perfs.) Revived Vienna: Hofoper, 23 October 1875

Carm en, a gypsy Don José, a corporal Escam illo, a bullfighter Micaëla, a country girl Zuniga, a lieutenant Moralès, a corporal Frasquita, a gypsy Mercédès, a gypsy Le Dancaïre, a smuggler Le Rem endado, a smuggler

m ezzo-soprano tenor bass-baritone soprano bass baritone soprano soprano tenor tenor

Lillas Pastia (an innkeepr), Andrès (a lieutenant), the Alcalde (m ayor), others. Escam illo's supporters, gypsies, m erchants and orange-sellers, police, bullfighters, people, urchins. The opera is set in Seville, around 1830.

Sources

A. Autograph score. Four volum es, approx. 1000 pages. Paris: Bibliothèque du Conservatoire (now BnF: Musique) B. Conductor's m anuscript full score used for Opéra-Comique production, 1875 (and later) C. Manuscript orchestra parts used for Opéra-Com ique production D. M anuscript score copied for Vienna, summ er 1875 (after Bizet's death)

*E. First published piano-vocal score, proofread and revised by Bizet before his death. Paris: Choudens, 1875. F. First published libretto (for the OpéraComique production) Paris: Michel Lévy frères, 1875. G. Rehearsal diaires of Opéra-Com ique, winter 1874­75.

1

Prelude ACT I A public square in Seville Sur la place Chorus, M icaëla, M orales Avec la garde montante Chorus La cloche a sonné -- Dans l'air nous suivons des yeux Chorus L'amour est un oiseau rebelle Carmen, Chorus Carmen! Sur tes pas Chorus Parle-moi de ma mère, etc. Don José, M icaëla Que se passe-t-il? -- Au secours! Chorus M on officier, c'était une querelle Don José, Zuniga, Carmen, Chorus -- Tra la la la la la Près des remparts de Séville Carmen, Don José Voice l'ordre: partez

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Scene and Chorus Chorus of Street Boys Chorus of Cigarette Girls Habanera Scene Duet Chorus Song and M elodrama Seguidilla and Duet Finale Entr'acte ACT II

Lilas Pastia's tavern Les tringles des sistres tintaient Vivat! Vivat le Toréro! Votre toast -- Toréador, en garde Nous avons en tête une affaire Carmen, Frasquita, M ercédès Chorus Escamillo, Chours Carmen, Frasquita, M ercédès El Dancaïro, El Remendado Don José Carmen, Don José

12 13 14 15 16 17

Gypsy Song Chorus Toreador Song Quintet Song (Canzonetta) Duet

18

Finale

Halte-là! Qui va là? Je vais danser en votre honneur -- La fleur que tu m'avais jetée -- Là-bas dans la montagne Holà! Carmen! Holà! -- Bell officier -- Suis-nous à travers la campagne

Entr'acte ACT III 19 20 21 22 23 24 Sextet and Chorus Trio Ensemble Air Duet Finale Entr'acte ACT IV 25 26 27 Chorus M arch and Chorus Duet and final Chorus Outside the bullring in Seville A deux cuartos! Les voici! -- C'est l'Espada -- Si tu m'aimes C'est toi! C'est moi! A rocky place near Seville at night Écoute, écoute, compagnon -- Notre métier M êlons! Coupons! Carmen, Frasquita, M ercédès Quant au douanier, Carmen, Frasquita, M ercédès, Chorus c'est notre affaire C'est des contrebandiers M icaëla -- Je dis que rien ne m'épouvante Je suis Escamillo Escamillo, Don José Holà! Holà! José!

Carmen, Don José

References SCORES 1876 / Choudens Paris: Choudens, c. 1876. 2003 / Eulenburg Ed. Robert Didion ("New Urtext Edition") (London: Eulenburg; M ainz: Schott, 2003). forthcoming / Peters Ed. Richard Langham Smith ("New Urtext Edition") (London: Peters Edition Ltd., forthcoming); already released as CD: Chandos, 2003 (Bardon / Gavin / New Philharmonia / Parry, sung in English).

1930 / Peters Ed. Kurt Soldan (Leipzig: C. F. Peters, c. 1930). Rpt. Dover, 1989 (ISBN 0-48625820-3). Text essentially identical to Choudens. 1964 /Alkor - Bärenreiter Ed. Fritz Oeser ("Kritische Neuausgabe nach den Quellen") (Kassel: Alkor / Bärenreiter, 1964).

ARTICLES cited Dean, W inton, "The True Carmen?" Musical Times 106 (1965), 844­55, and rpt. widely. Baker, Evan, "The Scene Designs for the First Performances of Bizet's Carmen," 19 th-Century Music 13 (1990), 230­42. M cClary, Susan, Georges Bizet: Carmen. A Cambridge Opera Handbook. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1992. W right, Lesley A., "A New Source for Carmen" [i.e., the censors' libretto], 19th-Century M usic 2 (1978), 61­71. W right, Lesley A. "Introduction" to Carmen: A Performance Guide, ed. M ary Dibbern (Pendragon Press, 2000).

RECORDINGS cited 1964 EM I Callas / Gedda / Paris Opéra / Prêtre. CD 1997 1970 EM I Bumbry / Vickers / Paris Opéra / Frühbeck de Burgos. CD 1990 1973 DGG Horne / M cCracken / M etropolitan Opera / Bernstein. CD 2002 1989 Philips Norman / Shicoff / Orch. National ORTF / Ozawa. CD 1989

AUDIO CLIPS played (all Ozawa, unless noted) 1 Berlioz: Roméo et Juliette,

beginning of movt. II ("Romeo alone"). BSO / Munch 2 Wagner: Tristan prelude. BSO / Munch 3 Carmen prelude: fate motive 8 Break between the strophes of the gamins: (no. 3) with recitative (Prêtre) 9 The same, with spoken dialogue (Frühbeck de Burgos) 10 The same, with melodrama 5 Recitative no. 6bis (Don José and the flower) (Prêtre) 6 Recit. No. 3bis (Prêtre) 11 Men's episode in chorus of cigarette girls (no. 4) 12 Melodrama in quarreling chorus, no. 8 (Bernstein) 13 Standard beginning of no. 13 (Vivat!) (Frühbeck de Burgos) 14 The same, with melodrama 15 Toreador song

7 Connection between nos. 3 and 4, dialogue only (Frühbeck de Burgos)

4 Carmen excerpts: 2 ("Sur la place"), 4 (cigarette girls), 5 (Habanera), 10 (Seguidilla), 12 (Gypsy Song), 14 (Toreador Song), 20 (card-telling), 21 (Carmen's declaration; her death)

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