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Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG Corporate Communications Kurfuersten-Anlage 52­60 69115 Heidelberg Germany

Publishing Information Printed in: 11 /04 Photographs: Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG Platemaking: CtP Printing: Speedmaster Finishing: Stahlfolder, Stitchmaster Fonts: Heidelberg Gothic, Heidelberg Antiqua Printed in Germany Trademarks Heidelberg, the Heidelberg logo, Speedmaster, CP2000 Center, Prinect and Linotype are registered trademarks of Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG in the U.S. and other countries. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners. Subject to technical modifications and other changes.

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Innovations ­ Markets ­ Technology

Innovations ­ Markets ­ Technology: A backgrounder in drupa year 2004

100 years of offset printing 3


4 A world without printing

6 Printing before 1904

14 Printing after 1904

22 Printing today

34 Printing in the future

42 Key printing terms

46 Addresses/Links

4 100 Jahre Offsetdruck Chapter




A world without printing 100 years of offset printing 5


The day starts well ­ not only with the newspaper The orange juice bottle's label, the coffee packet, the railway ticket, the timetable, the information leaflet for medicines, the paper money that we use to pay for our magazine ­ these are all printed. In the office there are forms, manuals, encyclopedias, invoices, mail-order catalogs, letters, stamps, business reports, advertising brochures, wall calendars and so on. When shopping, the packaging explains what's inside ­ cornflakes or catfood? The packaging makes the brand, and 85 percent of women recognize their perfume not by its scent, but by the packaging. In restaurants, our appetite is whetted by the menu. What kind of wine is that? Look at the label ! And in the evening at home, do you prefer to read books on the PC or in printed form? What would TV be like without a TV magazine? Print is an essential part of a society focusing intensively on communication. Print is one of several communication media. Depending on the purpose of communication and the conditions, it competes with, or is complemented by, electronic media like the Internet and intranets, television, radio, video and CD-ROM. Why are print products so important in our lives? The advantages are clear ­ everybody can afford print. Printed articles have high quality and are good value for money. Printed publications are easy to use. They work without power and are a secure storage medium. You don't need to boot up an electronic program. They can take the odd hard knock. They are usually easy to replace. You can take them with you everywhere. And when you are finished with them, they can be returned to the material cycle as used paper and reincarnated as, for example, a newspaper. Print liberates. You can use printed products when, where, how and for as long as you want. The medium follows the reader, not the other way around. You yourself decide how long you read, how fast and when to take breaks, in contrast to television or radio. Print is communication as a constant offering, a still source of information. A supermarket shopper is a reader who decides which products he or she wants to receive more information about. Print provides navigation in the ocean of information provided by radio, television and the Internet. Printing is powerful communication. Print has a more intensive impact than a fleeting image or word. The printed word is multi-faceted. You can enjoy it with several senses. Print has an effect. You can see print and grasp it in your hands. You can even smell it ­ with the help of scented coatings. Printing is the art of transforming paper into feelings.

We come across print products everywhere in everyday life.

Print Media ­ the Winners in the Modern Media Mix

Media Industry (686,000 m = 100%)

Print Internet TV Radio

Radio: 37,000 m

Print: 451,000 m ~66 %

Electronic media stimulates printing, giving it more tasks, because printing brings added value to "new communications".

TV: 154,000 m

Source: Heidelberg 2003

Internet: 44,000 m


Printing before 1904 100 years of offset printing 7


Early multimedia society Humankind's media techniques are over 30,000 years old. Cave paintings and cliff engravings, mythic-religious one-offs from the Stone Age, are early evidence of Man's interaction with others and with the environment. When people can communicate, they can make themselves understood to others and can in this way function more successfully. On the way to organized society, some messages become codified in a common language ­ signs chiseled in stone or written with ink on various materials, as picture, syllable, cuneiform or letter writing. The medium enables the content to be used for news, laws and historical chronicles in a lasting, complete way. One message goes to a thousand recipients Printing has existed for more than 2,000 years. The oldest technique involves impressing with inked stamps. In about 1050 the Chinese alchemist Pi Sheng invents a system of movable letters using baked clay type. The principle of elevated letters is still used today in letterpress and flexographic printing. The very first printing stock is simply wooden panels and flat stones, and, later, rolls of silk are also used. Papyrus is a forerunner of paper ­ strips harvested from the insides of the papyrus plant are laid side by side, pressed and smoothened. Paper ­ the democratic mass medium Paper made from vegetable fibers, rags, hemp or rice straw probably existed in China at around 200 BC. Cai Lun is generally credited with the invention of paper. In around 105 BC he is the first to document the manufacturing process, suggesting renewable resources such as mulberry bark, bamboo and China grass as raw materials alongside textiles and hemp ropes or fishing nets. At the start of the 7th Century this knowledge is carried to Arabia by a Buddhist priest, and from there moves to Southern Spain. Paper production in Europe began in the 12th Century. Germany's first paper mill with handcrafted manufacturing started in Nuremberg in 1390. The paper sheets were produced in piecework. The basis for a mass communication medium is created. Industrial paper machines are introduced at the beginning of the 19th Century. The raw material for paper up to the present time mainly consists of wood-based cellulose. That also applies to "wood-free" paper. Older wood-based papers contain the fibrous cement lignin, which slowly dissolves old books and parchments. Today there are two main types of paper ­ uncoated paper and coated paper. Uncoated paper has a relatively rough surface, like for example copy paper. Coated papers, e.g. for glossy advertising brochures, have a variety of coatings. They consist of an uncoated paper core to which a chalk or kaolin layer is applied and have a smooth surface which is usually white.

Alchemist Pi Sheng

Ulman Stromer operated the first German paper mill in Nuremberg, which was an important development for the success and spread of printing.

8 100 years of offset printing Printing before 1904

Letterpress printing ­ The lead of printers changes the world more than the lead of cannons There are very few options for printing available prior to Johannes Gutenberg's invention and most documents are transcribed. In Strasbourg and Mainz around 1460, the goldsmith devises a manual casting instrument to manufacture single letters. The genial thing is that the letters can be reproduced as often as needed. The typesetter composes lines of text by placing letters in the letter case. The rows are clamped into a frame. This is how a printing form is produced. Now ink, cover with a paper sheet, place into the converted wine press and print. The print sheet is ready. Once, twice or a thousand times ­ no problem with handcrafted relief printing. The Bible becomes the first printed book with a 42-line page format.

A manual casting instrument probably from the 17th century with a stamp, three matrices, a rough type and a number of print-ready types.

Johannes Gutenberg (1400­1468) is regarded as the European inventor of printing with movable letters. During the Middle Ages, monks take years to transcribe books by hand. Gutenberg's letterpress printing paves the way for the speedier dissemination of books and other publications.

The invention of letterpress printing has a positively revolutionary influence on the development of Western culture. The monopoly over education and information held by a small, elite section of society is destroyed. Letterpress printing helps large sections of the population to become better educated. Even before 1500, there are more than 100 printshops in the important cultural centers of Europe. Alongside religious texts, the first pamphlets and appeals are soon being printed, and in 1502 the first leaflet sporting the term "newspaper" appears. There is a tremendous increase in the need for paper. More than 25 paper mills spring up in the "Old World". The first newspapers Neither the procedure nor the printing presses are patented. In the course of a few decades printshops are established that also print "commercial" printed goods alongside books. In 1605 the first periodical appears in Strasbourg. The oldest preserved examples are the "Relation" from Strasbourg and the "Aviso" from Wolfenbüttel, both from 1609. The world's first daily newspaper, called the "Einkommende Zeitungen" was first published on July 1, 1650 in Leipzig by Timotheus Ritzsch.

Printing before 1904 100 years of offset printing 9

With his invention of lithography and planographic printing, Alois Senefelder (1771-1834), a native of Prague, helps pave the way for the development of modern offset printing.

Lithography ­ forerunner of offset printing In 1798 stage artist and actor Alois Senefelder, looking for a cost-effective way to duplicate music sheets and dramas, discovers lithography. He prints using a flat stone ­ Solnhofen limestone. Senefelder writes in mirror image with a grease-based crayon on a limestone plate. The areas on the plate where the writing appears attract the ink during the inking-up process, while all other areas moistened with water repel the ink. This planographic printing process paves the way for modern offset printing. However, drawing, transferring and printing with the limestone is an intensive manual process. Therefore it is mainly used to produce music, maps, graphics and illustrations. More than a hundred years pass, during which letterpress remains the only cost-effective printing method undergoing continuous development. Stone printing remains the reserve of artists. Gravure technology in the form of wood, copper and steel engravings is used to reproduce graphics.

Machine presses ­ the age of industrialization In 1803 the letterpress printer Friedrich Koenig in Suhl builds a mechanical, partly automated Gutenberg press completely from wood. The experiment fails. He has more success in England, the leading nation in steel production and industrialization. There metal can be processed with the degree of accuracy required for the complex inner workings of a printing press. Print's machine age begins. In 1810 Koenig is awarded the patent. The first press begins operating in 1811, impressing the publisher of The Times so much that he immediately orders two presses. Rolling the paper into the printing form using a cylinder, it works ten times faster than traditional manual presses. In England Koenig meets precision engineer Andreas Bauer. They begin to collaborate. Following a scandal with his financier, Koenig returns to Germany. At Kloster Obernzell near Würzburg he and his partner found the company "Koenig & Bauer".

Hand presses by Alois Senefelder at the end of the 18th century. a) pole press

b) cylinder press

10 100 years of offset printing Printing before 1904

James Young from England and Belgian Adrien Delcambre were awarded a patent for the "pianotype", developed in conjunction with Henry Bessemer. It was the first functional typesetting machine with impositioning and deposition devices. The downside was that between four and six people were required to operate it.

The dream of an iron typesetting colleague goes wrong The first ideas for a typesetting machine for letterpress begin to surface around 1807. However, the soft letters become worn out through use and block the channels where the type is positioned to form lines. Pellegrino Turri di Castelnuovo invents the typewriter in 1808, and the first working typesetting machine in 1840. The "pianotype" of Englishman James Young and Belgian Andrien Delcambre uses the concept of an automated spinning machine.

The world is put in the picture The birth of photography and chemigraphy ­ Nicéphore Niépce and Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, inventor of the silver iodide method, work together to improve their developments. In 1833 the method is published as "daguerreography". Photography's breakthrough comes in the mid-19th Century. The Austrian Carl Angerer learns how to make "zincotypes" (printing blocks) from the Frenchman Firmin Gillot. In 1870 in Vienna, he succeeds with a procedure for halftone printing blocks. He becomes involved in a bitter patent dispute with the copper engraver Georg Miesenbach, who succeeded in producing the first patented linear screen in 1882. Halftone technology splits photos up into individual image dots, allowing reproduction true to the original.

Printing before 1904 100 years of offset printing 11

Printing ­ a German forte The largest three players in the world, Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG, MAN Roland and Koenig & Bauer (KBA) are all headquartered in Germany. Their roots go back to the time they were founded. Many early pioneers are friends, acquaintances or relatives. For example, bell founder Andreas Hamm starts a machine factory in Frankenthal in 1850, the nucleus of today's Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG. In 1861 Andreas Albert and Andreas Hamm found the Schnellpressenfabrik Albert & Hamm from which Albert-Frankenthal AG later derives.

Lithography (planographic printing) is also performed by machines In the mid-19th Century the first lithographic presses are introduced in France. Two Swabians, Louis Faber and Adolf Schleicher, working at the lithographic press manufacturer Alexander Dupuy in Paris, are forced to return to Germany because of the Franco-Prussian war and build their own workshop for producing lithographic presses in Offenbach am Main ­ the sheetfed offset portion of today's MAN Roland AG. In 1873 the Augsburg-Nürnberger Druckmaschinenfabrik (today MAN Roland) manufactures the first German rotary press. In 1898 Joseph Hauss and Alfred Sparbert found the Dresdner Schnellpressenfabrik, later Planeta (after the "PlanetenAntrieb [Planetary drive]" conceived in 1910), today a part of KBA. The general breakthrough by electrical drives comes in 1866 with Werner von Siemens' invention of the dynamo.

Carl Michael Nägele born in 1957, studied business management and began his career in the Sales department of Xerox and as PA to the Chairman of the Managing Board. In 1987, he joined Georg Kohl in Brackenheim. After management roles in Marketing, Sales and Technology, he became Chief Executive in 1991 and Managing Partner in 1998.

Georg Kohl ­ from printer to information service provider Georg Kohl was founded in 1886 as the print works of the regional newspaper "Zaberbote" in Brackenheim. When the newspaper was banned under the National Socialists, the company began producing business stationery, particularly forms sets for bookkeeping. In 1959, it moved into offset printing and in 1960 developed its own plotter for creating tables. It has been using Heidelberg® presses for sheetfed offset printing since 1962. In the years that followed, it expanded its continuous printing sector to broaden its range of services. In the early 1990s, the

"electronic printing" side of the business was expanded to form an integrated computer center for processing confidential data, including data import and jobs dispatched by mail. Digital "Print on Demand" for short runs of documents was added in the mid-1990s. In 2002, the company went a step further, moving into personalized documents with inkjet technology for long runs. Recently, the service portfolio for e-business and Internet solutions added more services such as "Electronic bill presentment". Today, the Group has annual sales of around Euro 60 million and 550 employees.

12 100 years of offset printing Printing before 1904

Print ­ an important medium, but one of many Carl Michael Nägele, Managing Partner of Georg Kohl, on the further development of printshops and the future of offset printing Mr. Nägele, what was the reason for the (early) change from letterpress to offset ? At that time, Georg Kohl was printing a lot of account forms and journals. Hot metal composition with all its lines was very laborious for letterpress printing. Then we started using our in-house plotter to add the lines to the paper and photograph them. That was much more precise. The text was produced using hot metal composition, as before, then put into the proofing press, photographed and assembled between the lines. The whole process was still faster than setting lines using hot metal composition. And there was another problem. The storage space for letterpress standing matter was running out. We kept tons of lead that needed a vast storage area. With films and printing plates, all that became a lot easier. What form did the first stages in the new technology take? During the changeover time, the letterpress and offset systems worked in parallel, until everything went over to offset. The letterpress printers were skeptical at first, but saw that the print results were better and more precise. We still have a Heidelberg Cylinder among our machinery that we use for particular perforations, though we don't use it for printing any more.

After several trials, the "Simplex" becomes the final form of the Linotype.

Linotype® ­ the automated Gutenberg In a revolutionary development in letterpress typesetting, in 1886 in the USA Ottmar Mergenthaler from Hachtel in Württemberg introduces his Linotype "a line of type" typesetting machine, the product of eight years of inventive endeavor. The time is ready for machine typesetting. A kind of typewriter keyboard is used to push matrices from the store box into a line. Casts are then taken using a metal alloy of lead, tin and antimony (as in Gutenberg's time), which, when cooled, can be clamped into the printing frame. The productivity saving is such that with manual typesetting 1,200 types can be set per hour, while with machine typesetting up to 30,000 types can be set an hour. This technology is used for over 100 years. On May 11, 2004, Mergenthaler's 150th birthday will be celebrated at drupa.

Printing before 1904 100 years of offset printing 13

Georg Kohl moved into desktop publishing very early on. Why was that ? I came to Georg Kohl from Xerox where I had been working at a workstation. I was surprised to find how things were done in the prepress department of a printshop. Desktop publishing at that time was traditionally the role of the agencies. By using DTP, we were one of the first printshops to offer our customers this service. How important is offset printing to you today? Georg Kohl does a lot of customized and personalized printing. We produce print products ranging from business cards to highly finished logistics forms. Without offset printing, we simply wouldn't be able to do this. Ultimately, the business stationery all passes through the continuous rotary presses and sheetfed offset presses. Georg Kohl sees itself as a system provider for the information processing sector. We receive data from all over the world and process it for our customers. For instance, we print telephone bills. We prepare the personalized bills in accordance with the data and personalize it on preprinted roll paper using digital presses. The inserts are printed on the Speedmaster®, then automatically collated, enveloped and sent out. Do you still see yourself as a printing company? One day we might be producing printed matter ­ that's our industrial basis ­ but the next it might be a CD-ROM, a product for the Internet or a fax. What we do is information logistics ­ we optimize contents under

certain criteria, for example by generating invoices from customer data. We'll have to wait and see whether our children receive their phone bills on paper or by e-mail in 10 years. Our generation tends to prefer things on paper. After reading 50 e-mails during the day, I don't really want to go home at night and look at my phone bill on the PC. But we are seeing a trend towards electronic media. Will digital printing take over from offset ? As long as digital printing remains expensive, it won't replace offset. Digital printing, particularly color printing, is only profitable for short runs using highly personalized data. At the moment, it's better and much more cost-effective to print first using the offset method then add the personalized data in one or two colors. In the medium term, digital printing will grow at a faster rate, but from a lower basis. What do you think of offset inkjet hybrid presses? Our philosophy is to keep the two things separate. Offset printing is much faster than digital printing. The two don't mix. And when one part of the press has to wait for another part, you lose time. When setting up an offset press, you can't do any personalization and vice versa. What role does the automated workflow play for you? How much productivity does it still provide? The optimization of the process chain is particularly effective between the prepress and the press stages. The total networking of all the machines and

devices in the postpress stage is more complex. You have to test how the complexity of the programming relates to the benefits it provides. Our business management is fully integrated and we are working on a web solution that combines commercial and production data, provided standards are available. There are still reserves to be tapped in this area, particularly when smaller jobs can be automatically posted in the commercial processes. What factors do you think a printshop needs to be aware of to ensure its continued existence over the next 10 years? Printshops that just print, i.e. those that don't offer any prepress, postpress or other services, will find it hard. Small companies can of course survive if family members are willing to invest their time. But every company needs to find its own niche where it can offer added value that benefits the customer. We are surrounded by markets offering standardized services at lower prices. That's why we have to keep thinking up new ideas. Where will Georg Kohl be 10 years from now? In 10 years, Georg Kohl will be a service provider that processes and conveys information in line with customer requirements. We are confident about our future in Germany and are investing in new technologies e.g. CtP from Heidelberg, highperformance digital printing systems and e-business solutions.

The principle behind offset printing ­ the indirect printing process

Inking unit

Plate cylinder

Ink-accepting area (oleophilic) Ink-repellant Inking up (hydrophilic) area

Dampening unit

Blanket cylinder

Residual ink layer

Dampening Impression cylinder with substrate (sheet or web) Printing plate


Printing after 1904 100 years of offset printing 15


The manual preparation of the flat stone plate required by lithography means it is not suited to industrial printing form production. Not until the development of the photochemical procedure is the way paved for offset printing. At first the flat, flexible plates clamped to the cylinders are made of zinc. In the USA plates made from the "new" metal aluminum are already being used around 1900. The template for printing plate manufacture is a film, for example with a text, that is typed onto pure white paper and photographed. Images and proofs are already being produced in these early days! The developed film is laid onto the pre-coated plate, this is exposed and developed. The areas with the text remain on the plate and take the ink. The quality of printing results is not convincing at first, mainly because the plate transfers the ink directly to what is usually rough paper. Uniform and distinct ­ Indirect lithographic printing with blanket cylinders (offset printing) In 1904, two pioneers make the same discovery at the same time. After the press misses a sheet, the American Ira Washington Rubel prints a sheet on the reverse and front by mistake. The print image of the wrong sheet is reproduced on the blanket of the impression cylinder and makes it from there onto the paper. This indirect procedure produces a distinctly better quality print. The elastic rubber surface transfers the ink more evenly to the surface of the paper. In addition, lower quality papers can be printed on. The first offset printing presses Rubel, who is soon using the term "offset" to describe the presses, joins with the Chicago lithographer Alex Sherwood to form the "Sherwood Syndicate". They manufacture their sheetfed offset presses at the Potter Printing Press Company in Plainfield, New Jersey. After a year the syndicate goes bankrupt, and Rubel looks for new financiers in England. The head designer of George Mann & Co. in London happens to see a sheet printed by Rubel, understands the principle and recommends the Rubel press. Thus George Mann becomes the first offset press factory in Europe.

The first sheetfed offset press from Ira Washington Rubel ...

... and the first sheetfed offset press from Caspar Hermann.

16 100 years of offset printing Printing after 1904

Caspar Hermann, a German living in Baltimore, USA, comes up with offset printing after much deliberation and determined experimentation in his small printshop. As early as 1903 he tries to patent his indirect lithography procedure with a suggested 6-color press, but the application is rejected due to the patent that already exists for tinplate printing. Tins, signs and toys are already printed indirectly using a blanket, although this is done in letterpress printing. In December 1904 Hermann writes to the Harris Automatic Press Company in Niles, Ohio. He wants to convert their letterpress sheetfed rotary presses into sheetfed offset presses. In 1905 a contract is agreed whereby Hermann makes all his knowledge about offset printing available to the Harris company and contributes his expertise in converting the first machines.

The world's first rotary offset press Caspar Hermann has new ideas for multicolor printing and for rotary offset machines which he sees no possibility of implementing in the USA. In May 1907 he returns to Germany. In the same year he is awarded a German patent for a rotary offset press. He tries to find partners through newspaper advertisements. Similar to the case of Friedrich Koenig, who 100 years earlier traveled Europe without finding a sponsor, the industry does not recognize this invention's potential. Ernst Hermann, owner of the Felix Böttcher company in Leipzig, is the only one interested. He has the prototype built at the Vogtländische Maschinenfabrik VOMAG. In 1912 the world's first rotary offset press prints the "Universal" at Böttcher ­ the web width is approx. 70 cm, the speed 8,000 sheets per hour. And if two blanket cylinders print on the front and reverse sides of the paper at the same time, perfecting can be performed in one printing pass. The offset procedure becomes accepted and in 1910 Faber & Schleicher AG in Offenbach begin building sheetfed offset presses named "Roland". Web offset ­ ready for inline production lines In the USA's vast conurbations, everything is one size bigger than in Europe. Circulations shoot into the millions, requiring much faster printing. The American John F. Webendorfer, who has already been constructing web offset presses in Mt. Vernon, New York in the 1920s and 1930s, gets his breakthrough in the 1940s. Photographic, photocomposition and photomechanical printing plate technology make great strides forward. While in Europe magazines are mass-produced using gravure, these large circulations are produced in the USA using letterpresses. Together with the American Type Founders (ATF) type foundry, Webendorfer develops print units, feeder units, chill rollers and folders. He builds paper path dryers with Ben Offen and Otepka. The production line is now complete. In Germany, VOMAG, the main producer, MAN in Augsburg and Albert Frankenthal are all producing web offset presses by 1940. The main problems initially are a lack of tools, ink, paper and chemicals.

Caspar Hermann and the "Triumph" in 1907 in Leipzig.

Printing after 1904 100 years of offset printing 17

Expertise behind the Iron Curtain After the Second World War the center of German web offset expertise is initially located in the GDR. VOMAG is from now on called Plamag. Many former VOMAG technicians emigrate to West Germany. In the USA web offset printing increases at a tremendous rate. Advertising wants better print quality. Making forms for four-color contone images is too expensive and time-consuming in letterpress printing. When interest in web offset reawakens in Europe at the start of the 1960s, 288 presses are already running in 133 printshops in the USA. drupa 1962 becomes a milestone for the renaissance of web offset printing in Europe. MAN, Albert Frankenthal, Faber & Schleicher/Roland, GMA and Wifag exhibit new presses. At the end of the 1960s, Koebau also unveils web offset presses. At the start of the 1970s increasingly customized newspaper offset presses replace the letterpress operations used up till that point. Offset overtakes letterpress In the 1960s letterpress rapidly loses ground. Offset presses take a little longer to ink up, but are 50 percent faster in production. At the end of the 1960s multicolor printing becomes more popular. Advertising and packaging printing increase. There are advances in chemistry, inks are improved and the ink/water balance can more easily be set. The Heidelberg Alcolor dampening system becomes up to 1980 established. Colors become more brilliant. Faster, more cost-effective printing forms In particular, making printing forms is more cost-effective in offset (lithographic printing) than in hot metal composition (letterpress). With photo composition and a compact camera, offset also comes to small and midsize printshops. The economic advantages in the prepress to the first O.K. sheet are more and more decisive. It is also possible to build sheetfed offset presses in larger formats. In contrast to the unwieldy hot metal compositions and the need to push around trolleys with heavy printing forms, offset works with consistently rotating cylinders and a thin metal plate.

German economics minister Ludwig Erhard opens the 1951 drupa in Düsseldorf. The Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG's platen attracts his attention.

The "Heidelberger Nachrichten" reports on drupa 1958. The main focus of the fair is on photo composition. Interest also centers on Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG's new production facility. Just one year previously, the company had established the world's largest printing machinery factory in Wiesloch.

Prepress ­ light and electronics The first deliberations about producing characters by photography and etching can be traced back to 1898. However, the first promising beginnings of photocomposition and photosetting are not seen until after the Second World War. The first photocomposition machines are adapted metal composing machines. Light arrives at film through photomatrices ­ a sort of slide projection in letter form. Photographs are broken down into small screen dots indiscernible to the human eye. Text and images are assembled onto film, placed onto the printing plate and exposed. In multicolor printing, one plate per color is used.

18 100 years of offset printing Printing after 1904

Dr. Rudolf Hell removing an engraved printing block.

Letters without substance In 1954 the final step is made towards electronically reproducing photos and characters. For the first time in the 540-year history of printing the three-dimensional character from the letter case has become a non-physical symbol. Rudolf Hell's Klischograph electronically scans the original, deconstructs it into image dots and engraves it in metal or plastic films. At drupa in 1954, Federal President Theodor Heuss can see his photograph in printed form around 30 minutes after it was taken. In the 1960s electronic data storage arrives. Ever more sophisticated scanning technologies help offset printing make the breakthrough and reduce letterpress' market share. In the 1970s laser output techniques are introduced with the Raster Image Processor (RIP), which converts digital information for exposure into image dots.

The painful but happy rebirth For decades, letterpress and offset printing coexist in the market. While manufacturers like MAN, Roland and Koebau are at home in the sheetfed and web offset business, on the Neckar at Heidelberg offset is discussed with a skepticism bordering on dismissal. In the stronghold of letterpress, up until 1962 more than 130,000 letterpresses are manufactured, intensively marketed and sold through the global sales network. However, the time is ripe for the letterpress devotees to make the leap into easier, more cost-effective and faster offset printing. The rebirth is not without labor pains. A technical innovation comes to Heidelberg's assistance in this ­ the introduction of the four-color Euroscale (Cyan ­ Magenta ­ Yellow ­ Black), from which all the colors of the printed image can be composed. This standardization is new technology for all the competitors, and somewhat levels the playing field. In 1962 Heidelberg successfully enters the offset printing market with the KOR in 40 ×57 cm format ­ a letterpress converted to offset. This is followed in 1965 by the larger Rotaspeed in open unit design available as a one-, two- and four-color press.

First offset printing press from Schnellpressenfabrik Heidelberg KOR for 40 × 57 cm format.

Printing after 1904 100 years of offset printing 19

Dr.-Ing. Wilfried Schäfer, born 1958, followed his course of study in mechanical engineering at the Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule in Aachen by taking a scientific post in the Machine Tool Engineering Department of the Laboratory for Machine Tool Engineering and Business Management at the same institute. He was later appointed Group Manager. From 1992, he occupied various posts, including Head of Research and Technology at the Verein Deutscher Werkzeugmaschinenfabriken (VDW, Association of German Machine Tools Manufacturers) and Chief Executive of the Forschungsvereinigung Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigungstechnik (FWF, Research Association for Machine Tools and Production Technology). Since September 2001, he has been Chief Executive of the Fachverband Druck- und Papiertechnik des Verbands Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau (VDMA, Association of Printing and Paper Technology, part of the German Federation of the Engineering Industries) in Frankfurt and Chief Executive of Printpromotion GmbH.

Workflow delivers a competitive edge Dr. Wilfried Schäfer, Chief Executive of the Association of Printing and Paper Technology in the VDMA, speaks about the major issues at drupa 2004 Dr. Schäfer, what does drupa 2004 have to offer visitors? drupa is the leading tradeshow for the industry, since it covers every facet of the process from data processing to the actual printing and finishing operations. Consequently, it not only includes ink and paper manufacturers, but also the complete supply industry. drupa provides a complete overview of the very latest technical developments and offers visitors fully integrated solutions for manufacturing all types of print product. With around 400,000 visitors, this tradeshow is the perfect information forum. It provides an excellent opportunity for analyzing and comparing technologies, software and hardware for future investments. drupa highlights new technical trends, but also new business models. What technologies will be highlighted at drupa? We will see proven technologies, but these will be combined with further rationalization and productivity solutions. The digital workflow, which controls integrated production of printed matter and paper products, will have a key role to play. The primary goal is to rationalize all aspects of job processing and to automate and network the individual production stages. This will deliver a sustained improvement in the cost effectiveness of processes within the company. Digital printing

systems and presses equipped with direct imaging will also shape the face of the tradeshow. Digital technology optimizes online dialog with users and enables personalized and decentralized printing. How far away are we from total networking in the printshop? Networking technology for the printshop is already available. Many printers have already put appropriate business models in place. PDF and JDF, as standardized data formats, provide an excellent basis for this development. In future, printshops will need to deal with these issues if they are to remain competitive. What innovations will visitors be able to see and touch? New technologies for inline enhancement of the printed sheets will be a major area of focus. These include coatings, laminations, 3-D effects such as holograms, pop-ups, embossing and punching. This whole area opens up new opportunities for printers, particularly those in the packaging market. Here, too, businesses must respond with flexibility when it comes to customer needs, have to be able to deliver higher quality and must produce cost-effectively. When producing paper products for the office, schools, the home and hygiene applications, the future lies in integrated production systems. How do you see the future of print media? Will printed matter give way to electronic media? Both printed and electronic media will have a future, even if they are competing with each other. In the past, print products have profited from new media, whether this be television or the Internet. Printing volumes have

20 100 years of offset printing Printing after 1904

Assembly of sheetfed offset presses in Wiesloch.

World champions in the rationalized mass production of presses Heidelberg is conservative when it comes to introducing new technology, but a perfectionist if a technology is already accepted by the market. And it is a specialist in highly rationalized mass production. The GTOTM in A3+ format, which begins rolling off the production line at the start of the 1970s, becomes the VW Beetle of the printing industry. The secret of its success lies in its open unit design ­ one printing unit per ink. Depending on what configuration the customer orders, the required number of identically constructed modules are assembled in series. 100,000 GTO printing units are delivered by 2002. This construction principle is used when the new Speedmaster generation of offset presses is introduced in the mid-1970s, now extending up to 70 × 102 format. Prepress, presses and finishing include more and more electronic components and feature increasing automation.

Certificate for the buyer of the 100,000th GTO printing unit.

Printing after 1904 100 years of offset printing 21

increased steadily. There's no doubt that changes in user behavior will also be reflected in the media market. The classified ads business for real estate or cars, for example, is just one of the areas that will be affected. On the other hand, print media have distinct advantages for branding and brand management. When it comes to packaging and labels, which account for 20 % of the printing volume worldwide, virtual solutions have no role to play. All in all, we are not expecting any significant changes in media usage. Offset printing will be 100 years old in this drupa year. Will this classic planographic technology

continue to make such a significant contribution to sales in future? As things currently stand, offset printing is ideally placed to provide printers with the best possible opportunities for quality and cost-effectiveness in the future. However, we are also seeing interesting developments in gravure and flexographic printing for special applications. Here, too, drupa 2004 provides the ideal platform for identifying developments and trends. What prospects and market opportunities does digital printing offer in the concert of print technologies available? Digital printing enables users to

personalize their print products and, consequently, meets the technical requirements needed for new areas of application and new print product concepts. However, the user also has to segment and characterize target groups in order to personalize the print products, which should consist of more than merely personalizing the form of address. New, additional markets are growing up in this sector. We do not expect any significant reduction in the market share of offset printing in the medium term. The cost structures are simply different.

First VDU terminals In 1970 the first editing systems are ready for the market. This is the final nail in the coffin for hot metal composition. One development follows hot on the heels of another ­ the first VDU terminal, the Harris 1100 with its own typesetting program, is designed for mainframe computers. In the years that follow, technological development concentrates more and more on microcomputers. In 1980, desktop publishing starts its victory march, establishing itself as the modern prepress. For the first time ever, computers are able to process the vast quantities of data which are generated. Text and images can both be processed digitally. With facsimile transfer, which goes back to Rudolf Hell, and publishing systems for constructing and digitally displaying entire printed pages, newspaper editorial offices can stay in the city center while printshops are located on the periphery.

Dramatic changes in prepress At first only four manufacturers enter the market offering the graphic industry repro systems with purpose-built scanners, image processing and imagesetters. With a suddenness unknown in previous periods of technological change, PCs and Macs are now suitable for repro work. The four monopolists and single stage repro operations have to bite into the "sour Apple". Digitization completely transforms prepress. At the end of the 1980s more powerful PCs and networks trigger a boom in office automation. Desktop publishing systems also reach the private user in his home office, ending the repro and printing companies' prepress monopoly.


Printing today 100 years of offset printing 23


Offset clearly in the lead In the graphic arts industry, offset printing (sheetfed and web) is clearly in the lead with a share of around 65 to 70 %. Gravure has a share of 10 to 12 %, while screen printing's share is less than 5 %, although it is otherwise quite widespread ­ mainly in the advertising sector with metal, plastic or wood as the printing stock, right through to PCB manufacture. Flexographic printing, a letterpress method with "soft" printing forms, is more common for mid-quality paper, board and foil packaging, and claims a share of around 15 percent and rising. The share of printed products created with digital systems without printing forms is around 7 to 8 % and also rising. Statistics for classical letterpress printing with metal printing forms are no longer recorded, since it is only practiced by very few companies for special manufacture of e.g. certificates, stamping or imprinting. Many printshops do still however use letterpresses for punching and scoring cards and folders. What is printed? More than 60 percent of printed articles can be attributed directly or indirectly to advertising. The distribution in the German printing market in 2003 was as follows: Advertising makes its mark Around two thirds of what the printing industry produces is for advertising purposes. According to figures from the Zentralverband der deutschen Werbewirtschaft (Central Confederation of German Advertisers) (ZAW), Euro 28.91 billion was spent on advertising in Germany in 2003 (Euro 29.69 billion in 2002). Thus, while advertising investment decreased by 2.6 percent compared to the previous year, the downturn of 5.7 percent posted by the industry in 2002 was halved. Since the beginning of 2004 the German advertising market has been making a cautious recovery. The ZAW is predicting growth of 1 to 2 percent in line with GDP for the current year. Advertising revenues for the majority of media were in the red for 2003, with overall income being 4.3 percent lower than in the previous year, though not as much as 2002's drop of 7.3 percent. Daily newspapers lead the rankings among advertising carriers. With Euro 4.5 billion of advertising income, they have had to bear a new downturn for the year of 9.8 percent (-12.5 percent in 2002). The second-placed advertising carrier, television, is showing signs of a turnaround. TV broadcasters' advertising income has dropped by 3.7 percent to Euro 3.8 billion, after a fall of 11.5 percent in 2002. Deutsche Post AG earns advertising income of Euro 3.3 billion from the distribution of direct-mail. The downturn of 1 percent corresponds with the downturn in direct-mail advertising (-4.3 percent). Popular magazines' advertising income of Euro 1.86 billion represents a drop of 3.8 percent, halving the downturn of the previous year (-7.5 percent). Outdoor advertising is barely able to stand its ground with Euro 709.9 million. Free advertisers are performing well (+2.6 percent to Euro 1.7 billion). Online offerings, achieving an increase of 8.4 percent after a 22 percent leap in 2002, are moving up the rankings, outstripping weekly and Sunday newspapers.

What is printed?

Printed products 2003 Publicity materials/ catalogs Magazines Newspapers, free advertisers Business stationary Other books/maps Printed labels Diaries/cards Other printed products Total Euro million 5,551 1,972 1,764 2,099 1,055 1,002 468 1,309 15,220 Share % % vs previous yr -5.6 -4.7 -7.9 -9.0 -4.2 +5.9 +2.4 -3.0 -5.0

36.5 12.9 11.6 13.8 6.9 6.6 3.1 8.6 100

Source: Bundesverband Druck 2003

24 100 years of offset printing Printing today

Printing industry overcomes the downturn The print industry overcame more than three years of economic downturn in the final half of 2003/2004. Business is improving, but remains unsatisfactory, reports the Bundesverband Druck (German Print Association). According to preliminary calculations from the Federal Statistics Office, production per working day in the first quarter of 2004 increased by 2.0 % compared to the end of the previous year. Capacity utilization has risen slightly from its lowest level in 20 years to 81.9 %. Job losses are continuing in the face of high cost pressure, but are slowing slightly. The number of people in employment dropped by 6.0 % in 2003. In view of the continuing unsatisfactory revenue situation, however, there is as yet no sign of a decisive turnaround in investments. Signs of a general economic upturn and an improved advertising climate are giving cause for cautious optimism among businessmen as to the further development of 2004. Capacity utilization will continue to grow slightly, while job losses are expected to diminish. For the first time since 2000 the print industry is again predicting slight growth in production and sales of 1 to 2 % compared with 2003. The printing industry ­ many small businesses, few large businesses Worldwide the printing industry is characterized by small and midsize businesses. Almost three quarters of printshops in Germany employ less than 10 staff. According to 2004 employee statistics from the German Federal Labor Institute, around 84 % of the 12,410 printshops that employed at least one employee who was liable for social contributions employed fewer than 20 staff. The picture is similar in other countries. In Asia as many as 95 % are small businesses. In Eastern Europe, on the other hand, the legacy of a centralized industrial policy in recent decades

is that 65 % of companies employ less than 20 staff and there are relatively more midsize and large printshops. There are around 240,000 printshops worldwide. Size structure of the German printing industry

Business size On average 1 to 9 employees 10 to 19 employees 20 to 49 employees 50 to 99 employees 100 to 499 employees 500 to 999 employees 1,000 and more employees Total amount Businesses




70.2 13.7 10.1 3.5 2.2 0.2 0.1 100.0 12,410

14.2 11.8 19.4 14.9 27.2 7.6 4.9 100.0 196,662

Source: Bundesverband Druck May 2004

According to sales tax statistics around 80 % of businesses liable to pay tax have sales below Euro 1 million. Only around 130 companies achieved more than Euro 25 million in annual sales, but they have a market share of 38 %. Immense innovative leaps The past 20 years have seen the printing industry making innovative leaps and productivity advances like nothing in the previous centuries. Around a third of German printshops still have a strong element of handicraft in their work. As a result of this, businesses are to be found on quite different technological levels. The automation and digital management of presses has occurred parallel to the digitization of prepress. In 1980 the value of a press is around 80 % mechanical and 20 percent electrical/electronic. Today mechanical parts account for around 45 % of the cost, followed by 35 % electrical/electronic/mechatronic and around 20 % software.

Printing today 100 years of offset printing 25

A quick tour of important technological developments made by Heidelberg in sheetfed offset 1975 and onwards Sheet reversing device Paper sheets are turned in the press during processing. The result is a sheet printed on the front and reverse side. 1975 and onwards Heidelberg CPC ink fountains Better fine adjustment of ink application from the rollers to the paper. 1980 Alcolor continuous dampening system Plush rollers in the printing unit are replaced. Quality assured ink/water balance. 1980 and onwards Presses with more than 4 printing units Firstly 6 printing units, and today up to 12 printing units are introduced on to the market. Higher productivity in one pass ­ One Pass Productivity. 1980 and onwards Instrumentation and control technology The printer is in full control of production from the central control point. Using color control bars on the paper, ink application can be measured using densitometers. The printing plate reader scans the printing plate, communicates how much ink is needed in which areas and sets the ink fountain or ink feed before the paper travel. Instead of, or in addition to, measuring ink density on the paper, which only allows indirect conclusions about whether ink is accurately applied, direct spectrographic measurement of the actual ink impression on the printed sheet is introduced. Measurement and setting of the printing register is automatically performed electronically. 1986 Coating unit The coating module is connected directly to the printing unit. The sheet is not only printed in a single pass, it also has a coating applied, which protects the printed product while enhancing it optically.

1990 and onwards Further automation Automatic plate feed, pile change, optical systems to improve quality and productivity of presses. 1992 and onwards Computer-to-press, Direct Imaging Sheetfed offset presses with automated plate making within the press. 1995 and onwards Prepress-Interface, Computer-to-Systeme Data from prepress used to preset the press. Computer-to-film and computer-to-plate technology speeds up prepress. 2000 Heidelberg ImageControl In addition to color measurement the entire print image is inspected for possible errors. 2001 Speedmaster CD 102 Duo This press unites two printing procedures, flexographic printing and offset printing, opening up new horizons for high-quality inline production 2002 Axis Control color measuring device Color measurement system that is completely integrated with the CP2000 Center® press control center. Guided setup for fast inking up and stable production from the outset boost productivity and cost-effectiveness. 2004 Prinect Complete integration of all printshop process steps in one integral workflow management. Prinect stands for print and connect. 2004 Speedmaster XL 105 Completely new series of printing presses for highly industrialized offset featuring a high level of automation, printing format of 74 ×105 cm and a production speed of 18,000 sheets per hour. 2004 Speedmaster CD 74-P with sheet reversing system Enables high-quality perfecting printing with short changeover times between paper and board and between straight and perfecting modes.

26 100 years of offset printing Printing today

Time saved, money saved Individually and together, these technical innovations have the same aim ­ to save money and time by shortening setup times, reducing ink consumption, reducing paper waste and controlling quality. If setting up a 4-color job in 1980 took one hour at the press, it only takes about 15 minutes today. Paper waste ­ the amount of paper up to the first O.K. sheet and the rejects produced by machine stops ­ has been reduced by a factor of 5. Open unit design also knows (almost) no limits. The keyword is One Pass Productivity ­ high productivity achieved by

perfecting and coating in one pass. The longest Heidelberg Speedmaster sheetfed offset press today has up to 15 modules ­ 6 colors, sheet reversing device, 6 colors, 3 coating units and drying. This means that the front and reverse side can be printed with the four basic colors and an additional two special colors in one pass. In addition whole areas or parts of each side of the sheet can be finished with different coatings. Alongside technical criteria, press design and ergonomics are increasingly important factors for success.

Sheetfed offset net output

Year 1965 1-color Sheets/hour Printed surface m2/day Printed surface multiplied by number of printing units Productivity/capability in % 3,500 19,600 1975 2-color 7,000 39,200 1985 4-color 10,000 56,000 1995 8-color 13,000 72,800 2000 10-color 12,000 67,200 2004 12-color 12,000 67,200

19,600 100

78,400 400

224,000 1,160

582,400 3,000

672,000 3,440

806,400 4.120

Source: Heidelberg 2004 Basic features: 70 × 100 cm format, production duration of 8 hours per day Note: Productivity has increased by 4,120 % since 1965.

"Computer-to" technology in the age of the information highway Computer technology drives printing techniques. Digital printing with powder toner and inks instead of offset printing inks is particularly popular for short print runs. Offset also takes advantages of the possibilities of digital technology and is more cost-effective for short print runs than ever imagined. This is achieved, for example, through digital prepress. With computer-to-plate, lasers directly image the printing plate, which then only has to be developed. Sometimes processless printing plates that do not need further processing are also used. Whole steps in the process, like developing and assembling film, disappear. In direct imaging technology (Heidelberg), laser diodes image the printing plate directly in the press. The press delivers the first O.K. sheet within ten minutes of the data being fed in. Newer techniques image a layer onto the printing cylinder directly in the press and can also reuse the printing form.

MAN Roland Like a convoy on the freeway Modern sheetfed presses can perform 15,000 revolutions per hour and more, but is this speed of production maintained through the entire process chain from prepress to finishing with folding, stitching, scoring, embossing, gluing and binding? And is it necessary in the face of the trend towards shorter print runs? A three-vehicle convoy on the freeway with a sports car in the middle doesn't get to its destination faster if the first vehicle is too slow and the last one isn't up to speed. Once the plates, paper and everything else needed are ready, production can start in 15 minutes. If the elements of the entire press system are well coordinated, a net productivity of 10,000 to 12,000 sheets per hour can be achieved. This requires that the entire infrastructure is tailored to systems with the optimum multiple installation. KBA 14 % 43 % Komori 13 % 6% Mitsubishi 9%

Source: Sal. Oppenheim: 2002

15 %

Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG


Market shares ­ the big five press manufacturers In the sheetfed offset sector, which is dominated by German and Japanese companies, Heidelberg is the world market leader with a share of 43 %. According to a survey by analysts at Sal. Oppenheim, MAN Roland achieves around 15 %, KBA 14 %, Komori 13 %, Mitsubishi 6 % and others reach 9 %.




InkJet Screen printing

DI technology

Sheetfed offset printing

Flexographic printing Web offset printing

very well

Variable data printing (electrophotography, magnetography)


Color copier InkJet








Source: Heidelberg 2004

28 100 years of offset printing Printing today

The Heidelberg production network Various specialized sites of Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG (Heidelberg) are networked together in the production of sheetfed offset presses. High-precision castings are produced in Amstetten. Turned and profiled parts are manufactured at the Brandenburg factory. The Wiesloch factory produces model parts, electronic components and test parts and also carries out all press assembly work. This is also the site of the World Logistics Center ­ and a training center. Administration, Research & Development and the Print Media Academy are headquartered in Heidelberg. Amstetten plant: Steel parts precise to a few 1000ths of a millimeter Amstetten has around 1300 employees and is the competence center for manufacturing cast parts and machining side frames and cylinders for Heidelberg. Stability and precision are two fundamental requirements that presses need to satisfy. Offset printing takes place at high speeds and the press must run smoothly throughout this process. It is also vital that all parts are accurate to within a "hair's breadth". Cast parts must therefore be precision machined to within a few thousands of a millimeter. The mechanical production facility is equipped with state-of-theart machine tools to this end. Amstetten was constructed in 1985 and is equipped with cuttingedge technology. The plant, which has a built-over area of 92,000 m2, covers the internal requirements of Heidelberger Druckmaschinen for cast iron and also supplies customers outside the company. Producing over 50,000 tons of castings each year, Amstetten is one of the largest casting foundries in Germany.

Brandenburg plant: 9,000 different shafts, drums, small flat parts and profiled parts In 1992, Heidelberg provided the basis for the Brandenburg site with an investment amounting to Euro 150 million. The factory currently has a workforce of around 700 and a covered area of 40,000 m2. Brandenburg produces 9,000 different parts. Its production spectrum primarily covers shafts, drums and profiled parts as well as small flat parts. Every year, around 6,500 tons of steel and 800 tons of aluminum, brass and castings are processed on 250 machine tools. Around 800,000 individual parts leave the factory each month. In addition to the individual parts, Brandenburg also supplies complete assemblies. Wiesloch plant: Largest printing press works in the world The opening of the Wiesloch site in 1957 represented an important milestone in the history of the Heidelberg company, which was founded 154 years ago. The main factory in Heidelberg had become too small to produce large presses. Today, the Wiesloch factory has a workforce of around 6,000 and covers an area of 860,000 m2, making it the world's largest printing press production facility. Once the various outsourced parts have been supplied and all other parts have been produced in-house in Amstetten, Brandenburg and Wiesloch, all Heidelberg sheetfed offset presses are assembled in the Wiesloch plant. Over 400,000 Heidelberg presses are in use worldwide in over 240,000 printshops. Investments of around Euro 30 million are planned in this fiscal year alone in order to develop the site into an ultra-modern production facility. Research & Development In fiscal year 2003/2004, Heidelberg invested over Euro 317 million in research and development (R&D). The Heidelberg and Kiel sites, where R&D operations focus primarily on sheetfed presses and workflow, employ a total of around 1,600 researchers and developers. Of these, around a third are employed in mechanical engineering, a third in electrical engineering/ software and the other third in other areas of R&D. Some 300 software developers are employed at the two sites for the sole purpose of developing control software and workflow solutions (Prinect). Their key activities include

Amstetten plant

Printing today 100 years of offset printing 29

the further development of core technologies relating to the press, networked integrated solutions and new possibilities for automating processes. With 260 new patent applications in fiscal year 2003/2004, Heidelberg is one of the world's most innovative companies in the mechanical engineering sector. World Logistics Center: 24 hours delivery worldwide In September 1999, Heidelberg opened the printmedia industry's largest and most state-of-theart logistics center in Wiesloch. Investment levels were around Euro 45 million. The World Logistics Center (WLC) supplies customers in over 170 countries with service parts. Ultra-modern logistics ensure that 85 % of the

Basic and advanced training: An investment in the future Throughout Germany, Heidelberg provides training to around 800 young people in 12 different professions and five different courses of study. The Wiesloch site provides training in eight professions and offers four courses of study. It focuses primarily on metal-related and electrical professions, engineering and IT. There are currently around 450 young people benefiting from training in Wiesloch. 137 trainees and students began training for their future careers in Wiesloch in September 2003. The two new careers of patent attorney specialist and media information officer were introduced last fall. The company has a training quota of 6.5 %, a level which is far higher than the average in the industry. Training at the Amstetten site is customer- and process-focused. At the current time, this site has around 100 trainees in six different professions. The Brandenburg site currently has 80 young people receiving training. Trainees here account for around 11% of the total workforce. Heidelberg will also be providing 223 training places throughout Germany in the fall of 2004. Print Media Academy: From knowledge to success The Print Media Academy is a center for expertise, communication and knowledge for the print and media industry. Every year, around 8,000 participants take advantage of the practical training courses to help them meet the challenges of the future. The courses focus on technology, marketing, sales and special courses for management. The striking Print Media Academy building in Heidelberg is also popular outside the industry as an event venue. It receives well over 50,000 visitors each year. The building's central feature is the auditorium with language translation system and state-of-the-art sound and lighting technology. It can seat up to 200 people. There are seminar and meeting rooms in the building's printing cylinder towers and on the second and sixth floors.

articles destined for the European market are supplied directly to the end customer from the WLC. This ensures that Heidelberg is even able to supply service parts to areas of North America and Asia within a maximum of 24 hours. It takes no more than 60 minutes from the time the order is received to the time the part is actually made available. 190,000 parts from the prepress, sheetfed and web offset, postpress and digital printing sectors are supplied from the WLC. Most are manufactured at the Wiesloch site. 95 % of all existing parts can be supplied immediately, thereby minimizing cost-intensive machine downtimes at customers all over the world. At the current time, more than 1,100 deliveries are made worldwide each day. Customers can use the Internet to track the consignment.

Print Media Academy, Heidelberg.

30 100 years of offset printing Printing today

Dr. Jürgen Rautert, Born in 1958, has been Board Member at Heidelberg since July 2004. After studying engineering at the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Technical University of Darmstadt), his goal was to get a job with a "proper" engineering company. In 1990, after obtaining his doctorate, he joined Heidelberg, the world market leader in printing presses. On commencing work with the company, he was struck by the diverse and interesting customer base with its wide spectrum of characters and sectors, ranging from the tens of thousands of small print shops, in which the owner is both the manager and head printer, to large-scale, industrial printers that constantly strive to be at the forefront of technological progress. One challenge followed the next. After a year spent in research, Jürgen Rautert became project manager for the development of the "Speedmaster 52" series. This was a formative experience. The team had it all ­ experienced Heidelberg staff and

hungry youngsters fresh from university. This was a dynamic group that had to hold its own against established in-house sections and procedures. His move to sheetfed offset saw him being put in charge of development of the Speedmaster series and then to the position of overall head of sheetfed offset. 2001: A change of scene. Heidelberg Postpress. This was like working in another company, or, to be more precise, in several different companies. A wide range of company sizes, cultures, histories and customers were brought together under one roof ­ but were spread over several time zones. The objectives were clear: Delegating responsibility, reducing decision-making paths and restructuring the division as quickly as possible. As Board Member for Technology, Jürgen Rautert is once again right at the heart of Heidelberg ­ namely, sheetfed offset. His motto is "act to achieve", by which he means taking action to integrate the expertise, thought structures and languages of "archetypes" such as developers, sales people and controllers.

Printing today 100 years of offset printing 31

Market and technology ­ the perfect match Dr. Jürgen Rautert, Board Member for Technology at Heidelberg, talks about innovation and potential for development in sheetfed offset printing Dr. Rautert, to ensure future success on the market, a company has to be able to transform innovations into products with practical benefits. How do you manage innovation processes and turn them into sales successes? You can promote innovation but you can't prescribe it. We always require the element of freedom, a type of "conspiratorial innovation". Great inventions like the fax or post-it notes were not produced as a result of an official "development road map", but rather "on the side". How do you ensure that your innovation processes are good for the customers? We gather feedback systematically and work alongside customers to address specific issues in concept engineering processes. On the other hand, we also work closely with develop-

form independent groups from the development, production planning, purchasing and service sections, which drive the project forward in all sectors. What is the most difficult thing to manage? Adapting to changing goals presents a significant problem. The development process takes four years before a new platform is ready for the market and goes into series production. Market

eral technologies and combined digital printing, offset and postpress. This customer prints magazines and is now able to personalize color photographs at any point in a publication. For example, a picture might show the upper arm of a girl with a tattoo on it. If, according to the address information, someone called Christian receives this magazine by post, the tattoo says "I love Christian"

requirements can easily change in this period of time. The greatest challenge lies in foreseeing the objectives and constantly ensuring that the development is still in tune with the market. Do you, as Board Member for Technology, think more about the market than about the technology itself ? I think about both. Tomorrow's ideas are usually market-driven, while ideas beyond this time


ment partners who, in turn, bring along their own customer contacts. This information and these requirements are condensed and fed into new developments. Naturally, priorities have to be set. This is done in our pipeline management system. When we are transforming an idea into a new product, we frame are usually technologydriven. However, the market and technology are interdependent and ideally are the perfect match. Which technological customer requirements is Heidelberg taking up? For one highly innovative customer, we brought together sev-

and if it is addressed to someone called Rolf the inkjet printer tattoos "Rolf". This results in completely new possibilities for marketing. Customizing is another of Heidelberg's strengths. By this we mean customized solutions which are possible due to the modular design of our presses. Examples of these are different configurations of printing, coating and drying units. This enables the customer to stand out from the competition. Why did Heidelberg withdraw from the digital printing sector? Digital printing is sure to grow but this growth will be significantly slower than forecasted. We no longer have a business unit dedicated to digital printing. But we will continue to make use of all the opportunities that this technology offers our printers. Our prepress maps the digital workflow end-to-end and can operate both offset and digital presses. For the time being, we do not have any digital presses of our own, but custom-

32 100 years of offset printing Printing today

ers can continue to rely on the highly automated workflow offered by Heidelberg. What is the significance of Heidelberg's decision to concentrate on offset printing? We can combine forces and thus achieve greater progress in sheetfed offset in the same amount of time than with a wide range of portfolios. Is the focus for new machines on maximum automation? When we are designing a machine, the key question is `How fast can the print shop refinance the investment for this piece of equipment?'. We do not follow technological trends. Sometimes, technical perfection is expensive but doesn't produce that many benefits. The printer doesn't want to play around and lose time, he wants simple operation. Cost-effective print products need to combine productivity, particularly in setup and the production run, with flexibility made possible by using versatile machines with special add-ons. What innovations did Heidelberg showcase at drupa 2004? Heidelberg showed 50 innovations, the majority of which were in the sheetfed offset sector. The integrated workflow is the greatest revolution since the transition from hot metal composition to photocomposition. Initially, we had powerful software programs, but the cooperation was still manual. Production data such as pre-settings for color, format and printing stock can now be passed on from prepress to press and postpress. At first glance, this may not seem so spectacular because you only see it on the PC monitor. However, the advances made in terms

of effectiveness are enormous. To demonstrate this innovation, Heidelberg is the first company to exhibit a completely electronic JDF workflow. What has happened in terms of press construction? We are active in all press formats. 4/4 technology has now found

cent. This is the Ferrari of the printing world. What is the situation like in postpress? In the past year, we have achieved our objective in the postpress sector, namely market leadership in terms of sales. In terms of technology,


its way into small-format. In the 50/70 format, we have augmented the CD 74 and equipped it with sheet reversing for the first time. This machine features pioneering technical details such as three-drum sheet reversal and full integration of the UV system. There has been an immense innovation leap in the 70/100 large-format. The 102 series has been completely revised and productivity has been increased by more than 10 percent. One highlight is the Perfecting Coating Solution coating system which can be integrated into the modular design and can perform inline coating on both sides. With the new XL 105, we have gone one better. This is a machine which meets industrial printers' highest demands in terms of quality and productivity. With the capacity to be fully utilized in multi-shift operation and to output up to 18,000 sheets an hour, this is the fastest machine on the market. This is not simply a matter of mechanical specifications, but rather of exceptionally high actual net output. In practice, output can thus be increased by 30 perwe have also sent out signals of intent on the market. Our new generation of folders is highly scalable in the level of automation and delivers significant increases in productivity. We have also rounded off our saddlestitcher portfolio. A completely new feature introduced by Heidelberg is a perfect binder for commercial printing. At drupa, Heidelberg also set new standards in the high-end punching segment with the DymatrixTM 106. All products can be fully integrated into the JDF workflow. Has sheetfed offset technology not already been exploited to the full? In the past, the average increase in productivity from one drupa to the next was 30 percent. By the end of the decade, the curve will flatten out to between 15 and 20 percent. There is still a lot of potential in terms of improved presetting, automatic reproducibility, enhanced sensors and simple operation. Do we really need even higher revolutions per hour? The development focus is more on setup and automation for

Printing today 100 years of offset printing 33

simpler operation. However, any speed can be beneficial to us if it can be achieved with a sensible level of investment. In the high speed sector, sheetfed offset is doing well, even against web offset. What is the future for web offset ? This is a mature market which has its proper place. However, we believe that, overall, the web offset market is shrinking. The trend is towards smaller, more variable print runs and to a variety of printing materials such as paper, card and film. In this context, sheetfed offset is bound to grow. In what areas of the world does sheetfed offset printing have real opportunities for growth? The Asian market is growing at an impressive rate, especially

that we face ­ and we are prepared to look abroad to do this. Which sectors of the market does Heidelberg service? Our traditional customer base is made up of around 200,000 print shops all over the world. The majority of them are commercial printers and have less than 10 employees. Nevertheless, they are important to us. Many of them are excellent business people and are growing alongside Heidelberg. In contrast to large companies that are split into different divisions, the leaders of small and midsize businesses know both sides of the story ­ technology and business economics. They present us with real challenges ­ and this is very interesting for product development. Of course, industrial printers, large-scale label and

We therefore have to keep a keen eye on new technologies such as inkjet printing. At the same time, we have to say that we specialize in sheetfed offset and it is in our own interest to get the best out of this technology and make it available to our customers. We have no alternative, but to be the best.


China, but also Korea, India, Malaysia and Singapore. The USA is currently stable at best. Europe is beginning to grow slowly with the focus shifting towards the East. You just mentioned China. Cost-effectiveness can also be achieved through lower production costs. Is it possible to achieve this through production in this up-and-coming country? Production in China is directed primarily at gaining market share and not at reducing costs. No one can dispute the fact that Germany has its strengths as a manufacturing location. However, it is true that controlling and reducing manufacturing costs is one of the challenges packaging printers and bookbinders are also extremely important sectors for us. World trade and ongoing globalization are the driving forces behind packaging printing. Heidelberg is the world market leader: What are the risks it faces? When you are successful, there is always the risk of becoming complacent. The demands of the markets change with great rapidity. Any company resting on its laurels can easily lose its pole position. However, there is a potential danger if you focus on one market sector as Heidelberg does in sheetfed offset. If this sector were to change significantly, a big player would be disproportionately affected.


Printing in the future 100 years of offset printing 35


The future is already here ­ electronic publishing is the heart and soul of the communication industry. The press is an "executive organ", one output technology among several ­ one of the most important from an economic and quality point of view, but also quite a complex one. However the user notices less and less of this, thanks to the use of intelligent automation. Presses are becoming capable of learning and correcting themselves based on a list of job specifications. The day of "offset printing at the press of a button" is growing ever nearer. The profession of printer, today more of a data manager than a skilled worker, is enhanced with a more interesting workplace with good prospects for the future. From another point of view, the printing industry does not serve presses, it serves customers. The printer is a service provider with specific means of production. "Single source ­ multimedia" Data digitized once ­ for example electronically processed images, texts or fully laid-out pages ­ is saved in an independent format in a powerful database and can be used over and over again, for catalogs or brochures, for advertisements, mailshots, sales and communication brochures, technical documentation, magazines, Internet and intranet sites, online presentations, CDROMs, advertising banners, television or video freeze frames. Conversely, "video to print" (from moving image to print original) saves video data and later adapts it by adding the data required for print production. Nor should we forget multichannel advertising ­ a TV spot is reinforced with a print medium, for example an advertisement. The concept of "hybrid media"/multimedia, combining books with CD-ROMs, is winning ever greater success. Crossmedia across the spectrum Output-neutral data can be used for the many different communication purposes and only needs to be converted to the specific media. Text, graphics and images can be used effectively and quickly for different products across the entire spectrum of systems. Crossmedia and electronic information processing make completely new production processes and speeds possible, combined with new possibilities for communicating and transferring information and knowledge. Print shops become digital factories Integrated digital production has an impact on all areas of the print media industry and affects existing structures. Forward-looking work processes in a modern print business are digital and networked. Integrated workflow management embraces the full range of production and business management data. While broad sections of the printing process are already digitized today, many aspects of the planning and control of the production process can still be optimized. Up to now managing this workflow focussed mainly on the individual steps of the production process, but isolated solutions do not optimize the entire value added chain.

36 100 years of offset printing Printing in the future

The networked media house The networked media house of the future has an end-to-end flow of material and data. Workflow management systems such as Prinect from Heidelberg simulate and control all the processes in the print media/multimedia enterprise. The integrated operation begins in the business management stage with the customer inquiry and includes the offer, order, process planning, production, production planning, production checking, deadline monitoring, quality checking and assurance, post-costing, delivery, invoicing, and also involves the use of supplier services (e.g. remote service). The production stage begins when the printing data is received and checked. Further important steps are data preparation, page layout checking, arranging the pages on the print sheet, form proofing, color separation, image dot calculation, plate making, plate checking, print sheet checking, quality controlled printing, cutting, folding, stitching, packing and delivery. In all this the possibilities of digitally presetting, checking and adjusting machines are used while production is underway. This means that jobs can be completed faster with less paper waste, less process materials, less auxiliary materials, better quality, more profitability and satisfied customers. The industry expects to work up to 30 percent faster, be around 15 percent more cost-effective and see improvements in product quality thanks

to process optimization in the digitized factory with open production interfaces throughout. Process optimization brings a greater leap in productivity than work-intensive measures to increase presses' speed by e.g. 1,000 cylinder revolutions, i.e. print sheets per hour. Thanks to integrated digital production, print media businesses and offset printing remain cost-effective even for short print runs. The customer takes part live In the electronic publishing global village, customers can become part of the production process. Digital processing involving customers, media service and printing partner simplifies and shortens production. Thanks to cross-platform data formats like PDF and JDF and modern proofing systems calibrated with color management, the concept, layout, quality and approval of printed and multimedia products can be coordinated quickly, even over long distances. The digital gateway The Printernet is born, turning the World Wide Web into one long printer cable. Round the clock, customers can place orders with print media providers. Customers can create their own

Printing in the future 100 years of offset printing 37

layouts using the program located on the service provider's server and can approve products for printing using programs available on this server. Internet portals become gateways and a means of customer retention. Hybrid presses and scented mailshots In the middle of all the networking, press technology is undergoing continued development. The number of hybrid presses is increasing all the time ­ different coating modules (flexographic, offset technology) are being built into the multicolor offset press line. Different printing techniques are also being integrated, such as offset printing with flexographic modules for special packaging. Offset printing is also being used with inkjet printing for personalized imprints. New intelligent products are created, featuring packaging as a symbiosis of print and digital technology. Examples include individualized barcodes on medicine packaging, and safety warnings and elements like Radio Frequency

Identification (RFID) applied to printed antennae. Thanks to special coatings, personalized mailshots for an Italian cookbook can smell of fresh oregano. Personal catalogs, individualized messages, brochures for limited target audiences ­ all are now possible.

Prof. Peter Wippermann, born in 1949, is a trend researcher and communications designer specializing in integrated communication strategies in the transition from word to image and from analog to digital communication. He experienced the upheaval in the printing industry at first hand. He trained as a hotmetal typesetter. Later he worked as a graphic designer and founded the "Elefanten-Press" publishing

house in Berlin. His subsequent jobs included layouter at the "Zeit" newspaper and art director at "Zeit-Magazin". In 1992, he became self-employed. In 1993, together with Matthias Horx, he founded the Trendbüro Hamburg, and is co-publisher of numerous books such as "Anzeigentrends. SPIEGEL" ("Der Spiegel" ­ Advertising Trends), "Wörterbuch der Szenesprachen" (Dictionary of Cool Slang), "Wörterbuch der New Economy" (Dictionary of the New Economy) and "Die Neue Moral der Netzwerkkinder" (The New Morality of the Network Generation) (with

Andreas Steinle). The Trendbüro fast became the hub of the German trend research scene. Many companies now use its innovative marketing advice. In 1993, Peter Wippermann was invited to join the University of GH Essen Folkwang. He now lectures there as Professor of Graphic and Communication Design. He regularly publishes analyses on the print market. He is also a jury member at the "Lead Academy für Mediendesign und Medienmarketing e.V.". Publishers, advertising agencies and creatives all regard the Lead Awards as the most important gage of their work's success.

38 100 years of offset printing Printing in the future

Dry sheets ­ immediate finishing Fast finishing remains a challenge for offset printing. In conventional offset, sheets are not dry when they leave the press. The ink has to dry, i.e. oxidize and harden. This usually takes between 4 and 8 hours. UV technology can help with this. This involves applying special inks to the paper that are guided by a UV imaging unit. Inks and coatings are dry within fractions of a second and can be cut, folded or stapled. In addition completely new ink and coating effects are possible. Machine parts and inks are somewhat more expensive at the moment, but all over the world new developments are underway for inks, dryers and drying technology. Waterless offset printing has potential It has been on the market since 1980 and works with Teflon-like ink repelling printing plates which do not require dampening solution to be applied. A surface that is receptive to ink is exposed by imaging. One advantage is that the operator doesn't have to worry about dampening. The printing process is simpler and more reliable, and improvements in quality can also be seen. However this method has not taken off yet. The presses are ready, they only have to have their dampening system deactivated. However the printing plates for waterless offset are more expensive than the normal aluminum plates, as are the inks used in this method. Today 5 percent of offset printing is waterless.

Digital plates in offset presses? In digital printing the print image is generated electronically (not linked to a master) page by page. In electrophotography this is done by photon light, while in inkjet it is digitally controlled using very small liquid and ink droplets. Offset printing works with a mechanical printing plate or a fixed surface material on the impression cylinder with a predefined print image (master-linked procedure). This print image is reproduced at high speed. The future may also hold a "digital master". In contrast to electrophotography, where the latent print/ charge image is lost after printing and must be newly imaged for an identical new print, materials with storage qualities are needed. Image dots are no longer controlled chemically, but physically and can be saved. Patent literature and ongoing research show possible avenues of approach: · Materials that become ink or dampening solution repelling when warmed. · Ferroelectric ceramics ­ electric energy changes the magnetism in the material. Ink accepting dots are created by electromagnetic attraction, making this a kind of copier with permanent save feature and the speed of offset. · Switchable polymers ­ switching the physicochemical properties of polymers by light energy.

Printing in the future 100 years of offset printing 39

In today's torrent of information, we need static images Trend researcher Prof. Peter Wippermann on communication behavior and the role of print media in the digital age Professor Wippermann, several years ago there was an Internet hype and the stock exchange went mad. Should we treat the web with caution? On the contrary, the economic significance of the Internet increased dramatically. Take Ebay for example. Billions of euros pass through this site. Doc Morris sells medicines. Amazon is in the black for the first time ­ you can even buy food on the Internet. There's no question about it ­ we've arrived in the Internet age. Aren't we seeing nostalgia for "old" media at the same time? The strengths of the old media are being redefined. A new medium has never replaced an old one, the tendency is rather for the new to assign the old a new place. The possibilities are being rearranged. There are media for general interests like television, newspapers, radio, and media for special interests like magazines and Internet forums. And there are media for personal interests like PDA (Personal Data Assistant), Internet platforms and cellphones.

Where does the paperless office fit into this? Many of today's processes aren't performed with paper any more. With the conventional flight booking system you receive a paper confirmation from the travel agency and a paper ticket in a paper wallet. The carbon copy is filed in a folder and a copy is made. A lot of paper is used before the plane touches down. With cheap airlines, on the other hand, you book online, and on presentation of your identity card you're given a ticket that is used over and over again. The rest all happens virtually. In the Metro Group Future Store, which is still in its test phase, consumers scan the goods themselves at the checkout, thereby operating the networked goods management systems of the shop operator, follow-up orders and ultimately production at the goods manufacturer. Data is exchanged automatically between computers. That will be the norm in 10 years time. How is the use of different communication media changing? Today we have more books and magazines, but fewer printshops and publishing houses. The volume is increasing, but the emphasis is changing. Electronic media are increasingly being used for up-to-the-minute reporting, and even for gossip and scandal. This used to be whispered behind closed doors. Now it can be relayed over any distance via cellphones and chatrooms. Books and magazines have their place. But half of the network generation, brought up on interactive media, get their information from the Internet.

What are the advantages of print media in the modern communication society? We are sensual beings and the sense of touch is important to us. "When you've got it in black and white..." ­ there's something to be said for that. For the generation that grew up with newspapers, gathering knowledge, reading it and taking it home with you plays an important role. What's more, the old medium is being used to explain the new. A whole host of manuals and magazines are being produced that deal with the new media. Will there still be printing in 10 or 20 years time? Printing will certainly still be with us for longer than 10 years. When information from the digital space is fixed on paper, it takes on a different quality. This corresponds to a centuriesold duplication culture. Today we have a flood, a torrent even, of information to deal with. Static images and text make more of a lasting impression on us. This is because we are sluggish at processing information and our brains are not really designed to live with constant overstimulation. What do you see as the main focus and trends in advertising over the next 10 years? For decades, the main area of growth has been the television. It's more entertaining and upto-the-minute and has drawn attention away from the newspapers. However, the printing market has grown over the last 20 or 30 years. It has taken on different shades. Now with attention and volume moving over to the interactive media,

40 100 years of offset printing Printing in the future

Print volume by region (in Euro per person per year)

Japan North America Western Europe Oceania Latin America Middle East Eastern Europe Asia (not including Japan) Africa

0 6 4 16 13 27 170 227 294







Source: Deutscher Drucker, 2000, not including packaging printing

What do printing customers want ? A product that is optimized for their communication purposes and offers value for money. Key factors include the cost/benefit ratio, quality requirements, deadlines, variability and flexibility. Customers are less interested in the technology that goes into making print media. Our current standard of living is characterized by high print quality at low cost. Who wants

to forego this? As digital technology grows in importance, it is enriching offset rather than ousting it. Print products have a future. With its unbeatable cost/benefit ratio in midsize and long print runs, offset printing will long occupy pole position among printed products. Maybe not for another 100 years, but certainly for the next 20 to 30 years.

Print products have a future.

Printing in the future 100 years of offset printing 41

this will hit television harder than it will the print media. Has information on paper a future compared to electronic media? Our pension system is showing signs of strain ­ which can only be a cause for celebration for the print industry. Every year, the average age of our population increases by three months, and elderly people are used to the traditional technologies. This is a potential new market, if correctly targeted. And in the print technology sector, will classical offset printing be replaced? Mini-runs or post-runs, where books that have sold out are requested as one offs, are printed using digital methods. Toner is relatively expensive. Over the last few decades, inkjet quality has improved dramatically, for instance in photo and textile printing. For long print runs, it appears that offset printing offers cost advantages. The question is whether there will also be a number of smaller markets in future that can be developed into a new larger market using new technology. What factors does a printshop need to think about to ensure its continued existence in 10 years time? The printing sector itself has harnessed all the opportunities offered by rationalization and new technologies. The printing industry defined the points of emphasis in this regard and, together with the computer industry, has rapidly built up a new mass market. One thing's for certain: The markets are becoming more unsettled and

more flexible. A rapid reaction to the needs of the end user is the scale by which future successes will be measured. What corporate form will win through? Small, flexible companies with their specialized portfolios will win through as small nodal points within a network. Other key nodal points, market leaders or major players that are able to make the necessary large investments in machinery and digital technology will also enjoy success, along with franchisees for various services including imaging, printing and book binding. Invitations to tender via the Internet will pressurize the margins and make life difficult for midsize companies. Can you describe a media scenario for the year 2020? That really isn't so far off. 10 years ago, 300,000 people in Germany had a cellphone. Today it's 70 million. The World Wide Web was launched in 1993. Today we can hardly imagine life without it. In another 15 years, many transactions will be performed between computers in the networked media society. Broadband television will have Internet qualities. And what is the essence of this communication society? The driving forces in an individualized society are the consumers. Not all consumers will be able to afford all media. A third of the consumers will be dependent on free newspapers or other media financed by sponsoring. Money will be earned by putting forward new offerings that the market will judge.

Will the flood of information continue unabated? The economy is being turned into a sport with league tables and voting options, featuring "American Idol" and Ebay, the 10 best universities and the 5 best dentists. Then the whole game turns full circle. In the industry culture of products, it took a long time before something grew old or stopped working. In the media age, imagination, voting and results all happen in the virtual space. It's no sooner finished than it starts all over again. And the beauty of it is ­ we can watch or take part. And there's no single person that can control these processes on their own.

42 100 Jahre Offsetdruck Chapter


Key printing terms 100 years of offset printing 43



CIP 4 Created in the middle of 2000 from the manufacturers' association CIP3, the manufacturers' and users' organization CIP4 (International Cooperation for the Integration of Processes in Prepress, Press and Postpress), headquartered in Zurich, had the goal of providing the basis for the ITbased integration of the entire process involved in the production of print products, from preliminary costing and quotations to delivery and billing. One of the first results has been the agreement of the Job Definition Format (JDF) as a common standard. This was achieved in conjunction with Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG, Adobe Systems, MAN Roland, Agfa and the Fraunhofer Institut für grafische Datenverarbeitung (IGD) . CMYK The four printing colors cyan, magenta, yellow and black. All required mixed colors can be obtained from the first three primary colors. Black is applied separately. Copperplate engraving A technology which was made particularly popular by Albrecht Dürer. A mirror image of the areas to be printed is created in a polished copper plate using a pointed steel tool known as a burin. The recesses which this produces are filled with ink which is then transferred to the paper. CTP ­ Computer to Plate Method used to create printing forms directly from digital data. This technology is particularly cost-effective, since it requires no lithography stage. Desktop publishing (DTP) Text and image processing on the computer using a scanner (see entry) and a laser printer for the output medium. The rapid developments in computer technology mean that DTP is becoming increasingly popular. Digital printing Unlike conventional printing processes, digital printing does not require extensive preparation time. Digital data can be used to produce direct, high-quality printing. Digital printing is currently particularly suitable for short runs and personalized print products. Direct Imaging The imaging process used in digital printing which uses the print data to produce a finished print form in a single operation. This can be achieved, for example, using a laser that transmits the image dot by dot onto a heat- and/or light-sensitive printing plate using an infrared or light beam. Embossing Deep deformations are produced in printing stock by applying embossing forms. This technique is used, for example, for embossing the covers of books. Finishing Lamination involves covering the printed sheet with a high-gloss, matt, colored or embossed plastic film. Another method of finishing ­ or enhancing ­ prints is to coat them with highgloss and matt varnishes. Gravure printing Unlike letterpress printing, the areas to be

44 100 years of offset printing Key printing terms

printed ­ known as cells ­ are recessed in gravure printing technology. These cells are either etched or engraved into the printing forms. The ink is pressed into the cells by means of a roller. Excess ink is wiped away and the image transferred to the paper by means of back pressure. Gravure printing is used for runs in excess of one million prints. Halftone A contone image which has been prepared for printing using screening technology. This is a pure black/white or full-tone original which uses screening to simulate contones. HKS Abbreviation for the range of inks produced by the companies Hostmann-Seinberg, K+E Druckfarben and Schminke. These specimen books of colored inks are available for different papers and each show 84 different colors. Hot metal composition Mechanical and manual typesetting procedures which use individual lead letters and lines. Hot metal composition was particularly well suited for letterpress printing, but gave way to photocomposition (see entry) at the turn of the century. Intelligent packaging Product packaging which, in addition to protecting the products it surrounds, also has other features: Color indicators which draw attention to the contents' use-by date. Planned: Fitting of transponders which can exchange information by means of radio waves. These can be used to prove authenticity, for instance, or for cooking instructions which a ready-toserve meal then transfers to the oven.

Job Definition Format (JDF) The Job Definition Format (JDF) grew out of an initiative by Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG, Adobe Systems, MAN Roland and Agfa which is now supported by CIP4. It forms the basis for the non-proprietary integration of print processes. JDF is based on the XML formatting language and embraces a definition for describing print jobs (job tickets), a message format and an associated transfer protocol. The new standard succeeds the Postscript-based Print Production Format supported by CIP3 until mid-2000 and in future is also set to embrace business management aspects of the print process (from costing and quotation to billing). Layout The location of texts and images on a page is defined in the layout and provides the template for the finished print product. Letterpress printing In letterpress printing, all printing areas are elevated over the non-printing areas. The image information is transferred by inking up the areas to be printed. Linotype Keyboard-operated metal composing machine which sets type in a metal strip as long as a line, as opposed to single characters. Lithography Planographic technology invented by Alois Senefelder around 1800, the forerunner of offset printing. The drawing which is to be printed is applied to a stone or metal plate using greasy ink. Non-printing parts are coated with rubber which protects them against the grease.

Key printing terms 100 years of offset printing 45

Offset printing Offset printing is based on the principle that oil and water repel each other. Unlike letterpress printing, the areas to be printed and those not to be printed lie on virtually the same level. The elements to be printed attract the ink and repel water; the situation is reversed for non-printing elements. This technology is particularly suitable for larger runs of up to one million sheets. Pantone color system International color system based on nine primary colors with 751 different mixed colors. Photocomposition Text which is exposed through negative text affixed to glass panes or through text ribbons onto film or photographic paper. Planographic printing See Offset printing. Postpress Last stage in the printing chain which processes the printed products ready for delivery. These include: Trimming, folding, binding, punching, perforating and packaging. Printing on demand Revolutionary innovation in the printing industry. Digital printing (see entry) means that publications can be produced quickly as and when required. There is no need for expensive storage ­ small runs can be produced inexpensively and publications shipped immediately after the order has been received. QuarkXPress The standard DTP program for Macintoshcomputers. Its main competitor is Adobe's InDesign.

Rotary printing Printing technology where the printing form and press roller are in the form of cylinders. The printing stock travels between the printing form cylinder and impression cylinder and is printed during the process. Scanner Device for digitizing image or text originals. Screen printing Whether an area is printed or not is determined by the use of open and closed points in a mesh. The viscous ink passes through the open points of the mesh onto the printing stock. The mesh structure is a particular feature of this printing process. Sheetfed printing Printing technology which prints individual sheets ­ in contrast to web printing (see entry). Stone printing See Lithography. Typography The use of typefaces, characters and materials to make the content and purpose of a print object transparent. Web printing Unlike sheetfed printing, web printing uses complete paper rolls. Web paper allows virtually continuous printing. Web presses are used for almost all printing processes. Woodcut The first woodcuts were produced in China in the ninth century. By cutting out the non-printing areas of a drawing, the remaining, elevated parts are inked up and transferred to paper in a press.

46 100 years of offset printing Addresses/Links



Helmut Kipphan: Handbook of Print Media, Springer-Verlag, 2001


Zentralverband der deutschen Werbewirtschaft ZAW e.V. Am Weidendamm 1A 10117 Berlin Phone +49 30/59 00 99-700 Fax +49 30/59 00 99-722 [email protected]


Bundesverband Druck und Medien e. V. Biebricher Allee 79 65187 Wiesbaden Phone +49 611/80 31 81 Fax +49 611/80 31 13 [email protected] Deutscher Drucker & Publishing Praxis Riedstraße 25 73760 Ostfildern Phone +49 711/44 81 7-0 Fax +49 711/44 20 99 [email protected] Druckspiegel Borsigstr. 1­3 63150 Heusenstamm Phone +49 6104/60 6-0 Fax +49 6104/6 06-3 33 Print Process Online The future of printmedia drupa print media messe May 6 to 19, 2004 in Düsseldorf


Comprint International Intergraf Square Marie-Louise 18 B-1000 Bruxelles Belgium Phone + 32 2 230 86 46 Fax + 32 2 231 14 64 · Comprint 2002, The Horizon of Print & Publishing 2002 · Trend Scout for the Future of Print & Publishing 2002 Rochester Institute of Technology Pira Online business resource from Pira International for the printing, packaging, publishing and paper industries Cap Ventures Information portal for the print industry

Addresses/Links 100 years of offset printing 47


Eisenstein, Elisabeth E. (1997). Die Druckerpresse. Kulturrevolutionen im frühen modernen Europa. Vienna: Springer. ISBN 3211828486 Steinberg, S. H. (1988). Die schwarze Kunst. 500 Jahre Buchwesen. Munich: Prestel. ISBN 3791302132 Helen Schmits: Caspar Hermann ­ ein Leben für den Offsetdruck, 2002 (Keyword: printing history) historymedren/msubprint.htm Gutenberg-Gesellschaft e.V. Internationale Vereinigung für Geschichte und Gegenwart der Druckkunst e.V. Liebfrauenplatz 5 55116 Mainz Phone +49 6131/22 64 20 Fax +49 6131/23 35 30 e-mail: [email protected] (Prof. Dr. Stephan Füssel) Gutenberg-Museum Liebfrauenplatz 55116 Mainz Phone +49 6131/12 26 40 [email protected] Association of European Printing Museums (AEPM)

Stiftung Werkstattmuseum Druckkunst Leipzig Nonnenstraße 38 04229 Leipzig Telefon 03 41/4 80 62 60 Telefax 03 41/8 70 95 33 [email protected] - www.druckkunst -


Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG Schmich [email protected] GmbH Gutenbergstr. 1 69221 Dossenheim Phone +49 6221/87650 [email protected]


Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG Corporate Communications Kurfuersten-Anlage 52­60 69115 Heidelberg Germany Thomas Fichtl Phone +49 6221/92-4747 Fax +49 6221/92-50 69 [email protected] Hilde Weisser Phone +49 6221/92-50 66 Fax +49 6221/92-50 58 [email protected]

The use of texts and pictures is free of charge (acknowledgement required). Please send a specimen copy to Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG.



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