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Framework For Understanding Poverty By Ruby Payne Truly a "framework"

Highlights of Chapter One I. Generational vs Situational Poverty: (page 3) Generational poverty is defined as being in poverty for two generations of longer. Situational poverty is a shorter time and is caused by circumstances ( i.e. death, illness, divorce, etc.) A. Statistics about poverty ­ page 4 and 5 A. Poverty- prone children are more likely to be in single-parent families. B. The US child poverty rate is substantially higher ­ 2-3 times, than that of most other major Western industrialized nations II. "Poverty " = the extent to which an individual does without resources" page 7 A. Financial B. Emotional C. Mental D. Spiritual E. Physical F. Support Systems G. Relationships/Role Models H. Knowledge of Hidden Rules

Page 8 "The Ability to Leave Poverty is more dependent upon other resources than it is upon financial resources." Page 9 " No significant learning occurs without a significant relationship." Scenarios ­ hidden rules ( relationships are more important than money, extra money is to be shared, clear understanding that one will never get ahead so when extra money is available share or spend immediately, entertainment, discipline is about penance and forgiveness ­ not change, the mother is the most powerful figure and she dispenses penance and forgiveness, gangs are a type of support system, fighting and physical violence are a part of poverty) ** page 25 ­ Educators have tremendous opportunities to influence some the non-financial resources that make such a difference in students' lives. For example, it costs nothing to be an appropriate role model. Highlights of Chapter Two I. Role of Language and Story A. Registers of Language (page 27) 1. Frozen 2. Formal 3. Consultative 4. Casual 5. Intimate

III. Minority students and poor students do not have access to formal register at home. A. Page 28 ­ They cannot use formal register B. All state tests are in formal register C. No knowledge of vocabulary or sentence structure and syntax of formal register, and therefore the meaning comes from their word choices, without the non-verbal assists. Writing is an overwhelming task. D. Information in the casual register is organized by a tendency to meander almost endlessly through a topic. E. Page 29 " acquisition of language only occurs when there is a significant relationship" F. Direct Instruction G. Parents ­ page 30. When teachers cut the conversation and get right to the point, parents view that as being rude and non-caring. Highlights of Chapter 3 ­ Hidden Rules Among Classes Take the quiz on pages 38, 39 and 40 · Entertainment and relationships ­ key in generational poverty ­ page 41 · In middle class, the criteria against which most decisions are made relate to work and achievement. · In wealth, it is the ramifications of the financial, social and political connections that have the weight.

Highlights of Chapter 4 ­ Characteristics of Generational Poverty · The attitude in generational poverty is that society owes one a living. · In situational poverty the attitude is often one of pride and a refusal to accept charity. · PAGE 61 ­ One of the reasons it is getting more and more difficult to conduct school as we have in the past is that the students who bring the middleclass culture with them are decreasing in numbers, and the students who bring the poverty culture with them are increasing in numbers. Highlights of Chapter 5 ­ Role Models and Emotional Resources · System ­ a group in which individual have rules, roles and relationships · Dysfunctional ­ is the extent to which an individual cannot get his/her needs met within a system. · Page 64 ­ to become a fully functioning adult, one moves developmentally from being dependent to being independent to being interdependent. · To continually fluctuate between dependence and independence is called co-dependency. · When the appropriate role models are present, the child can go through the developmental stage at appropriate times and build emotional resources.

· Page 66- 67 The greatest free resources available to schools is the role-modeling provided by teachers, administrators, and staff. Chapter 6 ­ Support Systems (page 69-) 1. 2. 3. 4. Coping Strategies Options During Problem- Solving Information and Know-How Temporary Relief from Emotional, Mental, Financial, and/or Time Constraints 5. Connections to Other People and Resource 6. Positive Self-Talk 7. Procedural Self-Talk · See pages 71 -75 for Support Systems Schools Use Chapter 7 ­ Discipline *** In Poverty, discipline is about penance and forgiveness, not necessarily change. The notion that discipline should be instructive and change behavior is not part of the culture of generational poverty. ** Page 77 ­ the emphasis in this book is to teach a separate set of behavior when dealing with discipline. Many of the behaviors student bring to school are necessary to help them survive outside of school. (good comparison: different video games need certain rules)

I. Structure and Choice: A. The two anchors of any effective discipline program that moves student to self governance are structure and choice. 1. The program must clearly delineate the expected behaviors and the probable consequences of not choosing those behaviors. 2. The program must also emphasize that the individual always has a choice ­ to follow or not to follow the expected behaviors. With each choice comes a consequence ­ either desirable or not. 3. Page 79 -80 Behavior related to poverty and interventions II. Three Voices: page 82 A. The Child Voice B. The Adult Voice C. The Parent Voice IV. Children of poverty are often missing the Adult Voice Chapter 8 ­ Instruction and Improving Achievement


IQ A. A test that measures acquired knowledge B. If your parents are educated, chances are you have a higher acquired knowledge base. C. Teaching is what occurs outside the head D. Learning is what occurs inside the head


Learning Structures ­ page 89 A. Cognitive Strategies ( ways of processing information) 1. Concepts ­ store information and allow for retrieval 2. Skills ­ reading, writing, computing, language ­ comprise the processing of content 3. Content ­ is the "what" of learning ­ the information used to make sense of daily life B. Assumption ­ when students enter school the cognitive strategies are in place. If not test for Sp.Ed. C. Prek- K: building concepts D. 1-3rd: building skills E. 4 and 5: enhance skills F. 6-12 : content

** Why is it not working? Students, mostly from poverty are not coming to school with the cognitive strategies. III. Building Mediation between stimulus and response Pages 90 ­ A. Why is mediation so important? Page 90 V. Lesson Design ­ page 97 A. Use planning behaviors B. Control impulsivity C. Use evaluative behaviors D. Explore data systematically E. Use specific language

VI. Additional Strategies A. Graphic Organizers ­ page 100 B. Identifying methods of having a systemic approach to data/text C. Establishing goal-setting and procedural selftalk D. Teaching conceptual frameworks as part of the content E. Using a kinesthetic approach F. Using Rubrics G. Teaching the structure of language H. Teaching students to make questions I. Sorting relevant from irrelevant cues J. Teaching mental models Chapter 9 ­ Creating Relationships · Locate a resilient kid and you will also find a caring adult ­ or several ­ who has guided him. · The most significant motivator for these students is relationships. · Quotes by Margaret Wheatley ­ pages 109-110 · A successful relationship occurs when emotional deposits are made to the student, emotional withdrawals are avoided, and students are respected. Conclusion: Expect to grieve and go through the grieving process as you teach and work with the poor. The Kubler-Ross stages in

the grieving process are anger, denial, bargaining, depression, and acceptance. It is responsibility of educators and others who work with the poor to teach the differences and skills/rules that will allow the individual to make the choice. As it now stands for many of the poor, the choice never exits.


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