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Monitoring report District Women's Development Associations in Chadiza, Chama, Chipata and Katete, Eastern Province of Zambia - July 2003

Compiled by Susanna Rajala

Executive Summary

In July 2003 representatives of the Student Union of the University of Helsinki (HYY) spent two weeks in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in order to visit development projects of four District Women's Development Associations (DWDAs) in Chadiza, Chama, Chipata and Katete districts. The purpose of the trip was to evaluate the progress of the activities that the Student Unions of Helsinki and Jyväskylä Universities (HYY and JYY) have supported in 2001-2003, and also to prepare for a new project, which is to be carried out in 2004-2005. This report has been compiled as a summary of the findings of the monitoring trip. During 2001-2003 project funds have been used to finance the administration of the four DWDAs and the activities in agro-forestry, nutrition and HIV/AIDS education. The activities, which are all designed and implemented by the DWDAs themselves, have progressed well according to the plans and intended timetable. Some of the project goals ­ in terms of enhanced food security, nutrition and sexual health - have already been reached, others are about to be reached. Also the project funds have been used as planned and there have been no misuses. The communication, transfer of funds and reporting between the DWDAs, Student Union and Kepa Zambia has functioned well and in good understanding. The project is relevant both in terms of the project environment and the needs of its beneficiaries, and is also well in line with Finland's development cooperation policy. There have been no such problems or changes in the project environment that would endanger a successful implementation of the project. Sometimes small adjustments to budgets or plans have been made, but those have all been justified and even increased the relevance of the intervention. The changes have always been discussed beforehand between the DWDAs, HYY and Kepa Zambia, and approved by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who is the main funder of the project. Of the activities supported, agro-forestry farming is now practiced by thousands of farmers in the districts of Chama, Chipata and Katete. There are knowledgeable agro-forestry trainers in almost every area of the three districts. The programme has proved successful in terms of food security, income generation and poverty reduction in general. With agro-forestry method maize crops have been even four times bigger than in conventionally cultivated fields. Food security has improved and families have enough food for at least 11 months of the year. Both social and environmental sustainability has been promoted through agro-forestry. The level of self -sufficiency in terms of seeds of agro-forestry species has increased, and the project has benefited members also economically. Through selling seeds, maize, fruit jam, wine and vegetables women's groups and individual members have earned extra income, which has been used in paying for school and hospital fees, buying salt, soap, fertilizers and school uniforms. Also the nutrition programme of Chadiza DWDA has yielded good results. Nutrition educators have been trained and courses held, for example on how to utilize local species, such as the beans of pigeon pea tree (Cajanus cajan), in cooking. Gardens and piggeries have been founded. Pumpkins, tomatoes, cabbage and other vegetables are grown for own domestic consumption and also for sale in local markets. Awareness of the importance of good nutrition and healthy diet has increased. Malnutrition is said to have reduced especially among children, which is important, as it is them who suffer most from chronic hunger in rural Zambia.

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HIV/AIDS and family planning education is now conducted in Katete, Chama and Chadiza districts. HIV educators have been trained by the DWDAs, and awareness meetings held in villages by the educators. Care for AIDS-orphans and patients has also been provided as part of the programme in Katete. The education has been successful in increasing the awareness of HI-virus, prevention, use of contraceptives and family planning issues in general. HIV/AIDS has become a topic more openly discussed also within communities. There is evidence that attitudes and behaviour are changing also among men, but the process is slow. Although condoms are easily available at local health clinics, there are still fears and prejudices against the use of them. Prostitution and certain cultural practices, such as polygamy, are also still widespread in rural Zambia. In addition to the above -mentioned activities, administration of the four DWDAs has been supported. This includes paying for meeting and office costs as well salaries. The support of administration and the activities both contribute to women's empowerment in rural Zambia. Although the empowerment is a long gradual process, positive signs of increased gender awareness and gender equality are already seen. In the project area members of women's groups have gained new skills, knowledge, self-esteem and possibilities to earn income. Women have taken a more active role in development. They are no longer "shy", but able to discuss and participate in meetings and committees. Also the attitudes of men towards women's changing role have become more positive and encouraging, even when compared to last year. Nowadays men participate in most activities also themselves. In terms of sustainability, it seems that the activities initiated in 2001-2003 will not cease afte r the project support comes to an end, but will continue at least in a small-scale with the help of voluntary workers. At the same time, all DWDAs are still dependent on donor funding. Economic sustainability needs to be improved, and this is, in fact, one of the goals for the new project in 2004-2005. Institutional capacity, on the other hand, to manage and implement projects is fairly good by now, and it is further strengthened through capacity building training organized by Kepa Zambia. Sustainability in terms of socio-cultural and gender issues is also well thought of, especially as it is the beneficiaries themselves who plan and implement the activities. As to equality, the DWDAs are open and democratic grass-root level organizations that welcome participants from many different groups into their activities. The organisational structure of the DWDAs aims to guarantee that everyone's voice is heard also in decision making. The language used in the meetings and trainings is usually Nyanja, which is common ly understood in the Eastern Province, even if it would not be one's mother tongue. Men, widows, single women, members of different ethnic groups and even non-members can all participate in the activities. There are different ways, like the provision of group projects and low membership fees, in which the inclusion of the poorest is promoted. The disabled are also welcome to join, although it is difficult to see to what extent this goal is reached in practice. Similarly with the participation of different areas of a district: even though representatives from all areas are invited to the DWDA trainings, the actual group projects ­ such as piggeries - are not necessarily carried out in all of them. Recommendations The following recommendations are presented as a result of the findings, discussions and suggestions made during the monitoring trip. The cooperation between the Student Union (HYY) and the DWDAs - The Student Union should make sure that project funds are sent to Zambia as soon as feasible in the beginning of the year (providing that the funding decision has already been made), so that a delay of funds would not harm the implementation of the activities. - In case the Student Union (or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) does not accept something in the project plans of the DWDAs, it should inform the DWDAs and Kepa Zambia immediately about it, so that new plans can then be prepared well in advance.

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Gender-aggregated information on the progress of the intervention is needed from 2004 onwards. It is suggested that ready-made reporting forms could also be prepared, which would make the monitoring conducted at HYY and Kepa Zambia easier and more systematic. Qualitative monitoring should also be increased in 2004-2005, for example through adding open qualitative questions to annual report forms. The costs of the annual audit should stay reasonable as compared to the total budget of the project. The audit in 2004-2005 should not exceed 3500 euros per year.

Administration, salaries and computers - Even though the support of administration of the DWDAs is still necessary, the main focus should remain on activities. The sum spent on administration should not exceed the one reserved for activities, because this way more people at the grass-roots would benefit. - As to the salaries, it is important that the DWDAs pay all the necessary NAPSA, ZRA and/or other social security payments. The DWDAs are also advised to follow other recommendations made by the Auditors on sound financial management. - If computers or other such machinery are purchased, it should be assured that the purchases are necessary, justified and reasonably-priced, and that there are funds allocated also for training and maintenance. Participation, inclusiveness and equality - Inclusiveness of the DWDAs is important, but could be increased when it comes to the participation of the young, disabled and illiterate. Attention should also be paid on how the poorest, most remote areas could be reached more efficiently. The support of literacy training is strongly encouraged. - No gap should grow between the salaried staff and voluntary workers of the DWDAs. The DWDAs should ensure that the work load of the volunteers won't be too heavy. The DWDAs could consider whether a small allowance, certificates or something else could be provided for the area-level voluntary trainers.

List of acronyms and abbreviations

AWDA DWDA EPWDA GDS HYY JYY KEPA KEPA Zambia Area Women's Development Association District Women's Development Association Eastern Province Women's Development Association German Development Service The Student Union of the University of Helsinki (Helsingin yliopiston ylioppilaskunta) The Student Union of the University of Jyväskylä (Jyväskylän yliopiston ylioppilaskunta) The Service Centre for Development Cooperation (Kehitysyhteistyön palvelukeskus) The Field Office of the Service Centre for Development Cooperation in Zambia (Kehitysyhteistyön palvelukeskuksen Sambian kenttätoimisto) Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Finland

MFA

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Acknowledgements

The Student Union of the University of Helsinki and Ministry of Foreign Affairs for funding the monitoring trip. Kepa Zambia, and Mr Esa Salminen in particular, for all the assistance before, during and after the monitoring trip. Chadiza, Chama, Chipata and Katete DWDAs for the warm welcome and great hospitality during the trip.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary List of acronyms and abbreviations Acknowledgements 1. Introduction 1.1. Background 1.2. The purpose and task of the review 2. Activities and Administration 2.1. Agroforestry 2.2. Nutrition 2.3. HIV/AIDS 2.4. Administration 3. Evaluation issues 3.1. General evaluation issues 3.1.1.Relevance 3.1.2.Effects and impacts 3.1.3.Efficiency 3.2. Specific evaluation questions 4.Compatibility and sustainability 4.1. Compatibility with Finland's development cooperation policy 4.1.1.Poverty reduction 4.1.2. Promotion of democracy, human rights and equality 4.2. Sustainability 4.2.1. Policy environment 4.2.2. Economic and financial feasibility 4.2.3. Institutional capacity 4.2.4. Socio-cultural aspects and gender 4.2.5. Participation and ownership 4.2.6. Environment 4.2.7. Appropriate technology 5. Project plans for 2004-2005 6.Conclusions and recommendations Bibliography Annexes 01 03 04 05 05 08 09 09 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 20 22 23 23 23 24 26 26

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1. Introduction

1.1. Background The Republic of Zambia, formerly known as Northern Rhodesia, is a land-locked state covering an area of 752 614 sq km in the south-central Africa. Zambia is located on an elevated plateau, which is dominated by savannah vegetation and grassland. With a growth rate of 1.5 %, the population of Zambia is currently about 10.3 million, consisting of 73 different ethnic groups. 40 per cent of the population lives in cities, which makes Zambia one of the most urbanized states in sub-Saharan Africa.

The Republic of Zamb a i Area: 752,614 sq km Budget: revenues 1.2 billion USD, expenditures 1.25 billion Population: 10,307,333 USD, including capital expenditures of USD N/A (2001) Population growth rate: 1,52% Debt ­ external: 5.8 billion USD (2001) Life expectancy at birth: 35,25 GDP ­ per capita: 890 USD (2002) Total fertility rate: 5.25 children born/woman Population below poverty line: 86% (1993) Infant mortality rate: 99.29 deaths/1,000 live births Unemployment rate: 50% (2000) HIV/AIDS- adult prevalence rate: 21.5% (2001) HIV/AIDS ­ people living with HIV/AIDS:1.2 million (2001) Source: the CIA World Fact Book 2003

The Zambian development context The Republic of Zambia, formerly a British colony, gained political independence in 1964. From then on till 1990s the country was ruled by the UNIP (United National Independence Party) party with its popular, elected leader Kenneth Kaunda, who became the first president of the new republic. At the Independence Zambia was one of the most prosperous countries in southern Africa. In the 1960s and 1970s state-led development schemes were carried out in the name of "Zambian humanism", education and health care were improved and infrastructure developed. With substantial mineral resources and thriving copper industry, the future seemed bright and promising. And yet, the ambitious project, based on a heavy role for the state, was not sustainable, but became very expensive instead. In the 1970s, after the impacts of oil crisis and worldwide economic recession, the situation worsened in Zambia. As the world market price for copper fell, the economy collapsed, and so did the living conditions for many Zambians. The government started to borrow money from abroad, - a dangerous habit which gradually led the state into a heavy debt and dependency. In the 1991 general elections the MMD (Movement for Multiparty Democracy) replaced the old regime and old ideals. As the new president Fredrik Chiluba came into power, a massive structural adjustment programme (SAP) was launched in order to facilitate market-based growth. Heavy privatisation and liberalization followed. State-owned companies were sold, agricultural subsidies removed, tuition fees and hospital fees introduced and so on. The role of the state was reduced and public sector run down, in accordance with the instructions of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Even though inflation was brought down and economy stabilised on macro-level, for the majority of Zambians the period of structural adjustment was painful and detrimental. All in all the reform programmes brought only little remedy for the deepening economic and social crisis in Zambia. At the end of the 1990s Zambia had become one of the poorest states in sub-Saharan Africa, a country where over 80 per cent of its citizens live under the - one US-dollar a day - international poverty line. Human development figures show that within a decade living standards deteriorated especially in rural areas. Both maternal deaths and under-five mortality increased. HIV/AIDS situation worsened and unemployment grew. The truly democratic institutions were not yet established, no solution was found to debt crisis either.

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In the 2001 general elections New Deal government was formed and Mr Levy Mwanawasa elected as a new president. Since then a lot of promises have been made on a more democratic and prosperous future for Zambia. Zambia has been accepted into HIPC (Heavily Indebted Poor Countries) ­ debt relief initiative. A new poverty reduction strategy has been prepared. Also the issue of corruption has been addressed. How effectively the new government manages to deal with the problems and make promises into reality is yet to be seen. Women's groups in the Eastern Province Zambia is divided into nine provinces. One of them is the Eastern Province, which consists of eight districts. The Eastern Province is well known for its large network of women, which has functioned and grown for several decades. The first women's groups in the Eastern Province were formed in the 1960s by the Department of Community Development. Distinct from the former dance groups and other informal clubs, these groups were officially recognized and financed by the state. With the government support, groups grew in number and became active in various income generating activities such as cookery, handicraft, sewing and vegetable gardening. The situation changed in the 1970s, when in the aftermath of Zambia's economic recession, the government decided to pull out its financial support from the women's groups. As a result by the end of 1970s many activities and even the groups themselves ceased to exist. Foundation for women's cooperative activities was nevertheless strong in rural Zambia, and gradually in the end of 1980s the groups started to re-emerge again, cooperate and network with each other. At the time, women's efforts were recognized also outside Zambia. The process attracted foreign donors also from Finland, such as the Finnish Martha organisation (Marttaliitto) and Finnish Volunteer Service (which is now known as KEPA Zambia). At present there are women's groups in all eight districts of the Eastern Province. Currently well over 20.000 rural women are involved in the activities of this strong and widespread network, and the membership is growing. Organizational structure Eastern Province Women's Development Association (EPWDA) is an umbrella organization for eight District Women's Development Associations (DWDAs) in Chadiza, Chipata, Chama, Katete, Lundazi, Mambwe, Nyimba and Petauke districts. In each DWDA there are about 10-12 area associations (AWDAs), under which there are a number of village groups. In each village group there are 10-30 members. Although most members of the groups are women, men can also join the activities. Groups meet regularly to discuss and plan activities and they also function as social clubs. Activities of the groups include literacy courses, HIV/AIDS education, Training for Transformation, nutrition courses, business management courses, agro-forestry farming and income generating activities - such as pig raising, beekeeping, maize milling and fish farming. Activities and courses are all designed and implemented by the groups themselves. The vision of the women's organizations is to empower rural women economically, socially, politically and culturally.

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EPWDA (Eastern Province Women's Development Association)

DWDAs (District Women's Development Associations) Chadiza Chama Chipata Katete Lundazi Mambwe Nyimba Petauke

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The development project 2001-2003 In 2000 the Student Unions of the Universities of Helsinki and Jyväskylä (HYY and JYY) were looking for a partner in order to start a new development project. At the same time women's organizations in the Eastern Province of Zambia were looking for a donor to finance their development activities. The two came to know each other with the help of Finnish Service Centre for Development Cooperation (KEPA) in the autumn of 2000, when two representatives of the women's organizations visited Helsinki. After the discussions with the development committee of HYY, it was decided that the project funds would be channelled through Chadiza, Chama, Chipata and Katete DWDAs, which are the same organizations that Kepa Zambia had previously supported. The project proposal was then prepared together with the four DWDAs, and official development funds applied from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Finland. The application was accepted and funding received for three years (2001-2003). The development project started officially in 2001 and it finishes at the end of 2003. During this three-yearcooperation the Student Unions support the administration of the four DWDAs and activities in agro-forestry, nutrition and HIV/AIDS-family planning. The activities are all planned and implemented by the DWDAs themselves. Overall aim of the project is to enhance food security and nutrition, to encourage family planning and to recede the spread of HIV/AIDS among the rural people in Chadiza, Chipata, Chama and Katete districts. Through the activities women's economic, political and social empowerment is also promoted. The project budget is 50 500 euros in 2001, 46 300 euros in 2002 and 44 100 euros in 2003. The main funder of the project (80%) is Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Finland. Rest of the funds (20%) are raised by the Student Unions of Helsinki and Jyväskylä Universities.

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1.2. The purpose and task of the review The monitorin g trip has been carried out in order to find answers to the following questions: How have the projects and the cooperation between the Student Unions and the DWDAs progressed in 2001-2003? What are the intended/unintended impacts of the intervention? Who has benefited from the projects, and who has not? What kind of problems/challenges there have been? Is the intervention (still) relevant in terms of the project environment and the needs of its beneficiaries? Are the results sustainable? (How) does the project promote equality? How can the projects/cooperation be improved?

The subject of the monitoring trip is twofold: the first goal is to evaluate the current projects and cooperation (2001-2003) between the Student Unions and the DWDAs, while the second goal is to prepare for a new project (2004-2005) together with the four DWDAs. General information on environment, living conditions and culture of the Eastern Province has also been gathered. Suggestions and recommendations are also made on how the projects and/or cooperation between the DWDAs and the Student Union could be improved. The monitoring trip was planned together with the DWDAs, Kepa Zambia and the development committee of the Student Union of Helsinki University. Despite it being already the third year of the cooperation, it was now the first time for the representatives of HYY to visit the projects in Zambia. The timing of the monitoring trip was particularly relevant at this stage, when learning from the past and preparing for the future are both needed. It was also viewed important that the new project is planned together with the DWDAs and the beneficiaries of the project. Participatory planning has become an issue of greater importance, also from the point of view of MFA. The evaluation was carried out in 16 days in July 2003 in Chama, Chadiza, Chipata and Katete districts in the Eastern Province of Zambia. The evaluation team consisted of three members: Ms Susanna Rajala and Ms Elina Valkama from HYY and Mr Esa Salminen, the Liaison Officer from Kepa Zambia. The monitoring trip was financed mainly by the Student Union of Helsinki University, except for the part of liaison officer of Kepa Zambia, which was covered with the project funds of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. During the trip all four districts were visited. Approximately two days were spent in each DWDA. During that time two lengthy meetings were conducted at the DWDA house, together with the executive secretary and board members of the DWDA. The progress of the current project was discussed in the first meeting, and the plans and budgets for the new project in the second meeting. After the meetings near-by villages were visited in order to see agro-forestry fields, gardens, piggeries and/or other community projects that have been facilitated with the project funds. In the villages we also had a chance to meet members of women's groups and get feedback directly from the grassroots beneficiaries of the project. In the capital city of Lusaka meetings were held with representatives of Kepa Zambia, German Development Service (GDS), Green Living Movement (GLM) and the Embassy of Finland. Kepa Zambia and GDS also work with the DWDAs, but the programmes supported are different from the ones the Student Unions fund in 20012003. GLM is a local non-governmental organization promoting environmental sustainability. One of the activities of GLM is to advance agro-forestry farming in the central province of Zambia. In terms of the reliability of assessment, some issues should be noted. Firstly, due to long distances and busy schedule, only two days could be spent in each DWDA. In practice it meant the number of fields and projects

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visited was limited. The projects to be visited were chosen not by the evaluators, but by the DWDAs themselves. The sites were usually those near the DWDA centre, while the more remote areas had to be left out. It seemed usually the best and the most successful projects were shown, which is, of course, hardly surprising as we represented the donor side of the cooperation. Similarly with the individuals interviewed and present in meetings, it is likely that the results are based on the views of those who are generally more active and satisfied with the organizations and the activities. Unfortunately, there was no possibility to interview non-members, or those who had been involved in the DWDA activities but left the organizations for some reason, even though that was one of our original intentions. It should also be mentioned that in a few cases we were not able to visit all the projects we were supposed to. When this happened for example in a village in Katete, the reason was a funeral. At the time of a funeral, our monitoring visit would not be appropriate, as everyone in the village is expected to attend the funeral ceremonies. Although this happened a few times, we do not think the cancellations endangered the reliability of the assessment in any way, because the sites we visited were nevertheless many more in number than what was initially planned. Besides time, another limiting factor was the language. The meetings were held primarily in English. As English was not understood by all, translation into a local language of Nyanja, Chewa or Senga was needed. At meetings we were not able to follow the conversations in local language and had to count on translation. When using a translator there is always a small risk that not everything is translated or that the opinions of the translator gets through on what is being translated. It must also be mentioned that the three members carrying out the evaluation are all involved in the DWDA - Student Union cooperation, and to some extent this is also likely to affect the results of the assessment.

2. Activities and Administration

The main activities funded by the Student Unions are agro-forestry farming, nutrition programme and HIV/AIDS-education. Administration of the four DWDAs is also supported. 2.1. Agro -forestry Due to intensive and repeated farming systems, soil has lost its nutrients and become poor in many areas in the Eastern Province. As a consequence, agricultural production has decreased in many areas. Although chemical fertilizers may provide acute relief for the impoverished soil, there are risks in their long-term use, such as the gradual acidification of the soil. Also there is a tendency towards growing dependency: chemical fertilizers are needed in order to grow anything, they are expensive and often bought for debt, which is likely to contribute to the deepening poverty among small-scale farmers. One solution to soil degradation and low productivity is a sustainable and more efficient farming method of agro-forestry. One of the agro-forestry techniques, which is particularly suitable for small farms in the Eastern Province, i improved fallows technique. This is an economical and environmentally sound technique, based on s using fertility enhancing trees on farms. Four types of species - Sesbania sesban, Cajanus cajan, Gricidia sepium and Tephrosia vogelis - are used, some of which are indigeneous. These fast-growing trees are able to recycle nutrients from deep layers, fix nitrogen and accumulate biomass, when residues of the trees decompose. The trees are planted in the field for 1-3 years, depending on the fertility of the soil and the species used. The trees are then cut, after which the field can be cultivated in the normal way. With agro-forestry method there is no need to use artificial fertilizers for at least two, even three years, after cutting the trees. Nowadays most farmers cultivate maize, which is the staple food in Zambia, while traditional, drought-resistant crops - such as sorghum and millet ­ seem to become common as well.

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Even though agro-forestry - or some forms of it, such as shifting cultivation - is an ancient practice, as a field of science agro-forestry is still relatively new. In the Eastern Province the method has gained a wide popularity and is nowadays encouraged also by the government. Agro-forestry was introduced to the DWDAs by International Research Centre for Agro-forestry (ICRAF) in 1985. Agro-forestry activities of the DWDAs include training of farmer trainers, training of farmers ("field days") in villages, delivering seeds and other inputs, preparing land, nurseries and demonstration fields, organizing regular meetings with farmers and farmer trainers, and monitoring of the progress of the activities. The role of ICRAF is to provide seeds to the farmers and assist in training, implementation and monitoring. In addition to agro-forestry, conservation farming is also practiced in order to take better advantage of rains. Crop rotation, in which different crops - such as maize, sunflower and groundnuts - are grown in succeeding years, is yet another way to enrich the soil. Contour ridges are also built in order to prevent soil erosion. In 2001-2003 agro-forestry is actively promoted by three DWDAs in Chipata, Chama and Katete districts. In the first and second year, activities funded by the Student Unions included training of area-level farmer trai ers and n implementation in villages. In the third year, instead of training more farmer trainers, refresher courses have been organized for the old trainers. Monitoring, implementation and agro-processing have also been funded. In agro-processing women are taught how wine and jam can be made from the fruits of local fruit trees, such as the indigeneous malambe tree. 2.2. Nutrition In 2001 many parts of southern Africa suffered from droughts and famines. Hunger was felt also in Zambia, where the situatio n was alarming particularly in the southern parts of the country. Also in the Eastern Province fields and vegetable gardens dried up in some areas, forcing men to leave villages to look for food and work. While acute famines are alarming as such, even more disastrous is chronic malnutrition, which kills more people in number, even though this happens in a longer period of time. In Zambia a typical meal consists of maize porridge (nshima ), vegetable sauce (relish) and different kinds of herbs and beans, sometimes added with pork meat, dried fish or chicken. Many Zambians eat nowadays just one meal a day, which is clearly not sufficient in quantity nor in quality in terms of the intake of all necessary nutrients. Besides, women often eat less than men, and children less than adults. Likewise it is common that families run out of food in the end of the month or year. Hunger can also be seasonal, especially in rural areas. In the Eastern Province malnutrition is severe especially among children and women, and has even increased within the last decade as a result of deteriorating health care and increased food insecurity. During 2001-2003 the activities of Chadiza DWDA aim at improving nutrition. With the project funds nutrition educators have been trained and nutrition courses held. In the first year gardens were founded and garden tools purchased for ten area associations. In the second year piggeries were constructed in three areas. Piglets were purchased and training organized in pig raising. In the third year Chadiza DWDA plans to establish fruit orchards and teach women how to take care of fruit trees. Besides the above -mentioned activities, there are also other nutrition-related projects carried out in the districts, such as beekeeping and fish farming. Many of those activities have been initiated and financed by GDS. 2.3. HIV/AIDS In Zambia over twenty per cent of its adult population is infected with HI-virus. Even though the prevalence rates are generally higher in cities, the pandemic is felt also in rural areas. Partly as a result of the spread of HIV/AIDS, the population growth has slown down and life expectancy dropped dramatically from 54 to 35 years just within two decades. HIV/AIDS has hit hardest the most productive part of the society, leaving behind children and grandparents. There are now over 600 000 aids-orphans in Zambia and the number is increasing. It

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is evident that HIV/AIDS causes not just individual suffering, tragedy in a family or sorrow in a community, but has wider impacts on national economy and society at large. With the help of the Student Union funds, three DWDAs have launched awareness campaign in order to recede the spread of HIV/AIDS. HIV educators have been trained and awareness meetings held in villages together with local health clinics and drama groups. Group discussion as well as individual counselling have been organised and condoms distributed for free. In the first year trainings were held primarily for members of women's groups, while during the second and third year campaigning has been taken place in villages. This way the education is expected to reach both women and men as well as young people. In addition to general awareness raising, direct support is offered to the victims in villages in Katete. 2.4. Administration In addition to the above -mentioned activities, administration of the four DWDAs is supported. This includes paying for salaries, meetings, maintenance and repair costs as well as office costs. For salaries there is a fixed annual sum, which should not be exceeded. The DWDA can decide herself how that sum is divided, who gets paid and how much. Last year it was suggested that the sum should be increased in the province capital of Chipata, where the living costs are higher than in other cities in the Eastern Province. This request has been taken into account in the new project in 2004-2005. Otherwise it seems the sums reserved for salaries have been sufficient. Besides salaries, funds have been used on administrative meetings of executive board, office costs such as electricity and water bills, stationary and copies, fuel and spare parts for the motorcycles. Some reparation and construction work have also been conducted. In 2002 two toilets were constructed in Chama, a computer purchased for Ka tete DWDA and office furnitures for Chipata DWDA. In 2003 another computer was purchased for Chama DWDA, and bicycles and spare parts for the agro-forestry trainers of Chipata DWDA. These purchases have been reasonable in price and justified, and they have been covered with "extra" funds that the DWDAs have saved from other activities. This means none of the basic activities had to be cancelled.

3. Evaluation issues

3.1. General evaluation issues 3.1.1. Relevance The relevance of an intervention can be defined as the relation of the objectives and outcomes of the project to (i) the policy environment, and (ii) the needs of the target population. As to the former, the intervention is still relevant. The project addresses the issues of food insecurity, hunger, poverty and AIDS - which unfortunately are all still very current and relevant problems in rural Zambia. Within the project environment there have been no such changes that would have made the project goals or the activities unnecessary. The project is also well in line with the development policies of Finland and Zambia. It can be assumed that the project has also addressed the needs of its beneficiaries, especially as it is the beneficiaries themselves who initiate the activities. Even though the main beneficiaries are the members of women's groups and their families, also non-members as well as those villages and areas where activities are conducted can profit from the project. Both the DWDA activists and lay members in villages confirmed that the projects have helped individual members, households and communities in a variety of ways: economically, socially, culturally and politically.

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Whether the benefit is equal and the same for different members varies. In Chama and Katete it was argued that the benefit is equal especially in group projects, where both obligations and benefits are shared. Also the membership fee is the same for everyone, which makes members feel "part of the same organization". In Chadiza it was argued, on the contrary, that projects can not benefit all in the same way, but that is obvious as there are different types of projects in different areas and villages, as there are different needs and priorities. (see also 4.2.4.) 3.1.2. Effects and impacts Effectiveness refers to the purpose of the intervention and to what extent it has been or is likely to be achieved, while impacts refer to both positive and negative, intended and unintended long-term impacts of the intervention. Sometimes it is very difficult to assess the impacts, as some of them can be seen only years after the intervention. Another difficulty is to define to what extent the impacts are due to this particular intervention, especially as there is no baseline data. In terms of management and implementation, the intervention has been successful. Especially the group projects have been well managed and the work efficiently organized. The activities have progressed well according to the plans and intended timetable. Sometimes some activities have been postponed, for example due to late arrival of funds, but rarely cancelled. Adjustments to budgets or plans have sometimes been made, but those have only increased the relevance of the project. Such changes have always been discussed beforehand between the DWDAs, HYY and Kepa Zambia, and approved by the MFA, when necessary. Trainings, workshops and meetings have been held regularly and successfully. Also monitoring has been carried out effectively by the executive secretary and board members of the DWDAs. A lot of work has also been done by enthusiastic and motivated volunteers. The rate of participation has been high on all events, and it seems the activities are highly appreciated as well. In Chama, despite the long distances, more want to come to meetings and courses than can be taken in. In terms of the use of project funds, the project has progressed well. The funds have been used accordingly, and there have been no misuses. Only in one case, administrative costs have been a bit too high as compared to the funds used for activities. The issue has been discussed with the DWDA in question. All in all there have been no substantial problems in the project or changes in the project environment that would endanger a successful implementation of the project. The impacts of the projects on food security and nutrition, income level, HIV/AIDS awareness and women's empowerment are discussed next. Agro-forestry Agro-forestry is practiced now by thousands of farmers in Katete, Chipata and Chama districts. Among participants there are many men and also farmers, who do not belong to women's groups. As last year, the DWDAs mention again that their capacity does not allow them to train all the interested farmers. In 2001-2003 the DWDAs have trained 87 agro-forestry educators. There are now knowledgeable trainers in all areas, except in Chama, where five areas still lack a trainer. This is partly because those areas joined the programme later than others. Agro-forestry trainers are committed, and have worked hard and voluntarily also in their free time. They have conducted field days in villages and monitored farming activities in their own areas. As distances between the villages are sometimes long, the DWDAS have provided bicycles for the trainers. Even though most trainers now have bicycles, it was reported the bikes break easily. Spare parts and regular maintenance are therefore much needed.

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In the beginning of the project, farmers got seeds of agro-forestry trees from ICRAF. Now in the third year, the seeds are collected from one's own field or received from fellow farmers or the DWDA. There is a seed orchard in almost every area. It seems the level of self-sufficiency has increased from previous years. Only in Chama and Chipata there has been a shortage of the seeds of Gricidia sepium, which is a species much favoured by farmers as it can be used together with other species, increasing the fertility of the soil. In terms of maize, both local and hybrid maize are used. Most farmers prefer hybrid maize to local one , as it is said to give better yields and also to taste better. Hybrid maize is, however, not as widely available as local varieties. The activists of Chipata DWDA expect the situation to improve this year, when farmers start paying back the seeds to the DWDA (the revolving grain bank of the DWDA). Food security In terms of food security, all three DWDAs say that agro-forestry has been very effective a method in reducing hunger and the level of food insecurity. It is confirmed that maize crops are many times bigger in the fallows where agro-forestry has been practiced. In Chama we met a farmer who had harvested 4,5 times more than farmers in conventionally cultivated fields. In Katete activists say that agro-forestry project has "helped a lot": "before we experienced hunger, but now through planting trees, we have got more food." Men and women appreciate agroforestry, "as it has brought them up from starvation". In Chipata it was stated that 146 farmers, who had cut the trees last year and planted maize, have now enough food for at least 11 months of the year. The household nutrition has improved also in a sense that the beans of Cajanus cajan-species can be used in salads and vegetable sauce and eaten as such. It can be seen that both individual farmers as well as those engaged in agro-forestry through group fields have profited from the method. Income generation Agro-forestry is socially and economically sustainable method of farming. While artificially fertilised fields need to be fertilised every year, with agro-forestry technique the field can be used without fertilizers even for three years. With rising prices of chemical fertilizers, this is a great benefit for the farmers, even a reason for some to embark on agro-forestry. There are several other ways in which farmers can benefit economically. In Katete and Chipata farmers have earned extra income from selling seeds of Tephrosia vogelis to ICRAF. Processing wine and jam from the fruits of indigeneous fruit trees has brought income for women in Chipata and Chama. In Chipata this agro-processing is considered a very promising business: it is said, that jam and wine making can "bring very good money, you can even buy a house... you only need sugar, while other ingredients such as chimera (yeast), water and fruit are free". And there are buyers, as the products sell well in local markets. Sometimes agro-forestry trainers can also benefit economically from their knowledge: when other organisations hire the trainers to facilitate their workshops, small allowances are paid to the trainers. Extra income has helped women to feed their families, pay for clinic and school fees, and buy fertilizer, soap, school uniforms for children, and so on. The income generated through group projects has enabled women's groups to invest in, for example, a water pump, grind mill, piglets, cows, fertilizer and seeds. Other benefits From agro-forestry trees farmers can get firewood, poles and building material. Fast-growing Sesbania sesban is a particularly suitable species for these purposes. The trees also slow down detrimental effects of soil erosion and deforestration, and they also provide shade and windbreak. The leaves of Tephrosia vogelis can be used as a

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pesticide against certain insects. From the same species medicine can also be extracted against certain animal diseases and even measles. In Chama it was pointed out that the medicine gained from the trees is much valued nowadays, when many rural people cannot afford hospital fees introduced at health clinics. Problems One of the problems mentioned by all the DWDAs is fires that destroy agro-forestry fields. The fires are usually set by young boys, when they catch mice or rabbits in the fields, sometimes also by jealous fellow villagers. The DWDAs have informed the headmen of villages about the problem, and penalties are now made for those caught. Firebreaks have also been established around the fields in order to stop fires from spreading further. Another problem is insects that eat the plants of agro-forestry trees. In Chama this is a problem especially with Sesbania sesban. The chemical to kill these insects is expensive and not affordable by everyone. Lack of land is also a problem in some areas. Although every household usually has a small piece of tribal land, not everyone can afford devoting part of it to agro-forestry. This is why it seems that those who are wealthier, more active and/or in a more prominent position in a village, can benefit more from the programme. It takes approximately two years for the trees to grow before one can see the results and profit from agro-forestry. In Chadiza and Chipata it was added that lack of land is a problem especially for women, who still do not necessarily own their land and cannot make the decision on what is grown in the field. Labour can also be an issue, especially during the rainy season, which is the busiest time for farmers. Workers are then needed for crop planting and weeding, which are both hard and time-consuming work. It can be assumed that lack of labour touches namely the widows, divorced and other single persons, and for these people the group projects are most advantageous. Nutrition The activities of Chadiza DWDA focus on the improvement of household nutrition. With the project funds Chadiza DWDA has trained nutrition educators and organized nutrition courses and cooking demonstrations for its members. There are now 20 nutrition educators, two in each area of Chadiza district. The educators visit the villages of their own areas and tell about the importance of healthy diet and good nutrition. Besides the education, project funds have been used in nutrition-enhancing community projects. In 2001 gardens were founded in all 10 areas of Chadiza district. Garden tools were purchased for each area association. Pumpkins, cabbage, tomatoes, beans, potatoes and fruit trees are now grown in the gardens. Vegetables are produced for own domestic consumption and also for sale in local markets. In the end of 2002 piggeries were constructed in three areas. Piglets were purchased and women trained in pig raising. The piggery we visited in Changunda area was well-maintained, spacious and particularly clean. The project was well managed and the work efficiently organised and divided into work shifts. By the end of 2003, when more piglets are produced and distributed to groups, the piggery project can be extended to other areas within the district. The project has both nutritional and income generating aspects, as pork meat and sausages are both eaten and sold. In 2003 Chadiza DWDA plans to establish fruit orchards in three areas. At the time of the monitoring visit, the fields had already been cleared, while the seedlings of orange trees had not yet arrived from ICRAF. Even though it is too early to assess the impacts of the latter activities, it can already be seen that the awareness of good nutrition and healthy diet has increased at the DWDA level and also in villages. Women have learnt how to prepare nutritious meals and utilize local ingredients in cooking. Especially the use of the beans of pigeon pea tree (Cajanus cajan) has received much attention and enthusiasm among women.

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It seems that nutrition and food security have improved on both household and area levels. Also the level of food shortage seems to have reduced. Even if the maize harvest would be poor, the vegetables grown in the garden can save a family from hunger. The diet has become more varied and nutritious. According to Chadiza activists "you can see it especially in healthier looking husbands as well as in children". Malnutrition still being the leading cause of death of under-five-year-olds in Zambia, it is of utmost importance to reach the children with this programme. Some problems mentioned by the DWDA activists are the rising prices of chemical fertilisers, lack of markets for vegetables and goats that get into garden and destroy the plants, unless there is a good fence around the garden. HIV/AIDS In 2001 HIV/AIDS education was part of the activities only in Katete DWDA. In 2002 the programme was extended to Chama and in 2003 also to Chadiza. With the project funds the DWDAs have trained HIVeducators to work in the areas. The trained educators have held awareness meetings in villages of their own areas together with local health clinics. The topics covered in the meetings are sexual health, prevention of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), caring for HIV-patients and AIDS-orphans as well as family planning issues in general. Group discussion and individual counselling have been provided, and condoms distributed for free. Information is disseminated also through flyers, radio and songs. The rate of participation has been high in all meetings and trainings ­ both men and women as well as young people have been reached through the campaign. In addition to awareness raising, direct support is offered to HIV-patients in villages in Katete. In this home-based care project Katete DWDA helps patients not financially, but in cleaning, cooking and other household work. As the programme is still fairly new in Chadiza, it is too early to define the impacts there. As to Katete and Chama, it is already possible to say that awareness of HIV/AIDS has increased. Both of the DWDAs confirm that by now everyone should know what HIV/AIDS is, how it is transmitted and how prevented. In Chama it was stated that "people are not afraid to take a test at the health clinic". Women do not feel shy to discuss on HIV/AIDS, but they "now feel free to participate" and discuss. They have also "learned how to teach their children about HIV/AIDS ". In addition to the increased awareness, it seems that attitudes and behaviour are gradually changing. Condoms are free and easily available at health clinics, and it seems the use of contraceptives has increased. Family planning precautions are taken and also child spacing has become more reasonable, as confirmed by Chama ladies. According to Katete women, the use of traditional methods, such as herbs, has stopped almost completely. It was estimated that majority of women uses modern contraceptives, pills and injections in particular, and also that a rural woman has now one to six children on average. Also the attitudes towards HIV-patients are changing. Katete's home-based care ­ project is specially valuable in this respect: instead of ignoring, stigmatising or separating the ill, the community should support the victims and their families. According to the DWDA activists, this already seems to be happening in some areas in Chama, where "people will look after and take care of HIV patients". Also it seems that the attitudes of men towards family planning and use of contraceptives have become more positive, even when compared to last year. In Chama it was said that men participate in trainings and awareness meetings held in villages, and also "go and collect condoms from clinics". Last year the need for male HIVeducators was brought up, and this need still seems to be relevant. Even though the awareness has increased, the actual situation is not as promising everywhere. Prejudices and

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fear of condoms is still widespread in rural Zambia. Polygamy is practiced, and having many "girlfriends" is still common. Besides, it is difficult to assess the impact of this particular programme on new HIV -infections, as there is no base line information, reliable clinic records or such available. It is also too early to define that. Also as the issues related to sexual health and reproduction are cultural and sensitive, what is told in the meetings is not necessarily what happens in practice. Women's empowerment The vision of the DWDAs is to empower rural women economically, politically, socially and culturally. One of the most important phases in this process has been Training for Transformation (TfT). Tft-education has been going on since 1990s, and it has given rural women tools to analyse their own situation, discuss together about problems and find solutions. Similarly the provision of literacy courses has been important in terms of empowerment and participation of the members. In this project the support of administration and the various activities facilitated in 2001-2003 both contribute to women's empowerment. By now, there is evidence that the membership and projects have helped rural women in a variety of ways: members have learned how to cook more nutritious food, how to farm different species, how to prevent from HIV/AIDS, how to improve soil fertility, and so on. With new skills and knowledge women have been able to earn extra income. They are becoming more empowered economically, especially so, as it is now increasingly the women who can decide how to spend the money they earn. Through learning new things, women have become self-confident, strong and ambitious. They are no longer shy, but able to present their opinions, "stand in the meetings" and participate, even when men are present. For one Chadiza woman empowerment meant that she can "knock on the door of any office.." As women have become stronger, they are less dependent on their husbands or male relatives. Women have courage to say `no' and refuse even from "widow's cleansing", which is a traditional practice in which a widow is raped by the male relatives of a diseased husband. Partly due to legal education programme funded by GDS, women are more aware of their rights, for example in property grabbing situations. If a widow loses her property to the relatives of the diseased husband, she knows how to report it at the police station and get it back, told the activists in Chadiza. Women have also taken a more active role in development. Many are busy not just with the DWDA or church activities, but are engaged in different committees and community clubs. Women participate more on decision making both within family and community. It also seems that husbands have become more supportive towards women's activities and the process of empowerment. In Chama husbands may escort their wives into meetings, while in Chadiza "they stay at home cooking maize porridge for the children, while a mother attends the DWDA activities". In all four DWDAs also men are involved in the activities of women's groups. And yet, the process of empowerment can not be explained by this project alone. As the first women's groups were formed already in the 1960s, it is evident that the empowerment has been building up over a longer period of time. On the other hand, women's empowerment is not yet the reality everywhere. There are still husbands who do not let their wives attend the meetings, and so on. 3.1.3. Efficiency The efficiency of an intervention is a measure of project's productivity and refers to how well the inputs have been converted into outputs. Although no cost-effectiveness analysis has been conducted on the project, generally it seems that the quantity and quality of the results justify the quantity and quality of the means used for achieving them. In other words,

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the means have been converted into results fairly cost-effectively, especially when considering the extent of the target area. The project area covers four districts in the Eastern Province. Through this project well over ten thousand people can be assisted. This is a project emphasizing training, use of local resources and local knowledge, whenever it is possible. Apart from the two computers, there is no expensive machinery or other costly investments. The approach chosen is economical. A lot of work is done voluntarily, and there is no expensive TA (Technical Assistance) or foreign experts used in the project. The project is managed by local people themselves, which enhances efficiency and sustainability of the project. The administrative costs of the DWDAs are reasonable, considering the extent of the project area, long distances and the many activities and responsibilities of the DWDA personnel. Only in one DWDA, administrative costs have been a bit too high as compared to the funds spent on activities. The matter has been discussed with the DWDA in question. While the administrative costs in Finland are even lower than what is allowed by the guidelines of the MFA, the matter to be corrected is the costs of the annual audit. Despite the flawless work, the costs of the audit in Zambia have been too high as compared to the total budget of the project. This is an issue that has already been taken up, when the audit of 2003 is being prepared. 3.2. Specific evaluation questions Other donors All of the DWDAs have other sources of funding besides the Student Union. The two main supporters are German Development Service (GDS) and Kepa Zambia. The activities that the Students, GDS and Kepa support do not overlap, but strengthen each other. The role of GDS is to support paralegal education and income generation through EPWDA. Kepa Zambia, on the other hand, offers capacity building training for the activists of all eight DWDAs. Even though GDS phases out at the end of 2003, the support of paralegal education will continue. Also the capacity building training continues at least in 2004. Even though new donors are also searched, the DWDAs strongly hope that the cooperation with the Student Unions would continue also in 2004-2005. Communication Communication between the DWDAs, Student Union and Kepa Zambia seems to work well and in good understanding. According to the DWDAs, the communication has been even smoother in the third year than in the previous years. There have been no serious problems or delays with transfer of funds or report writing. It can be assumed that the capacity building training organised by Kepa has been very helpful for the DWDAs. The intermediary role of Kepa Zambia is much appreciated also by the Student Union.

4. Compatibility and sustainability

4.1. Compatibility with Finland's development cooperation policy Reduction of poverty, protection of the environment and the promotion of social equality, democracy and human rights are the principal objectives and preconditions in Finland's development cooperation policy.

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4.1.1. Poverty reduction In Zambia over 80 per cent of the population lives with less than one US-dollar a day (the international poverty line). The poverty is more extreme in rural areas, where there are less services, infrastructure, work and other possibilities, especially for women. Through offering direct support to women's grass-root organisations in rural areas, this project aims to reach the poorest people. Working in rural areas is particularly important in Zambian context, where most non-governmental organisations and donors concentrate in cities with their activities. In Chama it was viewed that a person is poor if he/she is "not able to read or write, feed and cloth his family, has no education and little relationships with others and therefore no knowledge from others". In terms of this definition the activities of women's groups are meant for the poor to fight together against poverty. Also the beneficiaries of the project represent the poor people of the project area. There are several ways in which the poor people's rights and capabilities are promoted and their participation encouraged. Most importantly, the participation is not dependent on having land, materials, certain skills or other resources. Even if one could not afford having his own agro-forestry field, everyone can participate and benefit from group projects. Also the membership fee is affordable by everyone. The fee is low (approximately 25005000 kwachas, which equals to less than one euro) and can also be paid in kind. Also the activities themselves are about poverty reduction, as through them assets are created for the poor to be able to withstand vulnerability. A good example is agro-forestry farming, which helps to reduce poverty and food insecurity. Farmers practicing agro-forestry do not need to take expensive loans to buy fertilisers and can even earn extra income when sellin g maize and seeds. In one village in Katete it was estimated that because of the activities of women's groups, at least 10 per cent of the villagers are no longer subject to poverty. At the same time, in some areas there is more poverty than in other areas. According to Chadiza activists, the poorest areas are those isolated areas located far away in "the bush", where there are no projects, no transportation, no markets and so on. Although it seems the participation of the poor individuals is well thought of in the DWDAs, it is not always sure how effectively these poorest areas are reached. Even though the DWDAs invite representatives from all areas of the district into their workshops, the actual projects ­ such as piggeries ­ are not carried out in all of them. On the other hand, what takes place is partly explained by the organizational structure of the DWDA, where the core unit is a village group. This means that the initiative should always come from the village level. Likewise, there are also other factors influencing the way in which funds are allocated to different projects and areas. (see also 4.2.4.) 4.1.2. Promotion of democracy, human rights and equality One of the principal goals of this project is to strengthen civil society in rural Zambia . The project encourages the participation of the poorest people and tries to make particularly the voices of women heard in development and society. This particular project and the support of women's activities in general helps to advance economic, political and social rights of rural women. In addition to democracy and human rights, also equality is well thought of and promoted in the project, especially when it comes to equality between men and women and participation of different groups, such as single women, widows and members of different ethnic groups. (see also 4.2.4. and 4.2.5.) 4.2. Sustainability Sustainability refers to the extent in which the positive effects of an intervention continue after the external assistance has come to an end. The factors discussed are: policy environment, economic and financial feasibility, institutional capacity, socio-cultural and gender aspects, participation and ownership, environmental

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sustainability and technology. 4.2.1. Policy environment The project is well in line with Zambia's policy environment and development goals. In 2000 a new poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSP) was prepared in Zambia. When the strategy was being prepared, the representatives of the DWDAs were also heard. Food security, HIV/AID S, environmental management and gender issues are all themes that appear both in the strategy and in the current activities of the DWDAs. Even though the funding and implementation of the new strategy is still to be seen, it seems that the new government is now more seriously committed to poverty reduction than its predecessor. All the four DWDAs are officially registered non-governmental organizations. Although the DWDAs do not receive public funding for their projects, in some activities they work in close cooperation with government offices, such as the Department of Health and that of Community Development. Besides, there is a governmentemployed community development officer in each DWDA. The development officer assists the DWDAs in implementation and monitoring of the activities, but does not participate in decision making or administration of the associations. 4.2.2. Economic and financial feasibility Most of the activities initiated in 2001-2003 will continue at least in a small scale after the project support comes to an end. At the same time, the future of the DWDA activities in terms of economic sustainability is not yet guaranteed. The DWDAs can not sustain their activities or administration without external assistance. Even though all of them collect small membership fees and have some income generating activities, it is important to improve the economic base of the DWDAs. The DWDAs have been encouraged to find ways to earn income for the groups and the DWDA. And there is now a number of income generating activities planned for 2004-2005. The planned activities include fish farming, pig raising, maize milling, oil processing and beekeeping. According to the DWDAs, especially the wine and jam making, beekeeping, fish ponds and maize milling, as well as the guest house project in Chama, can provide a good source of income for the associations. (see also 5.) On the other hand, although the direction should be towards self-sustainability, the reasonability of this goal is questionable bearing in mind that even in Finland many organisations are financially dependent on government or other external source of funding. 4.2.3. Institutional capacity Institutional capacity refers to the ability of the partner organisation to manage, plan, monitor and evaluate the projects. As to the DWDAs, the institutional capacity has been strengthened over a long period of time. The DWDAs have successfully implemented projects already over ten years, and the institutional capacity of the associations is therefore fairly good. The projects are efficiently managed and implemented. It seems improvement is needed only in financial management, as recommended by the Auditors in 2002. One factor contributing to capacity building of the DWDAs is the training offered by Kepa Zambia and EPWDA. Training has been organized for example in record keeping, basic accounting, project planning, reporting and management. However, it is usually the same people who attend these trainings. For the building of the institutional memory and capacity of the organizations, it would be better if more people were trained and the tasks rotated within the DWDA. The running of organization should not concentrate on one person alone.

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Also it should be guaranteed that there won't grow a gap between the volunteer workers and the salaried staff within the DWDAs. 4.2.4. Socio -cultural aspects and gender One of the visions of the DWDAs is to empower rural women socially and culturally. This means that the DWDAs recognise that not all cultural traditions are good or sacred, but can be challenged, even changed. In Zambian context not just the vision but even the existence of women's groups challenge the traditional gender relations and cultural expectations. A project supporting women's organizations can not be neutral to culture or gender. In other words, socio-cultural and gender aspects are inherently present in this particular project. Socio-cultural factors have been well recognised also in project planning and implementation. The activities have been designed by the beneficiaries themselves, who are local people well familiar with socio-cultural issues that might affect the implementation of the project. Different groups ­ such as divorced, widows and members of different ethnic groups ­ are all well represented in the activities and administration of the DWDAs. Sometimes separate groups are also formed. For example in Chadiza there is a group for widows. Apparently this is an easier and a more effective way to deal with issues touching this group in particular. Socio-cultural issues are sometimes integrated directly in the activities, for example in HIV/AIDS education where one topic of discussion is the impact of culture on the spread of HI-virus. The following socio-cultural aspects are discussed next: age, disability, ethnicity, gender, areas, land and labour. Age Previously the women's groups consisted of many old people, but now there are also new young faces in projects, told the activists in Chama. And new faces are needed as well for the activities to continue and information to transfer from one generation to another. In most DWDAs a girl must be minimum 15 years of age, when she can become a member of a women's group. Although most members are at least in their twenties and above, there are some 15-18- year-olds as well, for example in Katete. Most of the members are married, but there are also widows, divorced and unmarried women, also in the administration of the DWDAs. There are not many young people in the administration, but there are young people in village groups, involved in all activities. Sometimes separate youth groups have been formed as well, for example in Chadiza and Katete. It seems to be quite common that a mother and a daughter are both members, although they may be at different organizational levels of the DWDA. Besides, as "charity begins at home", it is usually mother who teaches the children. And this is also how new skills and knowledge are transferred from one generation to another, as pointed out by Chadiza ladies. Disability All the DWDAs confirm that there are many disabled people in the project area. It is also confirmed that the disabled can become members of women's groups. To what extent this happens in reality is not always clear: according to the observations during the monitoring trip, it seems there are not many disabled involved in current activities. It seems there are not necessarily any concrete solutions on how the disabled could participate. There are positive exceptions though, and one of them is Chipata DWDA, who cooperates with local disability programme CBR.

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Ethnicity The population of Zambia consists of 73 different ethnic groups, a dozen of which reside in the Eastern Province. In Katete and Chadiza districts, the biggest ethnic group is the Chewa. In Chadiza there are also some Nsengas and Ngonis. In Chipata the main groups are Chewas and Ngonis, while in Chama the two dominant ethnicities are the Senga and Tumbuka. Although most villages are still relatively homogeneous in terms of their ethnic composition, it seems there is nowadays much cooperation between different groups. Intermarriages are common as well. It seems that different ethnicities are well represented in the activities and administration of the DWDAs. Even at the DWDA level ­ in the executive board ­ there are representatives of different ethnic groups, for example in Katete. The participation is partly a question of language used in meetings and trainings. In Katete the language is Chewa, in Chadiza and Chipata it is Nyanja and in Chama it is Senga. The trainings organised by Kepa and EPWDA are held in Nyanja. In the Eastern Province Nyanja is the common language that everyone can usually understand, even if it would not be one's mother tongue. Many people are able to speak a few other local languages as well. All in all language does not seem to be a problem or barrier. In terms of religion the majority of group members ­ and most Zambians - are Christian. Although there are Muslims at least in Chadiza district, they are not (yet) involved in the DWDA activities. Gender The DWDA activists are surprisingly familiar with the concept of gender, and could define many ways in which they were "doing gender" at home, in the projects and in the DWDA. Generally the expression was used of situations, where women and men assist each other or where the roles and opinions of both of them are taken into account for example in decision making. "There is gender in these days...", confirmed Chadiza ladies, "...when you go out, your husband can cook nshima for children". It seems gender is not just well thought of and a topic openly discussed, but one integrated also in the activities. For example in HIV/AIDS education it has been recognised that for a successful implementation of the programme, it is crucial to involve men. The awareness meetings are now held in villages, and men and young people have been invited to attend the meetings. Similarly in agro-forestry programme it is important to inform and include men, because it is still often the men who own the land and make decisions on what is grown in the field. There are now many men actively involved in agro-forestry both as farmers and also as farmer trainers. In addition to these activities, the DWDAs have also employed men as construction workers and watchmen. Men can also become members of women's groups, but are not allowed to participate in administration and their number is restricted to two per group. When asked from husbands, it seems most of them are happy and proud of their wives' activities and achievements in women's groups. The husbands have seen that the new skills and the activities are likely to benefit the whole family. Men have not always been as supportive, but it seems the attitudes have now become increasingly positive even when compared to last year. This is probably partly due to the fact that village leaders and headmen are generally very supportive and proud of the changes that the women's groups have brought into villages. At the same time, gender equality is, of course, not yet a reality in every household. Not all are gender sensitive. The women and men we met during the monitoring trip were the most active participants, and therefore likely to be more aware, accepting and sensitive also in issues of equality. Unfortunately, during the monitoring trip we were not able to meet with non-members or those women whose jealous husbands do not let them participate.

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Areas When the DWDA holds a training, representatives are invited from all areas (AWDAs) of the district. Although the areas are treated equally in this sense, it is questionable whether different areas have equal possibilities to carry out the actual projects. Sometimes the group projects ­ such as piggeries ­ have been carried out only in some areas of the district. This may be just because those are pilot projects, whose aim is to act as an example to women's groups in other areas. The situation is expected to improve in the new project in 2004-2005, when income generating activities are carried out in all areas (AWDAs) of the districts. The planned activities are, nevertheless, not the same in each area, for which there are many reasons. Firstly, according to the organizational structure of the DWDAs, the initiative for the activities mus t come from the village level. It is the village group who plans for a project and sends application to the DWDA, and it is then the DWDA executive board who decides whether funding for this particular project is granted and how that project is implemented. In other words, because of this structure and application procedure it is obvious that there are different projects carried out in different areas. Different groups and areas may also have different needs. Besides, as assured by Katete DWDA, even if a project is carried out in one village, the neighbouring village groups often get inspired from the example and decide to apply funds for their own project. There are differences between the areas, also because some areas may have a small number of groups. Some groups may not be affiliated or registered at community development office, and can therefore not get the same assistance than other groups. Similarly, in some areas there are more active groups and individuals, which is of course common everywhere in the NGO world. Also, the sharing of information within the DWDA does not always "trickle -down" in the same manner in different areas or villages of a district. How effectively the voluntary trainers are able to cover the villages of their own areas depends on the facilities, distances, infrastructure, roads, season and so on. In Chadiza it was viewed that the poor performance of some areas is sometimes related to high illiteracy. It is harder to implement projects and convince people, where there is a low level of literacy and education. The participation of different areas seems also to depend on the activity in question. Some activities cover only some areas, while others may be carried out in all areas of the district. Agro-forestry is an example of an activity that has attracted a wide attention and is now practiced in all areas, for example, in Chipata district. Land and labour In tribal areas land ownership is usually not a problem. According to the customary law, every household is entitled to a piece of land. These lands are managed and distributed by the chiefs. The land holdings are usually small, approximately 2 hectares in size. In addition to tribal lands, some people have acquired state land, but that is more rare as one must apply and pay for it. Even when access to land is guaranteed, not everyone has control over the use of land. Household-wise it used to be men who decide what is grown in a field. However, as women have become increasingly empowered, the decisions are nowadays often made together, as reminded by Chama ladies. Similarly, even when there is land, the issue of labour can still be a problem, especially nowadays when the proportion of productive working-age population is declining as a result of HIV/AIDS. This is an issue that touches for example agro-forestry, which is very labour-intensive at certain periods. Workers are needed especially during the rainy season, when crops are planted and fields weeded on regular basis. 4.2.5. Participation and ownership It can well be said that the DWDAs have a strong ownership of the project, especially as it is the DWDAs and

22

beneficiaries who plan, implement and monitor the projects. Nowadays there are well over 10 000 members in the four DWDAs supported, and the membership is growing. It is estimated that at least 20 per cent of the villagers belong to groups, while the total number of beneficiaries is even larger. The core unit of the DWDA is a village group. All village groups of the same area are represented in an area association (AWDA), and all area associations are represented in the district association (DWDA). When the DWDA holds trainings, representatives are invited from all areas. The DWDAs are open and welcoming organizations, that invite people of different ages, social and cultural backgrounds into their activities. Democratic decision making and wide representation aim to guarantee that everyone's voice is heard. Despite the openness, one factor that affects the projects and participation at large, is illiteracy. In the DWDAs it is still the case that those who are literate are more likely to advance in the organizations, work as a trainer or a representative of a group. At the same time, at all organizational levels of the DWDAs there are still many who can not read or write, and are thus not able to participate fully. Illiteracy is a problem recognized by all four DWDAs. One of them, Chama DWDA, plans to organize literacy training in villages in 2004-2005. 4.2.6. Environment The impacts of the project on environment are positive especially in agro-forestry programme. Agro-forestry is environmentally sound farming method, which helps to reduce soil degradation and deforestation. With the method, fertility of the soil can be improved. Within the project, there is not much construction work. Local materials and technology are used, whenever available. 4.2.7. Appropriate technology Generally the technology used in the project is suitable in its socio -cultural context. It is also compatible with the available human resources. Machines, spare parts and repair services are available locally in the Eastern Province. As to computers, one was purchased for Katete DWDA in 2002, and another one for Chama DWDA in the end of 2003. With a computer the DWDAs can write reports and applications themselves, and do not need to have them typed outside. As mentioned last year, it is nevertheless very important to ensure that the DWDA is able to use the computer, and that its maintenance costs are being budgeted for. As suggested in the monitoring report of 2002, possibilities for income generating with computer should also be investigated.

5. Project plans for 2004-2005

As the current activities come to an end at the end of 2003, a new project is already being prepared for 20042005. The initiative for the project came from the DWDAs, who prepared the initial project plans in January 2003. During the monitoring trip the plans and budgets were discussed with HYY and Kepa Zambia, and revised by the DWDAs. The project funding was applied from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in September 2003. The decision about funding has not yet arrived. The project is planned to be carried out in 2004-2005. The main principles of the cooperation, such as the roles of different stakeholders, will remain the same as in 2001-2003. The DWDAs plan, implement and monitor, while the Student Unions raise funds, monitor and inform of the progress of activities. The funds are transferred via Kepa Zambia, who will also assist in auditing and monitoring.

23

The overall goal of the project is to promote women's economic empowerment and to reduce food insecurity and poverty among the rural people in Chadiza, Chama, Chipata and Katete districts. The activities to be carried out have been chosen by the DWDAs and groups themselves. The activities aim to bring income to rural women, area and village groups as well as the DWDAs. Many activities also enhance nutrition and food security. The planned activities are not new as such, but similar ones have been carried out successfully in the districts. Indicators (of how to measure the progress) and risks (related to the project, its goals and activities) have been identified. Maintenance, feasibility and sustainability are also well thought of in the project. There are markets for the products, such as maize, fish, honey, oil and pork meat, and it has also been assured that women can decide on how to use the kwachas they earn. The latter is particularly important also in terms of the overall goal of the project, as it is still often the case that money earned by women benefits the whole family. The following activities are planned to be carried out in 2004-2005: Chadiza DWDA Chama DWDA administration (salaries) electrical oil processing machine (income for the DWDA) fish ponds and training in 5 areas piggeries and training in 5 areas poultry in 5 areas dairy cows in 4 areas and training beekeeping and training in 2 areas orphanage centre in Chadiza (a daytime meeting place and information centre for AIDS-orphans)

administration (salaries, meetings, monitoring, office costs) agro-forestry field days in 12 areas HIV/AIDS awareness meetings in 12 areas buying piglets in 9 areas literacy training in all 12 areas electrical dehaurer hammermill, tuck shop, extension of guest house (income for the DWDA) administration (salaries, office costs, running costs, monitoring costs) farm production (agro-processing, agro-forestry, animal husbandry) hammer mill (to bring income for the DWDA, in order to support its administration and literacy programme)

Chipata DWDA Katete DWDA -

administration hammer mill (income for the DWDA) piggery for 7 areas and training, 14 piglets beekeeping for 5 areas and training tuck shop (income for the DWDA) fish ponds in 6 areas.

6. Conclusions and recommendations

During 2001-2003 the project funds have been used to finance the administration of the four DWDAs and the

24

activities in agro-forestry, HIV/AIDS and nutrition issues. The activities, which are all designed and implemented by the DWDAs themselves, have progressed well according to the plans and intended timetable. Some of the project goals have already been reached, others are about to be reached. Also the project funds have been used as planned and there have been no misuses. Sometimes small adjustments to budgets or plans have been made, but those have only increased the relevance and efficiency of the intervention. There have been no such problems or changes in the project environment that would endanger a successful implementation of the project. The membership and projects have benefited thousands of rural women and their families in terms of food security, nutrition, sexual health, women's empowerment and poverty reduction in general. The project is relevant both in terms of the project environment and the needs of its beneficiaries, and is also well in line with the development policies of Zambia and Finland. The project helps to reduce poverty and there are many ways in which democracy, human rights and equality are promoted. Strengthening of civil society is an important underlying goal of the intervention. The project contributes also to environmental sustainability especially through agro-forestry programme. The DWDAs are open, democratic grass-root organizations, that welc ome participants from many different groups into their activities. Men, widows, divorced, young people and members of different ethnic groups can all participate. Socio -cultural and gender issues are well thought of in the project, especially as it is the local people who plan and implement the activities. The institutional capacity of the DWDAs to manage the projects effectively is fairly good and is even improving. The members of the DWDAs are hard-working, ambitious and strong. A lot of work in the DWDAs is done by volunteer workers, who are involved in the activities out of their own will. The activities initiated in 2001-2003 will not cease after the project support comes to an end , but will continue at least in a small scale with the help of volunteers. At the same time, all the DWDAs are still dependent on donor funding. Economic sustainability needs to be improved, and that is, in fact, one of the goals for the new project in 2004-2005. Recommendations The following recommendations are presented as a result of the findings, discussions and suggestions made during the monitoring trip. 1. The cooperation between the Student Union (HYY) and the DWDAs The Student Union should make sure that project funds are sent to Zambia as soon as feasible in the beginning of the year, so that delay of funds would not harm the implementation of the activities. This is of course, when the Student Union has already received the funding decision for the year in question. In case the Student Union (or the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) does not accept something in the project plans of the DWDAs, it should inform the DWDAs and Kepa Zambia immediately about it, so that new plans can then be prepared well in advance. Gender-aggregated information on the progress of the intervention is needed from 2004 onwards. It is suggested that ready-made reporting forms could be prepared, which would make the monitoring conducted at HYY and Kepa Zambia easier and more systematic. Qualitative monitoring could also be increased in 2004-2005, for example through adding open qualitative questions to annual report forms. The costs of the annual audit should remain reasonable, as compared to total budget of the project. In 2004-2005 the audit should not exceed 3 500 euros per year. 2. Administration, salaries and computers

25

The support of the administration of the DWDAs is still necessary and much needed, for the DWDAs to be able to manage and implement projects in such wide areas. At the same time, it is important that the main focus of the project support remains on activities. The sum reserved for administration should not exceed the one spent on activities. When more money is spent on activities, more people at the grass-root level will benefit. As to the salaries, it is important that the DWDAs pay all the necessary NAPSA, ZRA and/or other social security payments. The DWDAs are also advised to follow other recommendations made by the Auditors, in order to avoid possible constraints in the future. If computers or other such machinery are purchased, it should be assured that the purchases are necessary, justified and reasonably-priced, and that there are funds allocated also for computer training and maintenance. It is recommended that computer courses are organized for those DWDAs that have computers. As recommended last year, possibilities for income generation with a computer could also be investigated. 3. Participation, inclusiveness and equality The power of the DWDA is that it is a democratic, volunteer-based and equality-promoting association. Inclusiveness of the DWDAs is an important value that should be maintained and even increased on grass-root level. Especially the participation of the young, disabled and illiterate should be encouraged. Attention should also be paid on how the poorest, most remote areas could be reached more efficiently. Literacy training is strongly encouraged in order to enhance the participation of all members of the groups. No gap should grow between the salaried staff and voluntary workers. The DWDAs should make sure that the work load of the volunteers won't be too heavy. In Chama it was suggested that the DWDA should provide certificates for all the farmer trainers that it has trained. With a certificate, a trainer can prove his/her knowledge and be employed also by other organisations. Also the other DWDAs should consider whether a small allowance, certificates or something else could be provided for the area-level voluntary trainers.

Bibliography

Evaluation of the Bilateral development co-operation between Finland and Zambia. 2001. Evaluation report 2001:9. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland. Helsinki Levamo, T-M. 2002. Markkinoita ja maissipuuroa ­ nälän syyt ja seuraukset Sambiassa. Kehitysyhteistyön palvelukeskus raporttisarja, numero 50. Helsinki Monitoring trip report. 2002. District Women's Development Associations in Chadiza, Chama, Chipata and Katete. Compiled by Esa Salminen, Liaison Officer, Kepa Zambia Sifuniso, M.(ed.). 2001. Women of the East ­ The history of the Women's Movement in the Eastern Province. Kepa Zambia. Lusaka

Annexes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Timetable and schedule of visits List of persons interviewed /attending the meetings The evaluation team Map Photos

26

Annex 1. Timetable and schedule of visits

Wed 25.06. 07:40 Flight from Helsinki to London 19:15 Flight from London to Lusaka 05:55 Arrival at Lusaka 14:30 Meeting at Kepa Zambia with Seppo Karppinen and Esa Salminen 09:30 Meeting at German Development Service with Margret 14:30 Meeting at Green Living Movement 15:30 Meeting at Kepa Zambia with the accountant Patrick Chileshe Travelling to the Eastern Province Arrival at Katete, a brief visit to Katete DWDA Registration at District Administrator's office in Katete Morning: meeting with the Katete DWDA board members, executive secretary and liaison officer (discussing about the projects in 2001-2003) Lunch in Tontholani village Afternoon: Visiting agro-forestry fields in Tontholani and Samilani villages, visiting patients assisted through home-based-care project in Samilani and Cholowa villages, visiting a piggery project in Katapa village in Chinkhombe area Dinner at the DWDA house Morning: meeting with the Katete DWDA board members, executive secretary and liaison officer (discussing about the project plans and budgets for 2004-2005) Lunch at the DWDA house Afternoon: visiting the women's club, agro-forestry fields and meeting with 5 home -based-care patients in Mtaya village in Katete Central Area. Visiting Mchepa village (meetings and visits cancelled due to a funeral) Afternoon: Driving to Chipata, a brief visit to EPWDA at arrival Morning: meeting with the Chipata DWDA board members, executive secretary and liaison officer (discussing about the projects in 2001-2003) Lunch at the DWDA house Afternoon: Visiting agro-forestry fields and agro-processing centre in Kataba area. Meeting with the members of the Kataba area association. Morning: meeting with the Chipata DWDA board members, executive secretary and liaison officer (discussing about the project plans and budgets for 2004-2005) Lunch at the DWDA house Afternoon: visiting agro-forestry fields in Kangombe village in Mboza area, meeting with the members of women's clubs. Morning: Drive to Chadiza, brief visit at the DWDA house visiting the home village of the executive secretary Morning: meeting with the Chadiza DWDA board members, executive secretary and liaison officer (discussing about the projects in 2001-2003) Lunch in Musavila village Afternoon: Visiting Musavila village in Kandabwako area, visiting agro-forestry fields, beekeeping project, meeting with the members. Visiting garden and fishponds of Singalume village group Dinner with the executive secretary, her sister and treasurer Morning: meeting with the Chadiza DWDA board members, executive secretary and liaison officer

Thu 26.06.

Fri 27.06.

Mon 30.06. Tue 01.07.

Wed 02.07.

Thu 03.07.

Fri 04.07.

Sat 05.07.

Sun 06.07.

Mon 07.07

Tue 08.07.

27

(discussing about the project plans and budgets for 2004-2005) Lunch at the DWDA house Afternoon: visiting the piggery project in Njambensi farms in Changunda area, meeting with the members of women's clubs. Drive to Chipata Wed 09.07 Drive from Chipata to Lundazi, lunch at Lundazi Drive to Chama, arrival at Chama and accommodating at Chama DWDA Guesthouse Morning: Registration at DA's office, visiting agro -forestry fields in Gombozi compound, FTC Mukoko farm and Kavanda village in Boma area. Meeting with Tigwirizane women's group Lunch at the guest house Afternoon: meeting with the Chama DWDA board members, executive secretary and liaison officer (discussing about the projects in 2001-2003) Evening: Watching the monitoring video (filmed by Esa Salminen in November 2002) with the DWDA members and their families. Morning: visiting agro-forestry fields and fruit orchard in Chilokotwe village in Katangalika area. Visiting agro-forestry field in Kamphuzunga village in Boma area and a garden/fruit orchard in Mwdalanga area association in Mwdalanga area Lunch at the guest house Afternoon: meeting with the Chama DWDA board members, executive secretary and liaison officer (discussing about the project plans and budgets for 2004-2005) Evening: interview on national radio about our monitoring visit Drive from Chama to Chipata Drive to Katete Morning: Staying as guests in Mchepa village in Katete Afternoon: Visiting Undi village Morning: Cycling to Agas village, meeting with women's clubs Afternoon: cycling to Undi village, meeting with 9 women's clubs Morning: cycling to ­ village, meeting with 2 women's clubs Afternoon: meeting with club members at Mchepa village Travelling back from Katete to Lusaka Visiting the University of Zambia in Lusaka, meeting with the professor at Department of Development Studies 11:00 visiting NGO-CC (Women's organization)- meeting cancelled 14:30 meeting at the Embassy of Finland, meeting with programme coordinator Anne Matilainen (telling about the HYY projects, monitoring trip and plans for 2004-2005) Departure from Lusaka, Flight to London

Thu 10.07

Fri 11.07.

Sat 12.07. Wed 16.07.

Thu 17.07.

Fri 18.07.

Sat 19.07. Mon 21.7.

Tue 22.7.

Thu 24.7.

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Annex 2. List of persons interviewed /attending the meetings

Chadiza DWDA Esther Thole, Treasurer, Chagunda area Edina Banda, Board secretary, Kandabwanko area Judith Daka, Chairperson, Chinthali area Patricia Katundu, Vice chairperson, Chadiza Central area Misozi Zulu, Executive secretary, Chagunda area Chama DWDA Banda Medson, community development officer Suzan Ngulube, board secretary, Chikwa area Eunice Banda, chair person, Boma area Mary Banda, committee member, Chiungwe area Thandine Zimba, treasurer, Nganjo area Daina Moomba, Committee member, Zoole area Catherine Kaluba, committee member, Kalinkhu area Kumwenda Alex Mwae, trustee, Tembwe area Catherine Mphande, executive secretary, Lumezi area Chipata DWDA Mary Zulu, agroforestry trainer, Feni area Joyce Mbewe, agroforestry trainer, Chitandika area Everlyne Njovu, agroforestry trainer, Kwenje area Florence Tembo, office assistant/trainer, Jerusalem area Gerald Banda, Liaison officer, Department of Community Development, Madzimoyo area Tangu Nyirenda, executive secretary, Rukuzye area Florence Miti, board secretary, Feni area Katete DWDA Mwambila Banda, Chairperson, Mtandiza area, Chinganza group Hildah Phiri, Vice Chairperson, Kafumbwe area, Tigwirizane group Mavis Myulle, Board secretary, Chinkhombe area, Tiyeseko group Mirriam Nyamb, Vice treasurer, Sinda area, Makwesl group Ester Mbewe, Committee member, Luwandazi area, Kalambana group Ester Phiri, Committee member, Vulamkoko area, Zatonse group Helen Tembo, Committee member, Kagoro area, Tiyendepamodzi group Cathrine Chilinda, Committee member, Chagumu area, Tiyanjane group Dinnah Mauale, committee member, Matunga area, Chimasuko group Beatrice Phiri, committee member, Mungomba area Vainess Phiri, Executice secretary, Kagoro area, Kasambandola group Allan Siwila, Liaison officer, Department of Community Development Kepa Zambia Esa Salminen, Liaison officer, Kepa Zambia Seppo Karppinen, Head of Office, Kepa Zambia Patrick Chileshe, Accountant, Kepa Zambia German Development Service Margaret Grottenthaler, NGO support programme coordinator Green Living Movement

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Annex 3. The evaluation team

The evaluation team consists of three members: two representatives from the Student Union of the University of Helsinki and one from Kepa Zambia, Lusaka. Susanna Rajala, the project coordinator of the development committee at the Student Union (06/2002-12/2003), a student of development studies in the Faculty of Social Sciences in the University of Helsinki Elina Valkama, the chair person of the development committee at the Student Union (2003), a student of social anthropology in the Faculty of Social Sciences in the University of Helsinki Esa Salminen, the Liaison Officer at Kepa Zambia (06/2002-).

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