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a sa ,ertneC nytraM yrneH eht fo tnemegaruocne s'nospmohT divaD rD dna s'droF divaD rosseforP .tuo detros noos neeb yllausu sah siht tub ,sesroh eht erofeb emoc evah strac eht semitemoS .oot reyarp ,epoh I ,dna gniw STRAC nwo sti sah gnidliub ytlucaF wen eht ,tcaf ni :'reyarp a dna gniw' a no worg ot demees sah ti semitemoS .ytiniviD fo ytlucaF eht fo gniw hcraeser detanidro -oc eht sa ylevitanigami depoleved sah STRAC sraey wef tsal eht revO

All good theology is eucharistic and personal, so I would like to begin with thanksgiving. I am very grateful to the Centre for Advanced Religious and Theological Studies, to the Henry Martyn Trust and to the Cambridge Theological Federation for their extraordinary hospitality towards the Henry Martyn Centre and for the invitation to give this lecture.

noitcudortnI .A noitcudortnI .A noitcudortnI .A

egdiiiirbmaC ,egelllllllloC retsniiiimtseW ,enuJ 5 yadnoM egd rbmaC ,ege oC retsn mtseW ,enuJ 5 yadnoM egd rbmaC ,ege oC retsn mtseW ,enuJ 5 yadnoM egd rbmaC ,ege oC retsn mtseW ,enuJ 5 yadnoM noiiiitaredeF llllaciiiigolllloehT no taredeF ac go oehT no taredeF ac go oehT no taredeF ac go oehT egdiiiirbmaC ,ertneC nytraM yrneH eht fo rotceriiiiD egd rbmaC ,ertneC nytraM yrneH eht fo rotcer D egd rbmaC ,ertneC nytraM yrneH eht fo rotcer D egd rbmaC ,ertneC nytraM yrneH eht fo rotcer D sgniiiiK maharG nonaC yb erutceL yrotciiiidellllaV sgn K maharG nonaC yb erutceL yrotc de aV sgn K maharG nonaC yb erutceL yrotc de aV sgn K maharG nonaC yb erutceL yrotc de aV

John 4 and Jonathan Clarke's Cross of Jesus Christ, Saviour of the World: Exposition of Text and Sculpture

Christ "The Eighth Hour"

:yrotsih dna erutan ni krow dna ecarg s'doG fo snoitaredisnoc htiw koob sih denepo namO .]2[7191 ni dehsilbup tsrif saw ,ytilanosreP dna ecarG ,koob lanimes sih dna egdirbmaC ,egelloC retsnimtseW fo lapicnirP htruof eht saw namO nhoJ ]1[.noitcaretni lufyalp dna luftiurf hcum dah evah ew ,rodirroc eht revo tsuj tcejorp ytinaitsirhC dlroW ni stnerruC eht ni ,somA lseiL dna yelnatS nairB htiw rehtegoT .)llaH nytraM yrneH eht ni( nosrednA euS dna )sevihcra eht ni( gnirekciP eloraC dna nottuS euS ,)yrarbil eht ni( xoF lebosI dna yrogerG enaJ ,)noitartsinimda ni( miK neetsriK .maet tnerehni-oc dna tnerehoc ,laicurc a hcus mrof ohw ,CMH eht ta ffats fo srebmem eht lla knaht ot ekil dluow I yllaniF .slapicnirP sa gnimoclew yllufrednow neeb evah ,egelloC retsnimtseW ta kcinroC divaD dna ysserC nitraM dna ,llaH yeldiR ta yarC maharG dna laaW ed oguH .5991 fo remmus eht ecnis egelloC retsnimtseW ta ereh desab ,rettal eht fo eno gnieb ertneC nytraM yrneH eht ,setutitsni etaicossa owt dna srebmem lluf neves era ew woN .llaH yeldiR ta yduts a htiw ,2991 ni tsop wen eht pu koot dna ayneK morf denruter I nehw snoitutitsni ruof fo pu edam saw noitaredeF lacigoloehT egdirbmaC ehT .seidutS noissiM ni pihserutceL eht sa llew sa ,ertneC eht fo gnidnuof eht gnidnuf ylsuoreneg ni tneitap dna gnitsurt yrev neeb evah ,rekraP niloC yb deriahc ,seetsurT nytraM yrneH ehT .detaicerppa yltaerg si ,ytinaitsirhC dlrow dna noissim no stcejorp STRAC rof sucof lanoitadnuof

Later in the book Oman mentioned again the difference between a straight line and a curve: What all life does say to us is that God does not conduct His rivers, like arrows, to the sea. The ruler and compass are only for finite mortals who labour, by taking thought, to overcome their limitations, and are not for the Infinite mind. The expedition demanded by man's small power and short day produces the canal, but nature, with a beneficent and picturesque circumambulancy, the work of a more spacious and less precipitate mind, produces the river. Why should we assume that, in all the rest of His ways, He rejoices in the river, but, in religion, can use no adequate method save the canal? The defence of the infallible is the defence of the canal against the river, of the channel blasted through the rock against the basin dug by an element which swerves at a pebble or a firmer clay[3]

fo ecruos lauteprep a erew suht dna htrib morf suortsnem erew nemow natiramaS taht deveileb sibbar hsiweJ emos woh nwohs sah erukO .ladnacs elbuod a ,namow natiramaS a morf retaw rof sksa eh ,nam hsiweJ a dna ,raggeb a sA .deirub retal saw dna ,nos devoleb sih hpesoJ ot llew eht nevig dah ,dnal fo tolp a thguob bocaJ erehw dna naanaC ni devirra eh nehw decifircas tsrif maharbA erehw ,mehcehS tneicna eht htiw deifitnedi neeb sah hcihw ,rahcyS ta llew suomaf eht yb stis suseJ .mizireG tnuoM no elpmet nwo rieht ta deppihsrow yeht dna CB 127 retfa modgniK nrehtron dereuqnoc eht otni thguorb snairyssA eht mohw elpoep eht fo stnednecsed eht yltrap erew yehT .msiaduJ eurt morf sredeces sa dna doolb erupmi gnivah sa sweJ eht yb nees erew snatiramaS ehT .yrotirret natiramaS ni si dna detsuahxe si suseJ

This afternoon we do not have time to go into the detailed historical questions, but I have been helped very much concerning these by an perceptive study by Teresa Okure, Professor of New Testament at the Catholic Higher Institute of West Africa, in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Her doctoral thesis published in Tubingen by Mohr, The Johannine Approach to Mission: A Contextual Study of John 4: 1-42 has many fascinating insights from an African woman's perspective. Teresa lectured on Mission and Evangelism in the Federation in 1997 and she also gave a lecture in this building in March last year as part of the launch of the International Bible Commentary edited by William Farmer. Carrie Pemberton's Cambridge doctoral thesis assesses her key contribution to African theology.[5]

suseJ ot snatiiramaS eht fo suseJ ot snat ramaS eht fo suseJ ot snatiiramaS eht fo suseJ ot snat ramaS eht fo dna snatiiramaS eht ot suseJ fo ssentiiW ehT - ruoF retpahC nhoJ .1 dna snat ramaS eht ot suseJ fo ssent W ehT - ruoF retpahC nhoJ .1 dna snatiiramaS eht ot suseJ fo ssentiiW ehT - ruoF retpahC nhoJ .1 dna snat ramaS eht ot suseJ fo ssent W ehT - ruoF retpahC nhoJ .1


.gnidulcnoc erofeb ,yadot ygoloeht dna noissim fo yduts eht rof desiar seussi ,yrteop fo pleh eht htiw ,redisnoc llahs ew snoitces htob nI .erutplucs s'ekralC nahtanoJ ta neht dna nhoJ fo lepsoG eht sa yllanoitidart nwonk lepsog htruof eht ni segassap owt ta tsrif kool llahs eW .dlroW eht fo ruoivaS ,tsirhC suseJ - erutplucs dna stxet eht ot woN

Jesus did not just pass through Samaria, from Judea to Galilee, but took a curve and stayed with the Samaritans. ..... grace is never a mere direct line of power, passing through us with impersonal directness, as light through window-glass, but is a curve of patient, personal wisdom, encircling and embracing us and all our concerns. With this curve a true theology is wholly occupied[4].

noissim 'suseJ fo ekaw eht ni wollof ohw esoht rof tnatropmi era hcihw egassap siht ni eugolaid 'suseJ morf sthgisni noissim suoirav tuo nward sah erukO asereT .ssorc eht redisnoc ew nehw ees llahs ew sa ,eseht morf tnereffid - yllaretil - yllaicurc saw suseJ .flesmih rorepmE namoR eht ot dna sdog keerG ot osla nevig sa lepsog eht fo sredaer ynam ot nwonk neeb evah dluow 'dlrow eht fo ruoivaS' eltit ehT .)24:4 nhoJ( ".dlrow eht fo ruoivaS eht ylurt si siht taht wonk ew dna ,sevlesruo rof draeh evah ew rof ,eveileb ew taht dias uoy tahw fo esuaceb regnol on si tI" eralced neht yehT .ecneserp lanosrep dna sdrow nwo sih hguorht )syad owt rof yats ot seerga ylgnizama eh retfa( dna ssentiw reh hguorht eveileb ot emoc won ytic eht morf snatiramaS rehtO .selpicsid desiladnacs dna gninruter sih htiw noissim sessucsid suseJ dna egassem eht daerps ot top retaw reh sevael ehS .pihshaissem sih slaever ,flesmih ,neht suseJ .divaD dnoces a ekil ,haisseM gnireuqnoc a fo epoh hsiweJ eht naht rehtar ,sesoM dnoces a ekil ,haisseM gnihcaet a gnitcepxe erew snatiramaS eht rof haisseM eht fo noitseuq eht sesiar ehs ,deugirtnI .42-22 :4 nhoJ ."mih pihsrow ot eseht sa hcus skees rehtaF eht rof ,hturt ni dna tirips ni pihsrow lliw sreppihsrow eurt eht nehw ,ereh si won dna ,gnimoc won si ruoh eht tuB .sweJ eht morf si noitavlas rof ,wonk ew tahw pihsrow ew ;wonk ton od uoy tahw pihsrow uoY" seilper suseJ .mizireG tnuoM dna melasureJ fo sthgir gnitepmoc eht tuoba sksa dna tehporp a sa mih sesingocer ehS .sdog evif fo pihsrow reilrae rieht htiw ,noigiler natiramaS ni redrosid eht ohce yam sutats latiram reh otni thgisni siH .retaw gnirps gnilbbub naem osla nac hcihw ,retaw gnivil fo dna doG fo tfig eht no sesucof eH .toh si ynori eht elihw sekirts suseJ ,lausu sa ,dna tseuqer 'suseJ fo ynori eht yb desirprus si namow ehT ]6[.ssenilnaelcnu

Secondly, Jesus' manner and method of approach is "essentially one of humility and deep respect". He approaches as a beggar. Interdependence thus emerges as the primary mission feature inherent in this dialogue. Moreover it is Jesus who throughout adapts himself to the language categories introduced by the woman whose interventions he takes most seriously...[7]

:"seY" ,yllacihposolihp ,rewsna yam naitsirhC a natsikaP nI :"oN" ,yltnatilim ,rewsna lliw naitsirhC a naduS nrehtuoS nI ?rehtaF dna doG ruo sa emas eht eH si tub eman a naht erom si doG rof cibarA ehT :hallA tub ,suseJ tuoba ton si noitseuq ehT

Kneeling alone on the soft carpet of a Mombasa mosque, Chandeliers above, galleries around, Stereo system stacked high in the corner, The quiet question came to me Is Jesus the Son of Allah?

]8[?hallA fo noS eht suseJ sI ]8[?hallA fo noS eht suseJ sI ]8[?hallA fo noS eht suseJ sI ]8[?hallA fo noS eht suseJ sI

.edistuo detiaw srethguad ruo dna ilA elihw ,asabmoM ni euqsom a detisiv 8891 ni tsaoc eht ta yadiloh no elihw dna ayneK tnuoM raen egelloc a ni thguat I .yteicoS noissiM hcruhC eht htiw ayneK ni devres ew nehw em ot emac tI .noitseuq suomehpsalb )milsuM a ot( dna gniltrats ,yek a no gnisucof yrt su tel ecnereffid dna ytiunitnoc fo noitseuq eht gninrecnoc ylralucitrap dna pihsnoitaler siht poleved oT .secnegrevid tnatropmi neeb evah ereht tub sesoM dna bocaJ dna caasI maharbA ni srotsecna nommoc evah lla roF ?smilsuM dna snaitsirhC dna snatiramaS eht dna sweJ neewteb pihsnoitaler eht neewteb denrecsid eb ytiralimis a ton yaM ?yadot ygoloeht dna noissim ot siht ylppa ew yam woH .doG fo tfig eht sa noitavlas no si sserts eht yllanif dna yrevocsid lanosrep fo ssecorp a hguorht reh sdael eh ,ylhtruoF ).eh ma I ,uoy ot gnikaeps ma I ;namow ,em eveileb ...ksa dluow uoy ,wenk uoy fi( yllanosrep reh ot detcerid yliramirp si egassem 'suseJ ,)su llet lliw haisseM eht ,srehtaf eht ,dlohesuoh sih dna bocaJ ,snatiramaS dna sweJ( seirogetac dezilareneg ni skaeps namow eht ,yldrihT

The shape of the poem is my praying as a Christian in an empty mosque in Mombasa. It considers the question of continuity between the concept of God in Islam and the 'God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ'.[9] The Arabic word 'Allah' predates Islam

.edahs eht ni gnitiaw erew ohw ,srethguad dna efiw ym nioj dna edistuo pils ot niaga esor nehT ;deyarp I ,hallA fo noS ,suseJ ot yltfoS ,euqsom asabmoM a fo teprac eht nopu etartsorP .emaN eht smrofsnart droW evitca eht ,gniman fo tca dekan siht ni tuB :hallA fo noS eht si suseJ taht repsihw neht ,spahrep ,yam eW .lla fo live eht debrosba sah eH ecnis tsuj ylluficrem si ,dne eht ni ,doG tahT ;llams ylbaviecnoc os emaceb eH esuaceb ,taerg ylbaviecnocni ,ylegnarts si doG tahT noS eht ni srevocsid tuB ,enO si doG rof ,doG sih egnahc ton seod eH .haisseM eht suseJ ,rettimbuS etamitlU eht oT gnittimbus won milsuM A ot su dael yam eulc laicurc ehT ?hallA ythgimlA fo tahW :hajilE ot la'aB sa ton tuB ,sesoM ot hewhaY sa delaever sI maharbA fo iaddahS lE ?leenk ro - dnats ew erehw dneped ti seod oS :"oN" ,yletaidemmi ,rewsna lliw milsuM a aibarA iduaS nI

sweJ eht fo gniiK eht sii suseJ taht dllroW sweJ eht fo gn K eht s suseJ taht d roW sweJ eht fo gniiK eht sii suseJ taht dllroW sweJ eht fo gn K eht s suseJ taht d roW eht ot ssentiiW sronrevoG namoR ehT - neeteniiN retpahC nhoJ .2 eht ot ssent W sronrevoG namoR ehT - neeten N retpahC nhoJ .2 eht ot ssentiiW sronrevoG namoR ehT - neeteniiN retpahC nhoJ .2 eht ot ssent W sronrevoG namoR ehT - neeten N retpahC nhoJ .2

.swodahs eht ni tpek era malsI ni ,suseJ nesir eht fo sessentiw tsrif eht erew ohw nemow :tsartnoc eht ,ytiunitnoc eht retfA .evael ylteiuq neht dna hallA fo noS eht sa suseJ ot gniyarp yb sthgisni wen eht etaicnune ylterces I .etairporppa erom eno ot reyarp ni erutsop ym egnahc ot evah I ,siht gnisilaer nI .suseJ yb decudortni doG ot sserdda ciamarA eht ,'abbA' ekil gnihtemos otni 'hallA' eman eht fo gninaem renni eht segnahc eh taht lufrewop os si )doG htiw gninnigeb eht ni saw ohw( sogoL eht ,)'gniman fo tca dekan' suoregnad a( 'noS a gnivah hallA' dna 'hallA' ,'suseJ' stpecnoc eerht fo noitisopatxuj sselemahs siht nI .detuohs ton ,derepsihw eb ylno nac ti taht srae milsuM ot cifirroh os si ,revewoh ,rewsna ehT .ytinaitsirhC dna malsI neewteb 'sretsiger segaugnal' tnereffid fo gnixim tneuqesnoc eht ni ycnatiseh swohs 'spahrep' drow eht hguohtla ,desingocer si ytiunitnoc sihT .delicnocer era hallA rof sevitcejda cimalsI gnitcilfnoc ,yberehT .dlrow taht fo nis eht ,flesmih otni dna yawa sekat ,tsirhC deificurc eht ni ,dna dlrow detaerc nwo sih sretne noS sih ni doG .)na'ruQ eht ni denoitnem sa ,tnemom tsal eht ta rehtona yb decalper ton dna( deificurc saw yllaer ohw tsirhC suseJ hguorht emoc sthgisni wen lacixodarap osla tub ,enO si doG rof ,milsuM detrevnoc eht rof doG fo tpecnoc eht fo ytiunitnoc si erehT ]11[.selcarim citehporp hajilE hguorht la'aB fo gnitnorfnoc s'hewhaY ot ralimis noitatnorfnoc fo eno pihsnoitaler eht si rO ]01[?hewhaY ,sesoM ot delaever eman euqinu eht dna )'ythgimlA' - iaddahS evitcejda dedda eht htiw netfo( lE doG hgiH naimatoposeM eht neewteb pihsnoitaler eht ekil ytiunitnoc fo eno doG fo stpecnoc cimalsI dna naitsirhC eht neewteb pihsnoitaler eht sI

and is used today as the word for God by the Coptic Church of Egypt. After discussing different contexts (where the ratios of Christians to Muslims vary), the 'cross-like' clue to the question comes from thinking about a Muslim convert. One of the root meanings of the word Muslim is 'one who submits'. Islam has always claimed Abraham as a Muslim, because he submitted to God: this poem etymologically presents Jesus Christ as the complete 'Muslim', in that only he has fully submitted to God in life, and particularly in death.

Jesus is proclaimed as the Saviour of the world by the Samaritans in chapter four, and in John chapter nineteen he is ironically proclaimed by the Roman Governor as King of the Jews.

Most students of the New Testament consider that Mark was the first written Gospel. However, maybe we can see a supreme irony in Pilate's order concerning the 'title' written above the cross of Christ. Perhaps he who condemned Jesus wrote the first 'Gospel' - the Jews first, but also to the Gentiles, since it was written in Hebrew, Latin and Greek for all to see. I wrote this poem on Good Friday in 1999 at St Andrew's Church Chesterton. Jesus the Sacred, tried before Pilate; Pilate the sacred - trial before Caesar: Jesus, entitled to justice from Rome, Entitled by Pilate 'The King of the Jews'.

a morf depoleved erew dna thguoht hcum tuohtiw detaeper ylraluger era yehT .'smsaw' emoceb ot deen 'smsi' eseht taht eb yam tI .suoitnednet dna suoidet emoceb sah shtiaf rehto fo elpoep dna noitavlas fo tcejbus siht gninrecnoc 'msilarulp' dna 'msivisulcni' ,'msivisulcxe' fo xirtam yraropmetnoc ralupop ehT

'.raseaC tub gnik on evah eW' :shtuom nwo rieht fo tuo ymehpsalb rof sevlesmeht denmednoc ydaerla evah sweJ eht fo sredael ehT ?rorepmE eht erofeb lairt ot thguorb eb lliw flesmih eh eerf suseJ stes eh fi taht diarfa si ohw ,etaliP ro ,enO yloH eht ,suseJ ti sI ?neetenin retpahc ni lairt no si ohW .lepsoG htruof eht tuohguorht nevow era lairt dna ynomitset fo semeht ehT

Pilate had an inscription written and fastened to the cross; it read, 'Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews'. This inscription, in Hebrew, Latin and Greek, was read by many Jews, since the place where Jesus was crucified was not far from the city. So the Jewish chief priests said to Pilate, 'You should not write "King of the Jews", but rather "He claimed to be king of the Jews".' Pilate replied, 'What I have written, I have written.' John 19:19-22

dna shtiaf rehto fo elpoep dna noitavlas lanrete

fo noitseuq eht redisnoc ot won nrut eW ?'dlrow eht ot dehtaeuqeb' yadot naem ti seod tahw tuB

xirtaM wen a tseggus

.dlrow eht ot dehtaeuqeb ,'nettirw si nettirw si tahW' ,droW gnignahcnu ,ytic eht ot demialcorP ;doG fo modgniK eht fo sdeed eltiT ,lla rof detalsnart ,lepsoG nettirw tsriF

.'tsilarulp' sa nees eb dluow 'noitpmussa larutan' eht dna 'tsivisulcni' sa rehtegot depmul eb dluow 'esimorp cimsoc' eht dna 'epoh rediw' eht htob ;'tsivisulcxe' sa dellebal eb ylbaborp dluow 'epocs worran' eht ,xirtam lanoitidart eht nI .eerht naht rehtar ruof gnivah yb seirogetac eht pu seerf osla tI .ygolotsirhc fo dna noitavlas fo senirtcod eht ot sa llew sa tnemegduj fo enirtcod eht ot setaler ti taht si ,em ot smees ti ,xirtam wen siht fo egatnavda ehT

In this understanding universal salvation is effected for all, centred on 'God', with Jesus as merely a human prophet. There is no judgement in time or in eternity.

noitavlaS fo noitpmussA larutaN ehT )vi(

.htaed dnoyeb 'noitavlas lanrete' no si xirtam siht ni sucof eht tub ,efil siht ni noitavlas laropmet fo ecnatropmi eht semussa 'noitavlas' drow ehT .deed dna drow yb tsirhC suseJ fo swen doog eht fo gnirahs detargetni ,evitisnes eht ti nihtiw sedulcni ,'tsirhC demialcorp eht' esarhp eht ,xirtam evitanretla detseggus gniwollof ym nI .evitcepsrep taht morf dettolp gnieb snoitisop rehto htiw ,noitisop 'tsilarulp' dellac-os

In this understanding salvation is centred on Jesus Christ for those who respond in faith to the proclaimed Christ and for those who respond in faith to 'God' as they know him. Judgement as banishment into eternal nothingness[12] (i.e. a reversal of creation ex nihilo) is expected for those who reject the proclaimed Christ or 'God' as they know him.

In this understanding universal salvation is effected for all, centred on Christ, for those who respond in faith to the proclaimed Christ, for those who respond in faith to 'God' as they now him and for those who reject the proclaimed Christ or 'God' as they know him. There is judgement in time (in this life), but no eternal judgement.

noitavlaS fo esimorP cimsoC ehT )iii( noitavlaS fo epoH rediW ehT )ii( noitavlaS fo epoH rediW ehT )ii( noitavlaS fo epoH rediW ehT )ii( noitavlaS fo epoH rediW ehT )ii(

In this understanding salvation is centred on Jesus Christ for those who respond in faith to the proclaimed Christ and eternal punishment is expected for those who have never heard of Christ and for those who reject the proclaimed Christ.

noitavlaS fo epocS worraN ehT )i(

os )retaw eht otni sdrawnwod gnidulcni( ,snoitcerid lla ni selppir sesuac dnop a otni deppord enots a sA .yrotsih fo ertnecipe eht ta si tsirhC fo ssorc eht roF .mih ni pu demmus dna 'tsirhC ni' eb deedni lliw )shtiaf rehto fo elpoep gnidulcni ,sesirprus ynam ynam htiw( ,gniniamer eb lliw taht lla ,ssengnihton lanrete otni kcab tnemegduj retfA .tnemegduj lanrete gninrecnoc ,tsirhC suseJ fo esoht dna ,sgninraw nwo sih htiw ,)01:1 snaisehpE( tsirhC ni pu demmus eb lliw sgniht lla dne eht ni taht luaP fo noitcivnoc yek eht rehtegot sdloh tI .)demialcorp si swen doog eht erofeb ,nwonk ydaerla si eh sa 'doG' ni htiaf fo esnopser nepo eht fo ytidilav eht gnisserts yb( 'ygolonorhc dna yhpargoeg yb noitanmednoc' fo dna )'noitalihinna' fo enirtcod eht ot gnidloh yb( tnemhsinup lanrete fo secitsujni niwt eht sdiova tub tnemegduj lanrete fo ytilaer eht ot sdloh sihT .noitisop 'epoh rediw' dnoces eht otni gnittif sa flesym ees dluow I .snoitaredisnoc lacihposolihp naht tnatropmi ssel sa nees si taht rof ,sisegexe lacilbib no kaew si tI .noigiler wen a rof tuo seirc tceffe ni hcihw )sgnidnatsrednu nairatinirT morf esool gnittuc( doG fo enirtcod eht fo noitaterpretni-er lacidar a sevlovni 'noitpmussa larutan' fo noitisop htruof ehT .ytilibisnopser namuh no kaew eb ot ,em ot smees ti tub ecarg no gnorts eb ot mialc yam noitisop sihT .sdrow ytpme ton erew luaP dna suseJ fo sgninraw eht taht em ot smees tI .ytinrete rof tnemegduj etoned taht segassap lacilbib eht tuoba ecnelavibma ysaenu na yarteb msilasrevinu no snoissucsid netfo tub ,'esimorp cimsoc' eht ,noitisop driht ym htiw emoh ta tsom tlef evah ygolotsirhC hgih a htiw ,stsilasrevinU .ecitsuj namuh fo smret no neve tsuj si doG taht snamoR ni seugra luaP .doG fo ecitsuj eht fo airetirc eht hctam ton seod sihT .yad tsal eht no denmednoc yllacitamotua eb dluow uoy demialcorp ylevitceffe neeb dah tsirhC fo swen doog eht ,nehw emit eht erofeb ro ,erehw aera na fo edistuo nrob erew uoy fI .'ygolonorhc ro yhpargoeg yb noitanmednoc' fo enirtcod eht sevlovni ,tceffe ni ,siht tub ,epocs worran eht ot dleh yllanoitidart evah snaitsirhC evitavresnoc yreV .tsal eht dna eerht tsrif eht neewteb si noissim fo ytidilav eht fo smret ni noisivid rojam ehT .owt tsal eht dna owt tsrif eht neewteb si )msilasrevinu ro( ytinrete rof tnemegduj fo smret ni noisivid rojam ehT .tsal eht dna eerht tsrif eht neewteb si seigolotsirhc wol dna hgih fo smret ni noisivid rojam ehT

.egdirbmaC ot emoh etuor ne gnineve txen eht sdnumdE tS yruB raen ,emoh sih morf pu ti kcip dna naol no erutplucs eht evah ot ,ti gniees tuohtiw ,degnarra dna nahtanoJ denohp retal I .noitnetta rof sucof a dnuof tey ton dah dna ,notretsehC s'werdnA tS ta ,yadirF dooG no gnihcaerp saw I esuaceb deugirtni saw I dna ,ruoH hthgiE eht ,emoh ta dah nahtanoJ erutplucs eht em ot debircsed rotceriD ehT .mahgnittoN raen ,retsiniM llewhtuoS rof ssorC eht fo snoitatS eht detaerc osla dah eh taht retal tnrael I .ecnartne eht raen ,llaw htron eht rof erutplucs egral a etaerc ot lardehtaC ylE yb denoissimmoc neeb dah dna eibgeB ymereJ yb detcerid ,strA eht hguorhT ygoloehT ,tcejorp STRAC eht fo trap saw eh taht denoitnem nahtanoJ noitasrevnoc eht nI

I am delighted that Jonathan Clarke and his father, Geoffrey, can be with us tonight and for the loan of this extraordinarily powerful sculpture 'The Eight Hour'. I first met Jonathan on Tuesday of Holy Week this year by chance in a gallery in Aldeburgh, where I was staying with my parents. I had been asking the Director of the gallery about possible sculptures suitable for a huge three storey stair well for Islington Vicarage and he said, pointing to a man who had just entered the gallery, "Here's your man" - not quite Ecce Homo - but close!

erutpllucS eht fo seiirotS dna yrotS ehT .1 erutp ucS eht fo se rotS dna yrotS ehT .1 erutpllucS eht fo seiirotS dna yrotS ehT .1 erutp ucS eht fo se rotS dna yrotS ehT .1


.erutplucs eht ot won dnA .epoh s'doG fo esimorp eht gnirb taht 'eno ni semeht eerht' eb ot em ot mees )doG no smialc lla segnellahc hcihw( ssorc eht yb dna )nwonknu fi neve( tsirhC yb ,)secnavresbo suoigiler yb ton( htiaf yb noitavlaS .mih wonk yeht sa doG ot nepo era tub ,tsirhC fo draeh ylluf tey ton evah ohw esoht ot sdrawtuo dna su ot sdrawrof sa llew sa shcrairtap eht ot sdrawkcab stceffe sah ssorc cirtnecipe eht osla

.oreh tnematseT dlO na dnim ot gnirb yam osla erugif ralucsum a fo drawrof gninael eht dna daeh eht fo gnidneb ehT .flesmih ti gnibrosba yb noitalucric fo tuo live gnittup yletamitlU .dehsiuqnav gnieb yb ,ti gnihsiuqnav dna ti gnithgif htoB .flaheb ruo no ,yliratnulov no ti gnikat ,dlrow eht fo live dna nis eht yb deflugne gnieb sa nees eb osla yam eH .)'enod eb sruoy tub lliw ym ton tey ,em morf puc siht ekat rehtaF' enameshteG fo erehpsomta eht ni tsomla( mih revo gnikat ti pots ot gniyrt live dna nis eht yawa gnihsup dna gnithgif ,gnilggurts sa nees eb yam eH .ti ni deddebme gnieb si eH .mih revo gnikat si ssorc ehT .ssorc eht ni sa ssorc eht no hcum os ton si tsirhC .rehto hcae htiw enil ni dna ,yllatnoziroh ,yllacitrev detsiwt era yehT .snoisnemid 3 ni detsiwt era dna smra s'tsirhC era ssorc eht fo smra ehT .ssorc detsiwt osla dna ydob detsiwt eht deciton eW .)ahtogloG( osrot eht ni lluks a was mairiM .ti ni sgniht wen gniees dna ti ta gnizag sruoh 2 rof tas I dna )rethguad elddim ruo( mairiM ,ilA dna 03.01 ta emoh devirra ,kcab eht ni ydob a htiw esraeh a sa ,ruoh na selim 03 ta egdirbmaC ot evord I .emoh ruo ot ti evomer ot noitisoped a saw ereht nehw os erom neve dna emit tsrif eht rof erutplucs eht gniees no devom yrev saw I ".gniod si flesmih eh taht lla mih swohs dna ,noS eht sevol rehtaF eht roF .esiwekil seod noS eht taht ,seod eh revetahw rof ;gniod rehtaF eht sees eh tahw ylno tub ,drocca nwo sih fo gnihton od nac noS eht ,uoy ot yas I ylurt ,ylurT" .'nos ecitnerppa eht fo elbarap' eht 02-91:5 nhoJ dellac sah ddoD.H.C .eninnahoJ yrev si pihsecitnerppa nos-rehtaf sihT ]31[.egdirbmaC ot pu gnimoc erofeb sluoS llA ta rekaterac eht sa 8-7791 raey cimedaca eht rof keew yreve tiplup taht denaelc dna detsud dah I .5791 ni tiplup nredom a ekam ot nodnoL ,ecalP mahgnaL hcruhC sluoS llA yb denoissimmoc neeb dah dna dohtem siht dereenoip dah yerffoeG .ekralC yerffoeG rehtaf sih morf ,ti gnisiropav ybereht ,dluom eht otno muinimula netlom gniruop dna enerytsylop ni gnitplucs fo tfarc sih tnrael dah eh taht denialpxe nahtanoJ nehw raelc emaceb tI .ti psarg ton dluoc tub ,ecafrus muinimula evitcnitsid a hcus nees ylsuoiverp dah I erehw rebmemer ot deirt I

:kcab mih gnidloh neeb dah tahw denialpxe eh seveerG ruhtrA dneirf mret-gnol sih ot rettel a ni rebotcO 81 nO .ma00.4 ta tfel nosyD dna gninrom eht ni 3 ta tfel niekloT .)gnidaeR ta hsilgnE thguat ohw( nosyD oguH dna niekloT .R.R.J ,sdneirf naitsirhC owt htiw deklat dna deklaw eh )noitnetta aidem tnecer hcum fo enecs eht( drofxO ,egelloC neladgaM ta 1391 rebmetpeS 91 nO .suseJ fo htaed dna efil eht dna seigolohtym naeporuE dna esroN neewteb pihsnoitaler eht denrecnoc dlrow eht fo ruoivaS eht sa tsirhC suseJ ot noisrevnoc sih fo trap rojam A .efil sih tuohguorht dna yob gnuoy a sa ygolohtym nrehtroN yb deugirtni saw siweL .S .C

For what struck me on seeing the cross at first, in the context of the gallery near Bury St Edmunds, was the portrayal of the death of a hero of European primal religion, sometimes called pagan religion. Jonathan currently has an exhibition at Chappel gallery near Colchester of warrior heads and these seem to reflect his interest in Norse and European heroes.

aciirfA ac rfA aciirfA ac rfA dna eporuE morf sthgiisnI :noiigiilleR llamiirP dna erutpllucS ehT .2 dna eporuE morf sthg snI :no g eR am rP dna erutp ucS ehT .2 dna eporuE morf sthgiisnI :noiigiilleR llamiirP dna erutpllucS ehT .2 dna eporuE morf sthg snI :no g eR am rP dna erutp ucS ehT .2

... ot won nrut eW .)12:2 nhoJ( '.ydob sih saw fo gnikaeps saw eh elpmet ehT' sdda retirw eht dna 'niaga pu ti esiar lliw I syad eerht ni dna elpmet siht yortseD' syas suseJ lepsoG htruof eht ni tub ,eerga ton dluoc sessentiW .)84:41 kraM( melasureJ ta elpmeT eht fo noitcurtsed eht htiw od ot dah suseJ tsniaga segrahc latnemadnuf eht fo enO

Jesus' death was the reverse of Samson's. The people throughout the world whom he saved in his death were more than those he had saved in his life. Maybe we can see Samson here reconfigured?

:htaed s'nosmaS fo yrots eht sllet 03-92 :61 segduJ ?senitsilihP eht fo elpmet eht ni nosmaS fo erugif eht ees uoy naC

Samson put his arms round the two central pillars which supported the temple, his right arm round one and his left round the other and, bracing himself, he said, 'Let me die with the Philistines.' Then Samson leaned forward with all his might, and the temple crashed down on the lords and all the people who were in it. So the dead whom he killed at his death were more than those he had killed in his life. Judges 16:2930

ta dehcaerp yldnik ohw ,anahG morf okaideB emawK .acirfA ni snaigoloeht yb depleh eb nac eporuE ni ew erehw si sihT .ti fo trap laitnesse na si - STRAC ni R eht - noigiler fo yduts ehT .STAC ton STRAC si STRAC dnA

How does God today choose to reveal himself, not to our universal faculties but to our University Faculties - of Divinity, History, Archaeology and Anthropology, and Natural Sciencies? That is, I believe, the heart of the high calling of the Centre for Advanced Religious and Theological Studies.

]41[.seitlucaf ruo ot raeppa )nac ro( ot sesoohc doG hcihw ni yaw eht gnieb fo esnes eht ni tub )ni ekat dluoc dnim etinif on taht( doG fo 'noitpircsed' a gnieb fo esnes eht ni ton ,eurt si ti eroferehT .'sgniht laer' llac ew tahw hguorht flesmiH gnisserpxe doG si ytinaitsirhC elihw ,ereht dnuof eH sa segami hcus gnisu ,steop fo sdnim eht hguorht flesmiH gnisserpxe doG era seirots nagaP .e.i :shtym s'nem erew srehto eht erehw htym s'doG si ti taht gnirebmemer ,yaw emas eht ni ti tpecca ot tnetnoc eb tsum eno dna :deneppah yllaer ti taht ecnereffid suodnemert eht htiw tub ,srehto eht sa yaw emas eht ni su no gnikrow htym a :htym eurt a ylpmis si tsirhC fo yrots eht woN .'tnaem ti tahw' esorp dloc ni yas ton dluoc I 'oht neve psarg ym dnoyeb sgninaem fo evitseggus dna dnuoforp sa htym eht leef ot deraperp saw I seirots nagaP eht ni taht saw nosaer ehT .slepsoG eht ni tpecxe erehwyna ti tem I dedivorp em devom ylralimis )suhccaB ,sinodA ,redlaB( dog gniviver dna gniyd eht fo aedi eht taht ,niaga :ti yb devom ylsuoiretsym saw dna hcum yrev ti dekil I... flesmih ot flesmih gnicifircas dog a fo aedi eht tem I fi taht ,niaga :lla ta ti dnim t'ndid I yrots nagaP a ni ecifircas fo aedi eht tem I fi taht :siht saw em dewohs niekloT dna nosyD tahw woN

My puzzle was the whole doctrine of Redemption: in what sense the life and death of Christ 'saved' or 'opened salvation to' the world... What I couldn't see was how the life and death of Someone Else (whoever he was) 2000 years ago could help us here and now - except in so far as his example helped us. And the example business, tho' true and important, is not Christianity...

]02[.'erehwyreve ot erehwyreve morf' tnes gnieb era noissim ni elpoep taht ni - yadot ylevitaerc osla tub - )stnemevom suonegidni tnacifingis gnidulcni( stnemevom yranoissim suoirav fo tiurf eht yllacirotsih si hcruhC ediw-dlrow tneserp eht taht ni - yllacigolonorhc ylno ton etaler ytinaitsirhC dlrow dna noissiM

:nettirw sah ,3991 ni serutceL nytraM yrneH eht evag retal dna 2991 yraunaJ 22 no pihserutcel nytraM yrneH siht fo noitaruguani eht

By all indications, in Africa it is religion - and the findings in the history and phenomenology of religion - which have become the handmaid of theology.[15] ... If it has any validity, the African vindication of the theological significance of African primal religions also goes to affirm that the European primal heritage was not illusory, to be consigned to oblivion as primitive darkness... A serious Christian theological interest in European primal traditions and early Christianity amid those traditions, could provide a fresh approach to understanding Christian identity in Europe too, as well as opening new possibilities for the theological enterprise today... This is an important part of the project being planned in CARTS, Mission in the First Millennium, with which I have been involved with Winrich Loehr and Jayakiran Sebastian from Bangalore[17]. The emphasis will be on the expansion of Christianity southwards to Ethiopia and eastwards along the silk road to India and China, as well as traditionally westwards into the Roman Empire, but the project also plans to consider deeply Bediako's challenge to primal religion in Europe and its relevance to today's missionary and theological enterprise here.[18] So to conclude and to move on. My own description of mission studies is missio quaerens intellectum (mission seeking understanding).[19] It stresses the foundational starting point of engagement in mission and the exciting movement of inquiry, which rejoices in ever widening horizons. The study of mission organically develops into the study of world Christianity and these two have their own integrating dynamic of 'movement' and 'horizons'.

]61[.erutuf eht tnuah ot sesir ,detargetni dna degrup naht rehtar desserppus noitanigami lamirp a taht srotacidni tneiciffus era ,weiv-dlrow lamirp a fo skram eht gniraeb ,'egA weN' eht fo serutaef rehto eht fo emos sa llew sa tlucco eht fo nonemonehp eht fo ecnegruser eht ni yltrap nees ,tnemnethgilnE eht fo noitcejer tsinredom-tsop a eb ot sraeppa tahw fo sngis eht roF

noisulcnoC .D noisulcnoC .D noisulcnoC .D noisulcnoC .D

eht morf mih fo trap sa detnuoc dna 'detadkcab' era yehT .reviR gnivoM eht sa mih fo trap emoceb ynam dna detivni era lla tsirhC suseJ siht oT .sdrawno yaw ti sesserp tub snrut dna sdneb hcihw revir gnivom taht si eH .efiL fo revir eht seviecer reve rof tub sdne reven hcihw aes sseldnuob eht si eH .efil lanrete ot pu sllew yllaunitnoc tub pu seird reven hcihw gnirps gnivil eht si eH .detrotsid ton si dne eht ni tub detrevid si etuor ne hcihw ,swen doog s'doG fo ecnarussa na ,mih ni ees nac ew suhT .agemO eht dna yaW gnivoM eht ,ahplA eht flesmih ni senibmoc tsirhC suseJ .neewteb ni reviR gnivoM eht osla si eH .agemO eht dna ahplA eht si eH .dlroW eht fo ruoivaS eht sa tsirhC suseJ fo noitcelfer a eb yam ereht ssenevitinifed gnirednaem siht nI .agemo dna ahpla na ,dne na dna gninnigeb etinifed a si erehT .aes eht ot gnirps eht morf os seod ti ,yaw sti srednaem revir eht hguohtla ,taht dda dluow I ".revir eht secudorp ,dnim etatipicerp ssel dna suoicaps erom a fo krow eht ,ycnalubmamucric euqserutcip dna tnecifeneb a htiw ,erutan tub..." etorw namO doog ehT .tsirhC suseJ no desucof osla si ,revir eht sa noissim fo emeht eht woh sserts ot nageb ew hcihw htiw ,revir eht fo elbarap s'namO nhoJ dnetxe ot gniyrt elihwhtrow eb yam tI .tcejbus siht no sthgisni gnitanicsaf ,gnigaruocne ,ynam gnisiar si ,ytinaitsirhC dlroW ni stnerruC tcejorp STRAC eht rof yelnatS nairB dna ydraH naD yb desinagro ,seires erutcel 'ygoloehT ni noissiM' tnerruc ehT .edistuo eht sdrawot gnicaf - 'artxe da ygoloeht' - eb ot dellac si ti tahw gnimoceb ygoloeht naht rehtar ,artxe dedda na ylerem semoceb netfo noissim ,ygoloeht lla gnitaemrep sthgisni noissim fo revir eht tuohtiW .tresed a emoceb snedrag eht dekcolb si ti nehw ]22[:ygoloeht fo snedrag eht sretaw hcihw revir eht si noissim ,retaw gnivil fo emeht eht ot nruter oT .detaicerppa yllausu si naht erom etartenepretni dna evaewretni ygoloeht dna noissim taht noitcivnoc ym si tI .egdirbmaC ni sulumits siht sucof ot ertneC nytraM yrneH eht fo noitacov eht fo trap tnatropmi na si ti eveileb I .sevitcerroc dna sevitcepsrep lacilbib gnirb seigoloeht cificaP dna naciremA nitaL naisA ,nacirfA won dna hcus sa deman neeb sah ygoloeht cirtnecoruE ]12[.dlrow eht dnuora morf serutaef suoirav tnuocca otni ekat ot dah sah ygoloeht citametsys tnerruC

.emeht lacilbib siht no etatidem ot deirt evah I hcihw ni ,meop trohs lanif a htiw ereh uoy evael I .rebmun nac eno on taht edutitlum taht ,ytinamuh fo ssenlluf eht osla tub llewd daehdoG eht fo ssenlluf eht seod ylno ton mih ni oS ]42[.reviR gnivoM siht morf meht etarapes nac gnihton rof ,dnE eht ta mih htiw gnieb fo derussa era yehT .etal yrev mih nioj yam yeht hguoht neve ,]32[gninnigeB

yrevileD fo sretaW eht yB

By breathing and brooding By breaking and birthing By parting and loosing By stirring and soothing:

.su reviled ,droL ,uoY gnisrev-er ,gnisiar yB gnisremmi ,gninword yB gnihserfer ,gnillits yB gnivil-er ,gnivig yB


1. John Casson, a former assistant to Brian Stanley, left an eschatological gift embedded in my computer on his last day. Every time I typed my name, the phrase 'John Casson is cool' came up on the screen. He only showed me how to undo the trick five minutes before leaving. 2. John Oman, Grace and Personality (Cambridge: CUP, 1917). 3. Oman, Grace, p. 14. 4. Oman, Grace, p. 188. 5. Carrie M. Pemberton, 'Feminism, Inculturation and the Search for a Global Christianity: an African Example, the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians', Cambridge PhD dissertation 1999. 6. Teresa Okure, The Johannine Approach to Mission: a Contextual Study of John 4:1-42 (Tubingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1988), p. 96 n. 37. 7. Okure, Johannine Approach, p. 130. 8. Graham Kings, 'Is Jesus the Son of Allah? International Bulletin of Missionary Research Vol 14 No 1 January 1990, p. 18. 9. Galatians 1:3, 1 Corinthians 1:3 and Ephesians 1:2. 10. The priestly writer makes the identification in Exodus 6:3. 'I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, as God Almighty, but by my name Yahweh I did not make myself known to them.' 11. 1 Kings 18. 12. The Doctrine Commission of the Church of England, The Mystery of Salvation: the Story of God's Gift (London: Church House Publishing, 1995),

p. 199: 'Annihilation might be a truer picture of damnation than any of the traditional pictures of the hell of eternal torment.' 13. It also just so happens that one of the curates then, Graham Claydon, is my predecessor in the Vicarage in Islington. 14. Walter Hooper (ed.) They Stand Together: The Letters of C.S. Lewis to Arthur Greeves (1914-63) (London: Collins, 1979). 15. Kwame Bediako, Christianity in Africa: the Renewal of a Non-Western Religion, (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press/Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1995), pp. 261-2. 16. See Winrich Loehr, 'Mission in the First Millennium' Mission Studies Vol. XV - 2, 30, pp. 29-39 and 'Patristics and Mission: Mission in the First Millennium' pp. 170-175 and J. Jayakiran Sebastian 'Sensitivity and Proclamation: Perspectives on Mission from the Writings of Cyprian', pp. 40-50. 17. For a fascinating appreciation and critique of Kwame Bediako's writings see Valentin D. Dedji 'Paradigm Shifts in African Theological Debates: From Liberation to Recontruction' Cambridge PhD dissertation 1999. 18. This deliberately echoes Anselm's definition of theology, fides quaerens intellectum (faith seeking understanding). 19. See Michael Nazir-Ali's refreshing theological perceptions, in From Everywhere to Everywhere: a World View of Christian Mission (London: Collins, 1991). It is worth comparing the two editions of David F. Ford's excellent overview, The Modern Theologians (Oxford: Blackwells, 1989 and 1997). Perhaps they reflect a shift from 'modernity' to 'postmodernism'. The new edition is vibrantly more global in scope and compelling to read. A chapter on theology of mission (by Lamin Sanneh) is included together with excellent detailed chapters on African, Asian and Latin American theologies and much more. 20. This may be too comfortable a figure for some, since a lot of creative mission and theological thinking is done amidst violence and poverty and oppression, but it has various profound biblical resonances. 21. See CWC Seminars. 22. Blessed in Christ before the foundation of the earth. Ephesians 1:3. 23. Romans 8: 38.


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