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SOL REVIEW QUESTIONS for World History and Geography to 1500 A.D.


What shaped how early human societies lived their lives? ________________________ On what continent did the first forms of man evolve? ___________________________ What form of early man emerged about 100,000 to 400,000 years ago? ______________ Homo sapiens migrated from Africa to where? _________________________________ How did early man gain his food? ___________________________________________ Early man was dependent on the availability of what? ____________________________


Early man was able to overcome his physical environment because he developed what? _____________ Name 2 characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies. _____________________________ Name 4 things which developed during the Old Stone Age. ________________________________________________________________________ What is another name for the Old Stone Age? __________________________________ A person who migrates in search of food, water and shelter is a _?_. ________________ What group developed the first tools and weapons? ______________________________


Name 5 things which developed during the New Stone Age. ______________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What is another name for the New Stone Age? _________________________________ What effect did agriculture have on how early man lived? _________________________ What does carbon dating do? _______________________________________________ What is an artifact? _______________________________________________________ Who studies past cultures by locating & analyzing human remains, fossils, and artifacts? ____________ What archaeological site in England was built during the Neolithic period & Bronze Age? ___________


What did river valleys provide for early civilizations? ____________________________ The area located from the Mediterranean coast to Mesopotamia is called what? ________ When did the first river civilizations appear? __________________________________ Egypt is located next to what river? __________________________________________ What area is located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers? _____________________ What river valley civilization was located in India? _____________________________ On what river was China's river civilization located? ____________________________


The Nile River is located on what continent? __________________________________ On what continent is Mesopotamia located? ___________________________________ Where did the first civilizations develop? _____________________________________ What groups invaded river valley civilizations? _________________________________ Who settled between the Mediterranean Sea and Jordan River Valley? _______________ What group settled along the Eastern Mediterranean coast? _______________________ What civilization was located on the upper Nile River Valley? _____________________


Where were the "Cradles of Civilization" located? ______________________________ Who ruled Egypt? ______________________________________________________ How did rulers in the river valleys gain power? ________________________________ What is a dynasty? _______________________________________________________ (True)(False) Most river civilizations had a rigid class system. _____________________ What was accepted in most river valley civilizations? ___________________________ The government of early Mesopotamian civilizations often had a centralized government based on what?_________________________________________________


Name the two written law codes of the Fertile Crescent. _________________________ What is an empire? ______________________________________________________ What political system is characterized by a city and its surrounding lands? ____________ What were two metals used to make tools and weapons? __________________________

What group traded throughout the Mediterranean Sea and on Middle Eastern rivers? ____ Name 3 reasons river valley civilizations had an agricultural surplus. ________________ _______________________ ______________________________________________ Where were the world's first cities located? ____________________________________


People who do work according to their skills are practicing what? __________________ What type of religion did most people of the Fertile Crescent practice? _______________ What type of religion did the Hebrews follow? ________________________________ Judaism is the foundation of what other religions? ______________________________ Which civilization was the first to follow one God? _____________________________ Who led the Hebrews out of Mesopotamia and helped found the Jewish faith? _________ Who received the Ten Commandments? ______________________________________


What is the holy city of the Hebrews? _________________________________________ Who led the Jews out of Egypt? ____________________________________________ What states the proper moral and religious conduct for Hebrews? __________________ What is the written records and beliefs of the Hebrews? __________________________ What is the belief in one God? _____________________________________________ What is the religion of the Hebrews? _________________________________________ The Hebrews were captured and taken to Babylon. What is this called? _____________


The Hebrews were forced to leave Palestine because they rebelled too often. What is this called? ______ What civilization used hieroglyphics? _________________________________________ What were 2 important cultural innovations developed in early river valleys? _________ What civilization developed the alphabet as we know it? ______________________ What civilization used cuneiform? _________________________________________ The earliest written symbols were called what? ______________________________


The Persian civilization developed from what previous civilizations? _______________

How did the Persians treat the people they conquered? _________________________ What is a bureaucracy? _________________________________________________ What religion did the Persians follow? _______________________________________ What did the Persians do to improve communication and trade in their empire? ________ Who had the largest empire in the ancient world before Alexander the Great? _________ What was the second river valley in India to be settled? __________________________


Who invaded and conquered the original Indus River Valley civilization? ____________ What was India's rigidly structured social system based on occupation? ______________ Name 3 geographic barriers which made invading India harder. ____________________ What mountains are to the west of the Indian sub-continent? ______________________ What mountains are to the east of the Indian sub-continent? ______________________ Through what mountain range did invaders reach India? _________________________ What are the 2 main rivers of the Indian subcontinent? __________________________


What did the caste system influence? ________________________________________ During what empire was India's Golden Age of Culture? _________________________ Name 2 non-religious contributions of India. ___________________________________ What was the religion of classical India? _____________________________________ What religion believes in one major deity who takes many forms? __________________ The Indian cycle of rebirth is called what? _____________________________________ Future reincarnation based on present behavior is what? __________________________


What are the sacred writings of Hinduism? ____________________________________ What religion did Siddhartha Gautama found? _________________________________ Where was Buddhism founded? ____________________________________________ What does a Buddhist have to do to gain Enlightenment? ________________________ Who was Buddha? ______________________________________________________ Who sent missionaries to spread Buddhism throughout Asia? _____________________ What are the 2 basic beliefs of Buddhism? ____________________________________ In what river valley was classical China's civilization located? ____________________


What is another name for the Huang He? _____________________________________ From where did migratory invaders enter China? _______________________________ Why was the Great Wall built? ____________________________________________ About when did China's civilization begin? __________________________________ What 2 religions did China contribute? ________________________________________ Who built the Great Wall of China? ________________________________________ The ruling families of China were called what? ________________________________ Chinese rulers served under the authority of what? ______________________________


What does this mean? ____________________________________________________ Chinese emperors were considered to be what? _________________________________ What connected China to cultures as far away as Rome? _________________________ People who work for the bureaucracy of China were part of what? __________________ What fabric did China contribute to the world? _________________________________ Name 4 contributions of classical China. _____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What religion believes that humans are good, not bad? __________________________ Name 5 beliefs of Confucianism. ___________________________________________________________________________ - __________________________________ _________________________________ - _____________________________________


In what country do citizens respect their elders and worship their ancestors? __________ What belief of Confucianism still influences China today? _______________________ What represents opposites in Daoism and Confucianism? _________________________ What religion believes in a simple life and inner peace? ___________________________ What religion believes man should live in harmony with nature? ____________________ Buddhism from where spread throughout Asia? ________________________________ What 3 religions are practiced in China? _______________________________________


What geographic feature shaped the economic, social, and political development of Greece? ___________________________________________________________ The Hellenic civilization took place in what country? ___________________________ How did the Greeks spread the Hellenic culture? ________________________________ What sea is located east of Greece? __________________________________________ What sea is located south of Greece? ________________________________________ What strait leads to the Black Sea? ___________________________________________ What peninsula is located east of Greece? _____________________________________


What area was located north of Greece and was the home of Alexander the Great? ___ What were the 2 main city-states of Greece? ___________________________________ Why was agriculture limited in ancient Greece? ________________________________ To trade one good for another is to do what? __________________________________ What was the chief occupation of the Greeks? _________________________________ Greeks practiced barter, but later changed over to what? _________________________ What geographical feature isolated and hindered the development of Greek city-states? _______________________________________________


Why did the Greeks colonize outside Greece? __________________________________ What did the design of Greek city-states promote? ______________________________ The Greeks practiced what kind of religion? ___________________________________ Name 3 things Greek mythology explained. __________________________________________ - __________________________ __________________________________________________________ Why is Greek mythology still important today? _________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What did Zeus represent? _________________________________________________ What did Artemis represent? _______________________________________________ What did Apollo represent? ________________________________________________


What did Athena represent? _______________________________________________ What did Hera represent? __________________________________________________ What did Aphrodite represent? _____________________________________________ What city-state had the most democratic government of its time? __________________ Who were Greek citizens? _________________________________________________ What responsibility did Greek citizens have? ___________________________________ What 3 groups had no political power? _____________________________________ What kind of government was ruled by one family who inherited power? _____________


What government is ruled by a small group of nobles? _________________________ What government is ruled by one person who seized power? ______________________ What government is ruled by citizens who could vote? __________________________ Who created written laws with severe punishments? ____________________________ Who improved the legal system & expanded participation in the Assembly? __________ What city-state had a direct democracy? ______________________________________ What 3 democratic principles began in Athens? ____________________________________________________________________ -__________________________________


Which Greek city-state had a militaristic and aggressive society? ___________________ What Greek city-state had an oligarchy? ______________________________________ Which city-state had a rigid social structure? ___________________________________ What type of government is ruled by a small group? ____________________________ Which wars united Athens and Sparta against an external enemy? ___________________ What was a result of the Persian War for Athens? ______________________________ Name 2 battles of the Persian Wars. _________________________________________


A result of the Persian War for the Greeks was the control of what sea?. ______________ Which war came first--Peloponnesian or Persian? _____________________________ What was the alliance headed by Athens? _____________________________________

What war was caused by competition between Athens & Sparta for control of the Greek world? _________________________________________ What war caused a slowing of culture and a weakening of political power in Greece? ___________________________________ What was the alliance headed by Sparta? ______________________________________ Who was Pericles? _______________________________________________________


Who rebuilt Athens after the Persian Wars?_____________________________________ What building was rebuilt after the Persian Wars? ______________________________ During the reign of _?_, democracy was extended so all adult male citizens could vote & participate in the gov't. __________________________________________________ The Golden Age of Pericles was between what 2 wars? __________________________ Who wrote the Iliad & the Odyssey? ____________________________________ Name 2 Greek dramatic playwrights. ________________________________________ Name the first Greek historian. ________________________________________


What Greek historian wrote about the Peloponnesian War? ______________________ Who was the Greek sculptor who created the statue of Athena in the Parthenon? _______ What kind of columns are on the Parthenon? __________________________________ What were the 3 types of Greek columns? ____________________________________ Who was the Greek who developed the lever and pulley? ________________________ Who was the father of medicine? _________________________________________ Name 3 Greek philosophers. ____________________________________________ Who developed a theory about right triangles? _________________________________


Who was the father of geometry? __________________________________________ What war made it easier for the Macedonians to conquer Greece? __________________ What Macedonian conquered most of Greece? _________________________________ Name 3 areas controlled by Alexander the Great. ______________________________ What did Alexander the Great spread? _______________________________________ Who conquered the Persian Empire and most of the ancient world? _________________

How was Hellenistic culture spread? _________________________________________ What was Hellenistic culture? ____________________________________________


Where was Rome located? ________________________________________________ Name two advantages of Rome's location. ____________________________________ What protected Italy from northern invaders? __________________________________ What protected Italy on all other sides? ______________________________________ On what landform is Italy located? __________________________________________ What advantages did the Mediterranean Sea provide for Rome? ___________________ What type of religion did Rome follow? _____________________________________ How has Roman mythology influenced western art and culture? ___________________ ________________________________________________________________________


Did Rome's religion influence its politics, culture and art? _______________________ Name 3 things Roman mythology explained. __________________________________ Roman mythology was based on what? _______________________________________ What did Jupiter represent? _____________________________________________ What did Juno represent? __________________________________________________ What did Apollo represent? ________________________________________________ What did Venus represent? _______________________________________________ What did Diana represent? ______________________________________________


What did Minerva represent? _______________________________________________ Name 3 groups in Roman society who had no rights. ____________________________ Non-Romans living in the Roman Republic were called what? ____________________ What was the highest Roman social class and who was in it? ______________________ Roman slavery was not based on what? ______________________________________ The majority of Rome's population was what class? ____________________________ Who were forced by conquest to become servants to the Romans? _________________


Who held citizenship in Rome? ___________________________________________ Who had the privilege of voting in Rome? ___________________________________ Name 2 responsibilities of Roman citizenship. _________________________________ What kind of democracy did Rome have? _____________________________________ Who was elected by the Assembly & served Rome for one year? ___________________ Who served in the Senate and Assembly? ___________________________________ The written laws of Rome were called what? __________________________________ The Punic Wars were between whom? _______________________________________


Rome's victory in the Punic Wars led to the diffusion of what? _____________________ The Punic Wars were fought because of competition for what? ____________________ Who invaded the Italian peninsula during the Second Punic War? __________________ Who won the Punic Wars? ____________________________________________ The Third Punic War resulted in the destruction of what? ________________________ What wars were fought from 264-146 BC? _____________________________________ At the end of the Punic Wars, Rome controlled the lands around what sea? __________


Name 3 results of the Punic Wars? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Name 4 areas which became part of the Roman Empire. _________________________ Name 4 causes for the decline of the Roman Republic. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ What replaced the Roman republic? _________________________________________ Define inflation. _________________________________________________________ What did devaluation of Roman currency cause? _______________________________ Who was in the First Triumvirate? _________________________________________ A civil war broke out between the Senate and whom? ___________________________


What happened to Julius Caesar? _______________________________________

Who defeated Marc Anthony at the Battle of Actium? ____________________________ Who was the first emperor of Rome? ________________________________________ How did Rome unify and enlarge its empire? __________________________________ What was a weakness of the Roman political system? ___________________________ Name 3 things Augustus Caesar instituted when he established the Roman Empire. ____ ________________________________________________________________________ What was the Pax Romana? ________________________________________________


What emperor established the Pax Romana? ___________________________________ What was expanded and solidified during the Pax Romana? _______________________ Name 3 effects of the Pax Romana on the economy. ____________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What effect did a uniform system of money have on the Pax Romana? _______________ Name 2 social impacts of the Pax Romana. ___________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Rule by law describes what? _______________________________________________ During what period did a civil service and uniform rule of law develop? _____________


What is the civil service? _______________________________________________ Christianity was based on what religion? _____________________________________ What kind of religion was Christianity? _______________________________________ Who was proclaimed the Messiah? _________________________________________ Who originated Christianity? _______________________________________________ Why did the Romans persecute Christians? ____________________________________ Name 3 basic beliefs of Christianity. ____________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What was the holy book for Christians? ______________________________________


Who established early Christian doctrine? ____________________________________ What was the goal of the Apostles? _________________________________________

What does the New Testament contain? _______________________________________ Who helped to establish Christianity as a separate religion? _____________________ Who was the first Christian emperor? ________________________________________ What emperor legalized Christianity? ________________________________________ How did the Romans treat the Christians? _____________________________________ What became the moral authority of the late Roman Empire? ______________________


What was the main unifying force in western Europe after the fall of Rome? __________ After the fall of the Roman Empire, to whom did the people of Europe give their loyalty? ____________ What spread Roman culture? ___________________________________________ What temple was built by Hadrian in Rome and has a freestanding dome? ____________ What area in Rome was the center of gov't and religion? _________________________ It was an amphitheater where gladiator games were held. _______________________ The Appian Way is an example of a _?_. _____________________________________ This carried water to Roman cities. __________________________________________


Most Roman buildings have this architectural feature. ___________________________ Name 3 examples of public health in Rome. ___________________________________ Who was Ptolemy? _____________________________________________________ What language did they speak in Rome? ____________________________________ Languages which came from Latin are called what? _____________________________ Name 3 Romance languages. ______________________________________________ Who wrote the Aeneid? _________________________________________________ What were the 2 most important religions in Rome? ____________________________


What principle of law came from Rome? _____________________________________ What were the Twelve Tables? ____________________________________________ Why did the Western Roman Empire "fall"? __________________________________ Name 2 economic factors for the fall of Rome. __________________________________ Who did the Roman army include at the "fall of Rome"? ________________________

(True)(False) No one factor caused Rome to fall. _________________________ What was the result in the inclusion of barbarians in the army? ____________________ What factor led to the moral decay of Rome? ________________________________


Name 2 factors which increased Rome's political weakness. _______________________ When did the Roman Empire "fall"? _______________________________________ Who invaded the Roman Empire? ____________________________________________ Who moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium? _____________________ What became Byzantium's new name? _______________________________________ What event caused the "fall" of the Western Roman Empire? _____________________ What did the Eastern Roman Empire become? _________________________________


Name 4 advantages of Constantinople's location _______________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire? ________________________________ What ended the Byzantine Empire? ___________________________________________ The Byzantine Empire helped preserve what cultures? ___________________________ Who codified Roman law? _______________________________________________ What impact did Justinian's code have on western Europe? _______________________ Under what emperor did the Byzantine empire reach its height of culture and prosperity? ____________________________________


Name 3 accomplishments of Justinian. _______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Who is the most well known Byzantine Emperor? _______________________________ What Byzantine emperor reconquered many formerly Roman territories? ____________ What enabled a distinct Byzantine art and architecture to develop? _________________ What tradition influenced Byzantine culture? __________________________________ What are the religious images of the Byzantine Empire? _________________________ What is a mosaic? _____________________________________________________ Where were mosaics used? ________________________________________________


What is the Byzantine domed church in Constantinople? _________________________ What language was spoken in the Byzantine Empire? ____________________________ What type of Christianity was practiced in the Byzantine Empire? _________________ What did Byzantine libraries preserve? _______________________________________ What weakened the unity of the Christian Church? ______________________________ Where was the Eastern church centered? _____________________________________ What language did the Eastern church use? __________________________________ What language did the Western church use? ___________________________________


Where was the Western church centered? _____________________________________ Who was accepted as the leader of the Western church? _________________________ Who accepted the practice of celibacy? ________________________________________ What was the result of the differences between the Eastern and Western Christian churches? ________ What civilization influenced Eastern Europe & Russia? __________________________ What church did Russia and Eastern Europe adopt? ___________________________ How did Eastern Europe and Russia come into contact with the Byzantine Empire? ________________ Who developed the Slavic alphabet? _______________________________________ What civilization influenced Russian architecture and religious art? ________________


Who founded Islam? _______________________________________________ What type of religion is Islam? _____________________________________________ Who is The Prophet? _____________________________________________________ What are the two holiest cities of Islam? _____________________________________ Where are they located? _______________________________________________ Where was the first Muslim Empire located? __________________________________ What does Allah mean? ___________________________________________________ What is the holy book of Islam? __________________________________________ Name 3 of the Five Pillars of Islam. __________________________________________



Name 3 prophets Muslims believe in. ________________________________________ Name 2 geographic barriers Muslims overcame to spread their religion. ______________ Where did Islam spread? ___________________________________________________ Islam spread along what type of routes? ____________________________________ What did a common language help Muslims to do? _____________________________ Did geographic barriers stop the spread of Islam? _______________________________ Why was Islam able to spread into the Fertile Crescent and Central Asia? ____________ What language did the Muslims spread? _________________________________ Slavery in Muslim countries was not based on .... _______________________________


What are the 2 divisions of Islam? _______________________________________ What battle "saved" Europe from the Muslims? ________________________________ What cities in the Middle East were conquered by the Muslims? ___________________ What mosque is in Jerusalem? ____________________________________________ Name 3 contributions of Islamic society. _____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ How did Muslims save ancient texts? ________________________________________ What was the artistic form used by Muslims in many of their mosques? _____________ Where did Arabic numerals originally come from? _____________________________ What 2 mathematical concepts did Muslims develop? ___________________________ Name 2 other achievements of the Muslims. ____________________________________


What was the unifying force in western Europe after the fall of Rome? _______________ What gained importance as the Roman empire declined? _________________________ Who anointed the Holy Roman Emperor? _____________________________________ What needs of the people did the Roman Catholic Church serve? ___________________ Name the 3 foundations of early medieval society. ______________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievements? ___________________________

What 2 things did Christian missionaries bring to the Germanic tribes? ______________


When did the pope anoint Charlemagne? ____________________________________ What title did Charlemagne gain? ___________________________________________ Who served the religious and social needs of the people? __________________________ What kind of system was established in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire? ________________ Why did medieval Europe turn to feudalism? __________________________________ A serf owed obligations, especially protection to whom? ________________________ What ended Roman protection to the Empire? _________________________________


A _?_ is the land a vassal received from a lord. ________________________________ What was the major part of lord/vassal relationships? ____________________________ A person who owed loyalty to a lord was a ..... _______________________________ A person who worked for a lord was a..... ______________________________________ The _?_ system was the economic system of the Middle Ages. __________________ What did manors try to be? ________________________________________________ What kind of class structure did medieval Europe have? _________________________


How did the Frankish kings expand their territory? ______________________________ The Church allied with whom to reestablish Roman culture in Western Europe? _______ Who was responsible for a revival of learning and Roman culture? _________________ Who did the pope crown Holy Roman Emperor? _______________________________ What disrupted the social, economic, and political order of Europe? ________________ Who was invading Europe? ______________________________________________ What tribe invaded Hungary? _____________________________________________ Where did they come from? _______________________________________________


What Germanic tribes invaded England? _____________________________________ Who attacked Europe from Scandinavia? _____________________________________ Who settled in Russia? ___________________________________________________

What provided protection from these invaders? ________________________________ Name 3 results of the Germanic invasions on medieval Europe. ___________________ ______________________________________________________________________ What reinforced the feudal system? _____________________________________


Trade routes developed between what 3 continents? _____________________________ What trade route crossed Asia to the Mediterranean Basin? _______________________ What does maritime mean? ________________________________________________ What was traded across the Trans-Saharan trade route? __________________________ Northern European trade routes were linked to what sea? ________________________ Western European trade routes centered around what? ___________________________ Southeast Asian trade centered around what sea? _______________________________ What was exchanged between the Eastern Hemisphere trade routes? _______________ What was traded from lands around the Indian Ocean? ________________________


What type of goods came from India, China, the Middle East, and later Europe? _______ What goods came from China and Persia? _________________________________ Where did paper originally come from? _______________________________________ How did paper get to Western Europe? _______________________________________ What new crop came from India? ___________________________________________ Name 2 technological inventions from the Eastern Hemisphere? ___________________ Name 2 new navigation technologies. ________________________________________ Where did they come from? ________________________________________________ What ideas spread across the hemispheres? ____________________________________


Buddhism spread from China to where? ______________________________________ What religions spread from India to Southeast Asia? ____________________________ Where did Islam spread? _________________________________________________ What 2 inventions came from China? ________________________________________ What 2 religions coexist in Japan? ___________________________________________ What is an archipelago? ___________________________________________________

What is the topography of Japan? ___________________________________________ Name 2 geographic features which helped to defend Japan? _______________________


What separates Japan from the Asian mainland? _______________________________ Japan is near what 2 countries? ___________________________________________ Name 3 Chinese influences on Japanese culture. _______________________________ What is the ethnic religion of Japan? _______________________________________ Name 3 important features of Shintoism. _____________________________________ Who did the Japanese worship as part of their religion? ___________________________ What is the state religion of Japan? __________________________________________ (True)(False) A person cannot be a follower of both Shintoism and Buddhism. _______


What is the area south of the Sahara Desert called? _____________________________ What brought important economic, cultural, and religious influences to African civilizations? ________________________________________________________ What 3 African civilizations developed in West Africa? _________________________ What civilization developed in East Africa? ___________________________________ What civilization developed in southern Africa? ________________________________ What civilization was located in the Ethiopian Highlands, near the Nile River? _______ Christianity was the main religion of what African kingdom? ______________________ What civilization was located near the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers, near the coast of the Indian Ocean? _____________________________________


What was Great Zimbabwe? _______________________________________________ On what river were the civilizations of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai located? ____________ What city was a center of trade and learning in West Africa? _______________________ What were the main products of the Trans-Saharan trade? ________________________ What desert is near Ghana, Mali, and Songhai? _________________________________ What is animism? ___________________________________________________ What religions did many civilizations of West Africa practice? _____________________


Match the technology to where it came from-_____ Paper Money _____ Paper _____ Crops to produce sugar _____ Compass _____ Lateen sail _____ Printing a. Indian Ocean b. India c. China d. China e. China f. China


What were the 3 civilizations of the Western Hemisphere? _______________________ Where was the Mayan civilization located? ___________________________________ What was Chichén Itzá? __________________________________________________ Who ruled Mayan city-states? ___________________________________________ What kind of religion did the Mayans have? ____________________________________ What architectural feature characterized the Mayan civilization? ___________________ On what was the Mayan economy based? ______________________________________


Where was the Aztec civilization located? ____________________________________ What was the main city of the Aztecs? _______________________________________ Who ruled the Aztecs? ___________________________________________________ On what was the Aztec economy based? ______________________________________ What kind of religion did the Aztecs have? ____________________________________ On what was the Aztec religion based? _______________________________________ What architectural feature characterized the Aztec civilization? ____________________


Where was the Incan civilization located? _____________________________________ Who ruled the Incas? _____________________________________________________ What was the main city of the Incas? ________________________________________ On what was the Incan economy based? ______________________________________ What kind of religion did the Incas have? _____________________________________

What advancements did the Incans achieve? ____________________________________ Name 3 contributions of the Aztecs, Incas and Mayans. __________________________


When did the European nation states begin to form? ____________________________ What did William the Conqueror unite? _____________________________________ Who led the Norman Conquest? ____________________________________________ Who invaded and captured England in 1066? ___________________________________ During whose reign did common law develop? ________________________________ Who signed the Magna Carta? _____________________________________________ What was the result of the Magna Carta? _____________________________________ Who was the Hundred Years War between? ____________________________________ What did it define for England? _____________________________________________


Who established the French throne? _________________________________________ What became his capital? _________________________________________________ What did his dynasty achieve? __________________________________________ What did the Hundred Years War define for France? ____________________________ Who was Joan of Arc? ________________________________________________ Why was she important? __________________________________________________ What rulers unified Spain? ________________________________________________ Who expelled the Muslim Moors from Spain? __________________________________


Who expanded the Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere? ____________________ What ruler of Russia overthrew the Mongols? _________________________________ Name 3 achievements of Ivan the Great. ______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Who held the power in Russia? _____________________________________________ What group influenced the unification of Russia? _______________________________ What was the goal of the Crusades? _________________________________________ Who took part in the Crusades? _____________________________________________ Pope Urban's speech began what? __________________________________________


During the Third Crusade, what city was captured by the Christians? _______________ What did the crusaders establish in the Holy Lands? _____________________________ What Muslim leader captured Jerusalem? _____________________________________ What city was sacked by western crusaders? __________________________________ Name 2 positive effects of the Crusades. _______________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Name 3 negative effects of the Crusades. _____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Name 3 areas invaded by the Mongols. ________________________________________ What were 2 results of these invasions? ______________________________________


Who conquered Constantinople? ____________________________________________ When was it conquered? __________________________________________________ What did this conquest end? _______________________________________________ What was the capital of the Ottoman Empire? __________________________________ What is another name for the Black Death? ___________________________________ When did it strike Europe? ________________________________________________ What areas were affected by the Black Death? _________________________________ Name 5 impacts of the Black Death. ________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________


Who was educated during the Middle Ages? __________________________________ What was the nobility concerned with during the Middle Ages? ___________________ Who was not educated during the Middle Ages? _______________________________ Where was ancient literature preserved? _____________________________________ What is a monastery? _________________________________________________ What works were translated into Latin? ______________________________________ What new knowledge did church scholars make available in Europe? ________________ What led to the rise of universities in Europe? ____________________________


What event introduced new products to Europe? _______________________________ What promoted contact between Europe and the Byzantine and Muslim Empires? ______ Why were credit and banking developed? _____________________________________ Why did Europe need to produce more goods to trade? ___________________________ What is usury? ___________________________________________________________ What 2 things helped secularize northern Italy? ________________________________ What does secular mean? _______________________________________________ What expanded the supply of money and made trade easier? ______________________


What new bookkeeping practice was introduced? ________________________________ What was the Renaissance? ________________________________________________ What led to the rise of Italian city-states? _____________________________________ Who were the civic leaders of the Italian city-states? ____________________________ Observations in The Prince were based on whom? _______________________________ Who wrote The Prince? ___________________________________________________ What kind of government did The Prince state was best? _________________________


Which of the following are True statements about/from The Prince? · · · · · It states the guidelines of how to gain and keep power. _____________ It was a modern treatise on government. _______________________________ Absolute power is good. ________________________________________ The end justified the means. _____________________________________ A ruler should always do evil and good deeds only when necessary. _________


What 3 Italian city-states controlled trade routes connecting Europe and the Middle East? ____________ Italian city-states distributed goods to what area of Europe? ______________________ What kind of government did most Italian city-states have? _______________________ Were Italian city-states united under one king? _________________________________ What is a patron? _________________________________________________

How did most patrons gain their wealth? ____________________________________ What did most patrons want glorified? _______________________________________ What type of education was becoming the norm? _______________________________


What were the subjects of most medieval art and literature? ______________________ What were the subjects of most Renaissance art and literature? ____________________ Who painted the Mona Lisa and Last Supper? _________________________________ Who painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and sculpted the David? ______________ Who wrote sonnets to Laura? _________________________________________ Who was an Italian humanist scholar? _____________________________________ Name 3 aspects of humanism._______________________________________________ Where did the Italian Renaissance spread? _________________________________ How did it spread? ______________________________________________


(True)(False) The Northern Renaissance was the same as the Italian Renaissance. _____ What supported Renaissance ideas in Northern Europe? ___________________ What did Northern Renaissance thinkers blend? _______________________________ What did Gutenberg invent? ___________________________________________ What helped to spread the ideas of the Renaissance? _________________________ Why did books become cheaper during the Renaissance? ________________________ Who wrote The Praise of Folly? ______________________________________ Who wrote Utopia? ______________________________________________ What subjects did the artists of the Northern Renaissance paint? ______________




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